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Sample records for spontaneously generated action

  1. The modulation effects of d-amphetamine and procaine on the spontaneously generated action potentials in the central neuron of snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Tsai, Ming-Cheng

    2005-05-01

    The modulation effects of d-amphetamine and procaine on the spontaneously generated action potentials were studied on the RP1 central neuron of giant African snails (Achatina fulica Ferussac). Extra-cellular application of d-amphetamine or procaine reversibly elicited bursts of potential (BoP). Prazosin, propranolol, atropine or d-tubocurarine did not alter the BoP elicited by either d-amphetamine or procaine. KT-5720 or H89 (protein kinase A inhibitors) blocked d-amphetamine-elicited BoP, whereas they did not block the procaine-elicited BoP. U73122, neomycin (phospholipase C inhibitors) blocked the procaine-elicited BoP, whereas they did not block the d-amphetamine-elicited BoP in the same neuron. These results suggest that BoP elicited by d-amphetamine or procaine were associated with protein kinase A and phospholipase C activity in the neuron.

  2. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  3. Promoting Spontaneous Second Harmonic Generation through Organogelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, A Belén; Aparicio, Fátima; Faour, Lara; Iliopoulos, Konstantinos; Morille, Yohann; Allain, Magali; Franco, Santiago; Andreu, Raquel; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Gindre, Denis; Canevet, David; Sallé, Marc

    2016-07-27

    An organogelator based on the Disperse Red nonlinear optical chromophore was synthesized according to a simple and efficient three-step procedure. The supramolecular gel organization leads to xerogels which display a spontaneous second harmonic generation (SHG) response without any need for preprocessing, and this SHG activity appears to be stable over several months. These findings, based on an intrinsic structural approach, are supported by favorable intermolecular supramolecular interactions, which promote a locally non-centrosymmetric NLO-active organization. This is in sharp contrast with most materials designed for SHG purposes, which generally require the use of expensive or heavy-to-handle external techniques for managing the dipoles' alignment.

  4. Diuretic Action of Exogenous Hydrogen Sulfide in Spontaneously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Keywords: Spontaneously hypertensive rats, Diabetes, Hydrogen sulphide, Diuretic, Sodium excretion,. Urine output ... molecule H2S can be generated in many types of mammalian .... 96-well plate reader (Bio-Tek instruments, INC,. USA).

  5. Perturbation analysis of spontaneous action potential initiation by stochastic ion channels

    KAUST Repository

    Keener, James P.; Newby, Jay M.

    2011-01-01

    A stochastic interpretation of spontaneous action potential initiation is developed for the Morris-Lecar equations. Initiation of a spontaneous action potential can be interpreted as the escape from one of the wells of a double well potential

  6. Effective action in multidimensional quantum gravity and spontaneous compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Bukhbinder, I.L.; Odintsov, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    One-loop effective action (the Casimir energy) is obtained for a special model of multidimensional quantum gravity and several variants of the d-dimensional quantum R 2 gravity in the space M 4 xT d-4 , where M 4 is the Minkowski space and T d-4 is the (d-4)-dimensional torus. It is shown that the effective action for the conformal gravity and the R 2 gravity without cosmological and Einstein's terms lead to an instability of the classical compactification. A numerical calculation reveals that the effective action for the five-dimensional R 2 gravity with the cosmological term is compatible with a self-consistent spontaneous compactification. The one-loop effective action is also obtained for the five dimensional Einstein gravity with the antisymmetrical torsion in the space M 4 xS 1 , where S 1 is the one-dimensional sphere

  7. Effective action in multidimensional quantum gravity, and spontaneous compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagrov, V.G.; Bukhbinder, I.L.; Odintsov, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The one-loop effective action (Casimir energy) is obtained for a special form of model of multidimensional quantum gravity and for several variants of d-dimensional quantum R 2 -gravity on the space M 4 x T/sub d//sub -4/, where M 4 is Minkowski space and T/sub d//sub -4/ is the (d-4)-dimensional torus. It is shown that the effective action of the model of multidimensional quantum gravity and R 2 -gravity without the cosmological term and Einstein term leads to instability of the classical compactification. By a numerical calculation it is demonstrated that the effective action of five-dimensional R 2 -gravity with the cosmological term admits a self-consistent spontaneous compactification. The one-loop effective action is also found for five-dimensional Einstein gravity with antisymmetric torsion on the space M 4 x S 1 (S 1 is the one-dimensional sphere)

  8. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stuart L.; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M.; Roberts, Terri P.; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J.; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion cells and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials are intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs exhibit bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter ACh, by fine-tuning the IHC’s resting membrane potential (Vm), is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the Vm of apical and basal IHCs by activating SK2 channels. We hypothesize that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway. PMID:21572434

  9. Spontaneous Wave Generation from Submesoscale Fronts and Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, C. J.; Hogg, A.

    2016-02-01

    Submesoscale features such as eddies, fronts, jets and filaments can be significant sources of spontaneous wave generation at the ocean surface. Unlike near-inertial waves forced by winds, these spontaneous waves are typically of higher frequency and can propagate through the thermocline, whereupon they break and drive mixing in the ocean interior. Here we investigate the spontaneous generation, propagation and subsequent breaking of these waves using a combination of theory and submesoscale resolving numerical models. The mechanism of generation is nearly identical to that of lee waves where flow is deflected over a rigid obstacle on the sea floor. Here, very sharp fronts and filaments of order 100m width moving in the submesoscale surface flow generate "surface lee waves" by presenting an obstacle to the surrounding stratified fluid. Using our numerical model we quantify the net downward wave energy flux from the surface, and where it is dissipated in the water column. Our results suggest an alternative to the classical paradigm where the energy associated with mixing in the ocean interior is sourced from bottom-generated lee waves.

  10. Central cardiovascular action of urotensin II in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yingzi; Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Matsumura, Kiyoshi; Fukuhara, Masayo; Ohya, Yusuke; Fujii, Koji; Iida, Mitsuo

    2003-10-01

    We have previously reported that urotensin II acts on the central nervous system to increase blood pressure in normotensive rats. In the present study, we have determined the central cardiovascular action of urotensin II in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of urotensin II elicited a dose-dependent increase in blood pressure in both SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The changes in mean arterial pressure induced by ICV urotensin II at doses of 1 and 10 nmol in the WKY were 8 +/- 2 and 23 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively. ICV administration of urotensin II caused significantly greater increases in blood pressure in SHR (16 +/- 3 mmHg at 1 nmol and 35 +/- 3 mmHg at 10 nmol, respectively) compared with those in WKY. Urotensin II (10 nmol) elicited significant and comparable increases in heart rate in SHR (107 +/- 10 bpm) and WKY (101 +/- 21 bpm). Plasma epinephrine concentrations after ICV administration of 10 nmol urotensin II were 203 +/- 58 pmol/ml in SHR and 227 +/- 47 pmol/ml in WKY, which tended to be higher than those in artificial cerebrospinal fluid-injected rats (73+/- 7 and 87 +/- 28 pmol/ml, respectively, p GPR 14 was expressed extensively in the glial cells within the brainstem, hypothalamus, and thalamus. These results suggest that central urotensin II may play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in SHR. Since GPR 14 was expressed in the glial cells of the brain, urotensin II may act as a neuromodulator to regulate blood pressure.

  11. Spontaneous emission spectra and simulating multiple spontaneous generation coherence in a five-level atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Liu Jibing; Qi Chunchao; Chen Aixi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the features of the spontaneous emission spectra in a coherently driven cold five-level atomic system by means of a radio frequency (rf) or microwave field driving a hyperfine transition within the ground state. It is shown that a few interesting phenomena such as spectral-line narrowing, spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, and spontaneous emission quenching can be realized by modulating the frequency and intensity of the rf-driving field in our system. In the dressed-state picture of the coupling and rf-driving fields, we find that this coherently driven atomic system has three close-lying levels so that multiple spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) arises. Our considered atomic model can be found in real atoms, such as rubidium or sodium, so a corresponding experiment can be done to observe the expected phenomena related to SGC reported by Fountoulakis et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 033811 (2006)], since no rigorous conditions are required

  12. Young generation actions in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanskanen, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish Young Generation was established in 1998 as a working group of the Finnish Nuclear Society to tackle the declining of the nuclear expertise. The objectives of the Young Generation are to attract more young students to the nuclear field, motivate and train young employees, enhance the transfer of knowledge between the generations, and to enable the young students and employees in nuclear field to build a personal network of contacts. This paper summarizes the results of the Finnish Young Generation program. (orig.)

  13. Prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with "spontaneous-action" method.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, N S; Johnston, D

    1980-01-01

    Thirty randomly selected patients with permanent colostomies entered a prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with spontaneous action. Each patient was interviewed and examined before irrigation was begun and again after the technique had been used for three months. Each then reverted to spontaneous action for a further three months and was then reassessed. Eight patients abandoned irrigation and 22 (73%) adhered to the protocol. Irrigation caused no mishaps or complicati...

  14. Waves spontaneously generated by heterogeneity in oscillatory media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiaohua; Huang, Xiaodong; Hu, Gang

    2016-05-01

    Wave propagation is an important characteristic for pattern formation and pattern dynamics. To date, various waves in homogeneous media have been investigated extensively and have been understood to a great extent. However, the wave behaviors in heterogeneous media have been studied and understood much less. In this work, we investigate waves that are spontaneously generated in one-dimensional heterogeneous oscillatory media governed by complex Ginzburg-Landau equations; the heterogeneity is modeled by multiple interacting homogeneous media with different system control parameters. Rich behaviors can be observed by varying the control parameters of the systems, whereas the behavior is incomparably simple in the homogeneous cases. These diverse behaviors can be fully understood and physically explained well based on three aspects: dispersion relation curves, driving-response relations, and wave competition rules in homogeneous systems. Possible applications of heterogeneity-generated waves are anticipated.

  15. Spontaneous Action Representation in Smokers when Watching Movie Characters Smoke

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Dylan D.; Cin, Sonya Dal; Sargent, James D.; Kelley, William M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2011-01-01

    Do smokers simulate smoking when they see someone else smoke? For regular smokers, smoking is such a highly practiced motor skill that it often occurs automatically, without conscious awareness. Research on the brain basis of action observation has delineated a frontopareital network that is commonly recruited when people observe, plan or imitate actions. Here, we investigated whether this action observation network would be preferentially recruited in smokers when viewing complex smoking cue...

  16. Spontaneous processing of functional and non-functional action sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    as sub-categories of non-functional behavior (i.e., actions lacking causal coherence and a necessary integration between subparts). New insights in human action processing can help us explain how cognition might vary depending on the type of behavior processed. Using an event segmentation paradigm, we...... conducted two experiments eliciting differences in participants' response patterns to functional and non-functional actions. Participants consistently segmented non-functional action sequences into smaller units indicating either an attentional shift to the level of gesture analysis or a problem...... of representational integration. Experimental studies of non-functional behavior can strengthen explanations of recurrent features of human action processing, such as ritual and ritualized behavior, as well as indicate potential sources and effects of breakdown of the system....

  17. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stuart L; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M; Roberts, Terri P; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-06-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials were intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs showed bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter acetylcholine fine-tunes the IHC's resting membrane potential (V(m)), and as such is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the V(m) of apical and basal IHCs by triggering small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SK2) channels. We propose that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway.

  18. BK channels regulate spontaneous action potential rhythmicity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Kent

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circadian ( approximately 24 hr rhythms are generated by the central pacemaker localized to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN of the hypothalamus. Although the basis for intrinsic rhythmicity is generally understood to rely on transcription factors encoded by "clock genes", less is known about the daily regulation of SCN neuronal activity patterns that communicate a circadian time signal to downstream behaviors and physiological systems. Action potentials in the SCN are necessary for the circadian timing of behavior, and individual SCN neurons modulate their spontaneous firing rate (SFR over the daily cycle, suggesting that the circadian patterning of neuronal activity is necessary for normal behavioral rhythm expression. The BK K(+ channel plays an important role in suppressing spontaneous firing at night in SCN neurons. Deletion of the Kcnma1 gene, encoding the BK channel, causes degradation of circadian behavioral and physiological rhythms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test the hypothesis that loss of robust behavioral rhythmicity in Kcnma1(-/- mice is due to the disruption of SFR rhythms in the SCN, we used multi-electrode arrays to record extracellular action potentials from acute wild-type (WT and Kcnma1(-/- slices. Patterns of activity in the SCN were tracked simultaneously for up to 3 days, and the phase, period, and synchronization of SFR rhythms were examined. Loss of BK channels increased arrhythmicity but also altered the amplitude and period of rhythmic activity. Unexpectedly, Kcnma1(-/- SCNs showed increased variability in the timing of the daily SFR peak. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that BK channels regulate multiple aspects of the circadian patterning of neuronal activity in the SCN. In addition, these data illustrate the characteristics of a disrupted SCN rhythm downstream of clock gene-mediated timekeeping and its relationship to behavioral rhythms.

  19. Prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with "spontaneous-action" method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N S; Johnston, D

    1980-07-12

    Thirty randomly selected patients with permanent colostomies entered a prospective controlled trial comparing colostomy irrigation with spontaneous action. Each patient was interviewed and examined before irrigation was begun and again after the technique had been used for three months. Each then reverted to spontaneous action for a further three months and was then reassessed. Eight patients abandoned irrigation and 22 (73%) adhered to the protocol. Irrigation caused no mishaps or complications. The mean time spent managing the stoma was 45 +/- SEM 9 min/24 hours during spontaneous action and 53 +/- 9 min/24 hours during irrigation. This difference was not significant. The numbers of bowel actions weekly were 13 +/ SEM 2 during spontaneous action and 6 +/- 1 during irrigation (p Irrigation reduced odour and flatus in 20 patients and enabled 12 out of 18 to stop using drugs and seven to discard their appliance. Irrigation also improved the social life of 18 patients and the working conditions of eight out of 14. These finding show that some patients may not be suitable for irrigation but that for many it is better than the conventional British method of colostomy management. With modern apparatus the technique is safe.

  20. Perturbation analysis of spontaneous action potential initiation by stochastic ion channels

    KAUST Repository

    Keener, James P.

    2011-07-01

    A stochastic interpretation of spontaneous action potential initiation is developed for the Morris-Lecar equations. Initiation of a spontaneous action potential can be interpreted as the escape from one of the wells of a double well potential, and we develop an asymptotic approximation of the mean exit time using a recently developed quasistationary perturbation method. Using the fact that the activating ionic channel\\'s random openings and closings are fast relative to other processes, we derive an accurate estimate for the mean time to fire an action potential (MFT), which is valid for a below-threshold applied current. Previous studies have found that for above-threshold applied current, where there is only a single stable fixed point, a diffusion approximation can be used. We also explore why different diffusion approximation techniques fail to estimate the MFT. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  1. Simulating spontaneously generated coherence in a four-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Aijun; Gao Jinyue; Wu Jinhui; Wang Lei

    2005-01-01

    We study the spontaneous emission property of a four-level atomic system driven by two coherent fields. By numerical calculations in the bare state picture, we show that such interesting phenomena as extremely narrow peaks and spontaneous emission quenching can be realized, which are well understood by qualitative explanations in the partially and fully dressed state pictures. Especially, this coherently driven atomic system has two close-lying levels in the partially dressed state picture so that spontaneously generated coherence arises. Using our considered scheme it is feasible to carry out experiments based on spontaneously generated coherence because all rigorous requirements have been avoided in the bare state picture

  2. Spontaneous Generation of Chirality in Simple Diaryl Ethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartson, Anders; Hedström, Anna; Håkansson, Mikael

    2015-07-01

    We studied the spontaneous formation of chiral crystals of four diaryl ethers, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, 1; 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenoxybenzene, 2; di(4-aminophenyl) ether, 3; and di(p-tolyl) ether, 4. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 form conformationally chiral molecules in the solid state, while the chirality of 2 arises from the formation of supramolecular helices. Compound 1 is a liquid at ambient temperature, but 2-4 are crystalline, and solid-state CD-spectroscopy showed that they could be obtained as optically active bulk samples. It should be noted that the optical activity arise upon crystallization, and no optically active precursors were used. Indeed, even commercial samples of 3 and 4 were found to be optically active, giving evidence for the ease at which total spontaneous resolution may occur in certain systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Spontaneous generation and reversals of mean flows in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couston, Louis-Alexandre; Lecoanet, Daniel; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael

    2017-11-01

    We investigate via direct numerical simulations the spontaneous generation and reversals of mean zonal flows in a stably-stratified fluid layer lying above a turbulent convective fluid. Contrary to the leading idealized theories of mean flow generation by self-interacting internal waves, the emergence of a mean flow in a convectively-generated internal gravity wave field is not always possible because nonlinear interactions of waves of different frequencies can disrupt the mean flow generation mechanism. Strong mean flows thus emerge when the divergence of the Reynolds stress resulting from the nonlinear interactions of internal waves produces a strong enough anti-diffusive acceleration for the mean flow, which, as we will demonstrate, is the case when the Prandtl number is sufficiently low, or when the energy input into the internal wavefield by the convection and density stratification are sufficiently large. Implications for mean zonal flow production as observed in the equatorial stratospheres of the Earth, Saturn and Jupiter, and possibly occurring in other geophysical systems such as planetary and stellar interiors will be briefly discussed. Funding provided by the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program through Grant Agreement No. 681835-FLUDYCO-ERC-2015-CoG.

  4. Plan Generation and Evaluation Using Action Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peot, Mark

    2003-01-01

    ... from potential actions of the plan. Methods used to accomplish these results included the use of Action Networks, and development of a suite of analysis tools in support of the AFRL Campaign Assessment Tool...

  5. Withdrawal of voluntary inhibition unravels the off state of the spontaneous blink generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraitis, Timoleon; Ghosh, Arko

    2014-12-01

    Involuntary movements such as spontaneous eye blinks can be successfully inhibited at will. Little do we know how the voluntary motor circuits countermand spontaneous blinks. Do the voluntary inhibitory commands act to pause or to turn off the endogenous blink generator, or does inhibition intersect and counter the generator׳s excitatory outputs? In theory, the time taken for the system to generate an after-inhibition blink will reflect onto the form of inhibition. For instance, if voluntary commands were to turn the blink generator off then the after-blink latency would be fixed to the inhibition offset and reflect the time it takes for the generator to rebound and turn on. In this study we measured the after-blink latency from the offset of voluntary inhibition. Volunteers inhibited their blinks in response to sound tones of randomly varying durations. At the offset volunteers withdrew the inhibition and relaxed. Interestingly, the spontaneous after-blinks were fixed to the offset of the inhibition as if the generator rebounded from an off state. The after-blink latency was not related to the duration of the inhibition, and inhibiting even for a small fraction of the mean inter-blink interval generated an after-blink time-locked to the inhibition offset. Interestingly, the insertion of voluntary blinks after inhibition further altered the blink generator by delaying the spontaneous after-blinks. We propose that the inhibition of spontaneous blinks at the level of the generator allows for highly effective voluntary countermanding. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of such inhibition was strongly associated with motor excitation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous generation of spiral waves by a hydrodynamic instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibi, M.; Møller, P.C.F.; Ribe, N.M.; Bonn, D.

    2008-01-01

    The coiling of a thin filament of viscous fluid falling onto a surface is a common and easily reproducible hydrodynamic instability. Here we report for the first time that this instability can generate regular spiral patterns, in which air bubbles are trapped in the coil and then advected

  7. Triple photonic band-gap structure dynamically induced in the presence of spontaneously generated coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Jinwei; Bao Qianqian; Wan Rengang; Cui Cuili; Wu Jinhui

    2011-01-01

    We study a cold atomic sample coherently driven into the five-level triple-Λ configuration for attaining a dynamically controlled triple photonic band-gap structure. Our numerical calculations show that three photonic band gaps with homogeneous reflectivities up to 92% can be induced on demand around the probe resonance by a standing-wave driving field in the presence of spontaneously generated coherence. All these photonic band gaps are severely malformed with probe reflectivities declining rapidly to very low values when spontaneously generated coherence is gradually weakened. The triple photonic band-gap structure can also be attained in a five-level chain-Λ system of cold atoms in the absence of spontaneously generated coherence, which however requires two additional traveling-wave fields to couple relevant levels.

  8. Spontaneous generation of electromagnetic waves in plasmas with electron thermal flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, Toshio

    1977-01-01

    Spontaneous generation of propagating electromagnetic fields due to a microinstability is investigated for plasmas which convey electron thermal fluxes. The following two cases are examined: 1) Electromagnetic fields spontaneously excited by electrons in a velocity distribution of skewed Maxwellian type. 2) Electromagnetic waves generated by electrons in a velocity distribution which consists of a main part and a high energy part. In this case, the electron thermal flux can be very high. In both cases, induced electromagnetic waves with relatively low frequencies propagate parallel to the direction of Thermal flux. (auth.)

  9. Topological entropy of continuous actions of compactly generated groups

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Friedrich Martin

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a notion of topological entropy for continuous actions of compactly generated topological groups on compact Hausdorff spaces. It is shown that any continuous action of a compactly generated topological group on a compact Hausdorff space with vanishing topological entropy is amenable. Given an arbitrary compactly generated locally compact Hausdorff topological group $G$, we consider the canonical action of $G$ on the closed unit ball of $L^{1}(G)' \\cong L^{\\infty}(G)$ endowed with...

  10. Spontaneous movement tempo can be influenced by combining action observation and somatosensory stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra eBisio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous movement tempo (SMT was a popular field of study of the Gestalt psychologists . It can be determined from subjects freely tapping out a rhythm with their finger, and it has been found to average about 2Hz. A previous study showed that SMT changed after the observation of rhythmical movements performed at frequency different from the SMT. This effect was long-lasting only when movement execution immediately followed action observation (AO. We recently demonstrated that only when AO was combined with peripheral nerve stimulation (AO-PNS was it possible to induce plastic changes in the excitability of the motor cortex, whereas AO and PNS alone did not evoke any changes.Here we investigated whether the observation of rhythmical actions at a frequency higher than the SMT combined with PNS induced lasting changes in SMT even in absence of immediate movement execution. Forty-eight participants were assigned to 4 groups. In AO-PNS group they observed a video showing a right hand performing a finger opposition movement sequence at 3Hz and contemporarily received an electrical stimulation at the median nerve; in AO group and PNS group participants either observed the same video or received the same electrical stimulation of the AO-PNS group, respectively; in LANDSCAPE group subjects observed a neutral video. Participants performed a finger opposition movement sequence at spontaneous movement rate before and 30 min after the conditioning protocols. Results showed that SMT significantly changed only after AO-PNS. This result suggested that the AO-PNS protocol was able to induce lasting changes in SMT due to neuroplasticity mechanisms, indicating possible application of AO-PNS in rehabilitative treatments.

  11. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeners, Maarten P.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Ulu, Arzu; Lopez Sepulveda, Rocio; Morisseau, Christophe; Braam, Branko; Hammock, Bruce D.; Joles, Jaap A.

    Koeners MP, Wesseling S, Ulu A, Sepulveda RL, Morisseau C, Braam B, Hammock BD, Joles JA. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300: E691-E698, 2011. First published January 25, 2011; doi:

  12. Are human spontaneous otoacoustic emissions generated by a chain of coupled nonlinear oscillators?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, Hero P.; van Dijk, Pim

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are generated by self-sustained cochlear oscillators. Properties of a computational model for a linear array of active oscillators with nearest neighbor coupling are investigated. The model can produce many experimentally well-established properties of

  13. Are human spontaneous otoacoustic emissions generated by a chain of coupled nonlinear oscillators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wit, Hero P; van Dijk, Pim

    2012-08-01

    Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) are generated by self-sustained cochlear oscillators. Properties of a computational model for a linear array of active oscillators with nearest neighbor coupling are investigated. The model can produce many experimentally well-established properties of SOAEs.

  14. [Cellular mechanism of the generation of spontaneous activity in gastric muscle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Eri; Kito, Yoshihiko; Fukuta, Hiroyasu; Yanai, Yoshimasa; Hashitani, Hikaru; Yamamoto, Yoshimichi; Suzuki, Hikaru

    2004-03-01

    In gastric smooth muscles, interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) might be the pacemaker cells of spontaneous activities since ICC are rich in mitochondria and are connected with smooth muscle cells via gap junctions. Several types of ICC are distributed widely in the stomach wall. A group of ICC distributed in the myenteric layer (ICC-MY) were the pacemaker cells of gastrointestinal smooth muscles. Pacemaker potentials were generated in ICC-MY, and the potentials were conducted to circular smooth muscles to trigger slow waves and also conducted to longitudinal muscles to form follower potentials. In circular muscle preparations, interstitial cells distributed within muscle bundles (ICC-IM) produced unitary potentials, which were conducted to circular muscles to form slow potentials by summation. In mutant mice lacking inositol trisphosphate (IP(3)) receptor, slow waves were absent in gastric smooth muscles. The generation of spontaneous activity was impaired by the inhibition of Ca(2+)-release from internal stores through IP(3) receptors, inhibition of mitochondrial Ca(2+)-handling with proton pump inhibitors, and inhibition of ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels at the mitochondrial inner membrane. These results suggested that mitochondrial Ca(2+)-handling causes the generation of spontaneous activity in pacemaker cells. Possible involvement of protein kinase C (PKC) in the Ca(2+) signaling system was also suggested.

  15. Causal Set Generator and Action Computer

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, William; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2017-01-01

    The causal set approach to quantum gravity has gained traction over the past three decades, but numerical experiments involving causal sets have been limited to relatively small scales. The software suite presented here provides a new framework for the generation and study of causal sets. Its efficiency surpasses previous implementations by several orders of magnitude. We highlight several important features of the code, including the compact data structures, the $O(N^2)$ causal set generatio...

  16. Spatiotemporal correlations in entangled photons generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osorio, Clara I; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P

    2008-01-01

    In most configurations aimed at generating entangled photons based on spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), the generated pairs of photons are required to be entangled in only one degree of freedom. Any distinguishing information coming from the other degrees of freedom that characterize the photon should be suppressed to avoid correlations with the degree of freedom of interest. However, this suppression is not always possible. Here, we show how the frequency information available affects the purity of the two-photon state in space, revealing a correlation between the frequency and the space degrees of freedom. This correlation should be taken into account to calculate the total amount of entanglement between the photons.

  17. Investigating conceptions of intentional action by analyzing participant generated scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skulmowski, Alexander; Bunge, Andreas; Cohen, Bret R.; Kreilkamp, Barbara A. K.; Troxler, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    We describe and report on results of employing a new method for analyzing lay conceptions of intentional and unintentional action. Instead of asking people for their conceptual intuitions with regard to construed scenarios, we asked our participants to come up with their own scenarios and to explain why these are examples of intentional or unintentional actions. By way of content analysis, we extracted contexts and components that people associated with these action types. Our participants associated unintentional actions predominantly with bad outcomes for all persons involved and linked intentional actions more strongly to positive outcomes, especially concerning the agent. People’s conceptions of intentional action seem to involve more aspects than commonly assumed in philosophical models of intentional action that solely stress the importance of intentions, desires, and beliefs. The additional aspects include decisions and thoughts about the action. In addition, we found that the criteria that participants generated for unintentional actions are not a mere inversion of those used in explanations for intentional actions. Associations between involuntariness and unintentional action seem to be stronger than associations between aspects of voluntariness and intentional action. PMID:26594182

  18. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eLiu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72. The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  19. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Qiao, Kai; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zi-Yong; Li, Fu-Li

    2015-01-01

    Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72). The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  20. Split-step scheme for photon-pair generation through spontaneous four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The rapid development of quantum information technology requires the ability to reliably create and distribute single photons [1]. Photon-pair production through spontaneous four-wave mixing (SpFWM) allows heralded single photons to be generated at communication wavelengths and in fiber, compatible...... with conventional communication systems, with small losses. Creating single photons in desired quantum states require careful design of waveguide structures. This is greatly facilitated by a general numerical approach as presented here. Additionally, such a numerical approach allows detailed analysis of real...... systems where all relevent effects are included....

  1. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Chen, Aixi, E-mail: aixichen@ecjtu.jx.cn [Department of Applied Physics, East China Jiaotong University, Nanchang, 330013 (China); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device.

  2. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in asymmetric double quantum wells via spontaneously generated coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan; Deng, Li; Chen, Aixi

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear optical phenomena of the optical bistability and multistability via spontaneously generated coherence in an asymmetric double quantum well structure coupled by a weak probe field and a controlling field. It is shown that the threshold and hysteresis cycle of the optical bistability can be conveniently controlled only by adjusting the intensity of the SGC or the controlling field. Moreover, switching between optical bistability and multistability can be achieved. These studies may have practical significance for the preparation of optical bistable switching device

  3. Spontaneous generation of auroral arcs in a three dimensionally coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kunihiko; Sato, Tetsuya.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the first full three-dimensional dynamic simulation of auroral arc formation. The magnetospheric and ionospheric dynamics are represented by one-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations and two-fluid weakly ionized plasma equations, respectively. The feedback coupling between magnetospheric Alfven waves and ionospheric density waves are self-consistently and three-dimensionally solved. Obtained is a spontaneous generation of longitudinally elongated striations of field-aligned currents and ionospheric electron densities, which compare very well with many features of quiet auroral arcs. (author)

  4. Effects of spontaneously generated coherence on the group velocity in a V system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Yanfeng; Guo Hong; Han, Dingan; Sun Hui

    2005-01-01

    We show how the application of an incoherent pumping can produce a variety of effects on the propagation of a weak electromagnetic pulse in a V system with spontaneously generated coherence (SGC). There exists an incoherent pumping rate which makes the group velocity reach the extremum near the region of two-photon resonant excitation. The existence of SGC is just the cause for the occurrence of the extremum, and it may also be regarded as a knob which can be used to manipulate light propagation from subluminal to superluminal

  5. Spontaneous and Widespread Electricity Generation in Natural Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nakamura, Ryuhei; Kasaya, Takafumi; Kumagai, Hidenori; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Takai, Ken

    2017-05-15

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents discharge abundant reductive energy into oxidative seawater. Herein, we demonstrated that in situ measurements of redox potentials on the surfaces of active hydrothermal mineral deposits were more negative than the surrounding seawater potential, driving electrical current generation. We also demonstrated that negative potentials in the surface of minerals were widespread in the hydrothermal fields, regardless of the proximity to hydrothermal fluid discharges. Lab experiments verified that the negative potential of the mineral surface was induced by a distant electron transfer from the hydrothermal fluid through the metallic and catalytic properties of minerals. These results indicate that electric current is spontaneously and widely generated in natural mineral deposits in deep-sea hydrothermal fields. Our discovery provides important insights into the microbial communities that are supported by extracellular electron transfer and the prebiotic chemical and metabolic evolution of the ocean hydrothermal systems. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Broadband photon pair generation in green fluorescent proteins through spontaneous four-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Siyuan; Thomas, Abu; Corzo, Neil V.; Kumar, Prem; Huang, Yuping; Lee, Kim Fook

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in quantum biology suggest that quantum mechanics help us to explore quantum processes in biological system. Here, we demonstrate generation of photon pairs through spontaneous four-wave mixing process in naturally occurring fluorescent proteins. We develop a general empirical method for analyzing the relative strength of nonlinear optical interaction processes in five different organic fluorophores. Our results indicate that the generation of photon pairs in green fluorescent proteins is subject to less background noises than in other fluorophores, leading to a coincidence-to-accidental ratio ~145. As such proteins can be genetically engineered and fused to many biological cells, our experiment enables a new platform for quantum information processing in a biological environment such as biomimetic quantum networks and quantum sensors. PMID:27076032

  7. A physical action potential generator: design, implementation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Malcolm A; Chan, Adrian D C; Wårdell, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to develop a physical action potential generator (Paxon) with the ability to generate a stable, repeatable, programmable, and physiological-like action potential. The Paxon has an equivalent of 40 nodes of Ranvier that were mimicked using resin embedded gold wires (Ø = 20 μm). These nodes were software controlled and the action potentials were initiated by a start trigger. Clinically used Ag-AgCl electrodes were coupled to the Paxon for functional testing. The Paxon's action potential parameters were tunable using a second order mathematical equation to generate physiologically relevant output, which was accomplished by varying the number of nodes involved (1-40 in incremental steps of 1) and the node drive potential (0-2.8 V in 0.7 mV steps), while keeping a fixed inter-nodal timing and test electrode configuration. A system noise floor of 0.07 ± 0.01 μV was calculated over 50 runs. A differential test electrode recorded a peak positive amplitude of 1.5 ± 0.05 mV (gain of 40x) at time 196.4 ± 0.06 ms, including a post trigger delay. The Paxon's programmable action potential like signal has the possibility to be used as a validation test platform for medical surface electrodes and their attached systems.

  8. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, Carol F.; Ratliff, Michelle L.; Powell, Rebecca; Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R.; Lakiza, Olga; Obara, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development

  9. A developmentally plastic adult mouse kidney cell line spontaneously generates multiple adult kidney structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Carol F., E-mail: carol-webb@omrf.org [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Ratliff, Michelle L., E-mail: michelle-ratliff@omrf.org [Immunobiology and Cancer Research, Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Powell, Rebecca, E-mail: rebeccapowell@gmail.com [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Wirsig-Wiechmann, Celeste R., E-mail: celeste-wirsig@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Lakiza, Olga, E-mail: olga-lakiza@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Obara, Tomoko, E-mail: tomoko-obara@ouhsc.edu [Department of Cell Biology, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2015-08-07

    Despite exciting new possibilities for regenerative therapy posed by the ability to induce pluripotent stem cells, recapitulation of three-dimensional kidneys for repair or replacement has not been possible. ARID3a-deficient mouse tissues generated multipotent, developmentally plastic cells. Therefore, we assessed the adult mouse ARID3a−/− kidney cell line, KKPS5, which expresses renal progenitor surface markers as an alternative cell source for modeling kidney development. Remarkably, these cells spontaneously developed into multicellular nephron-like structures in vitro, and engrafted into immunocompromised medaka mesonephros, where they formed mouse nephron structures. These data implicate KKPS5 cells as a new model system for studying kidney development. - Highlights: • An ARID3a-deficient mouse kidney cell line expresses multiple progenitor markers. • This cell line spontaneously forms multiple nephron-like structures in vitro. • This cell line formed mouse kidney structures in immunocompromised medaka fish kidneys. • Our data identify a novel model system for studying kidney development.

  10. Effects of noninstantaneous nonlinear processes on photon-pair generation by spontaneous four-wave mixing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    We present a general model, based on a Hamiltonian approach, for the joint quantum state of photon pairs generated through pulsed spontaneous four-wave mixing, including nonlinear phase modulation and a finite material response time. For the case of a silica fiber, it is found that the pair......-production rate depends weakly on the waveguide temperature, due to higher-order Raman scattering events, and more strongly on pump-pair frequency detuning. From the analytical model, a numerical scheme is derived, based on the well-known split-step method. This scheme allows computation of joint states where......-dependent change in quantum-mechanical purity may be observed in silica. This shows that Raman scattering not only introduces noise, but can also drastically change the spectral correlations in photon pairs when pumped with short pulses....

  11. High-dimensional atom localization via spontaneously generated coherence in a microwave-driven atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiping; Chen, Jinyu; Yu, Benli

    2017-02-20

    We investigate the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) atom localization behaviors via spontaneously generated coherence in a microwave-driven four-level atomic system. Owing to the space-dependent atom-field interaction, it is found that the detecting probability and precision of 2D and 3D atom localization behaviors can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters, the phase, amplitude, and initial population distribution. Interestingly, the atom can be localized in volumes that are substantially smaller than a cubic optical wavelength. Our scheme opens a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-efficiency atom localization, which provides some potential applications in high-dimensional atom nanolithography.

  12. Distributed Generation to Support Development-Focused Climate Action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie; Gagnon, Pieter; Stout, Sherry; Zinaman, Owen; Watson, Andrea; Hotchkiss, Eliza

    2016-09-01

    This paper explores the role of distributed generation, with a high renewable energy contribution, in supporting low emission climate-resilient development. The paper presents potential impacts on development (via energy access), greenhouse gas emission mitigation, and climate resilience directly associated with distributed generation, as well as specific actions that may enhance or increase the likelihood of climate and development benefits. This paper also seeks to provide practical and timely insights to support distributed generation policymaking and planning within the context of common climate and development goals as the distributed generation landscape rapidly evolves globally. Country-specific distributed generation policy and program examples, as well as analytical tools that can inform efforts internationally, are also highlighted throughout the paper.

