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Sample records for spontaneously breathing dogs

  1. An evaluation of fresh gas flow rates for spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs on the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system.

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    Gale, Elizabeth; Ticehurst, Kim E; Zaki, Sanaa

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the fresh gas flow (FGF) rate requirements for the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system in the Mapleson A mode; to determine the FGF at which rebreathing occurs, and compare the efficiency of this system to the Bain (Mapleson D) system in spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs. Prospective clinical study. Twenty-five healthy (ASA score I or II) client-owned cats and dogs (mean ± SD age 4.7 ± 5.0 years, and body weight 5.64 ± 3.26 kg) undergoing elective surgery or minor procedures. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane delivered via the Humphrey ADE system in the A mode using an oxygen FGF of 100 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The FGF was then reduced incrementally by 5-10 mL kg(-1) minute(-1) at approximately five-minute intervals, until rebreathing (inspired CO(2) >5 mmHg (0.7 kPa)) was observed, after which flow rates were increased. In six animals, once the minimum FGF at which rebreathing occurred was found, the breathing system was changed to the Bain, and the effects of this FGF delivery examined, before FGF was increased. Rebreathing did not occur at the FGF recommended by the manufacturer for the ADE. The mean ± SD FGF that resulted in rebreathing was 60 ± 20 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The mean minimum FGF at which rebreathing did not occur with the ADE was 87 ± 39 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). This FGF resulted in significant rebreathing (inspired CO(2) 8.8 ± 2.6 mmHg (1.2 ± 0.3 kPa)) on the Bain system. The FGF rates recommended for the Humphrey ADE are adequate to prevent rebreathing in spontaneously breathing cats and dogs cats and small dogs. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  2. Impact of four different recumbencies on the distribution of ventilation in conscious or anaesthetized spontaneously breathing beagle dogs: An electrical impedance tomography study.

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    Tamas D Ambrisko

    Full Text Available The aim was to examine the effects of recumbency and anaesthesia on distribution of ventilation in beagle dogs using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT. Nine healthy beagle dogs, aging 3.7±1.7 (mean±SD years and weighing 16.3±1.6 kg, received a series of treatments in a fixed order on a single occasion. Conscious dogs were positioned in right lateral recumbency (RLR and equipped with 32 EIT electrodes around the thorax. Following five minutes of equilibration, two minutes of EIT recordings were made in each recumbency in the following order: RLR, dorsal (DR, left (LLR and sternal (SR. The dogs were then positioned in RLR, premedicated (medetomidine 0.01, midazolam 0.1, butorphanol 0.1 mg kg-1 iv and pre-oxygenated. Fifteen minutes later anaesthesia was induced with 1 mg kg-1 propofol iv and maintained with propofol infusion (0.1-0.2 mg kg-1 minute-1 iv. After induction, the animals were intubated and allowed to breathe spontaneously (FIO2 = 1. Recordings of EIT were performed again in four recumbencies similarly to conscious state. Centre of ventilation (COV and global inhomogeneity (GI index were calculated from the functional EIT images. Repeated-measures ANOVA and Bonferroni tests were used for statistical analysis (p < 0.05. None of the variables changed in the conscious state. During anaesthesia left-to-right COV increased from 46.8±2.8% in DR to 49.8±2.9% in SR indicating a right shift, and ventral-to-dorsal COV increased from 49.8±1.7% in DR to 51.8±1.1% in LLR indicating a dorsal shift in distribution of ventilation. Recumbency affected distribution of ventilation in anaesthetized but not in conscious dogs. This can be related to loss of respiratory muscle tone (e.g. diaphragm and changes in thoracic shape. Changing position of thoraco-abdominal organs under the EIT belt should be considered as alternative explanation of these findings.

  3. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

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    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  4. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.

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    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William

    2005-09-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation.

  5. Voluntary breath holding affects spontaneous brain activity measured by magnetoencephalography

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    Schellart, N. A.; Reits, D.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous brain activity was measured by multichannel magnetoencephalography (MEG) during voluntary breath holds. Significant changes in the activity are limited to the alpha rhythm: 0.25 Hz frequency increase and narrowing of the peak. The area of alpha activity shifts slightly toward (fronto-)

  6. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke lesions in a dog brain

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    Thomsen, Barbara Blicher; Gredal, Hanne; Nielsen, Martin Wirenfeldt

    2017-01-01

    Background Dogs develop spontaneous ischaemic stroke with a clinical picture closely resembling human ischaemic stroke patients. Animal stroke models have been developed, but it has proved difficult to translate results obtained from such models into successful therapeutic strategies in human...... stroke patients. In order to face this apparent translational gap within stroke research, dogs with ischaemic stroke constitute an opportunity to study the neuropathology of ischaemic stroke in an animal species. Case presentation A 7 years and 8 months old female neutered Rottweiler dog suffered....../macrophages and astrocytes. Conclusions The neuropathological changes reported in the present study were similar to findings in human patients with ischaemic stroke. The dog with spontaneous ischaemic stroke is of interest as a complementary spontaneous animal model for further neuropathological studies....

  7. Spontaneous breathing during lung-protective ventilation in an experimental acute lung injury model: high transpulmonary pressure associated with strong spontaneous breathing effort may worsen lung injury.

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    Yoshida, Takeshi; Uchiyama, Akinori; Matsuura, Nariaki; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2012-05-01

    We investigated whether potentially injurious transpulmonary pressure could be generated by strong spontaneous breathing and exacerbate lung injury even when plateau pressure is limited to ventilation, each combined with weak or strong spontaneous breathing effort. Inspiratory pressure for low tidal volume ventilation was set at 10 cm H2O and tidal volume at 6 mL/kg. For moderate tidal volume ventilation, the values were 20 cm H2O and 7-9 mL/kg. The groups were: low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingweak, and moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong. Each group had the same settings for positive end-expiratory pressure of 8 cm H2O. Respiratory variables were measured every 60 mins. Distribution of lung aeration and alveolar collapse were histologically evaluated. Low tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong showed the most favorable oxygenation and compliance of respiratory system, and the best lung aeration. By contrast, in moderate tidal volume ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, the greatest atelectasis with numerous neutrophils was observed. While we applied settings to maintain plateau pressure at ventilation+spontaneous breathingstrong, transpulmonary pressure rose >33 cm H2O. Both minute ventilation and respiratory rate were higher in the strong spontaneous breathing groups. Even when plateau pressure is limited to mechanical ventilation, transpulmonary pressure and tidal volume should be strictly controlled to prevent further lung injury.

  8. Spontaneous regression of a cervical intraspinal cyst in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamishina, Hiroaki; Katayama, Masaaki; Yasuda, Jun; Sato, Reeko; Ogawa, Hiroya; Tohyama, Koujiro

    2010-01-01

    We report a cervical intraspinal cyst in a dog that was initially tetraparetic but spontaneously recovered completely. MRI revealed a well-demarcated intraspinal cyst located dorsally to a degenerated intervertebral disc. The location of the cyst and its signal features on MRI resembled those of discal cysts previously reported in humans. It has been reported in dogs that clinical signs of a intraspinal cyst are similar to those of intervertebral disc herniation and both conditions require surgical intervention. Unexpectedly, our case showed rapid spontaneous recovery and the follow-up MRI revealed complete resolution of the intraspinal cyst and spinal cord compression. Spontaneous recovery of degenerative intraspinal cyst may occur in dogs, similar to rare human cases as reported previously. (author)

  9. Comparison of spontaneous vs. metronome-guided breathing on assessment of vagal modulation using RR variability.

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    Bloomfield, D M; Magnano, A; Bigger, J T; Rivadeneira, H; Parides, M; Steinman, R C

    2001-03-01

    R-R interval variability (RR variability) is increasingly being used as an index of autonomic activity. High-frequency (HF) power reflects vagal modulation of the sinus node. Since vagal modulation occurs at the respiratory frequency, some investigators have suggested that HF power cannot be interpreted unless the breathing rate is controlled. We hypothesized that HF power during spontaneous breathing would not differ significantly from HF power during metronome-guided breathing. We measured HF power during spontaneous breathing in 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with heart disease. Each subject's spontaneous breathing rate was determined, and the calculation of HF power was repeated with a metronome set to his or her average spontaneous breathing rate. There was no significant difference between the logarithm of HF power measured during spontaneous and metronome-guided breathing [4.88 +/- 0.29 vs. 5.29 +/- 0.30 ln(ms(2)), P = 0.32] in the group as a whole and when patients and healthy subjects were examined separately. We did observe a small (9.9%) decrease in HF power with increasing metronome-guided breathing rates (from 9 to 20 breaths/min). These data indicate that HF power during spontaneous and metronome-guided breathing differs at most by very small amounts. This variability is several logarithmic units less than the wide discrepancies observed between healthy subjects and cardiac patients with a heterogeneous group of cardiovascular disorders. In addition, HF power is relatively constant across the range of typical breathing rates. These data indicate that there is no need to control breathing rate to interpret HF power when RR variability (and specifically HF power) is used to identify high-risk cardiac patients.

  10. Practice Variation in Spontaneous Breathing Trial Performance and Reporting

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    Stephanie Godard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs are standard of care in assessing extubation readiness; however, there are no universally accepted guidelines regarding their precise performance and reporting. Objective. To investigate variability in SBT practice across centres. Methods. Data from 680 patients undergoing 931 SBTs from eight North American centres from the Weaning and Variability Evaluation (WAVE observational study were examined. SBT performance was analyzed with respect to ventilatory support, oxygen requirements, and sedation level using the Richmond Agitation Scale Score (RASS. The incidence of use of clinical extubation criteria and changes in physiologic parameters during an SBT were assessed. Results. The majority (80% and 78% of SBTs used 5 cmH2O of ventilator support, although there was variability. A significant range in oxygenation was observed. RASS scores were variable, with RASS 0 ranging from 29% to 86% and 22% of SBTs performed in sedated patients (RASS < −2. Clinical extubation criteria were heterogeneous among centres. On average, there was no change in physiological variables during SBTs. Conclusion. The present study highlights variation in SBT performance and documentation across and within sites. With their impact on the accuracy of outcome prediction, these results support efforts to further clarify and standardize optimal SBT technique.

  11. Uso de atracúrio para o bloqueio da musculatura extrínseca do bulbo ocular em cães submetidos à anestesia inalatória sob ventilação espontânea Blocking of ocular bulb extrinsic musculature by atracurium in inhalant anesthetized dogs under spontaneous breathing

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    A.B. Carregaro

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparou-se o bloqueio da musculatura extrínseca do bulbo ocular com três doses de atracúrio em cães submetidos à anestesia inalatória sob ventilação espontânea. Em estudo cego, foram utilizados seis cães, pré-medicados com 0,1mg/kg de acepromazina intravenoso (IV, anestesiados com 5mg/kg de propofol, entubados e mantidos sob anestesia inalatória com 1,5% de isofluorano e submetidos a quatro tratamentos: não tratados (controle, tratados com 25µg/kg (G25 de atracúrio IV, com 50µg/kg (G50 de atracúrio IV e com 75µg/kg (G75 de atracúrio IV. Mensuraram-se: pressão parcial de CO2 expirado (ETCO2, freqüência cardíaca (FC, freqüência respiratória (¦, saturação arterial de oxiemoglobina (SatO2 e tempo de centralização do bulbo ocular. Nos grupos tratados com atracúrio, o ETCO2 aumentou aos 5min, e permaneceu aumentado até 10min em G50 e até 20min em G75, sendo este o único tratamento cuja concentração de ETCO2 apresentou-se acima de 50mmHg. Não houve reinalação de CO2 em nenhum grupo. Em G75, observou-se aumento crescente da ¦ até os 40min e considerável bradicardia após 10min; ambos retornaram aos valores basais após esse período. A centralização do bulbo ocular foi crescente de acordo com a dose: G25, 38±13min; G50, 65±16,4 min; G75, 78±27min, mas não houve diferença estatística entre G50 e G75. Conclui-se que G50 apresentou bloqueio satisfatório sem promover intensa e prolongada hipercapnia nos animais.The ocular bulb extrinsic musculature blocking by the administration of three atracurium doses in isoflurane anesthetized dogs under spontaneous breathing was compared. In a blind study, six dogs were premedicated with 0.1mg/kg of acepromazine, anesthetized with 5mg/kg of propofol, intubated and maintained in inhalation anesthesia with 1.5% of isoflurane in 100% of oxygen. Afterwards, they were submitted to four treatments (control, G25:25µg/kg of atracurium IV, G50:50µg/kg IV and G75:75µg/kg IV

  12. Can a central blood volume deficit be detected by systolic pressure variation during spontaneous breathing?

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    Dahl, Michael; Hayes, Chris; Steen Rasmussen, Bodil

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whether during spontaneous breathing arterial pressure variations (APV) can detect a volume deficit is not established. We hypothesized that amplification of intra-thoracic pressure oscillations by breathing through resistors would enhance APV to allow identification of a reduced card...

  13. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula in a dog.

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    Marquardt, Shelly A; Rochat, Mark C; Johnson-Neitman, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the surgical correction of a cholecystocutaneous fistula in a dog. A 6 yr old Vizsla presented with a 2 mo history of a chronic draining wound on the right ventral thorax. Diagnostics revealed numerous fistulous tracts opening at a single site on the right ventrolateral chest wall, extending caudodorsally through the chest wall and diaphragm to the region of the right medial liver lobe. Exploratory laparotomy revealed the apex of the gallbladder adhered to the diaphragm with a tract of fibrous tissue extending along the diaphragm laterally to the right thoracic wall. Cholecystectomy was performed. The fistulous tract was incised to expose the lumen of the fistula, and the fistula was omentalized. Twenty-eight months after surgery, the dog had had no recurrence of the fistulous tract. Exploratory laparotomy allowed excellent visualization of the intra-abdominal path of the fistula and facilitated the ease of resection of the source. Cholecystectomy resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the fistula without the need for excision of the fistula. Although rare, gallbladder disease should be a differential for chronic fistulous tracts.

  14. Humidification performance of humidifying devices for tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing: a bench study.

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    Chikata, Yusuke; Oto, Jun; Onodera, Mutsuo; Nishimura, Masaji

    2013-09-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are commonly used for humidifying respiratory gases administered to mechanically ventilated patients. While they are also applied to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing, their performance in this role has not yet been clarified. We carried out a bench study to investigate the effects of spontaneous breathing parameters and oxygen flow on the humidification performance of 11 HMEs. We evaluated the humidification provided by 11 HMEs for tracheostomized patients, and also by a system delivering high-flow CPAP, and an oxygen mask with nebulizer heater. Spontaneous breathing was simulated with a mechanical ventilator, lung model, and servo-controlled heated humidifier at tidal volumes of 300, 500, and 700 mL, and breathing frequencies of 10 and 20 breaths/min. Expired gas was warmed to 37°C. The high-flow CPAP system was set to deliver 15, 30, and 45 L/min. With the 8 HMEs that were equipped with ports to deliver oxygen, and with the high-flow CPAP system, measurements were taken when delivering 0 and 3 L/min of dry oxygen. After stabilization we measured the absolute humidity (AH) of inspired gas with a hygrometer. AH differed among HMEs applied to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing. For all the HMEs, as tidal volume increased, AH decreased. At 20 breaths/min, AH was higher than at 10 breaths/min. For all the HMEs, when oxygen was delivered, AH decreased to below 30 mg/L. With an oxygen mask and high-flow CPAP, at all settings, AH exceeded 30 mg/L. None of the HMEs provided adequate humidification when supplemental oxygen was added. In the ICU, caution is required when applying HME to tracheostomized patients with spontaneous breathing, especially when supplemental oxygen is required.

  15. Cardiopulmonary effects and eyeball centralization with low-dose atracurium in spontaneously breathing, anesthetized dogs Avaliação cardiopulmonar e da centralização do globo ocular em cães com baixas doses de atracúrio mantidos em anestesia inalatória sob ventilação espontânea

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    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to determine the cardiopulmonary effects and eyeball centralization time obtained with 15 or 30µg kg-1 of atracurium in anesthetized dogs under spontaneous breathing. Eighteen healthy adult mixed-breed dogs were used, which received 0.1mg kg-1 acepromazine and 0.5mg kg-1 morphine IM, followed by 4mg kg-1 propofol IV and maintained on isoflurane anesthesia with spontaneous breathing. Animals received 1mL 0.9% NaCl IV (CG, 15µg kg-1 (G15 or 30µg kg-1 (G30 of atracurium IV. Eyeball centralization time was measured; heart rate (HR, systolic (SAP, mean (MAP and diastolic (DAP arterial pressures, respiratory rate (RR, tidal volume (Vt and minute volume (Vm were determined every 5min, and pH, arterial CO2 pressure (PaCO2 , arterial O2 pressure (PaO2 , hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SaO2 , bicarbonate (HCO3- and base excess (BE every 15min until 60min. Both doses of atracurium produced a similar period of eyeball centralization. Vt in groups treated with atracurium was lower than in CG up to 15min. Vm in G15 differed from CG up to 10min and in G30 up to 25min. No differences were observed for cardiovascular parameters, RR, SaO2, PaO2, HCO3- and BE. pH decreased in CG between 30 and 60min and in G15 and G30 at 15min. G30 differed from CG between 15 and 30min. PaCO2 in GC differed from baseline between 30 and 60min and in G15 differed at 15min. Atracurium at the dose of 15µg kg-1 is adequate for short corneal procedures in inhalant-anesthetized dogs under spontaneous breathing.Objetivou-se determinar os efeitos cardiopulmonares e o tempo de centralização do globo ocular obtidos com 15 ou 30µg kg-1 de atracúrio em cães anestesiados sob ventilação espontânea. Dezoito cães adultos foram pré-medicados com 0,1mg kg-1 de acepromazina e 0,5mg kg-1 de morfina IM, anestesiados com 4mg kg-1 de propofol IV e mantidos sob anestesia inalatória com isofluorano em ventilação espontânea. Os animais receberam 1mL de NaCl 0,9% IV (GC, 15

  16. Hemogasometria e variáveis cardiopulmonares após administração do butorfanol em cães anestesiados pelo desfluorano sob ventilação espontânea Acid-base and cardiopulmonary effects after butorphanol administration in spontaneously breathing dogs anesthetized by desflurane

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    Paulo Sérgio Patto dos Santos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve por objetivos avaliar as possíveis alterações cardiopulmonares e hemogasométricas decorrentes do uso do butorfanol em cães submetidos à anestesia pelo desfluorano sob ventilação espontânea. Para tal, foram utilizados vinte cães adultos, clinicamente saudáveis, pesando 12±3kg. Os animais foram distribuídos igualmente em dois grupos, GS e GB, e induzidos à anestesia com propofol (8,4±0,8mg kg-1, IV, intubados e submetidos à anestesia inalatória pelo desfluorano (10V%. Decorridos 40 minutos da indução, foi administrado aos animais do GS 0,05mL kg-1 de solução fisiológica a 0,9% (salina, enquanto que, no GB, foi aplicado butorfanol na dose de 0,4mg kg-1, ambos pela via intramuscular. As observações das variáveis freqüências cardíaca (FC e respiratória (f, pressões arteriais sistólica (PAS, diastólica (PAD e média (PAM, pH arterial (pH, pressão parcial de oxigênio no sangue arterial (PaO2, pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono no sangue arterial (PaCO2, déficit de base (DB, bicarbonato (HCO3 e saturação de oxigênio na hemoglobina (SatO2 tiveram início imediatamente antes da aplicação do opióide ou salina (M0. Novas mensurações foram realizadas 15 minutos após a administração do butorfanol ou salina (M15 e as demais colheitas foram realizadas a intervalos de 15 minutos, por um período de 60 minutos (M30, M45, M60 e M75. Os dados numéricos dessas variáveis foram submetidos à Análise de Perfil (PThe cardiopulmonary and acid-base effects of butorphanol in desflurane anesthetized dogs breathing spontaneously were evaluated. Twenty adult healthy, male and female dogs were used. They were separated into two groups of 10 animals each (GS and GB. Anesthesia was induced with propofol (8.4±0.8mg kg-1 IV and maintained with desflurane (10V%. After 40 minutes of induction, the animals from GS received saline solution at 0.9% (0.05mL kg-1 and from GB received butorphanol (0.4mg kg-1

  17. An expiratory assist during spontaneous breathing can compensate for endotracheal tube resistance.

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    Uchiyama, Akinori; Chang, Cheng; Suzuki, Shinya; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji

    2009-08-01

    Although inspiratory assist of spontaneous breathing in intubated patients is common, expiratory assist functions have rarely been reported. Effective expiratory support (ES) could be used to compensate for endotracheal tube (ETT) resistance during spontaneous breathing. In this study, we examined the performance of a new system designed to provide both inspiratory support (IS) and ES during spontaneous breathing with the goal of reducing the effective resistance of the ETT. The ES system consisted of a ventilator demand valve and a computer-controlled piston cylinder, which aspirated gas from the respiratory circuit during the expiratory phase. The movement of the piston was synchronized with spontaneous breathing. We compared the pressures at the tip of the ETT and in the breathing circuit during spontaneous breathing through an ETT of internal diameter (ID) 5 mm with that of an ETT with ID 8 mm in nine healthy adult male volunteers. The ventilatory mode was set to maintain a continuous airway pressure of 0 cm H(2)O. Three ventilator settings (no support, IS only, and IS plus ES) were compared using ID 5 mm ETT. We monitored pressure in the breathing circuit (P(aw)), ETT tip pressure (P(tip)), and respiratory flow. The P(tip) of the ID 5 mm ETT showed a large negative deflection during inspiration and a positive deflection during expiration without support. IS alone did not improve the respiratory pattern through the small ETT. However, IS plus ES resulted in negative P(aw) during expiration in addition to positive deflection of P(aw) during inspiration, making the pressure characteristics of P(tip) similar to those of ID 8 mm ETT. Moreover, IS plus ES produced a respiratory pattern through the ID 5 mm ETT that was similar to that through the ID 8 mm ETT. In this study of healthy volunteers, IS plus ES compensated for the airway resistance imposed by a ID 5.0 mm ETT to create pressure changes at the tip of the ETT similar to those of an ID 8.0 mm ETT.

  18. Inferior vena cava collapsibility detects fluid responsiveness among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients.

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    Corl, Keith A; George, Naomi R; Romanoff, Justin; Levinson, Andrew T; Chheng, Darin B; Merchant, Roland C; Levy, Mitchell M; Napoli, Anthony M

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of inferior vena cava collapsibility (cIVC) by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been proposed as a viable, non-invasive means of assessing fluid responsiveness. We aimed to determine the ability of cIVC to identify patients who will respond to additional intravenous fluid (IVF) administration among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. Prospective observational trial of spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. cIVC was obtained 3cm caudal from the right atrium and IVC junction using POCUS. Fluid responsiveness was defined as a≥10% increase in cardiac index following a 500ml IVF bolus; measured using bioreactance (NICOM™, Cheetah Medical). cIVC was compared with fluid responsiveness and a cIVC optimal value was identified. Of the 124 participants, 49% were fluid responders. cIVC was able to detect fluid responsiveness: AUC=0.84 [0.76, 0.91]. The optimum cutoff point for cIVC was identified as 25% (LR+ 4.56 [2.72, 7.66], LR- 0.16 [0.08, 0.31]). A cIVC of 25% produced a lower misclassification rate (16.1%) for determining fluid responsiveness than the previous suggested cutoff values of 40% (34.7%). IVC collapsibility, as measured by POCUS, performs well in distinguishing fluid responders from non-responders, and may be used to guide IVF resuscitation among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Respiratory variations in the photoplethysmographic waveform: acute hypovolaemia during spontaneous breathing is not detected

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Lena; Goscinski, Tomas; Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste; Johansson, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies using photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals from pulse oximeters have shown potential to assess hypovolaemia during spontaneous breathing. This signal is heavily filtered and reports are based on respiratory variations in the small pulse synchronous variation of PPG. There are stronger respiratory variations such as respiratory synchronous variation (PPGr) in the baseline of the unfiltered PPG signal. We hypothesized that PPGr would increase during hypovolaemia during spontaneous breathing. Hemodynamic and respiratory data were recorded together with PPG infrared signals from the finger, ear and forearm from 12 healthy male volunteers, at rest and during hypovolaemia created by the application of a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of 15, 30 and 60 cmH 2 O. Hemodynamic and respiratory values changed significantly. From rest to the LBNP of 60 cmH 2 O systolic blood pressure fell from median (IQR) 116 (16) to 101 (23) mmHg, the heart rate increased from 58 (16) to 73 (16) beats min −1 , and the respiratory rate increased from 9.5 (2.0) to 11.5 (4.0) breaths min −1 . The amplitude of PPGr did not change significantly at any measurement site. The strongest effect was seen at the ear, where the LBNP of 60 cmH 2 O gave an amplitude increase from 1.0 (0.0) to 1.31 (2.24) AU. PPG baseline respiratory variations cannot be used for detecting hypovolaemia in spontaneously breathing subjects

  20. The effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory variables in paralyzed and spontaneously breathing patients.

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    Campbell, R S; Davis, K; Johannigman, J A; Branson, R D

    2000-03-01

    Passive humidifiers have gained acceptance in the intensive care unit because of their low cost, simple operation, and elimination of condensate from the breathing circuit. However, the additional dead space of these devices may adversely affect respiratory function in certain patients. This study evaluates the effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory function. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of patients recovering from acute lung injury and breathing spontaneously on pressure support ventilation. The second group consisted of patients who were receiving controlled mechanical ventilation and were chemically paralyzed following operative procedures. All patients used 3 humidification devices in random order for one hour each. The devices were a heated humidifier (HH), a hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger (HHME) with a dead space of 28 mL, and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) with a dead space of 90 mL. During each measurement period the following were recorded: tidal volume, minute volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ratio of dead space volume to tidal volume (VD/VT), and blood gases. In the second group, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure was also measured. Addition of either of the passive humidifiers was associated with increased VD/VT. In spontaneously breathing patients, VD/VT increased from 59 +/- 13 (HH) to 62 +/- 13 (HHME) to 68 +/- 11% (HME) (p < 0.05). In these patients, constant alveolar ventilation was maintained as a result of increased respiratory frequency, from 22.1 +/- 6.6 breaths/min (HH) to 24.5 +/- 6.9 breaths/min (HHME) to 27.7 +/- 7.4 breaths/min (HME) (p < 0.05), and increased minute volume, from 9.1 +/- 3.5 L/min (HH) to 9.9 +/- 3.6 L/min (HHME) to 11.7 +/- 4.2 L/min (HME) (p < 0.05). There were no changes in blood gases or carbon dioxide production. In the paralyzed patient group, VD/VT increased from 54 +/- 12% (HH) to 56 +/- 10% (HHME

  1. Higher levels of spontaneous breathing reduce lung injury in experimental moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Nadja C; Güldner, Andreas; Beda, Alessandro; Rentzsch, Ines; Uhlig, Christopher; Dittrich, Susanne; Spieth, Peter M; Wiedemann, Bärbel; Kasper, Michael; Koch, Thea; Richter, Torsten; Rocco, Patricia R; Pelosi, Paolo; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama

    2014-11-01

    To assess the effects of different levels of spontaneous breathing during biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation on lung function and injury in an experimental model of moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome. Multiple-arm randomized experimental study. University hospital research facility. Thirty-six juvenile pigs. Pigs were anesthetized, intubated, and mechanically ventilated. Moderate acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repetitive saline lung lavage. Biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation was conducted using the airway pressure release ventilation mode with an inspiratory/expiratory ratio of 1:1. Animals were randomly assigned to one of four levels of spontaneous breath in total minute ventilation (n = 9 per group, 6 hr each): 1) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, 0%; 2) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 0-30%; 3) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 30-60%, and 4) biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation, > 60%. The inspiratory effort measured by the esophageal pressure time product increased proportionally to the amount of spontaneous breath and was accompanied by improvements in oxygenation and respiratory system elastance. Compared with biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation of 0%, biphasic positive airway pressure/airway pressure release ventilation more than 60% resulted in lowest venous admixture, as well as peak and mean airway and transpulmonary pressures, redistributed ventilation to dependent lung regions, reduced the cumulative diffuse alveolar damage score across lungs (median [interquartile range], 11 [3-40] vs 18 [2-69]; p ventilation more than 0-30% and more than 30-60% showed a less consistent pattern of improvement in lung function, inflammation, and damage compared with biphasic positive airway

  2. Using an expiratory resistor, arterial pulse pressure variations predict fluid responsiveness during spontaneous breathing: an experimental porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Michael K; Vistisen, Simon T; Koefoed-Nielsen, Jacob; Larsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Fluid responsiveness prediction is difficult in spontaneously breathing patients. Because the swings in intrathoracic pressure are minor during spontaneous breathing, dynamic parameters like pulse pressure variation (PPV) and systolic pressure variation (SPV) are usually small. We hypothesized that during spontaneous breathing, inspiratory and/or expiratory resistors could induce high arterial pressure variations at hypovolemia and low variations at normovolemia and hypervolemia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that SPV and PPV could predict fluid responsiveness under these conditions. Eight prone, anesthetized and spontaneously breathing pigs (20 to 25 kg) were subjected to a sequence of 30% hypovolemia, normovolemia, and 20% and 40% hypervolemia. At each volemic level, the pigs breathed in a randomized order either through an inspiratory and/or an expiratory threshold resistor (7.5 cmH2O) or only through the tracheal tube without any resistor. Hemodynamic and respiratory variables were measured during the breathing modes. Fluid responsiveness was defined as a 15% increase in stroke volume (DeltaSV) following fluid loading. Stroke volume was significantly lower at hypovolemia compared with normovolemia, but no differences were found between normovolemia and 20% or 40% hypervolemia. Compared with breathing through no resistor, SPV was magnified by all resistors at hypovolemia whereas there were no changes at normovolemia and hypervolemia. PPV was magnified by the inspiratory resistor and the combined inspiratory and expiratory resistor. Regression analysis of SPV or PPV versus DeltaSV showed the highest R2 (0.83 for SPV and 0.52 for PPV) when the expiratory resistor was applied. The corresponding sensitivity and specificity for prediction of fluid responsiveness were 100% and 100%, respectively, for SPV and 100% and 81%, respectively, for PPV. Inspiratory and/or expiratory threshold resistors magnified SPV and PPV in spontaneously breathing pigs during hypovolemia

  3. Pharmacist leadership in ICU quality improvement: coordinating spontaneous awakening and breathing trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollings, Joanna L; Foss, Julie J; Ely, E Wesley; Ambrose, Anna M; Rice, Todd W; Girard, Timothy D; Wheeler, Arthur P

    2015-08-01

    Coordinating efforts across disciplines in the intensive care unit is a key component of quality improvement (QI) efforts. Spontaneous awakening trials (SATs) and spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs) are considered key components of guidelines, yet unfortunately are often not done or coordinated properly. To determine if a pharmacist-driven awakening and breathing coordination (ABC) QI program would improve compliance (ie, process measures) as compared with the previous protocol, which did not involve pharmacists. The QI program included pharmacist-led education, daily discussion on rounds, and weekly performance reports to staff. Using a pre-QI versus during-QI versus post-QI intervention design, we compared data from 500 control ventilator-days (pre-QI period) versus 580 prospective ventilator-days (during-QI period). We then evaluated the sustainability of the QI program in 216 ventilator-days in the post-QI period. SAT safety screens were performed on only 20% pre-QI patient-days versus 97% of during-QI patient-days (P improved process measures compliance, comparing the pre-QI versus during-QI rates of screening, performing, and coordinating SAT and SBTs, and these results were sustained in the 8-month follow-up period post-QI program. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Spontaneous breathing test in the prediction of extubation failure in the pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Milena Siciliano; Rebello, Celso Moura; Vale, Luciana Assis Pires Andrade; Santos, Érica; Prado, Cristiane do

    2017-01-01

    To assess whether the spontaneous breathing test can predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. A prospective and observational study that evaluated data of inpatients at the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit between May 2011 and August 2013, receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 hours followed by extubation. The patients were classified in two groups: Test Group, with patients extubated after spontaneous breathing test, and Control Group, with patients extubated without spontaneous breathing test. A total of 95 children were enrolled in the study, 71 in the Test Group and 24 in the Control Group. A direct comparison was made between the two groups regarding sex, age, mechanical ventilation time, indication to start mechanical ventilation and respiratory parameters before extubation in the Control Group, and before the spontaneous breathing test in the Test Group. There was no difference between the parameters evaluated. According to the analysis of probability of extubation failure between the two groups, the likelihood of extubation failure in the Control Group was 1,412 higher than in the Test Group, nevertheless, this range did not reach significance (p=0.706). This model was considered well-adjusted according to the Hosmer-Lemeshow test (p=0.758). The spontaneous breathing test was not able to predict the extubation failure in pediatric population. Avaliar se o teste de respiração espontânea pode ser utilizado para predizer falha da extubação na população pediátrica. Estudo prospectivo, observacional, no qual foram avaliados todos os pacientes internados no Centro de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica, no período de maio de 2011 a agosto de 2013, que utilizaram ventilação mecânica por mais de 24 horas e que foram extubados. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: Grupo Teste, que incluiu os pacientes extubados depois do teste de respiração espontânea; e Grupo Controle, pacientes foram sem teste de respiração espont

  5. Extracorporeal gas exchange and spontaneous breathing for the treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome: an alternative to mechanical ventilation?*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Thomas; Vecchi, Vittoria; Belenkiy, Slava M; Cannon, Jeremy W; Chung, Kevin K; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Gattinoni, Luciano; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2014-03-01

    Venovenous extracorporeal gas exchange is increasingly used in awake, spontaneously breathing patients as a bridge to lung transplantation. Limited data are available on a similar use of extracorporeal gas exchange in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of extracorporeal gas exchange in awake, spontaneously breathing sheep with healthy lungs and with acute respiratory distress syndrome and describe the interactions between the native lung (healthy and diseased) and the artificial lung (extracorporeal gas exchange) in this setting. Laboratory investigation. Animal ICU of a governmental laboratory. Eleven awake, spontaneously breathing sheep on extracorporeal gas exchange. Sheep were studied before (healthy lungs) and after the induction of acute respiratory distress syndrome via IV injection of oleic acid. Six gas flow settings (1-10 L/min), resulting in different amounts of extracorporeal CO2 removal (20-100% of total CO2 production), were tested in each animal before and after the injury. Respiratory variables and gas exchange were measured for every gas flow setting. Both healthy and injured sheep reduced minute ventilation according to the amount of extracorporeal CO2 removal, up to complete apnea. However, compared with healthy sheep, sheep with acute respiratory distress syndrome presented significantly increased esophageal pressure variations (25 ± 9 vs 6 ± 3 cm H2O; p 80% of total CO2 production). Spontaneous ventilation of both healthy sheep and sheep with acute respiratory distress syndrome can be controlled via extracorporeal gas exchange. If this holds true in humans, extracorporeal gas exchange could be used in awake, spontaneously breathing patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome to support gas exchange. A deeper understanding of the pathophysiology of spontaneous breathing during acute respiratory distress syndrome is however warranted in order to be able to propose

  6. Autologous bone marrow transplantation following chemotherapy and irradiation in dogs with spontaneous lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, C.A.; Bull, M.; McCormick, K.; Kadin, M.; Lucas, D.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty dogs with spontaneous lymphomas were administered two to six cycles of chemotherapy and were randomized into 3 groups to receive 800 rads of total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Of 10 dogs irradiated after chemotherapy-induced remission and infused with remission marrow (group 1), 8 (80%) had successful grafts and experienced remissions lasting 62 to 1024 days. Of 9 dogs irradiated during remission and infused with remission marrow mixed with autologous tumor cells (group 2), 6 (66%) had remission lasting 15 to 45 days. Eleven dogs with progressive tumor growth (relapse) following chemotherapy were irradiated and infused with remission marrow (group 3). Tumor remission lasting 39 to 350 days was observed in 5 dogs (45%) in this group, and 6 dogs died in less than 30 days. Dogs in groups 1 to 3 had median survival times of 216, 60, and 45 days, respectively. The prolonged survival times for dogs in group 1 compared to dogs in groups 2 and 3 suggest that protocols involving irradiation and autologous marrow grafting in this model would be most effective when these protocols are applied to animals having a minimum tumor burden at the time of irradiation and when the grafting is done with tumor-free autologous marrow

  7. The cardiovascular and respiratory effects of medetomidine and thiopentone anaesthesia in dogs breathing at an altitude of 1486 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. E. Joubert

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardio-respiratory effects of the combination of medetomidine and thiopentone followed by reversal with atipamezole as a combination for anaesthesia in 10 healthy German Shepherd dogs breathing spontaneously in a room at an altitude of 1486 m above sea level with an ambient air pressure of 651 mmHg. After the placement of intravenous and intra-arterial catheters, baseline samples were collected. Medetomidine (0.010 mg/kg was administered intravenously and blood pressure and heart rate were recorded every minute for 5 minutes. Thiopentone was then slowly administered until intubation conditions were ideal. An endotracheal tube was placed and the dogs breathed room air spontaneously. Blood pressure, pulse oximetry, respiratory and heart rate, capnography, blood gas analysis and arterial lactate were performed or recorded every 10 minutes for the duration of the trial. Thiopentone was administered to maintain anaesthesia. After 60 minutes, atipamezole (0.025 mg/kg was given intramuscularly. Data were recorded for the next 30 minutes. A dose of 8.7 mg/kg of thiopentone was required to anaesthetise the dogs after the administration of 0.010 mg/kg of medetomidine. Heart rate decreased from 96.7 at baseline to 38.5 5 minutes after the administration of medetomidine (P < 0.05. Heart rate then increased with the administration of thiopentone to 103.2 (P < 0.05. Blood pressure increased from 169.4/86.2 mmHg to 253.2/143.0 mmHg 5 minutes after the administration of medetomidine (P < 0.05. Blood pressure then slowly returned towards normal. Heart rate and blood pressure returned to baseline values after the administration of atipamezole. Arterial oxygen tension decreased from baseline levels (84.1 mmHg to 57.8 mmHg after the administration of medetomidine and thiopentone (P < 0.05. This was accompanied by arterial desaturation from 94.7 to 79.7 % (P < 0.05. A decrease in respiratory rate from 71.8 bpm to 12

  8. Spontaneous sleep-like brain state alternations and breathing characteristics in urethane anesthetized mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pagliardini

    Full Text Available Brain state alternations resembling those of sleep spontaneously occur in rats under urethane anesthesia and they are closely linked with sleep-like respiratory changes. Although rats are a common model for both sleep and respiratory physiology, we sought to determine if similar brain state and respiratory changes occur in mice under urethane. We made local field potential recordings from the hippocampus and measured respiratory activity by means of EMG recordings in intercostal, genioglossus, and abdominal muscles. Similar to results in adult rats, urethane anesthetized mice displayed quasi-periodic spontaneous forebrain state alternations between deactivated patterns resembling slow wave sleep (SWS and activated patterns resembling rapid eye movement (REM sleep. These alternations were associated with an increase in breathing rate, respiratory variability, a depression of inspiratory related activity in genioglossus muscle and an increase in expiratory-related abdominal muscle activity when comparing deactivated (SWS-like to activated (REM-like states. These results demonstrate that urethane anesthesia consistently induces sleep-like brain state alternations and correlated changes in respiratory activity across different rodent species. They open up the powerful possibility of utilizing transgenic mouse technology for the advancement and translation of knowledge regarding sleep cycle alternations and their impact on respiration.

  9. 13C-sodium acetate breath test for evaluation of gastric emptying times in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, S; Jansen, N; Failing, K; Neiger, R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess solid phase gastric emptying via non-invasive 13C-sodium acetate breath test in large breed dogs with or without gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Dogs were recruited into one of the following groups: group 1 = healthy large breed dogs with no history of GDV, group 2 = dogs that underwent elective abdominal surgery for reasons unrelated to the gastrointestinal tract, and group 3 = dogs that underwent laparotomy and gastropexy to correct GDV. The dogs were fed a test meal containing 100 mg 13C-sodium acetate (for group 2 and 3, this was gastric emptying times were calculated and compared between groups. Gastric emptying times were significantly prolonged in dogs undergoing surgery (group 2) compared to group 1 and 3. Also, gastric emptying times of dogs with GDV were significantly prolonged compared to controls, but not to the same extent as dogs in group 2. There was a significant effect of abdominal surgery on gastric emptying times. Surprisingly, dogs after GDV surgery and gastropexy had shorter gastric emptying times than dogs undergoing laparotomy for reasons other than GDV, but still prolonged compared to healthy controls. The reason for these differences requires further study.

  10. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke lesions in a dog brain: neuropathological characterisation and comparison to human ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Barbara Blicher; Gredal, Hanne; Wirenfeldt, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Background Dogs develop spontaneous ischaemic stroke with a clinical picture closely resembling human ischaemic stroke patients. Animal stroke models have been developed, but it has proved difficult to translate results obtained from such models into successful therapeutic strategies in human str...

  11. Dogs with cognitive dysfunction as a spontaneous model for early Alzheimer's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütt, Trine; Helboe, Lone; Pedersen, Lars Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    Aged companion dogs with canine cognitive dysfunction (CCD) spontaneously develop varying degrees of progressive cognitive decline and particular neuropathological features correspondent to the changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans. The aim of the present study...... was to characterize certain aspects of neuropathology and inflammatory markers related to aging and CCD in dogs in comparison with human AD. Fifteen brains from aged dogs with normal cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment, or CCD were investigated and compared with two control brains from young dogs and brain...... sections from human AD subjects. The neuropathological investigations included evaluation of amyloid-β (Aβ) plaque deposition (N-terminally truncated and pyroglutamyl-modified Aβ included), tau pathology, and inflammatory markers in prefrontal cortex. Cortical Aβ deposition was found to be only...