  13. Ex vivo spontaneous generation of 19-norandrostenedione and nandrolone detected in equine plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E; Soma, Lawrence R; You, Youwen; Li, Xiaoqing; McDonnell, Sue

    2012-01-01

    19-Norandrostenedione (NAED) and nandrolone are anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs). Nandrolone was regarded solely as a synthetic AAS until the 1980s when trace concentrations of apparently endogenous nandrolone were detected in urine samples obtained from intact male horses (stallions). Since then, its endogenous origin has been reported in boars and bulls; endogenous NAED and nandrolone have been identified in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions. More recently, however, it was suggested that NAED and nandrolone detected in urine samples from stallions are primarily artifacts due to the analytical procedure. The present study was undertaken to determine whether NAED and nandrolone detected in plasma and urine samples collected from stallions are truly endogenous or artifacts from sample processing. To answer this question, fresh plasma and urine samples from ≥8 stallions were analyzed for the two AASs, soon after collection, by liquid chromatography hyphenated to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). NAED and nandrolone were not detected in fresh plasma samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Concentrations of both AASs increased with storage time, and the increases were greater at a higher storage temperature (37°C versus 4°C, and ambient temperature versus 4°C). Although NAED was detected in some fresh stallion urine samples, its concentration (samples post storage (at ambient temperature for 15 days). Nandrolone was not detected in most of fresh urine samples but detected in the same samples post storage. Based on these results, it is concluded that all NAED and nandrolone detected in stored plasma samples of stallions and most of them in the stored urine samples are not from endogenous origins but spontaneously generated during sample storage, most likely from spontaneous decarboxylation of androstenedione-19-oic acid and testosterone-19-oic acid. To our knowledge, it is the first time that all NAED and nandrolone detected in

  14. Computer Simulations Support a Morphological Contribution to BDNF Enhancement of Action Potential Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico F Galati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF regulates both action potential (AP generation and neuron morphology. However, whether BDNF-induced changes in neuron morphology directly impact AP generation is unclear. We quantified BDNF’s effect on cultured cortical neuron morphological parameters and found that BDNF stimulates dendrite growth and addition of dendrites while increasing both excitatory and inhibitory presynaptic inputs in a spatially restricted manner. To gain insight into how these combined changes in neuron structure and synaptic input impact AP generation, we used the morphological parameters we gathered to generate computational models. Simulations suggest that BDNF-induced neuron morphologies generate more APs under a wide variety of conditions. Synapse and dendrite addition have the greatest impact on AP generation. However, subtle alterations in excitatory/inhibitory synapse ratio and strength have a significant impact on AP generation when synaptic activity is low. Consistent with these simulations, BDNF rapidly enhances spontaneous activity in cortical cultures. We propose that BDNF promotes neuron morphologies that are intrinsically more efficient at translating barrages of synaptic activity into APs, which is a previously unexplored aspect of BDNF’s function.

  15. Action of sulfured radioprotectors on spontaneous cerebral electric activity of implanted chronic non irradiated adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatome, M.

    In a previous study, the radioprotective action of serotonin on central nervous system of lethal dose irradiated rabbit had been determined. In the present study, the possibilities of sulfured radioprotectors were considered in order to see if these products have by themselves an action on central nervous system of non irradiated animals [fr

  16. Short-time action electric generators to power physical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, I.A.; Kasharskij, Eh.G.; Rutberg, F.G.; Khutoretskij, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by power-supply sources of the native electrophysical facilities have been analyzed and trends in designing foreign electric machine units of short-time action have been considered. Specifications of a generator, manufactured in the form of synchronous bipolar turbogenerator with an all-forged rotor with indirect air cooling of the rotor and stator windings are presented. Front parts of the stator winding are additionally fixed using glass-textolite rings, brackets and gaskets. A flywheel, manufactured in the form of all-forged steel cylinder is joined directly with the generator rotor by means of a half-coupling. An acceleration asynchronous engine with a phase rotor of 4 MW nominal capacity is located on the opposite side of the flywheel. The generator peak power is 242 MVxA; power factor = 0.9; energy transferred to the load 5per 1 pulse =00 MJ; the flywheel weight 81 t

  17. Third-Generation Cephalosporin-Resistant Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis: A single-Centre Experience and Summary of Existing Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Chaulk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP is the most prevalent bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis. Although studies from Europe have reported significant rates of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, there are limited SBP-specific data from centres in North America.

  18. Decoherence plus spontaneous symmetry breakdown generate the ''ohmic'' view of the state-vector collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX

    1993-06-01

    The collapse of the state-vector is described as a phase transition due to three features. First, there is the atrophying of indeterminacy for macroscopic objects -- including the measurement apparatus. Secondly, there is the environment decohering mechanism, as described by Zeh, Joos and others -- dominant in macroscopic objects. As a result, the classical background, an input in the Copenhagen prescriptions, is generated as an ''effective'' picture, similar to the ''effective'' introduction of Ohmic resistance or of thermodynamical variables, when going from the micro to the macroscopic; in this case, the collectivized substrate is provided by the multiplicity of photon scatterings, etc., on top of the effect of the large number of particles in macroscopic objects. Thirdly, there is the Everett ''branching'', i.e. the materialization of one of the now decoherent states, accompanied by the destruction of the other branches. By definition, quantum indeterminancy represents a symmetry; in a measurement, or in a branching, this symmetry is broken ''spontaneously'', involving a Ginzburg-Landau type potential with asymmetric minima, thus concretizing the quantum ''dice'' without the burden of ''many worlds''. The authors review and systematize the various phase transitions relating quantum to classical phenomena

  19. Photoelectrochemical water splitting and hydrogen generation by a spontaneously formed InGaN nanowall network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, N. H., E-mail: nhalvi@isom.upm.es, E-mail: r.noetzel@isom.upm.es; Soto Rodriguez, P. E. D.; Kumar, Praveen; Gómez, V. J.; Aseev, P.; Nötzel, R., E-mail: nhalvi@isom.upm.es, E-mail: r.noetzel@isom.upm.es [ISOM Institute for Systems Based on Optoelectronics and Microtechnology, ETSI Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvi, A. H. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Alvi, M. A. [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Faisalabad (Pakistan); Willander, M. [Department of Science and Technology (ITN), Campus Norrköping, Linköping University, 60174 Norrköping (Sweden)

    2014-06-02

    We investigate photoelectrochemical water splitting by a spontaneously formed In-rich InGaN nanowall network, combining the material of choice with the advantages of surface texturing for light harvesting by light scattering. The current density for the InGaN-nanowalls-photoelectrode at zero voltage versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode is 3.4 mA cm{sup −2} with an incident-photon-to-current-conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 16% under 350 nm laser illumination with 0.075 W·cm{sup −2} power density. In comparison, the current density for a planar InGaN-layer-photoelectrode is 2 mA cm{sup −2} with IPCE of 9% at zero voltage versus the Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The H{sub 2} generation rates at zero externally applied voltage versus the Pt counter electrode per illuminated area are 2.8 and 1.61 μmol·h{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} for the InGaN nanowalls and InGaN layer, respectively, revealing ∼57% enhancement for the nanowalls.

  20. Spontaneous in-flight accommodation of hand orientation to unseen grasp targets: A case of action blindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentiss, Emily K; Schneider, Colleen L; Williams, Zoë R; Sahin, Bogachan; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2018-03-15

    The division of labour between the dorsal and ventral visual pathways is well established. The ventral stream supports object identification, while the dorsal stream supports online processing of visual information in the service of visually guided actions. Here, we report a case of an individual with a right inferior quadrantanopia who exhibited accurate spontaneous rotation of his wrist when grasping a target object in his blind visual field. His accurate wrist orientation was observed despite the fact that he exhibited no sensitivity to the orientation of the handle in a perceptual matching task. These findings indicate that non-geniculostriate visual pathways process basic volumetric information relevant to grasping, and reinforce the observation that phenomenal awareness is not necessary for an object's volumetric properties to influence visuomotor performance.

  1. Heme oxygenase-1 affects generation and spontaneous cardiac differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepniewski, Jacek; Pacholczak, Tomasz; Skrzypczyk, Aniela; Ciesla, Maciej; Szade, Agata; Szade, Krzysztof; Bidanel, Romain; Langrzyk, Agnieszka; Grochowski, Radoslaw; Vandermeeren, Felix; Kachamakova-Trojanowska, Neli; Jez, Mateusz; Drabik, Grazyna; Nakanishi, Mahito; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2018-02-01

    Cellular stress can influence efficiency of iPSCs generation and their differentiation. However, the role of intracellular cytoprotective factors in these processes is still not well known. Therefore, we investigated the effect of HO-1 (Hmox1) or Nrf2 (Nfe2l2), two major cytoprotective genes. Hmox1 -/- fibroblasts demonstrated decreased reprogramming efficiency in comparison to Hmox1 +/+ cells. Reversely, pharmacological enhancement of HO-1 resulted in higher number of iPSCs colonies. Importantly, elevated level of both p53 and p53-regulated miR-34a and 14-3-3σ was observed in HO-1-deficient fibroblasts whereas downregulation of p53 in these cells markedly increased their reprogramming efficiency. In human fibroblasts HO-1 silencing also induced p53 expression and affected reprogramming outcome. Hmox1 +/+ and Hmox1 -/- iPSCs similarly differentiated in vitro to cells originating from three germ layers, however, lower number of contracting cells was observed during this process in HO-1-deficient cells indicating attenuated cardiac differentiation. Importantly, silencing of Hmox1 in murine ESC using CRISPR/Cas-9 editing also impaired their spontaneous cardiac differentiation. Decreased reprogramming efficiency was also observed in Nrf2-lacking fibroblasts. Reversely, sulforaphane, a Nrf2 activator, increased the number of iPSCs colonies. However, both Nfe2l2 +/+ and Nfe2l2 -/- iPSCs showed similar pluripotency and differentiation capacity. These results indicate that regulation of HO-1 expression can further optimize generation and cardiac differentiation of iPSCs. © 2018 IUBMB Life, 70(2):129-142, 2018. © 2018 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  2. Brain-machine interfaces in space: Using spontaneous rather than intentionally generated brain signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffey, E.B.J.; Brouwer, A.M.; Wilschut, E.S.; Erp, J.B.F. van

    2010-01-01

    De auteurs bespreken de beperkingen en mogelijkheden van gesuggereerde BMI toepassingen in een ruimtevaart en breken een lans voor BMIs die zijn gebaseerd op spontane in plaats van op doelbewuste hersensignalen

  3. The activity of spontaneous action potentials in developing hair cells is regulated by Ca(2+-dependence of a transient K+ current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snezana Levic

    Full Text Available Spontaneous action potentials have been described in developing sensory systems. These rhythmic activities may have instructional roles for the functional development of synaptic connections. The importance of spontaneous action potentials in the developing auditory system is underpinned by the stark correlation between the time of auditory system functional maturity, and the cessation of spontaneous action potentials. A prominent K(+ current that regulates patterning of action potentials is I(A. This current undergoes marked changes in expression during chicken hair cell development. Although the properties of I(A are not normally classified as Ca(2+-dependent, we demonstrate that throughout the development of chicken hair cells, I(A is greatly reduced by acute alterations of intracellular Ca(2+. As determinants of spike timing and firing frequency, intracellular Ca(2+ buffers shift the activation and inactivation properties of the current to more positive potentials. Our findings provide evidence to demonstrate that the kinetics and functional expression of I(A are tightly regulated by intracellular Ca(2+. Such feedback mechanism between the functional expression of I(A and intracellular Ca(2+ may shape the activity of spontaneous action potentials, thus potentially sculpting synaptic connections in an activity-dependent manner in the developing cochlea.

  4. Generativity Does Not Necessarily Satisfy All Your Needs: Associations among Cultural Demand for Generativity, Generative Concern, Generative Action, and Need Satisfaction in the Elderly in Four Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Jan; Busch, Holger; Au, Alma; Polácková Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, Peter; Tsien Wong, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines the association between various facets of generativity, that is, cultural demand for generativity, generative concern, and generative action, with the satisfaction of the needs for relatedness, competence, and autonomy in samples of elderly from Cameroon, China (Hong Kong), the Czech Republic, and Germany. Participants…

  5. Controlled and spontaneous magnetic field generation in a gun-driven spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, S.; Cohen, B.I.; Hooper, E.B.; Mclean, H.S.; Stallard, B.W.; Hill, D.N.; Holcomb, C.T.; Romero-Talamas, C.; Wood, R.D.; Cone, G.; Sovinec, C.R.

    2005-01-01

    In the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX [E. B. Hooper, D. Pearlstein, and D. D. Ryutov, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)], progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that generate fields by helicity injection. SSPX injects helicity (linked magnetic flux) from 1 m diameter magnetized coaxial electrodes into a flux-conserving confinement region. Control of magnetic fluctuations (δB/B∼1% on the midplane edge) yields T e profiles peaked at >200 eV. Trends indicate a limiting beta (β e ∼4%-6%), and so we have been motivated to increase T e by operating with stronger magnetic field. Two new operating modes are observed to increase the magnetic field: (A) Operation with constant current and spontaneous gun voltage fluctuations. In this case, the gun is operated continuously at the threshold for ejection of plasma from the gun: stored magnetic energy of the spheromak increases gradually with δB/B∼2% and large voltage fluctuations (δV∼1 kV), giving a 50% increase in current amplification, I tor /I gun . (B) Operation with controlled current pulses. In this case, spheromak magnetic energy increases in a stepwise fashion by pulsing the gun, giving the highest magnetic fields observed for SSPX (∼0.7 T along the geometric axis). By increasing the time between pulses, a quasisteady sustainment is produced (with periodic good confinement), comparing well with resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations. In each case, the processes that transport the helicity into the spheromak are inductive and exhibit a scaling of field with current that exceeds those previously obtained. We use our newly found scaling to suggest how to achieve higher temperatures with a series of pulses

  6. Controlled and Spontaneous Magnetic Field Generation in a Gun-Driven Spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, S; Cohen, B I; Hooper, E B; McLean, H S; Stallard, B W; Hill, D N; Holcomb, C T; Romero-Talamas, C; Wood, R D; Cone, G; Sovinec, C R

    2005-04-01

    In the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment, SSPX, progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms that generate fields by helicity injection. SSPX injects helicity (linked magnetic flux) from 1-m diameter magnetized coaxial electrodes into a flux-conserving confinement region. Control of magnetic fluctuations ((delta)B/B∼1% on the midplane edge) yields T e profiles peaked at > 200eV. Trends indicate a limiting beta (β e ∼ 4-6%), and so we have been motivated to increase T e by operating with stronger magnetic field. Two new operating modes are observed to increase the magnetic field: (A) Operation with constant current and spontaneous gun voltage fluctuations. In this case, the gun is operated continuously at the threshold for ejection of plasma from the gun: stored magnetic energy of the spheromak increases gradually with (delta)B/B ∼2% and large voltage fluctuations ((delta)V ∼ 1kV), giving a 50% increase in current amplification, I tor /I gun . (B) Operation with controlled current pulses. In this case, spheromak magnetic energy increases in a stepwise fashion by pulsing the gun, giving the highest magnetic fields observed for SSPX (∼0.7T along the geometric axis). By increasing the time between pulses, a quasi-steady sustainment is produced (with periodic good confinement), comparing well with resistive MHD simulations. In each case, the processes that transport the helicity into the spheromak are inductive and exhibit a scaling of field with current that exceeds those previously obtained. We use our newly found scaling to suggest how to achieve higher temperatures with a series of pulses

  7. Spontaneous Isomerization of Peptide Cation Radicals Following Electron Transfer Dissociation Revealed by UV-Vis Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Naruaki; Houferak, Camille; Murphy, Megan P; Nguyen, Huong T H; Dang, Andy; Tureček, František

    2018-01-16

    Peptide cation radicals of the z-type were produced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of peptide dications and studied by UV-Vis photodissociation (UVPD) action spectroscopy. Cation radicals containing the Asp (D), Asn (N), Glu (E), and Gln (Q) residues were found to spontaneously isomerize by hydrogen atom migrations upon ETD. Canonical N-terminal [z 4 + H] +● fragment ion-radicals of the R-C ● H-CONH- type, initially formed by N-C α bond cleavage, were found to be minor components of the stable ion fraction. Vibronically broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory for several [ ● DAAR + H] + isomers and used to assign structures to the action spectra. The potential energy surface of [ ● DAAR + H] + isomers was mapped by ab initio and density functional theory calculations that revealed multiple isomerization pathways by hydrogen atom migrations. The transition-state energies for the isomerizations were found to be lower than the dissociation thresholds, accounting for the isomerization in non-dissociating ions. The facile isomerization in [ ● XAAR + H] + ions (X = D, N, E, and Q) was attributed to low-energy intermediates having the radical defect in the side chain that can promote hydrogen migration along backbone C α positions. A similar side-chain mediated mechanism is suggested for the facile intermolecular hydrogen migration between the c- and [z + H] ● -ETD fragments containing Asp, Asn, Glu, and Gln residues. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  8. Spontaneous Isomerization of Peptide Cation Radicals Following Electron Transfer Dissociation Revealed by UV-Vis Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaoka, Naruaki; Houferak, Camille; Murphy, Megan P.; Nguyen, Huong T. H.; Dang, Andy; Tureček, František

    2018-01-01

    Peptide cation radicals of the z-type were produced by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) of peptide dications and studied by UV-Vis photodissociation (UVPD) action spectroscopy. Cation radicals containing the Asp (D), Asn (N), Glu (E), and Gln (Q) residues were found to spontaneously isomerize by hydrogen atom migrations upon ETD. Canonical N-terminal [z4 + H]+● fragment ion-radicals of the R-C●H-CONH- type, initially formed by N-Cα bond cleavage, were found to be minor components of the stable ion fraction. Vibronically broadened UV-Vis absorption spectra were calculated by time-dependent density functional theory for several [●DAAR + H]+ isomers and used to assign structures to the action spectra. The potential energy surface of [●DAAR + H]+ isomers was mapped by ab initio and density functional theory calculations that revealed multiple isomerization pathways by hydrogen atom migrations. The transition-state energies for the isomerizations were found to be lower than the dissociation thresholds, accounting for the isomerization in non-dissociating ions. The facile isomerization in [●XAAR + H]+ ions (X = D, N, E, and Q) was attributed to low-energy intermediates having the radical defect in the side chain that can promote hydrogen migration along backbone Cα positions. A similar side-chain mediated mechanism is suggested for the facile intermolecular hydrogen migration between the c- and [z + H]●-ETD fragments containing Asp, Asn, Glu, and Gln residues. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. GrandBase: generating actionable knowledge from Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu Susie Fang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to propose a system for generating actionable knowledge from Big Data and use this system to construct a comprehensive knowledge base (KB, called GrandBase. Design/methodology/approach – In particular, this study extracts new predicates from four types of data sources, namely, Web texts, Document Object Model (DOM trees, existing KBs and query stream to augment the ontology of the existing KB (i.e. Freebase. In addition, a graph-based approach to conduct better truth discovery for multi-valued predicates is also proposed. Findings – Empirical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approaches presented in this study and the potential of GrandBase. The future research directions regarding GrandBase construction and extension has also been discussed. Originality/value – To revolutionize our modern society by using the wisdom of Big Data, considerable KBs have been constructed to feed the massive knowledge-driven applications with Resource Description Framework triples. The important challenges for KB construction include extracting information from large-scale, possibly conflicting and different-structured data sources (i.e. the knowledge extraction problem and reconciling the conflicts that reside in the sources (i.e. the truth discovery problem. Tremendous research efforts have been contributed on both problems. However, the existing KBs are far from being comprehensive and accurate: first, existing knowledge extraction systems retrieve data from limited types of Web sources; second, existing truth discovery approaches commonly assume each predicate has only one true value. In this paper, the focus is on the problem of generating actionable knowledge from Big Data. A system is proposed, which consists of two phases, namely, knowledge extraction and truth discovery, to construct a broader KB, called GrandBase.

  10. Observation of magnetic flux generated spontaneously during a rapid quench of superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniv, A.; Polturak, E.; Koren, G.

    2003-01-01

    We report observations of spontaneous formation of magnetic flux lines during a rapid quench of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films through T c . This effect is predicted according to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of creation of topological defects of the order parameter during a symmetry-breaking phase transition. Our previous experiment, at a quench rate of 20 K/s, gave null results. In the present experiment, the quench rate was increased to >10 8 K/s. The amount of spontaneous flux increases weakly with the cooling rate

  11. Spontaneous mutations in the flhD operon generate motility heterogeneity in Escherichia coli biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Shelley M; Sayler, Joseph; Scarberry, Nicholas; Schroeder, Meredith; Lynnes, Ty; Prüß, Birgit M

    2016-11-08

    Heterogeneity and niche adaptation in bacterial biofilm involve changes to the genetic makeup of the bacteria and gene expression control. We hypothesized that i) spontaneous mutations in the flhD operon can either increase or decrease motility and that ii) the resulting motility heterogeneity in the biofilm might lead to a long-term increase in biofilm biomass. We allowed the highly motile E. coli K-12 strain MC1000 to form seven- and fourteen-day old biofilm, from which we recovered reduced motility isolates at a substantially greater frequency (5.4 %) than from a similar experiment with planktonic bacteria (0.1 %). Biofilms formed exclusively by MC1000 degraded after 2 weeks. In contrast, biofilms initiated with a 1:1 ratio of MC1000 and its isogenic flhD::kn mutant remained intact at 4 weeks and the two strains remained in equilibrium for at least two weeks. These data imply that an 'optimal' biofilm may contain a mixture of motile and non-motile bacteria. Twenty-eight of the non-motile MC1000 isolates contained an IS1 element in proximity to the translational start of FlhD or within the open reading frames for FlhD or FlhC. Two isolates had an IS2 and one isolate had an IS5 in the open reading frame for FlhD. An additional three isolates contained deletions that included the RNA polymerase binding site, five isolates contained point mutations and small deletions in the open reading frame for FlhC. The locations of all these mutations are consistent with the lack of motility and further downstream within the flhD operon than previously published IS elements that increased motility. We believe that the location of the mutation within the flhD operon determines whether the effect on motility is positive or negative. To test the second part of our hypothesis where motility heterogeneity in a biofilm may lead to a long-term increase in biofilm biomass, we quantified biofilm biomass by MC1000, MC1000 flhD::kn, and mixtures of the two strains at ratios of 1:1, 10

  12. Proposed Spontaneous Generation of Magnetic Fields by Curved Layers of a Chiral Superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvorning, T.; Hansson, T. H.; Quelle, A.; Smith, C. Morais

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate that two-dimensional chiral superconductors on curved surfaces spontaneously develop magnetic flux. This geometric Meissner effect provides an unequivocal signature of chiral superconductivity, which could be observed in layered materials under stress. We also employ the effect to explain some puzzling questions related to the location of zero-energy Majorana modes.

  13. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shagufta; Panicker, M M; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Constant curvature algebras and higher spin action generating functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallowell, K.; Waldron, A.

    2005-01-01

    The algebra of differential geometry operations on symmetric tensors over constant curvature manifolds forms a novel deformation of the sl(2,R)-bar R 2 Lie algebra. We present a simple calculus for calculations in its universal enveloping algebra. As an application, we derive generating functions for the actions and gauge invariances of massive, partially massless and massless (for both Bose and Fermi statistics) higher spins on constant curvature backgrounds. These are formulated in terms of a minimal set of covariant, unconstrained, fields rather than towers of auxiliary fields. Partially massless gauge transformations are shown to arise as degeneracies of the flat, massless gauge transformation in one dimension higher. Moreover, our results and calculus offer a considerable simplification over existing techniques for handling higher spins. In particular, we show how theories of arbitrary spin in dimension d can be rewritten in terms of a single scalar field in dimension 2d where the d additional dimensions correspond to coordinate differentials. We also develop an analogous framework for spinor-tensor fields in terms of the corresponding superalgebra

  15. Noncritical generation of nonclassical frequency combs via spontaneous rotational symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Patera, Giuseppe; de Valcárcel, Germán J.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators (SPOPOs) are optical cavities driven by mode-locked lasers, and containing a nonlinear crystal capable of down-converting a frequency comb to lower frequencies. SPOPOs have received a lot of attention lately because their intrinsic multimode nature makes them compact sources of quantum correlated light with promising applications in modern quantum information technologies. In this work we show that SPOPOs are also capable of accessing the challenging and interesting regime where spontaneous symmetry breaking confers strong nonclassical properties to the emitted light, which has eluded experimental observation so far. Apart from opening the possibility of studying experimentally this elusive regime of dissipative phase transitions, our predictions will have a practical impact, since we show that spontaneous symmetry breaking provides a specific spatiotemporal mode with large quadrature squeezing for any value of the system parameters, turning SPOPOs into robust sources of highly nonclassical light above threshold.

  16. Fermion Systems in Discrete Space-Time Exemplifying the Spontaneous Generation of a Causal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diethert, A.; Finster, F.; Schiefeneder, D.

    As toy models for space-time at the Planck scale, we consider examples of fermion systems in discrete space-time which are composed of one or two particles defined on two up to nine space-time points. We study the self-organization of the particles as described by a variational principle both analytically and numerically. We find an effect of spontaneous symmetry breaking which leads to the emergence of a discrete causal structure.

  17. Spontaneous bacteriocin resistance in Listeria monocytogenes as a susceptibility screen for identifying different mechanisms of resistance and modes of action by bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macwana, Sunita; Muriana, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    A practical system was devised for grouping bacteriocins of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) based on mode of action as determined by changes in inhibitory activity to spontaneously-acquired bacteriocin resistance (Bac(R)). Wild type Listeria monocytogenes 39-2 was sensitive to five bacteriocins produced by 3 genera of LAB: pediocin PA-1 and pediocin Bac3 (Pediococcus), lacticin FS97 and lacticin FS56 (Lactococcus), and curvaticin FS47 (Lactobacillus). A spontaneous Bac(R) derivative of L. monocytogenes 39-2 obtained by selective recovery against lacticin FS56 provided complete resistance to the bacteriocin made by Lactococcus lactis FS56. The lacticin FS56-resistant strain of L. monocyotgenes 39-2 was also cross-resistant to curvaticin FS47 and pediocin PA-1, but not to lacticin FS97 or pediocin Bac3. The same pattern of cross-resistance was also observed with Bac(R) isolates obtained with L. monocytogenes Scott A-2. A spontaneous mutation that renders a strain cross-resistant to different bacteriocins indicates that they share a common mechanism of resistance due to similar modes of action of the bacteriocins. Spontaneous resistance was acquired to other bacteriocins (in aggregate) by following the same procedure against which the Bac(R) strain was still sensitive. In subsequent challenge assays, mixtures of bacteriocins of different modes of action provided greater inhibition than mixtures of bacteriocins of the same mode of action (as determined by our screening method). This study identifies a methodical approach to classify bacteriocins into functional groups based on mechanism of resistance (i.e., mode of action) that could be used for identifying the best mixture of bacteriocins for use as biopreservatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Entangled photon pair generation by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in finite-length one-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centini, M.; Sciscione, L.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.; Perina, J. Jr.; Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A description of spontaneous parametric down-conversion in finite-length one-dimensional nonlinear photonic crystals is developed using semiclassical and quantum approaches. It is shown that if a suitable averaging is added to the semiclassical model, its results are in very good agreement with the quantum approach. We propose two structures made with GaN/AlN that generate both degenerate and nondegenerate entangled photon pairs. Both structures are designed so as to achieve a high efficiency of the nonlinear process

  19. Exploring Spontaneous Imitation in Infancy: A Three Generation Inter-Familial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theano Kokkinaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to advance our understanding regarding the role of the extended family interactional context for early mother-infant communication, we compared spontaneous early imitative exchanges in dyadic interactions between mothers and infants (Group 1, N = 26 who had no frequent contact with maternal grandmothers, to imitations in two familial subgroups (Group 2, N = 48: (a dyadic interactions of infants with their mothers, and (b with their grandmothers–persons who had frequent contact with the infant. Spontaneous dyadic interactions of infants with their mothers and grandmothers were video-recorded at home from the 2nd to the 10th month of their life. Both comparisons provided evidence of similar frequency of imitative exchanges and developmental trajectories of infant imitations, but also differences in the structure of imitation, the kinds of imitated behaviors and the temporal patterns of imitative components. In the frame of the theory of Innate Intersubjectivity, we assume that differential early family interaction may be related to variations in three fundamental dimensions of infant-significant other communication: “kinematics” (temporal patterns, “physiognomics” (spatial patterns or forms and “energetics” (force or effort. These variations may affect the child’s ability for regulation and negotiation of interpersonal challenges within and outside the family context.

  20. Entrepreneurial learning requires action on the meaning generated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Madsen, Svend Ole

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reveals how managers of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) can utilise their participation in research-based training to enable innovation and growth. Design/methodology/approach: Action research and action learning from a longitudinal study of 10 SME managers...... in the wind turbine industry are conducted to reveal SME managers learning and the impact of the application of learning in the wind turbine industry. Findings: The findings of this study show that SME managers employ a practice-shaped holistic cross-disciplinary approach to learning. This learning approach...... is supported by theory dissemination and collaboration on the business challenges perceived. Open mindedness to new learning by SME managers and to cross-disciplinary collaboration with SME managers by university facilitators/ researchers is required. Research limitations/implications: The research...

  1. Co-Thought and Co-Speech Gestures Are Generated by the Same Action Generation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mingyuan; Kita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    People spontaneously gesture when they speak (co-speech gestures) and when they solve problems silently (co-thought gestures). In this study, we first explored the relationship between these 2 types of gestures and found that individuals who produced co-thought gestures more frequently also produced co-speech gestures more frequently (Experiments…

  2. Characterization of a spontaneously generated murine retinal pigmented epithelium cell line; a model for in vitro experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranaei Pirmardan, Ehsan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Ezzati, Razie; Naseri, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), the outermost layer of the retina, has a key role in maintaining retinal cells’ functions. Severity of the culture of RPE cells has exerted many limitations to both in vitro and in vivo studies and its therapeutic applications. Therefore, establishment of RPE cell lines with high proliferative potential can considerably improve study of RPE cell biology. Here we report generation of a spontaneously immortalized murine RPE cell line in primary mouse RPE cell culture. Founded colonized cells were picked up and expression of RPE and retinal progenitor cells’ (RPC) markers were studied using immunocytochemistry (ICC). Emerged cells cultured over 35 passages and population doubling times in different serum concentrations were calculated. We also investigated the ability of cells for becoming transfected by calcium-phosphate method and for becoming infected by adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) using flow cytometry. Data showed that the cobblestone constituent cells expressed RPE65, cytokeratin and ZO1 and moreover several progenitor markers such as Pax6, Sox2, Nestin and Chx10. It revealed that, despite primary RPE cells, the newly emerged cells were easily transfectable and were highly infectable when compared with HEK293T cells. Our data indicated that the emerged mouse RPE cell line pretended RPC-like phenotype and also simultaneously expressed RPE markers. It would be a promising model for leading studies on RPE and RPC cells and substantially confirmed the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies. - Highlights: • Isolation of a spontaneously generated retinal pigmented epithelium cell line is reported. • The cells express some of the retinal progenitor cell markers in addition to the RPE markers. • The aforesaid cell line is highly transfecable and considerably infectable by AAV2. • These results confirm the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies.

  3. Characterization of a spontaneously generated murine retinal pigmented epithelium cell line; a model for in vitro experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranaei Pirmardan, Ehsan [Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soheili, Zahra-Soheila [Department of Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Samiei, Shahram [Blood Transfusion Research Center, High Institute for Research and Education in Transfusion Medicine, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadieh, Hamid [Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mowla, Seyed Javad [Department of Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ezzati, Razie [Department of Molecular Medicine, National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naseri, Marzieh [Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Advanced Technology, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), the outermost layer of the retina, has a key role in maintaining retinal cells’ functions. Severity of the culture of RPE cells has exerted many limitations to both in vitro and in vivo studies and its therapeutic applications. Therefore, establishment of RPE cell lines with high proliferative potential can considerably improve study of RPE cell biology. Here we report generation of a spontaneously immortalized murine RPE cell line in primary mouse RPE cell culture. Founded colonized cells were picked up and expression of RPE and retinal progenitor cells’ (RPC) markers were studied using immunocytochemistry (ICC). Emerged cells cultured over 35 passages and population doubling times in different serum concentrations were calculated. We also investigated the ability of cells for becoming transfected by calcium-phosphate method and for becoming infected by adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) using flow cytometry. Data showed that the cobblestone constituent cells expressed RPE65, cytokeratin and ZO1 and moreover several progenitor markers such as Pax6, Sox2, Nestin and Chx10. It revealed that, despite primary RPE cells, the newly emerged cells were easily transfectable and were highly infectable when compared with HEK293T cells. Our data indicated that the emerged mouse RPE cell line pretended RPC-like phenotype and also simultaneously expressed RPE markers. It would be a promising model for leading studies on RPE and RPC cells and substantially confirmed the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies. - Highlights: • Isolation of a spontaneously generated retinal pigmented epithelium cell line is reported. • The cells express some of the retinal progenitor cell markers in addition to the RPE markers. • The aforesaid cell line is highly transfecable and considerably infectable by AAV2. • These results confirm the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies.

  4. Mobilizing Political Action on Behalf of Future Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldy, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Our failure to mobilize sufficient effort to fight climate change reflects a combination of political and economic forces, on both the national and the global level. To state the problem in its simplest terms, writes Joseph Aldy, future, unborn generations would enjoy the benefits of policies to reduce carbon emissions whereas the current…

  5. Generation of electromagnetic radiation in laser action with solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aref'ev, K.P.; Vorob'ev, S.A.; Kuznetsov, M.F.; Mastov, Sh.R.; Pogrebnyak, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    A new effect of electromagnetic pulse generation in solids, exposed to laser irradiation was revealed experimentally. The ruby laser with 694.36 nm wave length was used in the experiments. Monocrystals of Si, GaAs, KCl, LiF, polycrystals of Cu, Al, metals, the rocks-calcite, marble, natural quartz, feldspar - were used as samples. The effect of electromagnetic pulse generation, which is characterized by sharp threshold dependence on the density of laser radiation power, as well as on the type of material and its characteristics was observed for each material. The possibility of using the method of electromagnetic pulse detection during laser irradiation for evaluation of defectiveness degree and strength characteristics of investigated materials was shown

  6. Revisiting the Praise Paradox: An Action-Control Perspective on Negative Affect and Idea Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomberg, Carina; Klyver, Kim

    negative affect and idea generation. The patterns we identify provide a detailed understanding of how individuals’ action control determines the kind of feedback needed to increase originality. Thereby, we provide important new insights for research on the generation of original ideas that are necessary...... for entrepreneurs and organizations that aim to generate novelty and differentiate themselves from others....

  7. Learning by observing: the effect of multiple sessions of action-observation training on the spontaneous movement tempo and motor resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bisio, Ambra; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco; Avanzino, Laura

    2017-02-01

    The present study was designed to explore the changes in motor performance and motor resonance after multiple sessions of action observation (AO) training. Subjects were exposed to the observation of a video showing finger tapping movements executed at 3Hz, a frequency higher than the spontaneous one (2Hz) for four consecutive days. Motor performance and motor resonance were tested before the AO training on the first day, and on the last day. Results showed that multiple sessions of AO training induced a shift of the speed of execution of finger tapping movements toward the observed one and a change in motor resonance. Before the 3Hz-AO training cortical excitability was highest during the observation of the 2Hz video. This motor resonance effect was lost after one single session of 3Hz-AO training whereas after multiple sessions of 3Hz-AO training cortical excitability was highest during the observation of the 3Hz video. Our study shows for the first time that multiple sessions of AO training are able not only to induce performance gains but also to change the way by which the observer's motor system recognizes a certain movement as belonging to the individual motor repertoire. These results may encourage the development of novel rehabilitative protocols based on multiple sessions of action observation aimed to regain a correct movement when its spontaneous speed is modified by pathologies or to modify the innate temporal properties of certain movements. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Energy and Pitch Distribution of Spontaneously-generated High-energy Bulk Ions in the RFP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungha; Anderson, Jay; Reusch, Joshua; Eilerman, Scott; Capecchi, William

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection events in the reversed field pinch (RFP) are known to heat bulk and impurity ions. Runaway due to a parallel electric field has recently been confirmed as an important acceleration mechanism for high energy test ions supplied by a neutral beam. This effect does not, however, explain the change in distribution of nearly Maxwellian bulk ions at a reconnection event. By operating MST near maximum current and low electron density, significant fusion neutron flux can be generated without neutral beam injection. The bulk ion distribution created in these plasmas is well-confined, non-Maxwellian, and can be measured by the Advanced Neutral Particle Analyzer (ANPA) placed at a radial or tangential porthole. Data show a high energy tail up to 25 keV with a relatively higher signal in the low energy channels (8-15 keV) at the radial port following a reconnection event. Analysis of the energy dependence of trapped orbits sampled by the ANPA at the radial view implies an abundance of lower energy particles in regions of higher neutral density. This mandates a careful deconvolution of the measured ANPA signal to compute the fast ion distribution. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  9. From Reciprocal Social Networks to Action Groups for Market Exchange: “Spontaneous Privatization” in Post-Communist Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Lomnitz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Following previous research on the significance that social networks have had for the economic and social survival of Latin American and Soviet state-employed middle classes, this paper explores the role of social networks (connections on the process of privatization and market liberalization of Post-Communist Hungary. Based on former academic studies and on field research conducted for several months in Budapest, we will try to show that social networks are central intermediary structures on which individuals and groups construct solutions that allow them to cope with the deficiencies resulting from the formal system. From this perspective we will explore the importance of manager’s connections in the first period of the Hungarian privatization process known as “spontaneous privatization”.

  10. Spontaneously generated gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-01-01

    We show, following a recent suggestion of Adler, that gravity may arise as a consequence of dynamical symmetry breaking in a scale- and gauge-invariant world. Our calculation is not tied to any specific scheme of dynamical symmetry breaking. A representation for Newton's coupling constant in terms of flat-space quantities is derived. The sign of Newton's coupling constant appears to depend on infrared details of the symmetry-breaking mechanism

  11. Characterization of a spontaneously generated murine retinal pigmented epithelium cell line; a model for in vitro experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranaei Pirmardan, Ehsan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Mowla, Seyed Javad; Ezzati, Razie; Naseri, Marzieh

    2016-10-01

    Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), the outermost layer of the retina, has a key role in maintaining retinal cells' functions. Severity of the culture of RPE cells has exerted many limitations to both in vitro and in vivo studies and its therapeutic applications. Therefore, establishment of RPE cell lines with high proliferative potential can considerably improve study of RPE cell biology. Here we report generation of a spontaneously immortalized murine RPE cell line in primary mouse RPE cell culture. Founded colonized cells were picked up and expression of RPE and retinal progenitor cells' (RPC) markers were studied using immunocytochemistry (ICC). Emerged cells cultured over 35 passages and population doubling times in different serum concentrations were calculated. We also investigated the ability of cells for becoming transfected by calcium-phosphate method and for becoming infected by adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) using flow cytometry. Data showed that the cobblestone constituent cells expressed RPE65, cytokeratin and ZO1 and moreover several progenitor markers such as Pax6, Sox2, Nestin and Chx10. It revealed that, despite primary RPE cells, the newly emerged cells were easily transfectable and were highly infectable when compared with HEK293T cells. Our data indicated that the emerged mouse RPE cell line pretended RPC-like phenotype and also simultaneously expressed RPE markers. It would be a promising model for leading studies on RPE and RPC cells and substantially confirmed the great RPE plasticity and its invaluable potential in research studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling of action potential generation in NG108-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the possibility of identifying toxins based on their effect on the shape of action potentials, we created a computer model of the action potential generation in NG108-15 cells (a neuroblastoma/glioma hybrid cell line). To generate the experimental data for model validation, voltage-dependent sodium, potassium and high-threshold calcium currents, as well as action potentials, were recorded from NG108-15 cells with conventional whole-cell patch-clamp methods. Based on the classic Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and the linear thermodynamic description of the rate constants, ion-channel parameters were estimated using an automatic fitting method. Utilizing the established parameters, action potentials were generated using the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and were fitted to the recorded action potentials. To demonstrate the applicability of the method for toxin detection and discrimination, the effect of tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker) and tefluthrin (a pyrethroid that is a sodium channel opener) were studied. The two toxins affected the shape of the action potentials differently, and their respective effects were identified based on the predicted changes in the fitted parameters.

  13. Pharmacological analysis of the cardiac sympatho-inhibitory actions of moxonidine and agmatine in pithed spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobos-Puc, Luis E; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Centurión, David

    2016-11-15

    This study shows that in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of 14-weeks-old, the sympathetically-induced, but not noradrenaline-induced tachycardic response are higher than age-matched Wistar normotensive rats. Furthermore, in SHR the sympathetically-induced tachycardic response was: (1) unaffected by moxonidine (3μg/kgmin); (2) partially inhibited by B-HT 933 (30μg/kgmin), both at the lowest doses; and (3) completely inhibited by the highest doses of B-HT 933 (100μg/kgmin), moxonidine (10μg/kgmin) or agmatine (1000 and 3000μg/kgmin) while the noradrenaline-induced tachycardic responses remained unaffected by the above compounds, except by 3000μg/kgmin agmatine. In SHR, 300μg/kg rauwolscine failed to block the sympatho-inhibition to 100μg/kgmin B-HT 933 or 10μg/kgmin moxonidine, but 1000μg/kg rauwolscine abolished, partially antagonized, and did not modify the sympatho-inhibition to the highest doses of B-HT 933, moxonidine, and agmatine, respectively, 3000μg/kg AGN 192403 or 300μg/kg BU224 given alone had no effect in the moxonidine- or agmatine-induced sympatho-inhibition, and the combination rauwolscine plus AGN 192403 but not plus BU224, abolished the sympatho-inhibition to the highest doses of moxonidine and agmatine. In conclusion, the sympathetically-induced tachycardic responses in SHR are inhibited by moxonidine and agmatine. The inhibition of moxonidine is mainly mediated by prejunctional α 2 -adrenoceptors and to a lesser extent by I 1 -imidazoline receptors, while the inhibition of agmatine is mediated by prejunctional α 2 -adrenoceptors and I 1 -imidazoline receptors at the same extent. Notwithstanding, the inhibitory function of α 2 -adrenoceptors seems to be altered in SHR compared with Wistar normotensive rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ozone killing action against bacterial and fungal species; microbiological testing of a domestic ozone generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyas, A; Boughton, B J; Das, B C

    1983-10-01

    The action of ozone generated from a small domestic device was examined with a view to using it in clinical isolation units accommodating immunosuppressed patients. Over a six-hour period in an average size room the device did not generate sufficient ozone to suppress bacterial and fungal growth. A useful bactericidal action, against a variety of human pathogens was achieved with ozone concentrations between 0.3 to 0.9 ppm. Bactericidal ozone concentrations are close to the limit permitted for human exposure however and further experiments are indicated.

  15. The modeling and solution of course of action generation based on IN-DEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lujun; Li, Wen; Dai, Jiangbin; Huang, Aqian

    2017-08-01

    The course of action (COA) generation is the course of designing the task planning flow, which is one of the key supporting techniques while the military organization executing aerial operation. Due to the outstanding advantage of influence nets (IN), describing the causal logic between random variable, this proposal will introduce IN into the fast building mechanism of COA model. The COA generation model utilize influence nets is established. The probability propagation method is designed, which is based on influence intensity. An improved differential evolution algorithm (IDEA) is designed to solve the action policy optimized selected model. At last, the simulated result of aerial arrack campaign case show the action policy optimized selected in variety influence constants can improve the capability of cause-effect modeling, and the improved differential evolution algorithm has fine convergent and optimized capability.

  16. Osmotic and Salt Stresses Modulate Spontaneous and Glutamate-Induced Action Potentials and Distinguish between Growth and Circumnutation in Helianthus annuus Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stolarz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Action potentials (APs, i.e., long-distance electrical signals, and circumnutations (CN, i.e., endogenous plant organ movements, are shaped by ion fluxes and content in excitable and motor tissues. The appearance of APs and CN as well as growth parameters in seedlings and 3-week old plants of Helianthus annuus treated with osmotic and salt stress (0–500 mOsm were studied. Time-lapse photography and extracellular measurements of electrical potential changes were performed. The hypocotyl length was strongly reduced by the osmotic and salt stress. CN intensity declined due to the osmotic but not salt stress. The period of CN in mild salt stress was similar to the control (~164 min and increased to more than 200 min in osmotic stress. In sunflower seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium, spontaneous APs (SAPs propagating basipetally and acropetally with a velocity of 12–20 cm min−1 were observed. The number of SAPs increased 2–3 times (7–10 SAPs 24 h−1plant−1 in the mild salt stress (160 mOsm NaCl and KCl, compared to the control and strong salt stress (3–4 SAPs 24 h−1 plant−1 in the control and 300 mOsm KCl and NaCl. Glutamate-induced series of APs were inhibited in the strong salt stress-treated seedlings but not at the mild salt stress and osmotic stress. Additionally, in 3-week old plants, the injection of the hypo- or hyperosmotic solution at the base of the sunflower stem evoked series of APs (3–24 APs transmitted along the stem. It has been shown that osmotic and salt stresses modulate differently hypocotyl growth and CN and have an effect on spontaneous and evoked APs in sunflower seedlings. We suggested that potassium, sodium, and chloride ions at stress concentrations in the nutrient medium modulate sunflower excitability and CN.

  17. Therapeutic actions of an insulin receptor activator and a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist in the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat model of metabolic syndrome X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velliquette, Rodney A; Friedman, Jacob E; Shao, J; Zhang, Bei B; Ernsberger, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Insulin resistance clusters with hyperlipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension as metabolic syndrome X. We tested a low molecular weight insulin receptor activator, demethylasterriquinone B-1 (DMAQ-B1), and a novel indole peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist, 2-(2-(4-phenoxy-2-propylphenoxy)ethyl)indole-5-acetic acid (PPEIA), in spontaneously hypertensive obese rats (SHROB), a genetic model of syndrome X. Agents were given orally for 19 days. SHROB showed fasting normoglycemia but impaired glucose tolerance after an oral load, as shown by increased glucose area under the curve (AUC) [20,700 mg x min/ml versus 8100 in lean spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)]. Insulin resistance was indicated by 20-fold excess fasting insulin and increased insulin AUC (6300 ng x min/ml versus 990 in SHR). DMAQ-B1 did not affect glucose tolerance (glucose AUC = 21,300) but reduced fasting insulin 2-fold and insulin AUC (insulin AUC = 4300). PPEIA normalized glucose tolerance (glucose AUC = 9100) and reduced insulin AUC (to 3180) without affecting fasting insulin. PPEIA also increased food intake, fat mass, and body weight gain (81 +/- 12 versus 45 +/- 8 g in untreated controls), whereas DMAQ-B1 had no effect on body weight but reduced subscapular fat mass. PPEIA but not DMAQ-B1 reduced blood pressure. In skeletal muscle, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate protein 1-associated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity were decreased by 40 to 55% in SHROB relative to lean SHR. PPEIA, but not DMAQ-B1, enhanced both insulin actions. SHROB also showed severe hypertriglyceridemia (355 +/- 42 mg/dl versus 65 +/- 3 in SHR) attenuated by both agents (DMAQ-B1, 228 +/- 18; PPEIA, 79 +/- 3). Both these novel antidiabetic agents attenuate insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia associated with metabolic syndrome but via distinct mechanisms.

  18. Spontaneous generation of rapidly transmissible prions in transgenic mice expressing wild-type bank vole prion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Giles, Kurt; Stöhr, Jan; Oehler, Abby; Bhardwaj, Sumita; Grillo, Sunny K; Patel, Smita; DeArmond, Stephen J; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2012-02-28

    Currently, there are no animal models of the most common human prion disorder, sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), in which prions are formed spontaneously from wild-type (WT) prion protein (PrP). Interestingly, bank voles (BV) exhibit an unprecedented promiscuity for diverse prion isolates, arguing that bank vole PrP (BVPrP) may be inherently prone to adopting misfolded conformations. Therefore, we constructed transgenic (Tg) mice expressing WT BVPrP. Tg(BVPrP) mice developed spontaneous CNS dysfunction between 108 and 340 d of age and recapitulated the hallmarks of prion disease, including spongiform degeneration, pronounced astrogliosis, and deposition of alternatively folded PrP in the brain. Brain homogenates of ill Tg(BVPrP) mice transmitted disease to Tg(BVPrP) mice in ∼35 d, to Tg mice overexpressing mouse PrP in under 100 d, and to WT mice in ∼185 d. Our studies demonstrate experimentally that WT PrP can spontaneously form infectious prions in vivo. Thus, Tg(BVPrP) mice may be useful for studying the spontaneous formation of prions, and thus may provide insight into the etiology of sporadic CJD.

  19. Role of volume and surface spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the generation of photon pairs in layered media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrek, D.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 043828. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface spontaneous * parametric down-conversion * photon pairs * layered media Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  20. Entangled photon pair generation by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in finite-length one-dimensional photonic crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Centini, M.; Peřina ml., Jan; Sciscione, L.; Sibilia, C.; Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M.J.; Bertolotti, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, 03 (2005), 033806/1-033806/11 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : photon pair * photonic crystals * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.997, year: 2005

  1. Neuronal activity in the isolated mouse spinal cord during spontaneous deletions in fictive locomotion: insights into locomotor central pattern generator organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Guisheng; Shevtsova, Natalia A; Rybak, Ilya A; Harris-Warrick, Ronald M

    2012-01-01

    We explored the organization of the spinal central pattern generator (CPG) for locomotion by analysing the activity of spinal interneurons and motoneurons during spontaneous deletions occurring during fictive locomotion in the isolated neonatal mouse spinal cord, following earlier work on locomotor deletions in the cat. In the isolated mouse spinal cord, most spontaneous deletions were non-resetting, with rhythmic activity resuming after an integer number of cycles. Flexor and extensor deletions showed marked asymmetry: flexor deletions were accompanied by sustained ipsilateral extensor activity, whereas rhythmic flexor bursting was not perturbed during extensor deletions. Rhythmic activity on one side of the cord was not perturbed during non-resetting spontaneous deletions on the other side, and these deletions could occur with no input from the other side of the cord. These results suggest that the locomotor CPG has a two-level organization with rhythm-generating (RG) and pattern-forming (PF) networks, in which only the flexor RG network is intrinsically rhythmic. To further explore the neuronal organization of the CPG, we monitored activity of motoneurons and selected identified interneurons during spontaneous non-resetting deletions. Motoneurons lost rhythmic synaptic drive during ipsilateral deletions. Flexor-related commissural interneurons continued to fire rhythmically during non-resetting ipsilateral flexor deletions. Deletion analysis revealed two classes of rhythmic V2a interneurons. Type I V2a interneurons retained rhythmic synaptic drive and firing during ipsilateral motor deletions, while type II V2a interneurons lost rhythmic synaptic input and fell silent during deletions. This suggests that the type I neurons are components of the RG, whereas the type II neurons are components of the PF network. We propose a computational model of the spinal locomotor CPG that reproduces our experimental results. The results may provide novel insights into the

  2. Treatment of spontaneously hypertensive rats with rosiglitazone and/or enalapril restores balance between vasodilator and vasoconstrictor actions of insulin with simultaneous improvement in hypertension and insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potenza, Maria A; Marasciulo, Flora L; Tarquinio, Mariela; Quon, Michael J; Montagnani, Monica

    2006-12-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) exhibit endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Reciprocal relationships between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance may contribute to hypertension by causing imbalanced regulation of endothelial-derived vasodilators (e.g., nitric oxide) and vasoconstrictors (e.g., endothelin-1 [ET-1]). Treatment of SHRs with rosiglitazone (insulin sensitizer) and/or enalapril (ACE inhibitor) may simultaneously improve hypertension, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction by rebalancing insulin-stimulated production of vasoactive mediators. When compared with WKY control rats, 12-week-old vehicle-treated SHRs were hypertensive, overweight, and insulin resistant, with elevated fasting levels of insulin and ET-1 and reduced serum adiponectin levels. In mesenteric vascular beds (MVBs) isolated from vehicle-treated SHRs and preconstricted with norepinephrine (NE) ex vivo, vasodilator responses to insulin were significantly impaired, whereas the ability of insulin to oppose vasoconstrictor actions of NE was absent (versus WKY controls). Three-week treatment of SHRs with rosiglitazone and/or enalapril significantly reduced blood pressure, insulin resistance, fasting insulin, and ET-1 levels and increased adiponectin levels to values comparable with those observed in vehicle-treated WKY controls. By restoring phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent effects, rosiglitazone and/or enalapril therapy of SHRs also significantly improved vasodilator responses to insulin in MVB preconstricted with NE ex vivo. Taken together, our data provide strong support for the existence of reciprocal relationships between endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance that may be relevant for developing novel therapeutic strategies for the metabolic syndrome.

  3. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Portch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009. In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a. We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009. In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1. Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence, and (b the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When

  4. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portch, Emma; Havelka, Jelena; Brown, Charity; Giner-Sorolla, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009). In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke 'specific' emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective 'context' is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., 'sadness', 'anger', Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a). We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009). In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1). Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or 'typical', action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical) and labels were paired e.g., "If you are feeling 'sad' how likely would you be to act in the following way?" … 'cry.' Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a) rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence), and (b) the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When measuring affective grounding, it may then be

  5. Visions, Scenarios and Action Plans Towards Next Generation Tanzania Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kyaruzi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents strategic visions, scenarios and action plans for enhancing Tanzania Power Systems towards next generation Smart Power Grid. It first introduces the present Tanzanian power grid and the challenges ahead in terms of generation capacity, financial aspect, technical and non-technical losses, revenue loss, high tariff, aging infrastructure, environmental impact and the interconnection with the neighboring countries. Then, the current initiatives undertaken by the Tanzania government in response to the present challenges and the expected roles of smart grid in overcoming these challenges in the future with respect to the scenarios presented are discussed. The developed scenarios along with visions and recommended action plans towards the future Tanzanian power system can be exploited at all governmental levels to achieve public policy goals and help develop business opportunities by motivating domestic and international investments in modernizing the nation’s electric power infrastructure. In return, it should help build the green energy economy.

  6. Making smart social judgments takes time: infants' recruitment of goal information when generating action predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown that young infants perceive others' actions as structured by goals. One open question is whether the recruitment of this understanding when predicting others' actions imposes a cognitive challenge for young infants. The current study explored infants' ability to utilize their knowledge of others' goals to rapidly predict future behavior in complex social environments and distinguish goal-directed actions from other kinds of movements. Fifteen-month-olds (N = 40) viewed videos of an actor engaged in either a goal-directed (grasping) or an ambiguous (brushing the back of her hand) action on a Tobii eye-tracker. At test, critical elements of the scene were changed and infants' predictive fixations were examined to determine whether they relied on goal information to anticipate the actor's future behavior. Results revealed that infants reliably generated goal-based visual predictions for the grasping action, but not for the back-of-hand behavior. Moreover, response latencies were longer for goal-based predictions than for location-based predictions, suggesting that goal-based predictions are cognitively taxing. Analyses of areas of interest indicated that heightened attention to the overall scene, as opposed to specific patterns of attention, was the critical indicator of successful judgments regarding an actor's future goal-directed behavior. These findings shed light on the processes that support "smart" social behavior in infants, as it may be a challenge for young infants to use information about others' intentions to inform rapid predictions.

  7. Climate Generation: Advancing Climate Action through Education, Public Engagement and Youth Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppleton, K. L. I.

    2017-12-01

    Climate Generation: A Will Steger Legacy empowers youth, educators, decision-makers and the public to foster climate literacy and action with the goal of building a more equitable and resilient future. We have over eleven years of experience delivering high-quality K-12 education, public engagement and youth leadership programming, reaching over 75,000 people, 35,000 students and 17,000 educators since 2006. By engaging educators, youth, and the public, we believe that communities can be better positioned to build a resilient and equitable future. For this reason we strive to engage with all these sectors through innovative programming and policy initiatives. Communities are resilient when individuals are connected to each other, resources, and decision-makers. Sharing personal narratives, and highlighting locally relevant solutions are all tools that Climate Generation employs to engage the public. We do this through community wide convenings, as well as sector specific events including at breweries, art fairs, and businesses. Education is also an integral piece for sustained action on climate change. We support educators with a science-based, interdisciplinary model of climate change education that engages all learners, and fosters climate literacy and action. We develop curriculum and offer professional development, encouraging teachers to develop today's students into action-competent citizens. Finally, Climate Generation recognizes the importance of empowering high school youth as a key strategy in transitioning to a just and sustainable future for all. We believe in the inherent genius of youth and know from experience that mentorship fosters powerful youth leadership at the community level, inspiring peers, family members, and local decision-makers to take critical action on climate change solutions. In order to accelerate and implement action on climate change we must take a multi-faceted approach: we are building public will for strong climate action at

  8. Spontaneous Ag-Nanoparticle Growth at Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Defect Sites: A Tool for In Situ Generation of SERS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Maley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles were spontaneously formed on pristine and oxidized single-wall nanotubes. Nanoparticles were observed on carbon nanotubes with AFM, and the presence of Ag nanoparticles were confirmed by ESR experiments. Raman spectroscopy of the Ag-treated carbon nanotubes had a 4–10X enhancement of intensity compared to untreated carbon nanotubes. Ag nanoparticles formed at defect sites on the CNT surface, where free electrons located at the defect sites reduced Ag+ to Ag. A mechanism for the propagation of the nanoparticles is through a continual negative charge generation on the nanoparticle by electron transfer from doublet oxygen (O2−.

  9. High glucose increases action potential firing of catecholamine neurons in the nucleus of the solitary tract by increasing spontaneous glutamate inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Brandon L; Zhu, Mingyan; Zhao, Huan; Dillon, Crystal; Appleyard, Suzanne M

    2017-09-01

    Glucose is a crucial substrate essential for cell survival and function. Changes in glucose levels impact neuronal activity and glucose deprivation increases feeding. Several brain regions have been shown to respond to glucoprivation, including the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) in the brain stem. The NTS is the primary site in the brain that receives visceral afferent information from the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholaminergic (CA) subpopulation within the NTS modulates many homeostatic functions including cardiovascular reflexes, respiration, food intake, arousal, and stress. However, it is not known if they respond to changes in glucose. Here we determined whether NTS-CA neurons respond to changes in glucose concentration and the mechanism involved. We found that decreasing glucose concentrations from 5 mM to 2 mM to 1 mM, significantly decreased action potential firing in a cell-attached preparation, whereas increasing it back to 5 mM increased the firing rate. This effect was dependent on glutamate release from afferent terminals and required presynaptic 5-HT 3 Rs. Decreasing the glucose concentration also decreased both basal and 5-HT 3 R agonist-induced increase in the frequency of spontaneous glutamate inputs onto NTS-CA neurons. Low glucose also blunted 5-HT-induced inward currents in nodose ganglia neurons, which are the cell bodies of vagal afferents. The effect of low glucose in both nodose ganglia cells and in NTS slices was mimicked by the glucokinase inhibitor glucosamine. This study suggests that NTS-CA neurons are glucosensing through a presynaptic mechanism that is dependent on vagal glutamate release, 5-HT 3 R activity, and glucokinase. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Noise Enhances Action Potential Generation in Mouse Sensory Neurons via Stochastic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onorato, Irene; D'Alessandro, Giuseppina; Di Castro, Maria Amalia; Renzi, Massimiliano; Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Musarò, Antonio; Salvetti, Marco; Limatola, Cristina; Crisanti, Andrea; Grassi, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Noise can enhance perception of tactile and proprioceptive stimuli by stochastic resonance processes. However, the mechanisms underlying this general phenomenon remain to be characterized. Here we studied how externally applied noise influences action potential firing in mouse primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia, modelling a basic process in sensory perception. Since noisy mechanical stimuli may cause stochastic fluctuations in receptor potential, we examined the effects of sub-threshold depolarizing current steps with superimposed random fluctuations. We performed whole cell patch clamp recordings in cultured neurons of mouse dorsal root ganglia. Noise was added either before and during the step, or during the depolarizing step only, to focus onto the specific effects of external noise on action potential generation. In both cases, step + noise stimuli triggered significantly more action potentials than steps alone. The normalized power norm had a clear peak at intermediate noise levels, demonstrating that the phenomenon is driven by stochastic resonance. Spikes evoked in step + noise trials occur earlier and show faster rise time as compared to the occasional ones elicited by steps alone. These data suggest that external noise enhances, via stochastic resonance, the recruitment of transient voltage-gated Na channels, responsible for action potential firing in response to rapid step-wise depolarizing currents.

  11. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  12. Regulatory actions to expand the offer of distributed generation from renewable energy sources in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepitone da Nóbrega, André; Cabral Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the Brazilian electric energy matrix has undergone transformations in recent years. However, it has still maintained significant participation of renewable energy sources, in particular hydropower plants of various magnitudes. Reasons for the growth of other renewable sources of energy, such as wind and solar, include the fact that the remaining hydropower capacity is mainly located in the Amazon, which is far from centers of consumption, the necessity of diversifying the energy mix and reducing dependence on hydrologic regimes, the increase in environmental restrictions, the increase of civil construction and land costs.Wind power generation has grown most significantly in Brazil. Positive results in the latest energy auctions show that wind power generation has reached competitive pricing. Solar energy is still incipient in Brazil, despite its high potential for conversion into electric energy. This energy source in the Brazilian electric energy matrix mainly involves solar centrals and distributed generation. Biomass thermal plants, mainly the ones that use bagasse of sugar cane, also have an important role in renewable generation in Brazil.This paper aims to present an overview of the present situation and discuss the actions and the regulations to expand the offer of renewable distributed generation in Brazil, mainly from wind power, solar and biomass energy sources. (full text)

  13. Generation of a Magnetic Field by Dynamo Action in a Turbulent Flow of Liquid Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchaux, R.; Chiffaudel, A.; Daviaud, F.; Dubrulle, B.; Gasquet, C.; Marie, L.; Ravelet, F.; Berhanu, M.; Fauve, S.; Mordant, N.; Petrelis, F.; Bourgoin, M.; Moulin, M.; Odier, Ph.; Pinton, J.-F.; Volk, R.

    2007-01-01

    We report the observation of dynamo action in the von Karman sodium experiment, i.e., the generation of a magnetic field by a strongly turbulent swirling flow of liquid sodium. Both mean and fluctuating parts of the field are studied. The dynamo threshold corresponds to a magnetic Reynolds number R m ∼30. A mean magnetic field of the order of 40 G is observed 30% above threshold at the flow lateral boundary. The rms fluctuations are larger than the corresponding mean value for two of the components. The scaling of the mean square magnetic field is compared to a prediction previously made for high Reynolds number flows

  14. Coherent optical transition radiation and self-amplified spontaneous emission generated by chicane-compressed electron beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Lumpkin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Observations of strongly enhanced optical transition radiation (OTR following significant bunch compression of photoinjector beams by a chicane have been reported during the commissioning of the Linac Coherent Light Source accelerator and recently at the Advanced Photon Source (APS linac. These localized transverse spatial features involve signal enhancements of nearly a factor of 10 and 100 in the APS case at the 150-MeV and 375-MeV OTR stations, respectively. They are consistent with a coherent process seeded by noise and may be evidence of a longitudinal space charge microbunching instability which leads to coherent OTR emissions. Additionally, we suggest that localized transverse structure in the previous self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE free-electron laser (FEL data at APS in the visible regime as reported at FEL02 may be attributed to such beam structure entering the FEL undulators and inducing the SASE startup at those “prebunched” structures. Separate beam structures 120 microns apart in x and 2.9 nm apart in wavelength were reported. The details of these observations and operational parameters will be presented.

  15. Alternatives for management of wastes generated by the formerly utilized sites remedial action program and supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, T.L.; Peterson, J.M.; Vocke, R.W.; Alexander, J.K.

    1983-03-01

    Alternatives for disposal or stabilization of the wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) are identified and compared, with emphasis on the long-term aspects. These wastes consist of soil material and rubble containing trace amounts of radionuclides. A detailed pathway analysis for the dose to the maximally exposed individual is carried out using an adaptation of the natural analogue method. Comparisons of the different alternatives, based on the results of the pathway analysis and qualitative cost considerations, indicate that, if the hazard is such that the wastes must be removed and disposed of rather than stabilized in place, disposal by immediate dispersal is preferable to containment, and containment followed by slow planned dispersal is preferable to containment without dispersal. The Supplement presents refinements of work that was reported at the 1982 International Decommissioning Symposium. The new material consists of revisions of the estimates of the predicted potential dose to the maximally exposed individual and a more detailed comparative assessment of the radiological impacts of alternatives for management of wastes generated by the US Department of Energy's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP)

  16. Generativity does not necessarily satisfy all your needs: Associations among cultural demand for generativity, generative concern, generative action, and need satisfaction in the elderly in four cultures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hofer, J.; Busch, H.; Au, A.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Tavel, P.; Wong, T.T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 509-519 ISSN 0012-1649 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-02889P Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : generative concern * internalized cultural demands * value orientations * generative behavior * basic need satisfaction * culture Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.228, year: 2016

  17. Detailed study of spontaneous rotation generation in diverted H-mode plasma using the full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Janghoon; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Yoon, E. S.

    2013-10-01

    The Full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to study the details of toroidal momentum generation in H-mode plasma. Diverted DIII-D geometry is used, with Monte Carlo neutral particles that are recycled at the limiter wall. Nonlinear Coulomb collisions conserve particle, momentum, and energy. Gyrokinetic ions and adiabatic electrons are used in the present simulation to include the effects from ion gyrokinetic turbulence and neoclassical physics, under self-consistent radial electric field generation. Ion orbit loss physics is automatically included. Simulations show a strong co-Ip flow in the H-mode layer at outside midplane, similarly to the experimental observation from DIII-D and ASDEX-U. The co-Ip flow in the edge propagates inward into core. It is found that the strong co-Ip flow generation is mostly from neoclassical physics. On the other hand, the inward momentum transport is from turbulence physics, consistently with the theory of residual stress from symmetry breaking. Therefore, interaction between the neoclassical and turbulence physics is a key factor in the spontaneous momentum generation.

  18. Voltage-gated sodium channel expression and action potential generation in differentiated NG108-15 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinxu; Tu, Huiyin; Zhang, Dongze; Zheng, Hong; Li, Yu-Long

    2012-10-25

    The generation of action potential is required for stimulus-evoked neurotransmitter release in most neurons. Although various voltage-gated ion channels are involved in action potential production, the initiation of the action potential is mainly mediated by voltage-gated Na+ channels. In the present study, differentiation-induced changes of mRNA and protein expression of Na+ channels, Na+ currents, and cell membrane excitability were investigated in NG108-15 cells. Whole-cell patch-clamp results showed that differentiation (9 days) didn't change cell membrane excitability, compared to undifferentiated state. But differentiation (21 days) induced the action potential generation in 45.5% of NG108-15 cells (25/55 cells). In 9-day-differentiated cells, Na+ currents were mildly increased, which was also found in 21-day differentiated cells without action potential. In 21-day differentiated cells with action potential, Na+ currents were significantly enhanced. Western blot data showed that the expression of Na+ channels was increased with differentiated-time dependent manner. Single-cell real-time PCR data demonstrated that the expression of Na+ channel mRNA was increased by 21 days of differentiation in NG108-15 cells. More importantly, the mRNA level of Na+ channels in cells with action potential was higher than that in cells without action potential. Differentiation induces expression of voltage-gated Na+ channels and action potential generation in NG108-15 cells. A high level of the Na+ channel density is required for differentiation-triggered action potential generation.

  19. Fundamentals of Reservoir Surface Energy as Related to Surface Properties, Wettability, Capillary Action, and Oil Recovery from Fractured Reservoirs by Spontaneous Imbibition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman Morrow; Herbert Fischer; Yu Li; Geoffrey Mason; Douglas Ruth; Siddhartha Seth; Zhengxin Tong; Evren Unsal; Siluni Wickramathilaka; Shaochang Wo; Peigui Yin

    2008-06-30

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the non-wetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  20. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman R. Morrow

    2004-05-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  1. FUNDAMENTALS OF RESERVOIR SURFACE ENERGY AS RELATED TO SURFACE PROPERTIES, WETTABILITY, CAPILLARY ACTION, AND OIL RECOVERY FROM FRACTURED RESERVOIRS BY SPONTANEOUS IMBIBITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman R. Morrow

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this project is to increase oil recovery from fractured reservoirs through improved fundamental understanding of the process of spontaneous imbibition by which oil is displaced from the rock matrix into the fractures. Spontaneous imbibition is fundamentally dependent on the reservoir surface free energy but this has never been investigated for rocks. In this project, the surface free energy of rocks will be determined by using liquids that can be solidified within the rock pore space at selected saturations. Thin sections of the rock then provide a two-dimensional view of the rock minerals and the occupant phases. Saturations and oil/rock, water/rock, and oil/water surface areas will be determined by advanced petrographic analysis and the surface free energy which drives spontaneous imbibition will be determined as a function of increase in wetting phase saturation. The inherent loss in surface free energy resulting from capillary instabilities at the microscopic (pore level) scale will be distinguished from the decrease in surface free energy that drives spontaneous imbibition. A mathematical network/numerical model will be developed and tested against experimental results of recovery versus time over broad variation of key factors such as rock properties, fluid phase viscosities, sample size, shape and boundary conditions. Two fundamentally important, but not previously considered, parameters of spontaneous imbibition, the capillary pressure acting to oppose production of oil at the outflow face and the pressure in the nonwetting phase at the no-flow boundary versus time, will also be measured and modeled. Simulation and network models will also be tested against special case solutions provided by analytic models. In the second stage of the project, application of the fundamental concepts developed in the first stage of the project will be demonstrated. The fundamental ideas, measurements, and analytic/numerical modeling will be applied to mixed

  2. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  3. Origin of life. The role of experiments, basic beliefs, and social authorities in the controversies about the spontaneous generation of life and the subsequent debates about synthesizing life in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    For centuries the question of the origin of life had focused on the question of the spontaneous generation of life, at least primitive forms of life, from inanimate matter, an idea that had been promoted most prominently by Aristotle. The widespread belief in spontaneous generation, which had been adopted by the Church, too, was finally abandoned at the beginning of the twentieth century, when the question of the origin of life became related to that of the artificial generation of life in the laboratory. This paper examines the role of social authorities, researchers' basic beliefs, crucial experiments, and scientific advance in the controversies about spontaneous generation from the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries and analyzes the subsequent debates about the synthesis of artificial life in the changing scientific contexts of the nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries. It shows that despite the importance of social authorities, basic beliefs, and crucial experiments scientific advances, especially those in microbiology, were the single most important factor in the stepwise abandoning of the doctrine of spontaneous generation. Research on the origin of life and the artificial synthesis of life became scientifically addressed only when it got rid of the idea of constant smooth transitions between inanimate matter and life and explored possible chemical and physical mechanisms of the specificity of basic molecules and processes of life.

  4. Fumaric Acid Esters Can Block Pro-Inflammatory Actions of Human CRP and Ameliorate Metabolic Disturbances in Transgenic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šilhavý, Jan; Zídek, Václav; Mlejnek, Petr; Landa, Vladimír; Šimáková, Miroslava; Strnad, Hynek; Oliyarnyk, O.; Škop, V.; Kazdová, L.; Kurtz, T.; Pravenec, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 7 (2014), e101906 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14325; GA MŠk(CZ) LH12061; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1204 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : fumaric acid esters * C-reactive protein * transgenic * spontaneously hypertensive rat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  5. Generation of T-cells reactive to the poorly immunogenic B16-BL6 melanoma with efficacy in the treatment of spontaneous metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, J D; Wagner, P D; Cameron, M J; Shu, S; Chang, A E

    1993-04-01

    The B16-BL6 (BL6) melanoma is a poorly immunogenic murine tumor that is highly invasive and spontaneously metastasizes from the primary site. Utilizing an established anti-CD3/interleukin-2 (IL-2) culture procedure, we have previously reported that lymph nodes (LNs) draining immunogenic murine sarcomas contained preeffector cells that could be activated to differentiate into therapeutic effector cells for adoptive immunotherapy. By contrast, LNs draining the poorly immunogenic BL6 melanoma were found not to be a reliable source of preeffector cells. Instead, sensitization of preeffector cells reactive to BL6 required the subcutaneous inoculation of tumor admixed with Corynebacterium parvum. LN cells draining these vaccination sites demonstrated therapeutic efficacy only after subsequent anti-CD3/IL-2 activation. The sensitization of preeffector cells was dependent on the presence of tumor antigen and an optimal dose of C. parvum ( 140 days. All mice except one that received no treatment or was treated with IL-2 alone succumbed to visceral metastases with an MST of approximately 23 days. This study characterizes a model whereby the weak immune response to the BL6 melanoma can be positively or negatively modulated for the generation of antitumor reactive T-cells useful in adoptive immunotherapy.

  6. Biological properties and response to x-rays of first-generation transplants of spontaneous mammary carcinomas in C3H mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, J F; Sheldon, P W; Begg, A C; Hill, S A; Smith, A M

    1975-05-01

    First-generation transplants of spontaneous mouse mammary carcinomas have been used extensively for radiobiological investigations of fractionated irradiation schedules, r.b.e. of fast neutrons and effectiveness of radiosensitizers, as reported elsewhere. The present work investigates the growth characteristics of the tumours; the criteria for the choice of end-points used in the definition of 'local control' of irradiated tumours; the reason for a decrease of 30 per cent in X-ray dose required to control tumours in females as compared with male mice; the proportion of hypoxic cells and its variation with time (reoxygenation) after a single dose of 1500 rad of X-rays; and the repair capacity of tumour cells within 24 hours after a substantial first dose of X-rays. Evidence is presented that the male-female difference was due to a higher proportion of hypoxic cells in tumours in male than in female mice. The repair of sub-lethal injury in tumour cells made hypoxic was slightly less than in skin made hypoxic but not significantly so. In the two-dose experiments on clamped tumours, no evidence of induced synchrony was found.