  12. Lung hyperinflation stimulates the release of inflammatory mediators in spontaneously breathing subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M.S. Malbouisson

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Lung hyperinflation up to vital capacity is used to re-expand collapsed lung areas and to improve gas exchange during general anesthesia. However, it may induce inflammation in normal lungs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a lung hyperinflation maneuver (LHM on plasma cytokine release in 10 healthy subjects (age: 26.1 ± 1.2 years, BMI: 23.8 ± 3.6 kg/m². LHM was performed applying continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP with a face mask, increased by 3-cmH2O steps up to 20 cmH2O every 5 breaths. At CPAP 20 cmH2O, an inspiratory pressure of 20 cmH2O above CPAP was applied, reaching an airway pressure of 40 cmH2O for 10 breaths. CPAP was then decreased stepwise. Blood samples were collected before and 2 and 12 h after LHM. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12 were measured by flow cytometry. Lung hyperinflation significantly increased (P < 0.05 all measured cytokines (TNF-α: 1.2 ± 3.8 vs 6.4 ± 8.6 pg/mL; IL-1β: 4.9 ± 15.6 vs 22.4 ± 28.4 pg/mL; IL-6: 1.4 ± 3.3 vs 6.5 ± 5.6 pg/mL; IL-8: 13.2 ± 8.8 vs 33.4 ± 26.4 pg/mL; IL-10: 3.3 ± 3.3 vs 7.7 ± 6.5 pg/mL, and IL-12: 3.1 ± 7.9 vs 9 ± 11.4 pg/mL, which returned to basal levels 12 h later. A significant correlation was found between changes in pro- (IL-6 and anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokines (r = 0.89, P = 0.004. LHM-induced lung stretching was associated with an early inflammatory response in healthy spontaneously breathing subjects.

  13. Quantifying Aerosol Delivery in Simulated Spontaneously Breathing Patients With Tracheostomy Using Different Humidification Systems With or Without Exhaled Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ari, Arzu; Harwood, Robert; Sheard, Meryl; Alquaimi, Maher Mubarak; Alhamad, Bshayer; Fink, James B

    2016-05-01

    Aerosol and humidification therapy are used in long-term airway management of critically ill patients with a tracheostomy. The purpose of this study was to determine delivery efficiency of jet and mesh nebulizers combined with different humidification systems in a model of a spontaneously breathing tracheotomized adult with or without exhaled heated humidity. An in vitro model was constructed to simulate a spontaneously breathing adult (tidal volume, 400 mL; breathing frequency, 20 breaths/min; inspiratory-expiratory ratio, 1:2) with a tracheostomy using a teaching manikin attached to a test lung through a collecting filter (Vital Signs Respirgard II). Exhaled heat and humidity were simulated using a cascade humidifier set to deliver 37°C and >95% relative humidity. Albuterol sulfate (2.5 mg/3 mL) was administered with a jet nebulizer (AirLife Misty Max) operated at 10 L/min and a mesh nebulizer (Aeroneb Solo) using a heated pass-over humidifier, unheated large volume humidifier both at 40 L/min output and heat-and-moisture exchanger. Inhaled drug eluted from the filter was analyzed via spectrophotometry (276 nm). Delivery efficiency of the jet nebulizer was less than that of the mesh nebulizer under all conditions (P < .05). Aerosol delivery with each nebulizer was greatest on room air and lowest when heated humidifiers with higher flows were used. Exhaled humidity decreased drug delivery up to 44%. The jet nebulizer was less efficient than the mesh nebulizer in all conditions tested in this study. Aerosol deposition with each nebulizer was lowest with the heated humidifier with high flow. Exhaled humidity reduced inhaled dose of drug compared with a standard model with nonheated/nonhumidified exhalation. Further clinical research is warranted to understand the impact of exhaled humidity on aerosol drug delivery in spontaneously breathing patients with tracheostomy using different types of humidifiers. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  14. Extracorporeal Carbon Dioxide Removal Enhanced by Lactic Acid Infusion in Spontaneously Breathing Conscious Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaravilli, Vittorio; Kreyer, Stefan; Belenkiy, Slava; Linden, Katharina; Zanella, Alberto; Li, Yansong; Dubick, Michael A; Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pesenti, Antonio; Batchinsky, Andriy I

    2016-03-01

    The authors studied the effects on membrane lung carbon dioxide extraction (VCO2ML), spontaneous ventilation, and energy expenditure (EE) of an innovative extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) technique enhanced by acidification (acid load carbon dioxide removal [ALCO2R]) via lactic acid. Six spontaneously breathing healthy ewes were connected to an extracorporeal circuit with blood flow 250 ml/min and gas flow 10 l/min. Sheep underwent two randomly ordered experimental sequences, each consisting of two 12-h alternating phases of ALCO2R and ECCO2R. During ALCO2R, lactic acid (1.5 mEq/min) was infused before the membrane lung. Caloric intake was not controlled, and animals were freely fed. VCO2ML, natural lung carbon dioxide extraction, total carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation were recorded. Oxygen consumption and EE were calculated. ALCO2R enhanced VCO2ML by 48% relative to ECCO2R (55.3 ± 3.1 vs. 37.2 ± 3.2 ml/min; P less than 0.001). During ALCO2R, minute ventilation and natural lung carbon dioxide extraction were not affected (7.88 ± 2.00 vs. 7.51 ± 1.89 l/min, P = 0.146; 167.9 ± 41.6 vs. 159.6 ± 51.8 ml/min, P = 0.063), whereas total carbon dioxide production, oxygen consumption, and EE rose by 12% each (223.53 ± 42.68 vs. 196.64 ± 50.92 ml/min, 215.3 ± 96.9 vs. 189.1 ± 89.0 ml/min, 67.5 ± 24.0 vs. 60.3 ± 20.1 kcal/h; P less than 0.001). ALCO2R was effective in enhancing VCO2ML. However, lactic acid caused a rise in EE that made ALCO2R no different from standard ECCO2R with respect to ventilation. The authors suggest coupling lactic acid-enhanced ALCO2R with active measures to control metabolism.

  15. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm 3 or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future

  16. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, M.A. E-mail: aledagrosa@fibertel.com.ar; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm{sup 3} or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future.

  17. Acute and late reactions following boron neutron capture epithermal-neutron therapy in dogs with spontaneous brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, P.R.; DeHaan, C.E.; Kraft, S.L.; Moore, M.P.; Wendling, L.R.; Dorn, R.V. III.

    1992-01-01

    Dogs have a relatively high incidence of primary tumors of the central nervous system and have proven to be good models for new therapeutic investigation. The pharmacokinetics of borocaptate sodium have been well documented in the dog. Preliminary investigations of the normal tissue tolerance and was designed to ensure a therapeutic margin was present for the dogs with spontaneous tumors; i.e., a measurable effect could be had on the tumor at doses considered safe for the normal tissues

  18. Comparison of objective methods to classify the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mechanical ventilation and paced spontaneous breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, N C; Beda, A; Granja-Filho, P; Jandre, F C; Giannella-Neto, A; De Abreu, M G; Spieth, P M

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a fluctuation of heart period that occurs during a respiratory cycle. It has been suggested that inspiratory heart period acceleration and expiratory deceleration during spontaneous ventilation (henceforth named positive RSA) improve the efficiency of gas exchange compared to the absence or the inversion of such a pattern (negative RSA). During mechanical ventilation (MV), for which maximizing the efficiency of gas exchange is of critical importance, the pattern of RSA is still the object of debate. In order to gain a better insight into this matter, we compared five different methods of RSA classification using the data of five mechanically ventilated piglets. The comparison was repeated using the data of 15 volunteers undergoing a protocol of paced spontaneous breathing, which is expected to result in a positive RSA pattern. The results showed that the agreement between the employed methods is limited, suggesting that the lack of a consensus about the RSA pattern during MV is, at least in part, of methodological origin. However, independently of the method used, the pattern of RSA within the respiratory cycle was not consistent among the subjects and conditions of MV considered. Also, the outcomes showed that even during paced spontaneous breathing a negative RSA pattern might be present, when a low respiratory frequency is imposed

  19. Analytical dosimetry for spontaneous tumor dogs receiving boron neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, F.J.; Atkinson, C.A.; Gavin, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    The dog irradiation project of the Power Burst Facility/Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (PBF/BNCT) Program is administered by Washington State University (WSU) with analytical and physical dosimetry provided by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). One subtask of this project includes BNCT safety studies for dogs with spontaneously-occurring brain tumors. The boron compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH or BSH) was administered and single irradiations performed using the epithermal-neutron beam at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). The main goal of the study was not to provide therapy, but to determine tumorcidal effect while administering a subtolerance dose to healthy tissue. Irradiation times were based on delivery of 19 Gy peak physical dose to the blood

  20. Efficacy of enamel matrix protein applied to spontaneous periodontal disease in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Okumura, Masahiro; Kadosawa, Tsuyoshi; Fujinaga, Toru

    2003-09-01

    Enamel matrix protein (EMP) was applied for regeneration of periodontal tissue in 2 dogs with spontaneous periodontal disease. Case 1 had bony resorption around the root and root apex of the maxillary fourth premolars. Case 2 had vertical resorption of bone between the mandibular first and second molars. A flap was formed in the buccal gingiva, and EMP was applied onto the surface of the exposed root. One or 4 months postoperatively, increased bone level and clinical attachment were recognized. EMP was therefore suggested to be effective to induce regeneration of periodontal tissues in the cases with periodontal disease.

  1. Hormonal changes in spontaneous and aglépristone-induced parturition in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baan, M; Taverne, M A M; de Gier, J; Kooistra, H S; Kindahl, H; Dieleman, S J; Okkens, A C

    2008-03-01

    To increase our understanding of the endocrine changes associated with parturition in dogs, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4), 15-ketodihydroprostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGFM), estradiol-17-beta (E2beta), cortisol, ACTH, prolactin (PRL), LH, and FSH were measured in six spontaneously whelping bitches and in six bitches in which parturition was induced with the progesterone-receptor blocker aglépristone on day 58 of pregnancy. Expulsion of pups in the induced group took place in the presence of P4 concentrations that were still elevated. PGFM concentrations increased before parturition in both groups, but levels were lower in the induced bitches. PGFM levels reached a maximum in both groups during parturition and quickly decreased in the spontaneously whelping group after parturition, but remained elevated in the induced group. In both groups, cortisol concentrations reached similar maximum levels during the last 30 h before the onset of expulsion. During the 3 days postpartum, cortisol concentrations were higher in the induced group. The highly variable ACTH concentrations did not differ significantly throughout the study within or between groups. In both groups, E2beta concentrations decreased and PRL concentrations increased between the late gestational period and the 30-h period before parturition. Concentrations of both LH (spontaneously whelping group) and FSH (both groups) decreased between late gestation and the postpartum period. The results of this study illustrate the hormonal changes around parturition in the bitch, and reveal that aglépristone-induced parturition is associated with still incomplete luteolysis, an altered PGFM profile, and elevated postpartum cortisol concentrations as compared with spontaneously whelping dogs.

  2. Tracheostomy as a bridge to spontaneous breathing and awake-ECMO in non-transplant surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swol, J; Strauch, J T; Schildhauer, T A

    2017-05-01

    The tracheostomy is a frequently used procedure for the respiratory weaning of ventilated patients allows sedation free ECLS use in awake patient. The aim of this study is to assess the possibility and highlight the benefits of lowering the impact of sedation in surgical non-transplant patients on ECLS. The specific objective was to investigate the use of tracheostomy as a bridge to spontaneous breathing on ECLS. Of the 95 patients, 65 patients received a tracheostomy, and 5 patients were admitted with a tracheostoma. One patient was cannulated without intubation, one is extubated during ECLS course after 48 hours. 4 patients were extubated after weaning and the removal of ECLS. 19 patients died before the indication to tracheostomy was given. Tracheostomy can bridge to spontaneous breathing and awake-ECMO in non-transplant surgical patients. The "awake ECMO" strategy may avoid complications related to mechanical ventilation, sedation, and immobilization and provide comparable outcomes to other approaches for providing respiratory support. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  3. Albuterol Delivery via Facial and Tracheostomy Route in a Model of a Spontaneously Breathing Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Brandy; Berlinski, Ariel

    2015-12-01

    Some pediatric patients receiving therapeutic aerosols undergo tracheostomy, and others who are tracheostomized continue requiring inhaled therapies upon decannulation. It is unknown whether a dose adjustment is required. Different devices are available for facial and tracheostomy delivery, and in some instances, the assisted technique is used. We hypothesized that the change from face mask to tracheostomy would result in a decrease in the lung dose. A breathing simulator connected in series to a filter holder and an anatomically correct head model of a child was used. The drug captured in the filter was termed the lung dose. Breathing patterns with tidal volumes of 50, 155, and 300 mL were tested. Albuterol hydrofluoroalkane (pressurized metered-dose inhaler [pMDI]) with an AeroChamber Mini (face and 4.5-mm tracheostomy), AeroTrach (4.5-mm tracheostomy), and AeroChamber (face) and albuterol (2.5 mg/3 mL) with a continuous output nebulizer (face and 4.5-mm tracheostomy) were tested. Masks were used for facial delivery. Four units of each device were tested. Particle size of the pMDI was measured by cascade impaction. Albuterol concentration was determined via spectrophotometry (276 nm). Switching from facial to tracheostomy delivery increased lung dose with nebulizer (all breathing patterns). When a pMDI was used, lung dose was unchanged or increased for the 50- and 155-mL and decreased for the 300-mL breathing pattern. The use of the assisted technique increased lung dose only during nebulization with the 300-mL breathing pattern. The particle size of the pMDI decreased by 19-23% when traveling through the tracheostomy tube, which retained tracheostomy was variable and depended on the delivery device and the breathing pattern. There is no advantage of using the assisted technique to enhance aerosol delivery. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. EIT based pulsatile impedance monitoring during spontaneous breathing in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger-Ziolek, Sabine; Schullcke, Benjamin; Gong, Bo; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Moeller, Knut

    2017-06-01

    Evaluating the lung function in patients with obstructive lung disease by electrical impedance tomography (EIT) usually requires breathing maneuvers containing deep inspirations and forced expirations. Since these maneuvers strongly depend on the patient's co-operation and health status, normal tidal breathing was investigated in an attempt to develop continuous maneuver-free measurements. Ventilation related and pulsatile impedance changes were systematically analyzed during normal tidal breathing in 12 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and 12 lung-healthy controls (HL). Tidal breaths were subdivided into three inspiratory (In1, In2, In3) and three expiratory (Ex1, Ex2, Ex3) sections of the same amplitude of global impedance change. Maximal changes of the ventilation and the pulsatile impedance signal occurring during these sections were determined (▵I V and ▵I P ). Differences in ▵I V and ▵I P among sections were ascertained in relation to the first inspiratory section. In addition, ▵I V /▵I P was calculated for each section. Medians of changes in ▵I V were  <0.05% in all sections for both subject groups. Both groups showed a similar pattern of ▵I P changes during tidal breathing. Changes in ▵I P first decreased during inspiration (In2), then increased towards the end of inspiration (In3) and reached a maximum at the beginning of expiration (Ex1). During the last two sections of expiration (Ex2, Ex3) ▵I P changes decreased. The CF patients showed higher variations in ▵I P changes compared to the controls (CF:  -426.5%, HL:  -158.1%, coefficient of variation). Furthermore, ▵I V /▵I P significantly differed between expiratory sections for the CF patients (Ex1-Ex2, p  <  0.01; Ex1-Ex3, p  <  0.001; Ex2-Ex3, p  <  0.05), but not for the controls. No significant differences in ▵I V /▵I P between inspiratory sections were determined for both groups. Differences in ▵I P changes and in ▵I V /▵I P between

  5. Imposed Work of Breathing and Breathing Comfort of Nonintubated Volunteers Breathing with Three Portable Ventilators and a Critical Care Ventilator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Austin, Paul

    2001-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to assess the imposed inspiratory work of breathing and breathing comfort of nonintubated healthy volunteers breathing spontaneously through three portable ventilators...

  6. Comparison of distribution of lung aeration measured with EIT and CT in spontaneously breathing, awake patients1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radke, Oliver C; Schneider, Thomas; Braune, Anja; Pirracchio, Romain; Fischer, Felix; Koch, Thea

    2016-09-28

    Both Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) and Computed Tomography (CT) allow the estimation of the lung area. We compared two algorithms for the detection of the lung area per quadrant from the EIT images with the lung areas derived from the CT images. 39 outpatients who were scheduled for an elective CT scan of the thorax were included in the study. For each patient we recorded EIT images immediately before the CT scan. The lung area per quadrant was estimated from both CT and EIT data using two different algorithms for the EIT data. Data showed considerable variation during spontaneous breathing of the patients. Overall correlation between EIT and CT was poor (0.58-0.77), the correlation between the two EIT algorithms was better (0.90-0.92). Bland-Altmann analysis revealed absence of bias, but wide limits of agreement. Lung area estimation from CT and EIT differs significantly, most probably because of the fundamental difference in image generation.

  7. Can baroreflex measurements with spontaneous sequence analysis be improved by also measuring breathing and by standardization of filtering strategies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollow, M R; Parkes, M J; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2011-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is known to be attenuated by inspiration and all the original BRS methodologies took this into account by measuring only in expiration. Spontaneous sequence analysis (SSA) is a non-invasive clinical tool widely used to estimate BRS in Man but does not take breathing into account. We have therefore modified it to test whether it too can detect inspiratory attenuation. Traditional SSA is also entangled with issues of distinguishing causal from random relationships between blood pressure and heart period and of the optimum choice of data filter settings. We have also tested whether the sequences our modified SSA rejects do behave as random relationships and show the limitations of the absence of filter standardization. SSA was performed on eupneic data from 1 h periods in 20 healthy subjects. Applying SSA traditionally produced a mean BRS of 23 ± 3 ms mmHg −1 . After modification to measure breathing, SSA detected significant inspiratory attenuation (11 ± 1 ms mmHg −1 ), and the mean expiratory BRS was significantly higher (26 ± 5 ms mmHg −1 ). Traditional SSA therefore underestimates BRS by an amount (3 ms mmHg −1 ) as big as the major physiological and clinical factors known to alter BRS. We show that the sequences rejected by SSA do behave like random associations between pressure and period. We also show the minimal effect of the r 2 filter and the biases that some pressure and heart period filters can introduce. We discuss whether SSA might be improved by standardization of filter settings and by also measuring breathing

  8. The reliability and validity of passive leg raise and fluid bolus to assess fluid responsiveness in spontaneously breathing emergency department patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Nicolaj; Shogilev, Daniel J; Skibsted, Simon

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We investigated the reproducibility of passive leg raise (PLR) and fluid bolus (BOLUS) using the Non-Invasive Cardiac Output Monitor (NICOM; Cheetah Medical, Tel Aviv, Israel) for assessment of fluid responsiveness (FR) in spontaneously breathing emergency department (ED) patients. METHODS...

  9. Lung and chest wall impedances in the dog in normal range of breathing: effects of pulmonary edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnas, G M; Stamenović, D; Lutchen, K R

    1992-09-01

    We evaluated the effect of pulmonary edema on the frequency (f) and tidal volume (VT) dependences of respiratory system mechanical properties in the normal ranges of breathing. We measured resistance and elastance of the lungs (RL and EL) and chest wall of four anesthetized-paralyzed dogs during sinusoidal volume oscillations at the trachea (50-300 ml, 0.2-2 Hz), delivered at a constant mean airway pressure. Measurements were made before and after severe pulmonary edema was produced by injection of 0.06 ml/kg oleic acid into the right atrium. Chest wall properties were not changed by the injection. Before oleic acid, EL increased slightly with increasing f in each dog but was independent of VT. RL decreased slightly and was independent of VT from 0.2 to 0.4 Hz, but above 0.4 Hz it tended to increase with increasing flow, presumably due to the airway contribution. After oleic acid injection, EL and RL increased greatly. Large negative dependences of EL on VT and of RL on f were also evident, so that EL and RL after oleic acid changed two- and fivefold, respectively, within the ranges of f and VT studied. We conclude that severe pulmonary edema changes lung properties so as to make behavior VT dependent (i.e., nonlinear) and very frequency dependent in the normal range of breathing.

  10. Photodynamic therapy on spontaneous tumors of dogs and cats: a ten-year study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonda, Diego

    1992-06-01

    Since 1981, more than fifty spontaneous tumors of dogs and cats were treated by photodynamic therapy with hematoporphyrins in the surgery department of the University of Milan. Therapeutic results proved to be successful and promising in certain forms of cancer and will be compared in the future with the effectiveness of other photosensitizer drugs like phatolocyanines derivatives. Applied hematoporphyrins phototherapy methods included: (1) injection of hematoporphyrins derivative (HpD) and irradiation with laser light at 631 nanometers, using a Rhodamine B dye laser; (2) injection of the active component of hematoporphyrin derivative (DHE) and irradiation with a Rhodamine B dye laser; and (3) injection of DHE and irradiation with laser light at 628 nanometers using a gold vapor laser. More frequently treated tumor sites were oral and nasal cavities. Other localizations were mucous membranes of the glans and stomach. Nineteen histological types were diagnosed in treated tumors.

  11. Anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin against spontaneous tumors in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Joseph A; Frye, Gerald; Bahr, Anne; Gieg, Jennifer; Brofman, Peter

    2010-10-01

    Given the limited options available to treat canine cancers, the use of companion animals for evaluating new drugs may identify better therapies for veterinary and human oncology. The anti-tumor effects of nitrosylcobalamin (NO-Cbl), an apoptosis-inducing, vitamin B12-based carrier of nitric oxide (NO), was evaluated in four dogs with spontaneous cancer. (1) A 13 year-old female spayed Giant Schnauzer with inoperable thyroid carcinoma and hypercalcemia. (2) A 6 year-old male neutered Golden Retriever with a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). (3) A ten yr-old neutered male Bichon Frise with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGACA). (4) A 7 year-old female spayed Labrador mix with spinal meningioma following partial surgical resection. Tumor regression was measured by physical exam and verified using ultrasound (case 1) and MRI (case 2-4). Serum chemistries and hematologic parameters were monitored throughout the studies. (1) The Giant Schnauzer demonstrated a 77% reduction in tumor volume after ten weeks of daily NO-Cbl treatment. (2) The Golden Retriever demonstrated a 53% reduction in tumor volume after 15 months of daily NO-Cbl therapy. (3) The Bichon Frise demonstrated a 43% regression of the primary tumor and a 90% regression of an iliac lymph node measured by MRI after 15 months of treatment. After 61 months, the dog currently has stable disease, normal liver enzymes, CBC analysis, and no evidence of toxicity. (4) The Labrador demonstrated complete regression of the residual tumor after 6 months of treatment. We have shown previously that NO-Cbl is endocytosed by malignant cells, resulting in intra-tumoral NO release. In this study, we have shown that daily long-term use of NO-Cbl induced responses in all dogs without any signs of toxicity. The use of NO-Cbl capitalizes on the tumor-specific properties of the vitamin B12 receptor and represents a promising anti-cancer therapy.

  12. Phase I evaluation of STA-1474, a prodrug of the novel HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib, in dogs with spontaneous cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available The novel water soluble compound STA-1474 is metabolized to ganetespib (formerly STA-9090, a potent HSP90 inhibitor previously shown to kill canine tumor cell lines in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in the setting of murine xenografts. The purpose of the following study was to extend these observations and investigate the safety and efficacy of STA-1474 in dogs with spontaneous tumors.This was a Phase 1 trial in which dogs with spontaneous tumors received STA-1474 under one of three different dosing schemes. Pharmacokinetics, toxicities, biomarker changes, and tumor responses were assessed. Twenty-five dogs with a variety of cancers were enrolled. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal in nature consisting of diarrhea, vomiting, inappetence and lethargy. Upregulation of HSP70 protein expression was noted in both tumor specimens and PBMCs within 7 hours following drug administration. Measurable objective responses were observed in dogs with malignant mast cell disease (n = 3, osteosarcoma (n = 1, melanoma (n = 1 and thyroid carcinoma (n = 1, for a response rate of 24% (6/25. Stable disease (>10 weeks was seen in 3 dogs, for a resultant overall biological activity of 36% (9/25.This study provides evidence that STA-1474 exhibits biologic activity in a relevant large animal model of cancer. Given the similarities of canine and human cancers with respect to tumor biology and HSP90 activation, it is likely that STA-1474 and ganetespib will demonstrate comparable anti-cancer activity in human patients.

  13. Work of breathing using different interfaces in spontaneous positive pressure ventilation: helmet, face-mask, and endotracheal tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Shinya; Otaki, Kei; Yashima, Nozomi; Kurota, Misato; Matsushita, Sachiko; Kumasaka, Airi; Kurihara, Hutaba; Kawamae, Kaneyuki

    2016-08-01

    Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) using a helmet is expected to cause inspiratory trigger delay due to the large collapsible and compliant chamber. We compared the work of breathing (WOB) of NPPV using a helmet or a full face-mask with that of invasive ventilation by tracheal intubation. We used a lung model capable of simulating spontaneous breathing (LUNGOO; Air Water Inc., Japan). LUNGOO was set at compliance (C) = 50 mL/cmH2O and resistance (R) = 5 cmH2O/L/s for normal lung simulation, C = 20 mL/cmH2O and R = 5 cmH2O/L/s for restrictive lung, and C = 50 mL/cmH2O and R = 20 cmH2O/L/s for obstructive lung. Muscle pressure was fixed at 25 cmH2O and respiratory rate at 20 bpm. Pressure support ventilation and continuous positive airway pressure were performed with each interface placed on a dummy head made of reinforced plastic that was connected to LUNGOO. We tested the inspiratory WOB difference between the interfaces with various combinations of ventilator settings (positive end-expiratory pressure 5 cmH2O; pressure support 0, 5, and 10 cmH2O). In the normal lung and restrictive lung models, WOB decreased more with the face-mask than the helmet, especially when accompanied by the level of pressure support. In the obstructive lung model, WOB with the helmet decreased compared with the other two interfaces. In the mixed lung model, there were no significant differences in WOB between the three interfaces. NPPV using a helmet is more effective than the other interfaces for WOB in obstructive lung disease.

  14. Fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing is more sensitive than phrenic nerve stimulation for detection of right phrenic nerve injury during cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhart, Markus; Nielson, Annika; Andrié, René P; Mittmann-Braun, Erica L; Stöckigt, Florian; Kreuz, Jens; Nickenig, Georg; Schrickel, Jan W; Lickfett, Lars M

    2014-08-01

    Right phrenic nerve palsy (PNP) is a typical complication of cryoballoon ablation of the right-sided pulmonary veins (PVs). Phrenic nerve function can be monitored by palpating the abdomen during phrenic nerve pacing from the superior vena cava (SVC pacing) or by fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing. We sought to compare the sensitivity of these 2 techniques during cryoballoon ablation for detection of PNP. A total of 133 patients undergoing cryoballoon ablation were monitored with both SVC pacing and fluoroscopy of spontaneous breathing during ablation of the right superior PV. PNP occurred in 27/133 patients (20.0%). Most patients (89%) had spontaneous recovery of phrenic nerve function at the end of the procedure or on the following day. Three patients were discharged with persistent PNP. All PNP were detected first by fluoroscopic observation of diaphragm movement during spontaneous breathing, while diaphragm could still be stimulated by SVC pacing. In patients with no recovery until discharge, PNP occurred at a significantly earlier time (86 ± 34 seconds vs. 296 ± 159 seconds, P < 0.001). No recovery occurred in 2/4 patients who were ablated with a 23 mm cryoballoon as opposed to 1/23 patients with a 28 mm cryoballoon (P = 0.049). Fluoroscopic assessment of diaphragm movement during spontaneous breathing is more sensitive for detection PNP as compared to SVC pacing. PNP as assessed by fluoroscopy is frequent (20.0%) and carries a high rate of recovery (89%) until discharge. Early onset of PNP and use of 23 mm cryoballoon are associated with PNP persisting beyond hospital discharge. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cardio-respiratory interactions and relocation of heartbeats within the respiratory cycle during spontaneous and paced breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, T C; Beda, A; Granja-Filho, P C N; Jandre, F C; Giannella-Neto, A

    2011-01-01

    The capability of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) to generate privileged locations for the occurrence of R-peaks within the respiratory cycle has been questioned in recent works, challenging the hypothesis that RSA might play a role in improving pulmonary gas exchange. We assessed such a capability submitting healthy humans to spontaneous and paced breathing (SB and PB) protocols, estimating the fraction of beats occurring during inspiration, at low, medium, and high respiratory volumes, and during the first and second half of inspiration and expiration. Then, the same fractions were computed assuming a random uniform distribution of heartbeats, and the differences were compared. The results found are as follows: (1) during PB at 6 rpm, heartbeats redistribute toward inspiration; (2) during SB and PB at 12 rpm, heartbeats tend to cluster when respiratory volume is high; (3) since such redistributions are limited in magnitude, it is possible that its physiological relevance is marginal, for instance, in terms of within-cycle variations in lung perfusion; (4) two groups of subjects with considerably different levels of RSA showed similar redistribution of heartbeats, suggesting that this phenomenon might be an underlying effect of the overall cardio-respiratory interactions, and not directly of RSA

  16. Can dogs smell lung cancer? First study using exhaled breath and urine screening in unselected patients with suspected lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundsen, Tore; Sundstrøm, Stein; Buvik, Turid; Gederaas, Odrun Arna; Haaverstad, Rune

    2014-03-01

    On the basis of our own experience and literature search, we hypothesised that a canine olfactory test may be useful for detecting lung cancer in an unselected population of patients suspected to have lung cancer. We conducted a prospective study of 93 patients consecutively admitted to hospital with suspected lung cancer. Exhaled breath and urine were sampled before the patients underwent bronchoscopy. The canine olfactory test was performed in a double-blinded manner. Sensitivity and specificity were outcome measures. With 99% sensitivity, the olfactory test demonstrated that dogs have the ability to distinguish cancer patients from healthy individuals. With an intensified training procedure, the exhaled breath and urine tests showed sensitivity rates of 56-76% and specificity rates of 8.3-33.3%, respectively, in our heterogeneous study population. Although the olfactory test appears to be a promising tool for the detection of cancer, the main challenge is to determine whether the test can sufficiently discriminate between patients at risk, patients with benign disease, and patients with malignant disease. We need to gain a deeper understanding of this test and further refine it before applying it as a screening tool for lung cancer in clinical settings.

  17. Randomised Comparison of the AMBU AuraOnce Laryngeal Mask and the LMA Unique Laryngeal Mask Airway in Spontaneously Breathing Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Daryl Lindsay; Zeng, James M.; Alexander, Karl D.; Andrews, David T.

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a randomised single-blind controlled trial comparing the LMA-Unique (LMAU) and the AMBU AuraOnce (AMBU) disposable laryngeal mask in spontaneously breathing adult patients undergoing general anaesthesia. Eighty-two adult patients (ASA status I–IV) were randomly allocated to receive the LMAU or AMBU and were blinded to device selection. Patients received a standardized anesthetic and all airway devices were inserted by trained anaesthetists. Size selection was guided by manufactur...

  18. Combination of intravenous dexmedetomidine with topicalization of airway for placement of double lumen tube in a spontaneously breathing patient of giant lung bullae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Karne

    2016-10-01

    Here we present a patient with giant lung bulla in left lower lobe with severely reduced pulmonary reserves and significant air-trapping posted for VAT assisted bullectomy. Anaesthesia challenges including pathological changes, its effects during induction of anaesthesia, and issues related to placement of double lumen tube in a spontaneously breathing patient are discussed with possible advantages of dexmedetomidine in this special group of patients.

  19. Integrating exhaled breath diagnostics by disease-sniffing dogs with instrumental laboratory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogs have been studied for many years as a medical diagnostic tool to detect a pre-clinical disease state by sniffing emissions directly from a human or an in vitro biological sample. Some of the studies report high sensitivity and specificity in blinded case-control studies. How...

  20. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of combined calcitriol and cisplatin in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassnick, Kenneth M.; Muindi, Josephia R.; Johnson, Candace S.; Balkman, Cheryl E.; Ramnath, Nithya; Yu, Wei-Dong; Engler, Kristie L.; Page, Rodney L.; Trump, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Calcitriol potentiates cisplatin-mediated activity in a variety of tumor models. We examine here, the effect of calcitriol and cisplatin pre-clinically and clinically in canine spontaneous tumors through in vitro studies on tumor cells and through a phase I study of calcitriol and cisplatin to identify the maximum-tolerated dosage (MTD) of this combination in dogs with cancer and to characterize the pharmacokinetic disposition of calcitriol in dogs. Methods Canine tumor cells were investigated for calcitriol/cisplatin interactions on proliferation using an MTT assay in a median-dose effect analysis; data were used to derive a combination index (CI). Cisplatin was given at a fixed dosage of 60 mg/m2. Calcitriol was given i.v. and the dosage was escalated in cohorts of three dogs until the MTD was defined. Serum calcitriol concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay. Results In vitro, CIs1.5 μg/kg achieved Cmax ≥ 9.8 ng/mL and dosages >1.0 μg/kg achieved AUC ≥ 45 h ng/mL. Conclusions Calcitriol and cisplatin have synergistic antiproliferative effects on multiple canine tumor cells and high-dosages of i.v. calcitriol in combination with cisplatin can be safely administered to dogs. Cmax and AUC at the MTD 3.75 μg/kg calcitriol exceed concentrations associated with antitumor activity in a murine model, indicating this combination might have significant clinical utility in dogs. PMID:18246349

  1. Phase I Evaluation of STA-1474, a Prodrug of the Novel HSP90 Inhibitor Ganetespib, in Dogs with Spontaneous Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Cheryl A.; Bear, Misty D.; McCleese, Jennifer; Foley, Kevin P.; Paalangara, Reji; Inoue, Takayo; Ying, Weiwen; Barsoum, James

    2011-01-01

    Background The novel water soluble compound STA-1474 is metabolized to ganetespib (formerly STA-9090), a potent HSP90 inhibitor previously shown to kill canine tumor cell lines in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in the setting of murine xenografts. The purpose of the following study was to extend these observations and investigate the safety and efficacy of STA-1474 in dogs with spontaneous tumors. Methods and Findings This was a Phase 1 trial in which dogs with spontaneous tumors received STA-1474 under one of three different dosing schemes. Pharmacokinetics, toxicities, biomarker changes, and tumor responses were assessed. Twenty-five dogs with a variety of cancers were enrolled. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal in nature consisting of diarrhea, vomiting, inappetence and lethargy. Upregulation of HSP70 protein expression was noted in both tumor specimens and PBMCs within 7 hours following drug administration. Measurable objective responses were observed in dogs with malignant mast cell disease (n = 3), osteosarcoma (n = 1), melanoma (n = 1) and thyroid carcinoma (n = 1), for a response rate of 24% (6/25). Stable disease (>10 weeks) was seen in 3 dogs, for a resultant overall biological activity of 36% (9/25). Conclusions This study provides evidence that STA-1474 exhibits biologic activity in a relevant large animal model of cancer. Given the similarities of canine and human cancers with respect to tumor biology and HSP90 activation, it is likely that STA-1474 and ganetespib will demonstrate comparable anti-cancer activity in human patients. PMID:22073242

  2. Comparison of trapezius squeeze test and jaw thrust as clinical indicators for laryngeal mask airway insertion in spontaneously breathing children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh Kumar, K. K.; Bhardwaj, Neerja; Yaddanapudi, Sandhya

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: It is not known whether trapezius squeeze test (TPZ) is a better clinical test than jaw thrust (JT) to assess laryngeal mask airway (LMA) insertion conditions in children under sevoflurane anesthesia. Material and Methods: After the Institutional Ethics Committee approval and written informed parental consent, 124 American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II children of 2–8 years of age undergoing minor surgical procedures were randomized into TPZ and JT groups. The children were induced with 8% sevoflurane in oxygen at a fresh gas flow of 4 L/min. TPZ or JT was performed after 1 min of start of sevoflurane and then every 20 s till the test was negative, when end-tidal (ET) sevoflurane concentration was noted. Classic LMA of requisite size was inserted by a blinded anesthetist and conditions at the insertion of LMA, insertion time, and the number of attempts of LMA insertion were recorded. Results: The mean LMA insertion time was significantly longer (P < 0.001) for TPZ (145 ± 28.7 sec) compared to JT group (111.8 ± 31.0 sec). ET sevoflurane concentration at the time of LMA insertion was comparable in the two groups. LMA insertion conditions were similar in the two groups. There was no difference between the two groups regarding total number of attempts of LMA insertion. Heart rate (HR) decreased in both groups after LMA insertion (P < 0.001) but TPZ group had significantly lower HR compared with the JT group up to 5 min after LMA insertion (P = 0.03). Conclusion: Both JT and TPZ are equivalent clinical indicators in predicting the optimal conditions of LMA insertion in spontaneously breathing children; however, it takes a longer time to achieve a negative TPZ squeeze test. PMID:28413275

  3. Imaging of mucus clearance in the airways of living spontaneously breathing mice by optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Mario; Schulz-Hildebrandt, Hinnerk; Hüttmann, Gereon; König, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Mucus transport is essential to remove inhaled particles and pathogens from the lung. Impaired removal of mucus often results in worsening of lung diseases. To understand the mechanisms of mucus transport and to monitor the impact of therapeutic strategies, it is essential to visualize airways and mucus in living animals without disturbing transport processes by intubation or surgically opening the airways. We developed a custom-built optical coherence microscope (OCM) providing a lateral and axial resolution of approximately 1.5 µm with a field of view of 2 mm at up to 150 images/s. Images of the intact trachea and its mucus transport were recorded in anesthetized spontaneously breathing mice. NaCl solution (0.9% and 7%) or Lipopolysaccharide were applied intranasally. OCM resolved detailed structure of the trachea and enabled measuring the airway surface liquid (ASL) thickness through the tracheal wall. Without stimulation, the amount of ASL was only a few µm above the epithelium and remained constant. After intranasal application of 30 µl saline at different concentrations, an early fast cough-like fluid removal with velocities higher than 1 mm/s was observed that removed a high amount of liquid. The ASL thickness increased transiently and quickly returned to levels before stimulation. In contrast to saline, application of Lipopolysaccharide induced substantial mucus release and an additional slow mucus transport by ciliary beating (around 100 µm/s) towards the larynx was observed. In conclusion, OCM is appropriate unique tool to study mechanisms of mucus transport in the airways and effects of therapeutic interventions in living animals.

  4. A novel approach using time-frequency analysis of pulse-oximeter data to detect progressive hypovolemia in spontaneously breathing healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, Nandakumar; Shelley, Kirk H; Silverman, David G; Stachenfeld, Nina; Galante, Nicholas; Florian, John P; Mendelson, Yitzhak; Chon, K

    2011-08-01

    Accurate and early detection of blood volume loss would greatly improve intraoperative and trauma care. This study has attempted to determine early diagnostic and quantitative markers for blood volume loss by analyzing photoplethysmogram (PPG) data from ear, finger and forehead sites with our high-resolution time-frequency spectral (TFS) technique in spontaneously breathing healthy subjects (n = 11) subjected to lower body negative pressure (LBNP). The instantaneous amplitude modulations present in heart rate (AM HR) and breathing rate (AMBR) band frequencies of PPG signals were calculated from the high-resolution TFS. Results suggested that the changes (P signals, respectively. The mean percent increase in AMBR values at 100% LBNP tolerance was 99.4% and 19.6% for ear and finger sites, respectively; AMBR values were not attainable for forehead PPG signal. Even without baseline AMHR values, our results suggest that hypovolemia detection is possible with specificity and sensitivity greater than 90% for the ear and forehead locations when LBNP tolerance is 100%. Therefore, the TFS analysis of noninvasive PPG waveforms is promising for early diagnosis and quantification of hypovolemia at levels not identified by vital signs in spontaneously breathing subjects.

  5. Feasibility of monomodal analgesia with IV alfentanil during burn dressing changes at bedside (in spontaneously breathing non-intubated patients).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Mathieu; Latarjet, Jacques; Payre, Jacqueline; Poupelin, Jean-Charles; Ravat, François

    2017-03-01

    The severe pain related to repeated burn dressing changes at bedside is often difficult to manage. However these dressings can be performed at bedside on spontaneously breathing non-intubated patients using powerful intravenous opioids with a quick onset and a short duration of action such as alfentanil. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of the protocol which is used in our burn unit for pain control during burn dressing changes. Cohort study began after favorable opinion from local ethic committee has been collected. Patient's informed consent was collected. No fasting was required. Vital signs for patients were continuously monitored (non-invasive blood pressure, ECG monitoring, cutaneous oxygen saturation, respiratory rate) all over the process. Boluses of 500 (±250) mcg IV alfentanil were administered. A continuous infusion was added in case of insufficient analgesia. Adverse reactions were collected and pain intensity was measured throughout the dressing using a ten step verbal rating scale (VRS) ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain conceivable). 100 dressings (35 patients) were analyzed. Median age was 45 years and median burned area 10%. We observed 3 blood pressure drops, 5 oxygen desaturations (treated with stimulation without the necessity of ventilatory support) and one episode of nausea. Most of the patients (87%) were totally conscious during the dressing and 13% were awakened by verbal stimulation. Median total dose of alfentanil used was 2000μg for a median duration of 35min. Pain scores during the procedure were low or moderate (VRS mean=2.0 and maximal VRS=5). Median satisfaction collected 2h after the dressing was 10 on a ten step scale. Pain control with intravenous alfentanil alone is efficient and appears safe for most burn bedside repeated dressings in hospitalized patients. It achieves satisfactory analgesia during and after the procedure. It is now our standard analgesic method to provide repeated

  6. Use of an Impedance Threshold Device in Spontaneously Breathing Patients with Hypotension Secondary to Trauma: An Observational Cohort Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-09

    hypotensive patient. Crystalloid infusion is not necessarily benign.1,2 Difficult vascular access, hemodilution, acidosis , decreased oxygen delivery, and...blood pressure, heart rate (HR), respiratory rate, and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) were recorded im- mediately before application of the ITD...per minute (p = 0.007). The respiratory rate was constant: 19 (7) breaths before to 18 (4) breaths (p = 0.31) per minute after ITD use. Oxygen

  7. A Comparative Study of Cuffed Pharyngeal Tube (CPR with Endotracheal Tube in Airway Management and Ventilation of Spontaneously Breathing Patients Undergoing General Anesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Mir Mohammad Sadeghi

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cuffed pharyngeal tube is a device designed for ventilation of anesthetized patients. CPT has advantages over face mask including: maintaining of face mask can be difficult and boring after several minutes and mobility of the practitioner is reduced due to involvement of hands. Mask pressure can cause soft tissue and nerve damage around the nose. Anesthetic gas leakage from the mask adds to the operation room pollution. In difficult intubation CPT can be life-saving. Materials and Methods: In our study CPT was compared with endotracheal tube (ET in anesthetized patients. A scoring system for evaluating ventilation of patients was designed using symmetric chest wall motion during ventilation with anesthesia bag and sensing lung compliance through it, auscultation of breathing sounds, oscilation of bag with breathing and peripheral oxygen saturation by pulse oxymetry. Respiratory complications (pulmonary aspiration, Iaryngospasm and bronchospasm, nausea and vomiting were looked for during anesthesia. Results: The results showed that CPT was successful as ET in ventilation of spontaneously breathing patients and incidence of respiratory complications with CPT was no more than ET. Airway resistance was significantly greater with CPT than ET (P<0.05. Patients with ET had significantly greater incidence of sore throat than with CPT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Thus we concluded that CPT can be used for ventilation of anesthetized patients not predisposed to pulmonary aspiration and whose peak airway pressure does not exceed 20-25 CmH2O.

  8. Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Connect With Us New & Noteworthy Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... healthy. Diseases The most common diseases associated with dogs that can cause human illness are: Campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter ...

  9. The incidence of spontaneous movements (myoclonus) in dogs undergoing total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattai, Andrea; Rabozzi, Roberto; Natale, Valentina; Franci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of myoclonus (involuntary movements during anaesthesia, unrelated to inadequate hypnosis or analgesia, and of sufficient severity to require treatment) in dogs anaesthetized with a TIVA of propofol with or without the use of fentanyl. Retrospective clinical study. Dogs, undergoing general anaesthesia for clinical procedures between January 2012 and January 2013 and subject to TIVA with propofol. A retrospective analysis reviewed the medical and anaesthetic records. Animals with existing or potential neurological or neuromuscular pathology in the anamnesis or upon clinical examination and cases with incomplete clinical records were excluded. Myoclonus was considered as involuntary muscle contractions which did not cease following a bolus administration of propofol or fentanyl and, due to their intensity and duration, made continuation of the procedure impracticable without other drug administration. Tremors, paddling or muscle spasms, explicable as insufficient hypnosis or analgesia, and transient excitatory phenomena only present during the awakening phase, were not considered as myoclonus. Out of a total of 492 dogs undergoing anaesthesia, six mixed breed dogs (1.2%), one male and five females, American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I, median (range) weight 20.5 (7-37) kg and age 1.5 (1-5) years had myoclonus according to the aforementioned definition. In all subjects, myoclonus appeared within 20 minutes after induction of anaesthesia, and mainly involved the limb muscles. All subjects appeared to be in an adequate plane of anaesthesia before and during myoclonus. This study shows that 1.2% of dogs, undergoing TIVA with propofol with or without fentanyl administration, developed myoclonus, which required to be, and were treated successfully pharmacologically. The cause of this phenomenon is yet to be determined. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and

  10. Spontaneous nervous system concussion in dogs: a description of two cases and a review of terminology in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Pasquale Giannuzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In human medicine, central nervous system (CNS concussion is defined as a transient neurological dysfunction following a traumatic event, without evidence of structural abnormalities of the affected region on advanced diagnostic imaging. Depending on the anatomical region involved, three forms of concussive syndromes are described: brain concussion, spinal concussion and cerebellar concussion. Although major textbooks of veterinary neurology admit the existence of canine brain concussion, spontaneous cases of this pathological condition have not been reported in small animals so far. This report describes two cases of concussion in dogs: a 9-month-old, intact male, shih-tzu with brain concussion; and a 10-month-old, intact male, poodle with cerebellar concussion. In addition, a brief review of the definition of the term “concussion” in the veterinary medical literature is provided, in comparison to its meaning in the human medical literature. Finally, this paper proposes an appropriate definition of “concussion” in dogs, that may facilitate clinicians in the recognition of such an elusive syndrome.

  11. [Spontaneous models of human diseases in dogs: ichthyoses as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Catherine; Grall, Anaïs; Guaguere, Éric; Thomas, Anne; Galibert, Francis

    2013-06-01

    Ichthyoses encompass a heterogeneous group of genodermatoses characterized by abnormal desquamation over the entire body due to defects of the terminal differentiation of keratinocytes and desquamation, which occur in the upper layer of the epidermis. Even though in humans more than 40 genes have already been identified, the genetic causes of several forms remain unknown and are difficult to identify in Humans. Strikingly, several purebred dogs are also affected by specific forms of ichthyoses. In the Golden retriever dog breed, an autosomal recessive form of ichthyosis, resembling human autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, has recently been diagnosed with a high incidence. We first characterized the disease occurring in the golden retriever breed and collected cases and controls. A genome-wide association study on 40 unrelated Golden retriever dogs, using the canine 49.000 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) array (Affymetrix v2), followed by statistical analyses and candidate gene sequencing, allowed to identify the causal mutation in the lipase coding PNPLA1 gene (patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein). Screening for alterations in the human ortholog gene in 10 autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses families, for which no genetic cause has been identified thus far, allowed to identify two recessive mutations in the PNPLA1 protein in two families. This collaborative work between "human" and "canine" geneticists, practicians, histopathologists, biochemists and electron microscopy experts not only allowed to identify, in humans, an eighth gene for autosomal recessive congenital ichthyoses, but also allowed to highlight the function of this as-yet-unknown skin specific lipase in the lipid metabolism of the skin barrier. For veterinary medicine and breeding practices, a genetic test has been developed. These findings illustrate the importance of the discovery of relevant human orthologous canine genetic diseases, whose causes can be tracked

  12. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog

    OpenAIRE

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-01-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and ...

  13. Effects of sevoflurane and clonidine on acid base status and long-term emotional and cognitive outcomes in spontaneously breathing rat pups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Almenrader

    Full Text Available Numerous experiments in rodents suggest a causative link between exposure to general anaesthetics during brain growth spurt and poor long-lasting neurological outcomes. Many of these studies have been questioned with regard of their translational value, mainly because of extremely long anaesthesia exposure. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the impact of a short sevoflurane anaesthesia, alone or combined with clonidine treatment, on respiratory function in spontaneously breathing rat pups and overall effects on long-lasting emotional and cognitive functions.At postnatal day (PND 7, male Sprague Dawley rat pups were randomized into four groups and exposed to sevoflurane for one hour, to a single dose of intraperitoneal clonidine or to a combination of both and compared to a control group. Blood gas analysis was performed at the end of sevoflurane anaesthesia and after 60 minutes from clonidine or saline injection. Emotional and cognitive outcomes were evaluated in different group of animals at infancy (PND12, adolescence (PND 30-40 and adulthood (PND 70-90.Rat pups exposed to either sevoflurane or to a combination of sevoflurane and clonidine developed severe hypercapnic acidosis, but maintained normal arterial oxygenation. Emotional and cognitive outcomes were not found altered in any of the behavioural task used either at infancy, adolescence or adulthood.Sixty minutes of sevoflurane anaesthesia in newborn rats, either alone or combined with clonidine, caused severe hypercapnic acidosis in spontaneously breathing rat pups, but was devoid of long-term behavioural dysfunctions in the present setting.

  14. Spontaneous necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular salivary gland in a Beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Petterino, Claudio; Bradley, Alys

    2015-07-01

    A single mass was found on the left submandibular salivary gland at necropsy of a 15-month-old male commercially bred laboratory Beagle dog from a control dose group from a repeat toxicity study. Microscopically, the mass was composed of a well-demarcated area of coagulative necrosis surrounded and separated from the normal salivary gland tissue by a thick fibrovascular capsule. Necrosis was admixed with areas of hemorrhage, fibrin, edema, fibrinoid necrosis of the vascular tunica media, and thrombosis of small and large vessels. Within the necrotic tissue, there was marked ductal hyperplasia, and squamous metaplasia of duct and acinar epithelium. The mass was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia of the submandibular gland. Hyperplastic ductal elements and squamous metaplasia can be mistaken microscopically with squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, pathologists should be aware of this lesion as to avoid errors in the diagnosis of this benign pathologic condition.

  15. Bone modelling at fresh extraction sockets: immediate implant placement versus spontaneous healing: an experimental study in the beagle dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignoletti, Fabio; Discepoli, Nicola; Müller, Anna; de Sanctis, Massimo; Muñoz, Fernando; Sanz, Mariano

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to describe histologically the undisturbed healing of fresh extraction sockets when compared to immediate implant placement. In eight beagle dogs, after extraction of the 3P3 and 4P4, implants were inserted into the distal sockets of the premolars, while the mesial sockets were left to heal spontaneously. Each animal provided four socket sites (control) and four implant sites (test). After 6 weeks, animals were sacrificed and tissue blocks were dissected, prepared for ground sectioning. The relative vertical buccal bone resorption in relation to the lingual bone was similar in both test and control groups. At immediate implant sites, however, the absolute buccal bone loss observed was 2.32 (SD 0.36) mm, what may indicate that while an apical shift of both the buccal and lingual bone crest occurred at the implant sites, this may not happen in naturally healing sockets. The results from this investigation showed that after tooth extraction the buccal socket wall underwent bone resorption at both test and control sites. This resorption appeared to be more pronounced at the implant sites, although the limitations of the histological evaluation method utilized preclude a definite conclusion. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in the diagnosis of spontaneous respiratory tract disease in dogs: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, E.C.; DeNicola, D.B.; Plier, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    Results of cytological analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid were compared with clinical diagnoses in dogs that presented with signs of respiratory disease to referral hospitals. Of 68 dogs in which a clinical diagnosis was possible, BAL cytological findings were considered definitive for the diagnosis in 17 cases (25%), supportive of the diagnosis in 34 cases (50%), and not helpful in 17 cases (25%). Findings were most often considered supportive of or definitive for the clinical diagnosis in dogs with alveolar or bronchial radiographic patterns, or the presence of pulmonary masses. BAL results among lung lobes differed in 23 of 63 dogs (37%) with diffuse radiographic patterns. Tracheal wash cytology differed from BAL fluid cytology in 45 of 66 dogs (68%). Bronchoalveolar lavage was a clinically useful procedure for the diagnostic evaluation of dogs with signs of respiratory disease

  17. Immunological, anti-angiogenic and clinical effects of intratumoral interleukin 12 electrogene therapy combined with metronomic cyclophosphamide in dogs with spontaneous cancer: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchelero, Laetitia; Denies, Sofie; Vanderperren, Katrien; Stock, Emmelie; Van Brantegem, Leen; de Rooster, Hilde; Sanders, Niek N

    2017-08-01

    The immunological, anti-angiogenic and clinical effects of metronomic cyclophosphamide and 3 consecutive intratumoral interleukin (IL)-12 gene therapy (electrogene therapy (EGT)) treatments were evaluated in 6 dogs with spontaneous cancer. In all dogs, a decrease in peripheral leukocytes 2 days after IL-12 EGT coincided with erythema and swelling of the tumor. In the tumor, a transient increase in IL-12 levels was measured, whereas a continuous increase in interferon γ (IFNγ) and thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) were determined in contrast to a continuous decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the serum, a transient increase in IL-12 and IL-10 levels were noted in contrast to a transient decrease in VEGF and TSP-1. The treatment resulted in a significant anti-angiogenic effect. Although all primary tumors continued to progress in time, this progression was slower than before treatment according to the contrast-enhanced ultrasound data. Besides the encouraging immunostimulatory and anti-angiogenic effects observed in all dogs we also noticed in 4 out of 6 dogs clinically relevant improvements in quality of life and weight. These results hold great promise for combinatorial strategies of IL-12 EGT and metronomic chemotherapy with conventional antitumor (immuno)therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of fractionated radiation therapy on plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentration in dogs with spontaneous tumors and its impact on outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wergin, Melanie C.; Roos, Malgorzata; Inteeworn, Nathalie; Laluhova, Dagmar; Allemann, Katrin; Kaser-Hotz, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    Back ground and purpose: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a specific pro-angiogenic factor is proposed to be involved in cancer progression and resistance to radiation therapy by promoting angiogenesis and by protecting endothelial cells from radiation induced apoptosis. The aim of this study, was first to assess the influence of ionizing radiation on plasma VEGF concentration in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy with curative or palliative intent and second to analyze plasma VEGF concentration as predictor for treatment outcome. Patients and methods: For plasma VEGF analysis a human VEGF enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used. Sixty dogs with various tumor types were included in this study. Dogs were irradiated with either low dose per fx (3-3.5 Gy per fraction, total dose: 42-49 Gy, group A: curative intent) or high dose per fx (6-8 Gy per fraction, total dose: 24-30 Gy, group B: palliative intent). Blood samples were taken before and after dose application at certain time points during therapy. Follow-up evaluation was performed for analysis of time to treatment failure and survival. Results: Repeated measures analysis showed no increase of plasma VEGF in dogs treated with fractionated radiation therapy (group A and B). Dichotomizing baseline plasma VEGF into two groups with high and low plasma VEGF, resulted in shorter time to treatment failure in dogs with high plasma VEGF levels (TTF, group A: P=0.038, group B: P=0.041). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that dogs with a plasma VEGF level higher than 5 pg/ml had a poorer outcome after radiation therapy. It is therefore, suggested, to use plasma VEGF as predictor for treatment outcome in radiation therapy

  19. Serum amyloid A isoforms in serum and synovial fluid from spontaneously diseased dogs with joint diseases or other conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Christensen, Michelle B.; Lee, Marcel Huisung

    2007-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein in dogs. However, knowledge of qualitative properties of canine SAA and extent of its synthesis in extrahepatic tissues is limited. The aim of the study was to investigate expression of different SAA isoforms in serum and synovial fluid...... in samples obtained from dogs (n = 16) suffering from different inflammatory or non-inflammatory conditions, which were either related or unrelated to joints. Expression of SAA isoforms was visualized by denaturing isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum amyloid A was present in serum from all dogs...... with systemic inflammatory activity, and up to four major isoforms with apparent isoelectric points between 6.1 and 7.9 were identified. In synovial fluid from inflamed joints one or more highly alkaline SAA isoforms (with apparent isoelectric points above 9.3) were identified, with data suggesting local...

  20. A blinded randomized controlled trial evaluating the usefulness of a novel diet (aminoprotect care) in dogs with spontaneous food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Kurata, Keigo; Paps, Judy S; Masuda, Kenichi

    2007-10-01

    Aminoprotect Care (APC) is a novel diet composed of aminoacids, potato proteins and corn starch. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Maltese-Beagle atopic (MBA) dogs hypersensitive to corn exhibited clinical signs and changes in immunological markers after being fed APC. The study was designed as a blinded randomized controlled crossover experiment. Ten MBA dogs with signs of allergy within five days of ingesting corn were selected. Dogs were randomized to be fed either their maintenance diet with corn or APC for five days. After a washout of two weeks, diets were switched. Before and daily during each intervention, skin lesions were graded by an investigator while pruritus was assessed by another. Before and at the end of each intervention, the percentage of circulating CD4+CCR4+, corn-activated CD4+ T-lymphocytes and serum corn-specific IgE levels were measured and ratios of post:pre values calculated. During this trial, pruritus and skin lesions increased significantly in MBA dogs when ingesting corn while no such increase occurred when fed APC. Total, median and maximal pruritus values were significantly higher in MBA dogs ingesting corn compared to APC. There were no significant differences between interventions in the immunological parameters assessed. In summary, even though APC contains corn starch to which corn-sensitive MBA dogs often react, the ingestion of APC did not lead to significant increases in skin lesions or pruritus. Aminoprotect Care might prove valuable for management of food allergies. These experimental observations must be validated in large field studies.

  1. Resolution of spontaneous hemoabdomen secondary to peliosis hepatis following surgery and azithromycin treatment in a Bartonella species infected dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Steven T; Gannon, Kristi M; Carberry, Carol A; Cortes, Yonaira

    2016-11-01

    To describe a case of hemoperitonium in a dog with Bartonellosis and peliosis hepatis (PH) lesions that resolved following antimicrobial therapy. A 3-year-11-month-old 22.5 kg female spayed mixed breed dog presented for progressive lethargy and vomiting. An abdominal ultrasonographic examination revealed moderate ascites, which when sampled was nonclotting hemorrhagic fluid. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a large volume of nonclotted blood in the dog's abdomen and blood-filled vesicular lesions dispersed diffusely along multiple lobes of the liver. Biopsies revealed lesions indicative of PH. Serology testing for Bartonella species was positive. Treatment with azithromycin resulted in Bartonella serology negative status and no further evidence of hemoperitonium at recheck examination 12 months after initial presentation. This is the first reported case of PH and hemoperitoneum in a Bartonella species serology positive dog wherein treatment with azithromycin resulted in serology negative status. There have been no subsequent episodes of hemoperitoneum in the 12 months since treatment. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2016.

  2. Spontaneous cell-mediated cytolysis by peripheral blood cells obtained from whole-body chronically irradiated beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyck, J.A.; Shifrine, M.; Klein, A.K.; Rosenblatt, L.S.; Kawakami, T.

    1986-01-01

    The level of natural killer (NK) activity of continuously gamma-irradiated (whole body) beagle dogs and their nonirradiated controls was studied. For analytical purposes, irradiated dogs were segregated into groups according to their clinical status: clinically normal, hypocellular, or with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia. Since unirradiated control animals exhibited a wide range of NK responses, the data from each irradiated animal were compared to its own age-matched or litter-matched unirradiated control. Of the eight clinically normal irradiated dogs (median = 146% activity of control) only one animal had a NK activity lower than that of its control. The hypocellular group (n = 5, median = 21.8% of control) and the leukemic group (n = 4, median = 52.5% of control) each contained one responder with higher activity than its control. The difference between the percentage of control of the clinically normal and clinically abnormal dogs was found to be significant (P less than 0.05). There is a negative correlation between the NK results obtained and the total accumulated dose of radiation at the time of sampling (correlation coefficient = -0.739, P less than 0.01), suggesting a radiation effect upon natural killer activity, which is evidence by enhancement at lower doses and depression at higher doses of irradiation

  3. Phase I clinical trial and pharmacodynamic evaluation of combination hydroxychloroquine and doxorubicin treatment in pet dogs treated for spontaneously occurring lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Rebecca A; Wittenburg, Luke A; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Gustafson, Daniel L; Thorburn, Andrew; Thamm, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process that may act as a mechanism of survival in a variety of cancers. While pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently being explored in human clinical trials, it has never been evaluated in canine cancers. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most prevalent tumor types in dogs and has similar pathogenesis and response to treatment as human NHL. Clinical trials in canine patients are conducted in the same way as in human patients, thus, to determine a maximum dose of HCQ that can be combined with a standard chemotherapy, a Phase I, single arm, dose escalation trial was conducted in dogs with spontaneous NHL presenting as patients to an academic, tertiary-care veterinary teaching hospital. HCQ was administered daily by mouth throughout the trial, beginning 72 h prior to doxorubicin (DOX), which was given intravenously on a 21-d cycle. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and biopsies were collected before and 3 d after HCQ treatment and assessed for autophagy inhibition and HCQ concentration. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the trial. HCQ alone was well tolerated with only mild lethargy and gastrointestinal-related adverse events. The overall response rate (ORR) for dogs with lymphoma was 93.3%, with median progression-free interval (PFI) of 5 mo. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a 100-fold increase in HCQ in tumors compared with plasma. There was a trend that supported therapy-induced increase in LC3-II (the cleaved and lipidated form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3/LC3, which serves as a maker for autophagosomes) and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) after treatment. The superior ORR and comparable PFI to single-agent DOX provide strong support for further evaluation via randomized, placebo-controlled trials in canine and human NHL.

  4. Avaliação do teste de respiração espontânea na extubação de neonatos pré-termo Spontaneous breathing trial evaluation in preterm newborns extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Barboza Andrade

    2010-06-01

    workload. The spontaneous breathing trial (SBT, performed immediately before extubation, can provide useful information on the patient's spontaneous breathing ability. This study aimed to assess the SBT effectiveness for extubation success prediction in mechanically ventilated preterm infants. METHODS: After Ethics Committee approval, an observational, longitudinal, prospective study was conducted. A sample of 60 preterm infants compliant with the weaning criteria was categorized in two groups: 'SBT' group (n=30, with the patients who underwent 30 minutes spontaneous breathing trial (SBT with continuous positive pressure airway (CPAP, and the control group (n=30 where the extubation was performed without spontaneous breathing trial. The heart rate (HR, respiratory rate (RR, pulse oxymetry oxygen saturation (SpO2 and the Silverman-Andersen score were recorded before and 10, 20 and 30 minutes after the spontaneous breathing trial. Were also assessed for both groups, and versus extubation success or failure, the weight, gestational age, Apgar score, mean airway pressure, inspired oxygen concentration, and tracheal tube time. The Chi-square test was used for categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney test for non-normal distribution. Extubation success was defined as a 48 hours period with no reintubation requirement. RESULTS: No significant differences were identified between the groups for the analyzed variables, except for the mean airway pressure. A significant association was shown between spontaneous breathing trial and successful extubation. CONCLUSION: The significant association between SBT and extubation success may contribute for prediction of successful weaning in preterm infants.

  5. Spontaneous progression of ligature induced peri-implantitis at implants with different surface roughness: an experimental study in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berglundh, T; Gotfredsen, K; Zitzmann, N U

    2007-01-01

    : The aim of the current experiment was to study the progression of peri-implantitis around implants with different surface roughness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In five beagle dogs, three implants with either a sandblasted acid-etched surface (SLA) or a polished surface (P) were installed bilaterally......BACKGROUND: Peri-implantitis is associated with the presence of submarginal plaque, soft-tissue inflammation and advanced breakdown of the supporting bone. The progression of peri-implantitis following varying periods of continuing plaque accumulation has been studied in animal models. OBJECTIVE...... in the edentulous premolar regions. After 3 months on a plaque control regimen, experimental peri-implantitis was induced by ligature placement and plaque accumulation was allowed to progress until about 40% of the height of the supporting bone had been lost. After this 4-month period, ligatures were removed...

  6. Do heat and moisture exchangers in the anaesthesia breathing circuit preserve body temperature in dogs undergoing anaesthesia for magnetic resonance imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khenissi, Latifa; Covey-Crump, Gwen; Knowles, Toby G; Murrell, Joanna

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether the use of a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) preserves body temperature in dogs weighing dogs. Dogs were assigned randomly to a treatment group [HME (n = 16) or no HME (n = 15)]. Dogs were pseudorandomised according to the premedication they were administered, either dexmedetomidine or no dexmedetomidine. Induction agents were not standardised. General anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane vaporised in 100% oxygen delivered using a T-piece and a fresh gas flow of 600 mL kg -1 minute -1 . Rectal temperature was measured before premedication (T1), after induction (T2), before moving to the MRI unit (T3) and at the end of the MRI scan (T4). Ambient temperatures were measured in the induction room, outside and inside the MRI unit. Data were analysed using a general linear model with T4 as the outcome variable. Linear correlations were performed between T1, T2, T3 and T4, and variables that predicted T4 were investigated. Sex, age and body mass were not significantly different between groups. There were no significant differences in rectal temperature between groups at any time point (group with HME at the end of MRI = 36.3 ± 1.1 °C; group with no HME at the end of MRI = 36.2 ± 1.4 °C) but at the end of the MRI, dogs administered dexmedetomidine (36.6 ± 0.7 °C) had a higher rectal temperature compared with dogs not administered dexmedetomidine (35.9 ± 1.6 °C) for premedication. Rectal temperature varied directly with ambient temperature in MRI scanning room and inversely with anaesthetic duration. Using an HME did not alter body temperature in dogs weighing temperature during anaesthesia. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... garlic, onions, cheese, orange juice, and soda poor dental hygiene (say: HI-jeen), meaning not brushing and flossing regularly smoking and other tobacco use Poor oral hygiene leads to bad breath because when food particles ...

  8. Breathing Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms. Symptoms associated with weak respiratory muscles: Air “hunger” (gasping, labored breathing) with an without activity Fatigue ... Start your own fundraising event & help create a world without ALS Start an Event Site Map | Press ...

  9. Bad Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cabbage. And of course smoking causes its own bad smell. Some diseases and medicines can cause a specific breath odor. Having good dental habits, like brushing and flossing regularly, help fight bad ...

  10. Mapleson's Breathing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Tej K; Mittal, Geeta

    2013-09-01

    Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification) are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  11. Medical Issues: Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information Packets Equipment Pool Living With SMA Medical Issues Palliative Breathing Orthopedics Nutrition Equipment Daily Life At ... curesma.org > support & care > living with sma > medical issues > breathing Breathing Breathing problems are the most common ...

  12. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  13. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  14. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  15. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  16. Sleeping and resting respiratory rates in dogs and cats with medically-controlled left-sided congestive heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porciello, F; Rishniw, M; Ljungvall, I; Ferasin, L; Haggstrom, J; Ohad, D G

    2016-01-01

    Sleeping and resting respiratory rates (SRR and RRR, respectively) are commonly used to monitor dogs and cats with left-sided cardiac disease and to identify animals with left-sided congestive heart failure (L-CHF). Dogs and cats with subclinical heart disease have SRRmean values dogs and cats with CHF that is well controlled with medical therapy. In this study, SRR and RRR were measured by the owners of 51 dogs and 22 cats with stable, well-controlled CHF. Median canine SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (7-39 breaths/min); eight dogs were ≥25 breaths/min and one dog only was ≥30 breaths/min. Canine SRRmean was unrelated to pulmonary hypertension or diuretic dose. Median feline SRRmean was 20 breaths/min (13-31 breaths/min); four cats were ≥25 breaths/min and only one cat was ≥30 breaths/min. Feline SRRmean was unrelated to diuretic dose. SRR remained stable during collection in both species with little day-to-day variability. The median canine RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (12-44 breaths/min), 17 were ≥25 breaths/min, seven were ≥30 breaths/min, two were >40 breaths/min. Median feline RRRmean was 24 breaths/min (15-45 breaths/min); five cats had RRRmean ≥25 breaths/min; one had ≥30 breaths/min, and two had ≥40 breaths/min. These data suggest that most dogs and cats with CHF that is medically well-controlled and stable have SRRmean and RRRmean dogs and cats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Mapleson′s breathing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tej K Kaul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mapleson breathing systems are used for delivering oxygen and anaesthetic agents and to eliminate carbon dioxide during anaesthesia. They consist of different components: Fresh gas flow, reservoir bag, breathing tubes, expiratory valve, and patient connection. There are five basic types of Mapleson system: A, B, C, D and E depending upon the different arrangements of these components. Mapleson F was added later. For adults, Mapleson A is the circuit of choice for spontaneous respiration where as Mapleson D and its Bains modifications are best available circuits for controlled ventilation. For neonates and paediatric patients Mapleson E and F (Jackson Rees modification are the best circuits. In this review article, we will discuss the structure of the circuits and functional analysis of various types of Mapleson systems and their advantages and disadvantages.

  18. Running and Breathing in Mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramble, Dennis M.; Carrier, David R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanical constraints appear to require that locomotion and breathing be synchronized in running mammals. Phase locking of limb and respiratory frequency has now been recorded during treadmill running in jackrabbits and during locomotion on solid ground in dogs, horses, and humans. Quadrupedal species normally synchronize the locomotor and respiratory cycles at a constant ratio of 1:1 (strides per breath) in both the trot and gallop. Human runners differ from quadrupeds in that while running they employ several phase-locked patterns (4:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1, 5:2, and 3:2), although a 2:1 coupling ratio appears to be favored. Even though the evolution of bipedal gait has reduced the mechanical constraints on respiration in man, thereby permitting greater flexibility in breathing pattern, it has seemingly not eliminated the need for the synchronization of respiration and body motion during sustained running. Flying birds have independently achieved phase-locked locomotor and respiratory cycles. This hints that strict locomotor-respiratory coupling may be a vital factor in the sustained aerobic exercise of endothermic vertebrates, especially those in which the stresses of locomotion tend to deform the thoracic complex.

  19. A Case of Spontaneously Resolved Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kahraman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A condition of intrapleural air-space accumulation in individuals without any history of trauma or lung disease is called as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP. Sixteen-years-old male patient admitted with complains of chest pain and dyspnea beginning 3 day ago. On physical examination, severity of breath sounds decreased on right side. Chest radiograph was taken and right-sided pneumothorax was detected and tube thoracostomy was inserted. Two months ago the patient referred to a doctor with similar complaints and physical examination and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The radiograph was retrospectively examined and bilateral PSP was detected. We presented the case duo to spontaneous recovery of bilateral PSP is seen very rarely and so contributes data to the literature. In patients admitted to the clinic with chest pain and shortness of breath, pneumothorax should be considered at differential diagnosis.

  20. What Causes Bad Breath?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español What Causes Bad Breath? KidsHealth / For Teens / What Causes Bad Breath? Print en español ¿Qué es lo que provoca el mal aliento? Bad breath, or halitosis , can be a major problem, ...

  1. Pulmonary function evaluations of dogs exposed to uranium ore dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loscutoff, S.M.; Buschbom, R.L.; Palmer, R.F.; Cross, F.T.

    1980-01-01

    Pulmonary function evaluations were conducted on dogs exposed to carnotite uranium ore dust. Significant changes were detected in the slope of the single-breath N 2 washout curve, suggesting an uneven distribution of ventilation

  2. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  3. Potential regenerative treatment strategies for intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bach, Frances C; Willems, Nicole; Penning, Louis C; Ito, Keita; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A

    Pain due to spontaneous intervertebral disc (IVD) disease is common in dogs. In chondrodystrophic (CD) dogs, IVD disease typically develops in the cervical or thoracolumbar spine at about 3-7 years of age, whereas in non-chondrodystrophic (NCD) dogs, it usually develops in the caudal cervical or

  4. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  6. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Wakai, Abel P

    2011-01-01

    History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but ...

  7. Home - DOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsroom Services Information Why Alaska? DOG 101 Director & Deputy Bios Division Experts Applications — Give Feedback Thanks for giving feedback! The captcha entered is not valid. Send Close DOG DOA DNR

  8. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  9. Breath biomarkers in toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-11-01

    Exhaled breath has joined blood and urine as a valuable resource for sampling and analyzing biomarkers in human media for assessing exposure, uptake metabolism, and elimination of toxic chemicals. This article focuses current use of exhaled gas, aerosols, and vapor in human breath, the methods for collection, and ultimately the use of the resulting data. Some advantages of breath are the noninvasive and self-administered nature of collection, the essentially inexhaustible supply, and that breath sampling does not produce potentially infectious waste such as needles, wipes, bandages, and glassware. In contrast to blood and urine, breath samples can be collected on demand in rapid succession and so allow toxicokinetic observations of uptake and elimination in any time frame. Furthermore, new technologies now allow capturing condensed breath vapor directly, or just the aerosol fraction alone, to gain access to inorganic species, lung pH, proteins and protein fragments, cellular DNA, and whole microorganisms from the pulmonary microbiome. Future applications are discussed, especially the use of isotopically labeled probes, non-targeted (discovery) analysis, cellular level toxicity testing, and ultimately assessing "crowd breath" of groups of people and the relation to dose of airborne and other environmental chemicals at the population level.

  10. Effects of current inhalation exposure methods on cardiopulmonary function of immature dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauderly, J.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Lay, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 9% of 84 3-mo-old dogs exposed to inhalation of radioactive aerosols have experienced respiratory failure during exposure. A study was conducted to evaluate effects of exposure on cardiopulmonary function of immature dogs. Results indicate that the combination of nose breathing and breathing into the aerosol delivery cone quadrupled breathing effort of 3-mo-old dogs. Excitement exacerbated a failure to maintain adequate alveolar ventilation and resulted in CO 2 retention and acidosis. General anesthesia and use of an endotracheal tube alleviated problems due to nasal airflow resistance and behaviorally-related increases in ventilatory requirement

  11. Breathing and Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a Doctor Relaxation is the absence of tension in muscle groups and a minimum or absence ... Drill Meditation Progressive Muscle Relaxation Minimizing Shortness of Breath Visualization This information has been approved by Shelby ...

  12. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.

  13. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  14. Breath-Holding Spells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reviewed: October 2016 More on this topic for: Parents Is It Normal for Children to Hold Their Breath? Taming Tempers Disciplining Your Child Disciplining Your Toddler Temper Tantrums Separation Anxiety View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  15. Breath hydrogen analysis in patients with ileoanal pouch anastomosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, E; Meyer, J N; Rumessen, J J

    1995-01-01

    The possible influence on functional outcomes of hydrogen production in the ileoanal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy was investigated by means of lactulose H2 breath tests. Eight of 15 patients had significant increases in breath hydrogen after 10 g lactulose. One patient declined...... to participate in further investigations, the remaining seven responders had no evidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth after glucose H2 breath tests. The ability to produce hydrogen by anaerobic fermentation of lactulose in the pouch was unrelated to the age of the patients or of the pouch. Seven of eight...... responders had successive breath tests after ingestion of lactulose 20 g and wheat starch 100 g. Five of seven had significant increases after lactulose but none after wheat starch. The overall function of the pouch continence, spontaneity of defecation, and 24 hour stool frequency was significantly better...

  16. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentr...

  17. Fluorescein angiogram in diabetic dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Yasuda, K.; Iwata, H.; Nakayama, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Tomoda, I.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorescein angiography was carried out see retinal vascular changes of the ocular fundus in 4 spontaneously occurring diabetic dogs. In all 4 cases, several hypofluorescent areas were determined to be filling defects of the retinal capillary bed of the tapetal fundi during the arteriovenous phase. Around these hypofluorescent areas, many dots of hyperfluorescence were also observed to be microaneurysms. However, no leaking of fluorescein was detected during angiography. These findings of 4 diabetic dogs were similar to those reported in man with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

  18. A sigh of relief or a sigh to relieve: The psychological and physiological relief effect of deep breaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2016-10-15

    Both animal and human research have revealed important associations between sighs and relief. Previously we argued to conceive of sighs as resetters which temporarily induce relief. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological relief effect of sighs by instructed deep breaths and spontaneous sighs compared to a control breathing maneuver. Participants completed three blocks of 40 trials during which uncertainty cues were followed by either safety cues followed by a positive picture, or danger cues followed by a negative picture. One block was presented without breathing instructions, two subsequent blocks with breathing instructions. During the presentation of the safety and danger cues, an instruction was given to either 'take a deep breath' or 'postpone the next inhalation for 2 s (breath hold). Continuously, participants rated relief and Frontalis electromyography was recorded. Trait anxiety sensitivity was assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Self-reported relief and physiological tension were compared 5s before and after instructed deep breaths and breath holds, and before and after spontaneous deep breaths and breath holds in the respective blocks. Results show that self-reported relief following an instructed deep breath was higher than before. Physiological tension decreased following a spontaneous sigh in high anxiety sensitive persons and following a spontaneous breath hold in low anxiety sensitive persons. These results are the first to show that a deep breath relieves and, in anxiety sensitive persons, reduces physiological tension. These findings support the hypothesis that sighs are psychological and physiological resetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Bradycardia after Tube Thoracostomy for Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomi Fashola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an elderly patient who became bradycardic after chest tube insertion for spontaneous pneumothorax. Arrhythmia is a rare complication of tube thoracostomy. Unlike other reported cases of chest tube induced arrhythmias, the bradycardia in our patient responded to resuscitative measures without removal or repositioning of the tube. Our patient, who had COPD, presented with shortness of breath due to spontaneous pneumothorax. Moments after tube insertion, patient developed severe bradycardia that responded to Atropine. In patients requiring chest tube insertion, it is important to be prepared to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitative therapy in case the patient develops a life-threatening arrhythmia.

  20. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Shih-Hung; Kozak, Philip J.; Kim, Jessica; Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges; Meade, Charles; Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Robertson, Erle

    2012-01-01

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein–Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  1. Evidence of an oncogenic gammaherpesvirus in domestic dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Shih-Hung, E-mail: ncku309@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Kozak, Philip J., E-mail: philj@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Kim, Jessica, E-mail: jesskim820@gmail.com [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Habineza-Ndikuyeze, Georges, E-mail: georgesh@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Meade, Charles, E-mail: cmeade@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita, E-mail: anitag@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 335 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Patel, Reema, E-mail: rtpatel@vet.upenn.edu [Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, 315 Hill Pavilion, 380 South University Avenue, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010 (United States); Robertson, Erle, E-mail: erle@mail.med.upenn.edu [Department of Microbiology, and Abramson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Tumor Virology Program, University of Pennsylvania, 202A Johnson Pavilion, 3610 Hamilton Walk, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6076 (United States); and others

    2012-06-05

    In humans, chronic infection with the gammaherpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus is usually asymptomatic; however some infected individuals develop hematological and epithelial malignancies. The exact role of EBV in lymphomagenesis is poorly understood partly because of the lack of clinically relevant animal models. Here we report the detection of serological responses against EBV capsid antigens in healthy dogs and dogs with spontaneous lymphoma and that dogs with the highest antibody titers have B cell lymphoma. Moreover, we demonstrate the presence of EBV-like viral DNA and RNA sequences and Latent Membrane Protein-1 in malignant lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma. Finally, electron microscopy of canine malignant B cells revealed the presence of classic herpesvirus particles. These findings suggest that dogs can be naturally infected with an EBV-like gammaherpesvirus that may contribute to lymphomagenesis and that dogs might represent a spontaneous model to investigate environmental and genetic factors that influence gammaherpesvirus-associated lymphomagenesis in humans.

  2. Artificial atrial fibrillation in the dog. An artifact?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strackee, J.; Hoelen, A.J.; Zimmerman, A.N.E.; Meijler, F.L.

    R-R interval sequences during artificial atrial fibrillation in dogs were studied in the same way as in patients in a previous study and compared with results obtained in dogs with spontaneous atrial fibrillation. Artificial atrial fibrillation was effected by right atrial stimulation in three

  3. Model-based characterization of ventilatory stability using spontaneous breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Nemati, Shamim; Edwards, Bradley A.; Sands, Scott A.; Berger, Philip J.; Wellman, Andrew; Verghese, George C.; Malhotra, Atul; Butler, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Cyclic ventilatory instabilities are widely attributed to an increase in the sensitivity or loop gain of the chemoreflex feedback loop controlling ventilation. A major limitation in the conventional characterization of this feedback loop is the need for labor-intensive methodologies. To overcome this limitation, we developed a method based on trivariate autoregressive modeling using ventilation, end-tidal Pco2 and Po2; this method provides for estimation of the overall “loop gain” of the resp...

  4. Characterization and comparison of injuries caused by spontaneous versus organized dogfighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarapanich, Nida P; Touroo, Rachel M; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Reisman, Robert W; Intarapanich, Pichai P; McCobb, Emily C

    2017-12-15

    OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare injuries found in dogs involved in spontaneously occurring dogfights with those of dogs used in illegal organized dogfighting. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 36 medium-sized dogs evaluated following spontaneous fights with a dog of the same sex and similar weight (medium dog-medium dog [MDMD] fights), 160 small dogs examined following spontaneous fights with a larger dog (big dog-little dog [BDLD] fights), and 62 dogs evaluated after being seized in connection with dogfighting law enforcement raids. PROCEDURES Demographic characteristics and injuries were recorded from medical records. Prevalence of soft tissue injuries in predetermined body surface zones, as well as dental or skeletal injuries, was determined for dogs grouped by involvement in BDLD, MDMD, and organized dogfights. The extent of injuries in each location was scored and compared among groups by 1-factor ANOVA. Patterns of injuries commonly incurred by each group were determined by use of prevalence data. RESULTS Mean extent of injury scores differed significantly among groups for all body surface zones except the eye and periorbital region. Mean scores for dental injuries and rib fractures also differed significantly among groups. Organized fighting dogs more commonly had multiple injuries, particularly of the thoracic limbs, dorsal and lateral aspects of the head and muzzle or oral mucosa, dorsal and lateral aspects of the neck, and ventral neck and thoracic region. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE To the authors' knowledge, this was the first study to compare injuries incurred during spontaneous and organized dogfighting. Establishing evidence-based patterns of injury will help clinicians identify dogs injured by organized dogfighting and aid in the prosecution of this crime.

  5. Breathing, feeding, and neuroprotection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homma, Ikuo; Shioda, S

    2006-01-01

    ... of knowledge of brain functions and morphology. Akiyoshi Hosoyamada, M.D., Ph.D. President Showa University, Tokyo 142-8555, Japan December 2005Preface Brain research is on the march, with several advanced technical developments and new findings uncovered almost daily. Within the brain-research fields, we focus on breathing, neuroprotection, an...

  6. Breathing Like a Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsioloudis, Petros J.

    2010-01-01

    Being able to dive and breathe underwater has been a challenge for thousands of years. In 1980, Fuji Systems of Tokyo developed a series of prototype gills for divers as a way of demonstrating just how good its membranes are. Even though gill technology has not yet reached the point where recipients can efficiently use implants to dive underwater,…

  7. Breathing difficulty - lying down

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other conditions that lead to it) Panic disorder Sleep apnea Snoring Home Care Your health care provider may recommend self-care measures. For example, weight loss may be suggested if you are obese. When to Contact a Medical Professional If you have any unexplained difficulty in breathing ...

  8. The Breath of Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josephsen, Jens

    The present preliminary text is a short thematic presentation in biological inorganic chemistry meant to illustrate general and inorganic (especially coordination) chemistry in biochemistry. The emphasis is on molecular models to explain features of the complicated mechanisms essential to breathing...