  7. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2

  8. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  9. Low-cost small action cameras in stereo generates accurate underwater measurements of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Letessier, T. B.; Juhel, Jean-Baptiste; Vigliola, Laurent; Meeuwig, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Small action cameras have received interest for use in underwater videography because of their low-cost, standardised housing, widespread availability and small size. Here, we assess the capacity of GoPro action cameras to provide accurate stereo-measurements of fish in comparison to the Sony handheld cameras that have traditionally been used for this purpose. Standardised stereo-GoPro and Sony systems were employed to capture measurements of known-length targets in a pool to explore the infl...

  10. Inertial Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Scale Invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2018-01-23

    Weyl invariant theories of scalars and gravity can generate all mass scales spontaneously, initiated by a dynamical process of "inertial spontaneous symmetry breaking" that does not involve a potential. This is dictated by the structure of the Weyl current, $K_\\mu$, and a cosmological phase during which the universe expands and the Einstein-Hilbert effective action is formed. Maintaining exact Weyl invariance in the renormalised quantum theory is straightforward when renormalisation conditions are referred back to the VEV's of fields in the action of the theory, which implies a conserved Weyl current. We do not require scale invariant regulators. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential.

  11. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2

  12. Internalization Mediation towards the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Action and Individual Performance for the Next Generation of Family Companies in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Novi Mustikarini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study  examined the effect of entrepreneurial action for the performance of the next generation using the sample of students who joined the Family Business Community. In this study, there is a high contribution given by the role of entrepreneurship education in preparing the next generation in the family business. In addition, entrepreneurship education is considered possible through the process of internalization of the leaning process that is going on. For example, it is noted that entrepreneurial action can have a significant effect on the performance of the organization. In the context of the family business and entrepreneurial education at the University of Ciputra, both variables (entrepreneurial action and individual performance are necessary to be tested and therefore, the researcher finds it possible to cary out a research that is supposed to have a contribution to the family business. This study uses a hierarchical regression analysis, to test the stages of the mediation process. The results showed that most of relationships mediate internalization Entrepreneurial Action and Individual Performance.

  13. Fumaric acid esters can block pro-inflammatory actions of human CRP and ameliorate metabolic disturbances in transgenic spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Šilhavý

    Full Text Available Inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic disturbances. Esters of fumaric acid, mainly dimethyl fumarate, exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that fumaric acid ester (FAE treatment of an animal model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, the spontaneously hypertensive rat transgenically expressing human C-reactive protein (SHR-CRP, will ameliorate inflammation, oxidative stress, and metabolic disturbances. We studied the effects of FAE treatment by administering Fumaderm, 10 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks, to male SHR-CRP. Untreated male SHR-CRP rats were used as controls. All rats were fed a high sucrose diet. Compared to untreated controls, rats treated with FAE showed significantly lower levels of endogenous CRP but not transgenic human CRP, and amelioration of inflammation (reduced levels of serum IL6 and TNFα and oxidative stress (reduced levels of lipoperoxidation products in liver, heart, kidney, and plasma. FAE treatment was also associated with lower visceral fat weight and less ectopic fat accumulation in liver and muscle, greater levels of lipolysis, and greater incorporation of glucose into adipose tissue lipids. Analysis of gene expression profiles in the liver with Affymetrix arrays revealed that FAE treatment was associated with differential expression of genes in pathways that involve the regulation of inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings suggest potentially important anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and metabolic effects of FAE in a model of inflammation and metabolic disturbances induced by human CRP.

  14. Real time estimation of generation, extinction and flow of muscle fibre action potentials in high density surface EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesin, Luca

    2015-02-01

    Developing a real time method to estimate generation, extinction and propagation of muscle fibre action potentials from bi-dimensional and high density surface electromyogram (EMG). A multi-frame generalization of an optical flow technique including a source term is considered. A model describing generation, extinction and propagation of action potentials is fit to epochs of surface EMG. The algorithm is tested on simulations of high density surface EMG (inter-electrode distance equal to 5mm) from finite length fibres generated using a multi-layer volume conductor model. The flow and source term estimated from interference EMG reflect the anatomy of the muscle, i.e. the direction of the fibres (2° of average estimation error) and the positions of innervation zone and tendons under the electrode grid (mean errors of about 1 and 2mm, respectively). The global conduction velocity of the action potentials from motor units under the detection system is also obtained from the estimated flow. The processing time is about 1 ms per channel for an epoch of EMG of duration 150 ms. A new real time image processing algorithm is proposed to investigate muscle anatomy and activity. Potential applications are proposed in prosthesis control, automatic detection of optimal channels for EMG index extraction and biofeedback. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Leaders Behaving Badly: Using Power to Generate Undiscussables in Action Learning Sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Paul Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    "Undiscussables" are topics associated with threat or embarrassment that are avoided by groups, where that avoidance is also not discussed. Their deleterious effect on executive groups has been a point of discussion for several decades. More recently critical action learning (AL) has brought a welcome focus to power relations within AL…

  16. Bridging the Generation Gap: "Growing Golf" through an Action Learning Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Norb; Cumiskey, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an action learning simulation designed for a Professional Golf Management (PGM) program housed in a College of Business of a public university. The PGA Golf Management University Program, a 4.5- to 5-year college curriculum for aspiring PGA Professionals is offered at 19 PGA accredited universities nationwide. The program…

  17. Action potential generation requires a high sodium channel density in the axon initial segment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kole, Maarten H. P.; Ilschner, Susanne U.; Kampa, Björn M.; Williams, Stephen R.; Ruben, Peter C.; Stuart, Greg J.

    2008-01-01

    The axon initial segment ( AIS) is a specialized region in neurons where action potentials are initiated. It is commonly assumed that this process requires a high density of voltage-gated sodium ( Na(+)) channels. Paradoxically, the results of patch-clamp studies suggest that the Na(+) channel

  18. From Fiction to Fact to Potential Action: Generating Prosocial Attitudes and Behaviors Using Young Adult Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Alice

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the impact reading Young Adult Literature (YAL) has on students' empathetic responses as well as their capacity to take action regarding a social justice issue chosen by the student. Drawing on data from a 10th grade honors classroom at a Title 1 school in the Southwest, this ethnographic case study investigates how…

  19. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  20. Towards terahertz detection and calibration through spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the terahertz idler-frequency range generated by a 795 nm diode laser system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Kornienko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We study a calibration scheme for terahertz wave nonlinear-optical detectors based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Contrary to the usual low wavelength pump in the green, we report here on the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion originating from an in-growth poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a continuous wave 50 mW, 795 nm diode laser system, phase-matched to a terahertz frequency idler wave. Such a system is more compact and allows for longer poling periods as well as lower losses in the crystal. Filtering the pump radiation by a rubidium-87 vapor cell allowed the frequency-angular spectra to be obtained down to ∼0.5 THz or ∼1 nm shift from the pump radiation line. The presence of an amplified spontaneous emission “pedestal” in the diode laser radiation spectrum significantly hampers the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion spectra, in contrast to conventional narrowband gas lasers. Benefits of switching to longer pump wavelengths are pointed out, such as collinear optical-terahertz phase-matching in bulk crystals.

  1. Towards terahertz detection and calibration through spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the terahertz idler-frequency range generated by a 795 nm diode laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornienko, Vladimir V.; Kitaeva, Galiya Kh.; Sedlmeir, Florian; Leuchs, Gerd; Schwefel, Harald G. L.

    2018-05-01

    We study a calibration scheme for terahertz wave nonlinear-optical detectors based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion. Contrary to the usual low wavelength pump in the green, we report here on the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion originating from an in-growth poled lithium niobate crystal pumped with a continuous wave 50 mW, 795 nm diode laser system, phase-matched to a terahertz frequency idler wave. Such a system is more compact and allows for longer poling periods as well as lower losses in the crystal. Filtering the pump radiation by a rubidium-87 vapor cell allowed the frequency-angular spectra to be obtained down to ˜0.5 THz or ˜1 nm shift from the pump radiation line. The presence of an amplified spontaneous emission "pedestal" in the diode laser radiation spectrum significantly hampers the observation of spontaneous parametric down-conversion spectra, in contrast to conventional narrowband gas lasers. Benefits of switching to longer pump wavelengths are pointed out, such as collinear optical-terahertz phase-matching in bulk crystals.

  2. Synthesis, Properties, and Mechanism of Action of New Generation of Polycyclic Glycopeptide Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsufyeva, Eugenia N; Tevyashova, Anna N

    2017-01-01

    The increased resistance of glycopeptide based antibiotics has become a serious problem for the chemotherapy of infections triggered by resistant Gram-positive bacteria. This has motivated the urgent sincere efforts to develop potent glycopeptide-based antibiotics in both academy and industry research laboratories. Understanding of the mechanism of action of natural and modified glycopeptides is considered as the basis for the rational design of compounds with valuable properties to achieve the fundamental results. Several hydrophobic glycopeptide analogues active against resistant strains were developed during the last two decades. Three drugs, namely, oritavancin, telavancin and dalbavancin were approved by FDA in 2013-2014. It was found that hydrophobic derivatives act through different mechanisms without binding with the modified target of resistant bacteria. Types: Different types of chemical modifications led to several glycopeptide analogues active against Gram-negative bacteria as advocated by in vitro studies or demonstrating potent antiviral activity in the cell models. A new class of glycopeptide antibiotics with potent activity against sensitive and resistant bacterial strains has been recently reported with the aim to overcome the resistance, however, there are a lot of obscure problems in the complete understanding of their mechanisms of actions. In this review, we summarized the achievements of synthetic methods devoted to the construction of new polycyclic glycopeptide antibiotics and described the studies related to their mechanism of actions. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Linear and nonlinear Biot waves in a noncohesive granular medium slab: transfer function, self-action, second harmonic generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legland, J-B; Tournat, V; Dazel, O; Novak, A; Gusev, V

    2012-06-01

    Experimental results are reported on second harmonic generation and self-action in a noncohesive granular medium supporting wave energy propagation both in the solid frame and in the saturating fluid. The acoustic transfer function of the probed granular slab can be separated into two main frequency regions: a low frequency region where the wave propagation is controlled by the solid skeleton elastic properties, and a higher frequency region where the behavior is dominantly due to the air saturating the beads. Experimental results agree well with a recently developed nonlinear Biot wave model applied to granular media. The linear transfer function, second harmonic generation, and self-action effect are studied as a function of bead diameter, compaction step, excitation amplitude, and frequency. This parametric study allows one to isolate different propagation regimes involving a range of described and interpreted linear and nonlinear processes that are encountered in granular media experiments. In particular, a theoretical interpretation is proposed for the observed strong self-action effect.

  4. Observation of turnover of spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric layer of pentacene/poly-(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene) double-layer capacitor under photo illumination by optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhemin; Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    The details of turnover process of spontaneous polarization and associated carrier motions in indium-tin oxide/poly-(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/pentacene/Au capacitor were analyzed by coupling displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. A model was set up from DCM results to depict the relationship between electric field in semiconductor layer and applied external voltage, proving that photo illumination effect on the spontaneous polarization process lied in variation of semiconductor conductivity. The EFISHG measurement directly and selectively probed the electric field distribution in semiconductor layer, modifying the model and revealing detailed carrier behaviors involving photo illumination effect, dipole reversal, and interfacial charging in the device. A further decrease of DCM current in the low voltage region under illumination was found as the result of illumination effect, and the result was argued based on the changing of the total capacitance of the double-layer capacitors.

  5. Observation of turnover of spontaneous polarization in ferroelectric layer of pentacene/poly-(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene) double-layer capacitor under photo illumination by optical second-harmonic generation measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Zhemin [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan); Taguchi, Dai; Manaka, Takaaki; Iwamoto, Mitsumasa, E-mail: iwamoto@pe.titech.ac.jp [Department of Physical Electronics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8552 (Japan)

    2016-04-28

    The details of turnover process of spontaneous polarization and associated carrier motions in indium-tin oxide/poly-(vinylidene-trifluoroethylene)/pentacene/Au capacitor were analyzed by coupling displacement current measurement (DCM) and electric-field-induced optical second-harmonic generation (EFISHG) measurement. A model was set up from DCM results to depict the relationship between electric field in semiconductor layer and applied external voltage, proving that photo illumination effect on the spontaneous polarization process lied in variation of semiconductor conductivity. The EFISHG measurement directly and selectively probed the electric field distribution in semiconductor layer, modifying the model and revealing detailed carrier behaviors involving photo illumination effect, dipole reversal, and interfacial charging in the device. A further decrease of DCM current in the low voltage region under illumination was found as the result of illumination effect, and the result was argued based on the changing of the total capacitance of the double-layer capacitors.

  6. Kinetic modeling sheds light on the mode of action of recombinant factor VIIa on thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrophanov, Alexander Y; Reifman, Jaques

    2011-10-01

    The therapeutic potential of a hemostatic agent can be assessed by investigating its effects on the quantitative parameters of thrombin generation. For recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa)--a promising hemostasis-inducing biologic--experimental studies addressing its effects on thrombin generation yielded disparate results. To elucidate the inherent ability of rFVIIa to modulate thrombin production, it is necessary to identify rFVIIa-induced effects that are compatible with the available biochemical knowledge about thrombin generation mechanisms. The existing body of knowledge about coagulation biochemistry can be rigorously represented by a computational model that incorporates the known reactions and parameter values constituting the biochemical network. We used a thoroughly validated numerical model to generate activated factor VII (FVIIa) titration curves in the cases of normal blood composition, hemophilia A and B blood, blood lacking factor VII, blood lacking tissue factor pathway inhibitor, and diluted blood. We utilized the generated curves to perform systematic fold-change analyses for five quantitative parameters characterizing thrombin accumulation. The largest fold changes induced by increasing FVIIa concentration were observed for clotting time, thrombin peak time, and maximum slope of the thrombin curve. By contrast, thrombin peak height was much less affected by FVIIa titrations, and the area under the thrombin curve stayed practically unchanged. Comparisons with experimental data demonstrated that the computationally derived patterns can be observed in vitro. rFVIIa modulates thrombin generation primarily by accelerating the process, without significantly affecting the total amount of generated thrombin. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Floating wind generators offshore wind farm: Implications for structural loads and control actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Morant F, Quiles E.; Correcher, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the work currently carried out in the design of floating wind generators and their involvement in the future development of power generation in marine farms in depths exceeding 20 m. We discuss the main issues to be taken into account in the design of floating platforms, including the involvement of structural loads they bear. Also from a standpoint of control engineering are discussed strategies to reduce structural loads such a system to ensure adequate durability and therefore ensuring their economic viability. Finally, the abstract modeling tools for floating wind turbines that can be used in both structural design and the design of appropriate control algorithms

  8. Problems, perceptions and actions: An interdependent process for generating informal social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R; Wickes, Rebecca

    2018-07-01

    Using two waves of survey data for residents in neighborhoods in Brisbane, this study explores the interdependent relationship between residents' perceptions of neighboring, cohesion, collective efficacy, neighborhood disorder, and the actions they take to address these problems. Our longitudinal results show that residents' perceived severity of a problem helps explain engaging in activity to address the problem. People loitering appeared to be the most galvanizing problem for residents, but had particularly deleterious effects on perceptions of cohesion and collective efficacy. We also find that residents who perceive more neighboring in their local area engage in more public and parochial social control activity and residents who live in collectively efficacious neighborhoods are more likely to engage in parochial social control action. Furthermore, residents who themselves perceive more collective efficacy in the neighborhood engage in more parochial or public social control during the subsequent time period. Importantly, we find strong evidence that residents update their sense of collective efficacy. Perceiving more problems in the neighborhood, and perceiving that these problems are increasing, reduced perceptions of neighboring and collective efficacy over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Reducing hazardous waste generation: an evaluation and a call for action

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Research Council Staff; Environmental Studies Board; Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; National Research Council; National Academy of Sciences

    1985-01-01

    ... Considerations in Reducing the Generation of Hazardous Industrial Wastes Environmental Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1985 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesett...

  10. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  11. Action Identity in Style Simulation Systems: Do Players Consider Machine-Generated Music As of Their Own Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchatourov, Armen; Pachet, François; Rowe, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The generation of musical material in a given style has been the subject of many studies with the increased sophistication of artificial intelligence models of musical style. In this paper we address a question of primary importance for artificial intelligence and music psychology: can such systems generate music that users indeed consider as corresponding to their own style? We address this question through an experiment involving both performance and recognition tasks with musically naïve school-age children. We asked 56 children to perform a free-form improvisation from which two kinds of music excerpt were created. One was a mere recording of original performances. The other was created by a software program designed to simulate the participants' style, based on their original performances. Two hours after the performance task, the children completed the recognition task in two conditions, one with the original excerpts and one with machine-generated music. Results indicate that the success rate is practically equivalent in two conditions: children tended to make correct attribution of the excerpts to themselves or to others, whether the music was human-produced or machine-generated (mean accuracy = 0.75 and = 0.71, respectively). We discuss this equivalence in accuracy for machine-generated and human produced music in the light of the literature on memory effects and action identity which addresses the recognition of one's own production.

  12. Action Identity in Style Simulation Systems: Do Players Consider Machine-Generated Music As of Their Own Style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatchatourov, Armen; Pachet, François; Rowe, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The generation of musical material in a given style has been the subject of many studies with the increased sophistication of artificial intelligence models of musical style. In this paper we address a question of primary importance for artificial intelligence and music psychology: can such systems generate music that users indeed consider as corresponding to their own style? We address this question through an experiment involving both performance and recognition tasks with musically naïve school-age children. We asked 56 children to perform a free-form improvisation from which two kinds of music excerpt were created. One was a mere recording of original performances. The other was created by a software program designed to simulate the participants' style, based on their original performances. Two hours after the performance task, the children completed the recognition task in two conditions, one with the original excerpts and one with machine-generated music. Results indicate that the success rate is practically equivalent in two conditions: children tended to make correct attribution of the excerpts to themselves or to others, whether the music was human-produced or machine-generated (mean accuracy = 0.75 and = 0.71, respectively). We discuss this equivalence in accuracy for machine-generated and human produced music in the light of the literature on memory effects and action identity which addresses the recognition of one's own production. PMID:27199788

  13. Creating Best Practices for the Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, Kathryn; Salfinger, Yvonne; Randolph, Robyn; Shea, Shari; Larson, Kirsten

    2017-07-01

    Laboratory accreditation provides a level of standardization in laboratories and confidence in generated food and feed testing results. For some laboratories, ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accreditation may not be fiscally viable, or a requested test method may be out of the scope of the laboratory's accreditation. To assist laboratories for whom accreditation is not feasible, the Association of Public Health Laboratories Data Acceptance Work Group developed a white paper entitled "Best Practices for Submission of Actionable Food and Feed Testing Data Generated in State and Local Laboratories." The basic elements of a quality management system, along with other best practices that state and local food and feed testing laboratories should follow, are included in the white paper. It also covers program-specific requirements that may need to be addressed. Communication with programs and end data users is regarded as essential for establishing the reliability and accuracy of laboratory data. Following these suggested best practices can facilitate the acceptance of laboratory data, which can result in swift regulatory action and the quick removal of contaminated product from the food supply, improving public health nationally.

  14. Involvement of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels in spontaneous activity generated in isolated interstitial cells of Cajal from the rabbit urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Maria; Bradley, Eamonn; Garcia-Pascual, Angeles; Triguero, Domingo; Thornbury, Keith D; Hollywood, Mark A; Sergeant, Gerard P

    2017-11-05

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are non-selective cation channels that mediate influx of extracellular Na + and Ca 2+ in various cell types. L-cis-Diltiazem, a CNG channel blocker, inhibits contraction of urethral smooth muscle (USM), however the mechanisms underlying this effect are still unclear. We investigated the possibility that CNG channels contribute to spontaneous pacemaker activity in freshly isolated interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) isolated from the rabbit urethra (RUICC). Using immunocytochemistry, we found intense CNG1-immunoreactivity in vimentin-immunoreactive RUICC, mainly within patches of the cellular body and processes. In contrast, α-actin immunoreactive smooth muscle cells (SMC) did not show significant reactivity to a specific CNGA1 antibody. Freshly isolated RUICC, voltage clamped at -60mV, developed spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) that were inhibited by L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM). Similarly, L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM) also inhibited Ca 2+ waves in isolated RUICC, recorded using a Nipkow spinning disk confocal microscope. L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM) did not affect caffeine (10mM)-induced Ca 2+ transients, but significantly reduced phenylephrine-evoked Ca 2+ oscillations and inward currents in in RUICC. L-type Ca 2+ current amplitude in isolated SMC was reduced by ~18% in the presence of L-cis-Diltiazem (50µM), however D-cis-Diltiazem, a recognised L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker, abolished L-type Ca 2+ current but did not affect Ca 2+ waves or STICs in RUICC. These results indicate that the effects of L-cis-diltiazem on rabbit USM could be mediated by inhibition of CNG1 channels that are present in urethral ICC and therefore CNG channels contribute to spontaneous activity in these cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The next nuclear power station generation: Beyond-design accident concepts, methods, and action sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.G.; Khakh, O.Ya.; Shashkov, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of beyond-design accidents at nuclear stations will not be solved unless a safety culture becomes a basic characteristic of all lines of activity. Only then can the danger of accidents as an objective feature of nuclear stations be eliminated by purposive skilled and responsible activities of those implementing safety. Nuclear-station safety is provided by the following interacting and complementary lines of activity: (1) the design and construction of nuclear stations by properly qualified design and building organizations; (2) monitoring and supervision of safety by special state bodies; (3) control of the station by the exploiting organization; and (4) scientific examination of safety within the above framework and by independent organizations. The distribution of the responsibilities, powers, and right in these lines should be defined by a law on atomic energy, but there is not such law in Russian. The beyond-design accident problem is a key one in nuclear station safety, as it clear from the serious experience with accidents and numerous probabilistic studies. There are four features of the state of this topic in Russia that are of major significance for managing accidents: the lack of an atomic energy law, the inadequacy of the technical standards, the lack of a verified program package for nuclear-station designs in order to calculate the beyond-design accidents and analyze risks, and a lack of approach by designers to such accidents on the basis of international recommendations. This paper gives a brief description of three-forming points in the scientific activity: the general concept of nuclear-station safety, methods of analyzing and providing accident management, and the sequence of actions developed by specialists at this institute in recent years

  16. Entangled plasmon generation in nonlinear spaser system under the action of external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubin, M. Yu.; Shesterikov, A. V.; Karpov, S. N.; Prokhorov, A. V.

    2018-02-01

    The present paper theoretically investigates features of quantum dynamics for localized plasmons in three-particle or four-particle spaser systems consisting of metal nanoparticles and semiconductor quantum dots. In the framework of the mean field approximation, the conditions for the observation of stable stationary regimes for single-particle plasmons in spaser systems are revealed, and realization of these regimes is discussed. The strong dipole-dipole interaction between adjacent nanoparticles for the four-particle spaser system is investigated. We show that this interaction can lead to the decreasing of the autocorrelation function values for plasmons. The generation of entangled plasmons in a three-particle spaser system with nonlinear plasmon-exciton interaction is predicted. The use of an external magnetic field is proposed for control of the cross correlations between plasmons in the three-particle spaser system.

  17. Counter Action Procedure Generation in an Emergency Situation of Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofuku, A.

    2018-02-01

    Lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident revealed various weak points in the design and operation of nuclear power plants at the time although there were many resilient activities made by the plant staff under difficult work environment. In order to reinforce the measures to make nuclear power plants more resilient, improvement of hardware and improvement of education and training of nuclear personnel are considered. In addition, considering the advancement of computer technology and artificial intelligence, it is a promising way to develop software tools to support the activities of plant staff.This paper focuses on the software tools to support the operations by human operators and introduces a concept of an intelligent operator support system that is called as co-operator. This paper also describes a counter operation generation technique the authors are studying as a core component of the co-operator.

  18. Spontaneous combustion of the Upper Paleocene Cerrejon Formation coal and generation of clinker in La Guajira Peninsula (Caribbean Region of Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, J.A. [Carbones del Cerrejon Limited., Cl. 100 No. 19-54 piso 12, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Candela, S.A. [ECOPETROL S.A. Edificio Principal Cr. 7 No. 37-65, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Rios, C.A. [Escuela de Geologia, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Cr 27 Cl 9, Ciudad Universitaria, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Montes, C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Roosvelt Ave., Tupper Building - 401, Balboa, Ancon, Panama (Panama); Uribe, C. [Tubos Moore S.A. Cll 99 No. 57-74, Bogota (Colombia)

    2009-12-01

    Clinker referred here as red and brick-looking burnt rocks found interbedded in the Upper Paleocene Cerrejon Formation is the result of spontaneous and natural combustion of coal seams in the recent geologic past. These rocks have been mapped, measured and characterized in the Cerrejon Coal Mine at La Guajira Peninsula (Colombia). These burnt rocks usually outcrop in irregular patterns as almost tabular bodies up to 100 m thick, thinning and pinching out below ground surface to depths up to 448 m. Mapping revealed that clinker is usually found near deformed zones, either faults or tight folds. Timing of spontaneous combustion seems to predate folding and faulting, but seems to postdate the development of the Cerrejon thrust fault and alluvial fan proceeding from the Perija Range. Clinker covers an area of around 2.9 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} with a volume of approximately 1.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}. The calculation of the amount of heat released through coal burning indicates that complete combustion of 6.4 Mt of 26.4 x 10{sup 6} J/kg coal would yield 17 x 10{sup 13} J. (author)

  19. Earth & Space Science in the Next Generation Science Standards: Promise, Challenge, and Future Actions. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, E. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) are a step forward in ensuring that future generations of students become scientifically literate. The NGSS document builds from the National Science Education Standards (1996) and the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) science framework of 2005. Design teams for the Curriculum Framework for K-12 Science Education were to outline the essential content necessary for students' science literacy, considering the foundational knowledge and the structure of each discipline in the context of learning progressions. Once draft standards were developed, two issues emerged from their review: (a) the continual need to prune 'cherished ideas' within the content, such that only essential ideas were represented, and (b) the potential for prior conceptions of Science & Engineering Practices (SEP) and cross-cutting concepts (CCC) to limit overly constrain performance expectations. With the release of the NGSS, several challenges are emerging for geoscience education. First, the traditional emphasis of Earth science in middle school has been augmented by new standards for high school that require major syntheses of concepts. Second, the integration of SEPs into performance expectations places an increased burden on teachers and curriculum developers to organize instruction around the nature of inquiry in the geosciences. Third, work is needed to define CCCs in Earth contexts, such that the unique structure of the geosciences is best represented. To ensure that the Earth & Space Science standards are implemented through grade 12, two supporting structures must be developed. In the past, many curricular materials claimed that they adhered to the NSES, but in some cases this match was a simple word match or checklist that bore only superficial resemblance to the standards. The structure of the performance expectations is of sufficient sophistication to ensure that adherence to the standards more than a casual exercise. Claims

  20. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions.

  1. Intraoperative observation of changes in cochlear nerve action potentials during exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletti, Vittorio; Mandalà, Marco; Manganotti, Paolo; Ramat, Stefano; Sacchetto, Luca; Colletti, Liliana

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of devices generating electromagnetic fields (EMF) has raised concerns as to the possible effects of this technology on humans. The auditory system is the neural organ most frequently and directly exposed to electromagnetic activity owing to the daily use of mobile phones. In recent publications, a possible correlation between mobile phone usage and central nervous system tumours has been detected. Very recently a deterioration in otoacoustic emissions and in the auditory middle latency responses after intensive and long-term magnetic field exposure in humans has been demonstrated. To determine with objective observations if exposure to mobile phone EMF affects acoustically evoked cochlear nerve compound action potentials, seven patients suffering from Ménière's disease and undergoing retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy were exposed to the effects of mobile phone placed over the craniotomy for 5 min. All patients showed a substantial decrease in amplitude and a significant increase in latency of cochlear nerve compound action potentials during the 5 min of exposure to EMF. These changes lasted for a period of around 5 min after exposure. The possibility that EMF can produce relatively long-lasting effects on cochlear nerve conduction is discussed and analysed in light of contrasting previous literature obtained under non-surgical conditions. Limitations of this novel approach, including the effects of the anaesthetics, craniotomy and surgical procedure, are presented in detail.

  2. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camats, Nuria; Garcia, Francisca; Parrilla, Juan Jose; Calaf, Joaquim; Martin, Miguel; Caldes, Montserrat Garcia

    2008-01-01

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5 Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05), with regard to the control group. In order to identify how this trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the X-ray- and aphidicolin-treated group as regards the aphidicolin-treated group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal cells

  3. Trans-generational radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the female enhances the action of chemical mutagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, 30120 El Palmar, Murcia (Spain); Calaf, Joaquim [Servei de Ginecologia i Obstetricia, Hospital Universitari de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Martin, Miguel [Departament de Pediatria, d' Obstetricia i Ginecologia i de Medicina Preventiva, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Caldes, Montserrat Garcia [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)], E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es

    2008-04-02

    Genomic instability can be produced by ionising radiation, so-called radiation-induced genomic instability, and chemical mutagens. Radiation-induced genomic instability occurs in both germinal and somatic cells and also in the offspring of irradiated individuals, and it is characterised by genetic changes including chromosomal rearrangements. The majority of studies of trans-generational, radiation-induced genomic instability have been described in the male germ line, whereas the authors who have chosen the female as a model are scarce. The aim of this work is to find out the radiation-induced effects in the foetal offspring of X-ray-treated female rats and, at the same time, the possible impact of this radiation-induced genomic instability on the action of a chemical mutagen. In order to achieve both goals, the quantity and quality of chromosomal damage were analysed. In order to detect trans-generational genomic instability, a total of 4806 metaphases from foetal tissues from the foetal offspring of X-irradiated female rats (5 Gy, acute dose) were analysed. The study's results showed that there is radiation-induced genomic instability: the number of aberrant metaphases and the breaks per total metaphases studied increased and were found to be statistically significant (p {<=} 0.05), with regard to the control group. In order to identify how this trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability could influence the chromosomal behaviour of the offspring of irradiated rat females in front of a chemical agent (aphidicolin), a total of 2481 metaphases were studied. The observed results showed that there is an enhancement of the action of the chemical agent: chromosomal breaks per aberrant metaphases show significant differences (p {<=} 0.05) in the X-ray- and aphidicolin-treated group as regards the aphidicolin-treated group. In conclusion, our findings indicate that there is trans-generational, radiation-induced chromosomal instability in the foetal

  4. Tapping Into Rate Flexibility: Musical Training Facilitates Synchronization Around Spontaneous Production Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Scheurich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly adapt one’s behavior is critical for social tasks such as speech and music performance, in which individuals must coordinate the timing of their actions with others. Natural movement frequencies, also called spontaneous rates, constrain synchronization accuracy between partners during duet music performance, whereas musical training enhances synchronization accuracy. We investigated the combined influences of these factors on the flexibility with which individuals can synchronize their actions with sequences at different rates. First, we developed a novel musical task capable of measuring spontaneous rates in both musicians and non-musicians in which participants tapped the rhythm of a familiar melody while hearing the corresponding melody tones. The novel task was validated by similar measures of spontaneous rates generated by piano performance and by the tapping task from the same pianists. We then implemented the novel task with musicians and non-musicians as they synchronized tapping of a familiar melody with a metronome at their spontaneous rates, and at rates proportionally slower and faster than their spontaneous rates. Musicians synchronized more flexibly across rates than non-musicians, indicated by greater synchronization accuracy. Additionally, musicians showed greater engagement of error correction mechanisms than non-musicians. Finally, differences in flexibility were characterized by more recurrent (repetitive and patterned synchronization in non-musicians, indicative of greater temporal rigidity.

  5. Tapping Into Rate Flexibility: Musical Training Facilitates Synchronization Around Spontaneous Production Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, Rebecca; Zamm, Anna; Palmer, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt one’s behavior is critical for social tasks such as speech and music performance, in which individuals must coordinate the timing of their actions with others. Natural movement frequencies, also called spontaneous rates, constrain synchronization accuracy between partners during duet music performance, whereas musical training enhances synchronization accuracy. We investigated the combined influences of these factors on the flexibility with which individuals can synchronize their actions with sequences at different rates. First, we developed a novel musical task capable of measuring spontaneous rates in both musicians and non-musicians in which participants tapped the rhythm of a familiar melody while hearing the corresponding melody tones. The novel task was validated by similar measures of spontaneous rates generated by piano performance and by the tapping task from the same pianists. We then implemented the novel task with musicians and non-musicians as they synchronized tapping of a familiar melody with a metronome at their spontaneous rates, and at rates proportionally slower and faster than their spontaneous rates. Musicians synchronized more flexibly across rates than non-musicians, indicated by greater synchronization accuracy. Additionally, musicians showed greater engagement of error correction mechanisms than non-musicians. Finally, differences in flexibility were characterized by more recurrent (repetitive) and patterned synchronization in non-musicians, indicative of greater temporal rigidity. PMID:29681872

  6. PETROGRAPHY AND APPLICATION OF THE RIETVELD METHOD TO THE QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF PHASES OF NATURAL CLINKER GENERATED BY COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinilla A. Jesús Andelfo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Fine-grained and mainly reddish color, compact and slightly breccious and vesicular pyrometamorphic rocks (natural clinker are associated to the spontaneous combustion of coal seams of the Cerrejón Formation exploited by Carbones del Cerrejón Limited in La Guajira Peninsula (Caribbean Region of Colombia. These rocks constitute remaining inorganic materials derived from claystones, mudstones and sandstones originally associated with the coal and are essentially a complex mixture of various amorphous and crystalline inorganic constituents. In this paper, a petrographic characterization of natural clinker, aswell as the application of the X-ray diffraction (Rietveld method by mean of quantitative analysis of its mineral phases were carried out. The RIQAS program was used for the refinement of X ray powder diffraction profiles, analyzing the importance of using the correct isostructural models for each of the existing phases, which were obtained from the Inorganic Crystal Structure Database (ICSD. The results obtained in this investigation show that the Rietveld method can be used as a powerful tool in the quantitative analysis of phases in polycrystalline samples, which has been a traditional problem in geology.

  7. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  9. Capture-based next-generation sequencing reveals multiple actionable mutations in cancer patients failed in traditional testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jing; Lu, Xiongxiong; Wu, Xue; Lin, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Chao; Huang, Xiaofang; Chang, Zhili; Wang, Xinjing; Wen, Chenlei; Tang, Xiaomei; Shi, Minmin; Zhan, Qian; Chen, Hao; Deng, Xiaxing; Peng, Chenghong; Li, Hongwei; Fang, Yuan; Shao, Yang; Shen, Baiyong

    2016-05-01

    Targeted therapies including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors have dramatically changed the treatment of cancer over past 10 years. Their therapeutic advantages are more tumor specific and with less side effects. For precisely tailoring available targeted therapies to each individual or a subset of cancer patients, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has been utilized as a promising diagnosis tool with its advantages of accuracy, sensitivity, and high throughput. We developed and validated a NGS-based cancer genomic diagnosis targeting 115 prognosis and therapeutics relevant genes on multiple specimen including blood, tumor tissue, and body fluid from 10 patients with different cancer types. The sequencing data was then analyzed by the clinical-applicable analytical pipelines developed in house. We have assessed analytical sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the NGS-based molecular diagnosis. Also, our developed analytical pipelines were capable of detecting base substitutions, indels, and gene copy number variations (CNVs). For instance, several actionable mutations of EGFR,PIK3CA,TP53, and KRAS have been detected for indicating drug susceptibility and resistance in the cases of lung cancer. Our study has shown that NGS-based molecular diagnosis is more sensitive and comprehensive to detect genomic alterations in cancer, and supports a direct clinical use for guiding targeted therapy.

  10. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  11. Symmetry restoration in spontaneously broken induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Russo, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the recuperation of expected invariant behaviours in a non-metric gravity theory in which the full general relativistic invariance is broken spontaneously. We show how dangerous increasing energy behaviours of physical amplitudes cancel in a highly non-trivial way. This evidences the expected loss of the vacuum generated scale in the UV regime and gives support for the consistency of spontaneously broken gravity theories. (orig.)