  9. Breath-Hold Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitz-Clarke, John R

    2018-03-25

    Breath-hold diving is practiced by recreational divers, seafood divers, military divers, and competitive athletes. It involves highly integrated physiology and extreme responses. This article reviews human breath-hold diving physiology beginning with an historical overview followed by a summary of foundational research and a survey of some contemporary issues. Immersion and cardiovascular adjustments promote a blood shift into the heart and chest vasculature. Autonomic responses include diving bradycardia, peripheral vasoconstriction, and splenic contraction, which help conserve oxygen. Competitive divers use a technique of lung hyperinflation that raises initial volume and airway pressure to facilitate longer apnea times and greater depths. Gas compression at depth leads to sequential alveolar collapse. Airway pressure decreases with depth and becomes negative relative to ambient due to limited chest compliance at low lung volumes, raising the risk of pulmonary injury called "squeeze," characterized by postdive coughing, wheezing, and hemoptysis. Hypoxia and hypercapnia influence the terminal breakpoint beyond which voluntary apnea cannot be sustained. Ascent blackout due to hypoxia is a danger during long breath-holds, and has become common amongst high-level competitors who can suppress their urge to breathe. Decompression sickness due to nitrogen accumulation causing bubble formation can occur after multiple repetitive dives, or after single deep dives during depth record attempts. Humans experience responses similar to those seen in diving mammals, but to a lesser degree. The deepest sled-assisted breath-hold dive was to 214 m. Factors that might determine ultimate human depth capabilities are discussed. © 2018 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 8:585-630, 2018. Copyright © 2018 American Physiological Society. All rights reserved.

  10. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  11. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  12. Experimental Chagas' disease in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Lana

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of experimental Chagas' disease in 64 out-bred young dogs. Twenty-nine animals were inoculated with the Be-62 and 35 with Be-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Twenty-six were infected with blood trypomastigotes by different inoculation routes and 38 with metacyclic trypomastigotes from the vector via the conjunctival route. Twenty of the 26 dogs infected with blood trypomastigotes were autopsied during the acute phase. Eleven died spontaneously and nine were sacrificed. Six remained alive until they died suddenly (two or were autopsied (four. Twelve of the 38 dogs infected with metacyclic trypomastigotes evolved naturally to the chronic phase and remained alive for 24-48 months. The parasitemia, clinical aspects and serology (IgM and IgG as well as electrocardiogram, hemogram and heart anatomo-histopathologic patterns of acute and chronic cardiac forms of Chagas' disease as seen in human infections, were reproduced. The most important finding is the reproductibility of diffuse fibrosing chronic chagasic cardiopathy in all dogs infected with Be-78 T. cruzi strain autopsied between the 90th and 864th days of infection. Thus, the dog can be considered as a suitable experimental model to study Chagas' disease according to the requisites of the World Health Organization (1984. Futhermore the animal is easily obtained and easy to handle and maintain in experimental laboratory conditions.

  13. Learn More Breathe Better

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-16

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious lung disease that makes breathing very difficult and can affect your quality of life. Learn the causes of COPD and what you can do to prevent it.  Created: 11/16/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Adult and Community Health (NCCDPHP, DACH).   Date Released: 11/16/2011.

  14. Dog Therapy: The Importance of Just Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schusser, Eric

    1998-01-01

    Excerpts from the book, "The Advantage of Being Useless"; anecdotes from the author's experiences; and observations of his dog illustrate how counselors can be so busy counseling that they miss the human connection. Outdoor activities are conducive to unself-conscious spontaneity and unconditional acceptance--a just "letting it…

  15. Liquid breathing - Prevention of pulmonary arterial-venous shunting during acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, D. J.; Ritman, E. L.; Caskey, P. E.; Banchero, N.; Wood, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Dependent pulmonary atelectasis, arterial-venous shunting, and downward displacement of the heart caused by the gravitational-inertial force environment were prevented in dogs breathing oxygenated liquid fluorocarbon in a whole-body water-immersion respirator. Partial closure of the major airways during part of the expiratory phase of liquid respiration was a significant problem initially but was minimized in subsequent studies.

  16. Dogs as a Model for Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Heather L; Fenger, Joelle M; London, Cheryl A

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous cancers in client-owned dogs closely recapitulate their human counterparts with respect to clinical presentation, histological features, molecular profiles, and response and resistance to therapy, as well as the evolution of drug-resistant metastases. In several instances the incorporation of dogs with cancer into the preclinical development path of cancer therapeutics has influenced outcome by helping to establish pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics relationships, dose/regimen, expected clinical toxicities, and ultimately the potential for biologic activity. As our understanding regarding the molecular drivers of canine cancers has improved, unique opportunities have emerged to leverage this spontaneous model to better guide cancer drug development so that therapies likely to fail are eliminated earlier and therapies with true potential are optimized prior to human studies. Both pets and people benefit from this approach, as it provides dogs with access to cutting-edge cancer treatments and helps to insure that people are given treatments more likely to succeed.

  17. Effect of rate of administration of propofol or alfaxalone on induction dose requirements and occurrence of apnea in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigby, Sarah E; Beths, Thierry; Bauquier, Sébastien; Carter, Jennifer E

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of rate of administration of propofol or alfaxalone on induction dose requirements and incidence of postinduction apnea (PIA) in dogs following premedication with methadone and dexmedetomidine. Prospective, randomized clinical trial. Thirty-two healthy American Society of Anesthesiologists class I client-owned dogs (seven females, 25 males), aged between 5 and 54 months, weighing between 2.0 and 48.2 kg. Dogs were premedicated intramuscularly with 0.5 mg kg -1 methadone and 5 μg kg -1 dexmedetomidine. Thirty minutes after premedication, dogs were preoxygenated for 5 minutes before the induction agent was administered intravenously via a syringe driver until orotracheal intubation was achieved. Dogs were randomized to receive alfaxalone 0.5 mg kg -1  minute -1 (A-Slow), alfaxalone 2 mg kg -1  minute -1 (A-Fast), propofol 1 mg kg -1  minute -1 (P-Slow), or propofol 4 mg kg -1 minute -1 (P-Fast). Oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SpO 2 ), end-tidal carbon dioxide and respiratory rate were monitored. If PIA (≥30 seconds without a breath) occurred, the time to the first spontaneous breath was measured. If SpO 2 decreased below 90%, the experiment was stopped and manual ventilation initiated. The mean±standard deviation induction doses of alfaxalone and propofol were lower in the A-Slow [A-Slow 0.9±0.3 mg kg -1 , A-Fast 2.2±0.5 mg kg -1 (p≤0.001)] and P-Slow [P-Slow 1.8±0.6 mg kg -1 , P-Fast 4.1±0.7 mg kg -1 (p≤0.001)] groups, respectively. The incidence of PIA was 25% for the A-Slow and P-Slow groups and 100% for the A-Fast and P-Fast groups (p = 0.007). Both propofol and alfaxalone following methadone and dexmedetomidine premedication caused PIA. Induction dose requirement and incidence of PIA were affected by the rate of administration of both drugs. When possible, propofol and alfaxalone doses should be reduced and administered slowly to reduce PIA. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary

  18. Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Body composition variation following diaphragmatic breathing. ... effect of commonly prescribed diaphragmatic breathing training on the body composition ... a non-exercising control (NE) group (n = 22) or diaphragmatic breathing (DB) group.

  19. BREATHE to Understand©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisa, Maxine

    2015-01-01

    BREATHE is an acronym for Breathe, Reflect, Empathize, Accept, Thank, Hearten, Engage. The addition of Understand allows for a holistic approach to living a healthy and balanced life both inside and outside the classroom. This paper took form as a result of my personal, spiritual journey, as well as my teaching practice. I noticed that the…

  20. Breath in the technoscientific imaginary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Arthur

    2016-12-01

    Breath has a realist function in most artistic media. It serves to remind the reader, the viewer or the spectator of the exigencies of the body. In science fiction (SF) literature and films, breath is often a plot device for human encounters with otherness, either with alien peoples, who may not breathe oxygen, or environments, where there may not be oxygen to breathe. But while there is a technoscientific quality to breath in SF, especially in its attention to physiological systems, concentrating on the technoscientific threatens to occlude other, more affective aspects raised by the literature. In order to supplement the tendency to read SF as a succession of technoscientific accounts of bodily experience, this paper recalls how SF texts draw attention to the affective, non-scientific qualities of breath, both as a metonym for life and as a metaphor for anticipation. Through an engagement with diverse examples from SF literature and films, this article considers the tension between technoscientific and affective responses to breath in order to demonstrate breath's co-determinacy in SF's blending of scientific and artistic discourses. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Patient's breath controls comfort devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, M.; Carpenter, B.; Nichols, C. D.

    1972-01-01

    Patient assist system for totally disabled persons was developed which permits a person, so paralyzed as to be unable to move, to activate by breathing, a call system to summon assistance, turn the page of a book, ajust his bed, or do any one of a number of other things. System consists of patient assist control and breath actuated switch.

  2. FMWC Radar for Breath Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suhr, Lau Frejstrup; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    We report on the experimental demonstration of an FMCW radar operating in the 25.7 - 26.6 GHz range with a repetition rate of 500 sweeps per second. The radar is able to track the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance of 1 meter. The experiments have utilized a 50 second recording window...... to accurately track the breathing rate. The radar utilizes a saw tooth modulation format and a low latency receiver. A breath tracking radar is useful both in medical scenarios, diagnosing disorders such as sleep apnea, and for home use where the user can monitor its health. Breathing is a central part of every...... radar chip which, through the use of a simple modulation scheme, is able to measure the breathing rate of an adult human from a distance. A high frequency output makes sure that the radar cannot penetrate solid obstacles which is a wanted feature in private homes where people therefore cannot measure...

  3. Breath of hospitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Lenart

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we outline the possibilities of an ethic of care based on our self-affection and subjectivity in the ethical spaces between-two. In this we first refer to three Irigarayan concepts - breath, silence and listening from the third phase of her philosophy, and discuss them within the methodological framework of an ethics of intersubjectivity and interiority. Together with attentiveness, we analyse them as four categories of our ethical becoming. Furthermore, we argue that self-affection is based on our inchoate receptivity for the needs of the other(s) and is thus dialectical in its character. In this we critically confront some epistemological views of our ethical becoming. We wind up this paper with a proposal for an ethics towards two autonomous subjects, based on care and our shared ethical becoming - both as signs of our deepest hospitality towards the other.

  4. Cortical drive to breathe in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a dyspnoea-worsening defence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Marjolaine; Morawiec, Elise; Raux, Mathieu; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jésus; Pradat, Pierre-François; Similowski, Thomas; Morélot-Panzini, Capucine

    2016-06-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing diaphragm weakness that can be partially compensated by inspiratory neck muscle recruitment. This disappears during sleep, which is compatible with a cortical contribution to the drive to breathe. We hypothesised that ALS patients with respiratory failure exhibit respiratory-related cortical activity, relieved by noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and related to dyspnoea.We studied 14 ALS patients with respiratory failure. Electroencephalographic recordings (EEGs) and electromyographic recordings of inspiratory neck muscles were performed during spontaneous breathing and NIV. Dyspnoea was evaluated using the Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile.Eight patients exhibited slow EEG negativities preceding inspiration (pre-inspiratory potentials) during spontaneous breathing. Pre-inspiratory potentials were attenuated during NIV (p=0.04). Patients without pre-inspiratory potentials presented more advanced forms of ALS and more severe respiratory impairment, but less severe dyspnoea. Patients with pre-inspiratory potentials had stronger inspiratory neck muscle activation and more severe dyspnoea during spontaneous breathing.ALS-related diaphragm weakness can engage cortical resources to augment the neural drive to breathe. This might reflect a compensatory mechanism, with the intensity of dyspnoea a negative consequence. Disease progression and the corresponding neural loss could abolish this phenomenon. A putative cognitive cost should be investigated. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  5. How to breathe when you are short of breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you: Watch TV Use your computer Read a newspaper How to do Pursed lip Breathing The steps ... of Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA. Also ...

  6. Thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor activity in healthy and diseased dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Wiinberg, Bo; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2010-01-01

    Background: In people, increased thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) antigen has been associated with increased risk of thrombosis, and decreased TAFI may contribute to bleeding diathesis. TAFI activity in dogs has been described in experimental models, but not in dogs...... with spontaneous disease. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare TAFI activity in healthy dogs with TAFI activity in dogs with spontaneous disease. Methods: Plasma samples from 20 clinically healthy Beagles and from 35 dogs with various diseases were analyzed using a commercial chromogenic assay...... that measured TAFI activity relative to activity in standardized pooled human plasma. Results: Median TAFI activity for the 20 Beagles was 46.1% (range 32.2-70.8%) compared with 62.6% (29.1-250%) for the 35 diseased dogs, and 14/35 (40%) had TAFI activities >the upper limit for controls. The highest individual...

  7. Visualizing Breath using Digital Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, P. R.; Reid, I. D.; Wilton, J. B.

    2013-02-01

    Artist Jayne Wilton and physicists Peter Hobson and Ivan Reid of Brunel University are collaborating at Brunel University on a project which aims to use a range of techniques to make visible the normally invisible dynamics of the breath and the verbal and non-verbal communication it facilitates. The breath is a source of a wide range of chemical, auditory and physical exchanges with the direct environment. Digital Holography is being investigated to enable a visually stimulating articulation of the physical trajectory of the breath as it leaves the mouth. Initial findings of this research are presented. Real time digital hologram replay allows the audience to move through holographs of breath-born particles.

  8. Studies on the pathogenesis and management of prostate carcinoma in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Eplattenier, H.F.

    2009-01-01

    The dog is one of the few species to develop spontaneous prostate carcinoma (PCA) and is thus an attractive model for the study of the disease in humans. Many of the features of the disease in the dog are similar to its human counterpart, however a number of aspects of the pathogenesis, diagnosis

  9. Blue breath holding is benign.

    OpenAIRE

    Stephenson, J B

    1991-01-01

    In their recent publication in this journal, Southall et al described typical cyanotic breath holding spells, both in otherwise healthy children and in those with brainstem lesions and other malformations. Their suggestions regarding possible autonomic disturbances may require further study, but they have adduced no scientific evidence to contradict the accepted view that in the intact child blue breath holding spells are benign. Those families in which an infant suffers an 'apparently life t...

  10. Diverse Presentation of Breath Holding Spells: Two Case Reports with Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetanjali Rathore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breath holding spells are a common and dramatic form of syncope and anoxic seizure in infancy. They are usually triggered by an emotional stimuli or minor trauma. Based on the color change, they are classified into 3 types, cyanotic, pallid, and mixed. Pallid breath holding spells result from exaggerated, vagally-mediated cardiac inhibition, whereas the more common, cyanotic breathholding spells are of more complex pathogenesis which is not completely understood. A detailed and accurate history is the mainstay of diagnosis. An EKG should be strongly considered to rule out long QT syndrome. Spontaneous resolution of breath-holding spells is usually seen, without any adverse developmental and intellectual sequelae. Rare cases of status epilepticus, prolonged asystole, and sudden death have been reported. Reassurance and education is the mainstay of therapy. Occasionally, pharmacologic intervention with iron, piracetam; atropine may be of benefit. Here we present 2 cases, one of each, pallid and cyanotic breath holding spells.

  11. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  12. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  13. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  14. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  15. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  16. Perception of animacy in dogs and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdai, Judit; Ferdinandy, Bence; Terencio, Cristina Baño; Pogány, Ákos; Miklósi, Ádám

    2017-06-01

    Humans have a tendency to perceive inanimate objects as animate based on simple motion cues. Although animacy is considered as a complex cognitive property, this recognition seems to be spontaneous. Researchers have found that young human infants discriminate between dependent and independent movement patterns. However, quick visual perception of animate entities may be crucial to non-human species as well. Based on general mammalian homology, dogs may possess similar skills to humans. Here, we investigated whether dogs and humans discriminate similarly between dependent and independent motion patterns performed by geometric shapes. We projected a side-by-side video display of the two patterns and measured looking times towards each side, in two trials. We found that in Trial 1, both dogs and humans were equally interested in the two patterns, but in Trial 2 of both species, looking times towards the dependent pattern decreased, whereas they increased towards the independent pattern. We argue that dogs and humans spontaneously recognized the specific pattern and habituated to it rapidly, but continued to show interest in the 'puzzling' pattern. This suggests that both species tend to recognize inanimate agents as animate relying solely on their motions. © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Breath analysis based on micropreconcentrator for early cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Seok

    2018-02-01

    We are developing micropreconcentrators based on micro/nanotechnology to detect trace levels of volatile organic compound (VOC) gases contained in human and canine exhaled breath. The possibility of using exhaled VOC gases as biomarkers for various cancer diagnoses has been previously discussed. For early cancer diagnosis, detection of trace levels of VOC gas is indispensable. Using micropreconcentrators based on MEMS technology or nanotechnology is very promising for detection of VOC gas. A micropreconcentrator based breath analysis technique also has advantages from the viewpoints of cost performance and availability for various cancers diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce design, fabrication and evaluation results of our MEMS and nanotechnology based micropreconcentrators. In the MEMS based device, we propose a flower leaf type Si microstructure, and its shape and configuration are optimized quantitatively by finite element method simulation. The nanotechnology based micropreconcentrator consists of carbon nanotube (CNT) structures. As a result, we achieve ppb level VOC gas detection with our micropreconcentrators and usual gas chromatography system that can detect on the order of ppm VOC in gas samples. In performance evaluation, we also confirm that the CNT based micropreconcentrator shows 115 times better concentration ratio than that of the Si based micropreconcentrator. Moreover, we discuss a commercialization idea for new cancer diagnosis using breath analysis. Future work and preliminary clinical testing in dogs is also discussed.

  18. Detection of pulmonary metastases with pathological correlation: effect of breathing on the accuracy of spiral CT. Editor`s note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coakley, F.V. [Abdominal Imaging Section, Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Cohen, M.D. [Department of Radiology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Waters, D.J. [Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); Davis, M.M. [Department of Pathology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Karmazyn, B. [Department of Radiology, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Gonin, R. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Hanna, M.P. [Division of Biostatistics, Department of Medicine, Riley Hospital for Children, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Background. CT of the chest for suspected pulmonary metastases in adults is generally performed using a breath-hold technique. The results may not be applicable to young children in whom breath-holding may be impossible. Objective. Determine the effect of breathing on the accuracy of pulmonary metastasis detection by spiral CT (SCT). Materials and methods. Prior to euthanasia four anesthetized dogs with metastatic osteosarcoma underwent SCT with a collimation of 5 mm and a pitch of 2, during both induced breath-hold and normal quiet breathing. Images were reconstructed as contiguous 5-mm slices. Macroscopically evident metastases were noted at postmortem. Hard-copy SCT images were reviewed by ten radiologists, each of whom circled all suspected metastases. SCT images were compared with postmortem results to determine true and false positives. Results. The pathologist identified 132 macroscopically evident pulmonary metastases. For metastasis detection, there was no significant difference between breath-hold SCT and breathing SCT. Conclusion. In our animal model, SCT can be performed during normal resting breathing without significant loss of accuracy in the detection of pulmonary metastases. (orig.). With 3 tabs.

  19. Detection of pulmonary metastases with pathological correlation: effect of breathing on the accuracy of spiral CT. Editor's note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coakley, F.V.; Cohen, M.D.; Waters, D.J.; Davis, M.M.; Karmazyn, B.; Gonin, R.; Hanna, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Background. CT of the chest for suspected pulmonary metastases in adults is generally performed using a breath-hold technique. The results may not be applicable to young children in whom breath-holding may be impossible. Objective. Determine the effect of breathing on the accuracy of pulmonary metastasis detection by spiral CT (SCT). Materials and methods. Prior to euthanasia four anesthetized dogs with metastatic osteosarcoma underwent SCT with a collimation of 5 mm and a pitch of 2, during both induced breath-hold and normal quiet breathing. Images were reconstructed as contiguous 5-mm slices. Macroscopically evident metastases were noted at postmortem. Hard-copy SCT images were reviewed by ten radiologists, each of whom circled all suspected metastases. SCT images were compared with postmortem results to determine true and false positives. Results. The pathologist identified 132 macroscopically evident pulmonary metastases. For metastasis detection, there was no significant difference between breath-hold SCT and breathing SCT. Conclusion. In our animal model, SCT can be performed during normal resting breathing without significant loss of accuracy in the detection of pulmonary metastases. (orig.). With 3 tabs

  20. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  1. Relationship between regional ventilation and aerosol deposition in tidal breathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trajan, M.; Logus, J.W.; Enns, E.G.; Man, S.F.

    1984-07-01

    The regional distribution of the deposition of 1.2 micron particles of 99mTc sulfur colloid inhaled by tidal breathing was compared with the distribution of ventilation as measured by a 133Xe washout technique. Twelve subjects were studied, 6 with normal pulmonary function tests, 5 with air-flow limitation, and 1 with unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis. Both xenon and aerosol were inhaled at tidal volume by the subjects while seated upright. A large field gamma camera acquired posterior scans. Thirteen experiments were also done on 7 dogs: 1 with extrathoracic obstruction of the airway to 1 lung, and 12 with bronchoconstriction from the instillation of methacholine chloride into the airways of a lower lobe. Two of these dogs were studied with a gamma camera system, and the others were studied with a Picker multi-probe system. Both in humans and in dogs, an increase in time constant, which indicated a decrease in ventilation, was associated with an increase in peripheral aerosol deposition when normalized for ventilation. It is suggested that the increased residence time is responsible for the increased deposition in regions that received lesser ventilation.

  2. Relationship between regional ventilation and aerosol deposition in tidal breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trajan, M.; Logus, J.W.; Enns, E.G.; Man, S.F.

    1984-01-01

    The regional distribution of the deposition of 1.2 micron particles of 99mTc sulfur colloid inhaled by tidal breathing was compared with the distribution of ventilation as measured by a 133Xe washout technique. Twelve subjects were studied, 6 with normal pulmonary function tests, 5 with air-flow limitation, and 1 with unilateral phrenic nerve paralysis. Both xenon and aerosol were inhaled at tidal volume by the subjects while seated upright. A large field gamma camera acquired posterior scans. Thirteen experiments were also done on 7 dogs: 1 with extrathoracic obstruction of the airway to 1 lung, and 12 with bronchoconstriction from the instillation of methacholine chloride into the airways of a lower lobe. Two of these dogs were studied with a gamma camera system, and the others were studied with a Picker multi-probe system. Both in humans and in dogs, an increase in time constant, which indicated a decrease in ventilation, was associated with an increase in peripheral aerosol deposition when normalized for ventilation. It is suggested that the increased residence time is responsible for the increased deposition in regions that received lesser ventilation

  3. Effect of training and rest on respiratory mechanical properties in racing sled dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael; Williamson, Katherine; McKenzie, Erica; Royer, Christopher; Payton, Mark; Nelson, Stuart

    2005-02-01

    Racing Alaskan sled dogs develop exercise-induced airway inflammation, similar to that reported for elite human athletes participating in cold-weather sports. These human athletes also have airway hyperresponsiveness, but airway function in sled dogs has not been measured. To compare respiratory mechanical properties in trained, rested Alaskan sled dogs with typical laboratory hounds, and to determine whether subsequent training alters respiratory mechanical properties. Nineteen healthy adult Alaskan sled dogs were compared with five healthy adult mixed-breed laboratory hounds. All dogs were rested for at least 4 months before examination. Respiratory mechanical properties were measured while the dogs were anesthetized and ventilated with a piston ventilator. The mean respiratory resistance and compliance measurements for 20 consecutive breaths were used as baseline values immediately before measurement of respiratory reactivity. Respiratory reactivity was the mean of 20 consecutive breaths immediately after the administration of aerosol histamine, expressed as the percentage change in prehistamine measurements. After the initial examinations, the sled dogs were divided into exercised and controls. Exercised dogs were trained for competitive endurance racing. Both groups were examined after 2 and 4 months of training. Alaskan sled dogs had greater respiratory compliance reactivity to histamine (77.47 +/- 8.58% baseline) compared with laboratory dogs (87.60 +/- 9.22% baseline). There was no effect of training on respiratory mechanical properties detected in racing sled dogs. Racing Alaskan sled dogs have airway dysfunction similar to "ski asthma" that persists despite having 4 months of rest. These findings suggest that repeated exercise in cold conditions can lead to airway disease that does not readily resolve with cessation of exercise.

  4. An Acute Bout of a Controlled Breathing Frequency Lowers Sympathetic Neural Outflow but not Blood Pressure in Healthy Normotensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    MCCLAIN, SHANNON L.; BROOKS, ALEXA M.; JARVIS, SARA S.

    2017-01-01

    Controlled or paced breathing is often used as a stress reduction technique but the impact on blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic outflow have not been consistently reported. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a controlled breathing (12 breaths/min, CB) rate would be similar to an individual’s spontaneous breathing (SB) rate. Secondly, would a CB rate of 12 breaths/min alter heart rate (HR), BP, and indices of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Twenty-one subjects (10 women, 11 men) performed two trials: SB, where the subject chose a comfortable breathing rate; and CB, where the subject breathed at a pace of 12 breaths/min. Each trial was 6 min during which respiratory waveforms, HR, BP (systolic, SBP; diastolic, DBP), and MSNA were recorded. During CB, the 6 min average breathing frequency (14±4 vs 12±1 breaths/min, P<0.05 for SB and CB, respectively), MSNA burst frequency (18±12 vs 14±10 bursts/min, P<0.01) and MSNA burst incidence (28±19 vs 21± 6 bursts/100 heart beats, P<0.01) were significantly lower than during SB. HR (66±9 vs 67±9 beats/min, P<0.05) was higher during CB. SBP (120±13 vs 121±15 mmHg, P=0.741), DBP (56±8 vs 57±9 mmHg, P=0.768), and MSNA total activity (166±94 vs 145±102 a.u./min, P=0.145) were not different between the breathing conditions. In conclusion, an acute reduction in breathing frequency such as that observed during CB elicited a decrease in indices of MSNA (burst frequency and incidence) with no change in BP. PMID:28344733

  5. An unusual case of primary spontaneous tension pneumothorax in a jamaican female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M; French, S; Cornwall, D

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a well-recognized entity with a classical presentation of acute onset chest pain and shortness of breath. It may be complicated by the development of a tension pneumothorax or a haemopneumothorax. We report an interesting case of a spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax which presented atypically and was diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest. The clinical and pathophysiological characteristics and treatment of this unusual entity is discussed.

  6. An Unusual Case of Primary Spontaneous Tension Pneumothorax in a Jamaican Female

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, M; French, S; Cornwall, D

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a well-recognized entity with a classical presentation of acute onset chest pain and shortness of breath. It may be complicated by the development of a tension pneumothorax or a haemopneumothorax. We report an interesting case of a spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax which presented atypically and was diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) scan of the chest. The clinical and pathophysiological characteristics and treatment of this unusual entity is discussed.

  7. Breathing adapted radiotherapy for breast cancer: comparison of free breathing gating with the breath-hold technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia; Pedersen, Anders N; Nøttrup, Trine Jakobi

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adjuvant radiotherapy after breast-conserving surgery for breast cancer implies a risk of late cardiac and pulmonary toxicity. This is the first study to evaluate cardiopulmonary dose sparing of breathing adapted radiotherapy (BART) using free breathing gating......, and to compare this respiratory technique with voluntary breath-hold. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 17 patients were CT-scanned during non-coached breathing manoeuvre including free breathing (FB), end-inspiration gating (IG), end-expiration gating (EG), deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and end-expiration breath......-hold (EBH). The Varian Real-time Position Management system (RPM) was used to monitor respiratory movement and to gate the scanner. For each breathing phase, a population based internal margin (IM) was estimated based on average chest wall excursion, and incorporated into an individually optimised three...

  8. The cerebral cost of breathing: an FMRI case-study in congenital central hypoventilation syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Sharman

    Full Text Available Certain motor activities--like walking or breathing--present the interesting property of proceeding either automatically or under voluntary control. In the case of breathing, brainstem structures located in the medulla are in charge of the automatic mode, whereas cortico-subcortical brain networks--including various frontal lobe areas--subtend the voluntary mode. We speculated that the involvement of cortical activity during voluntary breathing could impact both on the "resting state" pattern of cortical-subcortical connectivity, and on the recruitment of executive functions mediated by the frontal lobe. In order to test this prediction we explored a patient suffering from central congenital hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS, a very rare developmental condition secondary to brainstem dysfunction. Typically, CCHS patients demonstrate efficient cortically-controlled breathing while awake, but require mechanically-assisted ventilation during sleep to overcome the inability of brainstem structures to mediate automatic breathing. We used simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings to compare patterns of brain activity between these two types of ventilation during wakefulness. As compared with spontaneous breathing (SB, mechanical ventilation (MV restored the default mode network (DMN associated with self-consciousness, mind-wandering, creativity and introspection in healthy subjects. SB on the other hand resulted in a specific increase of functional connectivity between brainstem and frontal lobe. Behaviorally, the patient was more efficient in cognitive tasks requiring executive control during MV than during SB, in agreement with her subjective reports in everyday life. Taken together our results provide insight into the cognitive and neural costs of spontaneous breathing in one CCHS patient, and suggest that MV during waking periods may free up frontal lobe resources, and make them available for cognitive recruitment. More generally, this study reveals how the

  9. Do domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) perceive the Delboeuf illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena; Bisazza, Angelo; Agrillo, Christian

    2017-05-01

    In the last decade, visual illusions have been repeatedly used as a tool to compare visual perception among species. Several studies have investigated whether non-human primates perceive visual illusions in a human-like fashion, but little attention has been paid to other mammals, and sensitivity to visual illusions has been never investigated in the dog. Here, we studied whether domestic dogs perceive the Delboeuf illusion. In human and non-human primates, this illusion creates a misperception of item size as a function of its surrounding context. To examine this effect in dogs, we adapted the spontaneous preference paradigm recently used with chimpanzees. Subjects were presented with two plates containing food. In control trials, two different amounts of food were presented in two identical plates. In this circumstance, dogs were expected to select the larger amount. In test trials, equal food portion sizes were presented in two plates differing in size: if dogs perceived the illusion as primates do, they were expected to select the amount of food presented in the smaller plate. Dogs significantly discriminated the two alternatives in control trials, whereas their performance did not differ from chance in test trials with the illusory pattern. The fact that dogs do not seem to be susceptible to the Delboeuf illusion suggests a potential discontinuity in the perceptual biases affecting size judgments between primates and dogs.

  10. ACTIVE CYCLE BREATHING TECHNIQUES IN HEART FAILURE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    Pulmonary Function Responses to Active Cycle. Breathing ... Key Words: Heart Failure, Active Cycle of Breathing ... cough, fatigue, reduced respiratory muscle mass, and. [5] ... an amount of exercise which is said to lower disease. [9].

  11. Oral breathing and speech disorders in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia F. Hitos

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Mouth breathing can affect speech development, socialization, and school performance. Early detection of mouth breathing is essential to prevent and minimize its negative effects on the overall development of individuals.

  12. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, J.; Burgering, M.; Smit, B.; Noordman, W.; Tangerman, A.; Winkel, E.G.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  13. Volatile sulphur compounds in morning breath of human volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snel, Johannes; Burgering, Maurits; Smit, Bart; Noordman, Wouter; Tangerman, Albert; Winkel, Edwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    Objective: Morning breath contains elevated concentrations of volatile sulphur components (VSCs). Therefore, morning breath is recognised as a surrogate target for interventions on breath quality. Nevertheless, factors influencing morning breath are poorly understood. Our aim was to evaluate

  14. Periaqueductal Gray Control of Breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, Hari H.; Holstege, Gert; Homma,; Onimaru, H; Fukuchi, Y

    2010-01-01

    Change of the basic respiratory rhythm (eupnea) is a pre-requisite for survival. For example, sudden escape from danger needs rapid shallow breathing, strenuous exercise requires tachypnea for sufficient supply of oxygen and a strong anxiety reaction necessitates gasping. Also for vocalization (and

  15. Linearity of electrical impedance tomography during maximum effort breathing and forced expiration maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Chuong; Leonhardt, Steffen; Zhang, Tony; Lüken, Markus; Misgeld, Berno; Vollmer, Thomas; Tenbrock, Klaus; Lehmann, Sylvia

    2017-01-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) provides global and regional information about ventilation by means of relative changes in electrical impedance measured with electrodes placed around the thorax. In combination with lung function tests, e.g. spirometry and body plethysmography, regional information about lung ventilation can be achieved. Impedance changes strictly correlate with lung volume during tidal breathing and mechanical ventilation. Initial studies presumed a correlation also during forced expiration maneuvers. To quantify the validity of this correlation in extreme lung volume changes during forced breathing, a measurement system was set up and applied on seven lung-healthy volunteers. Simultaneous measurements of changes in lung volume using EIT imaging and pneumotachography were obtained with different breathing patterns. Data was divided into a synchronizing phase (spontaneous breathing) and a test phase (maximum effort breathing and forced maneuvers). The EIT impedance changes correlate strictly with spirometric data during slow breathing with increasing and maximum effort ([Formula: see text]) and during forced expiration maneuvers ([Formula: see text]). Strong correlations in spirometric volume parameters [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]), [Formula: see text]/FVC ([Formula: see text]), and flow parameters PEF, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) were observed. According to the linearity during forced expiration maneuvers, EIT can be used during pulmonary function testing in combination with spirometry for visualisation of regional lung ventilation.

  16. Relationships between breath ratios, spirituality and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this retrospective, quantitative study was to investigate relationships between breath ratios, spirituality perceptions and health perceptions, with special reference to breath ratios that best predict optimal health and spirituality. Significant negative correlations were found between breath ratios and spirituality ...

  17. Be your dog

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Be Your Dog is about establishing relationships beyond the hierarchies of pet and owner. This saw participants and their dogs attend workshops over two consecutive weekends to learn how to establish empathy, equality and connection. This included learning strategies for dog and human to ‘be’ equals with each other. A concluding public event was staged at KARST (Plymouth) following the workshops on 6 November 2016 where all participants, human and dog, performed as collaborators. This proj...

  18. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  19. Interleukin-6 is increased in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of community-dwelling domestic dogs with acute ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne; Thomsen, Barbara B; Boza-Serrano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL...

  20. Correlations between the Poincaré plot and conventional heart rate variability parameters assessed during paced breathing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guzik, P.; Piskorski, J.; Krauze, T.; Schneider, R.; Wesseling, K.H.; Wykrȩtowicz, A.; Wysocki, H.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To analyze the correlation of the Poincaré plot descriptors of RR intervals with standard measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). A physiological model of changing respiratory rates from 6 to 15 breaths/min provided a wide range of RR intervals for

  1. Definition of spontaneous reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his view of driven versus spontaneous. There is a close link between ''spontaneous'' and ''instability.'' One of the prominent examples for instability is the thermal convection instability. Just to remind you, if you heat a fluid layer from below, it takes a certain Rayleigh number to make it unstable. Beyond the onset point you find qualitatively new features. That is called ''spontaneous,'' and this is a bit more than semantics. It's a new qualitative property that appears and it is spontaneous although we have an energy flux through the system. It's a misconception, to call this ''driven'' pointing at the energy flux through it. Of course, the convection would not exist without this energy flux. But what makes it ''spontaneous'' is that without any particular external signal, a new qualitative feature appears. And this is what is called an ''instability'' and ''spontaneous.'' From these considerations the author got a little reassured of what distinction should be made in the field of the magnetosphere. If we have a smooth energy transport into the magnetosphere and suddenly we have this qualitatively new feature (change of B-topology) coming up; then, using this terminology we don't have a choice other than calling this spontaneous or unstable, if you like. If we ''tell'' the system where it should make its neutral line and where it should make its plasmoids, then, it is driven. And this provides a very clear-cut observational distinction. The author emphasizes the difference he sees is a qualitative difference, not only a quantitative one

  2. Spontaneous nervous system concussion in dogs: A description of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In human medicine, central nervous system (CNS) concussion is defined as a transient neurological dysfunction following a traumatic event, without evidence of structural abnormalities of the affected region on advanced diagnostic imaging. Depending on the anatomical region involved, three forms of concussive ...

  3. Analysis of Exhaled Breath for Disease Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amann, Anton; Miekisch, Wolfram; Schubert, Jochen; Buszewski, Bogusław; Ligor, Tomasz; Jezierski, Tadeusz; Pleil, Joachim; Risby, Terence

    2014-06-01

    Breath analysis is a young field of research with great clinical potential. As a result of this interest, researchers have developed new analytical techniques that permit real-time analysis of exhaled breath with breath-to-breath resolution in addition to the conventional central laboratory methods using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Breath tests are based on endogenously produced volatiles, metabolites of ingested precursors, metabolites produced by bacteria in the gut or the airways, or volatiles appearing after environmental exposure. The composition of exhaled breath may contain valuable information for patients presenting with asthma, renal and liver diseases, lung cancer, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inflammatory lung disease, or metabolic disorders. In addition, oxidative stress status may be monitored via volatile products of lipid peroxidation. Measurement of enzyme activity provides phenotypic information important in personalized medicine, whereas breath measurements provide insight into perturbations of the human exposome and can be interpreted as preclinical signals of adverse outcome pathways.

  4. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  6. Pathophysiology of heatstroke in dogs - revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruchim, Yaron; Horowitz, Michal; Aroch, Itamar

    2017-01-01

    Heatstroke results from a failure to dissipate accumulated heat during exposure to hot environments, or during strenuous physical exercise under heat stress. It is characterized by core body temperatures > 41°C, with central nervous system dysfunction. Functional morphology and thermoregulatory effectors differences between dogs and humans may require special heatstroke protective adaptations in dogs, however, the risk factors for developing heatstroke are similar in both. In dogs, these include hot, especially highly humid environments, excessive physical activity, obesity, large (>15 kg) body weight, being of certain breed (e.g., Labrador retrievers and brachycephalic breeds), upper airway obstruction and prolonged seizures. Lack of acclimation to heat and physical fitness decreases the survival of heat stroked dogs. At the systemic level, blood pooling within the large internal organs (e.g., spleen, liver) is a major contributor to the development of shock and consequent intestinal ischemia, hypoxia and endothelial hyperpermeability, commonly occurring in heatstroke patients. Evoked serious complications include rhabdomyolysis, acute kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome and ultimately, sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The most common clinical signs in dogs include acute collapse, tachypnea, spontaneous bleeding, shock signs and mental abnormalities, including depression, disorientation or delirium, seizures, stupor and coma. In such dogs, presence of peripheral blood nucleated red blood cells uniquely occurs, and is a highly sensitive diagnostic and prognostic biomarker. Despite early, appropriate body cooling, and intensive supportive treatment, with no available specific treatment to ameliorate the severe inflammatory and hemostatic derangements, the mortality rate is around 50%, similar to that of human heatstroke victims. This review discusses the pathophysiology of canine heatstroke from a veterinarian's point of view

  7. Brain regions involved in observing and trying to interpret dog behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmet, Charlotte; van der Wiel, Alko; Brass, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Humans and dogs have interacted for millennia. As a result, humans (and especially dog owners) sometimes try to interpret dog behaviour. While there is extensive research on the brain regions that are involved in mentalizing about other peoples' behaviour, surprisingly little is known of whether we use these same brain regions to mentalize about animal behaviour. In this fMRI study we investigate whether brain regions involved in mentalizing about human behaviour are also engaged when observing dog behaviour. Here we show that these brain regions are more engaged when observing dog behaviour that is difficult to interpret compared to dog behaviour that is easy to interpret. Interestingly, these results were not only obtained when participants were instructed to infer reasons for the behaviour but also when they passively viewed the behaviour, indicating that these brain regions are activated by spontaneous mentalizing processes.

  8. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  9. Evaluation of diaphragmatic motion in normal and diaphragmatic paralyzed dogs using M-mode ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mihyun; Lee, Namsoon; Kim, Ahyoung; Keh, Seoyeon; Lee, Jinsoo; Kim, Hyunwook; Choi, Mincheol

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in dogs is currently based on fluoroscopic detection of unequal movement between the crura. Bilateral paralysis may be more difficult to confirm with fluoroscopy because diaphragmatic movement is sometimes produced by compensatory abdominal muscle contractions. The purpose of this study was to develop a new method to evaluate diaphragmatic movement using M-mode ultrasonography and to describe findings for normal and diaphragmatic paralyzed dogs. Fifty-five clinically normal dogs and two dogs with diaphragmatic paralysis were recruited. Thoracic radiographs were acquired for all dogs and fluoroscopy studies were also acquired for clinically affected dogs. Two observers independently measured diaphragmatic direction of motion and amplitude of excursion using M-mode ultrasonography for dogs meeting study inclusion criteria. Eight of the clinically normal dogs were excluded due to abnormal thoracic radiographic findings. For the remaining normal dogs, the lower limit values of diaphragmatic excursion were 2.85-2.98 mm during normal breathing. One dog with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis showed paradoxical movement of both crura at the end of inspiration. One dog with unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis had diaphragmatic excursion values of 2.00 ± 0.42 mm on the left side and 4.05 ± 1.48 mm on the right side. The difference between left and right diaphragmatic excursion values was 55%. Findings indicated that M-mode ultrasonography is a relatively simple and objective method for measuring diaphragmatic movement in dogs. Future studies are needed in a larger number of dogs with diaphragmatic paralysis to determine the diagnostic sensitivity of this promising new technique. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  10. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  11. Thoracic radiotherapy and breath control: current prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, F.; Mineur, L.; Paoli, J.B.; Bodez, V.; Oozeer, R.; Garcia, R.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D CRT) is adversely affected by setup error and organ motion. In thoracic 3D CRT, breathing accounts for most of intra-fraction movements, thus impairing treatment quality. Breath control clearly exhibits dosimetric improvement compared to free breathing, leading to various techniques for gated treatments. We review benefits of different breath control methods -i.e. breath-holding or beam gating, with spirometric, isometric or X-ray respiration sensor- and argument the choice of expiration versus inspiration, with consideration to dosimetric concerns. All steps of 3D-CRT can be improved with breath control. Contouring of organs at risk (OAR) and target are easier and more accurate on breath controlled CT-scans. Inter- and intra-fraction target immobilisation allows smaller margins with better coverage. Lung outcome predictors (NTCP, Mean Dose, LV20, LV30) are improved with breath-control. In addition, inspiration breath control facilitates beam arrangement since it widens the distance between OAR and target, and leaves less lung normal tissue within the high dose region. Last, lung density, as of CT scan, is more accurate, improving dosimetry. Our institutions choice is to use spirometry driven, patient controlled high-inspiration breath-hold; this technique gives excellent immobilization results, with high reproducibility, yet it is easy to implement and costs little extra treatment time. Breath control, whatever technique is employed, proves superior to free breathing treatment when using 3D-CRT. Breath control should then be used whenever possible, and is probably mandatory for IMRT. (authors)

  12. In-kennel behavior predicts length of stay in shelter dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Protopopova

    Full Text Available Previous empirical evaluations of training programs aimed at improving dog adoption rates assume that dogs exhibiting certain behaviors are more adoptable. However, no systematic data are available to indicate that the spontaneous behavior of shelter dogs has an effect on adopter preference. The aim of the present study was to determine whether any behaviors that dogs exhibit spontaneously in the presence of potential adopters were associated with the dogs' length of stay in the shelter. A sample of 289 dogs was videotaped for 1 min daily throughout their stay at a county shelter. To account for differences in adopter behavior, experimenters varied from solitary passive observers to pairs of interactive observers. Dogs behaved more attentively to active observers. To account for adopter preference for morphology, dogs were divided into "morphologically preferred" and "non-preferred" groups. Morphologically preferred dogs were small, long coated, ratters, herders, and lap dogs. No theoretically significant differences in behavior were observed between the two different dog morphologies. When accounting for morphological preference, three behaviors were found to have a significant effect on length of stay in all dogs: leaning or rubbing on the enclosure wall (increased median length of stay by 30 days, facing away from the front of the enclosure (increased by 15 days, and standing (increased by 7 days. When combinations of behaviors were assessed, back and forth motion was found to predict a longer stay (increased by 24 days. No consistent behavioral changes were observed due to time spent at the shelter. These findings will allow shelters to focus behavioral modification efforts only on behaviors likely to influence adopters' choices.

  13. Kidney motion during free breathing and breath hold for MR-guided radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, Mette K; Van Vulpen, Marco; Intven, Martijn; Crijns, Sjoerd P M; Lagendijk, Jan J W; Raaymakers, Bas W; Barendrecht, Maurits M; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2013-01-01

    Current treatments for renal cell carcinoma have a high complication rate due to the invasiveness of the treatment. With the MRI-linac it may be possible to treat renal tumours non-invasively with high-precision radiotherapy. This is expected to reduce complications. To deliver a static dose distribution, radiation gating will be used. In this study the reproducibility and efficiency of free breathing gating and a breath hold treatment of the kidney was investigated. For 15 patients with a renal lesion the kidney motion during 2 min of free breathing and 10 consecutive expiration breath holds was studied with 2D cine MRI. The variability in kidney expiration position and treatment efficiency for gating windows of 1 to 20 mm was measured for both breathing patterns. Additionally the time trend in free breathing and the variation in expiration breath hold kidney position with baseline shift correction was determined. In 80% of the patients the variation in expiration position during free breathing is smaller than 2 mm. No clinically relevant time trends were detected. The variation in expiration breath hold is for all patients larger than the free breathing expiration variation. Gating on free breathing is, for gating windows of 1 to 5 mm more efficient than breath hold without baseline correction. When applying a baseline correction to the breath hold it increases the treatment efficiency. The kidney position is more reproducible in expiration free breathing than non-guided expiration breath hold. For small gating windows it is also more time efficient. Since free breathing also seems more comfortable for the patients it is the preferred breathing pattern for MRI-Linac treatments of the kidney. (paper)

  14. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  16. Relationships between hippocampal activity and breathing patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harper, R M; Poe, G R; Rector, D M

    1998-01-01

    Single cell discharge, EEG activity, and optical changes accompanying alterations in breathing patterns, as well as the knowledge that respiratory musculature is heavily involved in movement and other behavioral acts, implicate hippocampal regions in some aspects of breathing control. The control...... is unlikely to reside in oscillatory breathing movements, because such patterns emerge in preparations retaining only the medulla (and perhaps only the spinal cord). However, momentary changes in breathing patterns induced by affect, startle, whole-body movement changes, or compensatory ventilatory changes...... of hippocampal contributions to breathing control should be viewed in the context that significant interactions exist between blood pressure changes and ventilation, and that modest breathing challenges, such as exposure to hypercapnia or to increased resistive loads, bring into action a vast array of brain...

  17. Chest physiotherapy with positive expiratory pressure breathing after abdominal and thoracic surgery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, J; Westerdahl, E

    2010-03-01

    A variety of chest physiotherapy techniques are used following abdominal and thoracic surgery to prevent or reduce post-operative complications. Breathing techniques with a positive expiratory pressure (PEP) are used to increase airway pressure and improve pulmonary function. No systematic review of the effects of PEP in surgery patients has been performed previously. The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the effect of PEP breathing after an open upper abdominal or thoracic surgery. A literature search of randomised-controlled trials (RCT) was performed in five databases. The trials included were systematically reviewed by two independent observers and critically assessed for methodological quality. We selected six RCT evaluating the PEP technique performed with a mechanical device in spontaneously breathing adult patients after abdominal or thoracic surgery via thoracotomy. The methodological quality score varied between 4 and 6 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database score. The studies were published between 1979 and 1993. Only one of the included trials showed any positive effects of PEP compared to other breathing techniques. Today, there is scarce scientific evidence that PEP treatment is better than other physiotherapy breathing techniques in patients undergoing abdominal or thoracic surgery. There is a lack of studies investigating the effect of PEP over placebo or no physiotherapy treatment.

  18. Masticatory Changes in Oral Breath Secondary to Allergic Rhinitis: Integrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezerra, Luciana Ângelo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The III Brazilian Consensus on Rhinitis (2012 defines allergic rhinitis as a nasal mucosa inflammation, mediated by immunoglobulin E, after exposure to allergens. The classic signs and symptoms of allergic rhinitis are nasal obstruction, watery rhinorrhea, sneezing, and nasal itching, often reversible either spontaneously or with treatment, and mouth breathing (breathing predominantly through the mouth, regardless of the cause, due to a nasal breathing impairment in some cases. Objective To evaluate the literature on masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing due to allergic rhinitis. Methods We conducted a search of the past 10 years, at Bireme and MEDLINE databases, for articles that covered masticatory changes in children with mouth breathing secondary to allergic rhinitis. Results We found 1,986 articles, including 15 repeated in databases, but only two articles met the inclusion criteria fully. Discussion We found few studies to answer the question raised in this review, and those studies have some methodological limitations. Most articles claimed no have statistically significant differences in masticatory changes in this population. Conclusion A better controlled study (isolating diseases, exposure time, with a larger sample (sample calculation appropriate, would be necessary to examine such changes.

  19. Efficacy and tolerability of yoga breathing in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomidori, Luca; Campigotto, Federica; Amatya, Tara Man; Bernardi, Luciano; Cogo, Annalisa

    2009-01-01

    Yoga-derived breathing has been reported to improve gas exchange in patients with chronic heart failure and in participants exposed to high-altitude hypoxia. We investigated the tolerability and effect of yoga breathing on ventilatory pattern and oxygenation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with COPD (N = 11, 3 women) without previous yoga practice and taking only short-acting beta2-adrenergic blocking drugs were enrolled. Ventilatory pattern and oxygen saturation were monitored by means of inductive plethysmography during 30-minute spontaneous breathing at rest (sb) and during a 30-minute yoga lesson (y). During the yoga lesson, the patients were requested to mobilize in sequence the diaphragm, lower chest, and upper chest adopting a slower and deeper breathing. We evaluated oxygen saturation (SaO2%), tidal volume (VT), minute ventilation (E), respiratory rate (i>f), inspiratory time, total breath time, fractional inspiratory time, an index of thoracoabdominal coordination, and an index of rapid shallow breathing. Changes in dyspnea during the yoga lesson were assessed with the Borg scale. During the yoga lesson, data showed the adoption of a deeper and slower breathing pattern (VTsb L 0.54[0.04], VTy L 0.74[0.08], P = .01; i>fsb 20.8[1.3], i>fy 13.8[0.2], P = .001) and a significant improvement in SaO2% with no change in E (SaO2%sb 91.5%[1.13], SaO2%y 93.5%[0.99], P = .02; Esb L/min 11.2[1.1], Ey L/min 10.2[0.9]). All the participants reported to be comfortable during the yoga lesson, with no increase in dyspnea index. We conclude that short-term training in yoga is well tolerated and induces favorable respiratory changes in patients with COPD.

  20. Horses Auto-Recruit Their Lungs by Inspiratory Breath Holding Following Recovery from General Anaesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Mosing

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the breathing pattern and distribution of ventilation in horses prior to and following recovery from general anaesthesia using electrical impedance tomography (EIT. Six horses were anaesthetised for 6 hours in dorsal recumbency. Arterial blood gas and EIT measurements were performed 24 hours before (baseline and 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 hours after horses stood following anaesthesia. At each time point 4 representative spontaneous breaths were analysed. The percentage of the total breath length during which impedance remained greater than 50% of the maximum inspiratory impedance change (breath holding, the fraction of total tidal ventilation within each of four stacked regions of interest (ROI (distribution of ventilation and the filling time and inflation period of seven ROI evenly distributed over the dorso-ventral height of the lungs were calculated. Mixed effects multi-linear regression and linear regression were used and significance was set at p<0.05. All horses demonstrated inspiratory breath holding until 5 hours after standing. No change from baseline was seen for the distribution of ventilation during inspiration. Filling time and inflation period were more rapid and shorter in ventral and slower and longer in most dorsal ROI compared to baseline, respectively. In a mixed effects multi-linear regression, breath holding was significantly correlated with PaCO2 in both the univariate and multivariate regression. Following recovery from anaesthesia, horses showed inspiratory breath holding during which gas redistributed from ventral into dorsal regions of the lungs. This suggests auto-recruitment of lung tissue which would have been dependent and likely atelectic during anaesthesia.

  1. Survey of how different groups of veterinarians manage the use of neuromuscular blocking agents in anesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Flores, Manuel; Sakai, Daniel M; Campoy, Luis; Gleed, Robin D

    2018-03-23

    To analyze practice habits associated with the use, reversal and monitoring of nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) in dogs by different groups of veterinarians. Online anonymous survey to veterinarians. Data from 390 answered surveys. A questionnaire was sent to e-mail list servers of the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia (ACVAA-list), Sociedad Española de Anestesia y Analgesia Veterinaria (SEEAV-list), Colégio Brasileiro de Anestesiologia Veterinária (Brazilian College of Veterinary Anesthesiology; CBAV-list) and American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists (ACVO-list) to elicit information regarding use of NMBAs and reversal agents, monitoring techniques, criteria for redosing, reversing and assessing adequacy of recovery of neuromuscular function. Binomial logistic regression was used to test for association between responses and group of veterinarians in selected questions. Veterinarians of the ACVO-list use NMBAs on a higher fraction of their caseload than other groups (all p < 0.0001). Subjective assessment (observation) of spontaneous movement, including spontaneous breathing, is the most common method for assessing neuromuscular function (43% of pooled responses); 18% of participants always reverse NMBAs, whereas 16% never reverse them. Restoration of neuromuscular function is assessed subjectively by 35% of respondents. Residual neuromuscular block is the most common concern regarding the use of NMBAs for all groups of veterinarians. Side effects of reversal agents (anticholinesterases) were of least concern for all groups. While most veterinarians are concerned about residual neuromuscular block, relatively few steps are implemented to reduce the risks of this complication, such as routine use of quantitative neuromuscular monitoring or routine reversal of NMBAs. These results suggest a limitation in transferring information among groups of veterinarians, or in implementing techniques suggested by scientific

  2. Sleep disordered breathing in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilgay Izci Balserak

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB is very common during pregnancy, and is most likely explained by hormonal, physiological and physical changes. Maternal obesity, one of the major risk factors for SDB, together with physiological changes in pregnancy may predispose women to develop SDB. SDB has been associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes. Thus, early identification, diagnosis and treatment of SDB are important in pregnancy. This article reviews the pregnancy-related changes affecting the severity of SDB, the epidemiology and the risk factors of SDB in pregnancy, the association of SDB with adverse pregnancy outcomes, and screening and management options specific for this population.

  3. Environmental contamination and breathing disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardona A, Jose D

    2003-01-01

    The atmospheric contamination is the main component of the environmental contamination and it can be defined as the presence in the atmosphere of an or several substances in enough quantity to produce alterations of the health, it is presented in aerosol form, with its gassy and specific components, altering the quality of the population's life and the degradation of the ecosystems. The main pollutant, as much for the frequency as for the importance of its effects, is the smoke of cigarettes. The paper mentions other types of polluting agents and their effects in the breathing apparatus

  4. News from the Breath Analysis Summit 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Massimo; Mutti, Antonio

    2012-06-01

    This special section highlights some of the important work presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2011, which was held in Parma (Italy) from 11 to 14 September 2011. The meeting, which was jointly organized by the International Association for Breath Research and the University of Parma, was attended by more than 250 delegates from 33 countries, and offered 34 invited lectures and 64 unsolicited scientific contributions. The summit was organized to provide a forum to scientists, engineers and clinicians to present their latest findings and to meet industry executives and entrepreneurs to discuss key trends, future directions and technologies available for breath analysis. A major focus was on nitric oxide, exhaled breath condensate, electronic nose, mass spectrometry and newer sensor technologies. Medical applications ranged from asthma and other respiratory diseases to gastrointestinal disease, occupational diseases, critical care and cancer. Most people identify breath tests with breathalysers used by police to estimate ethanol concentration in blood. However, breath testing has far more sophisticated applications. Breath analysis is rapidly evolving as a new frontier in medical testing for disease states in the lung and beyond. Every individual has a breath fingerprint-or 'breathprint'-that can provide useful information about his or her state of health. This breathprint comprises the many thousands of molecules that are expelled with each breath we exhale. Breath research in the past few years has uncovered the scientific and molecular basis for such clinical observations. Relying on mass spectrometry, we have been able to identify many such unique substances in exhaled breath, including gases, such as nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), and a wide array of volatile organic compounds. Exhaled breath also carries aerosolized droplets that can be collected as an exhaled breath condensate that contains endogenously produced non-volatile compounds. Breath

  5. Splenitis in 33 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F; Zini, E; Auriemma, E; Castagnaro, M; Coppola, L M; Peano, A; Martella, V; Decaro, N; Kuhnert, P; Ferro, S

    2017-01-01

    Splenitis is uncommonly reported in dogs. Herein, the authors describe its prevalence, clinical findings and outcomes, histologic patterns, and causes. Splenic samples of dogs diagnosed with splenitis between 2005 and 2013 were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, green-Gram, Giemsa, periodic acid-Schiff, and Ziehl-Neelsen. Samples were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect bacteria, fungi, and protozoa ( Leishmania infantum, Hepatozoon canis). Thirty-three of 660 splenic samples (5%) had splenitis. Clinical findings and outcomes were available in 19 dogs (58%); 49% had weakness, 33% had fever, and 84% survived. The most frequent inflammatory patterns included purulent splenitis (27%), pyogranulomatous splenitis (24%), and neutrophilic perisplenitis (15%). One dog had a putative diagnosis of primary splenitis; in 8 dogs, microorganisms were identified histologically or by PCR in the spleen without obvious comorbidities. Twenty-four dogs (73%) had concurrent diseases; a permissive role in the development of splenitis was suspected in 21 of these cases. Histologic examination identified the cause of splenitis in 10 dogs. Bacteria were identified by PCR in 23 cases, but the bacteria were confirmed histologically in only 6 of these. Leishmania was detected with PCR in 6 dogs. Leishmania was identified in 1 dog and H. canis in another histologically, but both were PCR negative. Fungi were identified in 8 spleens by PCR and in 1 by histology. This study suggests that splenitis is uncommon in dogs and is frequently associated with systemic diseases. Prognosis is favorable in most cases. Identification of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa in the spleens of affected dogs with PCR should be interpreted cautiously, because the findings are not confirmed histologically in many cases.

  6. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  7. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  8. Submarines, spacecraft and exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleil, Joachim D; Hansel, Armin

    2012-03-01

    Foreword The International Association of Breath Research (IABR) meetings are an eclectic gathering of researchers in the medical, environmental and instrumentation fields; our focus is on human health as assessed by the measurement and interpretation of trace chemicals in human exhaled breath. What may have escaped our notice is a complementary field of research that explores the creation and maintenance of artificial atmospheres practised by the submarine air monitoring and air purification (SAMAP) community. SAMAP is comprised of manufacturers, researchers and medical professionals dealing with the engineering and instrumentation to support human life in submarines and spacecraft (including shuttlecraft and manned rockets, high-altitude aircraft, and the International Space Station (ISS)). Here, the immediate concerns are short-term survival and long-term health in fairly confined environments where one cannot simply 'open the window' for fresh air. As such, one of the main concerns is air monitoring and the main sources of contamination are CO(2) and other constituents of human exhaled breath. Since the inaugural meeting in 1994 in Adelaide, Australia, SAMAP meetings have been held every two or three years alternating between the North American and European continents. The meetings are organized by Dr Wally Mazurek (a member of IABR) of the Defense Systems Technology Organization (DSTO) of Australia, and individual meetings are co-hosted by the navies of the countries in which they are held. An overriding focus at SAMAP is life support (oxygen availability and carbon dioxide removal). Certainly, other air constituents are also important; for example, the closed environment of a submarine or the ISS can build up contaminants from consumer products, cooking, refrigeration, accidental fires, propulsion and atmosphere maintenance. However, the most immediate concern is sustaining human metabolism: removing exhaled CO(2) and replacing metabolized O(2). Another

  9. Uveodermatologic lymphoma in two young related Portuguese water dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escanilla, Natàlia; Leiva, Marta; Ordeix, Laura; Peña, Teresa

    2012-09-01

    Canine lymphoma (CL) is one of the most common forms of spontaneous canine neoplasia. Improved understanding of the genetic and environmental factors associated with CL may provide benefits for the study of non-Hodgkin's and Hodgkin's lymphoma in humans. Uveodermatologic lymphoma is reported in a single household of Portuguese water dog, and the etiology is discussed. A 1-year-old female intact Portuguese water dog was referred to the Ophthalmology Service of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Autonomous University of Barcelona because of acute blepharospasm of the right eye in association with a multinodular dermatosis. Physical and ophthalmological examination and a complete diagnostic work-up, including skin and ocular histopathology and immunohistochemistry, were performed. Three months prior, in Galicia (Spain), 1200 km away from Barcelona, a male dog of the same litter showed very similar oculodermatological clinical signs and skin histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were obtained. The clinical diagnoses were anterior exudative uveitis, iridal masses, and secondary glaucoma. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed a nonepitheliotropic lymphoma rich in B cell in dog 1 and rich in T cell in dog 2. It is proposed that an underlying genetic predisposition could have played a role in the development of lymphoma in these two young related dogs. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. Tumors in dogs exposed to experimental intraoperative radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, Peter A.S.; Laskin, William B.; De Luca, Anne Marie; Barnes, Margaret; Kinsella, Timothy J.; Sindelar, William F.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The frequency of radiation-induced neoplasms was determined in dogs enrolled in the National Cancer Institute canine trials of intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT). Methods and Materials: Twelve protocols assessing normal tissue response to IORT involved 238 dogs in a 15-year trial. Eighty-one dogs were followed for > 24 months postoperatively and were assessed for tumor development; 59 of these animals received IORT. Results: Twelve tumors occurred in the 59 dogs receiving IORT. Nine were in the IORT portals and were considered to be radiation induced. No tumors occurred in 13 sham animals or in 9 animals treated with external beam radiotherapy alone. The frequency of radiation-induced malignancies in dogs receiving IORT was 15%, and was 25% in animals receiving ≥ 25 Gy IORT. Frequency of all tumors, including spontaneous lesions, was 20%. Conclusions: Intraoperative radiotherapy contributed to a high frequency of sarcoma induction in these dogs. Unknown to date in humans involved in clinical trials of IORT, this potential complication should be looked for as long-term survivors are followed

  11. Attempts at estimating mixed venous carbon dioxide tension by the single-breath method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, H; Takatani, O; Matsuoka, T

    1989-01-01

    The single-breath method was originally proposed by Kim et al. [1] for estimating the blood carbon dioxide tension and cardiac output. Its reliability has not been proven. The present study was undertaken, using dogs, to compare the mixed venous carbon dioxide tension (PVCO2) calculated by the single-breath method with the PVCO2 measured in mixed venous blood, and to evaluate the influence of variations in the exhalation duration and the volume of expired air usually discarded from computations as the deadspace. Among the exhalation durations of 15, 30 and 45 s tested, the 15 s duration was found to be too short to obtain an analyzable O2-CO2 curve, but at either 30 or 45 s, the calculated values of PVCO2 were comparable to the measured PVCO2. A significant agreement between calculated and measured PVCO2 was obtained when the expired gas with PCO2 less than 22 Torr was considered as deadspace gas.

  12. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  13. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  14. How Does a Hopping Kangaroo Breathe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…

  15. The Cerebral Cost of Breathing: An fMRI Case-Study in Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Mike; Gallea, Cécile; Lehongre, Katia; Galanaud, Damien; Nicolas, Nathalie; Similowski, Thomas; Cohen, Laurent; Straus, Christian; Naccache, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Certain motor activities - like walking or breathing - present the interesting property of proceeding either automatically or under voluntary control. In the case of breathing, brainstem structures located in the medulla are in charge of the automatic mode, whereas cortico-subcortical brain networks - including various frontal lobe areas - subtend the voluntary mode. We speculated that the involvement of cortical activity during voluntary breathing could impact both on the “resting state” pattern of cortical-subcortical connectivity, and on the recruitment of executive functions mediated by the frontal lobe. In order to test this prediction we explored a patient suffering from central congenital hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS), a very rare developmental condition secondary to brainstem dysfunction. Typically, CCHS patients demonstrate efficient cortically-controlled breathing while awake, but require mechanically-assisted ventilation during sleep to overcome the inability of brainstem structures to mediate automatic breathing. We used simultaneous EEG-fMRI recordings to compare patterns of brain activity between these two types of ventilation during wakefulness. As compared with spontaneous breathing (SB), mechanical ventilation (MV) restored the default mode network (DMN) associated with self-consciousness, mind-wandering, creativity and introspection in healthy subjects. SB on the other hand resulted in a specific increase of functional connectivity between brainstem and frontal lobe. Behaviorally, the patient was more efficient in cognitive tasks requiring executive control during MV than during SB, in agreement with her subjective reports in everyday life. Taken together our results provide insight into the cognitive and neural costs of spontaneous breathing in one CCHS patient, and suggest that MV during waking periods may free up frontal lobe resources, and make them available for cognitive recruitment. More generally, this study reveals how the active

  16. Time Breath of Psychological Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tateo, Luca; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Psychology as a self-aspiring, ambitious, developmental science faces the crucial limit of time—both theoretically and practically. The issue of time in constructing psychology’s theories is a major unresolved metatheoretical task. This raises several questions about generalization of knowledge...... of time—or fail to do that? How can they generalize with respect to time? The different conceptions of time often remain implicit, while shaping the concepts used in understanding psychological processes. Any preconception about time in human development will foster the generalizability of theory, as well......: which is the time length of breath of psychological theories? Which is the temporal dimension of psychological processes? In this article we discuss the role of different axiomatic assumptions about time in the construction of psychological theories. How could different theories include a concept...

  17. The indoor air we breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, L C; Shackleton, B W

    1998-01-01

    Increasingly recognized as a potential public health problem since the outbreak of Legionnaire's disease in Philadelphia in 1976, polluted indoor air has been associated with health problems that include asthma, sick building syndrome, multiple chemical sensitivity, and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Symptoms are often nonspecific and include headache, eye and throat irritation, chest tightness and shortness of breath, and fatigue. Air-borne contaminants include commonly used chemicals, vehicular exhaust, microbial organisms, fibrous glass particles, and dust. Identified causes include defective building design and construction, aging of buildings and their ventilation systems, poor climate control, inattention to building maintenance. A major contributory factor is the explosion in the use of chemicals in building construction and furnishing materials over the past four decades. Organizational issues and psychological variables often contribute to the problem and hinder its resolution. This article describes the health problems related to poor indoor air quality and offers solutions.

  18. Epidermal growth factor receptor expression in radiation-induced dog lung tumors by immunocytochemical localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, F.L.; Park, J.F.; Dagle, G.E.

    1993-06-01

    In studies to determine the role of growth factors in radiation-induced lung cancer, epidermal growth factor (EGFR) expression was examined by immunocytochemistry in 51 lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium; 21 of 51 (41%) tumors were positive for EGFR. The traction of tumors positive for EGFR and the histological type of EGFR-positive tumors in the plutonium-exposed dogs were not different from spontaneous dog lung tumors, In which 36% were positive for EGFR. EGFR involvement in Pu-induced lung tumors appeared to be similar to that in spontaneous lung tumors. However, EGFR-positive staining was observed in only 1 of 16 tumors at the three lowest Pu exposure levels, compared to 20 of 35 tumors staining positive at the two highest Pu exposure levels. The results in dogs were in good agreement with the expression of EGFR reported in human non-small cell carcinoma of the lung, suggesting that Pu-induced lung tumors in the dog may be a suitable animal model to investigate the role of EGFR expression in lung carcinogenesis. In humans, EGFR expression in lung tumors has been primarily related to histological tumor types. In individual dogs with multiple primary lung tumors, the tumors were either all EGFR positive or EGFR negative, suggesting that EGFR expression may be related to the response of the individual dog as well as to the histological type of tumor.

  19. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  20. Fast-starting after a breath: air-breathing motions are kinematically similar to escape responses in the catfish Hoplosternum littorale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Domenici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Fast-starts are brief accelerations commonly observed in fish within the context of predator–prey interactions. In typical C-start escape responses, fish react to a threatening stimulus by bending their body into a C-shape during the first muscle contraction (i.e. stage 1 which provides a sudden acceleration away from the stimulus. Recently, similar C-starts have been recorded in fish aiming at a prey. Little is known about C-starts outside the context of predator–prey interactions, though recent work has shown that escape response can also be induced by high temperature. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts in the context of gulping air at the surface. Hoplosternum littorale is an air-breathing freshwater catfish found in South America. Field video observations reveal that their air-breathing behaviour consists of air-gulping at the surface, followed by a fast turn which re-directs the fish towards the bottom. Using high-speed video in the laboratory, we compared the kinematics of the turn immediately following air-gulping performed by H. littorale in normoxia with those of mechanically-triggered C-start escape responses and with routine (i.e. spontaneous turns. Our results show that air-breathing events overlap considerably with escape responses with a large stage 1 angle in terms of turning rates, distance covered and the relationship between these rates. Therefore, these two behaviours can be considered kinematically comparable, suggesting that air-breathing in this species is followed by escape-like C-start motions, presumably to minimise time at the surface and exposure to avian predators. These findings show that C-starts can occur in a variety of contexts in which fish may need to get away from areas of potential danger.

  1. Cardiorespiratory interactions during resistive load breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, P; Perrault, H; Dinh, T P; Eberhard, A; Benchetrit, G

    2000-12-01

    The addition to the respiratory system of a resistive load results in breathing pattern changes and in negative intrathoracic pressure increases. The aim of this study was to use resistive load breathing as a stimulus to the cardiorespiratory interaction and to examine the extent of the changes in heart rate variability (HRV) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in relation to the breathing pattern changes. HRV and RSA were studied in seven healthy subjects where four resistive loads were applied in a random order during the breath and 8-min recording made in each condition. The HRV spectral power components were computed from the R-R interval sequences, and the RSA amplitude and phase were computed from the sinusoid fitting the instantaneous heart rate within each breath. Adding resistive loads resulted in 1) increasing respiratory period, 2) unchanging heart rate, and 3) increasing HRV and changing RSA characteristics. HRV and RSA characteristics are linearly correlated to the respiratory period. These modifications appear to be linked to load-induced changes in the respiratory period in each individual, because HRV and RSA characteristics are similar at a respiratory period obtained either by loading or by imposed frequency breathing. The present results are discussed with regard to the importance of the breathing cycle duration in these cardiorespiratory interactions, suggesting that these interactions may depend on the time necessary for activation and dissipation of neurotransmitters involved in RSA.

  2. Optimal ventilatory patterns in periodic breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanshahi, S D; Khoo, M C

    1993-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether periodic breathing (PB), which is highly prevalent during sleep at high altitudes, imposes physiological penalties on the respiratory system in the absence of any accompanying disease. Using a computer model of respiratory gas exchange, we compared the effects of a variety of PB patterns on the chemical and mechanical costs of breathing to those resulting from regular tidal breathing. Although PB produced considerable fluctuation in arterial blood gas tensions, for the same cycle-averaged ventilation, higher arterial oxygen saturation and lower arterial carbon dioxide levels were achieved. This result can be explained by the fact that the combination of large breaths and apnea in PB leads to a substantial reduction in dead space ventilation. At the same time, the savings in mechanical cost achieved by the respiratory muscles during apnea partially offset the increase during the breathing phase. Consequently, the "pressure cost," a criterion based on mean inspiratory pressure, was elevated only slightly, although the average work rate of breathing increased significantly. We found that, at extreme altitudes, PB patterns with clusters of 2 to 4 large breaths that alternate with apnea produce the highest arterial oxygenation levels and lowest pressure costs. The common occurrence of PB patterns with closely similar features has been reported in sleeping healthy sojourners at extreme altitudes. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB favors a reduction in the oxygen demands of the respiratory muscles and therefore may not be as detrimental as it is generally believed to be.

  3. An Ultrasonic Contactless Sensor for Breathing Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Arlotto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of human breathing activity during a long period has multiple fundamental applications in medicine. In breathing sleep disorders such as apnea, the diagnosis is based on events during which the person stops breathing for several periods during sleep. In polysomnography, the standard for sleep disordered breathing analysis, chest movement and airflow are used to monitor the respiratory activity. However, this method has serious drawbacks. Indeed, as the subject should sleep overnight in a laboratory and because of sensors being in direct contact with him, artifacts modifying sleep quality are often observed. This work investigates an analysis of the viability of an ultrasonic device to quantify the breathing activity, without contact and without any perception by the subject. Based on a low power ultrasonic active source and transducer, the device measures the frequency shift produced by the velocity difference between the exhaled air flow and the ambient environment, i.e., the Doppler effect. After acquisition and digitization, a specific signal processing is applied to separate the effects of breath from those due to subject movements from the Doppler signal. The distance between the source and the sensor, about 50 cm, and the use of ultrasound frequency well above audible frequencies, 40 kHz, allow monitoring the breathing activity without any perception by the subject, and therefore without any modification of the sleep quality which is very important for sleep disorders diagnostic applications. This work is patented (patent pending 2013-7-31 number FR.13/57569.

  4. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  5. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, C.; Cox, I.; Baldey, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, C; Cox, I; Baldey, A [St. F.X. Cabrini Hospital, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2002-07-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  7. Spontaneous Fluctuations of PO2 in the Rabbit Somatosensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenmeier, Robert A; Aksenov, Daniil P; Faber, Holden M; Makar, Peter; Wyrwicz, Alice M

    2016-01-01

    In many tissues, PO2 fluctuates spontaneously with amplitudes of a few mmHg. Here we further characterized these oscillations. PO2 recordings were made from the whisker barrel cortex of six rabbits with acutely or chronically placed polarographic electrodes. Measurements were made while rabbits were awake and while anesthetized with isoflurane, during air breathing, and during 100% oxygen inspiration. In awake rabbits, 90% of the power was between 0 and 20 cycles per minute (cpm), not uniformly distributed over this range, but with a peak frequently near 10 cpm. This was much slower than heart or respiratory rhythms and is similar to the frequency content observed in other tissues. During hyperoxia, total power was higher than during air-breathing, and the dominant frequencies tended to shift toward lower values (0-10 cpm). These observations suggest that at least the lower frequency fluctuations represent efforts by the circulation to regulate local PO2. There were no consistent changes in total power during 0.5 or 1.5% isoflurane anesthesia, but the power shifted to lower frequencies. Thus, both hyperoxia and anesthesia cause characteristic, but distinct, changes in spontaneous fluctuations. These PO2 fluctuations may be caused by vasomotion, but other factors cannot be ruled out.

  8. Plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with pulmonic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiya; Hori, Yasutomo; Chimura, Syuuichi

    2014-06-01

    The detailed information between plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measuring plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with PS and to determine whether plasma NT-proBNP concentration could be used to assess disease severity. This retrospective study enrolled 30 client-owned, untreated dogs with PS (asymptomatic [n=23] and symptomatic [n=7]) and 11 healthy laboratory beagles. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were recorded. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using commercial laboratories. Compared to the healthy control dogs, cardiothoracic ratio was significantly increased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. Similarly, the ratio of the main pulmonary artery to aorta was significantly decreased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. The pulmonic pressure gradient in the symptomatic PS dogs was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic PS dogs. Plasma NT-proBNP concentration was significantly elevated in the symptomatic PS dogs compared to the healthy control dogs and the asymptomatic PS dogs. Furthermore, the Doppler-derived pulmonic pressure gradient was significantly correlated with the plasma NT-proBNP concentration (r=0.78, r(2)=0.61, P764 pmol/l to identify severe PS had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 81.8%. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration increased by spontaneous PS, i.e. right-sided pressure overload and can be used as an additional method to assess the severity of PS in dogs.

  9. Is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes? A historical review on breath acetone measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhennan; Wang, Chuji

    2013-09-01

    Since the ancient discovery of the 'sweet odor' in human breath gas, pursuits of the breath analysis-based disease diagnostics have never stopped. Actually, the 'smell' of the breath, as one of three key disease diagnostic techniques, has been used in Eastern-Medicine for more than three thousand years. With advancement of measuring technologies in sensitivity and selectivity, more specific breath gas species have been identified and established as a biomarker of a particular disease. Acetone is one of the breath gases and its concentration in exhaled breath can now be determined with high accuracy using various techniques and methods. With the worldwide prevalence of diabetes that is typically diagnosed through blood testing, human desire to achieve non-blood based diabetic diagnostics and monitoring has never been quenched. Questions, such as is breath acetone a biomarker of diabetes and how is the breath acetone related to the blood glucose (BG) level (the golden criterion currently used in clinic for diabetes diagnostic, monitoring, and management), remain to be answered. A majority of current research efforts in breath acetone measurements and its technology developments focus on addressing the first question. The effort to tackle the second question has begun recently. The earliest breath acetone measurement in clearly defined diabetic patients was reported more than 60 years ago. For more than a half-century, as reviewed in this paper, there have been more than 41 independent studies of breath acetone using various techniques and methods, and more than 3211 human subjects, including 1581 healthy people, 242 Type 1 diabetic patients, 384 Type 2 diabetic patients, 174 unspecified diabetic patients, and 830 non-diabetic patients or healthy subjects who are under various physiological conditions, have been used in the studies. The results of the breath acetone measurements collected in this review support that many conditions might cause changes to breath

  10. The impact of breathing on HRV measurements: implications for the longitudinal follow-up of athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboul, Damien; Pialoux, Vincent; Hautier, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to compare daily variations of heart rate variability (HRV) parameters between controlled breathing (CB) and spontaneous breathing (SB) sessions during a longitudinal follow-up of athletes. HRV measurements were performed daily on 10 healthy male runners for 21 consecutive days. The signals were recorded during two successive randomised 5-minutes sessions. One session was performed in CB and the other in SB. The results showed significant differences between the two respiration methods in the temporal, nonlinear and frequency domains. However, significant correlations were observed between CB and SB (higher than 0.70 for RMSSD and SD1), demonstrating that during a longitudinal follow-up, these markers provide the same HRV variations regardless of breathing pattern. By contrast, independent day-to-day variations were observed with HF and LF/HF frequency markers, indicating no significant relationship between SB and CB data over time. Therefore, we consider that SB and CB may be used for HRV longitudinal follow-ups only for temporal and nonlinear markers. Indeed, the same daily increases and decreases were observed whatever the breathing method employed. Conversely, frequency markers did not provide the same variations between SB and CB and we propose that these indicators are not reliable enough to be used for day-to-day HRV monitoring.

  11. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  12. Jealousy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

  13. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  14. Sniffer dogs unleashed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-07

    A 10-year conservation project to restore the native bird populations of South Georgia has involved eradicating invasive rodent species. As Daniel Gillett explains, specially trained sniffer dogs are an important part of 'team rat'. British Veterinary Association.

  15. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  16. Bronchial abnormalities found in a consecutive series of 40 brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzi, Davide; Bertoncello, Diana; Drigo, Michele

    2009-10-01

    To detect abnormalities of the lower respiratory tract (trachea, principal bronchi, and lobar bronchi) in brachycephalic dogs by use of endoscopy, evaluate the correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities, and determine whether dogs with bronchial abnormalities have a less favorable postsurgical long-term outcome following correction of brachycephalic syndrome. Prospective case series study. 40 client-owned brachycephalic dogs with stertorous breathing and clinical signs of respiratory distress. Brachycephalic dogs anesthetized for pharyngoscopy and laryngoscopy between January 2007 and June 2008 underwent flexible bronchoscopy for systematic evaluation of the principal and lobar bronchi. For dogs that underwent surgical correction of any component of brachycephalic syndrome, owners rated surgical outcome during a follow-up telephone survey. Correlation between laryngeal collapse and bronchial abnormalities and association between bronchial abnormalities and long-term outcome were assessed. Pugs (n = 20), English Bulldogs (13), and French Bulldogs (7) were affected. A fixed bronchial collapse was recognized in 35 of 40 dogs with a total of 94 bronchial stenoses. Abnormalities were irregularly distributed between hemithoraces; 15 of 94 bronchial abnormalities were detected in the right bronchial system, and 79 of 94 were detected in the left. The left cranial bronchus was the most commonly affected structure, and Pugs were the most severely affected breed. Laryngeal collapse was significantly correlated with severe bronchial collapse; no significant correlation was found between severity of bronchial abnormalities and postsurgical outcome. Bronchial collapse was a common finding in brachycephalic dogs, and long-term postsurgical outcome was not affected by bronchial stenosis.

  17. 46 CFR 197.456 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.456 Section 197.456 Shipping....456 Breathing supply hoses. (a) The diving supervisor shall insure that— (1) Each breathing supply....5 times its maximum working pressure; (2) Each breathing supply hose assembly, prior to being placed...

  18. 21 CFR 862.3080 - Breath nitric oxide test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Systems § 862.3080 Breath nitric oxide test system. (a) Identification. A breath nitric oxide test system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath nitric oxide test system. 862.3080 Section... fractional nitric oxide concentration in expired breath aids in evaluating an asthma patient's response to...

  19. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of continuous (22 hr/day), whole-body γ-irradiation in the pure-bred beagle dog. Dogs were exposed continuously until death at one of four different exposure rates ranging from 5 to 35 R/day. The study is still 2441 days (approximately 6.7 yr) of irradiation. The experiment has narrowed to the dogs receiving 5 R/day and the controls. A group of dogs receiving one of these relatively low daily exposure rates may exhibit remarkably varied responses, both in survival times in the γ field and in ultimate causes of death. The basis for these large differences in responses of individual dogs remains mostly unexplained, but is presumed to reside in their genetic composition. The composite result in the study, however, demonstrates an orderly, step-wise appearance of clinical end points resulting from radiation-induced damage to the blood-forming tissues. About one-half the dogs exposed continuously to 10 R/day develop bone marrow aplasia and die of anemia, while the other one-half develop bone marrow hyperplasias and die of malignancies, usually myelogenous leukemias. In dogs exposed at rates greater than 10 R/day, aplastic bone marrows predominate; while hyperplastic responses are the dominant cause of death at 5 R/day. Only among the most recent deaths of dogs exposed continuously to either 10 or 5 R/day, have there appeared terminal causes of death unrelated to hematopoietic injury. These causes (degenerative and/or inflammatory disease and cancers of tissue other than bone marrow) suggest that we are now beginning to define the combinations of exposure rate and time of exposure that allow expressions of damage by tissues outside the hematopoietic system. (U.S.)

  20. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  1. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  3. Analysis for drugs in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, inexpensive and simple way to collect ...

  4. Analysis for drug in saliva and breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-25

    Collection devices for saliva and breath that involved non-invasive : techniques for sample collection were evaluated. Having subjects simply : spit into a specially prepared glass vial was found to be an efficient, : inexpensive and simple way to co...

  5. Humidifiers: Air Moisture Eases Skin, Breathing Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... create deposits inside your humidifier that promote bacterial growth. And, when released into the air, these minerals often appear as white dust on your furniture. You may also breathe in some minerals that ...

  6. Effect of different breathing aids on ventilation distribution in adults with cystic fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Wettstein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of different breathing aids on ventilation distribution in healthy adults and subjects with cystic fibrosis (CF. METHODS: In 11 healthy adults and 9 adults with CF electrical impedance tomography measurements were performed during spontaneous breathing, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP and positive expiratory pressure (PEP therapy randomly applied in upright and lateral position. Spatial and temporal ventilation distribution was assessed. RESULTS: The proportion of ventilation directed to the dependent lung significantly increased in lateral position compared to upright in healthy and CF. This effect was enhanced with CPAP but neutralised with PEP, whereas the effect of PEP was larger in the healthy group. Temporal ventilation distribution showed exactly the opposite with homogenisation during CPAP and increased inhomogeneity with PEP. CONCLUSIONS: PEP shows distinct differences to CPAP with respect to its impact on ventilation distribution in healthy adults and CF subjects EIT might be used to individualise respiratory physiotherapy.