  12. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  13. Vision drives correlated activity without patterned spontaneous activity in developing Xenopus retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demas, James A; Payne, Hannah; Cline, Hollis T

    2012-04-01

    Developing amphibians need vision to avoid predators and locate food before visual system circuits fully mature. Xenopus tadpoles can respond to visual stimuli as soon as retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) innervate the brain, however, in mammals, chicks and turtles, RGCs reach their central targets many days, or even weeks, before their retinas are capable of vision. In the absence of vision, activity-dependent refinement in these amniote species is mediated by waves of spontaneous activity that periodically spread across the retina, correlating the firing of action potentials in neighboring RGCs. Theory suggests that retinorecipient neurons in the brain use patterned RGC activity to sharpen the retinotopy first established by genetic cues. We find that in both wild type and albino Xenopus tadpoles, RGCs are spontaneously active at all stages of tadpole development studied, but their population activity never coalesces into waves. Even at the earliest stages recorded, visual stimulation dominates over spontaneous activity and can generate patterns of RGC activity similar to the locally correlated spontaneous activity observed in amniotes. In addition, we show that blocking AMPA and NMDA type glutamate receptors significantly decreases spontaneous activity in young Xenopus retina, but that blocking GABA(A) receptor blockers does not. Our findings indicate that vision drives correlated activity required for topographic map formation. They further suggest that developing retinal circuits in the two major subdivisions of tetrapods, amphibians and amniotes, evolved different strategies to supply appropriately patterned RGC activity to drive visual circuit refinement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Narrowband NIR-Induced In Situ Generation of the High-Energy Trans Conformer of Trichloroacetic Acid Isolated in Solid Nitrogen and its Spontaneous Decay by Tunneling to the Low-Energy Cis Conformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. G. Apóstolo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The monomeric form of trichloroacetic acid (CCl3COOH; TCA was isolated in a cryogenic nitrogen matrix (15 K and the higher energy trans conformer (O=C–O–H dihedral: 180° was generated in situ by narrowband near-infrared selective excitation the 1st OH stretching overtone of the low-energy cis conformer (O=C–O–H dihedral: 0°. The spontaneous decay, by tunneling, of the generated high-energy conformer into the cis form was then evaluated and compared with those observed previously for the trans conformers of acetic and formic acids in identical experimental conditions. The much faster decay of the high-energy conformer of TCA compared to both formic and acetic acids (by ~35 and ca. 25 times, respectively was found to correlate well with the lower energy barrier for the trans→cis isomerization in the studied compound. The experimental studies received support from quantum chemistry calculations undertaken at the DFT(B3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of approximation, which allowed a detailed characterization of the potential energy surface of the molecule and the detailed assignment of the infrared spectra of the two conformers.

  15. Spontaneous Vesicle Recycling in the Synaptic Bouton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eTruckenbrodt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca2+, which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca2+ levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca2+ sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca2+. The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs responding to Ca2+ fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  16. Abolishment of Spontaneous Flight Turns in Visually Responsive Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Bennett Drew; Green, Jonathan; Maimon, Gaby

    2018-01-22

    Animals react rapidly to external stimuli, such as an approaching predator, but in other circumstances, they seem to act spontaneously, without any obvious external trigger. How do the neural processes mediating the execution of reflexive and spontaneous actions differ? We studied this question in tethered, flying Drosophila. We found that silencing a large but genetically defined set of non-motor neurons virtually eliminates spontaneous flight turns while preserving the tethered flies' ability to perform two types of visually evoked turns, demonstrating that, at least in flies, these two modes of action are almost completely dissociable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  18. Design and Testing of a Low Cost PID Controller Combined with Inverse Derivative Control Action and Its Application in Voltage Control Systems of DC Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subrata CHATTOPADHYAY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A single PID controller in a process control loop may suffer from high frequency oscillations without offset or low frequency oscillation with offset. An inverse derivative control action can eliminate both of these errors. In the present paper, a low cost operational amplifier based PID controller with inverse derivative control action has been described. Its transfer function has been derived and is found to be identical with the form already derived by other workers. It has been tested with a process plant analogue and implemented in the voltage control system of a DC generator. Its transfer function along with its characteristics in a process plant analogue and the load characteristics of DC generator with and without this controller have been determined experimentally and reported in this paper.

  19. Definition of spontaneous reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his view of driven versus spontaneous. There is a close link between ''spontaneous'' and ''instability.'' One of the prominent examples for instability is the thermal convection instability. Just to remind you, if you heat a fluid layer from below, it takes a certain Rayleigh number to make it unstable. Beyond the onset point you find qualitatively new features. That is called ''spontaneous,'' and this is a bit more than semantics. It's a new qualitative property that appears and it is spontaneous although we have an energy flux through the system. It's a misconception, to call this ''driven'' pointing at the energy flux through it. Of course, the convection would not exist without this energy flux. But what makes it ''spontaneous'' is that without any particular external signal, a new qualitative feature appears. And this is what is called an ''instability'' and ''spontaneous.'' From these considerations the author got a little reassured of what distinction should be made in the field of the magnetosphere. If we have a smooth energy transport into the magnetosphere and suddenly we have this qualitatively new feature (change of B-topology) coming up; then, using this terminology we don't have a choice other than calling this spontaneous or unstable, if you like. If we ''tell'' the system where it should make its neutral line and where it should make its plasmoids, then, it is driven. And this provides a very clear-cut observational distinction. The author emphasizes the difference he sees is a qualitative difference, not only a quantitative one

  20. Collaborative Action Research as a Tool for Generating Formative Feedback on Teachers' Classroom Assessment Practice: The KREST Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore science teachers' classroom assessment practices and outlines some of the tensions and synergies in changing assessment practices. It describes episodes from a collaborative action research project with science teachers designed to support the strengthening of classroom assessment practices--the King's Researching…

  1. Spontaneous noncollinear second harmonic generation in GUHP

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kroupa, Jan; Fridrichová, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2011), s. 1-7 ISSN 2040-8978 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0878 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonlinear optics * scattering, polarization * nterference * crystal optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.573, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/2040-8986

  2. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  3. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  4. Activation of Mechanosensitive Transient Receptor Potential/Piezo Channels in Odontoblasts Generates Action Potentials in Cocultured Isolectin B4-negative Medium-sized Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masaki; Ogura, Kazuhiro; Kimura, Maki; Nishi, Koichi; Ando, Masayuki; Tazaki, Masakazu; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki

    2018-04-27

    Various stimuli to the dentin surface elicit dentinal pain by inducing dentinal fluid movement causing cellular deformation in odontoblasts. Although odontoblasts detect deformation by the activation of mechanosensitive ionic channels, it is still unclear whether odontoblasts are capable of establishing neurotransmission with myelinated A delta (Aδ) neurons. Additionally, it is still unclear whether these neurons evoke action potentials by neurotransmitters from odontoblasts to mediate sensory transduction in dentin. Thus, we investigated evoked inward currents and evoked action potentials form trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons after odontoblast mechanical stimulation. We used patch clamp recordings to identify electrophysiological properties and record evoked responses in TG neurons. We classified TG cells into small-sized and medium-sized neurons. In both types of neurons, we observed voltage-dependent inward currents. The currents from medium-sized neurons showed fast inactivation kinetics. When mechanical stimuli were applied to odontoblasts, evoked inward currents were recorded from medium-sized neurons. Antagonists for the ionotropic adenosine triphosphate receptor (P2X 3 ), transient receptor potential channel subfamilies, and Piezo1 channel significantly inhibited these inward currents. Mechanical stimulation to odontoblasts also generated action potentials in the isolectin B 4 -negative medium-sized neurons. Action potentials in these isolectin B 4 -negative medium-sized neurons showed a short duration. Overall, electrophysiological properties of neurons indicate that the TG neurons with recorded evoked responses after odontoblast mechanical stimulation were myelinated Aδ neurons. Odontoblasts established neurotransmission with myelinated Aδ neurons via P2X 3 receptor activation. The results also indicated that mechanosensitive TRP/Piezo1 channels were functionally expressed in odontoblasts. The activation of P2X 3 receptors induced an action potential

  5. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  6. Synchronization of cubic distortion spontaneous otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Wit, HP

    A spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectrum may contain equally spaced emission peaks. Then, two peaks, at frequencies, f(1) and f(2), respectively, apparently generate a distortion product at f(d)=2f(1)-f(2) [or 2f(2)-f(1)]. For the three emission peaks of nine of such triplets tin six emission

  7. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  8. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  9. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  10. An On-Demand Optical Quantum Random Number Generator with In-Future Action and Ultra-Fast Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipčević, Mario; Ursin, Rupert

    2015-06-09

    Random numbers are essential for our modern information based society e.g. in cryptography. Unlike frequently used pseudo-random generators, physical random number generators do not depend on complex algorithms but rather on a physical process to provide true randomness. Quantum random number generators (QRNG) do rely on a process, which can be described by a probabilistic theory only, even in principle. Here we present a conceptually simple implementation, which offers a 100% efficiency of producing a random bit upon a request and simultaneously exhibits an ultra low latency. A careful technical and statistical analysis demonstrates its robustness against imperfections of the actual implemented technology and enables to quickly estimate randomness of very long sequences. Generated random numbers pass standard statistical tests without any post-processing. The setup described, as well as the theory presented here, demonstrate the maturity and overall understanding of the technology.

  11. The electromagnetic Ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, W. H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-08-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield as spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev E 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by ser action near the centers of active galaxies.

  12. Electromagnetic ram action of the plasma focus as a paradigm for the generation of cosmic rays and the gigantic jets in active galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.H.; Nardi, V.

    1985-01-01

    Recent measurements of the energy spectrum of the plasma-focus-generated deuteron beam yield a spectrum of the form N(E)=(approx.) E to the -2.7 for 1MeV E 13 MeV. Other measurements show that the beta 1 electron beam, which is generated simultaneously with the deuteron beam, is interrupted into segments of spacing 25ps and duration approximately 4ps. A stuttering-electro-magnetic-ram (ser) model of the plasma focus in proposed which is similar to Raudorf's electronic ram which produces a similar spectrum for an electron beam for 1Mev 10MeV. It is proposed that the cosmic ray spectrum and the giganic galactic jets are both generated by action near the centers of active galaxies

  13. Capability evaluation of Eddy current and ultrasonic in-service inspections of steam generator tubes. A status report of PISC III Action 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieth, M.; Birac, C.; Comby, R.

    1998-01-01

    Document summarizes the PISC III (Programme for the Inspection of Steel Components) report No. 41, full description of the PISC III Action 5 on Steam Generator Tubes Inspection, containing all details and final conclusions which are still to be approved by the PISC III Management Board. The report was prepared by the reference laboratory of PISC under guidance and with continuous contribution of the members of the Data Analysis Group (DAG) of this PISC III. There were several procedures which demonstrated good detection capability of major flaws in typical locations of the steam generator. Conclusions of the exercise indicate that capability demonstration is necessary to qualify in service inspection procedures for steam generator tubes

  14. Spontaneous breaking of conformal invariance and trace anomaly matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwimmer, A.; Theisen, S.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that when conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken the trace anomalies in the broken and unbroken phases are matched. This puts strong constraints on the various couplings of the dilaton. Using the uniqueness of the effective action for the Goldstone supermultiplet for broken N=1 superconformal symmetry the dilaton effective action is calculated.

  15. Dorsomedial prefontal cortex supports spontaneous thinking per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, T T; Riekki, T J J

    2017-06-01

    Spontaneous thinking, an action to produce, consider, integrate, and reason through mental representations, is central to our daily experience and has been suggested to serve crucial adaptive purposes. Such thinking occurs among other experiences during mind wandering that is associated with activation of the default mode network among other brain circuitries. Whether and how such brain activation is linked to the experience of spontaneous thinking per se remains poorly known. We studied 51 healthy subjects using a comprehensive experience-sampling paradigm during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging. In comparison with fixation, the experiences of spontaneous thinking and spontaneous perception were related to activation of wide-spread brain circuitries, including the cortical midline structures, the anterior cingulate cortex and the visual cortex. In direct comparison of the spontaneous thinking versus spontaneous perception, activation was observed in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Modality congruence of spontaneous-experience-related brain activation was suggested by several findings, including association of the lingual gyrus with visual in comparison with non-verbal-non-visual thinking. In the context of current literature, these findings suggest that the cortical midline structures are involved in the integrative core substrate of spontaneous thinking that is coupled with other brain systems depending on the characteristics of thinking. Furthermore, involvement of the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex suggests the control of high-order abstract functions to characterize spontaneous thinking per se. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3277-3288, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Associative memory model with spontaneous neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-01

    We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input (i.e., spontaneous activity) is modified by an input to generate a target response that is memorized for recall upon the same input. Suitable design of synaptic connections enables the model to memorize input/output (I/O) mappings equaling 70% of the total number of neurons, where the evoked activity distinguishes a target pattern from others. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities, as reported in recent experimental studies.

  17. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Atrial Heterogeneity Generates Re-entrant Substrate during Atrial Fibrillation and Anti-arrhythmic Drug Action: Mechanistic Insights from Canine Atrial Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Marta; Hancox, Jules C.; Aslanidi, Oleg V.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-arrhythmic drug therapy is a frontline treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF), but its success rates are highly variable. This is due to incomplete understanding of the mechanisms of action of specific drugs on the atrial substrate at different stages of AF progression. We aimed to elucidate the role of cellular, tissue and organ level atrial heterogeneities in the generation of a re-entrant substrate during AF progression, and their modulation by the acute action of selected anti-arrhythmic drugs. To explore the complex cell-to-organ mechanisms, a detailed biophysical models of the entire 3D canine atria was developed. The model incorporated atrial geometry and fibre orientation from high-resolution micro-computed tomography, region-specific atrial cell electrophysiology and the effects of progressive AF-induced remodelling. The actions of multi-channel class III anti-arrhythmic agents vernakalant and amiodarone were introduced in the model by inhibiting appropriate ionic channel currents according to experimentally reported concentration-response relationships. AF was initiated by applied ectopic pacing in the pulmonary veins, which led to the generation of localized sustained re-entrant waves (rotors), followed by progressive wave breakdown and rotor multiplication in both atria. The simulated AF scenarios were in agreement with observations in canine models and patients. The 3D atrial simulations revealed that a re-entrant substrate was typically provided by tissue regions of high heterogeneity of action potential duration (APD). Amiodarone increased atrial APD and reduced APD heterogeneity and was more effective in terminating AF than vernakalant, which increased both APD and APD dispersion. In summary, the initiation and sustenance of rotors in AF is linked to atrial APD heterogeneity and APD reduction due to progressive remodelling. Our results suggest that anti-arrhythmic strategies that increase atrial APD without increasing its dispersion are

  19. The Use of Complex Adaptive Systems as a Generative Metaphor in an Action Research Study of an Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Callum

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic behaviour of organisations is challenging and this study uses a model of complex adaptive systems as a generative metaphor to address this challenge. The research question addressed is: How might a conceptual model of complex adaptive systems be used to assist in understanding the dynamic nature of organisations? Using an…

  20. A second-generation computational modeling of cardiac electrophysiology: response of action potential to ionic concentration changes and metabolic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaa, Nour Eddine; Lefraich, Hamid; El Malki, Imane

    2014-10-21

    Cardiac arrhythmias are becoming one of the major health care problem in the world, causing numerous serious disease conditions including stroke and sudden cardiac death. Furthermore, cardiac arrhythmias are intimately related to the signaling ability of cardiac cells, and are caused by signaling defects. Consequently, modeling the electrical activity of the heart, and the complex signaling models that subtend dangerous arrhythmias such as tachycardia and fibrillation, necessitates a quantitative model of action potential (AP) propagation. Yet, many electrophysiological models, which accurately reproduce dynamical characteristic of the action potential in cells, have been introduced. However, these models are very complex and are very time consuming computationally. Consequently, a large amount of research is consecrated to design models with less computational complexity. This paper is presenting a new model for analyzing the propagation of ionic concentrations and electrical potential in space and time. In this model, the transport of ions is governed by Nernst-Planck flux equation (NP), and the electrical interaction of the species is described by a new cable equation. These set of equations form a system of coupled partial nonlinear differential equations that is solved numerically. In the first we describe the mathematical model. To realize the numerical simulation of our model, we proceed by a finite element discretization and then we choose an appropriate resolution algorithm. We give numerical simulations obtained for different input scenarios in the case of suicide substrate reaction which were compared to those obtained in literature. These input scenarios have been chosen so as to provide an intuitive understanding of dynamics of the model. By accessing time and space domains, it is shown that interpreting the electrical potential of cell membrane at steady state is incorrect. This model is general and applies to ions of any charge in space and time

  1. Religious identification and politicization in the face of discrimination: support for political Islam and political action among the Turkish and Moroccan second generation in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischmann, Fenella; Phalet, Karen; Klein, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    Taking an approach from religion as a social identity and using large-scale comparative surveys in five European cities, we investigate when and how perceived discrimination is associated with religious identification and politicization among the second generation of Turkish and Moroccan Muslims. We distinguish support for political Islam from political action as distinct forms of politicization. In addition, we test the mediating role of religious identification in processes of politicization. Study 1 estimates multi-group structural equation models of support for political Islam in Belgium, the Netherlands, and Sweden. In line with a social identity model of politicization and across nine inter-group contexts, Muslims who perceived more discrimination identified (even) more strongly as Muslims; and high Muslim identifiers were most ready to support political Islam. In support of a competing social stigma hypothesis, however, negative direct and total effects of perceived discrimination suggest predominant depoliticization. Using separate sub-samples across four inter-group contexts in Belgium, Study 2 adds political action tendencies as a distinct form of politicization. Whereas religious identification positively predicts both forms of politicization, perceived discrimination has differential effects: Muslims who perceived more discrimination were more weary of supporting political Islam, yet more ready to engage in political action to defend Islamic values. Taken together, the studies reveal that some Muslim citizens will politicize and others will depoliticize in the face of discrimination as a function of their religious identification and of prevailing forms of politicization. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Evaluating remote control and robotics actions in NPPs in an ALARA perspective: lessons from the evolution of steam generator tube plugging technique in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefaure, C.; Lochard, J.; Blain, A.

    1989-01-01

    Introducing remote tooling and robotics in NPPs raises many questions. Is it better to develop specific robotic tools for each type of operation, or to conceive more generic multipurpose tool carriers. Does the introduction of remote control and robotics always reduce human involvement and collective doses. What are the impacts on individual doses distribution for the most exposed operators. Under what conditions is robotics justified from an economical point of view. Even if robotics and remote tooling actions can reduce significantly individual and collective exposures, because of their high costs of development, they will be adopted only if simultaneously the potential for operational cost savings is also clearly demonstrated. Integrating operational cost savings in the cost evaluation of the ALARA procedure is important to compare and select among different robotics and remote control actions. This paper presents how to evaluate in a systematic way dose reductions, operational costs savings as well as the conditions under which robotics and remote control actions can effectively improve occupational radiation protection in NPPs. The demonstration is based on an analysis of the evolution of the steam generator tube plugging technique developed in French PWRs

  3. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  4. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  5. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E Plata

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The question to solve in the present work is: what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA, the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA.

  6. Global actions of nicotine on the striatal microcircuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata, Víctor; Duhne, Mariana; Pérez-Ortega, Jesús; Hernández-Martinez, Ricardo; Rueda-Orozco, Pavel; Galarraga, Elvira; Drucker-Colín, René; Bargas, José

    2013-01-01

    what is the predominant action induced by the activation of cholinergic-nicotinic receptors (nAChrs) in the striatal network given that nAChrs are expressed by several elements of the circuit: cortical terminals, dopamine terminals, and various striatal GABAergic interneurons. To answer this question some type of multicellular recording has to be used without losing single cell resolution. Here, we used calcium imaging and nicotine. It is known that in the presence of low micromolar N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), the striatal microcircuit exhibits neuronal activity consisting in the spontaneous synchronization of different neuron pools that interchange their activity following determined sequences. The striatal circuit also exhibits profuse spontaneous activity in pathological states (without NMDA) such as dopamine depletion. However, in this case, most pathological activity is mostly generated by the same neuron pool. Here, we show that both types of activity are inhibited during the application of nicotine. Nicotine actions were blocked by mecamylamine, a non-specific antagonist of nAChrs. Interestingly, inhibitory actions of nicotine were also blocked by the GABAA-receptor antagonist bicuculline, in which case, the actions of nicotine on the circuit became excitatory and facilitated neuronal synchronization. We conclude that the predominant action of nicotine in the striatal microcircuit is indirect, via the activation of networks of inhibitory interneurons. This action inhibits striatal pathological activity in early Parkinsonian animals almost as potently as L-DOPA.

  7. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  8. How the Mastery Rubric for Statistical Literacy Can Generate Actionable Evidence about Statistical and Quantitative Learning Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle E. Tractenberg

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Statistical literacy is essential to an informed citizenry; and two emerging trends highlight a growing need for training that achieves this literacy. The first trend is towards “big” data: while automated analyses can exploit massive amounts of data, the interpretation—and possibly more importantly, the replication—of results are challenging without adequate statistical literacy. The second trend is that science and scientific publishing are struggling with insufficient/inappropriate statistical reasoning in writing, reviewing, and editing. This paper describes a model for statistical literacy (SL and its development that can support modern scientific practice. An established curriculum development and evaluation tool—the Mastery Rubric—is integrated with a new, developmental, model of statistical literacy that reflects the complexity of reasoning and habits of mind that scientists need to cultivate in order to recognize, choose, and interpret statistical methods. This developmental model provides actionable evidence, and explicit opportunities for consequential assessment that serves students, instructors, developers/reviewers/accreditors of a curriculum, and institutions. By supporting the enrichment, rather than increasing the amount, of statistical training in the basic and life sciences, this approach supports curriculum development, evaluation, and delivery to promote statistical literacy for students and a collective quantitative proficiency more broadly.

  9. Action of 50 R X-ray doses on the breeding function of C3H strain mice - effect of splitting the dose, action of repeated irradiations on successive generations; Action de 50 R de rayons X sur la fonction de reproduction des souris de race C3H - influence du fractionnement. Action de la repetition des irradiations au cours des generations successives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alix, D [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    X-rays exposure effect was studied on C3H strain mice, at the standpoint of the effects produced on breeding function. The method used with this purpose was the following: single doses 20 - 30 - 40 and 50 R/dose, fractional doses: 50 R/total dose, divided in 2 - 5 - 10 or 25 irradiations distributed in one month duration. The offsprings were irradiated at the same doses than the parents, consanguinity being maintained. Statistical treatment of results was carried out, that led at the following conclusions: 1) Couples receiving single exposure of 50 R or two exposures of 25 R at one month interval give comparable results. Fractional doses do not involve the slightest diminution of X-rays effect. 2) 30 R exposure brings about a decrease in fertility, with an increase in abortions. Fertility of 20 R irradiated couples remains below controls. 3) After ten times 5 R and twenty-five 2 R, the number of abortions is the largest. Ovarian function is particularly sensitive to X-rays; one may think that twenty-five 2 R give injuries conditioning non-viability of conception products, smaller doses should produce mutations and yield births of altered genotype individuals. (author) [French] L'action d'une exposition aux rayons X de souris de race C3H a ete etudiee du point de vue des effets produits sur la fonction reproductrice. La methode utilisee fut la suivante: doses administrees en irradiation unique: 20 - 30 - 40 et 50 R/seance, en irradiations fractionnees: 50 R au total en 2 - 5 - 10 ou 25 seances reparties en un mois. Les descendants ont ete irradies aux memes doses que leurs parents, en maintenant la consanguinite. Un traitement statistique des resultats a ete effectue dont on a pu conclure : 1) Chez les couples ayant recu une seule exposition de 50 R ou deux expositions de 25 R a intervalle d'un mois les resultats sont comparables. Le fractionnement n' entrainant aucune attenuation de l'action des rayons X. 2) Une exposition de 30 R entraine une baisse de fecondite

  10. Development of an expert system for success path generation and operator's action guides in NPP: Verification and validation of COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun Un; Jung, Kwang Sup; Park, Chang Gyu

    1992-08-01

    For the support of emergency operation, an expert system named COSMOS (COmputerized Success-path MOnitoring System) is being developed at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). COSMOS identifies the critical safety function's (CSF'S) status, and suggests the overall response strategy with a set of success paths which restore the challenged CSF's. The status of CSF is identified by the rule-based reasoning. The overall response strategy is inferred according to the identified CSF's status. The success paths are generated by the given structure descriptions of systems and the general generation algorithm. For efficient man-machine interface, a colar graphic display is utilized. COSMOS is being built on a workstation. The major tasks to build an expert system such as COSMOS are the construction of knowledge base and inference engine. In COSMOS, the knowledges are derived from the Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs), and the forward chaining is adopted as the inference strategy. While the knowledge base and inference engine are the most common and essential elements of an expert system, they are not the only ones. The evaluation of expert systems can not only lessen the risk of using faulty software, but also enhance the acceptability of the expert systems by both users and regulators. The evaluation of expert systems consists of the system verification, validation and user acceptance testing. Among them, in this report, we have focused our attention to verification and validation (V≅V) of expert systems. We have accessed the general V≅V procedures and tried to develop the specific V≅V procedure for COSMOS. (Author)

  11. Motivational Projections of Russian Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Shipitsina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the semantic, pragmatic and structural features of words, phrases, dialogues motivation, in the contemporary Russian popular speech. These structural features are characterized by originality and unconventional use. Language material is the result of authors` direct observation of spontaneous verbal communication between people of different social and age groups. The words and remarks were analyzed in compliance with the communication system of national Russian language and cultural background of popular speech. Studies have discovered that in spoken discourse there are some other ways to increase the expression statement. It is important to note that spontaneous speech identifies lacunae in the nominative language and its vocabulary system. It is proved, prefixation is also effective and regular way of the same action presenting. The most typical forms, ways and means to update language resources as a result of the linguistic creativity of native speakers were identified.

  12. Remedial actions to improve the availability in steam generators; Acciones correctivas para mejorar la disponibilidad en generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, J. Gerardo; Porras Loaiza, G. Lizbeth; Sanchez Hernandez, Laura E.; Salinas B, Victor M.; Nebart G, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In this article the results of the analysis of recurrent faults of four Generating Units of Thermoelectric Power Plants (UGT) of the Commission Federal de Electricidad (CFE) are presented. In three of the four cases, the studies focused to identify and to correct the root causes of recurrent faults in steam generator tubes, the analyzed units are: U-2 of the Thermoelectric Complex Pdte. Adolfo Lopez Mateos (CTPALM) of Tuxpan, Veracruz; U-3 of the Salamanca Thermoelectric Power Plant (TPP), and U-1 and 2 of the Thermoelectric Power Plant (TPP) Felipe Carrillo Puerto of Valladolid, Yucatan. In the other case the combinations air insufficiency was analyzed as one of the causes of decrement of power of the Unit 1 of the TPP Gral. Manuel Alvarez Moreno of Manzanillo, Colima. The steam generators of Unit 2 of the CTPALM and Unit 3 of the TPP of Salamanca presented faults in the reheater (RH) bank. In this case the recommendations focused to the improvement in the operative conditions to attenuate the faults by corrosion at high temperature. Unlike the CTPALM, in the case of U-3 of Salamanca it was concluded that the redesign of the RH was necessary; for this purpose it was proposed to permute trajectories of hot tubes with the cold ones to make the steam temperature uniform at the RH outlet. In order to evaluate the problems that have appeared in the steam generator of Units 1 and 2 of the TPP Felipe Carrillo Puerto of Valladolid, Yucatan the faults of the tubes of water wall were analyzed and it was found that the main mechanism of overheat is due to the impact of the combustion flame. In the study of the Unit 1 of the TPP Gral. Manuel Alvarez Moreno of Manzanillo, Colima, a methodology was developed to quantify the contribution that the main equipment has in the decrement of the power of the unit; this methodology consists of applying a process of computational simulation based in the design conditions and of real operation. In agreement with the obtained results, it

  13. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 4-dimensional heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, J.

    1989-07-01

    The evolution of a 4-dimensional heterotic string is considered in the background of its massless excitations such as graviton, antisymmetric tensor, gauge fields and scalar bosons. The compactified bosonic coordinates are fermionized. The world-sheet supersymmetry requirement enforces Thirring-like four fermion coupling to the background scalar fields. The non-abelian gauge symmetry is exhibited through the Ward identities of the S-matrix elements. The spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism is exhibited through the broken Ward identities. An effective 4-dimensional action is constructed and the consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is envisaged for the effective action. 19 refs

  14. Progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) is the mediator of progesterone's antiapoptotic action in spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells as revealed by PGRMC1 small interfering ribonucleic acid treatment and functional analysis of PGRMC1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, John J; Romak, Jonathan; Liu, Xiufang

    2008-02-01

    Progesterone (P4) receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1) and its binding partner, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 RNA binding protein (PAIRBP1) are thought to form a complex that functions as membrane receptor for P4. The present investigations confirm PGRMC1's role in this membrane receptor complex by demonstrating that depleting PGMRC1 with PGRMC1 small interfering RNA results in a 60% decline in [(3)H]P4 binding and the loss of P4's antiapoptotic action. Studies conducted on partially purified GFP-PGRMC1 fusion protein indicate that [(3)H]P4 specifically binds to PGRMC1 at a single site with an apparent K(d) of about 35 nm. In addition, experiments using various deletion mutations reveal that the entire PGRMC1 molecule is required for maximal [(3)H]P4 binding and P4 responsiveness. Analysis of the binding data also suggests that the P4 binding site is within a segment of PGRMC1 that is composed of the transmembrane domain and the initial segment of the C terminus. Interestingly, PAIRBP1 appears to bind to the C terminus between amino acids 70-130, which is distal to the putative P4 binding site. Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence that PGRMC1 is the P4 binding protein that mediates P4's antiapoptotic action. Moreover, the deletion mutation studies indicate that each domain of PGRMC1 plays an essential role in modulating PGRMC1's capacity to both bind and respond to P4. Additional studies are required to more precisely delineate the role of each PGRMC1 domain in transducing P4's antiapoptotic action.

  15. Atypical development of spontaneous social cognition in autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senju, Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have profound impairment in the development of social interaction and communication. However, it is also known that some 'high-functioning' individuals with ASD show apparently typical capacity to process social information in a controlled experimental settings, despite their difficulties in daily life. The current paper overviews the spontaneous social cognition, spontaneous processing of social information in the absence of explicit instruction or task demand, in individuals with ASD. Three areas of the researches, false belief attribution, imitation/mimicry, and eye gaze processing, have been reviewed. The literatures suggest that high-functioning individuals with ASD (a) do not spontaneously attribute false belief to others, even though they can easily do so when explicitly instructed, (b) can imitate others' goal-directed actions under explicit instruction and show spontaneous mimicry of others' actions when they attend to the action, but are less likely to show spontaneous mimicry without the task structure to navigate attention to others' action and (c) can process others' gaze direction and shift attention to others' gaze directions, but fail to spontaneously attend to another person's eyes in social and communicative context, and less likely to be prompted to respond in response to perceived eye contact. These results are consistent with the claim that individuals with ASD do not spontaneously attend to socially relevant information, even though they can easily process the same information when their attention is navigated towards it. Copyright © 2012 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Identifying important and feasible policies and actions for health at community sports clubs: a consensus-generating approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Bridget; King, Lesley; Bauman, Adrian E; Baur, Louise A; Macniven, Rona; Chapman, Kathy; Smith, Ben J

    2014-01-01

    Children's high participation in organised sport in Australia makes sport an ideal setting for health promotion. This study aimed to generate consensus on priority health promotion objectives for community sports clubs, based on informed expert judgements. Delphi survey using three structured questionnaires. Forty-six health promotion, nutrition, physical activity and sport management/delivery professionals were approached to participate in the survey. Questionnaires used an iterative process to determine aspects of sports clubs deemed necessary for developing healthy sporting environments for children. Initially, participants were provided with a list of potential standards for a range of health promotion areas and asked to rate standards based on their importance and feasibility, and any barriers to implementation. Subsequently, participants were provided with information that summarised ratings for each standard to indicate convergence of the group, and asked to review and potentially revise their responses where they diverged. In a third round, participants ranked confirmed standards by priority. 26 professionals completed round 1, 21 completed round 2, and 18 completed round 3. The highest ranked standards related to responsible alcohol practices, availability of healthy food and drinks at sports canteens, smoke-free club facilities, restricting the sale and consumption of alcohol during junior sporting activities, and restricting unhealthy food and beverage company sponsorship. Identifying and prioritising health promotion areas that are relevant to children's sports clubs assists in focusing public health efforts and may guide future engagement of sports clubs. Approaches for providing informational and financial support to clubs to operationalise these standards are proposed. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  18. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  19. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, C.; Cox, I.; Baldey, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, C; Cox, I; Baldey, A [St. F.X. Cabrini Hospital, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2002-07-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  1. Gene actions for yield and its attributes and their implications in the inheritance pattern over three generations in opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Brij K; Mishra, R; Jena, S N; Shukla, Sudhir

    2016-09-01

    The gene actions for yield and its attributes and their inheritance pattern based on five parameter model have been explored in four single crosses (NBIHT-5 × NBIHT-6, NBIHT-5 × NBMHT-1, NBMHT-1 × NBIHT-6 and NBMHT-2 × NBMHT-1) obtained using thebaine rich pure lines of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) for three consecutive generations. All the traits showed nonallelic mode of interaction, however, dominance effect (h) was more pronounced for all the traits except thebaine and papaverine. The dominance × dominance (l) effects were predominant over additive × additive (i) for all traits in all the four crosses except for papaverine. The seed and opium yield, and its contributing traits inherited quantitatively. The fixable gene effects (d) and (i) were lower in magnitude than nonfixable (h) and (l) gene effects. The estimates of heterosis were also higher in comparison to the respective parents which suggested preponderance of dominance gene action for controlling most of the traits. The phenotypic coefficient of variation was marginally higher than those of genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The traits thebaine, narcotine, morphine and opium yield had high heritability coupled with high genetic advance. The leaf number, branches per plant and stem diameter showed positive correlation with opium and seed yields. The selection of plants having large number of leaves, branches and capsules with bigger size would be advantageous to enhance the yield potential.

  2. Action experience changes attention to kinematic cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney eFilippi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study used remote corneal reflection eye-tracking to examine the relationship between motor experience and action anticipation in 13-month-old infants. To measure online anticipation of actions infants watched videos where the actor’s hand provided kinematic information (in its orientation about the type of object that the actor was going to reach for. The actor’s hand orientation either matched the orientation of a rod (congruent cue or did not match the orientation of the rod (incongruent cue. To examine relations between motor experience and action anticipation, we used a 2 (reach first vs. observe first x 2 (congruent kinematic cue vs. incongruent kinematic cue between-subjects design. We show that 13-month-old infants in the observe first condition spontaneously generate rapid online visual predictions to congruent hand orientation cues and do not visually anticipate when presented incongruent cues. We further demonstrate that the speed that these infants generate predictions to congruent motor cues is correlated with their own ability to pre-shape their hands. Finally, we demonstrate that following reaching experience, infants generate rapid predictions to both congruent and incongruent hand shape cues—suggesting that short-term experience changes attention to kinematics.

  3. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  4. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  6. Modulating action duration to establish non-conventional communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesper, Cordula; Schmitz, Laura; Knoblich, Günther

    2017-01-01

    communication. The current study investigated whether systematic modulations of action duration provide a sufficient basis for communication. The results of three experiments demonstrate that knowledgeable actors spontaneously and systematically adjusted the duration of their actions to communicate task...

  7. Spontaneously broken realization of supersymmetry in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.; Trieste Univ.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that if supersymmetry is relevant for the physical world it must be broken either spontaneously or explicitly. Renormalizability and simplicity are in favor of a spontaneous realization of the symmetry breaking. When supersymmetry is spontaneously broken the spinorial analogue of the Goldstone phenomenon occurs, namely massless particles arise in the spectrum of the theory which carry the same quantum numbers of the broken generators Qsup(i) they are N spin 1/2 Goldstone fermions (goldstinos). These particles may be eaten by spin 3/2 gauge particles (gravitinos) when supersymmetry is gauged. It is shown that both the Higgs effect and super Higgs effect have taken place. 8 of the spin 1/2 particles have been eaten by the spin 3/2 particles and 24 of 70 scalars have been eaten by the spin 3/2 particles and 24 of 70 scalars have been eaten by 24 of the 28 vector particles to provide them with mass. The conclusion is that the number of mass relations is, in general, equal to r-1, where r is the rank of the algebra which generates the spectrum

  8. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  9. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  10. On spontaneous parity breaking in three-dimensional gauge-Higgs systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Farakos, K.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1991-04-01

    We address the question of spontaneous breaking of parity in three-dimensional euclidian SU(2) gauge-Higgs theory by Monte Carlo simulations. We observe no sign of spontaneous parity breaking in the behaviour of local gauge invariant operators. However, the presence of parity odd terms in the action can induce a phase transition to a parity odd ground state. (orig.)

  11. Drug safety alerts of pharmacovigilance programme of India: A scope for targeted spontaneous reporting in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Thota

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: In India, spontaneous reporting of ADRs existed since 1998 under passive surveillance method, but there is an urgent need to initiate TSR, which is a complementary method to spontaneous reporting on these drug safety alerts for further regulatory action by Central Drugs Standard Control Organization.