  7. CT AND MRI FEATURES OF CAROTID BODY PARAGANGLIOMAS IN 16 DOGS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Wilfried; Seiler, Gabriela S; Lindl-Bylicki, Britany J; Zwingenberger, Allison L

    2015-01-01

    Carotid body tumors (paragangliomas) arise from chemoreceptors located at the carotid bifurcation. In imaging studies, this neoplasm may be confused with other neck neoplasms such as thyroid carcinoma. The purpose of this retrospective, cross-sectional study was to describe computed tomographic (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics of confirmed carotid body tumors in a multi-institutional sample of dogs. A total of 16 dogs met inclusion criteria (14 examined using CT and two with MRI). The most common reason for imaging was a palpable cervical mass or respiratory signs (i.e., dyspnea or increased respiratory noises). The most commonly affected breed was Boston terrier (n = 5). Dogs were predominantly male castrated (n = 10) and the median age was 9 years [range 3-14.5]. Most tumors appeared as a large mass centered at the carotid bifurcation, with poor margination in six dogs and discrete margins in ten dogs. Masses were iso- to hypoattenuating to adjacent muscles in CT images and hyperintense to muscles in T1- and T2-weighted MRI. For both CT and MRI, masses typically showed strong and heterogeneous contrast enhancement. There was invasion into the adjacent structures in 9/16 dogs. In six of these nine dogs, the basilar portion of the skull was affected. The external carotid artery was entrapped in seven dogs. There was invasion into the internal jugular vein in three dogs, and into the external jugular, maxillary, and linguo-facial veins in one dog. Imaging characteristics helped explain some clinical presentations such as breathing difficulties, Horner's syndrome, head tilt, or facial nerve paralysis. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of oral terbinafine in horses and Greyhound dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M M; Davis, E G; KuKanich, B

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of terbinafine administered orally to horses and Greyhound dogs. A secondary objective was to assess terbinafine metabolites. Six healthy horses and six healthy Greyhound dogs were included in the pharmacokinetic data. The targeted dose of terbinafine was 20 and 30 mg/kg for horses and dogs, respectively. Blood was collected at predetermined intervals for the quantification of terbinafine concentrations with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The half-life (geometric mean) was 8.1 and 8.6 h for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The mean maximum plasma concentration was 0.31 and 4.01 μg/mL for horses and Greyhounds, respectively. The area under the curve (to infinity) was 1.793 h·μg/mL for horses and 17.253 h·μg/mL for Greyhounds. Adverse effects observed in one study horse included pawing at the ground, curling lips, head shaking, anxiety and circling, but these resolved spontaneously within 30 min of onset. No adverse effects were noted in the dogs. Ions consistent with carboxyterbinafine, n-desmethylterbinafine, hydroxyterbinafine and desmethylhydroxyterbinafine were identified in horse and Greyhound plasma after terbinafine administration. Further studies are needed assessing the safety and efficacy of terbinafine in horses and dogs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Dog Breed Differences in Visual Communication with Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Akitsugu; Romero, Teresa; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Saito, Atsuko; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) have developed a close relationship with humans through the process of domestication. In human-dog interactions, eye contact is a key element of relationship initiation and maintenance. Previous studies have suggested that canine ability to produce human-directed communicative signals is influenced by domestication history, from wolves to dogs, as well as by recent breed selection for particular working purposes. To test the genetic basis for such abilities in purebred dogs, we examined gazing behavior towards humans using two types of behavioral experiments: the 'visual contact task' and the 'unsolvable task'. A total of 125 dogs participated in the study. Based on the genetic relatedness among breeds subjects were classified into five breed groups: Ancient, Herding, Hunting, Retriever-Mastiff and Working). We found that it took longer time for Ancient breeds to make an eye-contact with humans, and that they gazed at humans for shorter periods of time than any other breed group in the unsolvable situation. Our findings suggest that spontaneous gaze behavior towards humans is associated with genetic similarity to wolves rather than with recent selective pressure to create particular working breeds.

  10. Cystic meningiomas in 2 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, R.S.; Kornegay, J.N.; Lane, S.B.; Thrall, D.L.; Page, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Two dogs with signs of forebrain disease had hypodense lesions on computed tomography evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the first dog showed a hypointense lesion on the T1-weighted scan and a hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted scanning. At surgery, both dogs had a primary cystic intracranial lesion, and the abnormal tissue adjacent to the cyst had histological features of meningioma. Each dog underwent whole brain irradiation after surgery, and 1 dog lived for 3 years after treatment. While uncommon, meningioma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with cystic intracranial lesions

  11. Swimming in air-breathing fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, S; Domenici, P; McKenzie, D J

    2014-03-01

    Fishes with bimodal respiration differ in the extent of their reliance on air breathing to support aerobic metabolism, which is reflected in their lifestyles and ecologies. Many freshwater species undertake seasonal and reproductive migrations that presumably involve sustained aerobic exercise. In the six species studied to date, aerobic exercise in swim flumes stimulated air-breathing behaviour, and there is evidence that surfacing frequency and oxygen uptake from air show an exponential increase with increasing swimming speed. In some species, this was associated with an increase in the proportion of aerobic metabolism met by aerial respiration, while in others the proportion remained relatively constant. The ecological significance of anaerobic swimming activities, such as sprinting and fast-start manoeuvres during predator-prey interactions, has been little studied in air-breathing fishes. Some species practise air breathing during recovery itself, while others prefer to increase aquatic respiration, possibly to promote branchial ion exchange to restore acid-base balance, and to remain quiescent and avoid being visible to predators. Overall, the diversity of air-breathing fishes is reflected in their swimming physiology as well, and further research is needed to increase the understanding of the differences and the mechanisms through which air breathing is controlled and used during exercise. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  13. Noninvasive work of breathing improves prediction of post-extubation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Michael J; Euliano, Neil R; Martin, A Daniel; Al-Rawas, Nawar; Layon, A Joseph; Gabrielli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    We hypothesized that non-invasively determined work of breathing per minute (WOB(N)/min) (esophageal balloon not required) may be useful for predicting extubation outcome, i.e., appropriate work of breathing values may be associated with extubation success, while inappropriately increased values may be associated with failure. Adult candidates for extubation were divided into a training set (n = 38) to determine threshold values of indices for assessing extubation and a prospective validation set (n = 59) to determine the predictive power of the threshold values for patients successfully extubated and those who failed extubation. All were evaluated for extubation during a spontaneous breathing trial (5 cmH(2)O pressure support ventilation, 5 cmH(2)O positive end expiratory pressure) using routine clinical practice standards. WOB(N)/min data were blinded to attending physicians. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of all extubation indices were determined. AUC for WOB(N)/min was 0.96 and significantly greater (p indices. WOB(N)/min had a specificity of 0.83, the highest sensitivity at 0.96, positive predictive value at 0.84, and negative predictive value at 0.96 compared to all indices. For 95% of those successfully extubated, WOB(N)/min was ≤10 J/min. WOB(N)/min had the greatest overall predictive accuracy for extubation compared to traditional indices. WOB(N)/min warrants consideration for use in a complementary manner with spontaneous breathing pattern data for predicting extubation outcome.

  14. Reproductive endocrinology of the dog : effects of medical and surgical intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between different reproductive hormones were studied in the dog 1) around the time of ovulation, 2) during spontaneous and aglepristone-induced parturition, 3) before and after gonadectomy in both males and females, and 4) before and after chemical castration with the GnRH-agonist

  15. HYPERTHERMIC ISOLATED REGIONAL PERFUSION WITH CISPLATIN IN THE LOCAL TREATMENT OF SPONTANEOUS CANINE OSTEOSARCOMA - ASSESSMENT OF SHORT-TERM EFFECTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANGINKEL, RJ; HOEKSTRA, HJ; MEUTSTEGE, FJ; OOSTERHUIS, JW; UGES, DRA; KOOPS, HS

    To increase the effect of cisplatin on locoregional osteosarcoma, the short-term effect of hyperthermic isolated regional perfusion (HIRP) with cisplatin (30 mg/L extremity volume) was studied in 28 dogs with spontaneous osteogenic sarcoma, using clinical, radiological, and histological parameters.

  16. A simplified method of walking track analysis to assess short-term locomotor recovery after acute spinal cord injury caused by thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, R B; Oldach, M S; Basso, D M; da Costa, R C; Fisher, L C; Mo, X; Moore, S A

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a simplified method of walking track analysis to assess treatment outcome in canine spinal cord injury. Measurements of stride length (SL) and base of support (BS) were made using a 'finger painting' technique for footprint analysis in all limbs of 20 normal dogs and 27 dogs with 28 episodes of acute thoracolumbar spinal cord injury (SCI) caused by spontaneous intervertebral disc extrusion. Measurements were determined at three separate time points in normal dogs and on days 3, 10 and 30 following decompressive surgery in dogs with SCI. Values for SL, BS and coefficient of variance (COV) for each parameter were compared between groups at each time point. Mean SL was significantly shorter in all four limbs of SCI-affected dogs at days 3, 10, and 30 compared to normal dogs. SL gradually increased toward normal in the 30 days following surgery. As measured by this technique, the COV-SL was significantly higher in SCI-affected dogs than normal dogs in both thoracic limbs (TL) and pelvic limbs (PL) only at day 3 after surgery. BS-TL was significantly wider in SCI-affected dogs at days 3, 10 and 30 following surgery compared to normal dogs. These findings support the use of footprint parameters to compare locomotor differences between normal and SCI-affected dogs, and to assess recovery from SCI. Additionally, our results underscore important changes in TL locomotion in thoracolumbar SCI-affected dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The sedative and behavioral effects of nalbuphine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patrick A; Gaynor, James S; Hellyer, Peter W; Mama, Khursheed; Wagner, Ann E

    2003-07-01

    We compared the degree of sedation and frequency and intensity of adverse behaviors in dogs associated with nalbuphine when combined with acepromazine or xylazine compared with those of acepromazine or xylazine alone. Twenty-four dogs (13 female, 11 male) undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group NX received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine subcutaneously (s.c.). Group X received 0.5 mg/kg xylazine s.c. Group NA received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. Group A received 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. All dogs received 0.01 mg/kg glycopyrrolate s.c. All doses were administered preoperatively. Preoperative resting measurements of heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and body weight were obtained. Sedation was scored both inside and outside a kennel prior to drug administration and at 10, 20, and 30 min after drug administration. Dogs were assessed for behavioral responses (leg withdrawal, shivering, rigidity, orienting, panting, struggling, vocalization, wide-eyed facial expression, breath holding, salivating, hiding, biting, or requiring a muzzle) during three time periods: placing the dog on the table, clipping and prepping of forelimb, and intravenous catheterization. Postoperative recovery behaviors were scored. Expired halothane concentrations were recorded at 15, 30, and 45 min postinduction. Significant differences occurred in the level of sedation at 30 min between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine or xylazine only compared with dogs receiving acepromazine. There was a significant difference in behavioral scores with respect to leg withdrawal and orienting during clipping/prepping between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine compared with dogs receiving xylazine. The combination of nalbuphine and xylazine is a useful premedicant which provided greater sedation than acepromazine and reduced some anxiety behaviors more than did xylazine alone

  18. Interleukin-6 is increased in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of community-dwelling domestic dogs with acute ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne; Thomsen, Barbara B; Boza-Serrano, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    itself contributes towards the cytokine response. Community-dwelling domestic dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke, and therefore, offer the opportunity to study the cytokine response in a noninvasive set-up. The aims of this study were to investigate cytokine concentrations in plasma...... and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in dogs with acute ischaemic stroke and to search for correlations between infarct volume and cytokine concentrations. Blood and CSF were collected from dogs less than 72 h after a spontaneous ischaemic stroke. Infarct volumes were estimated on MRIs. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL......-10 and tumour necrosis factor in the plasma, CSF and brain homogenates were measured using a canine-specific multiplex immunoassay. IL-6 was significantly increased in plasma (P = 0.04) and CSF (P = 0.04) in stroke dogs compared with healthy controls. The concentrations of other cytokines...

  19. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  20. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  1. Therapeutic percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis in three dogs with extrahepatic biliary obstruction and pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Beth A; Brawer, Robert S; Murtaugh, Robert J; Hackner, Susan G

    2005-12-01

    Three dogs were examined because of acute pancreatitis. In all 3, distension of the gallbladder was seen ultrasonographically, and extrahepatic biliary tract obstruction (EHBO) was diagnosed on the basis of ultrasonographic findings and serum biochemical abnormalities (i.e., high serum bilirubin and cholesterol concentrations and increased hepatic enzyme activities). In all 3 dogs, percutaneous ultrasound-guided cholecystocentesis (PUCC) was used to decompress the gallbladder, with cholecystocentesis performed multiple times in 1 dog. Serum bilirubin concentration was substantially decreased following the procedure in all 3 dogs. Two of the 3 dogs did not require surgery to resolve the obstruction. In the third dog, an exploratory laparotomy was performed because of concerns about development of abdominal effusion following the procedure. Bile staining of the mesenteric fat was seen during the laparotomy, but no defect in the gallbladder wall could be identified. In most dogs with EHBO secondary to pancreatitis, the obstruction resolves spontaneously as the acute pancreatitis improves so that surgery is not required. In those few dogs in which EHBO does not resolve or in which EHBO results in complications, therapeutic PUCC may be useful in relieving gallbladder distension.

  2. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  3. In vivo proton MRS of normal pancreas metabolites during breath-holding and free-breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, T.-H.; Jin, E.-H.; Shen, H.; Zhang, Y.; He, W.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To characterize normal pancreas metabolites using in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1 H MRS) at 3 T under conditions of breath-holding and free-breathing. Materials and methods: The pancreases of 32 healthy volunteers were examined using 1 H MRS during breath-holding and free-breathing acquisitions in a single-voxel point-resolved selective spectroscopy sequence (PRESS) technique using a 3 T MRI system. Resonances were compared between paired spectra of the two breathing modes. Furthermore, correlations between lipid (Lip) content and age, body-mass index (BMI), as well as choline (Cho) peak visibility of the normal pancreas were analysed during breath-holding. Results: Twenty-nine pairs of spectra were successfully obtained showing three major resonances, Lip, Cho, cholesterol and the unsaturated parts of the olefinic region of fatty acids (Chol + Unsat). Breath-hold spectra were generally better, with higher signal-to-noise ratios (SNR; Z=–2.646, p = 0.008) and Cho peak visible status (Z=–2.449, p = 0.014). Correlations were significant between spectra acquired by the two breathing modes, especially for Lip height, Lip area, and the area of other peaks at 1.9–4.1 ppm. However, the Lip resonance was significantly different between the spectra of the two breathing modes (p 1 H MRS of the normal pancreas at 3 T is technically feasible and can characterize several metabolites. 1 H MRS during breath-holding acquisition is superior to that during free-breathing acquisition.

  4. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  5. Improving guide dog team play with accessible dog toys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauser, S.; Wakkary, R.L.; Neustaedter, C.

    2014-01-01

    People with vision impairment have been a longstanding well-recognized user group addressed in HCI. Despite the recent interest in studying sighted dog owners and their pets in HCI, there is a noticeable gap in the field with regards to research on visually impaired owners and their dogs (guide dog

  6. Strategies Used by Pet Dogs for Solving Olfaction-Based Problems at Various Distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Polgár

    Full Text Available The olfactory acuity of domestic dogs has been well established through numerous studies on trained canines, however whether untrained dogs spontaneously utilize this ability for problem solving is less clear. In the present paper we report two studies that examine what strategies family dogs use in two types of olfaction-based problems as well as their success at various distances. In Study 1, thirty dogs were tasked with distinguishing a target, either their covered owner (Exp 1 or baited food (Exp 2, from three visually identical choices at distances of 0m (touching distance, 1m, and 3m. There were nine consecutive trials for each target. We found that in Exp 1 the dogs successfully chose their owners over strangers at 0m and 1m, but not at 3m, where they used a win-stay strategy instead. In Exp 2 the dogs were only successful in choosing the baited pot at 0m. They used the win-stay strategy at 1m, but chose randomly at 3m. In Study 2, a different group of dogs was tested with their owners (Exp 1 and baited food (Exp 2 at just the 3m distance with two possible targets in 10-10 trials. In Exp 1 the dogs' overall performance was at chance level; however, when analyzed by trial, we noticed that despite tending to find their owners on the first trial, they generally switched to a win-stay strategy in subsequent trials, only to return to correctly choosing their owners based on olfaction in the later trials. In Exp 2, the dogs chose randomly throughout. We also found that dogs who relied on visual information in the warm-up trials were less successful in the olfaction-based test. Our results suggest that despite their ability to successfully collect information through olfaction, family dogs often prioritize other strategies to solve basic choice tasks.

  7. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... FDA Consumer Health Information Your 9-year old dog has been drinking a lot more lately and ...

  8. Augmented collar for assistance dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Lucidarme , Philippe; Pesty , Sylvie; Duhaut , Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present briefly our reflexion on how to communicate with a dog using embedded devices. We also present the prototype collar we made in order to improve the communication between an assistance dog and his disabled master.

  9. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs.

  10. Chemical sensors for breath gas analysis: the latest developments at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Ulrike; Haick, Hossam

    2014-06-01

    Profiling the body chemistry by means of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the breath opens exciting new avenues in medical diagnostics. Gas sensors could provide ideal platforms for realizing portable, hand-held breath testing devices in the near future. This review summarizes the latest developments and applications in the field of chemical sensors for diagnostic breath testing that were presented at the Breath Analysis Summit 2013 in Wallerfangen, Germany. Considerable progress has been made towards clinically applicable breath testing devices, especially by utilizing chemo-sensitive nanomaterials. Examples of several specialized breath testing applications are presented that are either based on stand-alone nanomaterial-based sensors being highly sensitive and specific to individual breath compounds over others, or on combinations of several highly specific sensors, or on experimental nanomaterial-based sensors arrays. Other interesting approaches include the adaption of a commercially available MOx-based sensor array to indirect breath testing applications, using a sample pre-concentration method, and the development of compact integrated GC-sensor systems. The recent trend towards device integration has led to the development of fully integrated prototypes of point-of-care devices. We describe and compare the performance of several prototypes that are based on different sensing technologies and evaluate their potential as low-cost and readily available next-generation medical devices.

  11. Breath tests: principles, problems, and promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.W.; Carter, E.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    Breath tests rely on the measurement of gases produced in the intestine, absorbed, and expired in the breath. Carbohydrates, such as lactose and sucrose, can be administered in ysiologic doses; if malabsorbed, they will be metabolized to hydrogen by colonic bacteria. Since hydrogen is not produced by human metabolic reactions, a rise in breath hydrogen, as measured by gas chromatography, is evidence of carbohydrate malabsorption. Likewise, a rise in breath hydrogen marks the transit time of nonabsorbable carbohydrates such as lactulose through the small intestine into the colon. Simple end-expiratory interval collection into nonsiliconized vacutainer tubes has made these noninvasive tests quite convenient to perform, but various problems, including changes in stool pH intestinal motility, or metabolic rate, may influence results. Another group of breath tests uses substrates labeled with radioactive or stable isotopes of carbon. Labeled fat substrates such as trioctanoin, tripalmitin, and triolein do not produce the expected rise in labeled breath CO 2 if there is fat malabsorption. Bile acid malabsorption and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth can be measured with labeled cholylglycine or cholyltaurine. Labeled drugs such as aminopyrine, methacetin, and phenacetin can be used as an indication of drug metabolism and liver function. Radioactive substrates have been used to trace metabolic pathways and can be measured by scintillation counters. The availability of nonradioactive stable isotopes has made these ideal for use in children and pregnant women, but the cost of substrates and the mass spectrometers to measure them has so far limited their use to research centers. It is hoped that new techniques of processing and measurement will allow further realization of the exciting potential breath analysis has in a growing list of clinical applications

  12. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x10 9 n/cm 2 s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x10 3 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  13. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  14. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  15. Spontaneous group synchronization of movements and respiratory rhythms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Codrons

    Full Text Available We tested whether pre-assigned arm movements performed in a group setting spontaneously synchronized and whether synchronization extended to heart and respiratory rhythms. We monitored arm movements, respiration and electrocardiogram at rest and during spontaneous, music and metronome-associated arm-swinging. No directions were given on whether or how the arm swinging were to be synchronized between participants or with the external cues. Synchronization within 3 groups of 10 participants studied collectively was compared with pseudo-synchronization of 3 groups of 10 participants that underwent an identical protocol but in an individual setting. Motor synchronization was found to be higher in the collective groups than in the individuals for the metronome-associated condition. On a repetition of the protocol on the following day, motor synchronization in the collective groups extended to the spontaneous, un-cued condition. Breathing was also more synchronized in the collective groups than in the individuals, particularly at rest and in the music-associated condition. Group synchronization occurs without explicit instructions, and involves both movements and respiratory control rhythms.

  16. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal accumulation of air in the ...

  17. The Influence of the Thymine C5 Methyl Group on Spontaneous Base Pair Breathing in DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wärmländer, S.; Šponer, Jiří; Leijon, M.; Šponer, Judit E.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 277, č. 32 (2002), s. 28491-28497 ISSN 0021-9258 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : thymine * DNA * base pairs Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 6.696, year: 2002

  18. Effect of Continuous Promedol Infusion on Recovery of Spontaneous Breathing in Children in the Postoperative Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Zilbert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the impact of correcting immune disorders on the course of the disease in patients with abdominal sepsis. Subjects and methods. Ninety-five patients with abdominal sepsis were examined. APACHE III scores were 25—30. Humoral and cellular immunological parameters were studied in all the patients. The immunotropic drug Galavit was included into the combination treatment of 42 patients. Results. An immunodeficiency state was found in 74 (80% patients. The incorporation of targeted immunotherapy into the package of medical measures activated the immune system of patients and, in a number of cases, could elevate the level of T lymphocytes, reduced the rate of laparostomy wound suppurations by 1.9 times and the number of fatal outcomes by 10.1%. Conclusion. Incorporation of targeted immunotherapy into the package of medical measures activates cellular immunity and tissue regeneration processes and reduces the degree of endogenous intoxication, the rate of laparostomy wound suppurations, and the number of fatal outcomes. Key words: abdominal sepsis, immunomodulation, Galavit.

  19. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Piotti

    Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the

  20. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  1. Ziprasidone-induced spontaneous orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boora, K; Chiappone, K; Dubovsky, S; Xu, J

    2010-06-01

    Neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been associated with sexual dysfunction, including impotence and decreased libido. Spontaneous ejaculation without sexual arousal during typical antipsychotic treatment is a rare condition that has been described with zuclopentixol, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. Here, we are reporting a case of spontaneous orgasm with ziprasidone in a bipolar patient. This patient began to repeatedly experience spontaneous sexual arousal and orgasm, which she had never experienced in the past. Ziprasidone might be causing an increase in sexual orgasm by 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, which preclinical evidence suggests that it facilitates dopamine release in the cortex.

  2. Sudarshan kriya yoga: Breathing for health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer A Zope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breathing techniques are regularly recommended for relaxation, stress management, control of psychophysiological states, and to improve organ function. Yogic breathing, defined as a manipulation of breath movement, has been shown to positively affect immune function, autonomic nervous system imbalances, and psychological or stress-related disorders. The aim of this study was to assess and provide a comprehensive review of the physiological mechanisms, the mind-body connection, and the benefits of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY in a wide range of clinical conditions. Various online databases searched were Medline, Psychinfo, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All the results were carefully screened and articles on SKY were selected. The references from these articles were checked to find any other potentially relevant articles. SKY, a unique yogic breathing practice, involves several types of cyclical breathing patterns, ranging from slow and calming to rapid and stimulating. There is mounting evidence to suggest that SKY can be a beneficial, low-risk, low-cost adjunct to the treatment of stress, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression, stress-related medical illnesses, substance abuse, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

  3. Case report: an electrocardiogram of spontaneous pneumothorax mimicking arm lead reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieters, J Scott; Carlin, Joseph P; Morris, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    There are several previously documented findings for electrocardiograms (ECGs) of spontaneous pneumothorax. These findings include axis deviation, T-wave inversion, and right bundle branch block. When an ECG has the arm leads incorrectly placed, the ECG will display right axis deviation and inversion of the P waves in lead I. There have been no previously published ECGs of spontaneous pneumothorax that have shown the same findings as reversal of the limb leads of an ECG. A possible finding of spontaneous pneumothorax is an identical finding to that of an ECG that has been flagged for limb lead reversal. A patient presented in the emergency setting with acute chest pain and shortness of breath caused by a tension pneumothorax. An ECG was administered; findings indicated reversal of the arm leads (right axis deviation and inverted P waves in lead I), but there was no actual limb lead reversal present. ECG findings resolved upon resolution of the pneumothorax. If a patient presents with chest pain and shortness of breath, and the patient's ECG is flagged for limb lead reversal despite being set up correctly, the physician should raise clinical suspicion for a possible spontaneous pneumothorax. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dog and owner characteristics affecting the dog-owner relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between companion dogs and their owners has important impact on the effect of life for both dog and owner. Identifying factors that affect the dogeowner relationship will assist the understanding of how the successful relationship is achieved and how the less...... successful relationship is mended, with potential benefits for the welfare of both species. In the present study, we investigated the effect of several dog and owner characteristics, including the personality of the dog, on the dogeowner relationship as measured by the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale...... (MDORS). Data were collected by inviting owners of dogs that had been tested on the Danish Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA) to answer an online questionnaire. We were able to match 421 owner answers with their dogs’ DMA test results. The questionnaire consisted of the 28 items of the MDORS, as well...

  5. Relaxin of prostatic origin might be linked to perineal hernia formation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebauer, Gert W; Shibly, Sarina; Seltenhammer, Monika; Pirker, Armin; Brandt, Sabine

    2005-05-01

    Perineal hernia occurs spontaneously in older male dogs after idiopathic weakening of the pelvic diaphragm. Hernias invariably contain cystic paraprostatic tissues. Castration reduces incidence and recurrence after surgical repair. Although cystic prostatic hypertrophy is a consistent feature in patients with perineal hernia, an endocrine link of the disease to steroid sex hormones has not been demonstrated. Employing immunohistochemistry, we found intense relaxin immunoreactivity in dogs with perineal hernia within the epithelia of hypertrophic prostates and in periprostatic tissues. The prostate of normal dogs exhibited similar but less intense relaxin staining. In neutered dogs with prostatic atrophy, relaxin immunostaining was weak or absent. Periprostatic cysts highly expressed relaxin precursors in the fluid phase as shown by SDS-gel electrophoresis. Relaxin of prostatic origin, therefore, is possibly a local factor in connective tissue weakening and subsequently in perineal hernia formation.

  6. Intrathoracic neoplasms in the dog and cat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Very little is known regarding the epidemiology, etiology, and mechanisms of spontaneous intrathoracic neoplasia in companion animals. Much of what we know or suspect about thoracic neoplasia in animals has been extrapolated from experimentally-induced neoplasms. Most studies of thoracic neoplasia have focused on the pathology of primary and metastatic neoplasms of the lung with little attention given to diagnostic and therapeutic considerations. Although the cited incidence rate for primary respiratory tract neoplasia is low, 8.5 cases per 100,000 dogs and 5.5 cases per 100,000 cats, intrathoracic masses often attract attention out of proportion to their actual importance since they are often readily visualized on routine thoracic radiographs.

  7. Centronuclear myopathy in a Border collie dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, S; Cherubini, G B; Shelton, G D

    2012-10-01

    A two-year old, male entire Border collie was presented with a one-year history of exercise-induced collapsing on the pelvic limbs. Physical examination revealed generalised muscle atrophy. Neurological examination supported a generalised neuromuscular disorder. Electromyography revealed spontaneous electrical activity in almost all muscles. Unfixed and formaldehyde-fixed biopsy samples were collected from the triceps brachii, longissimus and vastus lateralis muscles. Histopathological, histochemical and ultrastructural examinations of biopsy specimens were consistent with either centronuclear or myotubular myopathy. The dog clinically improved with supportive treatment with L-carnitine, co-enzyme Q10 and vitamin B compound. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of centronuclear/myotubular myopathy in a Border collie. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. Clinical Applications of CO2 and H2 Breath Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHAO Si-qian;CHEN Bao-jun;LUO Zhi-fu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breath test is non-invasive, high sensitivity and high specificity. In this article, CO2 breath test, H2 breath test and their clinical applications were elaborated. The main applications of CO2 breath test include helicobacter pylori test, liver function detection, gastric emptying test, insulin resistance test, pancreatic exocrine secretion test, etc. H2 breath test can be applied in the diagnosis of lactose malabsorption and detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. With further research, the breath test is expected to be applied in more diseases diagnosis.

  9. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  10. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  11. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  12. Hematome Extra - Dural Rachidien Spontane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl. Gros

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Four personal cases of Spontaneous Spinal Epidurdl Hemerrhage are Reported. And 29 additional cases have been analysed by reviewing the literature. The clinical radiologcal and surgical aspects were discussed.

  13. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  14. 24-hour evaluation of dental plaque bacteria and halitosis after consumption of a single placebo or dental treat by dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeusette, Isabelle C; Román, Aurora Mateo; Torre, Celina; Crusafont, Josep; Sánchez, Nuria; Sánchez, Maria C; Pérez-Salcedo, Leire; Herrera, David

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether consumption of a single dental treat with specific mechanical properties and active ingredients would provide a 24-hour effect on dental plaque bacteria and halitosis in dogs. ANIMALS 10 dogs of various breeds from a privately owned colony that had received routine dental scaling and polishing 4 weeks before the study began. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive 1 placebo or dental treat first. A 4-week washout period was provided, and then dogs received the opposite treatment. Oral plaque and breath samples were collected before and 0.5, 3, 12, and 24 hours after treat consumption. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) concentration was measured in breath samples. Total aerobic, total anaerobic, Porphyromonas gulae, Prevotella intermedia-like, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum bacterial counts (measured via bacterial culture) and total live bacterial counts, total live and dead bacterial counts, and bacterial vitality (measured via quantitative real-time PCR assay) were assessed in plaque samples. RESULTS Compared with placebo treat consumption, dental treat consumption resulted in a significant decrease in breath VSCs concentration and all plaque bacterial counts, without an effect on bacterial vitality. Effects of the dental treat versus the placebo treat persisted for 12 hours for several bacterial counts and for 24 hours for breath VSCs concentration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Although clinical benefits should be investigated in larger scale, longer-term studies, results of this study suggested that feeding the evaluated dental treat may help to decrease oral bacterial growth in dogs for 12 hours and oral malodor for 24 hours. A feeding interval of 12 hours is therefore recommended.

  15. The effect of body position on the 'hanging drop' method for identifying the extradural space in anaesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganobu, Kiyokazu; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of the 'hanging drop method' for identifying the extradural space in anaesthetized dogs positioned in sternal or lateral recumbency. Prospective randomized-experimental study. Seventeen clinically healthy adult dogs, 10 females and seven males weighing 8.4-26.2 kg. Dogs were positioned in either sternal (n = 8) or lateral (n = 9) recumbency under general anaesthesia. A 20 SWG spinal needle pre-filled with 0.9% saline was advanced through the skin into the lumbosacral extradural space and the response of the saline drop recorded, i.e. whether it: 1) was aspirated from the hub into the needle; 2) remained within the hub, or 3) moved synchronously with i) spontaneous respiration, ii) heart beat or iii) manual lung inflation. The position of the needle tip was ultimately determined by positive contrast radiography. One dog positioned in lateral recumbency was excluded from the study because bleeding occurred from the needle hub. Saline was aspirated into the needle in seven of eight dogs held in sternal recumbency but in none of the dogs positioned in lateral recumbency. Accurate needle tip placement in the extradural space was confirmed by positive contrast radiography in all dogs. The 'hanging drop' method, when performed with a spinal needle, appears to be a useful technique for identifying the location of the extradural space in anaesthetized medium-sized dogs positioned in sternal, but not in lateral recumbency. The technique may yield 'false negative' results when performed in dogs positioned in sternal recumbency.

  16. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  17. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  18. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  19. Effect of oxygenation on breath-by-breath response of the genioglossus muscle during occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauda, E B; Carroll, J L; McColley, S; Smith, P L

    1991-10-01

    We investigated the effect of different levels of O2 tension (hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia) on the breath-by-breath onset and peak electromyographic (EMG) activity of the genioglossus (GG) muscle during a five-breath end-expiratory tracheal occlusion of 20- to 30-s duration. GG and diaphragmatic (DIA) EMG activity were measured with needle electrodes in eight anesthetized tracheotomized adult cats. In response to occlusion, the increase in the number of animals with GG EMG activity was different during hypoxia, normoxia, and hyperoxia (P = 0.003, Friedman). During hypoxia, eight of eight of the animals had GG EMG activity by the third occluded effort. In contrast, during normoxia, only four of eight and, during hyperoxia, only three of eight animals had GG EMG activity throughout the entire five-breath occlusion. Similarly, at release of the occlusion, more animals had persistent GG EMG activity on the postocclusion breaths during hypoxia than during normoxia or hyperoxia. Breath-by-breath augmentation of peak amplitude of the GG and DIA EMGs on each occluded effort was accentuated during hypoxia (P less than 0.01) and abolished during hyperoxia (P = 0.10). These results suggest that hypoxemia is a major determinant of the rapidity of onset, magnitude, and sustained activity of upper airway muscles during airway occlusion.

  20. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Medication effects on sleep and breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seda, Gilbert; Tsai, Sheila; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo

    2014-09-01

    Sleep respiration is regulated by circadian, endocrine, mechanical and chemical factors, and characterized by diminished ventilatory drive and changes in Pao2 and Paco2 thresholds. Hypoxemia and hypercapnia are more pronounced during rapid eye movement. Breathing is influenced by sleep stage and airway muscle tone. Patient factors include medical comorbidities and body habitus. Medications partially improve obstructive sleep apnea and stabilize periodic breathing at altitude. Potential adverse consequences of medications include precipitation or worsening of disorders. Risk factors for adverse medication effects include aging, medical disorders, and use of multiple medications that affect respiration. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6 and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7 or severe IBD (n = 7 as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, p<0.001. Proportions of Fusobacteria (p = 0.010, Bacteroidaceae (p = 0.015, Prevotellaceae (p = 0.022, and Clostridiales (p = 0.019 were significantly more abundant in healthy dogs. In contrast, specific bacterial genera within Proteobacteria, including Diaphorobacter (p = 0.044 and Acinetobacter (p = 0.040, were either more abundant or more frequently identified in IBD dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, dogs with spontaneous IBD exhibit alterations in microbial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation.

  3. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  4. Investigation into knowledge about dogs, dog ownership and the behavior of dog owners living in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brengelmann, Nathaly

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find out the level of knowledge of dog owners living in Germany; covering various aspects of dog handling, which personal and social circumstances have influence on this, and in which areas and which groups of people possible knowledge gaps exist. For this purpose, a multiple choice test was developed. This contained eight subject areas: “man-dog-relationship”, “puppy purchase and raising”, “learning behavior and training”, “dog behavior”, “keeping”, “dog and th...

  5. Reactivity of dogs' brain oscillations to visual stimuli measured with non-invasive electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miiamaaria V Kujala

    Full Text Available Studying cognition of domestic dogs has gone through a renaissance within the last decades. However, although the behavioral studies of dogs are beginning to be common in the field of animal cognition, the neural events underlying cognition remain unknown. Here, we employed a non-invasive electroencephalography, with adhesive electrodes attached to the top of the skin, to measure brain activity of from 8 domestic dogs (Canis familiaris while they stayed still to observe photos of dog and human faces. Spontaneous oscillatory activity of the dogs, peaking in the sensors over the parieto-occipital cortex, was suppressed statistically significantly during visual task compared with resting activity at the frequency of 15-30 Hz. Moreover, a stimulus-induced low-frequency (~2-6 Hz suppression locked to the stimulus onset was evident at the frontal sensors, possibly reflecting a motor rhythm guiding the exploratory eye movements. The results suggest task-related reactivity of the macroscopic oscillatory activity in the dog brain. To our knowledge, the study is the first to reveal non-invasively measured reactivity of brain electrophysiological oscillations in healthy dogs, and it has been based purely on positive operant conditional training, without the need for movement restriction or medication.

  6. Nucleosome breathing and remodeling constrain CRISPR-Cas9 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, R Stefan; Jiang, Fuguo; Doudna, Jennifer A; Lim, Wendell A; Narlikar, Geeta J; Almeida, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The CRISPR-Cas9 bacterial surveillance system has become a versatile tool for genome editing and gene regulation in eukaryotic cells, yet how CRISPR-Cas9 contends with the barriers presented by eukaryotic chromatin is poorly understood. Here we investigate how the smallest unit of chromatin, a nucleosome, constrains the activity of the CRISPR-Cas9 system. We find that nucleosomes assembled on native DNA sequences are permissive to Cas9 action. However, the accessibility of nucleosomal DNA to Cas9 is variable over several orders of magnitude depending on dynamic properties of the DNA sequence and the distance of the PAM site from the nucleosome dyad. We further find that chromatin remodeling enzymes stimulate Cas9 activity on nucleosomal templates. Our findings imply that the spontaneous breathing of nucleosomal DNA together with the action of chromatin remodelers allow Cas9 to effectively act on chromatin in vivo. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13450.001 PMID:27130520

  7. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: take a deep breath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. A 40 year old man with a past medical history of intravenous drug abuse presented to the emergency department with difficulty walking and lower extremity weakness. He did admit to recent heroin use. He became somnolent in the ED and was given naloxone. However, he did not improve his level of consciousness sufficiently and was intubated for hypercarbia. The patient was transferred to the MICU and was evaluated for respiratory failure. He later that day passed a spontaneous breathing trial after he awoke and was extubated. However, he was soon thereafter was re-intubated for poor respiratory efforts and a weak cough. With an unexplained etiology for the respiratory failure, CT of the head, MRI of the brain and lab evaluation were pursued but were negative. At that point, a bedside ultrasound of the right hemi-diaphragm in the zone of apposition was obtained and is shown below: Figure 1. Ultrasound of ...

  8. Neosporosis in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  9. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C W [Radiological and Safety Division, Atomic Energy Establishment, Winfrith, Dorchester, Dorset (United Kingdom)

    1963-11-15

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  10. Self contained compressed air breathing apparatus to facilitate personnel decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.W.

    1963-11-01

    This report describes the modification of a Self Contained Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus to provide extended respiratory protection to grossly contaminated personnel during a decontamination period which may exceed the duration of the Breathing Apparatus air supply. (author)

  11. The influence of the duration of the preoperative time spent in the veterinary clinic without the owner on the psychogenic and oxidative stress in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juodžentė, Dalia; Karvelienė, Birutė; Riškevičienė, Vita

    2018-05-21

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the dog's long-term separation from its owner in the novel environment on the occurrence of psychogenic and oxidative stress. Group I dogs (n=9) were brought to the veterinary clinic and stayed in a kennel room for 12 hr before the surgery, and group II dogs (n=9) - for 10 min before the surgery. Physiological parameters (heart rate (HR) (beats/min) and respiratory rate (f R ) (breaths/min)) were measured and blood sampling was done 12 hr before the surgery (T0) for group I dogs and 10 min before the surgery (T1) for both groups dogs. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was determined using spectrophotometer and Rel Assay Diagnostics kits by measuring TAS ant TOS in blood plasma. The cortisol level was measured using AIA-360 Automated Immunoassay Analyzer and ST AIA-pack Cortisol assays. Group I dogs' HR and f R were elevated at T0 and T1, and group II dogs' - at T1 compared to physiological range. OSI and cortisol levels in group I dogs was higher at T1 compared to T0 (P0.05). It might be concluded that dogs' longer stay in the novel environment without the owner induced significant changes in OSI and cortisol level, which could lead to slow wound healing and the occurrence of systemic diseases.

  12. [Death by erotic asphyxiation (breath control play)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madea, Burkhard; Hagemeier, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Most cases of sexual asphyxia are due to autoerotic activity. Asphyxia due to oronasal occlusion is mostly seen in very old or very young victims. Oronasal occlusion is also used in sadomasochistic sexual practices like "breath control play" or "erotic asphyxiation". If life saving time limitations of oronasal occlusion are not observed, conviction for homicide caused by negligence is possible.

  13. Detection of bronchial breathing caused by pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, V; Fachinger, P; Penzel, Th; Koehler, U; von Wichert, P; Vogelmeier, C

    2002-06-01

    The classic auscultation with stethoscope is the established clinical method for the detection of lung diseases. The interpretation of the sounds depends on the experience of the investigating physician. Therefore, a new computer-based method has been developed to classify breath sounds from digital lung sound recordings. Lung sounds of 11 patients with one-sided pneumonia and bronchial breathing were recorded on both the pneumonia side and on contralateral healthy side simultaneously using two microphones. The spectral power for the 300-600 Hz frequency band was computed for four respiratory cycles and normalized. For each breath, the ratio R between the time-segments (duration = 0.1 s) with the highest inspiratory and highest expiratory flow was calculated and averaged. We found significant differences in R between the pneumonia side (R = 1.4 +/- 1.3) and the healthy side (R = 0.5 +/- 0.5; p = 0.003 Wilcoxon-test) of lung. In 218 healthy volunteers we found R = 0.3 +/- 0.2 as a reference-value. The differences of ratio R (delta R) between the pneumonia side and the healthy side (delta R = 1.0 +/- 0.9) were significantly higher compared to follow-up studies after recovery (delta R = 0.0 +/- 0.1, p = 0.005 Wilcoxon-test). The computer based detection of bronchial breathing can be considered useful as part of a quantitative monitoring of patients at risk to develop pneumonia.

  14. CONTINUOUS EXHALED BREATH ANALYSIS ON THE ICU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; Sterk, Peter J.; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    During admittance to the ICU, critically ill patients frequently develop secondary infections and/or multiple organ failure. Continuous monitoring of biological markers is very much needed. This study describes a new method to continuously monitor biomarkers in exhaled breath with an electronic nose.

  15. Practical recommendations for breathing-adapted radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, L.; Giraud, P.; Rosenwald, J.C.; Dumas, J.L.; Lorchel, F.; Marre, D.; Dupont, S.; Varmenot, N.; Ginestet, C.; Caron, J.; Marchesi, V.; Ferreira, I.; Garcia, R.

    2007-01-01

    Respiration-gated radiotherapy offers a significant potential for improvement in the irradiation of tumor sites affected by respiratory motion such as lung, breast and liver tumors. An increased conformality of irradiation fields leading to decreased complications rates of organs at risk (lung, heart) is expected. Respiratory gating is in line with the need for improved precision required by radiotherapy techniques such as 3D conformal radiotherapy or intensity modulated radiotherapy. Reduction of respiratory motion can be achieved by using either breath-hold techniques or respiration synchronized gating techniques. Breath-hold techniques can be achieved with active techniques, in which airflow of the patient is temporarily blocked by a valve, or passive techniques, in which the patient voluntarily holds his/her breath. Synchronized gating techniques use external devices to predict the phase of the respiration cycle while the patient breaths freely. This work summarizes the different experiences of the centers of the STIC 2003 project. It describes the different techniques, gives an overview of the literature and proposes a practice based on our experience. (authors)

  16. A simple, remote, video based breathing monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev, Nir; Wulich, Dov

    2017-07-01

    Breathing monitors have become the all-important cornerstone of a wide variety of commercial and personal safety applications, ranging from elderly care to baby monitoring. Many such monitors exist in the market, some, with vital signs monitoring capabilities, but none remote. This paper presents a simple, yet efficient, real time method of extracting the subject's breathing sinus rhythm. Points of interest are detected on the subject's body, and the corresponding optical flow is estimated and tracked using the well known Lucas-Kanade algorithm on a frame by frame basis. A generalized likelihood ratio test is then utilized on each of the many interest points to detect which is moving in harmonic fashion. Finally, a spectral estimation algorithm based on Pisarenko harmonic decomposition tracks the harmonic frequency in real time, and a fusion maximum likelihood algorithm optimally estimates the breathing rate using all points considered. The results show a maximal error of 1 BPM between the true breathing rate and the algorithm's calculated rate, based on experiments on two babies and three adults.

  17. Breathing easier: Indonesia works towards cleaner air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Michael Amdi

    2015-01-01

    Indonesians can look forward to breathing cleaner air following upcoming changes in regulations introduced as a result of a study conducted using nuclear analytical techniques. Lead pollution and other fine particulate matter in the air is now, for the first time, being accurately monitored and is giving Indonesian officials a good understanding of their air pollution problem and how to manage it.

  18. Multi-layered breathing architectural envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Larsen, Andreas; Foged, Isak Worre; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    A multi layered breathing envelope is developed as a method of natural ventilation. The two main layers consist of mineral wool and air permeable concrete. The mineral wool works as a dynamic insulation and the permeable concrete as a heat recovery system with a high thermal mass for heat storage...

  19. A breath actuated dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hagedoorn, Paul

    2015-01-01

    A breath actuated dry powder inhaler with a single air circulation chamber for de-agglomeration of entrained powdered medicament using the energy of the inspiratory air stream. The chamber has a substantially polygonal sidewall, a plurality of air supply channels entering the chamber substantially

  20. Mitral stenosis in 15 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Ware, W.A.; Bonagura, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Mitral stenosis was diagnosed in 15 young to middle-aged dogs. There were 5 Newfoundlands and 4 bull terriers affected, suggesting a breed predisposition for this disorder. Clinical signs included cough, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and syncope. Soft left apical diastolic murmurs were heard only in 4 dogs, whereas 8 dogs had systolic murmurs characteristic of mitral regurgitation. Left atrial enlargement was the most prominent radiographic feature. Left-sided congestive heart failure was detected by radiographs in 11 dogs within 1 year of diagnosis. Electrocardiographic abnormalities varied among dogs and included atrial and ventricular enlargement, as well as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Abnormalities on M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms included abnormal diastolic motion of the mitral valve characterized by decreased leaflet separation, valve doming, concordant motion of the parietal mitral valve leaflet, and a decreased E-to-F slope. Increased mitral valve inflow velocities and prolonged pressure half-times were detected by Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization, performed in 8 dogs, documented a diastolic pressure gradient between the left atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, or pulmonary artery diastolic pressures and the left ventricular diastolic pressure. Necropsy showed mitral stenosis caused by thickened, fused mitral valve leaflets in 5 dogs and a supramitral ring in another dog. The outcome in affected dogs was poor; 9 of 15 dogs were euthanatized or died by 2 1/2 years of age

  1. The use of active breathing control (ABC) to reduce margin for breathing motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, John W.; Sharpe, Michael B.; Jaffray, David A.; Kini, Vijay R.; Robertson, John M.; Stromberg, Jannifer S.; Martinez, Alavro A.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: For tumors in the thorax and abdomen, reducing the treatment margin for organ motion due to breathing reduces the volume of normal tissues that will be irradiated. A higher dose can be delivered to the target, provided that the risk of marginal misses is not increased. To ensure safe margin reduction, we investigated the feasibility of using active breathing control (ABC) to temporarily immobilize the patient's breathing. Treatment planning and delivery can then be performed at identical ABC conditions with minimal margin for breathing motion. Methods and Materials: An ABC apparatus is constructed consisting of 2 pairs of flow monitor and scissor valve, 1 each to control the inspiration and expiration paths to the patient. The patient breathes through a mouth-piece connected to the ABC apparatus. The respiratory signal is processed continuously, using a personal computer that displays the changing lung volume in real-time. After the patient's breathing pattern becomes stable, the operator activates ABC at a preselected phase in the breathing cycle. Both valves are then closed to immobilize breathing motion. Breathing motion of 12 patients were held with ABC to examine their acceptance of the procedure. The feasibility of applying ABC for treatment was tested in 5 patients by acquiring volumetric scans with a spiral computed tomography (CT) scanner during active breath-hold. Two patients had Hodgkin's disease, 2 had metastatic liver cancer, and 1 had lung cancer. Two intrafraction ABC scans were acquired at the same respiratory phase near the end of normal or deep inspiration. An additional ABC scan near the end of normal expiration was acquired for 2 patients. The ABC scans were also repeated 1 week later for a Hodgkin's patient. In 1 liver patient, ABC scans were acquired at 7 different phases of the breathing cycle to facilitate examination of the liver motion associated with ventilation. Contours of the lungs and livers were outlined when applicable

  2. The Role of Incentive Spirometry in Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribadi, Rabbinu R; Singh, Gurmeet; Rumende, Cleopas M

    2016-01-01

    Pneumothorax is the presence of air in the pleural space. Its management consists of noninvasive and invasive therapies and it is determined based on clinical manifestations, type and size of pneumothorax. We present a case of a patient with diagnosis of primary spontaneous pneumothorax treated with incentive spirometry (noninvasive therapy). A 20 year old man came to respirology clinic with chief complaint of shortness of breath. He was recently diagnosed with left pneumothorax based on previous chest X-ray in another health care facilities and was advised to undergo tube thoracostomy but he refused the procedure. On physical examination, vital signs were normal. Chest X-ray showed 33% of pneumothorax or 1.2 cm. He was asked to perform incentive spirometry therapy at home. During 12 days of therapy, shortness of breath slowly disappeared and on repeated chest X-ray, it showed minimal pneumothorax in the left upper hemithorax. Noninvasive treatment such as incentive spirometry can be considered in patient with minimal symptoms and no signs of life-threatening respiratory distress.

  3. 21 CFR 862.3050 - Breath-alcohol test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breath-alcohol test system. 862.3050 Section 862.3050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....3050 Breath-alcohol test system. (a) Identification. A breath-alcohol test system is a device intened...

  4. 46 CFR 197.340 - Breathing gas supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing gas supply. 197.340 Section 197.340 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.340 Breathing gas supply. (a) A primary breathing gas supply for surface-supplied diving must be sufficient to support the following for the...

  5. 46 CFR 197.312 - Breathing supply hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing supply hoses. 197.312 Section 197.312 Shipping... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.312 Breathing supply hoses. (a) Each breathing supply hose must— (1) Have a maximum working pressure that is equal to or exceeds— (i) The maximum...

  6. 21 CFR 868.5240 - Anesthesia breathing circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Anesthesia breathing circuit. 868.5240 Section 868...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5240 Anesthesia breathing circuit. (a) Identification. An anesthesia breathing circuit is a device that is intended to administer medical gases to a...

  7. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  8. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  9. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  10. Tracing the origin of 'blue Weimaraner' dogs by molecular genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerding, W M; Schreiber, S; Dekomien, G; Epplen, J T

    2011-04-01

    Weimaraner dogs are defined by light brown coat colour termed grey including several shadings ranging from silver and deer to mouse grey. In contrast, the so-called blue Weimaraners (BW) with lightened black-pigmented coat have been proposed to represent spontaneous revertants in the Weimaraner breed. In order to investigate the genetic determinants of the characteristic grey coat colour versus those of BW, known variation in coat colour genes including TYRP1 and MLPH were analysed in a number of grey and blue dogs. Variations at the B locus cause grey coat colour in Weimaraners via two non-functional TYRP1 copies (bb) including the b(s), b(d) and b(c) alleles. In all BW, at least one functional TYRP1 allele (Bb or BB genotype) was identified. Defined microsatellite alleles in TYRP1 intron 4 are linked to this functional B allele in BW. These alleles were also detected in various other dog breeds, but not in grey Weimaraners. The combination of a dominant trait for blue versus grey together with a specific TYRP1 haplotype in BW suggests that blue coat colour is not the result of spontaneous (back-) mutation in grey Weimaraners. This inference is even emphasized by the presence of a unique Y-chomosomal haplotype in a male offspring of the supposed ancestor of the BW population which - according to pedigree information - carries a copy of the original Y chromosome. Thus, molecular genetic analyses of coat colours combined with Y-chromosomal haplotypes allow tracing the origin of atypical dogs in respective canine populations. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  12. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...

  13. Noninvasive measurement of mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension and Bohr's dead space during tidal breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, N G; Latsi, P; Dimitroulis, J; Jordanoglou, B; Gaga, M; Jordanoglou, J

    2001-06-01

    The lack of methodology for measuring the alveolar carbon dioxide tension (PA,CO2) has forced investigators to make several assumptions, such as that PA,CO2 is equal to end-tidal (PET,CO2) and arterial CO2 tension (Pa,CO2). The present study measured the mean PA,CO2 and Bohr's dead space ratio (Bohr's dead space/tidal volume (VD,Bohr/VT)) during tidal breathing. The method used is a new, simple and noninvasive technique, based on the analysis of the expired CO2 volume per breath (VCO2) versus the exhaled VT. This curve was analysed in 21 normal, healthy subjects and 35 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients breathing tidally through a mouthpiece apparatus in the sitting position. It is shown that: 1) PA,CO2 is similar to Pa,CO2 in normal subjects, whilst it is significantly lower than Pa,CO2 in COPD patients; 2) PA,CO2 is significantly higher than PET,CO2 in all subjects, especially in COPD patients; 3) VD,Bohr/VT is increased in COPD patients as compared to normal subjects; and 4) VD,Bohr/VT is lower than the "physiological" dead space ratio (VD,phys/VT) in COPD patients. It is concluded that the expired carbon dioxide versus tidal volume curve is a useful tool for research and clinical work, because it permits the noninvasive and accurate measurement of Bohr's dead space and mean alveolar carbon dioxide tension accurately during spontaneous breathing.

  14. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  15. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  16. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  17. Health care of hunting dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...

  18. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  19. Miastenia gravis diagnostic in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patricia Suraniti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Miastenia Gravis is a neuromuscular disease caused by auto antibodies. Early Clinical and biochemical diagnosis and treatment is demanded in the assurementof quality and time of life in all dogs. In this study we describe the conventional diagnosis methods and therapy in 32 dogs with suspected myasthenia gravis and propose the administration of bromide of piridostigmin as another use full diagnosis method in dogs.

  20. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  1. "... Formanden dog det dobbelte"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, hvorvidt den traditionsbestemte honorargrundsætning i aktieselskaber ”... formanden dog det dobbelte” gennemsyrer både ret- og pligtsiden for formanden, således at forstå, at ikke blot rettighedssiden med retten til honorar og andre goder forøges for en formand, men også...... næppe er urimeligt at genbruge talemåden ”... formanden dog det dobbelte”, her forstået som: en generelt øget ansvarsrisiko, uanset om dette udspringer af ansvarsstandarden, af den bevismæssige nærhed ved beslutningerne eller en kombination af begge disse faktorer. Artiklen foretager en gennemgang af de...

  2. CARDIAC LYMPHOMA IN DOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Cruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma is a lymphoid tumor that originates in hematopoietic organs such as lymph node, spleen or liver. In dogs, the overall prevalence of cardiac tumors was estimated to be only 0.19% based on the results of the survey of a large database, and lymphomas accounts for approximately 2% of all cardiac tumors. In general, the involvement of the myocardium is rarely described in canine lymphoma. Currently, there is no evidence of a viral association with primary cardiac lymphoma in dogs, but other types of immunosuppression may contribute to abnormal events, such as involvement primary cardiac. The aim of this study was to analyze a case of sudden death of a bitch, SRD, aged 10, who had the final diagnosis of cardiac lymphoma.

  3. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  4. Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Associated with Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...

  5. Developing effective animal-assisted intervention programs involving visiting dogs for institutionalized geriatric patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Alessandra; Borgi, Marta; Terranova, Livia; Chiarotti, Flavia; Alleva, Enrico; Cirulli, Francesca

    2012-09-01

    An ever increasing interest in the therapeutic aspects of the human-animal bond has led to a proliferation of animal-assisted interventions (AAI) involving dogs. However, most of these programs lack a solid methodological structure, and basic evaluative research is needed. The purpose of this study was to test the value of dog-assisted interventions as an innovative tool to increase quality of life in the geriatric population. Nineteen patients (men and women) with a mean age of 85 years participated in the study. Interactions between patients and visiting dogs occurred either in a social situation (socialization sessions) or in a therapeutic context (physical therapy sessions). We derived and characterized a specific ethogram of elderly-dog interactions aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of visiting dogs in improving mood, catalyzing social interactions and reducing their everyday apathetic state. Cortisol levels were also measured in the saliva, and depressive state was evaluated. Overall, results show a time-dependent increase in social behaviour and spontaneous interactions with the dogs. Dog-mediated interactions affected the daily increase in cortisol levels, thus having an 'activational effect', in contrast to the apathetic state of institutionalized elderly. Dog-mediated intervention programs appear to be promising tools to improve the social skills and enrich the daily activities of the institutionalized elderly. © 2012 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2012 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  6. Using canine osteosarcoma as a model to assess efficacy of novel therapies: can old dogs teach us new tricks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carlos O

    2014-01-01

    Since its domestication more than 10,000 years ago, the dog has been the animal that most intimately shares our work and homelife. Interestingly, the dog also shares many of our diseases including cancer such as osteosarcoma. Like the human, osteosarcoma is the most common bone malignancy of the dog and death from pulmonary metastasis is the most common outcome. The incidence of this spontaneous bone neoplasm occurs ten times more frequently that it does so in children with about 8,000-10,000 cases estimated to occur in dogs in the USA. Because there is no "standard of care" in veterinary medicine, the dog can also serve us by being a model for this disease in children. Although the most common therapy for the dog with osteosarcoma is amputation followed by chemotherapy, not all owners choose this route. Consequently, novel therapeutic interventions can be attempted in the dog with or without chemotherapy that could not be done in humans with osteosarcoma due to ethical concerns. This chapter will focus on the novel therapies in the dog that have been reported or are in veterinary clinical trials at the author's institution. It is hoped that collaboration between veterinary oncologists and pediatric oncologists will lead to the development of novel therapies for (micro- or macro-) metastatic osteosarcoma that improve survival and might ultimately lead to a cure in both species.

  7. Noise Phobia in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangle

    Full Text Available Fear of thunderstorms and other forms of noise phobia are common problems in dogs. Administering medications along with changing the pet’s environment, and using behavior modification techniques can help ease the fear. Above all, do not give your pet any attention or reward when he is showing signs of fear; this will only reinforce the fearful behavior. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 351-352

  8. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  9. UNDERWATER STROKE KINEMATICS DURING BREATHING AND BREATH-HOLDING FRONT CRAWL SWIMMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nickos Vezos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of breathing on the three - dimensional underwater stroke kinematics of front crawl swimming. Ten female competitive freestyle swimmers participated in the study. Each subject swam a number of front crawl trials of 25 m at a constant speed under breathing and breath-holding conditions. The underwater motion of each subject's right arm was filmed using two S-VHS cameras, operating at 60 Hz, which were positioned behind two underwater viewing windows. The spatial coordinates of selected points were calculated using the DLT procedure with 30 control points and after the digital filtering of the raw data with a cut-off frequency of 6 Hz, the hand's linear displacements and velocities were calculated. The results revealed that breathing caused significantly increases in the stroke duration (t9 = 2.764; p < 0.05, the backward hand displacement relative to the water (t9 = 2.471; p<0.05 and the lateral displacement of the hand in the X - axis during the downsweep (t9 = 2.638; p < 0.05. On the contrary, the peak backward hand velocity during the insweep (t9 = 2.368; p < 0.05 and the displacement of the hand during the push phase (t9 = -2.297; p < 0.05 were greatly reduced when breathing was involved. From the above, it was concluded that breathing action in front crawl swimming caused significant modifications in both the basic stroke parameters and the overall motor pattern were, possibly due to body roll during breathing

  10. Breath Analysis Using Laser Spectroscopic Techniques: Breath Biomarkers, Spectral Fingerprints, and Detection Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeyush Sahay

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Breath analysis, a promising new field of medicine and medical instrumentation, potentially offers noninvasive, real-time, and point-of-care (POC disease diagnostics and metabolic status monitoring. Numerous breath biomarkers have been detected and quantified so far by using the GC-MS technique. Recent advances in laser spectroscopic techniques and laser sources have driven breath analysis to new heights, moving from laboratory research to commercial reality. Laser spectroscopic detection techniques not only have high-sensitivity and high-selectivity, as equivalently offered by the MS-based techniques, but also have the advantageous features of near real-time response, low instrument costs, and POC function. Of the approximately 35 established breath biomarkers, such as acetone, ammonia, carbon dioxide, ethane, methane, and nitric oxide, 14 species in exhaled human breath have been analyzed by high-sensitivity laser spectroscopic techniques, namely, tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS, cavity ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS, integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS, cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (CEAS, cavity leak-out spectroscopy (CALOS, photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS, quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS, and optical frequency comb cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFC-CEAS. Spectral fingerprints of the measured biomarkers span from the UV to the mid-IR spectral regions and the detection limits achieved by the laser techniques range from parts per million to parts per billion levels. Sensors using the laser spectroscopic techniques for a few breath biomarkers, e.g., carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, etc. are commercially available. This review presents an update on the latest developments in laser-based breath analysis.

  11. The detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from patients' breath using canine scent detection: a proof-of-concept study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitiyakara, Taya; Redmond, Susan; Unwanatham, Nattawut; Rattanasiri, Sasivimol; Thakkinstian, Amarin; Tangtawee, Pongsatorn; Mingphruedhi, Somkit; Sobhonslidsuk, Abhasnee; Intaraprasong, Pongphob; Kositchaiwat, Chomsri

    2017-09-13

    Patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have poor outcomes as a result of late detection of the disease. We investigated the possibility of using smell detection by dogs for detecting HCC from the breath of patients. Patients whose diagnosis of HCC was confirmed histologically or radiologically according to the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases criteria had breaths collected using face masks and transported to the study test site. The numbering of the HCC samples was sent in a sealed envelope to blind the dog trainer during testing but allow for correct rewarding of the dog afterwards. One golden retriever was trained to detect HCC with positive feedback using known samples of HCC and healthy controls in a step-wise manner. The controls were selected from hospital staff and relatives of patients who were not involved in the study. They were questioned about the risks of their disease before selection. When the trainer was confident that the dog could recognize the HCC scent, blind testing was performed using 1 HCC : 3 healthy controls per test run. Once the dog signaled on a specimen, it was given a reward. The correct-detection rate was compared to the theoretical detection rate expected based on chance of 25% using the statistical one-sample test of proportions. Thirty-seven HCC patients were tested. The patients had a mean age of 58 years and 21/37 were male. Seventeen patients had hepatitis B and 14 patients had hepatitis C. Twenty-six patients had one HCC lesion; four patients had two lesions in the liver, whilst seven had many lesions. The number of patients in the very early, early, intermediate, advanced, and terminal stages of the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification was 5, 9, 21, 1, and 1, respectively. The dog detected correctly in 29 runs. The sensitivity for canine detection was 78% (95% CI: 62%-90%). Compared to the 25% correct indication expected based on chance, this was statistically significant (p canine olfaction

  12. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  13. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  14. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  15. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  16. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  17. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  18. Thoron-in-breath monitoring at CRNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterman, B.F.

    1985-04-01

    This report contains a description of the thoron-in-breath monitor (TIBM) developed at CRNL. This monitor can be used to estimate the amount of thorium (Th-232 and/or Th-228) in humans. Thoron-in-breath monitoring is based on the fact that thoron (Rn-220) is a decay product of thorium, and hence deposited thorium produces thoron in vivo, a fraction of which will be exhaled. Experiences with the TIBM indicate that the monitoring is easy to perform and the results in terms of contaminated vs uncontaminated subjects can be easily interpreted. Work on relationships between thoron exhaled and deposited thorium and hence between thoron exhaled and dose, is continuing

  19. An exercise in preferential unilateral breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, D.; Tucker, B.; Jenkins, S.; Robinson, P.; Curtin University, Shenton Park, WA

    1999-01-01

    Full text: In preparation for major thoracic surgery, physiotherapists have traditionally taught unilateral breathing exercises. There are no studies that prove that these exercises are effective This study was undertaken to demonstrate the effects of unilateral thoracic expansion exercises (TEE) using 99 Tc m -Technegas Ten physiotherapists were taught unilateral TEE to increase ventilation to the right lower lobe. Each subject underwent two separate Technegas ventilation studies using a single-breath technique, one with normal deep inspiration and the other during a right TEE. Dynamic and static images were acquired in the seated position for each ventilation study. Analysis was undertaken by dividing the lungs into 6 zones of equal height and calculating the relative ventilation of each zone and each lung. Seven subjects (70%) achieved significantly increased ventilation to the right lower zone, while 9 (90%) achieved greater ventilation to the right lung. Total lung ventilation was reduced during right TEE when compared with normal deep inspiration

  20. Weyl magnons in breathing pyrochlore antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fei-Ye; Li, Yao-Dong; Kim, Yong Baek; Balents, Leon; Yu, Yue; Chen, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Frustrated quantum magnets not only provide exotic ground states and unusual magnetic structures, but also support unconventional excitations in many cases. Using a physically relevant spin model for a breathing pyrochlore lattice, we discuss the presence of topological linear band crossings of magnons in antiferromagnets. These are the analogues of Weyl fermions in electronic systems, which we dub Weyl magnons. The bulk Weyl magnon implies the presence of chiral magnon surface states forming arcs at finite energy. We argue that such antiferromagnets present a unique example, in which Weyl points can be manipulated in situ in the laboratory by applied fields. We discuss their appearance specifically in the breathing pyrochlore lattice, and give some general discussion of conditions to find Weyl magnons, and how they may be probed experimentally. Our work may inspire a re-examination of the magnetic excitations in many magnetically ordered systems. PMID:27650053

  1. Universe out of a breathing bubble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guendelman, Eduardo I.; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2008-01-01

    We consider the model of a false-vacuum bubble with a thin wall where the surface energy density is composed of two different components, 'domain-wall' type and 'dust' type, with opposite signs. We find stably oscillating solutions, which we call 'breathing bubbles'. By decay to a lower mass state, such a breathing bubble could become either (i) a child universe or ii) a bubble that 'eats up' the original universe, depending on the sign of the surface energy of the domain-wall component. We also discuss the effect of the finite-thickness corrections to the thin-wall approximation and possible origins of the energy contents of our model

  2. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 ...

  3. A mechanical breathing simulator for respirator test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Mikio; Ikezawa, Yoshio; Yoshida, Yoshikazu

    1976-01-01

    A mechanical breathing simulator has been developed to produce the human respiration for use in respirator test. The respirations were produced through the strokes of piston controlled by a rockerarm with adjustable fulcrum. The respiration rate was governed by motor-speed control, independent of the tidal volume achieved by adjustment of the piston stroke. By the breather, the simulated respirations for work rate 0, 208, 415, 622 and 830 kg-m/min could be produced through the typical dummy head. (auth.)

  4. The experimental modification of sonorous breathing.

    OpenAIRE

    Josephson, S C; Rosen, R C

    1980-01-01

    Loud snoring is a noxious habit and potential personal health risk. We are reporting the first experimental study of simple behavioral techniques for the modification of chronic snoring. Twenty-four volunteers participated in a repeated measures, randomized group design over 2 weeks of intervention and one-month follow-up. Treatment groups included a contingent-awakening and breathing retraining (self-control) condition. Both treatment groups were compared to a no-treatment control. Despite c...

  5. Breathing conditions for animals in radiobiological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.N.; Michael, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    In the course of experiments designed to determine the influence of redox agents on the radiosensitivity of murine normal tissues, an unexpected scatter of data points relating to jejunal crypt regeneration was found in mice irradiated under supposedly air-breathing conditions. One possible explanation for the scatter in the data related to variation in the oxygen tension within the jig at the time of irradiation, and the jig modified accordingly. (author)

  6. Breathing air trailer acceptance test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Report documents compliance with the requirements of specification WHC-S-0251, Rev.0 and ECNs 613530 and 606113. The equipment was tested according to WHC-SD-WM-ATP-104. The equipment tested is a Breathing Air Supply Trailer purchased as a design and fabrication procurement activity. The ATP was written by the Seller and was performed by the Seller with representatives of the Westinghouse Hanford Company witnessing portions of the test at the Seller's location

  7. C-130J Breathing Resistance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    scientific and technical information exchange , and its publication does not constitute the Government’s approval or disapproval of its ideas or findings...regulator and MBU- 20/P oxygen mask, was supplied gaseous Aviators’ Breathing Oxygen (ABO). The regulator was operated in various operating modes, at...Generating System (OBOGS) Laboratory, Area B, Wright-Patterson AFB OH. The CRU-73 oxygen regulator was supplied with 50 pounds/square inch of gaseous

  8. Houses need to breathe--right?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2004-10-01

    Houses need to breathe, but we can no longer leave the important functions associated with ventilation to be met accidentally. A designed ventilation system must be considered as much a part of a home as its heating system. Windows are a key part of that system because they allow a quick increase in ventilation for unusual events, but neither they nor a leaky building shell can be counted on to provide minimum levels.

  9. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  10. Forced Air-Breathing PEMFC Stacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Dhathathreyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Air-breathing fuel cells have a great potential as power sources for various electronic devices. They differ from conventional fuel cells in which the cells take up oxygen from ambient air by active or passive methods. The air flow occurs through the channels due to concentration and temperature gradient between the cell and the ambient conditions. However developing a stack is very difficult as the individual cell performance may not be uniform. In order to make such a system more realistic, an open-cathode forced air-breathing stacks were developed by making appropriate channel dimensions for the air flow for uniform performance in a stack. At CFCT-ARCI (Centre for Fuel Cell Technology-ARC International we have developed forced air-breathing fuel cell stacks with varying capacity ranging from 50 watts to 1500 watts. The performance of the stack was analysed based on the air flow, humidity, stability, and so forth, The major advantage of the system is the reduced number of bipolar plates and thereby reduction in volume and weight. However, the thermal management is a challenge due to the non-availability of sufficient air flow to remove the heat from the system during continuous operation. These results will be discussed in this paper.

  11. Breathing is different in the quantum world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Michael; Bauch, Sebastian; Balzer, Karsten; Henning, Christian; Hochstuhl, David

    2009-11-01

    Interacting classicle particles in a harmonic trap are known to possess a radial collective oscillation -- the breathing mode (BM). In case of Coulomb interaction its frequency is universal -- it is independent of the particle number and system dimensionality [1]. Here we study strongly correlated quantum systems. We report a qualitatively different breathing behavior: a quantum system has two BMs one of which is universal whereas the frequency of the other varies with system dimensionality, the particle spin and the strength of the pair interaction. The results are based on exact solutions of the time-dependent Schr"odinger equation for two particles and on time-dependent many-body results for larger particle numbers. Finally, we discuss experimental ways to excite and measure the breathing frequencies which should give direct access to key properties of trapped particles, including their many-body effects [2]. [4pt] [1] C. Henning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 045002 (2008) [0pt] [2] S. Bauch, K. Balzer, C. Henning, and M. Bonitz, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett., arXiv:0903.1993

  12. Naturally occurring melanomas in dogs as models for non-UV pathways of human melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Marc; Cadieu, Edouard; De Brito, Clotilde; Abadie, Jérôme; Vergier, Béatrice; Devauchelle, Patrick; Degorce, Frédérique; Dréano, Stephane; Primot, Aline; Dorso, Laetitia; Lagadic, Marie; Galibert, Francis; Hédan, Benoit; Galibert, Marie-Dominique; André, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneously occurring melanomas are frequent in dogs. They appear at the same localizations as in humans, i.e. skin, mucosal sites, nail matrix and eyes. They display variable behaviors: tumors at oral localizations are more frequent and aggressive than at other anatomical sites. Interestingly, dog melanomas are associated with strong breed predispositions and overrepresentation of black-coated dogs. Epidemiological analysis of 2350 affected dogs showed that poodles are at high risk of developing oral melanoma, while schnauzers or Beauce shepherds mostly developped cutaneous melanoma. Clinical and histopathological analyses were performed on a cohort of 153 cases with a 4-yr follow-up. Histopathological characterization showed that most canine tumors are intradermal and homologous to human rare morphological melanomas types - 'nevocytoid type' and 'animal type'-. Tumor cDNA sequencing data, obtained from 95 dogs for six genes, relevant to human melanoma classification, detected somatic mutations in oral melanoma, in NRAS and PTEN genes, at human hotspot sites, but not in BRAF. Altogether, these findings support the relevance of the dog model for comparative oncology of melanomas, especially for the elucidation of non-UV induced pathways. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Increased chymase-like activity in a dog with congenital pulmonic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Yoko; Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Orito, Kensuke; Osamura, Kaori; Wakao, Yoshito

    2007-05-01

    This study was intended to compare the tissue chymase-like activity and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the right and left ventricles of a dog with congenital pulmonic stenosis (PS), with normal dogs, and to discuss the potential clinical implications of these findings. Study subjects included a one-year-old Beagle dog with spontaneous PS and six clinically normal Beagles. Chymase-like and ACE activities were determined in all hearts by high pressure liquid chromatography. In the PS dog right ventricular (RV) chymase-like activity (49.79 nmol/min/g tissue) and left ventricular (LV) chymase-like activity (36.85 nmol/min/g tissue) were elevated vs normal Beagle dogs (mean+/-standard deviation, RV: 20.17+/-5.24 nmol/min/g, LV: 19.03+/-3.27 nmol/min/g). Activation of the tissue RAA system was detected in a dog with congenital PS. This interesting finding should be pursued with further studies to validate this result, and to explore whether pharmacological blockade of chymase, or the angiotensin II receptor, represents a useful strategy to prevent myocardial remodeling in this condition.

  14. Osteoarticular sporotrichosis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goad, D.L.; Goad, M.E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Osteoarticular sporotrichosis was diagnosed in a dog referred for evaluation of hindlimb lameness. There was radiographic evidence of osteopenia of the fourth tarsal and proximal aspects of the metatarsal bones. The diagnosis was based on histologic findings and results of physical examination, radiography, fungal culturing, and serologic tests. The dog was treated successfully with ketoconazole for 3 1/2 months

  15. Electroencephalography in dogs with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole; Høgenhaven, H; Flagstad, Annette Borgbjerg

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder.......To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder....

  16. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  17. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  18. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  19. Optimization of sampling parameters for standardized exhaled breath sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Sophie; Romano, Andrea; Hanna, George B

    2017-09-05

    The lack of standardization of breath sampling is a major contributing factor to the poor repeatability of results and hence represents a barrier to the adoption of breath tests in clinical practice. On-line and bag breath sampling have advantages but do not suit multicentre clinical studies whereas storage and robust transport are essential for the conduct of wide-scale studies. Several devices have been developed to control sampling parameters and to concentrate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) onto thermal desorption (TD) tubes and subsequently transport those tubes for laboratory analysis. We conducted three experiments to investigate (i) the fraction of breath sampled (whole vs. lower expiratory exhaled breath); (ii) breath sample volume (125, 250, 500 and 1000ml) and (iii) breath sample flow rate (400, 200, 100 and 50 ml/min). The target VOCs were acetone and potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer belonging to the aldehyde, fatty acids and phenol chemical classes. We also examined the collection execution time and the impact of environmental contamination. The experiments showed that the use of exhaled breath-sampling devices requires the selection of optimum sampling parameters. The increase in sample volume has improved the levels of VOCs detected. However, the influence of the fraction of exhaled breath and the flow rate depends on the target VOCs measured. The concentration of potential volatile biomarkers for oesophago-gastric cancer was not significantly different between the whole and lower airway exhaled breath. While the recovery of phenols and acetone from TD tubes was lower when breath sampling was performed at a higher flow rate, other VOCs were not affected. A dedicated 'clean air supply' overcomes the contamination from ambient air, but the breath collection device itself can be a source of contaminants. In clinical studies using VOCs to diagnose gastro-oesophageal cancer, the optimum parameters are 500mls sample volume

  20. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A; Jacobson, Kristen C

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog's care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners' attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs' attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners' attachments to their dogs.

  1. A village dog is not a stray : human-dog interactions in coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around

  2. Oxygenation of spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achermann, R.E.; Ohlerth, S.M.; Bley, C.R.; Inteeworn, N.; Schaerz, M.; Wergin, M.C.; Kaser-Hotz, B.; Gassmann, M.; Roos, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: tumor oxygenation predicts treatment outcome, and reoxygenation is considered important in the efficacy of fractionated radiation therapy. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to document the changes of the oxygenation status in spontaneous canine tumors during fractionated radiation therapy using polarographic needle electrodes. Material and methods: tumor oxygen partial pressure (pO 2 ) measurements were performed with the eppendorf-pO 2 -Histograph. The measurements were done under general anesthesia, and probe tracks were guided with ultrasound. pO 2 was measured before radiation therapy in all dogs. In patients treated with curative intent, measurements were done sequentially up to eight times (total dose: 45-59.5 Gy). Oxygenation status of the palliative patient group was examined before each fraction of radiation therapy up to five times (total dose: 24-30 Gy). Results: 15/26 tumors had a pretreatment median pO 2 ≤ 10 mmHg. The pO 2 values appeared to be quite variable in individual tumors during fractionated radiation therapy. The pO 2 of initially hypoxic tumors (pretreatment median pO 2 ≤ 10 mmHg) remained unchanged during fractionated radiotherapy, whereas in initially normoxic tumors the pO 2 decreased. Conclusion: hypoxia is common in spontaneous canine tumors, as 57.7% of the recorded values were ≥ 10 mmHg. The data of this study showed that initially hypoxic tumors remained hypoxic, whereas normoxic tumors became more hypoxic. (orig.)

  3. The patient inflating valve in anaesthesia and resuscitation breathing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, P M; Bell, G

    2013-03-01

    Patient inflating valves combined with self-inflating bags are known to all anaesthetists as resuscitation devices and are familiar as components of draw-over anaesthesia systems. Their variants are also commonplace in transfer and home ventilators. However, the many variations in structure and function have led to difficulties in their optimal use, definition and classification. After reviewing the relevant literature, we defined a patient inflating valve as a one-way valve that closes an exit port to enable lung inflation, also permitting exhalation and spontaneous breathing, the actions being automatic. We present a new classification based on the mechanism of valve opening/closure; namely elastic recoil of a flexible flap/diaphragm, sliding spindle opened by a spring/magnet or a hollow balloon collapsed by external pressure. The evolution of these valves has been driven by the difficulties documented in critical incidents, which we have used along with information from modern International Organization for Standardization standards to identify 13 ideal properties, the top six of which are non-jamming, automatic, no bypass effect, no rebreathing or air entry at patient end, low resistance, robust and easy to service. The Ambu and the Laerdal valves have remained popular due to their simplicity and reliability. Two new alternatives, the Fenton and Diamedica valves, offer the benefits of location away from the patient while retaining a small functional dead space. They also offer the potential for greater use of hybrid continuous flow/draw-over systems that can operate close to atmospheric pressure. The reliable application of positive end-expiratory pressure/continuous positive airway pressure remains a challenge.

  4. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Three related, but separate, studies are in progress. In the first, young adult beagles of both sexes are placed in the γ-ray field, to be kept there for duration of life at one of a number of daily exposure rates. In the second, young adult beagles are exposed in a similar fashion until they have accumulated predetermined amounts of total exposure ranging up to 4000 R, delivered at various daily exposure rates. They are then removed from the radiation field and kept for the rest of their lives to allow development of late effects attributable to radiation exposure. In the third study, pregnant beagles are irradiated, at one of four daily exposure rates, for all or part of their gestation periods, to produce an evaluation of the effects of continuous irradiation in the developing fetus. All of these studies are done by arranging dogs at various distances from a calibrated 60 Co γ-ray source, where they are irradiated during 22 hours of each day. The remaining 2 hours are used for animal care, maintenance, and clinical evaluation of the dogs. The combined results demonstrate that the cellular and organ systems of the dog respond predictably, and in a differential manner, depending on exposure rate. Exposure rates in excess of 17 R/day destroy the blood-cell producing elements of bone marrow and cause death, therefore, within 1 to 2 months. Minimally sublethal exposure rates to bone marrow (5-17 R/day), however, produce a very high (50-75 percent) incidence of anemia or myeloid leukemia. Furthermore, at exposure rates of 5 R/day or below, bone marrow appears to function in an essentially normal fashion, and causes of death appear, from preliminary data, to be related to degenerative disease and malignancies of other tissues

  5. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog?s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  6. Going to the dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses the fourth detective novel by Julian Barnes «Going to the Dogs» written under an assumed name Dan Kavanagh. Appealing to the genre of classic English detective fiction, Barnes proceedes with the veiled experiments with genre. Furthermore the author manages with the canonical elements of the comprised «formula» of English detective fiction in a postmodern way, which in the atmosphere of questionable morality and overall criminal setting of London at the end of the XXth cen...

  7. Public Perceptions of Service Dogs, Emotional Support Dogs, and Therapy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Hellyer, Peter; Cheung, Louana; Kogan, Lori

    2017-06-15

    As service dogs, emotional support dogs, and therapy dogs have become more prevalent in the USA, so too has the controversy surrounding their legitimacy. Yet, there is a lack of objective data regarding the public's understanding of the role played by each of these types of animals, as well as their perceptions regarding the legitimacy of their integration. An anonymous, online survey was distributed to examine the perceptions of US adults who do not own any type of assistance animal. A total of 505 individuals responded to the online survey, yielding 284 usable responses. Results suggest widespread misconceptions about definitions, rules, regulations, and rights associated with each type of assistance dog. In general, service dogs are more likely to be perceived as helping with a legitimate need, and their access to public spaces is viewed favorably. While there are some concerns about the legitimacy and necessary access rights for emotional support dogs, members of the public correctly identified the roles and rights of therapy dogs. Despite the media's focus on abuses and false representation of these dogs, most participants reported feeling the majority of people are not taking advantage of the system.

  8. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  9. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  10. New breathing functions for the transverse breathing crack of the cracked rotor system: Approach for critical and subcritical harmonic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shudeifat, Mohammad A.; Butcher, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    The actual breathing mechanism of the transverse breathing crack in the cracked rotor system that appears due to the shaft weight is addressed here. As a result, the correct time-varying area moments of inertia for the cracked element cross-section during shaft rotation are also determined. Hence, two new breathing functions are identified to represent the actual breathing effect on the cracked element stiffness matrix. The new breathing functions are used in formulating the time-varying finite element stiffness matrix of the cracked element. The finite element equations of motion are then formulated for the cracked rotor system and solved via harmonic balance method for response, whirl orbits and the shift in the critical and subcritical speeds. The analytical results of this approach are compared with some previously published results obtained using approximate formulas for the breathing mechanism. The comparison shows that the previously used breathing function is a weak model for the breathing mechanism in the cracked rotor even for small crack depths. The new breathing functions give more accurate results for the dynamic behavior of the cracked rotor system for a wide range of the crack depths. The current approach is found to be efficient for crack detection since the critical and subcritical shaft speeds, the unique vibration signature in the neighborhood of the subcritical speeds and the sensitivity to the unbalance force direction all together can be utilized to detect the breathing crack before further damage occurs.

  11. Regression of a vaginal leiomyoma after ovariohysterectomy in a dog: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, Suresh; Linn, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    An 11 yr old female mixed-breed Siberian husky was presented with a history of sanguineous vaginal discharge, swelling of the perineal area, decreased appetite, and lethargy. A single, large vaginal leiomyoma and multiple mammary tumors were diagnosed. Mastectomy and ovariohysterectomy were performed. The vaginal leiomyoma regressed completely after ovariohysterectomy. This is the first reported case of spontaneous regression of a vaginal leiomyoma after ovariohysterectomy in a dog.

  12. Pollen Allergies in Humans and their Dogs, Cats and Horses: Differences and Similarities

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Einhorn, Lukas; Herrmann, Ina; Thalhammer, Johann G; Panakova, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Both humans and their most important domestic animals harbor IgE and a similar IgE receptor repertoire and expression pattern. The same cell types are also involved in the triggering or regulation of allergies, such as mast cells, eosinophils or T-regulatory cells. Translational clinical studies in domestic animals could therefore help cure animal allergies and at the same time gather knowledge relevant to human patients. Dogs, cats and horses may spontaneously and to different extents develo...

  13. Reproductive endocrinology of the dog : effects of medical and surgical intervention

    OpenAIRE

    de Gier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Relationships between different reproductive hormones were studied in the dog 1) around the time of ovulation, 2) during spontaneous and aglepristone-induced parturition, 3) before and after gonadectomy in both males and females, and 4) before and after chemical castration with the GnRH-agonist deslorelin in males. Additionally, the effect of trilostane, a competitive inhibitor of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, on progesterone production was studied. The most important conclusions from thes...

  14. Svetlana Suktueva, The Dog in Kalmyk Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Terbish, Baasanjav

    2015-01-01

    If a dog comes to your house, it is forbidden to chase it away or kill it. There is a belief that such dogs are the reincarnation of your ancestors. Such dogs should be fed and taken care of. The Kalmyks are superstitious about dogs. In Kalmykia there are three types of dog, (1) barg noha or watchdogs, (2) shurg noha or hounds, and (3) gavsh noha or mongrels. Watchdogs are considered to be helpers of herders. These dogs are also referred to as ‘dogs with 4 eyes’ (because they have spots abov...