  12. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  13. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  14. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  15. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  16. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal accumulation of air in the ...

  17. Making it Politic(al: closing the Gap in a Generation: Health Equity Through Action on the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Emanuelle Birn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The anniversary of the publication of Closing the Gap in a Generation (CGG offers a moment to reflect on the report’s contributions and shortcomings, as well as to consider the political waters ahead. The issuance of CGG was not the first time the World Health Organization (WHO raised the problem of global inequalities in health. Numerous analysts and advocates have compared CGG to the 1978 Declaration of Alma-Ata. Some see CGG as a continuation of Alma-Ata; others malign it for paying insufficient attention to the principles, background documents, and lines of action proposed in the Alma-Ata declaration. We might understand the two reports as bookends to 30 years of brutal global capitalism, punctuated by the “lost decade” of the 1980s, the end of the Cold War, and, more recently, the implosion of global finance. This period saw the publication of two seminal neoliberal health manifestos –the World Bank’s 1993 World Development Report and the WHO’s 2002 Commission on Macroeconomics and Health report. Both feature the term “investing in health” in their title, conveying “a double meaning—investing [through “cost-effective,” narrow, technical interventions] to improve health, economic productivity, and poverty; and investing capital, especially private capital, as a route to private profit in the health sector.”

  18. The Prose of Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ulrik; Thrane, Sof

    2014-01-01

    risks changes over time in response to a lack of action on reported risks. In these processes Frontline Managers take on new responsibilities to make General Managers take action on reported risk. The reporting practice changes from the mere identification of risk to risk assessment and, finally......, to incorporating the possible response into the risk report. These findings add to extant literature by illustrating that actions do not automatically flow from the identification of risk. Rather, risk and action are dynamically interrelated in the sense that the prose in the risk report is a variable input...... to generate action and that a lack of action encourages managers to change their approach to reporting....

  19. Normative Action Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baboroglu, Oguz; Ravn, Ib

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an argument for an enrichment of action research methodology. To the current state of action research, we add a constructivist epistemological argument, as well as a crucial inspiration from some futures-oriented planning approaches. Within the domain of social....... They are generated jointly by the stakeholders of a system and the involved action researchers and are tested every time that the prescriptions for action contained in them are followed by a system's stakeholders....

  20. Ziprasidone-induced spontaneous orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boora, K; Chiappone, K; Dubovsky, S; Xu, J

    2010-06-01

    Neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been associated with sexual dysfunction, including impotence and decreased libido. Spontaneous ejaculation without sexual arousal during typical antipsychotic treatment is a rare condition that has been described with zuclopentixol, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. Here, we are reporting a case of spontaneous orgasm with ziprasidone in a bipolar patient. This patient began to repeatedly experience spontaneous sexual arousal and orgasm, which she had never experienced in the past. Ziprasidone might be causing an increase in sexual orgasm by 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, which preclinical evidence suggests that it facilitates dopamine release in the cortex.

  1. Multivariate prediction of spontaneous repetitive responses in ventricular myocardium exposed in vitro to simulated ischemic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiariti, M; Puddu, P E; Rouet, R

    1994-06-01

    Guinea-pig ventricular myocardium was partly exposed to normal Tyrode's superfusion and partly to altered conditions (using modified Tyrode's solution) set to simulate acute myocardial ischemia (PO2 80 +/- 10 mmHg; no glucose; pH 7.00 +/- 0.05; K+ 12 mM). Using a double-chamber tissue bath and standard microelectrode technique, the occurrence of spontaneous repetitive responses was investigated during simulated ischemia (occlusion) and after reperfusing the previously ischemic superfused tissue with normal Tyrode's solution (reperfusion). In 62 experiments (42 animals) the effects of: (1) duration of simulated ischemia (1321 +/- 435 s), (2) stimulation rate (1002 +/- 549 ms) and (3) number of successive simulated ischemic periods (occlusions) (1.58 +/- 0.92) on: (1) resting membrane potential, (2) action potential amplitude, (3) duration of 50 and 90% action potentials and (4) maximal upstroke velocity of action potential were studied. All variables were considered as gradients (delta) between normal and ischemic tissue. Both during occlusion and upon reperfusion, spontaneous repetitive responses were coded as single, couplets, salvos (three to nine and > 10) or total spontaneous repetitive responses (coded present when at least one of the above-mentioned types was seen). The incidence of total spontaneous repetitive responses was 31% (19/62) on occlusion and 85% (53/62) upon reperfusion. Cox's models (forced and stepwise) were used to predict multivariately the occurrence of arrhythmic events considered as both total spontaneous repetitive responses and as separate entities. These models were applicable since continuous monitoring of the experiments enabled exact timing of spontaneous repetitive response onset during both occlusion and reperfusion. In predicting reperfusion spontaneous repetitive responses, total spontaneous repetitive responses and blocks observed during the occlusion period were also considered. Total occlusion spontaneous repetitive responses

  2. Hematome Extra - Dural Rachidien Spontane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl. Gros

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Four personal cases of Spontaneous Spinal Epidurdl Hemerrhage are Reported. And 29 additional cases have been analysed by reviewing the literature. The clinical radiologcal and surgical aspects were discussed.

  3. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  4. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  5. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  6. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  7. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  8. Spontaneously broken supersymmetry and Poincare invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, X.R.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Schechter, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    It is argued that the spontaneous breakdown of global supersymmetry is consistent with unbroken Poincare invariance if and only if the supersymmetry algebra A = 0 is understood to mean the invariance of the dynamical variables phi under the transformations generated by the algebra, i.e. [A, phi] = 0 rather than as an operator equation. It is further argued that this weakening of the algebra does not alter any of the conclusions about supersymmetric quantum field theories that have been obtained using the original (stronger) form of the algebra

  9. Spontaneously broken supersymmetry and Poincare invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tata, X.R.; Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Schechter, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the spontaneous breakdown of global supersymmetry is consistent with unbroken Poincare invariance if and only if the supersymmetry algebra 'A=0' is understood to mean the invariance of the dynamical variables phi under the transformations generated by the algebra, i.e. [A, phi]=0 rather than as an operator equation. It is further argued that this 'weakening' of the algrebra does not alter any of the conclusions about supersymmetry quantum field theories that have been obtained using the original (stronger) form of the algebra. (orig.)

  10. Investigation of spontaneously broken gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, T.

    1978-01-01

    Spontaneously broken gauge theories (SBGT) with effects treated perturbatively are investigated. The general structure of SBGT is exhibited and gauge invariant renormalization program for practical calculations is set up. The proof of renormalizability of Lee and Zinn-Justin are extended to the problems of SBGT. A general semisimple compact gauge group is used. Arbitrary fermion and scalar multiplets are considered. The structure of the Lagrangian is discussed. The problem of quantization is described and the definition of the generating functionals of the Green functions and the Green functions themselves is given

  11. Spontaneous breathing during lung-protective ventilation in an experimental acute lung injury model: high transpulmonary pressure associated with strong spontaneous breathing effort may worsen lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takeshi; Uchiyama, Akinori; Matsuura, Nariaki; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether potentially injurious transpulmonary pressure could be generated by strong spontaneous breathing and exacerbate lung injury even when plateau pressure is limited to ventilation, each combined with weak or strong spontaneous breathing effort. Inspiratory pressure for low tidal volume ventilation was set at 10 cm H2O and tidal volume at 6 mL/kg. For moderate tidal volume ventilation, the values were 20 cm H2O and 7-9 mL/kg. The groups were: low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, and moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong. Each group had the same settings for positive end-expiratory pressure of 8 cm H2O. Respiratory variables were measured every 60 mins. Distribution of lung aeration and alveolar collapse were histologically evaluated. Low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong showed the most favorable oxygenation and compliance of respiratory system, and the best lung aeration. By contrast, in moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, the greatest atelectasis with numerous neutrophils was observed. While we applied settings to maintain plateau pressure at ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, transpulmonary pressure rose >33 cm H2O. Both minute ventilation and respiratory rate were higher in the strong spontaneous breathing groups. Even when plateau pressure is limited to mechanical ventilation, transpulmonary pressure and tidal volume should be strictly controlled to prevent further lung injury.

  12. Spontaneous movement tempo is influenced by observation of rhythmical actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Marco; Tacchino, Andrea; Pelosin, Elisa; Moisello, Clara; Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Ghilardi, M Felice

    2009-09-28

    Observation of people performing movements facilitates motor planning, execution and memory formation. Tempo, a crucial aspect involved in the execution of rhythmic movements, is normally perceived and learned through auditory channels. In this work, we ascertained whether: first, the frequency of self-paced finger movements (SPMs), which in normal subjects is around 2 Hz, is modified by prior observation of movements performed at either 1 or 3 Hz; second, such changes are lasting; third, there is an effect of time interval between observation and performance. We finally determined the effect of providing explicit information about the upcoming motor task. Seventy-two normal subjects (12 groups) performed a simple finger sequence at different intervals after observation of videos of either landscapes or finger opposition movements. Both with and without information about the upcoming task, observation influenced the tempo of SPMs and led to memory formation. With knowledge of the upcoming task, such changes occurred at all observation-execution intervals, while without instructions, changes took place only when SPMs were performed immediately after observation. Compared to explicit instructions, the absence of instructions produced tempo's changes that more closely resembled the observed rhythms. We conclude that learning requires a prompt comparison between visual and sensorimotor representations of movements; moreover, learning with explicit instructions is more efficient, as activity in both the dorsal and ventral streams might be potentiated by the chatecholaminergic attentional systems that promote long-term potentiation. These results provide the bases for novel neurorehabilitation strategies in terms of temporal re-organization of movement.

  13. Action Rules Mining

    CERN Document Server

    Dardzinska, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    We are surrounded by data, numerical, categorical and otherwise, which must to be analyzed and processed to convert it into information that instructs, answers or aids understanding and decision making. Data analysts in many disciplines such as business, education or medicine, are frequently asked to analyze new data sets which are often composed of numerous tables possessing different properties. They try to find completely new correlations between attributes and show new possibilities for users.   Action rules mining discusses some of data mining and knowledge discovery principles and then describe representative concepts, methods and algorithms connected with action. The author introduces the formal definition of action rule, notion of a simple association action rule and a representative action rule, the cost of association action rule, and gives a strategy how to construct simple association action rules of a lowest cost. A new approach for generating action rules from datasets with numerical attributes...

  14. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  15. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  16. Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo

    2015-08-05

    Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle.

  17. Preictal activity of subicular, CA1, and dentate gyrus principal neurons in the dorsal hippocampus before spontaneous seizures in a rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Toyoda, Izumi; Thamattoor, Ajoy K; Buckmaster, Paul S

    2014-12-10

    Previous studies suggest that spontaneous seizures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy might be preceded by increased action potential firing of hippocampal neurons. Preictal activity is potentially important because it might provide new opportunities for predicting when a seizure is about to occur and insight into how spontaneous seizures are generated. We evaluated local field potentials and unit activity of single, putative excitatory neurons in the subiculum, CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus in epileptic pilocarpine-treated rats as they experienced spontaneous seizures. Average action potential firing rates of neurons in the subiculum, CA1, and dentate gyrus, but not CA3, increased significantly and progressively beginning 2-4 min before locally recorded spontaneous seizures. In the subiculum, CA1, and dentate gyrus, but not CA3, 41-57% of neurons displayed increased preictal activity with significant consistency across multiple seizures. Much of the increased preictal firing of neurons in the subiculum and CA1 correlated with preictal theta activity, whereas preictal firing of neurons in the dentate gyrus was independent of theta. In addition, some CA1 and dentate gyrus neurons displayed reduced firing rates preictally. These results reveal that different hippocampal subregions exhibit differences in the extent and potential underlying mechanisms of preictal activity. The finding of robust and significantly consistent preictal activity of subicular, CA1, and dentate neurons in the dorsal hippocampus, despite the likelihood that many seizures initiated in other brain regions, suggests the existence of a broader neuronal network whose activity changes minutes before spontaneous seizures initiate. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416671-17$15.00/0.

  18. Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical Lorentz violation due to the simultaneously generated gauge invariance. Udgivelsesdato: June 11...

  19. Using Motion Tracking to Detect Spontaneous Movements in Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    We study the characteristics of infants’ spontaneous movements, based on data obtained from a markerless motion tracking system. From the pose data, the set of features are generated from the raw joint-angles of the infants and different classifiers are trained and evaluated using annotated data...

  20. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  2. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  3. Planning in deep coal mines prone to spontaneous combustion. Planificacion de explotaciones subterraneas de carbon con propension a fuegos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon Marco, P

    1991-03-01

    During the planning process, analysis and assessment of criteria which contribute to spontaneous combustion are used to forecast the level of risk. This information is then used to determine what action should be taken to eliminate or reduce spontaneous combustion. The measures taken involve varying the factors which affect spontaneous combustion in order to make conditions unfavourable to the occurrence of the phenomenon. 1 fig.

  4. Spontaneous compactification in 2D induced quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S.D.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper spontaneous compactification - on a R 1 x S 1 background - in 2D induced quantum gravity (considered as a toy model for more fundamental quantum gravity) is analyzed in the gauge-independent effective action formalism. It is shown that such compactification is stable, in contradistinction to multidimensional quantum gravity on a R degrees x S 1 (D-> 2) background - which is known to be one-loop unstable

  5. DAPs: Deep Action Proposals for Action Understanding

    KAUST Repository

    Escorcia, Victor

    2016-09-17

    Object proposals have contributed significantly to recent advances in object understanding in images. Inspired by the success of this approach, we introduce Deep Action Proposals (DAPs), an effective and efficient algorithm for generating temporal action proposals from long videos. We show how to take advantage of the vast capacity of deep learning models and memory cells to retrieve from untrimmed videos temporal segments, which are likely to contain actions. A comprehensive evaluation indicates that our approach outperforms previous work on a large scale action benchmark, runs at 134 FPS making it practical for large-scale scenarios, and exhibits an appealing ability to generalize, i.e. to retrieve good quality temporal proposals of actions unseen in training.

  6. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  7. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  8. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  9. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  10. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  11. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  12. Egocentric Temporal Action Proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao Huang; Weiqiang Wang; Shengfeng He; Lau, Rynson W H

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to localize generic actions in egocentric videos, called temporal action proposals (TAPs), for accelerating the action recognition step. An egocentric TAP refers to a sequence of frames that may contain a generic action performed by the wearer of a head-mounted camera, e.g., taking a knife, spreading jam, pouring milk, or cutting carrots. Inspired by object proposals, this paper aims at generating a small number of TAPs, thereby replacing the popular sliding window strategy, for localizing all action events in the input video. To this end, we first propose to temporally segment the input video into action atoms, which are the smallest units that may contain an action. We then apply a hierarchical clustering algorithm with several egocentric cues to generate TAPs. Finally, we propose two actionness networks to score the likelihood of each TAP containing an action. The top ranked candidates are returned as output TAPs. Experimental results show that the proposed TAP detection framework performs significantly better than relevant approaches for egocentric action detection.

  13. Twisted Spectral Triple for the Standard Model and Spontaneous Breaking of the Grand Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devastato, Agostino, E-mail: agostino.devastato@na.infn.it; Martinetti, Pierre, E-mail: martinetti@dima.unige.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Grand symmetry models in noncommutative geometry, characterized by a non-trivial action of functions on spinors, have been introduced to generate minimally (i.e. without adding new fermions) and in agreement with the first order condition an extra scalar field beyond the standard model, which both stabilizes the electroweak vacuum and makes the computation of the mass of the Higgs compatible with its experimental value. In this paper, we use a twist in the sense of Connes-Moscovici to cure a technical problem due to the non-trivial action on spinors, that is the appearance together with the extra scalar field of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded and - thanks to a twisted version of the first-order condition that we introduce here - also permits to understand the breaking to the standard model as a dynamical process induced by the spectral action, as conjectured in [24]. This is a spontaneous breaking from a pre-geometric Pati-Salam model to the almost-commutativegeometryofthestandardmodel,withtwoHiggs-likefields: scalar and vector.

  14. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  15. Prospective memory: effects of divided attention on spontaneous retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler L; Mullet, Hillary G; Whiffen, Katie N; Ousterhout, Hunter; Einstein, Gilles O

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of divided attention on the spontaneous retrieval of a prospective memory intention. Participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task with an embedded prospective memory demand, and also performed a divided-attention task during some segments of lexical decision trials. In all experiments, monitoring was highly discouraged, and we observed no evidence that participants engaged monitoring processes. In Experiment 1, performing a moderately demanding divided-attention task (a digit detection task) did not affect prospective memory performance. In Experiment 2, performing a more challenging divided-attention task (random number generation) impaired prospective memory. Experiment 3 showed that this impairment was eliminated when the prospective memory cue was perceptually salient. Taken together, the results indicate that spontaneous retrieval is not automatic and that challenging divided-attention tasks interfere with spontaneous retrieval and not with the execution of a retrieved intention.

  16. Spontaneous, local diastolic subsarcolemmal calcium releases in single, isolated guinea-pig sinoatrial nodal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirenko, Syevda G; Yang, Dongmei; Maltseva, Larissa A; Kim, Mary S; Lakatta, Edward G; Maltsev, Victor A

    2017-01-01

    Uptake and release calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) (dubbed "calcium clock"), in the form of spontaneous, rhythmic, local diastolic calcium releases (LCRs), together with voltage-sensitive ion channels (membrane clock) form a coupled system that regulates the action potential (AP) firing rate. LCRs activate Sodium/Calcium exchanger (NCX) that accelerates diastolic depolarization and thus participating in regulation of the time at which the next AP will occur. Previous studies in rabbit SA node cells (SANC) demonstrated that the basal AP cycle length (APCL) is tightly coupled to the basal LCR period (time from the prior AP-induced Ca2+ transient to the diastolic LCR occurrence), and that this coupling is further modulated by autonomic receptor stimulation. Although spontaneous LCRs during diastolic depolarization have been reported in SANC of various species (rabbit, cat, mouse, toad), prior studies have failed to detect LCRs in spontaneously beating SANC of guinea-pig, a species that has been traditionally used in studies of cardiac pacemaker cell function. We performed a detailed investigation of whether guinea-pig SANC generate LCRs and whether they play a similar key role in regulation of the AP firing rate. We used two different approaches, 2D high-speed camera and classical line-scan confocal imaging. Positioning the scan-line beneath sarcolemma, parallel to the long axis of the cell, we found that rhythmically beating guinea-pig SANC do, indeed, generate spontaneous, diastolic LCRs beneath the surface membrane. The average key LCR characteristics measured in confocal images in guinea-pig SANC were comparable to rabbit SANC, both in the basal state and in the presence of β-adrenergic receptor stimulation. Moreover, the relationship between the LCR period and APCL was subtended by the same linear function. Thus, LCRs in guinea-pig SANC contribute to the diastolic depolarization and APCL regulation. Our findings indicate that coupled-clock system

  17. A Case of Spontaneously Resolved Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kahraman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A condition of intrapleural air-space accumulation in individuals without any history of trauma or lung disease is called as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP. Sixteen-years-old male patient admitted with complains of chest pain and dyspnea beginning 3 day ago. On physical examination, severity of breath sounds decreased on right side. Chest radiograph was taken and right-sided pneumothorax was detected and tube thoracostomy was inserted. Two months ago the patient referred to a doctor with similar complaints and physical examination and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The radiograph was retrospectively examined and bilateral PSP was detected. We presented the case duo to spontaneous recovery of bilateral PSP is seen very rarely and so contributes data to the literature. In patients admitted to the clinic with chest pain and shortness of breath, pneumothorax should be considered at differential diagnosis.

  18. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  19. Spontaneous generation of vortex and coherent vector beams from a thin-slice c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser with wide-aperture laser-diode end pumping: application to highly sensitive rotational and translational Doppler velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Kenju; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2017-07-01

    Selective excitation of Laguerre-Gauss modes (optical vortices: helical LG0,2 and LG0,1), reflecting their weak transverse cross-saturation of population inversions against a preceding higher-order Ince-Gauss (IG0,2) or Hermite-Gauss (HG2,1) mode, was observed in a thin-slice c-cut Nd:GdVO4 laser with wide-aperture laser-diode end pumping. Single-frequency coherent vector beams were generated through the transverse mode locking of a pair of orthogonally polarized IG2,0 and LG0,2 or HG2,1 and LG0,1 modes. Highly sensitive self-mixing rotational and translational Doppler velocimetry is demonstrated by using vortex and coherent vector beams.

  20. Perda da espontaneidade da ação: o desconforto de homens que sofreram infarto agudo do miocardio Perdida de la expontaneidad de la accion: el desconforto de hombres que sufrieron infarto agudo del miocardio Undergoing loss of spontaneous action: the discomfort experienced by men having suffered acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Mussi

    2002-06-01

    la pérdida de la exponta-neidad de la accion". Este artículo, resume el proceso psicosocial básico de la experiencia, discutiendo sus implicancias paracuestionar el modelo clínico de intervención, apuntando la posibilidad dela enfermera para actuar en la prevención y proponerideas para aprimorar la formación del enfermero.Considering that comfort and discomfort must be understood in the light of patients' interactions during illness and treatment- thus linked to institutions' objective factors, grounding rationale, and practices -, this study inquired on comfort and discom-fort such as experienced by men who had suffered acute myocardial infarction (AMI. By resorting to the Symbolic Interactionismand to Grounded Theory methodology, data were collected by means of interviews with 13 men who had suffered AMI, at twohealth units in the city of São Paulo. The analysis led to building a theoretical model of such experience, made up by threephenomena and essentially pervaded by the discomfort of "undergoing loss of spontaneous action". This articles sums up thebasic psychosocial process that emerges from that experience, and discusses its implications to question the clinical model oftreatment, pointing to prevention as a further scope of action for nurses, besides raising issues to enhance nurse education.

  1. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  2. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  3. Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...

  4. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter

    1986-01-01

    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  5. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  6. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  7. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  8. Spontaneous and posed facial expression in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M C; Smith, M K; Ellgring, H

    1996-09-01

    Spontaneous and posed emotional facial expressions in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD, n = 12) were compared with those of healthy age-matched controls (n = 12). The intensity and amount of facial expression in PD patients were expected to be reduced for spontaneous but not posed expressions. Emotional stimuli were video clips selected from films, 2-5 min in duration, designed to elicit feelings of happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, or anger. Facial movements were coded using Ekman and Friesen's (1978) Facial Action Coding System (FACS). In addition, participants rated their emotional experience on 9-point Likert scales. The PD group showed significantly less overall facial reactivity than did controls when viewing the films. The predicted Group X Condition (spontaneous vs. posed) interaction effect on smile intensity was found when PD participants with more severe disease were compared with those with milder disease and with controls. In contrast, ratings of emotional experience were similar for both groups. Depression was positively associated with emotion rating but not with measures of facial activity. Spontaneous facial expression appears to be selectively affected in PD, whereas posed expression and emotional experience remain relatively intact.

  9. When do humans spontaneously adopt another's visuospatial perspective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freundlieb, Martin; Kovács, Ágnes M; Sebanz, Natalie

    2016-03-01

    Perspective-taking is a key component of social interactions. However, there is an ongoing controversy about whether, when and how instances of spontaneous visuospatial perspective-taking occur. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying factors as well as boundary conditions that characterize the spontaneous adoption of another person's visuospatial perspective (VSP) during social interactions. We used a novel paradigm, in which a participant and a confederate performed a simple stimulus-response (SR) compatibility task sitting at a 90° angle to each other. In this set-up, participants would show a spatial compatibility effect only if they adopted the confederate's VSP. In a series of 5 experiments we found that participants reliably adopted the VSP of the confederate, as long as he was perceived as an intentionally acting agent. Our results therefore show that humans are able to spontaneously adopt the differing VSP of another agent and that there is a tight link between perspective-taking and performing actions together. The results suggest that spontaneous VSP-taking can effectively facilitate and speed up spatial alignment processes accruing from dynamic interactions in multiagent environments. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  11. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  12. Spontaneous Scalarization: Dead or Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis; Gerosa, Davide; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Macedo, Caio; Okada da Silva, Hector; Pani, Paolo; Sotani, Hajime; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In 1993, Damour and Esposito-Farese showed that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass weak-field gravitational tests and exhibit nonperturbative strong-field deviations away from General Relativity in systems involving neutron stars. These deviations are possible in the presence of ``spontaneous scalarization,'' a phase transition similar in nature to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. More than twenty years after the original proposal, binary pulsar experiments have severely constrained the possibility of spontaneous scalarization occurring in nature. I will show that these experimental constraints have important implications for the torsional oscillation frequencies of neutron stars and for the so-called ``I-Love-Q'' relations in scalar-tensor theories. I will also argue that there is still hope to observe strong scalarization effects, despite the strong experimental bounds on the original mechanism. In particular, I will discuss two mechanisms that could produce strong scalarization in neutron stars: anisotropy and multiscalarization. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award PHY-1055103.

  13. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  14. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  15. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  16. Spontaneous coronary dissection: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Gustavo J. Ventura; Deslandes, Alexandre de O.; Santos, Paulo César de Souza; Cruz, Alexandre de Araújo; Saraiva, Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar o caso de um homem de 62 anos, com quadro de dissecção coronariana espontânea, localizada em 1/3 inicial de coronária circunflexa esquerda, tratado cirurgicamente com revascularização miocárdica. A operação realizada com sucesso demonstra, nesse caso, ser o único meio possível de cura.The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the case of a 62-year-old man, with spontaneous coronary dissection of the left circumflex artery, treated surgically by myocardial ...

  17. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  18. Joint Facial Action Unit Detection and Feature Fusion: A Multi-conditional Learning Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriadis, Stefanos; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2016-10-05

    Automated analysis of facial expressions can benefit many domains, from marketing to clinical diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders. Facial expressions are typically encoded as a combination of facial muscle activations, i.e., action units. Depending on context, these action units co-occur in specific patterns, and rarely in isolation. Yet, most existing methods for automatic action unit detection fail to exploit dependencies among them, and the corresponding facial features. To address this, we propose a novel multi-conditional latent variable model for simultaneous fusion of facial features and joint action unit detection. Specifically, the proposed model performs feature fusion in a generative fashion via a low-dimensional shared subspace, while simultaneously performing action unit detection using a discriminative classification approach. We show that by combining the merits of both approaches, the proposed methodology outperforms existing purely discriminative/generative methods for the target task. To reduce the number of parameters, and avoid overfitting, a novel Bayesian learning approach based on Monte Carlo sampling is proposed, to integrate out the shared subspace. We validate the proposed method on posed and spontaneous data from three publicly available datasets (CK+, DISFA and Shoulder-pain), and show that both feature fusion and joint learning of action units leads to improved performance compared to the state-of-the-art methods for the task.

  19. Learning shapes spontaneous activity itinerating over memorized states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kurikawa

    Full Text Available Learning is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems so that an appropriate output pattern is generated for a given input. Often, such a memory is considered to be included in one of the attractors in neural dynamical systems, depending on the initial neural state specified by an input. Neither neural activities observed in the absence of inputs nor changes caused in the neural activity when an input is provided were studied extensively in the past. However, recent experimental studies have reported existence of structured spontaneous neural activity and its changes when an input is provided. With this background, we propose that memory recall occurs when the spontaneous neural activity changes to an appropriate output activity upon the application of an input, and this phenomenon is known as bifurcation in the dynamical systems theory. We introduce a reinforcement-learning-based layered neural network model with two synaptic time scales; in this network, I/O relations are successively memorized when the difference between the time scales is appropriate. After the learning process is complete, the neural dynamics are shaped so that it changes appropriately with each input. As the number of memorized patterns is increased, the generated spontaneous neural activity after learning shows itineration over the previously learned output patterns. This theoretical finding also shows remarkable agreement with recent experimental reports, where spontaneous neural activity in the visual cortex without stimuli itinerate over evoked patterns by previously applied signals. Our results suggest that itinerant spontaneous activity can be a natural outcome of successive learning of several patterns, and it facilitates bifurcation of the network when an input is provided.

  20. Molecular Darwinism: The Contingency of Spontaneous Genetic Variation

    OpenAIRE

    Arber, Werner

    2011-01-01

    The availability of spontaneously occurring genetic variants is an important driving force of biological evolution. Largely thanks to experimental investigations by microbial geneticists, we know today that several different molecular mechanisms contribute to the overall genetic variations. These mechanisms can be assigned to three natural strategies to generate genetic variants: 1) local sequence changes, 2) intragenomic reshuffling of DNA segments, and 3) acquisition of a segment of foreign...

  1. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V.; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We consider first type-II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators, but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave mixing cavity in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of ...

  2. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We first consider Type II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave-mixing cavity, in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity, complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of the parameter values.

  3. Self-amplified spontaneous emission for short wavelength coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01

    We review the recent progress in our understanding of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), emphasizing the application to short wavelength generation. Simple formulae are given for the start-up, exponential gain and the saturation of SASE. Accelerator technologies producing high brightness electron beams required for short wavelength SASE are discussed. An example utilizing electron beams from a photocathode-linac system to produce 4nm SASE in the multigigawatt range is presented

  4. Diethyldithiocarbamate enhanced chemical generation of volatile palladium species, their characterization by AAS, ICP-MS, TEM and DART-MS and proposed mechanism of action

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyhnanovský, Jaromír; Kratzer, Jan; Benada, Oldřich; Matoušek, Tomáš; Mester, Z.; Sturgeon, R. E.; Dědina, Jiří; Musil, Stanislav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 1005, APR (2018), s. 16-26 ISSN 0003-2670 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M200311202 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : generation of volatile species * palladium * analytical atomic spectrometry Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation; EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology (MBU-M) OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry; Nano-materials (production and properties) (MBU-M) Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  5. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  6. Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria: Pathogenesis and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Allen P

    2017-11-01

    The treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria begins with antihistamines; however, the dose required typically exceeds that recommended for allergic rhinitis. Second-generation, relatively non-sedating H₁-receptor blockers are typically employed up to 4 times a day. First-generation antihistamines, such as hydroxyzine or diphenhydramine (Atarax or Benadryl), were employed similarly in the past. Should high-dose antihistamines fail to control symptoms (at least 50%), omalizumab at 300 mg/month is the next step. This is effective in 70% of antihistamine-refractory patients. H₂-receptor blockers and leukotriene antagonists are no longer recommended; they add little and the literature does not support significant efficacy. For those patients who are unresponsive to both antihistamines and omalizumab, cyclosporine is recommended next. This is similarly effective in 65%-70% of patients; however, care is needed regarding possible side-effects on blood pressure and renal function. Corticosteroids should not be employed chronically due to cumulative toxicity that is dose and time dependent. Brief courses of steroid e.g., 3-10 days can be employed for severe exacerbations, but should be an infrequent occurrence. Finally, other agents, such as dapsone or sulfasalazine, can be tried for those patients unresponsive to antihistamines, omalizumab, and cyclosporine. Copyright © 2017 The Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology · The Korean Academy of Pediatric Allergy and Respiratory Disease.

  7. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  8. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  9. Spontaneous pneumothorax in silicotuberculosis of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Vajo, J.; Krchnavy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the case of 62 years old man with the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom the basic pulmonary disease was silicotuberculosis of the lung. At clinic of occupational diseases in Kosice have been evidence 965 cases of silicosis and silicotuberculosis. From 1971 they have now the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax. The authors make discussion about possible mechanical and biochemical factors, which cause relatively low incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis of the lung. (authors)

  10. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  11. Negotiating action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    After years of working towards a climate accord, the Paris Agreement of 2015 marked the shift from negotiating to reach consensus on climate action to implementation of such action. The challenge now is to ensure transparency in the processes and identify the details of what is required.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. String dynamics, spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry, and dual scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxin

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of a vortex string, which describes the Nambu-Goldstone modes of the spontaneous breakdown of the target space D=4, N=1 supersymmetry and internal U(1) R symmetry to the world sheet ISO(1,1) symmetry, is constructed by using the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting action describing the low energy oscillations of the string into the covolume (super)space is found to have an invariant synthesis form of the Akulov-Volkov and Nambu-Goto actions. Its dual scalar field action is obtained by means of introducing two vectorial Lagrangian multipliers into the action of the string.

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  18. Spontaneous baryogenesis in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Cottingham, W.N.; Whittingham, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we extent the results of previous work on spontaneous baryogenesis to general models involving charge-parity (CP) violation in the Higgs sector. We show how to deal with Chern-Simons terms appearing in the effective potential arising from phase changes in the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields. In particular, this enables us to apply this mechanism to general supersymmetric models including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the extended model with a gauge singlet. A comparison is made between this approach, and that in which one solves the equations of motion for Higgs winding modes. As anticipated in earlier work, the effect of the latter approach is found to be small. (Author)

  19. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  1. Effect of combined actions of hip adduction/abduction on the force generation and maintenance of pelvic floor muscles in healthy women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda C Amorim

    Full Text Available Pelvic floor muscle (PFM force and coordination are related to urinary incontinence severity and to sexual satisfaction. Health professionals frequently combine classic PFM exercises with hip adduction/abduction contraction to treat these disorders, but the real benefits of this practice are still unknown. Based on a theoretical anatomy approach whereby the levator ani muscle is inserted into the obturator internus myofascia and in which force generated by hip movements should increase the contraction quality of PFMs, our aim was to investigate the effects of isometric hip adduction and abduction on PFM force generation. Twenty healthy, nulliparous women were evaluated using two strain-gauge dynamometers (one cylinder-like inside the vaginal cavity, and the other measuring hip adduction/abduction forces around both thighs while performing three different tasks: (a isolated PFM contraction; (b PFM contraction combined with hip adduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force; and (c PFM contraction combined with hip abduction (30% and 50% maximum hip force. Data were sampled at 100Hz and subtracted from the offset if existent. We calculated a gradient between the isolated PFM contraction and each hip condition (Δ Adduction and Δ Abduction for all variables: Maximum force (N, instant of maximum-force occurrence (s, mean force in an 8-second window (N, and PFM force loss (N.s. We compared both conditions gradients in 30% and 50% by paired t-tests. All variables did not differ between hip conditions both in 30% and 50% of maximum hip force (p>.05. PFM contraction combined with isometric hip abduction did not increase vaginal force in healthy and nulliparous women compared to PFM contraction combined with isometric hip adduction. Therefore, so far, the use of hip adduction or abduction in PFM training and treatments are not justified for improving PFM strength and endurance.

  2. Mechanisms of morphine enhancement of spontaneous seizure activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboory, Ehsan; Derchansky, Miron; Ismaili, Mohammed; Jahromi, Shokrollah S; Brull, Richard; Carlen, Peter L; El Beheiry, Hossam

    2007-12-01

    High-dose opioid therapy can precipitate seizures; however, the mechanism of such a dangerous adverse effect remains poorly understood. The aim of our study was to determine whether the neuroexcitatory activity of high-dose morphine is mediated by selective stimulation of opioid receptors. Mice hippocampi were resected intact and bathed in low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to induce spontaneous seizure-like events recorded from CA1 neurons. Application of morphine had a biphasic effect on the recorded spontaneous seizure-like events. In a low concentration (10 microM), morphine depressed electrographic seizure activity. Higher morphine concentrations (30 and 100 microM) enhanced seizure activity in an apparent dose-dependent manner. Naloxone, a nonselective opiate antagonist blocked the proconvulsant action of morphine. Selective mu and kappa opiate receptor agonists and antagonists enhanced and suppressed the spontaneous seizure activity, respectively. On the contrary, delta opioid receptor ligands did not have an effect. The proseizure effect of morphine is mediated through selective stimulation of mu and kappa opiate receptors but not the activation of the delta receptor system. The observed dose-dependent mechanism of morphine neuroexcitation underscores careful adjustment and individualized opioid dosing in the clinical setting.

  3. The Development of Spontaneous Gender Stereotyping in Childhood: Relations to Stereotype Knowledge and Stereotype Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Helene; Morton, J. Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean…

  4. Functioning of spontaneous and induced Con A regulators of T-cell proliferation. Modifying factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuz'mina, E.G.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that active spontaneous non-specific regulators of T-cell proliferation are activated in peripheral blood ''in vivo'' by endogenous metabolites; non-specific regulator action can be induced ''in vitro'' by Con A, FGA. Non-specific regulators suppress and increase lymphocyte proliferation. Cyclic character of their functioning is revealed. 4 refs.; 1 tab

  5. Impaired insulin secretion in the spontaneous diabetes rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, K; Toyota, T; Kakizaki, M; Kudo, M; Takebe, K; Goto, Y

    1982-08-01

    Dynamics of insulin and glucagon secretion were investigated by using a new model of spontaneous diabetes rats produced by the repetition of selective breeding in our laboratories. The perfusion experiments of the pancreas showed that the early phase of insulin secretion to continuous stimulation with glucose was specifically impaired, although the response of the early phase to arginine was preserved. The glucose-induced insulin secretion in the nineth generation (F8) which had a more remarkably impaired glucose tolerance was more reduced than in the sixth generation (F5). No significant difference of glucagon secretion in response to arginine or norepinephrine was noted between the diabetes rats and control ones. The present data indicate that the defective insulin secretion is a primary derangement in a diabetic state of the spontaneous diabetes rat. This defect in the early phase of glucose-induced insulin secretion suggests the specific impairment of the recognition of glucose by the pancreatic beta-cells. The spontaneous diabetes rats are very useful as a model of disease for investigating pathophysiology of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  6. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such "intrinsic" brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to "mind". However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the "classical" definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and "free-energy" (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm of "variational

  7. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  8. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  9. Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, A.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Huygen, F.J.; van Eijs, F.; van Kleef, M.; Bauer, M.C.R.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) usually develops after a noxious event, but spontaneous onsets have been described in 3-11% of the cases. The existence of spontaneous-onset CRPS is highly debated and the aim of the present study was therefore to compare the phenotypic characteristics of CRPS

  10. Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.

  11. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued

  12. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  13. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  14. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  15. Children's Spontaneous Vocalisations during Play: Aesthetic Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June; Gabriel, Martha; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of spontaneous vocalisations in the self-chosen, unstructured outdoor play of children aged 3-12. Spontaneous vocalisations encompass the whole range of children's unprompted, natural, expressive vocal soundings beyond spoken language. Non-participant observations at childcare centres and on elementary school…

  16. Isotopes in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    For most people the obvious application of nuclear technology is in power generation. But there are many other uses for radioactive materials or for products made with their help. They are found in our factories, hospitals, offices and homes. ''Isotopes in Action'' looks at the many applications of radioisotopes in our society. (author)

  17. Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Greve, Anders M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present hypothesis-generating study, we investigated whether spontaneous blood pressure oscillations are suppressed to lower frequencies, and whether abolished oscillations are associated with an adverse outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: We...... retrospectively subjected invasive steady-state blood pressure recordings from 65 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis to spectral analysis. Modified spectral bands were visually identified by plotting spectral power against frequency. RESULTS: Modified middle-frequency and low-frequency (MF' and LF......') oscillations were absent in 9% and 22% of the patients, respectively. In patients in whom spontaneous blood pressure oscillations were preserved, the MF' oscillations occurred at 0.021 Hz (median, interquartile range 0.013-0.030), whereas the LF' oscillations occurred at 0.009 Hz (median, interquartile range 0...

  18. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis Caused by Infection with Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Vincent F. Tablang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a severe and life-threatening complication in patients with ascites caused by advanced liver disease. The organisms most commonly involved are coliform bacteria and third-generation cephalosporins are the empiric antibiotics of choice. This is an uncommon case of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes in a female patient with liver cirrhosis from autoimmune hepatitis. She did not improve with ceftriaxone and her course was complicated by hepatic encephalopathy, seizures and multi-organ failure. This case emphasizes that a high index of suspicion should be maintained for timely diagnosis and treatment. Listerial peritonitis should be suspected in patients with end-stage liver disease and inadequate response to conventional antibiotics within 48–72 h. Ampicillin/sulbactam should be initiated while awaiting results of ascitic fluid or blood culture.

  19. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  20. Which nerve conduction parameters can predict spontaneous electromyographic activity in carpal tunnel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Wei; Lee, Wei-Ju; Liao, Yi-Chu; Chang, Ming-Hong

    2013-11-01

    We investigate electrodiagnostic markers to determine which parameters are the best predictors of spontaneous electromyographic (EMG) activity in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We enrolled 229 patients with clinically proven and nerve conduction study (NCS)-proven CTS, as well as 100 normal control subjects. All subjects were evaluated using electrodiagnostic techniques, including median distal sensory latencies (DSLs), sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs), distal motor latencies (DMLs), compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs), forearm median nerve conduction velocities (FMCVs) and wrist-palm motor conduction velocities (W-P MCVs). All CTS patients underwent EMG examination of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscle, and the presence or absence of spontaneous EMG activities was recorded. Normal limits were determined by calculating the means ± 2 standard deviations from the control data. Associations between parameters from the NCS and EMG findings were investigated. In patients with clinically diagnosed CTS, abnormal median CMAP amplitudes were the best predictors of spontaneous activity during EMG examination (p95% (positive predictive rate >95%). If the median CMAP amplitude was higher than the normal limit (>4.9 mV), the rate of no spontaneous EMG activity was >94% (negative predictive rate >94%). An abnormal SNAP amplitude was the second best predictor of spontaneous EMG activity (p<0.001; OR 4.13; 95% CI 2.16-7.90), and an abnormal FMCV was the third best predictor (p=0.01; OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.20-3.67). No other nerve conduction parameters had significant power to predict spontaneous activity upon EMG examination. The CMAP amplitudes of the APB are the most powerful predictors of the occurrence of spontaneous EMG activity. Low CMAP amplitudes are strongly associated with spontaneous activity, whereas high CMAP amplitude are less associated with spontaneous activity, implying that needle EMG examination should be recommended for the detection of

  1. Numerical analysis of experiments on the generation of shock waves in aluminium under indirect (X-ray) action on the Iskra-5 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S V; Dolgoleva, G V; Novikova, E A

    2013-07-31

    The dynamics of laser and X-ray radiation fields in experiments with cylindrical converter boxes (illuminators), which had earlier been carried out on the Iskra-5 laser facility (the second harmonic of iodine laser radiation, {lambda} = 0.66 {mu}m) was investigated in a sector approximation using the SND-LIRA numerical technique. In these experiments, the X-ray radiation temperature in the box was determined by measuring the velocity of the shock wave generated in the sample under investigation, which was located at the end of the cylindrical illuminator. Through simulations were made using the SND-LIRA code, which took into account the absorption of laser driver radiation at the box walls, the production of quasithermal radiation, as well as the formation and propagation of the shock wave in the sample under investigation. An analysis of the experiments permits determining the electron thermal flux limiter f: for f = 0.03 it is possible to match the experimental scaling data for X-ray in-box radiation temperature to the data of our simulations. The shock velocities obtained from the simulations are also consistent with experimental data. In particular, in the experiment with six laser beams (and a laser energy E{sub L} = 1380 J introduced into the box) the velocity of the shock front (determined from the position of a laser mark) after passage through a 50-{mu}m thick base aluminium layer was equal to 35{+-}1.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 36 km s{sup -1}. In the experiment with four laser beams (for E{sub L} = 850 J) the shock velocity (measured from the difference of transit times through the base aluminium layer and an additional thin aluminium platelet) was equal to 30{+-}3.6 km s{sup -1}, and in simulations to 30 km s{sup -1}. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  2. Audio-visual Classification and Fusion of Spontaneous Affect Data in Likelihood Space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicolaou, Mihalis A.; Gunes, Hatice; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on audio-visual (using facial expression, shoulder and audio cues) classification of spontaneous affect, utilising generative models for classification (i) in terms of Maximum Likelihood Classification with the assumption that the generative model structure in the classifier is

  3. Diploid yeast cells yield homozygous spontaneous mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, M. S.; Bruschi, C. V.; Brushi, C. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    A leucine-requiring hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homoallelic at the LEU1 locus (leu1-12/leu1-12) and heterozygous for three chromosome-VII genetic markers distal to the LEU1 locus, was employed to inquire: (1) whether spontaneous gene mutation and mitotic segregation of heterozygous markers occur in positive nonrandom association and (2) whether homozygous LEU1/LEU1 mutant diploids are generated. The results demonstrate that gene mutation of leu1-12 to LEU1 and mitotic segregation of heterozygous chromosome-VII markers occur in strong positive nonrandom association, suggesting that the stimulatory DNA lesion is both mutagenic and recombinogenic. In addition, genetic analysis of diploid Leu+ revertants revealed that approximately 3% of mutations of leu1-12 to LEU1 result in LEU1/LEU1 homozygotes. Red-white sectored Leu+ colonies exhibit genotypes that implicate post-replicational chromatid breakage and exchange near the site of leu1-12 reversion, chromosome loss, and subsequent restitution of diploidy, in the sequence of events leading to mutational homozygosis. By analogy, diploid cell populations can yield variants homozygous for novel recessive gene mutations at biologically significant rates. Mutational homozygosis may be relevant to both carcinogenesis and the evolution of asexual diploid organisms.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Estimating spontaneous mutation rates at enzyme loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Terumi; Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki; Harada, Ko; Kusakabe, Shin-ichi

    1990-04-01

    Spontaneous mutations were accumulated for 1,620,826 allele-generations on chromosomes that originated from six stem second chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Only null-electromorph mutations were detected. Band-electromorph mutations were not found. The average rate of null-electromorph mutations was 2.71 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. The 95% confidence interval (μ n ) was 1.97 x 10 -5 n -5 per locus per generation. The upper 95% confidence limit of the band-electromorph mutation rate (μ B ) was 2.28 x 10 -6 per locus per generation. It appeared that null mutations were induced by movable genetic elements and that the mutation rates were different from chromosome to chromosome. (author)

  20. The minimalist grammar of action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  1. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  2. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax in diffuse cystic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Joseph; Lee, Yun Chor Gary; Gupta, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are characterized by the presence of air-filled lung cysts. These cysts are prone to rupture, leading to the development of recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, and management DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. DCLDs are responsible for approximately 10% of apparent primary spontaneous pneumothoraces. Computed tomography screening for DCLDs (Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) following the first spontaneous pneumothorax has recently been shown to be cost-effective and can help facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying disorders. Patients with DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax have a very high rate of recurrence, and thus pleurodesis should be considered following the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients, rather than waiting for a recurrent episode. Prior pleurodesis is not a contraindication to future lung transplant. Although DCLDs are uncommon, spontaneous pneumothorax is often the sentinel event that provides an opportunity for diagnosis. By understanding the burden and implications of pneumothoraces in DCLDs, clinicians can facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of the underlying disorders.

  6. Acute, Nontraumatic Spontaneous Spinal Subdural Hematoma: A Case Report and Systematic Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Taylor J.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous spinal subdural hematoma (sSDH) is a rare condition outright. Moreover, cases that occur spontaneously in the absence of an identifiable etiology are considerably less common and remain poorly understood. Here, we present the case of a 43-year-old man with spontaneous sSDH presenting with acute onset low back pain and paraplegia. Urgent magnetic resonance imaging identified a dorsal SDH from T8 to T11 with compression of the spinal cord. Emergent T8–T10 laminectomies with intradural exploration and hematoma evacuation were performed. However, despite prompt identification and appropriate action, the patient's recovery was modest and significant disability remained at discharge. This unique and unusual case demonstrates that spontaneous sSDH requires prompt surgical treatment to minimize associated morbidity and supports the association between the presence of severe neurological deficits upon initial presentation with less favorable outcomes. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of spontaneous sSDH of unknown etiology, which demonstrates that emergent surgical intervention is indicated for patients presenting with severe neurological deficits and the presence of these deficits is predictive of poor neurological outcome. Furthermore, conservative management should be considered in patients presenting with mild neurological deficits as spontaneous resolution followed by favorable neurological outcomes is often observed in these patients. PMID:29441210

  7. The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in childhood: relations to stereotype knowledge and stereotype flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banse, Rainer; Gawronski, Bertram; Rebetez, Christine; Gutt, Hélène; Morton, J Bruce

    2010-03-01

    The development of spontaneous gender stereotyping in children was investigated using the newly developed Action Interference Paradigm (AIP). This task consists of assigning gender-stereotypical toys as quickly as possible to boys and girls in either a stereotype-congruent or a stereotype-incongruent manner. A pilot study with 38 children (mean age 5.1 years) provided evidence for spontaneous gender stereotyping in the AIP, which was reflected in higher latencies for stereotype-incongruent compared with stereotype-congruent toy assignments. The main study, with 66 children (aged 5, 8 and 11 years), compared the development of spontaneous stereotyping with established measures of stereotype flexibility and stereotype knowledge. Stereotype flexibility showed a strong increase from age 5 to 11. In contrast, stereotype knowledge and spontaneous stereotyping remained stable at high levels. The results provide evidence for a dissociation between stereotype flexibility and spontaneous stereotyping, suggesting that spontaneous stereotyping may be more closely related to stereotype knowledge than to stereotype flexibility.

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  9. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  10. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  11. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annerose eEngel

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the aesthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%, which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners’ hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners’ judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer’s actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual’s action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  13. The perception of musical spontaneity in improvised and imitated jazz performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Annerose; Keller, Peter E

    2011-01-01

    The ability to evaluate spontaneity in human behavior is called upon in the esthetic appreciation of dramatic arts and music. The current study addresses the behavioral and brain mechanisms that mediate the perception of spontaneity in music performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, 22 jazz musicians listened to piano melodies and judged whether they were improvised or imitated. Judgment accuracy (mean 55%; range 44-65%), which was low but above chance, was positively correlated with musical experience and empathy. Analysis of listeners' hemodynamic responses revealed that amygdala activation was stronger for improvisations than imitations. This activation correlated with the variability of performance timing and intensity (loudness) in the melodies, suggesting that the amygdala is involved in the detection of behavioral uncertainty. An analysis based on the subjective classification of melodies according to listeners' judgments revealed that a network including the pre-supplementary motor area, frontal operculum, and anterior insula was most strongly activated for melodies judged to be improvised. This may reflect the increased engagement of an action simulation network when melodic predictions are rendered challenging due to perceived instability in the performer's actions. Taken together, our results suggest that, while certain brain regions in skilled individuals may be generally sensitive to objective cues to spontaneity in human behavior, the ability to evaluate spontaneity accurately depends upon whether an individual's action-related experience and perspective taking skills enable faithful internal simulation of the given behavior.

  14. An Evolutionary Game Theory Model of Spontaneous Brain Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeo, Dario; Talarico, Agostino; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Mocenni, Chiara; Santarnecchi, Emiliano

    2017-11-22

    Our brain is a complex system of interconnected regions spontaneously organized into distinct networks. The integration of information between and within these networks is a continuous process that can be observed even when the brain is at rest, i.e. not engaged in any particular task. Moreover, such spontaneous dynamics show predictive value over individual cognitive profile and constitute a potential marker in neurological and psychiatric conditions, making its understanding of fundamental importance in modern neuroscience. Here we present a theoretical and mathematical model based on an extension of evolutionary game theory on networks (EGN), able to capture brain's interregional dynamics by balancing emulative and non-emulative attitudes among brain regions. This results in the net behavior of nodes composing resting-state networks identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), determining their moment-to-moment level of activation and inhibition as expressed by positive and negative shifts in BOLD fMRI signal. By spontaneously generating low-frequency oscillatory behaviors, the EGN model is able to mimic functional connectivity dynamics, approximate fMRI time series on the basis of initial subset of available data, as well as simulate the impact of network lesions and provide evidence of compensation mechanisms across networks. Results suggest evolutionary game theory on networks as a new potential framework for the understanding of human brain network dynamics.

  15. [Relation Between Stress During Pregnancy and Spontaneous Preterm Birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Martínez, Roberth Alirio; Castillo, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth occurs before 37 completed weeks, its causes are multifactorial and vary according to the gestational age, ethnicity and geographical context. Although several medical/social factors have been clearly identified, over 50% of cases are unknown or unclear; however, psychopathological components emerge as potentially important risk factors. To determine the relationship between the presence of stress during pregnancy and spontaneous preterm birth. Through a study of cases and controls in a level III hospital, with a sample of 360 patients during the period from March to November of 2013, where sociodemographic characteristics were collected. In addition, they were applied scales social adjustment, coping strategies and social support. Logistic regression models were developed; psychological, biological and social. Based on the significant variables in each of these generated a final one. The final model was found that stress during pregnancy increases the odds of spontaneous preterm birth 1.91 times (adjusted OR=2.91; 95%CI, 1.67-5.08; P<.05). Other significant variables were: history of preterm delivery, unplanned pregnancy, no emotional support, rural residence, inadequate prenatal care and non-stable partner. The findings support the hypothesis that stress during pregnancy is associated with spontaneous preterm delivery. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. dRGT theory of massive gravity from spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabian, Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    In this note we propose a topological action for a Poincare times diffeomorphism invariant gauge theory. We show that there is Higgs phase where the gauge symmetry is spontaneous broken to a diagonal Lorentz subgroup and gives the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the dRGT potential terms. In this vacuum, there are five (three from Goldstone modes) propagating degrees of freedom which form polarizations of a massive spin 2 particle, an extra healthy heavy scalar (Higgs) mode and no Boulware-Deser ghost mode. We further show that the action can be derived in a limit from a topological de Sitter invariant gauge theory in 4 dimensions.

  17. Action Refinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorrieri, R.; Rensink, Arend; Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.; Smolka, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a comprehensive overview of the research results in the field of action refinement during the past 12 years. The different approaches that have been followed are outlined in detail and contrasted to each other in a uniform framework. We use two running examples to discuss

  18. Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied

  19. Radiologic findings of acute spontaneous subdural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Bae, Won Kyong; Gyu, Cha Jang; Kim, Gun Woo; Cho, Won Su; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Kyung Suk [Soonchunhyang University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of). Chonan Hospital

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the characteristic CT and cerebral angiographic findings in patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematomas and correlate these imaging findings with causes of bleeding and clinical outcome. Twenty-one patients with nontraumatic acute spontaneous subdural hematoma presenting during the last five years underwent CT scanning and cerebral angiography was performed in twelve. To determine the cause of bleedings, CT and angiographic findings were retrospectively analysed. Clinical history, laboratory and operative findings, and final clinical outcome were reviewed. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma is a rare condition, and the mortality rate is high. In patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematoma, as seen on CT, associated subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage is strongly indicative of intracerebral vascular abnormalities such as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral angiography is necessary. To ensure proper treatment and thus markedly reduce mortality, the causes of bleedings should be prompty determined by means of cerebral angiography. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  20. Spontaneous neonatal gastrointestinal perforation: surgical or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cases of spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in neonates at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The perinatal stress factors were caesarian delivery, prematurity and fetal distress due to prolonged obstructed labour.

  1. Rapid and spontaneous recovery in autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Pargaonkar, Amol

    2009-01-01

    Recovery in autistic disorder is rare. There are few reports of recovery from autistic disorder after a few years of therapeutic intervention. We report here a case of autistic disorder who recovered spontaneously without any intervention in 13 days.

  2. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  3. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  4. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  5. Embedding responses in spontaneous neural activity shaped through sequential learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Kurikawa

    Full Text Available Recent experimental measurements have demonstrated that spontaneous neural activity in the absence of explicit external stimuli has remarkable spatiotemporal structure. This spontaneous activity has also been shown to play a key role in the response to external stimuli. To better understand this role, we proposed a viewpoint, "memories-as-bifurcations," that differs from the traditional "memories-as-attractors" viewpoint. Memory recall from the memories-as-bifurcations viewpoint occurs when the spontaneous neural activity is changed to an appropriate output activity upon application of an input, known as a bifurcation in dynamical systems theory, wherein the input modifies the flow structure of the neural dynamics. Learning, then, is a process that helps create neural dynamical systems such that a target output pattern is generated as an attractor upon a given input. Based on this novel viewpoint, we introduce in this paper an associative memory model with a sequential learning process. Using a simple hebbian-type learning, the model is able to memorize a large number of input/output mappings. The neural dynamics shaped through the learning exhibit different bifurcations to make the requested targets stable upon an increase in the input, and the neural activity in the absence of input shows chaotic dynamics with occasional approaches to the memorized target patterns. These results suggest that these dynamics facilitate the bifurcations to each target attractor upon application of the corresponding input, which thus increases the capacity for learning. This theoretical finding about the behavior of the spontaneous neural activity is consistent with recent experimental observations in which the neural activity without stimuli wanders among patterns evoked by previously applied signals. In addition, the neural networks shaped by learning properly reflect the correlations of input and target-output patterns in a similar manner to those designed in

  6. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  7. Spontaneously broken global symmetries and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.; Vilenkin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Phase transitions associated with spontaneously broken global symmetries, in case these occur in nature, can have important cosmological implications. This is illustrated through two examples. The first one shows how the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry, present, for instance, in the minimal SU(5) model, can lead to an inflationary phase. The second example illustrates how topologically stable strings associated with the breaking of U(1) symmetry make an appearance at (or near) the end of the inflationary era

  8. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Manoranjan Dash; Thitta Mohanty; Jyoti Patnaik; Narayan Mishra; Saswat Subhankar; Priyadarsini Parida

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a ra...

  9. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  10. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  11. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  12. Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking

  13. Spontaneous activity in the developing mammalian retina: Form and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Daniel Allison

    Spontaneous neuronal activity is present in the immature mammalian retina during the initial stages of visual system development, before the retina is responsive to light. This activity consists of bursts of action potentials fired by retinal ganglion cells, and propagates in a wavelike manner across the inner plexiform layer of the retina. Unlike waves in other neural systems, retinal waves have large variability in both their rate and direction of propagation, and individual waves only propagate across small regions of the retina. The unique properties of retinal activity arise from dynamic processes within the developing retina, and produce characteristic spatiotemporal properties. These spatiotemporal properties are of particular interest, since they are believed to play a role in visual system development. This dissertation addresses the complex spatiotemporal patterning of the retinal waves from two different perspectives. First, it proposes how the immature circuitry of the developing retina generates these patterns of activity. In order to reproduce the distinct spatiotemporal properties observed in experiments, a model of the immature retinal circuitry must meet certain requirements, which are satisfied by a coarse-grained model of the developing retina that we propose. Second, this dissertation addresses how the particular spatiotemporal patterning of the retinal waves provides information to the rest of the visual system and, as a result, can be used to guide visual system development. By measuring the properties of this information, we place constraints on the developmental mechanisms that use this activity, and show how the particular spatiotemporal properties of the retinal waves provide this information. Together, this dissertation demonstrates how the apparent complexity of retinal wave patterning can be understood both through the immature circuitry that generates it, and through the developmental mechanisms that may use it. The first three

  14. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  15. Kinetics of spontaneous baryogenesis in non-stationary background

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbuzova Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of the cosmological baryon asymmetry in frameworks of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in detail. It is shown that the relation between baryonic chemical potential and the time derivative of the (pseudoGoldstone field essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks. Kinetic equation is modified and numerically solved in equilibrium for the case of time dependent external background or finite integration time to be applicable to the case when energy conservation law is formally violated.

  16. Typological Analysis of Buying Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Teodorescu

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The typology of buyers and buying actions contracts are specific categories of consumer behaviour, determining group buyers and buying actions in classes, to fragment the markets. Market fragmentation through buyer typoligy and/or segmentation is presently characterized by a multitude of theoretical approaches and are especially generated by the common practice in the respective business. These two concepts are used for the same purpose, the essential difference being their starting point: the segmentation fragments the markets as a whole, while the typology of the buyer and of buying actions generate classifications starting from individual cases.

  17. Aspirin attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures in the chronically epileptic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kun; Hu, Ming; Yuan, Bo; Liu, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yong

    2017-08-01

    Neuroinflammatory processes are pathologic hallmarks of both experimental and human epilepsy, and could be implicated in the neuronal hyperexcitability. Aspirin represents one of the non-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with fewer side effects in long-term application. This study was carried out to assess the anti-epileptic effects of aspirin when administered during the chronic stage of temporal lobe epilepsy [TLE] in mice. The alteration of hippocampal neurogenesis was also examined for raising a possible mechanism underlying the protective effect of anti-inflammatory treatment in the TLE. Two months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, the chronically epileptic mice were treated with aspirin (20 mg, 60 mg or 80 mg/kg) once a day for 10 weeks. Spontaneous recurrent seizures were monitored by video camera for 2 weeks. To evaluate the profile of hippocampal neurogenesis, the newly generated cells in the dentate gyrus were labeled by the proliferation marker BrdU. The newborn neurons that extended axons to CA3 area were visualized by cholera toxin B subunit retrograde tracing. Administration of aspirin with a dosage of 60 mg or 80 mg/kg initiated at 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus significantly reduced the frequency and duration of spontaneous recurrent seizures. Aspirin treatment also increased the number of newborn neurons with anatomic integration through improving the survival of the newly generated cells. Aspirin treatment during the chronic stage of TLE could attenuate the spontaneous recurrent seizures in mice. Promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibition of COX-PGE2 pathway might partly contribute to this anti-epileptic effect. Highlights • Aspirin attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures of chronically epileptic mice • Aspirin increases neurogenesis of chronically epileptic hippocampus by improving the survival of newly generated cells • Promotion of hippocampal neurogenesis and inhibition

  18. Learning progressions from a sociocultural perspective: response to "co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tytler, Russell

    2016-10-01

    This article discusses a case for a different, socio-cultural way of looking at learning progressions as treated in the next generation science standards (NGSS) as described by Ralph Cordova and Phyllis Balcerzak's paper "Co-constructing cultural landscapes for disciplinary learning in and out of school: the next generation science standards and learning progressions in action". The paper is interesting for a number of reasons, and in this response I will identify different aspects of the paper and link the points made to my own research, and that of colleagues, as complementary perspectives. First, the way that the science curriculum is conceived as an expanding experience that moves from the classroom into the community, across subjects, and across time, links to theoretical positions on disciplinary literacies and notions of learning as apprenticeship into the discursive tools, or `habits of mind' as the authors put it, that underpin disciplinary practice. Second, the formulation of progression through widening communities of practice is a strong feature of the paper, and shows how children take on the role of scientists through this expanding exposure. I will link this approach to some of our own work with school—community science partnerships, drawing on the construct of boundary crossing to tease out relations between school science and professional practice. Third, the demonstration of the expansion of the children's view of what scientists do is well documented in the paper, illustrated by Figure 13 for instance. However I will, in this response, try to draw out and respond to what the paper is saying about the nature of progression; what the progression consists of, over what temporal or spatial dimensions it progresses, and how it can productively frame curriculum processes.

  19. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari Rudina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks – Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss – Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  20. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina

    2018-03-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  1. SPONTANEOUS PNEUMOPERITONEUM IN A SEVEN DAY OLD INFANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franky Luhulima

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The term pneumoperitoneum is used to describe the presence of free gas  or air within the peritoneal cavity. Spontaneous pneumoperitoneum or “non-surgical” pneumoperitoneum is a pneumoperitoneum. not associated with a perforated viscus. This pneumoperitoneum   is rare at any pediatric age. In the pediatric population, nonsurgical pneumoperitoneum occurs in 1% to 3% of mechanically ventilated infants, depend on the mode of the ventilation. Pneumoperitoneum without gastrointestinal perforation on the other hand is very rare, and this is usually seen in neonates with respiratory distress and on mechanically ventilator or CPAP. We reported a case of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum in a seven day old infant . The infant presented with a sudden abdominal distention and dyspnea. Plain abdominal x-ray showed a radiolucency image in the superior abdomen. In this patient is done the act of a needle aspirations for drainage air in the peritonium. This patient recovered well a[er done such action by pediatric surgical

  2. Real-time relationship between PKA biochemical signal network dynamics and increased action potential firing rate in heart pacemaker cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaniv, Yael; Ganesan, Ambhighainath; Yang, Dongmei; Ziman, Bruce D.; Lyashkov, Alexey E.; Levchenko, Andre; Zhang, Jin; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    cAMP-PKA protein kinase is a key nodal signaling pathway that regulates a wide range of heart pacemaker cell functions. These functions are predicted to be involved in regulation of spontaneous action potential (AP) generation of these cells. Here we investigate if the kinetics and stoichiometry of increase in PKA activity match the increase in AP firing rate in response to β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation or phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibition, that alter the AP firing rate of heart sinoatrial pacemaker cells. In cultured adult rabbit pacemaker cells infected with an adenovirous expressing the FRET sensor AKAR3, the EC50 in response to graded increases in the intensity of β-AR stimulation (by Isoproterenol) the magnitude of the increases in PKA activity and the spontaneous AP firing rate were similar (0.4±0.1nM vs. 0.6±0.15nM, respectively). Moreover, the kinetics (t1/2) of the increases in PKA activity and spontaneous AP firing rate in response to β-AR stimulation or PDE inhibition were tightly linked. We characterized the system rate-limiting biochemical reactions by integrating these experimentally derived data into mechanistic-computational model. Model simulations predicted that phospholamban phosphorylation is a potent target of the increase in PKA activity that links to increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. In summary, the kinetics and stoichiometry of increases in PKA activity in response to a physiological (β-AR stimulation) or pharmacological (PDE inhibitor) stimuli match those of changes in the AP firing rate. Thus Ca2+-cAMP/PKA-dependent phosphorylation limits the rate and magnitude of increase in spontaneous AP firing rate. PMID:26241846

  3. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  4. Patchwork-Type Spontaneous Activity in Neonatal Barrel Cortex Layer 4 Transmitted via Thalamocortical Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Mizuno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Establishment of precise neuronal connectivity in the neocortex relies on activity-dependent circuit reorganization during postnatal development; however, the nature of cortical activity during this period remains largely unknown. Using two-photon calcium imaging of the barrel cortex in vivo during the first postnatal week, we reveal that layer 4 (L4 neurons within the same barrel fire synchronously in the absence of peripheral stimulation, creating a “patchwork” pattern of spontaneous activity corresponding to the barrel map. By generating transgenic mice expressing GCaMP6s in thalamocortical axons, we show that thalamocortical axons also demonstrate the spontaneous patchwork activity pattern. Patchwork activity is diminished by peripheral anesthesia but is mostly independent of self-generated whisker movements. The patchwork activity pattern largely disappeared during postnatal week 2, as even L4 neurons within the same barrel tended to fire asynchronously. This spontaneous L4 activity pattern has features suitable for thalamocortical (TC circuit refinement in the neonatal barrel cortex. : By two-photon calcium imaging of layer 4 neurons and thalamocortical axon terminals in neonatal mouse barrel cortex, Mizuno et al. find a patchwork-like spontaneous activity pattern corresponding to the barrel map, which may be important for thalamocortical circuit maturation. Keywords: activity-dependent development, spontaneous activity, synchronized activity, barrel cortex, thalamocortical axons, neonates, in vivo calcium imaging, awake, single-cell labeling, whisker monitoring

  5. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  6. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  7. Short communication. A spontaneous mutant of L-202 rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Yzaguire, A.; Padrones, T.

    2009-07-01

    A new spontaneous phenotype of the rice cultivar L-202 was found. Mendelian analysis indicates that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. The objectives of this study were: to characterize it, to determine if it is heritable and if so, its genetic basis. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. Selfing the new phenotype resulted in a uniform progeny, with the traits of the parent plant (wild type). Crossing the new phenotype with the normal L-202 cultivar resulted in a uniform F1 hybrid generation, with the wild type. The F2 generation showed a mendelian segregation which did not depart significantly from three normal plants : one new phenotype. It is concluded that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. (Author) 3 refs.

  8. Spontaneous dispersion of PdO onto acid sites of zeolites studied by in situ DXAFS

    CERN Document Server

    Okumura, K; Niwa, M; Yokota, S; Kato, K; Tanida, H; Uruga, T

    2003-01-01

    The generation of highly dispersed PdO over zeolite supports was studied using in situ energy-dispersive XAFS (DXAFS) technique. From the comparison with the Na-ZSM-5, it was found that the oxidation as well as the spontaneous dispersion of Pd was promoted through the interaction between PdO and acid sites of H-form zeolites. (author)

  9. AMPLITUDE FLUCTUATIONS OF SPONTANEOUS OTOACOUSTIC EMISSIONS CAUSED BY INTERNAL AND EXTERNALLY APPLIED NOISE SOURCES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIT, HP

    1993-01-01

    The simplest description for the generator of a spontaneous otoacoustic emission (SOAE) is that of a single (isolated) limit-cycle oscillator. Evidence is given that this description is too simple. And it is concluded that study of systems of coupled oscillators is needed to obtain more insight in

  10. General theory for spontaneous emission in active dielectric microstructures: Example of a fiber amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    A model for spontaneous emission in active dielectric microstructures is given in terms of the classical electric field Green's tensor and the quantum-mechanical operators for the generating currents. A formalism is given for calculating the Green's tensor, which does not rely on the existence...

  11. Dynamic spatial structure of spontaneous beams in photorefractive bismuth sillicon oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Lyuksyutov, S.; Vasnetsov, M.

    1996-01-01

    We report the domain structure of spontaneously occurring beams (subharmonics) in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide with an applied electric field from 1 to 6 kV/cm and a running grating. The subharmonic beams are generated in a pattern of domains that evolve dynamically as they move through ...

  12. Estimates of the rate and distribution of fitness effects of spontaneous mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyl, C.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    The per-genome, per-generation rate of spontaneous mutation affecting fitness (U) and the mean fitness cost per mutation (s) are important parameters in evolutionary genetics, but have been estimated for few species. We estimated U and sh (the heterozygous effect of mutations) for two diploid yeast

  13. Kv1.1 knock-in ataxic mice exhibit spontaneous myokymic activity exacerbated by fatigue, ischemia and low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Orazio; Imbrici, Paola; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico; D'Adamo, Maria Cristina; Valentino, Mario; Zammit, Christian; Mora, Marina; Gibertini, Sara; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe; Muscat, Richard; Pessia, Mauro

    2012-09-01

    Episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) is an autosomal dominant neurological disorder characterized by myokymia and attacks of ataxic gait often precipitated by stress. Several genetic mutations have been identified in the Shaker-like K(+) channel Kv1.1 (KCNA1) of EA1 individuals, including V408A, which result in remarkable channel dysfunction. By inserting the heterozygous V408A, mutation in one Kv1.1 allele, a mouse model of EA1 has been generated (Kv1.1(V408A/+)). Here, we investigated the neuromuscular transmission of Kv1.1(V408A/+) ataxic mice and their susceptibility to physiologically relevant stressors. By using in vivo preparations of lateral gastrocnemius (LG) nerve-muscle from Kv1.1(+/+) and Kv1.1(V408A/+) mice, we show that the mutant animals exhibit spontaneous myokymic discharges consisting of repeated singlets, duplets or multiplets, despite motor nerve axotomy. Two-photon laser scanning microscopy from the motor nerve, ex vivo, revealed spontaneous Ca(2+) signals that occurred abnormally only in preparations dissected from Kv1.1(V408A/+) mice. Spontaneous bursting activity, as well as that evoked by sciatic nerve stimulation, was exacerbated by muscle fatigue, ischemia and low temperatures. These stressors also increased the amplitude of compound muscle action potential. Such abnormal neuromuscular transmission did not alter fiber type composition, neuromuscular junction and vascularization of LG muscle, analyzed by light and electron microscopy. Taken together these findings provide direct evidence that identifies the motor nerve as an important generator of myokymic activity, that dysfunction of Kv1.1 channels alters Ca(2+) homeostasis in motor axons, and also strongly suggest that muscle fatigue contributes more than PNS fatigue to exacerbate the myokymia/neuromyotonia phenotype. More broadly, this study points out that juxtaparanodal K(+) channels composed of Kv1.1 subunits exert an important role in dampening the excitability of motor nerve axons during

  14. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  15. On the membrane paradigm and spontaneous breaking of horizon BMS symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eling, Christopher; Oz, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    We consider a BMS-type symmetry action on isolated horizons in asymptotically flat spacetimes. From the viewpoint of the non-relativistic field theory on a horizon membrane, supertranslations shift the field theory spatial momentum. The latter is related by a Ward identity to the particle number symmetry current and is spontaneously broken. The corresponding Goldstone boson shifts the horizon angular momentum and can be detected quantum mechanically. Similarly, area preserving superrotations are spontaneously broken on the horizon membrane and we identify the corresponding gapless modes. In asymptotically AdS spacetimes we study the BMS-type symmetry action on the horizon in a holographic superfluid dual. We identify the horizon supertranslation Goldstone boson as the holographic superfluid Goldstone mode.

  16. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  17. Glycemia in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  18. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  19. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  20. Spontaneous Bilateral Meningoencephalocoeles of the Temporal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Rose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous tegmen tympani defects are rare with even rarer bilateral cases. The symptoms are nonspecific; hence, a high index of suspicion is required to prevent serious intracranial complications. We present a case of spontaneous bilateral tegmen tympani defects with associated meningoencephalocoeles in a 54-year-old male who presented with the signs and symptoms of severe meningitis. After careful workup which included a lumbar puncture, CT and MRI scans, both defects were repaired using a middle fossa approach. The patient made an uneventful recovery with complete cessation of otorrhoea and improvement in his hearing.

  1. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  2. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Thitta; Patnaik, Jyoti; Mishra, Narayan; Subhankar, Saswat; Parida, Priyadarsini

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a rare entity in a middle-aged male.

  3. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-12-01

    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Salvatore; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2018-07-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the plantar fascia are uncommon injuries. They typically occur at its calcaneal insertion and usually represent a complication of plantar fasciitis and local treatment with steroid injections. In contrast, distal ruptures commonly result from traumatic injuries. We describe the case of a spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia in a 48-year-old woman with a low level of physical activity and no history of direct injury to the foot, plantar fasciitis, or steroid injections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  6. Bradycardia after Tube Thoracostomy for Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomi Fashola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an elderly patient who became bradycardic after chest tube insertion for spontaneous pneumothorax. Arrhythmia is a rare complication of tube thoracostomy. Unlike other reported cases of chest tube induced arrhythmias, the bradycardia in our patient responded to resuscitative measures without removal or repositioning of the tube. Our patient, who had COPD, presented with shortness of breath due to spontaneous pneumothorax. Moments after tube insertion, patient developed severe bradycardia that responded to Atropine. In patients requiring chest tube insertion, it is important to be prepared to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitative therapy in case the patient develops a life-threatening arrhythmia.

  7. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Dash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a rare entity in a middle-aged male.

  8. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon

    2014-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  9. Localization of the relative position of two atoms induced by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Sun, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    We reexamine the back-action of emitted photons on the wave packet evolution about the relative position of two cold atoms. We show that photon recoil resulting from the spontaneous emission can induce the localization of the relative position of the two atoms through the entanglement between the spatial motion of individual atoms and their emitted photons. The obtained result provides a more realistic model for the analysis of the environment-induced localization of a macroscopic object

  10. Spontaneous giving and calculated greed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, David G; Greene, Joshua D; Nowak, Martin A

    2012-09-20

    Cooperation is central to human social behaviour. However, choosing to cooperate requires individuals to incur a personal cost to benefit others. Here we explore the cognitive basis of cooperative decision-making in humans using a dual-process framework. We ask whether people are predisposed towards selfishness, behaving cooperatively only through active self-control; or whether they are intuitively cooperative, with reflection and prospective reasoning favouring 'rational' self-interest. To investigate this issue, we perform ten studies using economic games. We find that across a range of experimental designs, subjects who reach their decisions more quickly are more cooperative. Furthermore, forcing subjects to decide quickly increases contributions, whereas instructing them to reflect and forcing them to decide slowly decreases contributions. Finally, an induction that primes subjects to trust their intuitions increases contributions compared with an induction that promotes greater reflection. To explain these results, we propose that cooperation is intuitive because cooperative heuristics are developed in daily life where cooperation is typically advantageous. We then validate predictions generated by this proposed mechanism. Our results provide convergent evidence that intuition supports cooperation in social dilemmas, and that reflection can undermine these cooperative impulses.

  11. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie, Patricia; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; De Scorbiac, Marie; Du Repaire, Philippine

    2011-01-01

    On December 12, 2011, Luc Oursel, Executive Officer of AREVA, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Executive Officer, presented the group's 'Action 2016' strategic action plan based on an in-depth analysis of the market's outlook. This document makes, first, a Detailed presentation of the 'Action 2016' plan and then presents the group's financial outlook: - Full-year 2011 immediate accounting consequences of the new market environment: operating losses expected in 2011; - 2012-2013 transition period Objective: self-finance capex in cumulative terms; - 2014-2016: safe growth and cash generation, free operating cash flow at break-even beginning in 2013, above euro 1 bn per year beginning in 2015

  12. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Hayder; Maccione, Alessandro; Nieus, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs), interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities) that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity. PMID:28749937

  13. Recurrently connected and localized neuronal communities initiate coordinated spontaneous activity in neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Lonardoni

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Developing neuronal systems intrinsically generate coordinated spontaneous activity that propagates by involving a large number of synchronously firing neurons. In vivo, waves of spikes transiently characterize the activity of developing brain circuits and are fundamental for activity-dependent circuit formation. In vitro, coordinated spontaneous spiking activity, or network bursts (NBs, interleaved within periods of asynchronous spikes emerge during the development of 2D and 3D neuronal cultures. Several studies have investigated this type of activity and its dynamics, but how a neuronal system generates these coordinated events remains unclear. Here, we investigate at a cellular level the generation of network bursts in spontaneously active neuronal cultures by exploiting high-resolution multielectrode array recordings and computational network modelling. Our analysis reveals that NBs are generated in specialized regions of the network (functional neuronal communities that feature neuronal links with high cross-correlation peak values, sub-millisecond lags and that share very similar structural connectivity motifs providing recurrent interactions. We show that the particular properties of these local structures enable locally amplifying spontaneous asynchronous spikes and that this mechanism can lead to the initiation of NBs. Through the analysis of simulated and experimental data, we also show that AMPA currents drive the coordinated activity, while NMDA and GABA currents are only involved in shaping the dynamics of NBs. Overall, our results suggest that the presence of functional neuronal communities with recurrent local connections allows a neuronal system to generate spontaneous coordinated spiking activity events. As suggested by the rules used for implementing our computational model, such functional communities might naturally emerge during network development by following simple constraints on distance-based connectivity.

  14. The 'spontaneous' acoustic emission of the shock front in a perfect fluid: solving a riddle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Louis

    2013-06-01

    In the fifties, S. D'yakov discovered that theory allows for suitable EOS shock fronts to emit acoustic waves 'spontaneously'. Section 90 of Fluid Mechanics of Landau and Lifshitz, 2. Ed., deals with the phenomenon, leaving it unexplained. This open question was chosen to introduce a monograph in progress about 'the shock front in the perfect fluid'. The novelty of our approach consists in having the phenomenon generated - which means it is non-spontaneous -- from an appropriate solicitation of the front and studying its development analytically. The non classical source and mechanism of the emission are thus brought to light. (author)

  15. Spontaneous fragmentation of an alpha-active ceramic: a mechanism for dispersion of solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinard, F.W. Jr.; Rohr, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    Studies underway to characterize spontaneous fragmentation in 238 PuO 2 and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible are reported. Results reported here show that: spontaneous fragmentation of 238 PuO 2 generates a wide range of particle sizes, from a few mm to 1000 A or less; the phenomenon may continue with time or may saturate, depending on starting material; the magnitude of the effect is dependent on storage environment. Neither thermal stresses nor lattice damage appear to be solely responsible for fragmentation, but radiolysis of the environment could play an important role. Work is continuing in an effort to identify the controlling factors in this phenomenon

  16. Techniques for Liquid Rocket Combustion Spontaneous Stability and Rough Combustion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. J.; Giacomoni, C.; Casiano, M. J.; Fischbach, S. R.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents techniques for liquid rocket engine combustion stability assessments with respect to spontaneous stability and rough combustion. Techniques covering empirical parameter extraction, which were established in prior works, are applied for three additional programs: the F-1 Gas Generator (F1GG) component test program, the RS-84 preburner component test program, and the Marshall Integrated Test Rig (MITR) program. Stability assessment parameters from these programs are compared against prior established spontaneous stability metrics and updates are identified. Also, a procedure for comparing measured with predicted mode shapes is presented, based on an extension of the Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC).

  17. Interference, reduced action, and trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd, Edward R.

    2006-01-01

    Instead of investigating the interference between two stationary, rectilinear wave functions in a trajectory representation by examining the two rectilinear wave functions individually, we examine a dichromatic wave function that is synthesized from the two interfering wave functions. The physics of interference is contained in the reduced action for the dichromatic wave function. As this reduced action is a generator of the motion for the dichromatic wave function, it determines the dichroma...

  18. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  19. Spatial Memory in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontag, Thomas-A.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Hauser, Joachim; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W.

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory.

  20. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  1. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory evaluation indicated that the techniques of nixtamalization, fermentation and cowpea fortification used for the processing of the products did not influence their acceptability by the panel. Nixtamalized maize can therefore be subjected to spontaneous fermentation with cowpea fortification to enhance the functional, ...

  2. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  3. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  4. Spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Nikolaidis, I.; Dimakakos, P.

    1986-01-01

    A case of a spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli communication is presented in a 65 year old patient who was admitted to the Hospital with severe abdominal pain simulating a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The diagnosis was suspected on a CT examination and established by a free flow aortogram and selective catheterization of the cisterna chyli through the aorta. (orig.)

  5. Spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Nikolaidis, I.; Dimakakos, P.

    1986-02-01

    A case of a spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli communication is presented in a 65 year old patient who was admitted to the Hospital with severe abdominal pain simulating a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The diagnosis was suspected on a CT examination and established by a free flow aortogram and selective catheterization of the cisterna chyli through the aorta. (orig.).

  6. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  7. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.

    2008-01-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  8. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  9. Spontaneous emission from active dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    and engineered due to the dependence of the emission rate on the location and polarisation of the emitters in the structure. This paper addresses the methods of quantum electrodynamics of dielectric media which enable calculation of the local rate of spontaneous emission in active microstructures....

  10. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  11. Spontaneous fluxoid formation in superconducting loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Rivers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the experimental verification of the Zurek-Kibble scenario in an isolated superconducting ring over a wide parameter range. The probability of creating a single flux quantum spontaneously during the fast normal-superconducting phase transition of a wide Nb loop clearly follows...

  12. A Spontaneous Joint Infection with Corynebacterium striatum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scholle, David

    2006-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a ubiquitous saprophyte with the potential to cause bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Until now, spontaneous infection of a natural joint has not been reported. When phenotyping failed, gene sequencing was used to identify the species. The isolate demonstrated high-level resistance to most antibiotics.

  13. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N = 2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    A model describing the interaction of N = 2 supergravity with a vector and a linear multiplet is constructed. The model admits the introduction of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking with two arbitrary scales, one of which can be equal to zero, corresponding to the partial super-Higgs effect (N = 2→N = 1). The cosmological term is automatically equal to zero

  15. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole brains were removed and the medial prefrontal cortex excised and processed for histomorphologic studies by haematoxylin and eosin, and cresyl fast violet techniques. Neurobehavioural test revealed less spontaneous alternation in 156 mg/kg Allium sativum group, while the prefrontal cortices of the test groups ...

  16. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  17. Spontaneously broken version of N=4 supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special scenario of reduction from the space of D=10 dimensions is used to construct the theory with describes interaction of supergravity with only one multiplet of matter in the framework of spontaneously broken N=4 supersymmetry. 6 refs.; 1 fig

  18. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianta, M.; Varma, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  19. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  20. Starting and Stopping Spontaneous Family Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…

  1. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  2. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm

    2017-05-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  3. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  4. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  5. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  6. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  7. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  8. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  9. On the Action of the Radiation Field Generated by a Traveling-Wave Element and Its Connection to the Time Energy Uncertainty Principle, Elementary Charge and the Fine Structure Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Cooray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we published two papers in this journal. One of the papers dealt with the action of the radiation fields generated by a traveling-wave element and the other dealt with the momentum transferred by the same radiation fields and their connection to the time energy uncertainty principle. The traveling-wave element is defined as a conductor through which a current pulse propagates with the speed of light in free space from one end of the conductor to the other without attenuation. The goal of this letter is to combine the information provided in these two papers together and make conclusive statements concerning the connection between the energy dissipated by the radiation fields, the time energy uncertainty principle and the elementary charge. As we will show here, the results presented in these two papers, when combined together, show that the time energy uncertainty principle can be applied to the classical radiation emitted by a traveling-wave element and it results in the prediction that the smallest charge associated with the current that can be detected using radiated energy as a vehicle is on the order of the elementary charge. Based on the results, an expression for the fine structure constant is obtained. This is the first time that an order of magnitude estimation of the elementary charge based on electromagnetic radiation fields is obtained. Even though the results obtained in this paper have to be considered as order of magnitude estimations, a strict interpretation of the derived equations shows that the fine structure constant or the elementary charge may change as the size or the age of the universe increases.

  10. Ontario's energy action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    In the fall of 2002, the government of Ontario announced an action plan designed to ensure stable electricity prices while additional electricity generating capacity is built. The action plan included a strategy for encouraging major private sector investments in wind, solar and other renewable energy sources. The strategies for new renewable energy projects include: property tax incentives, business income tax incentives, and sales tax rebates. Initiatives to increase supply include: Toronto's Portland 550 megawatt, natural gas-fired generating station, Niagara Falls' Beck Tunnel Project, and Windsor's 580 megawatt natural gas-fired generating station. The government is promoting energy conservation by reducing its electricity consumption by 10 per cent, and setting a target where 20 per cent of electricity consumed in the province must be from renewable energy sources. The use of interval meters by Ontario residents is being encouraged. A provincial sales tax rebate is being offered to customers buying select energy efficient appliances. In its commitment to environmental protection, the Ontario government is phasing out coal, offering rebates for solar energy systems, implementing measures to reduce acid rain, and investing $3.25 billion over ten years to renew and expand public transit. In Chatham, Ontario, a plant producing ethanol from corn was built, and others are planned for other parts of the province. Tax incentives are also offered for alternative fuel users. 1 ref., 1 tab

  11. Action potential bursts in central snail neurons elicited by paeonol: roles of ionic currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-hung; Lin, Pei-lin; Hsu, Hui-yu; Wu, Ya-ting; Yang, Han-yin; Lu, Dah-yuu; Huang, Shiang-suo; Hsieh, Ching-liang; Lin, Jaung-geng

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of 2′-hydroxy-4′-methoxyacetophenone (paeonol) on the electrophysiological behavior of a central neuron (right parietal 4; RP4) of the giant African snail (Achatina fulica Ferussac). Methods: Intracellular recordings and the two-electrode voltage clamp method were used to study the effects of paeonol on the RP4 neuron. Results: The RP4 neuron generated spontaneous action potentials. Bath application of paeonol at a concentration of ≥500 μmol/L reversibly elicited action potential bursts in a concentration-dependent manner. Immersing the neurons in Co2+-substituted Ca2+-free solution did not block paeonol-elicited bursting. Pretreatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 or the protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor Ro 31-8220 did not affect the action potential bursts. Voltage-clamp studies revealed that paeonol at a concentration of 500 μmol/L had no remarkable effects on the total inward currents, whereas paeonol decreased the delayed rectifying K+ current (IKD) and the fast-inactivating K+ current (IA). Application of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP 5 mmol/L), an inhibitor of IA, or charybdotoxin 250 nmol/L, an inhibitor of the Ca2+-activated K+ current (IK(Ca)), failed to elicit action potential bursts, whereas tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA 50 mmol/L), an IKD blocker, successfully elicited action potential bursts. At a lower concentration of 5 mmol/L, TEA facilitated the induction of action potential bursts elicited by paeonol. Conclusion: Paeonol elicited a bursting firing pattern of action potentials in the RP4 neuron and this activity relates closely to the inhibitory effects of paeonol on the IKD. PMID:21042287

  12. Computer algorithms for automated detection and analysis of local Ca2+ releases in spontaneously beating cardiac pacemaker cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Maltsev

    Full Text Available Local Ca2+ Releases (LCRs are crucial events involved in cardiac pacemaker cell function. However, specific algorithms for automatic LCR detection and analysis have not been developed in live, spontaneously beating pacemaker cells. In the present study we measured LCRs using a high-speed 2D-camera in spontaneously contracting sinoatrial (SA node cells isolated from rabbit and guinea pig and developed a new algorithm capable of detecting and analyzing the LCRs spatially in two-dimensions, and in time. Our algorithm tracks points along the midline of the contracting cell. It uses these points as a coordinate system for affine transform, producing a transformed image series where the cell does not contract. Action potential-induced Ca2+ transients and LCRs were thereafter isolated from recording noise by applying a series of spatial filters. The LCR birth and death events were detected by a differential (frame-to-frame sensitivity algorithm applied to each pixel (cell location. An LCR was detected when its signal changes sufficiently quickly within a sufficiently large area. The LCR is considered to have died when its amplitude decays substantially, or when it merges into the rising whole cell Ca2+ transient. Ultimately, our algorithm provides major LCR parameters such as period, signal mass, duration, and propagation path area. As the LCRs propagate within live cells, the algorithm identifies splitting and merging behaviors, indicating the importance of locally propagating Ca2+-induced-Ca2+-release for the fate of LCRs and for generating a powerful ensemble Ca2+ signal. Thus, our new computer algorithms eliminate motion artifacts and detect 2D local spatiotemporal events from recording noise and global signals. While the algorithms were developed to detect LCRs in sinoatrial nodal cells, they have the potential to be used in other applications in biophysics and cell physiology, for example, to detect Ca2+ wavelets (abortive waves, sparks and

  13. Assessing Spontaneous Combustion Instability with Nonlinear Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhart, C. J.; Casiano, M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Considerable interest lies in the ability to characterize the onset of spontaneous instabilities within liquid propellant rocket engine (LPRE) combustion devices. Linear techniques, such as fast Fourier transforms, various correlation parameters, and critical damping parameters, have been used at great length for over fifty years. Recently, nonlinear time series methods have been applied to deduce information pertaining to instability incipiency hidden in seemingly stochastic combustion noise. A technique commonly used in biological sciences known as the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis has been extended to the combustion dynamics field, and is introduced here as a data analysis approach complementary to linear ones. Advancing, a modified technique is leveraged to extract artifacts of impending combustion instability that present themselves a priori growth to limit cycle amplitudes. Analysis is demonstrated on data from J-2X gas generator testing during which a distinct spontaneous instability was observed. Comparisons are made to previous work wherein the data were characterized using linear approaches. Verification of the technique is performed by examining idealized signals and comparing two separate, independently developed tools.

  14. Dynamical Compactification as a Mechanism of Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    1997-01-01

    Supersymmetry breaking and compactification of extra space-time dimensions may have a common dynamical origin if our universe is spontaneously generated in the form of a four-dimensional topological or non-topological defect in higher dimensional space-time. Within such an approach the conventional particles are zero modes trapped in the core of the defect. In many cases solutions of this type spontaneously break all supersymmetries of the original theory, so that the low-energy observer from ``our'' universe inside the core would not detect supersymmetry. Since the extra dimensions are not compact but, rather, inaccessible to low-energy observers, the usual infinite tower of the Kaluza-Klein excitations does not exist. Production of superpartners at the energy scale of SUSY restoration will be accompanied by four-momentum non-conservation. (Depending on the nature of the solution at hand, the non-conservation may either happen above some threshold energy or be continuous). In either case, the door to extra d...

  15. Effective potential for spontaneously broken gauge theories and gauge hierarchies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, T.; Ovrut, B.

    1979-01-01

    The Appelquist-Carazzone effective-field-theory method, where one uses effective light-field coupling constants dependent on the heavy-field sector, is explicitly shown to be valid for the discussion of the gauge-hierarchy problem in grand unified gauge models. Using the method of functionals we derive an expression for the one-loop approximation to the scalar-field effective potential for spontaneously broken theories in an arbitrary R/sub xi/ gauge. We argue that this potential generates, through its derivatives, valid zero-momentum, one-particle-irreducible vertices for any value of xi (not just the xi→infinity Landau gauge). The equation that the one-loop vacuum correction must satisfy is presented, and we solve this equation for a number of spontaneously broken theories including gauge theories with gauge groups U(1) and SO(3). We find that a one-loop vacuum shift in a massless, non-Goldstone direction occurs via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism with an effective coupling constant dependent on the heavy-field sector

  16. Volatile Compounds and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Spontaneous Fermented Sourdough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, W.Y.; Aida, W.M.W.; Sahilah, A.M.; Maskat, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the predominating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in a spontaneous fermented wheat sourdough. At the same time, an investigation towards volatile compounds that were produced was also carried out. Lactobacillus plantarum has been identified as the dominant species of lactobacilli with characters of a facultative heterofermentative strain. The generated volatile compounds that were produced during spontaneous fermentation were isolated by solvent extraction method, analysed by gas chromatography (GC), and identified by mass spectrophotometer (MS). Butyric acid has been found to be the main volatile compound with relative abundance of 6.75 % and acetic acid at relative abundance of 3.60 %. Esters that were formed at relatively low amount were butyl formate (1.23 %) and cis 3 hexenyl propionate (0.05 %). Butanol was also found at low amount with relative abundance of 0.60 %. The carbohydrate metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum may contributed to the production of acetic acid in this study via further catabolism activity on lactic acid that was produced. However, butyric acid was not the major product via fermentation by LAB but mostly carried out by the genus Clostridium via carbohydrate metabolism which needs further investigation. (author)

  17. Recruitment of Perisomatic Inhibition during Spontaneous Hippocampal Activity In Vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Beyeler

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that perisomatic GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs originating from basket and chandelier cells can be recorded as population IPSPs from the hippocampal pyramidal layer using extracellular electrodes (eIPSPs. Taking advantage of this approach, we have investigated the recruitment of perisomatic inhibition during spontaneous hippocampal activity in vitro. Combining intracellular and extracellular recordings from pyramidal cells and interneurons, we confirm that inhibitory signals generated by basket cells can be recorded extracellularly, but our results suggest that, during spontaneous activity, eIPSPs are mostly confined to the CA3 rather than CA1 region. CA3 eIPSPs produced the powerful time-locked inhibition of multi-unit activity expected from perisomatic inhibition. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of spike discharges relative to eIPSPs suggests significant but moderate recruitment of excitatory and inhibitory neurons within the CA3 network on a 10 ms time scale, within which neurons recruit each other through recurrent collaterals and trigger powerful feedback inhibition. Such quantified parameters of neuronal interactions in the hippocampal network may serve as a basis for future characterisation of pathological conditions potentially affecting the interactions between excitation and inhibition in this circuit.

  18. The timing statistics of spontaneous calcium release in cardiac myocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Asfaw

    Full Text Available A variety of cardiac arrhythmias are initiated by a focal excitation that disrupts the regular beating of the heart. In some cases it is known that these excitations are due to calcium (Ca release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR via propagating subcellular Ca waves. However, it is not understood what are the physiological factors that determine the timing of these excitations at both the subcellular and tissue level. In this paper we apply analytic and numerical approaches to determine the timing statistics of spontaneous Ca release (SCR in a simplified model of a cardiac myocyte. In particular, we compute the mean first passage time (MFPT to SCR, in the case where SCR is initiated by spontaneous Ca sparks, and demonstrate that this quantity exhibits either an algebraic or exponential dependence on system parameters. Based on this analysis we identify the necessary requirements so that SCR occurs on a time scale comparable to the cardiac cycle. Finally, we study how SCR is synchronized across many cells in cardiac tissue, and identify a quantitative measure that determines the relative timing of SCR in an ensemble of cells. Using this approach we identify the physiological conditions so that cell-to-cell variations in the timing of SCR is small compared to the typical duration of an SCR event. We argue further that under these conditions inward currents due to SCR can summate and generate arrhythmogenic triggered excitations in cardiac tissue.

  19. Phenomenology of muon number violation in spontaneously broken gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanker, O.U.

    1980-01-01

    The phenomenology of muon number violation in gauge theories of weak and electromagnetic interactions is studied. In the first chapter a brief introduction to the concept of muon number and to spontaneously broken gauge theories is given. A review of the phenomenology and experimental situation regarding different muon number violating processes is made in the second chapter. A detailed phenomenological study of the μe conversion process μ - + (A,Z) → e - + (A,Z) is given in the third chapter. In the fourth chapter some specific gauge theories incorporating spontaneously broken horizontal gauge symmetries between different fermion generations are discussed with special reference to muon number violation in the theories. The μe conversion process seems to be a good process to search for muon number violation if it occurs. The K/sub L/-K/sub S/ mass difference is likely to constrain muon number violating rates to lie far below present experimental limits unless strangeness changing neutral currents changing strangeness by two units are suppressed

  20. Arsenic Trioxide Modulates the Central Snail Neuron Action Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Ling Lu

    2009-09-01

    Conclusion: As2O3 at 10 mM elicits BoPs in central snail neurons and this effect may relate to the PLC activity of the neuron, rather than protein kinase A activity, or calcium influxes of the neuron. As2O3 at higher concentration irreversibly abolishes the spontaneous action potentials of the neuron.

  1. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary metastases of synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Azevedo, C.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The association of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary tumor is uncommon and with pulmonary metastases is rare. The clinical and radiological features of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax from a synovial sarcoma in a 14 years old boy are described. (author) [pt

  2. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  3. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, G.; Cutler, A.

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners' experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ

  4. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...

  5. Thoracoscopic modified pleural tent for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Riken; Matsuwaki, Rie; Tachibana, Keisei; Karita, Shin; Nakazato, Yoko; Tanaka, Ryota; Nagashima, Yasushi; Takei, Hidefumi; Kondo, Haruhiko

    2016-08-01

    We developed a modified pleural tent (m-tent) procedure and used it in our hospital in almost 30 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. The objective of this study was to clarify the feasibility and effectiveness of a thoracoscopic m-tent for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. From July 2013 to November 2014, 107 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax were treated in our institution. Eighty-nine of these patients were analysed retrospectively. The inclusion criteria for thoracoscopic m-tent for spontaneous pneumothorax were multiple and widespread bullae, postoperative relapse and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The surgical procedures were usually performed through three ports. After bullectomy, an m-tent is made to strip the parietal pleura off the chest wall from about the level of the fourth or fifth rib to the apex, and two or three ligations are then applied to fix the pleural tent and lung parenchyma. Patients in whom an m-tent was not indicated underwent bullectomy plus coverage using absorbable materials. Twenty-seven patients underwent bullectomy plus m-tent (m-tent group) and 62 underwent bullectomy plus coverage over a staple line using an absorbable material such as a polyglycolic acid sheet or nitrocellulose sheet (coverage group). No severe postoperative complications were observed in either group. The m-tent and coverage groups showed significant differences in operation time (129 vs 86 min, mean), haemorrhage (12.8 vs 7.2 ml), postoperative hospital stay (3.7 vs 2.9 days) and postoperative painkiller intake (8.6 vs 6.8 days). Recurrence was observed in 1 (3.7%) and 2 patients (3.2%), respectively. The thoracoscopic m-tent procedure requires a longer operation, a longer hospital stay and greater painkiller intake. However, these differences are acceptable, and an m-tent should be considered as an option for pleural reinforcement in spontaneous pneumothorax, especially in patients who are complicated with severe pulmonary

  6. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low

  7. Mechanisms underlying odorant-induced and spontaneous calcium signals in olfactory receptor neurons of spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tizeta; Derby, Charles D; Schmidt, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We determined if a newly developed antennule slice preparation allows studying chemosensory properties of spiny lobster olfactory receptor neurons under in situ conditions with Ca(2+) imaging. We show that chemical stimuli reach the dendrites of olfactory receptor neurons but not their somata, and that odorant-induced Ca(2+) signals in the somata are sufficiently stable over time to allow stimulation with a substantial number of odorants. Pharmacological manipulations served to elucidate the source of odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons. Both Ca(2+) signals are primarily mediated by an influx of extracellular Ca(2+) through voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels that can be blocked by CoCl2 and the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil. Intracellular Ca(2+) stores contribute little to odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations. The odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients as well as the spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations depend on action potentials mediated by Na(+) channels that are largely TTX-insensitive but blocked by the local anesthetics tetracaine and lidocaine. Collectively, these results corroborate the conclusion that odorant-induced Ca(2+) transients and spontaneous Ca(2+) oscillations in the somata of olfactory receptor neurons closely reflect action potential activity associated with odorant-induced phasic-tonic responses and spontaneous bursting, respectively. Therefore, both types of Ca(2+) signals represent experimentally accessible proxies of spiking.

  8. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  9. COAXIAL DISK SHUNT FOR MEASURING IN THE HEAVY-CURRENT CHAIN OF HIGH-VOLTAGE GENERATOR OF STORM DISCHARGES OF IMPULSES OF CURRENT OF ARTIFICIAL LIGHTNING WITH THE INTEGRAL OF ACTION TO 15•106 J/OHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Description of construction and basic technical descriptions developed and created in Research & Design Institute «Molniya» National Technical University «Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute» high-voltage heavy-current coaxial disk shunt of type of SC-300M2, allowing reliably to measure the peak-temporal parameters (PTP of impulses of current of artificial lightning in wide peak and temporal ranges with the integral of their action to 15·106 J/Ohm. Methodology. Electrophysics bases of high-voltage impulsive technique, scientific and technical bases of development and creation of high-voltage heavy-current impulsive electrical equipment, including the powerful generators of current of lightning (GCL, and also measuring methods in bit chains powerful high-voltage GCL AVP large impulsive currents of micro- and millisecond temporal ranges. Results. Offered and described new construction of measuring high-voltage heavy-current shunt, containing a measuring round disk from stainless steel easily soiled a 12Х18Н10Т thickness 2 mm and external diameter 80 mm. Experimental a way impulsive active resistance of RS≈0,08 mOhm of the indicated measuring disk and on his basis a calculation coefficient transformation is found of SS of coaxial disk shunt of type of SC-300M2, numeral equal in the concerted mode of operations of his coaxial cable line (CCL SS≈2/RS≈25·103 A/V. It is rotined that it is expedient to use this value SS for measuring in the heavy-current bit chain of GCL ATP impulsive A- and repeated impulsive D- component of current of artificial lightning, and also ATP of aperiodic impulse of current of artificial lightning of temporal form 10 μc/350 μc. It is set that taking into account application in the end CCL of shunt of a co-ordinate divizor of voltage with two output coaxial sockets 1:1 (for SSA≈25·103 A/V and 1:2 (SSC≈12,5·103 A/V at measuring of ATP intermediate B-, protracted C- and shortened protracted C

  10. F. VON HAYEK’S THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Nesterenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and the genesis of spontaneous order are disclosed in the context of critical analysis of constructivism. The author’s approach to the definition of the characteristic features of the spontaneous order is proposed. The dichotomy of the order is revealed towards the economic sphere in form of spontaneous order and organization.

  11. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  12. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia: a periodic childhood syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cynthia; Gener, Blanca; Garaizar, Carmen; Prats, José M

    2003-04-01

    Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder, with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. A systemic cause or underlying brain lesion has not been found for the disease. We report four new patients, 3-9 years old, with episodic hypothermia lower than 35 degrees C, marked facial pallor, and absent shivering. The episodes could last a few hours or four days, and recurred once a week or every 2-3 months. Two patients also demonstrated bradycardia, mild hypertension, and somnolence during the events; in one of them, profuse sweating was also a feature, and all four presented with either headache, a periodic childhood syndrome, or both (recurrent abdominal pain, cyclic vomiting, or vertigo). Three patients reported a family history of migraine. Neurologic examination, endocrine function, and imaging studies were normal. Migraine prophylactic therapy was of moderate efficacy. Spontaneous resolution was observed in one patient. The clinical characteristics of the syndrome allow for its inclusion as a childhood periodic syndrome related to migraine.

  13. Spontaneous subconjunctival abscess in congenital lamellar ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand C Bubanale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lamellar ichthyosis is an autosomal recessive, heterogeneous disorder presenting at birth with generalized skin involvement. The most common ophthalmic manifestation noted is bilateral ectropion of the lower eyelids. A 1-month-old female neonate, the second born of a nonconsanguineous marriage, presented with 4 days' history of redness, discharge, and swelling in the right eye. There was severe right upper eyelid ectropion, conjunctival injection, chemosis, a subconjunctival mass on the temporal bulbar conjunctiva spontaneously draining pus and corneal haze. The anterior chamber, iris, lens and fundus appeared normal. Congenital lamellar ichthyosis was suspected because of scaling and excessive dryness of the entire body. The occurrence of a spontaneous subconjunctival abscess is not known in lamellar ichthyosis. We thus report the management of a rare case of unilateral upper eyelid ectropion, subconjunctival abscess with orbital cellulitis in congenital lamellar ichthyosis.

  14. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  15. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  16. Profile of omalizumab in the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labrador-Horrillo M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Moises Labrador-Horrillo,1 Marta Ferrer2 1Allergy Section, Internal Medicine Department, Vall d’Hebron Hospital, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, 2Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, IDISNA, Instituto de Investigación de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain Abstract: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a disease with significant morbidity and relative prevalence that has important effects on the quality of life (QoL of those who suffer from it. Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized anti-immunoglobulin E (IgE antibody that binds to the Cε3 domain of the IgE heavy chain and prevents it from binding to its high-affinity receptor FcεRI. It has been largely studied in the field of asthma and is currently approved for the treatment of both adult and pediatric (children; >6-year-old patients. In addition, in recent, well-controlled clinical trials in patients with CSU resistant to antihistamines, add-on therapy with subcutaneous omalizumab significantly reduced the severity of itching, and the number and size of hives, and increased patients’ health-related QoL and the proportion of days free from angioedema compared with placebo, with an excellent tolerance. Thus, omalizumab is an effective and well-tolerated add-on therapy for patients with CSU who are symptomatic despite background therapy with H1 antihistamines. In this review, we cover the following points: epidemiology, pathogenesis, assessment of activity, impact on QoL, and treatment of CSU, and finally, we focus on omalizumab in the treatment of CSU including the pharmacokinetic properties and mechanism of action, and use in pregnant women, nursing infants, and children. Keywords: omalizumab, chronic spontaneous urticaria, antihistamines, subcutaneous administration, add-on therapy

  17. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomimura, Suely, E-mail: suelytomimura@uol.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Silva, Bianca Passos Assumpção [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Sanches, Iris Callado [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Canal, Marina [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda [Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Conti, Felipe Fernandes; Angelis, Katia De [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional da UNINOVE (Brazil); Chavantes, Maria Cristina [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biofotônica em Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE) (Brazil); Programa de Graduação e Pós-Graduação em Medicina da UNINOVE (Brazil); Unidade de Hipertensão e Central Médica de Laser do Instituto do Coração - Hospital das Clinicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (InCor/HC-FMUSP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT), or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16) were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8), which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8), which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group) and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group), revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group). Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  18. Hemodynamic Effect of Laser Therapy in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Tomimura

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial hypertension (SAH is considered to be the greatest risk factor for the development of neuro-cardiovascular pathologies, thus constituting a severe Public Health issue in the world. The Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT, or laser therapy, activates components of the cellular structure, therefore converting luminous energy into photochemical energy and leading to biophysical and biochemical reactions in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The LLLT promotes cellular and tissue photobiomodulation by means of changes in metabolism, leading to molecular, cellular and systemic changes. The objective of this study was to analyze the action of low-level laser in the hemodynamic modulation of spontaneously hypertensive rats, in the long term. Animals (n = 16 were randomly divided into the Laser Group (n = 8, which received three weekly LLLT irradiations for seven weeks, and into the Sham Group (n = 8, which received three weekly simulations of laser for seven weeks, accounting for 21 applications in each group. After seven weeks, animals were cannulated by the implantation of a catheter in the left carotid artery. On the following day, the systemic arterial pressure was recorded. The Laser Group showed reduced levels of mean blood pressure, with statistically significant reduction (169 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 182 ± 4 mmHg from the Sham Group and reduced levels of diastolic pressure (143 ± 4 mmHg* vs. 157 ± 3 mmHg from the Sham Group, revealing a 13 and 14 mmHg decrease, respectively. Besides, there was a concomitant important decline in heart rate (312 ± 14 bpm vs. 361 ± 13 bpm from the Sham Group. Therefore, laser therapy was able to produce hemodynamic changes, thus reducing pressure levels in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  19. Amplified spontaneous emissions in a high-gain laser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osada, Hidenori; Gamo, Hideya.

    1978-01-01

    The gain and line-narrowing of the amplified spontaneous emissions(ASE) in a partially homogeneous high-gain Xe 3.51 μm laser amplifier were studied theoretically and experimentally with emphasis of saturation effect. The unidirectionally travelling ASE was generated by conveniently using optical isolators and used as a broadband radiation source. It has properties of 10 μW/mm 2 in intensity with fluctuation of less than 1% in 5 hours, 43.5 MHz of the linewidth and 1.0 x 10 -3 radians of beam divergence. The measured saturation intensity was 4.85 μW/mm 2 and a small signal gain was 0.1 cm -1 . The theoretical prediction of the line-narrowing shows reasonablly good agreement with the measured one. (author)

  20. Transgenic overexpression of p23 induces spontaneous hydronephrosis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehoon; Kim, Hye Jin; Moon, Jung Ah; Sung, Young Hoon; Baek, In-Jeoung; Roh, Jae-il; Ha, Na Young; Kim, Seung-Yeon; Bahk, Young Yil; Lee, Jong Eun; Yoo, Tae Hyun; Lee, Han-Woong

    2011-01-01

    p23 is a cochaperone of heat shock protein 90 and also interacts functionally with numerous steroid receptors and kinases. However, the in vivo roles of p23 remain unclear. To explore its in vivo function, we generated the transgenic (TG) mice ubiquitously overexpressing p23. The p23 TG mice spontaneously developed kidney abnormalities closely resembling human hydronephrosis. Consistently, kidney functions deteriorate significantly in the p23 TG mice compared to their wild-type (WT) littermates. Furthermore, the expression of target genes for aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), such as cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (Cyp1A1) and cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily B, polypeptide 1 (Cyp1B1), were induced in the kidneys of the p23 TG mice. These results indicate that the overexpression of p23 contributes to the development of hydronephrosis through the upregulation of the AhR pathway in vivo. PMID:21323770