  15. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  16. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  17. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  18. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  19. Pulse-mediated chemotherapy enhances local control and survival in a spontaneous canine model of primary mucosal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Vincenzi, Bruno; Onori, Nicoletta; Citro, Gennaro; Baldi, Alfonso

    2006-02-01

    Mucosal melanomas account for 1% of all malignant melanomas in humans. Treatment options include surgery, chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiation therapy; however, local recurrence and distant dissemination are still frequent. We treated locally aggressive spontaneous canine oral melanomas that, because of their advanced stage, were not treatable with conventional strategies. A cohort of 10 dogs with oral melanoma was enrolled over a 4-year period. The dogs received two sessions of local bleomycin, followed by the application of trains of biphasic pulses. The treatment was well tolerated and resulted in an overall response rate of 80% with 50% long-term control. Of interest, only one of the dogs died of metastatic disease, and four of the long-term survivors showed a vitiligo-like discoloration at the site of treatment, potentially suggesting a recruitment of the immune system by the therapy. Further studies are needed to characterize this approach and to determine its suitability for head and neck mucosal melanoma.

  20. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  1. Spontaneous Scalarization: Dead or Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis; Gerosa, Davide; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Macedo, Caio; Okada da Silva, Hector; Pani, Paolo; Sotani, Hajime; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In 1993, Damour and Esposito-Farese showed that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass weak-field gravitational tests and exhibit nonperturbative strong-field deviations away from General Relativity in systems involving neutron stars. These deviations are possible in the presence of ``spontaneous scalarization,'' a phase transition similar in nature to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. More than twenty years after the original proposal, binary pulsar experiments have severely constrained the possibility of spontaneous scalarization occurring in nature. I will show that these experimental constraints have important implications for the torsional oscillation frequencies of neutron stars and for the so-called ``I-Love-Q'' relations in scalar-tensor theories. I will also argue that there is still hope to observe strong scalarization effects, despite the strong experimental bounds on the original mechanism. In particular, I will discuss two mechanisms that could produce strong scalarization in neutron stars: anisotropy and multiscalarization. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award PHY-1055103.

  2. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  3. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  4. Sleep-disordered breathing and mortality: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Naresh M Punjabi; Brian S Caffo; James L Goodwin; Daniel J Gottlieb; Anne B Newman; George T O'Connor; David M Rapoport; Susan Redline; Helaine E Resnick; John A Robbins; Eyal Shahar; Mark L Unruh; Jonathan M Samet

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background About 1 in 10 women and 1 in 4 men have a chronic condition called sleep-disordered breathing although most are unaware of their problem. Sleep-disordered breathing, which is commonest in middle-aged and elderly people, is characterized by numerous, brief (10 second or so) interruptions of breathing during sleep. These interruptions, which usually occur when relaxation of the upper airway muscles decreases airflow, lower the level of oxygen in the blood and, as a r...

  5. Apparatus and method for monitoring breath acetone and diabetic diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yixiang [Los Alamos, NM; Cao, Wenqing [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and method for monitoring diabetes through breath acetone detection and quantitation employs a microplasma source in combination with a spectrometer. The microplasma source provides sufficient energy to produce excited acetone fragments from the breath gas that emit light. The emitted light is sent to the spectrometer, which generates an emission spectrum that is used to detect and quantify acetone in the breath gas.

  6. Concurrent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis in Boxer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachid, Milene A; Demaula, Christopher D; Scott, Danny W; Miller, William H; Senter, David A; Myers, Sherry

    2003-06-01

    Recurrent or persistent follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis are described in nine Boxers. Data on age, sex, seasonality of alopecia and histopathological features of the follicular dysplasia in these nine Boxers are comparable with those described in previous reports. The interface dermatitis was characterized by multifocal annular crusted lesions confined to the areas of follicular dysplasia. The inflammatory lesions were neither pruritic nor painful and affected dogs were otherwise healthy. Histopathologically the clinically inflammatory lesions were characterized as an interface dermatitis. Immunohistochemical studies failed to demonstrate immunoglobulins or complement at the basement membrane zone or within blood vessel walls. In dogs with recurrent or persistent disease, the follicular dysplasia and interface dermatitis ran identical, concurrent courses of spontaneous remission and recurrence, or persistence, respectively. One dog with persistent disease was treated successfully with tetracycline and niacinamide for the interface dermatitis, and melatonin for the follicular dysplasia. Although the aetiopathogenesis of this newly described condition and the relationship between the two histological reaction patterns are not known, photoperiod and genetic predisposition appear to play a role.

  7. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, Fabricio; Freidin, Esteban; Putrino, Natalia; Shimabukuro, Carolina; Casanave, Emma; Bentosela, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it) and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it). Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3). In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments.

  8. Dog's discrimination of human selfish and generous attitudes: the role of individual recognition, experience, and experimenters' gender.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Carballo

    Full Text Available Discrimination of and memory for others' generous and selfish behaviors could be adaptive abilities in social animals. Dogs have seemingly expressed such skills in both direct and indirect interactions with humans. However, recent studies suggest that their capacity may rely on cues other than people's individual characteristics, such as the place where the person stands. Thus, the conditions under which dogs recognize individual humans when solving cooperative tasks still remains unclear. With the aim of contributing to this problem, we made dogs interact with two human experimenters, one generous (pointed towards the food, gave ostensive cues, and allowed the dog to eat it and the other selfish (pointed towards the food, but ate it before the dog could have it. Then subjects could choose between them (studies 1-3. In study 1, dogs took several training trials to learn the discrimination between the generous and the selfish experimenters when both were of the same gender. In study 2, the discrimination was learned faster when the experimenters were of different gender as evidenced both by dogs' latencies to approach the bowl in training trials as well as by their choices in preference tests. Nevertheless, dogs did not get confused by gender when the experimenters were changed in between the training and the choice phase in study 3. We conclude that dogs spontaneously used human gender as a cue to discriminate between more and less cooperative experimenters. They also relied on some other personal feature which let them avoid being confused by gender when demonstrators were changed. We discuss these results in terms of dogs' ability to recognize individuals and the potential advantage of this skill for their lives in human environments.

  9. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Lombard, L.S.; Poole, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is measurement of the late effects of low doses of ionizing radiation in a large, relatively long-lived animal, the dog, to aid in assessing hazards and understanding mechanisms of radiaton damage in man. Young adult beagles are given whole-body exposures to protracted irradiation (22 hours/day, 7 days/week) from 60 Co gamma ray sources. They are exposed: (1) until they die; or (2) until they accumulate predetermined total doses of irradiation. The dogs are monitored regularly by clinical, hematological, and pathological examinations. End points determined are times to death (life shortening), causes of death, and characterization of all pathological processes. Monitoring of the hematopoietic system is emphasized because of the importance of myelogenous leukemia and related myeloproliferative disorders as shown by data in other experimental species and in man. Earlier exposures, given continuously until death or terminated at predetermined total ic fields associated with energy transmission. Proteins in human urine and selected tissues are examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis to detect disease and pollutant related changes. Assessment of human risk associated with nuclearing collective dose commitment will result in more attention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  10. Clinical and immunological responses of dust mite sensitive, atopic dogs to treatment with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBoer, Douglas J; Verbrugge, Maria; Morris, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been reported to be beneficial in people with atopic dermatitis (AD) and dust mite sensitivity. Evaluation of this therapy has not been reported in spontaneous canine AD. The objective of this study was to preliminarily evaluate the effectiveness of an established SLIT protocol, as used in human patients, in dogs with AD. Ten dust mite sensitive dogs with spontaneous AD. Dogs underwent a 6 month open trial of SLIT concurrently with decreasing dose oral methylprednisolone. Clinical evaluations and quantitative serum anti-mite IgE and IgG levels were performed every 2 months. Mean methylprednisolone use from the first 2 months of the study to the final 2 months declined from 10.2 to 4.3 mg/kg/2 months (P test); at 6 months, four dogs required no oral corticosteroid administration. Over the course of the study, median Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI)-03 scores declined from 76.5 to 59; median pruritus scores declined from 65 to 37 (P Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Pre- and post-SLIT intradermal test scores for mite allergen were not significantly different over time. Median Dermatophagoides farinae (DF)-specific IgE levels declined significantly from 150.2 × 10(3) AU/mL to 3.6 × 10(3) AU/mL (P Wilcoxon signed-rank tests). SLIT treatment produced clinical improvement in dogs with dust mite-associated AD and was associated with serological changes supporting this improvement. Further studies in larger numbers of dogs and those with polysensitization are warranted. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  11. "She's a dog at the end of the day": Guide dog owners' perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Craigon

    Full Text Available A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles

  12. Effects of tidal volume on work of breathing during lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallet, Richard H; Campbell, Andre R; Dicker, Rochelle A; Katz, Jeffrey A; Mackersie, Robert C

    2006-01-01

    To assess the effects of step-changes in tidal volume on work of breathing during lung-protective ventilation in patients with acute lung injury (ALI) or the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Prospective, nonconsecutive patients with ALI/ARDS. Adult surgical, trauma, and medical intensive care units at a major inner-city, university-affiliated hospital. Ten patients with ALI/ARDS managed clinically with lung-protective ventilation. Five patients were ventilated at a progressively smaller tidal volume in 1 mL/kg steps between 8 and 5 mL/kg; five other patients were ventilated at a progressively larger tidal volume from 5 to 8 mL/kg. The volume mode was used with a flow rate of 75 L/min. Minute ventilation was maintained constant at each tidal volume setting. Afterward, patients were placed on continuous positive airway pressure for 1-2 mins to measure their spontaneous tidal volume. Work of breathing and other variables were measured with a pulmonary mechanics monitor (Bicore CP-100). Work of breathing progressively increased (0.86 +/- 0.32, 1.05 +/- 0.40, 1.22 +/- 0.36, and 1.57 +/- 0.43 J/L) at a tidal volume of 8, 7, 6, and 5 mL/kg, respectively. In nine of ten patients there was a strong negative correlation between work of breathing and the ventilator-to-patient tidal volume difference (R = -.75 to -.998). : The ventilator-delivered tidal volume exerts an independent influence on work of breathing during lung-protective ventilation in patients with ALI/ARDS. Patient work of breathing is inversely related to the difference between the ventilator-delivered tidal volume and patient-generated tidal volume during a brief trial of unassisted breathing.

  13. A fibre-optic oxygen sensor for monitoring human breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Rongsheng; Formenti, Federico; Hahn, Clive E W; Farmery, Andrew D; Obeid, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The development and construction of a tapered-tip fibre-optic fluorescence based oxygen sensor is described. The sensor is suitable for fast and real-time monitoring of human breathing. The sensitivity and response time of the oxygen sensor were evaluated in vitro with a gas pressure chamber system, where oxygen partial pressure was rapidly changed between 5 and 15 kPa, and then in vivo in five healthy adult participants who synchronized their breathing to a metronome set at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 breaths min –1 . A Datex Ultima medical gas analyser was used to monitor breathing rate as a comparator. The sensor's response time in vitro was less than 150 ms, which allows accurate continuous measurement of inspired and expired oxygen pressure. Measurements of breathing rate by means of our oxygen sensor and of the Datex Ultima were in strong agreement. The results demonstrate that the device can reliably resolve breathing rates up to 60 breaths min –1 , and that it is a suitable cost-effective alternative for monitoring breathing rates and end-tidal oxygen partial pressure in the clinical setting. The rapid response time of the sensor may allow its use for monitoring rapid breathing rates as occur in children and the newborn. (note)

  14. Progress of air-breathing cathode in microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zejie; Mahadevan, Gurumurthy Dummi; Wu, Yicheng; Zhao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging technology to produce green energy and vanquish the effects of environmental contaminants. Cathodic reactions are vital for high electrical power density generated from MFCs. Recently tremendous attentions were paid towards developing high performance air-breathing cathodes. A typical air-breathing cathode comprises of electrode substrate, catalyst layer, and air-diffusion layer. Prior researches demonstrated that each component influenced the performance of air-breathing cathode MFCs. This review summarized the progress in development of the individual component and elaborated main factors to the performance of air-breathing cathode.

  15. Breathing pattern and head posture: changes in craniocervical angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatucci, A; Raffaeli, F; Mastrovincenzo, M; Luchetta, A; Giannone, A; Ciavarella, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the influence of oral breathing on head posture and to establish possible postural changes observing the variation of craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT between oral breathing subjects and physiological breathing subjects. A cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample included 115 subject, 56 boys and 59 girls, 5-22-year-old. Among these, 80 were classified as oral breathers and 35 as physiological breathers. The diagnosis of oral breathing was carried out thanks to characteristic signs and symptoms evaluated on clinical examination, the analysis of characteristic X-ray images, ENT examination with active anterior rhinomanometric (AAR) test. The structural and postural analysis was carried out, calculating the craniofacial angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT. Both NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT appear to be significantly greater to those observed in physiological breathing patients. This means that patients who tend to breathe through the mouth rather than exclusively through the nose show a reduction of cervical lordosis and a proinclination of the head. Our study confirms that the oral breathing modifies head position. The significant increase of the craniocervical angles NSL/OPT and NSL/CVT in patients with this altered breathing pattern suggests an elevation of the head and a greater extension of the head compared with the cervical spine. So, to correct the breathing pattern early, either during childhood or during adolescence, can lead to a progressive normalization of craniofacial morphology and head posture.

  16. Sports-related lung injury during breath-hold diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mijacika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The number of people practising recreational breath-hold diving is constantly growing, thereby increasing the need for knowledge of the acute and chronic effects such a sport could have on the health of participants. Breath-hold diving is potentially dangerous, mainly because of associated extreme environmental factors such as increased hydrostatic pressure, hypoxia, hypercapnia, hypothermia and strenuous exercise. In this article we focus on the effects of breath-hold diving on pulmonary function. Respiratory symptoms have been reported in almost 25% of breath-hold divers after repetitive diving sessions. Acutely, repetitive breath-hold diving may result in increased transpulmonary capillary pressure, leading to noncardiogenic oedema and/or alveolar haemorrhage. Furthermore, during a breath-hold dive, the chest and lungs are compressed by the increasing pressure of water. Rapid changes in lung air volume during descent or ascent can result in a lung injury known as pulmonary barotrauma. Factors that may influence individual susceptibility to breath-hold diving-induced lung injury range from underlying pulmonary or cardiac dysfunction to genetic predisposition. According to the available data, breath-holding does not result in chronic lung injury. However, studies of large populations of breath-hold divers are necessary to firmly exclude long-term lung damage.

  17. Can resistive breathing injure the lung? Implications for COPD exacerbations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilakopoulos T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Theodoros Vassilakopoulos, Dimitrios Toumpanakis Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Medical School, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece Abstract: In obstructive lung diseases, airway inflammation leads to bronchospasm and thus resistive breathing, especially during exacerbations. This commentary discusses experimental evidence that resistive breathing per se (the mechanical stimulus in the absence of underlying airway inflammation leads to lung injury and inflammation (mechanotransduction. The potential implications of resistive breathing-induced mechanotrasduction in COPD exacerbations are presented along with the available clinical evidence. Keywords: resistive breathing, COPD, mechanotransduction, bronchoconstriction, inflammation

  18. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  19. Exhaled Breath Condensate for Proteomic Biomarker Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean W. Harshman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.

  20. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing reveals bacterial dysbiosis in the duodenum of dogs with idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchodolski, Jan S; Dowd, Scot E; Wilke, Vicky; Steiner, Jörg M; Jergens, Albert E

    2012-01-01

    Canine idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is believed to be caused by a complex interaction of genetic, immunologic, and microbial factors. While mucosa-associated bacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of canine IBD, detailed studies investigating the enteric microbiota using deep sequencing techniques are lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate mucosa-adherent microbiota in the duodenum of dogs with spontaneous idiopathic IBD using 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Biopsy samples of small intestinal mucosa were collected endoscopically from healthy dogs (n = 6) and dogs with moderate IBD (n = 7) or severe IBD (n = 7) as assessed by a clinical disease activity index. Total RNA was extracted from biopsy specimens and 454-pyrosequencing of the 16 S rRNA gene was performed on aliquots of cDNA from each dog. Intestinal inflammation was associated with significant differences in the composition of the intestinal microbiota when compared to healthy dogs. PCoA plots based on the unweighted UniFrac distance metric indicated clustering of samples between healthy dogs and dogs with IBD (ANOSIM, pmicrobial groups, which bear resemblance to dysbiosis reported in humans with chronic intestinal inflammation. These bacterial groups may serve as useful targets for monitoring intestinal inflammation.

  1. Appropriate sample bags and syringes for preserving breath samples in breath odor research : a technical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, E. G.; Tangerman, A.

    It is now generally accepted that the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulfide are the main contributors to halitosis when of oropharyngeal origin. The VSCs hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan are the major causes of bad breath in oral malodour

  2. Fast-starting for a breath: Air breathing in Hoplosternum littorale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domenici, Paolo; Norin, Tommy; Bushnell, Peter G.

    by the fall of a prey item on the water surface, and in tapping motions of goldfish, a behaviour that was interpreted to be food-related. Little is known about C-starts being used outside the context of escaping or feeding. Here, we test the hypothesis that air-breathing fish may use C-starts when gulping air...

  3. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    OpenAIRE

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318...

  4. Sniffer dogs as part of a bimodal bionic research approach to develop a lung cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Enole; Friedel, Godehard; Walles, Thorsten

    2012-05-01

    Lung cancer (LC) continues to represent a heavy burden for health care systems worldwide. Epidemiological studies predict that its role will increase in the near future. While patient prognosis is strongly associated with tumour stage and early detection of disease, no screening test exists so far. It has been suggested that electronic sensor devices, commonly referred to as 'electronic noses', may be applicable to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients and therefore may represent promising screening technologies. However, three decades of research did not bring forward a clinically applicable device. Here, we propose a new research approach by involving specially trained sniffer dogs into research strategies by making use of their ability to identify LC in the breath sample of patients.

  5. Sniffer dogs as part of a bimodal bionic research approach to develop a lung cancer screening†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedeker, Enole; Friedel, Godehard; Walles, Thorsten

    2012-01-01

    Lung cancer (LC) continues to represent a heavy burden for health care systems worldwide. Epidemiological studies predict that its role will increase in the near future. While patient prognosis is strongly associated with tumour stage and early detection of disease, no screening test exists so far. It has been suggested that electronic sensor devices, commonly referred to as ‘electronic noses’, may be applicable to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients and therefore may represent promising screening technologies. However, three decades of research did not bring forward a clinically applicable device. Here, we propose a new research approach by involving specially trained sniffer dogs into research strategies by making use of their ability to identify LC in the breath sample of patients. PMID:22345057

  6. Treatment of a case of tracheal stenosis in a dog with tracheal resection and anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutlu, Z.; Acar, S.E.; Perk, C.

    2003-01-01

    A case of tracheal stenosis in the cervical portion of the trachea was encountered in a 5.5-month-old St. Bernard-Rottweiler cross dog. Breathing difficulty was seen in the clinical examination and presence of an obvious narrowing between the 3rd-5th cervical tracheal rings was determined in the radiological examination. Under general anesthesia the portion with stenosis was resected and the healthy trachea ends were anastomosed using the split cartilage technique. In the postoperative period the breathing difficulty disappeared and there was no development of a new stenosis in the anastomosis region. In the late period check-up the patient was seen to lead a healthy life

  7. Self-disclosure with dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Wilday, Aislinn

    2016-01-01

    There exists an abundance of literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership and the health benefits of self-disclosure however, there has been no research into the potential health benefits of self-disclosure to dogs. This thesis addresses that gap in the literature. Among the literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership there is often a focus on the benefits to people with clinical conditions or living in care facilities – much less investigated are the benefits to ‘normally-fun...

  8. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs. PMID:25685855

  9. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Miller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001 than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05. Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  10. Quantified Dog: Supporting Dog Health through Persuasive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hanell, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    In collaboration with HappyTail, a Swedish company developing a mobile application for dog owners, this qualitative research study examines and identifies important factors, for developers or other stakeholders, to have in mind when developing mobile applications that aim to support dog health. According to behavioural scientists, there needs to be a bridge between health themed mobile applications and behavioural change theories in order to achieve desirable results. Therefore, literature on...

  11. Hypomagnesemia in brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, M S; Hoareau, G L

    2014-01-01

    Brachycephalic dogs are at risk for arterial hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea, which are both associated with chronic magnesium (Mg) depletion. To compare the period prevalence of hypomagnesemia between Boxers and Bulldogs presented to a referral teaching hospital. To screen a group of Bulldogs for evidence of hypomagnesemia, and to obtain pilot data regarding the utility of parenteral Mg tolerance testing (PMgTT) in the diagnosis of whole-body Mg deficiency. Chemistry laboratory submissions were retrospectively analyzed for serum total Mg (tMg) in Boxers and Bulldogs. Prospectively, 16 healthy client-owned Bulldogs were enrolled. Retrospective case study. tMg concentrations were compared between Boxers and Bulldogs. Dogs with low serum albumin or high serum creatinine concentrations were excluded. Prospectively, ionized Mg (iMg), tMg, and arterial blood pressure were measured and iMg-to-tMg ratio (iMg : tMg) was calculated. Parenteral Mg tolerance testing (PMgTT) was performed in 3/16 dogs. In the retrospective study, period prevalence of hypomagnesemia was 4.7% in Boxers and 15% in Bulldogs (P = .02). The risk ratio for hypomagnesemia in Bulldogs was 1.8 when compared to Boxers (CI: 1.3-2.7). In the prospective study, iMg was [median (interquartile)] 0.43 (0.42-0.46) mmol/L (reference range 0.4-0.52), tMg was 1.9 (1.8-1.9) mg/dL (reference range 1.9-2.5). iMg : tMg was [mean (±SD)] 0.59 ± 0.04. Percentage retention after PMgTT were 55%, 95%, and 67%, respectively. Mg deficiency is common in Bulldogs and could contribute to comorbidities often observed in this breed. iMg : tMg and PMgTT might prove helpful in detecting chronic subclinical Mg deficiency. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  12. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Lappas, Andreas S; Tzortzi, Anna S; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC), biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and drugs. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  13. Exhaled Breath Condensate: Technical and Diagnostic Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstathia M. Konstantinidi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the 30-year progress of research on exhaled breath condensate in a disease-based approach. Methods. We searched PubMed/Medline, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: exhaled breath condensate (EBC, biomarkers, pH, asthma, gastroesophageal reflux (GERD, smoking, COPD, lung cancer, NSCLC, mechanical ventilation, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, interstitial lung diseases, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, and drugs. Results. We found 12600 related articles in total in Google Scholar, 1807 in ScienceDirect, and 1081 in PubMed/Medline, published from 1980 to October 2014. 228 original investigation and review articles were eligible. Conclusions. There is rapidly increasing number of innovative articles, covering all the areas of modern respiratory medicine and expanding EBC potential clinical applications to other fields of internal medicine. However, the majority of published papers represent the results of small-scale studies and thus current knowledge must be further evaluated in large cohorts. In regard to the potential clinical use of EBC-analysis, several limitations must be pointed out, including poor reproducibility of biomarkers and absence of large surveys towards determination of reference-normal values. In conclusion, contemporary EBC-analysis is an intriguing achievement, but still in early stage when it comes to its application in clinical practice.

  14. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  15. A fully integrated standalone portable cavity ringdown breath acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Jiang, Chenyu; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Chen, Zhuying; Wang, Zhennan; Kang, Meiling; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-09-01

    Breath analysis is a promising new technique for nonintrusive disease diagnosis and metabolic status monitoring. One challenging issue in using a breath biomarker for potential particular disease screening is to find a quantitative relationship between the concentration of the breath biomarker and clinical diagnostic parameters of the specific disease. In order to address this issue, we need a new instrument that is capable of conducting real-time, online breath analysis with high data throughput, so that a large scale of clinical test (more subjects) can be achieved in a short period of time. In this work, we report a fully integrated, standalone, portable analyzer based on the cavity ringdown spectroscopy technique for near-real time, online breath acetone measurements. The performance of the portable analyzer in measurements of breath acetone was interrogated and validated by using the certificated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results show that this new analyzer is useful for reliable online (online introduction of a breath sample without pre-treatment) breath acetone analysis with high sensitivity (57 ppb) and high data throughput (one data per second). Subsequently, the validated breath analyzer was employed for acetone measurements in 119 human subjects under various situations. The instrument design, packaging, specifications, and future improvements were also described. From an optical ringdown cavity operated by the lab-set electronics reported previously to this fully integrated standalone new instrument, we have enabled a new scientific tool suited for large scales of breath acetone analysis and created an instrument platform that can even be adopted for study of other breath biomarkers by using different lasers and ringdown mirrors covering corresponding spectral fingerprints.

  16. Hyperinflation and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure: less room to breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Bruce P

    2009-01-01

    Clinically, the symptoms and limited exercise capabilities of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) correlate better with changes in lung volumes than with airflow measurements. The realization of the clinical importance of hyperinflation has been overshadowed for decades by the use of forced expiratory volume during 1 s (FEV(1)) and the ratio of the FEV(1) to the forced expiratory vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) to categorize the severity and progression of COPD. Hyperinflation is defined as an elevation in the end-expiratory lung volume or functional residual capacity. When severe hyperinflation encroaches upon inspiratory capacity and limits vital capacity, it results in elevated intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi) that places the diaphragm at a mechanical disadvantage and increases the work of breathing. Severe hyperinflation is the major physiologic cause of the resulting hypercarbic respiratory failure and patients' inability to transition (i.e. wean) from mechanical ventilatory support to spontaneous breathing. This paper reviews the basic physiologic principles of hyperinflation and its clinical manifestations as demonstrated by PEEPi. Also reviewed are the adverse effects of hyperinflation and PEEPi in critically ill patients with COPD, and methods for minimizing or counterbalancing these effects. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Nodular immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis in the trachea of a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besancon, M Faulkner; Stacy, Brian A; Kyles, Andrew E; Moore, Peter F; Vernau, William; Smarick, Sean D; Rasor, Liberty A

    2004-04-15

    A 7-year-old castrated male Miniature Schnauzer was examined because of labored breathing and episodes of respiratory distress that progressed to collapse. On cervical radiographs, a focal soft tissue mass in the caudal cervical portion of the trachea was observed, and during tracheoscopy, a 1 x 1 cm, pedunculated, multinodular, pink, intraluminal mass extending from the dorsal tracheal membrane and obstructing approximately 80% of the tracheal lumen was seen. Tracheal resection and anastomosis was performed to remove the mass, and the dog recovered without complications. On histologic examination, the mass consisted of a large accumulation of homogeneous, faintly fibrillar eosinophilic material admixed with a predominantly plasma cell infiltrate; examination of sections stained with thioflavin T and Congo red stain confirmed that the eosinophilic material was amyloid. A diagnosis of nodular, immunocyte-derived (AL) amyloidosis was made. Seventeen months after surgery, the dog had a relapse of respiratory distress because of an extramedullary plasmacytoma involving the trachea.

  18. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research... dog(s); or (3) Any dog exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior. (c) Methods and period of providing...

  19. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  20. Spontaneous coronary dissection: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Gustavo J. Ventura; Deslandes, Alexandre de O.; Santos, Paulo César de Souza; Cruz, Alexandre de Araújo; Saraiva, Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar o caso de um homem de 62 anos, com quadro de dissecção coronariana espontânea, localizada em 1/3 inicial de coronária circunflexa esquerda, tratado cirurgicamente com revascularização miocárdica. A operação realizada com sucesso demonstra, nesse caso, ser o único meio possível de cura.The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the case of a 62-year-old man, with spontaneous coronary dissection of the left circumflex artery, treated surgically by myocardial ...

  1. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  2. Nonverbal Communication and Human–Dog Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Human–dog interaction relies to a large extent on nonverbal communication, and it is therefore plausible that human sensitivity to nonverbal signals affects interactions between human and dog. Experience with dogs is also likely to influence human–dog interactions, and it has been suggested...... and answered a questionnaire on their experience with dogs. The data obtained were then used to investigate the relationship between experience with dogs and sensitivity to human nonverbal communication. The results did not indicate that experience with dogs improves human nonverbal sensitivity. In study 2, 16...... that it influences human social skills. The present study investigated possible links between human nonverbal sensitivity, experience with dogs, and the quality of human–dog interactions. Two studies are reported. In study 1, 97 veterinary students took a psychometric test assessing human nonverbal sensitivity...

  3. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwankong, N.

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLS) is now recognized as a significant cause of caudal lumbar pain and pelvic limb lameness in dogs. The condition includes lumbosacral intervertebral disc degeneration and protrusion, spondylosis deformans, sclerosis of the vertebral end plates, osteoarthrosis of

  4. The Pathobiology of the Meniscus: A Comparison Between the Human and Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Krupkova

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Serious knee pain and related disability have an annual prevalence of approximately 25% on those over the age of 55 years. As curative treatments for the common knee problems are not available to date, knee pathologies typically progress and often lead to osteoarthritis (OA. While the roles that the meniscus plays in knee biomechanics are well characterized, biological mechanisms underlying meniscus pathophysiology and roles in knee pain and OA progression are not fully clear. Experimental treatments for knee disorders that are successful in animal models often produce unsatisfactory results in humans due to species differences or the inability to fully replicate disease progression in experimental animals. The use of animals with spontaneous knee pathologies, such as dogs, can significantly help addressing this issue. As microscopic and macroscopic anatomy of the canine and human menisci are similar, spontaneous meniscal pathologies in canine patients are thought to be highly relevant for translational medicine. However, it is not clear whether the biomolecular mechanisms of pain, degradation of extracellular matrix, and inflammatory responses are species dependent. The aims of this review are (1 to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the human and canine meniscus, (2 to compare the known signaling pathways involved in spontaneous meniscus pathology between both species, and (3 to assess the relevance of dogs with spontaneous meniscal pathology as a translational model. Understanding these mechanisms in human and canine meniscus can help to advance diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for painful knee disorders and improve clinical decision making.

  5. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Roentgenologic anatomy of dog arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, J.; Hlava, A.; Bavor, J.

    1984-01-01

    In catheter methods in dogs the knowledge of the roentgenologic anatomy of blood vessels is very important. Because of lacking in such roentgenologic anatomic schemes 5 arterial schemes in relation to the skeleton were elaborated. The system of arteries was divided into five regions: chest, head and neck in submentooccipital and lateral projection, abdomen and pelvis. The schemes comprise 75 of the main arteries of the dog. (author)

  7. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  8. Determination of breath acetone in 149 type 2 diabetic patients using a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meixiu; Chen, Zhuying; Gong, Zhiyong; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Jiang, Chenyu; Yuan, Yuan; Wang, Zhennang; Li, Yingxin; Wang, Chuji

    2015-02-01

    Over 90% of diabetic patients have Type 2 diabetes. Although an elevated mean breath acetone concentration has been found to exist in Type 1 diabetes (T1D), information on breath acetone in Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has yet to be obtained. In this study, we first used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to validate a ringdown breath-acetone analyzer based on the cavity-ringdown-spectroscopy technique, through comparing breath acetone concentrations in the range 0.5-2.5 ppm measured using both methods. The linear fitting of R = 0.99 suggests that the acetone concentrations obtained using both methods are consistent with a largest standard deviation of ±0.4 ppm in the lowest concentration of the range. Next, 620 breath samples from 149 T2D patients and 42 healthy subjects were collected and tested using the breath analyzer. Four breath samples were taken from each subject under each of four different conditions: fasting, 2 h post-breakfast, 2 h post-lunch, and 2 h post-dinner. Simultaneous blood glucose levels were also measured using a standard diabetic-management blood-glucose meter. For the 149 T2D subjects, their exhaled breath acetone concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 19.8 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.1-19.8, 0.1-7.1, 0.1-6.3, and 0.1-9.5 ppm, were obtained for the subjects under the four different conditions, respectively. For the 42 healthy subjects, their breath acetone concentration ranged from 0.1 to 2.6 ppm; four different ranges of breath acetone concentration, 0.3-2.6, 0.1-2.6, 0.1-1.7, and 0.3-1.6 ppm, were obtained for the four different conditions. The mean breath acetone concentration of the 149 T2D subjects was determined to be 1.5 ± 1.5 ppm, which was 1.5 times that of 1.0 ± 0.6 ppm for the 42 healthy subjects. No correlation was found between the breath acetone concentration and the blood glucose level of the T2D subjects and the healthy volunteers. This study using a relatively large number of

  9. 21 CFR 868.5260 - Breathing circuit bacterial filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing circuit bacterial filter. 868.5260 Section 868.5260 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... filter. (a) Identification. A breathing circuit bacterial filter is a device that is intended to remove...

  10. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  11. 21 CFR 868.2375 - Breathing frequency monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breathing frequency monitor. 868.2375 Section 868.2375 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Monitoring Devices § 868.2375 Breathing frequency monitor. (a...

  12. The breathtaking truth about breath alcohol readings of zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Mackus, Marlou; van de Loo, Aurora Jae; Garssen, Johan; Scholey, Andrew

    INTRODUCTION: It has been postulated that the hangover state starts when breath alcohol concentration is zero. METHODS: Data from 2 studies that assessed ethanol in breath, blood and urine were compared. RESULTS: The data revealed that ethanol may still be present in the blood and urine during the

  13. Influence of Continuous Table Motion on Patient Breathing Patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbert, Juergen; Baier, Kurt; Richter, Anne; Herrmann, Christian; Ma Lei; Flentje, Michael; Guckenberger, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the influence of continuous table motion on patient breathing patterns for compensation of moving targets by a robotic treatment couch. Methods and Materials: Fifteen volunteers were placed on a robotic treatment couch, and the couch was moved on different breathing-correlated and -uncorrelated trajectories. External abdominal breathing motion of the patients was measured using an infrared camera system. The influence of table motion on breathing range and pattern was analyzed. Results: Continuous table motion was tolerated well by all test persons. Volunteers reacted differently to table motion. Four test persons showed no change of breathing range and pattern. Increased irregular breathing was observed in 4 patients; however, irregularity was not correlated with table motion. Only 4 test persons showed an increase in mean breathing amplitude of more than 2mm during motion of the couch. The mean cycle period decreased by more than 1 s for 2 test persons only. No abrupt changes in amplitude or cycle period could be observed. Conclusions: The observed small changes in breathing patterns support the application of motion compensation by a robotic treatment couch.

  14. Symptoms of Sleep Disordered Breathing and Risk of Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Sofie; Clark, Alice; Salo, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, and altered hormonal levels, all of which could affect the risk of cancer. The aim of the study is to examine if symptoms of SDB including snoring, breathing cessations, and daytime sleepiness affect...

  15. Buster-Jangle Shot Dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.

    1987-01-01

    Shot Dog of the Buster-Jangle Series used a device which had a high-explosive configuration virtually identical to that of the Nagasaki bomb, though with different fissionable components. Dog was detonated at a height of 431.9 m with the mean atmospheric conditions between burst and ground being dry air density 1.027 mg/cc and atmospheric moisture density 0.006 mg/cc. The ground was taken to be that of Nevada test site (NTS) area 9 with a water content of 8% by weight. The yield of the weapon was 21 kt. Results shown here for Buster-Jangle Shot Dog have been scaled from those calculated for Ranger Shot Fox. The design features and burst geometries of the two devices were deemed sufficiently similar to make this substitution in the absence of a radiation leakage spectrum calculated explicitly for Buster-Jangle Shot Dog. However, while the relative atmospheric contents of the two shots were very similar, Shot Fox took place in air of approximately 10% greater density than Shot Dog. Thus, scaled calculated results could not be obtained to compare with the three closest measurement points at Shot Dog

  16. Alopecia areata universalis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginel, Pedro J; Blanco, Beatriz; Pérez-Aranda, María; Zafra, Rafael; Mozos, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Alopecia areata is a T-cell mediated autoimmune disease that occurs in humans and various other mammalian species. When the disease progresses to total alopecia it is defined as alopecia areata universalis (AAU), although this outcome has only been described in humans. To describe a case of canine alopecia areata universalis and its clinical outcome after 22 months of follow-up. A 9-year-old intact male cross-breed hunting dog was presented with generalized and complete noninflammatory alopecia of 12-14 months duration. Clinical examination; histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of skin biopsies. There was loss of all body hair including eyelashes and vibrissae. The histopathological and immunohistochemical findings supported a diagnosis of long-standing alopecia areata. Treatment with oral ciclosporin was associated with hair regrowth but muzzle hair, most eyelashes and whiskers were still lacking after 17 months of therapy. To the best of the author's knowledge this is the first documented case of canine AAU. The clinical and histopathological features were consistent with a diagnosis of AAU as defined in humans. Treatment with oral ciclosporin resulted in near complete resolution of the alopecia, but after 5 months without treatment the alopecia did not relapse and spontaneous resolution cannot be ruled out. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  17. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, M.E.; Kintzer, P.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Becker, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine (/sup 131/I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB/sup 131/I) after /sup 131/I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine (/sup 131/I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each /sup 131/I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis.

  18. Radioactive iodine treatment of a functional thyroid carcinoma producing hyperthyroidism in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, M.E.; Kintzer, P.P.; Hurley, J.R.; Becker, D.V.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive iodine ( 131 I) was used in the treatment of a 12-year-old female dog with hyperthyroidism resulting from a large, unresectable (and metastatic) thyroid carcinoma associated with signs of severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed on the basis of clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, weight loss, nervousness) and high basal serum thyroxine (T4) concentrations, as well as thyroid radioiodine kinetic studies that showed a high radioiodine uptake into the thyroid (% thyroid uptake) and markedly increased serum concentrations of protein-bound iodine-131 (PB 131 I) after 131 I tracer injection. Thyroid imaging revealed diffuse radionuclide accumulation by the tumor, which involved both thyroid lobes. The dog was treated with three large doses of radioiodine ( 131 I), ranging from 60 to 75 mCi, given at intervals of 5 to 7 months. The dog became euthyroid, and the size of the tumor decreased by approximately 25% after each 131 I treatment, improving the severe inspiratory stridor and dyspnea, but both the hyperthyroid state and breathing difficulty recurred within a few months of each treatment. The dog was euthanatized 5 months after the last treatment because of progressive tracheal compression and pulmonary metastasis

  19. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  20. Automated acoustic analysis in detection of spontaneous swallows in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Rajaei, Ali; Derakhshan, Mahmoud; Sadri, Saeed; Taheri, Masoud; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-10-01

    Acoustic monitoring of swallow frequency has become important as the frequency of spontaneous swallowing can be an index for dysphagia and related complications. In addition, it can be employed as an objective quantification of ingestive behavior. Commonly, swallowing complications are manually detected using videofluoroscopy recordings, which require expensive equipment and exposure to radiation. In this study, a noninvasive automated technique is proposed that uses breath and swallowing recordings obtained via a microphone located over the laryngopharynx. Nonlinear diffusion filters were used in which a scale-space decomposition of recorded sound at different levels extract swallows from breath sounds and artifacts. This technique was compared to manual detection of swallows using acoustic signals on a sample of 34 subjects with Parkinson's disease. A speech language pathologist identified five subjects who showed aspiration during the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. The proposed automated method identified swallows with a sensitivity of 86.67 %, a specificity of 77.50 %, and an accuracy of 82.35 %. These results indicate the validity of automated acoustic recognition of swallowing as a fast and efficient approach to objectively estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  1. PET imaging of osteosarcoma in dogs using a fluorine-18-labeled monoclonal antibody fab fragment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, R.L.; Garg, P.K.; Gard, S.

    1994-01-01

    Four dogs with histologically confirmed osteogenic sarcoma were studied with PET following intravenous injection of the 18 F-labeled Fab fragment of TP-3, a monoclonal antibody specific for human and canine osteosarcomas. The antibody fragment was labeled using the N-succinimidyl (8-(4'-( 18 F)fluorobenzyl)amino)suberate acylation agent. Blood clearance of activity was biphasic in all dogs but half-times were variable (T 1/2β = 2-13 hr). Catabolism of labeled Fab was reflected by the decrease in protein-associated activity in serum from more than 90% at 1 min to 60%-80% at 4 hr. PET images demonstrated increased accumulation of 18 F at the primary tumor site relative to normal contralateral bone in one dog as early as 15 min after injection. Biopsies obtained after euthanasia indicated higher uptake at the edges of the tumor as observed on the PET scans. Tumor uptake was 1-3 x 10 -3 % injected dose/g, a level similar to that reported for other Fab fragments in human tumors. In the three dogs with metastatic disease, early PET images reflected activity in the blood pool but later uptake was observed in suspected metastatic sites. These results, although preliminary, suggest that PET imaging of 18 F-labeled antibody fragments is feasible and that dogs with spontaneous tumors could be a valuable model for preclinical research with radioimmunoconjugates. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. PET imaging of osteosarcoma in dogs using a fluorine-18-labeled monoclonal antibody fab fragment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, R.L.; Garg, P.K.; Gard, S. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)]|[Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[North Carolina and Norke Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Four dogs with histologically confirmed osteogenic sarcoma were studied with PET following intravenous injection of the {sup 18}F-labeled Fab fragment of TP-3, a monoclonal antibody specific for human and canine osteosarcomas. The antibody fragment was labeled using the N-succinimidyl (8-(4{prime}-({sup 18}F)fluorobenzyl)amino)suberate acylation agent. Blood clearance of activity was biphasic in all dogs but half-times were variable (T{sub 1/2{beta}} = 2-13 hr). Catabolism of labeled Fab was reflected by the decrease in protein-associated activity in serum from more than 90% at 1 min to 60%-80% at 4 hr. PET images demonstrated increased accumulation of {sup 18}F at the primary tumor site relative to normal contralateral bone in one dog as early as 15 min after injection. Biopsies obtained after euthanasia indicated higher uptake at the edges of the tumor as observed on the PET scans. Tumor uptake was 1-3 x 10{sup -3}% injected dose/g, a level similar to that reported for other Fab fragments in human tumors. In the three dogs with metastatic disease, early PET images reflected activity in the blood pool but later uptake was observed in suspected metastatic sites. These results, although preliminary, suggest that PET imaging of {sup 18}F-labeled antibody fragments is feasible and that dogs with spontaneous tumors could be a valuable model for preclinical research with radioimmunoconjugates. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Radiation-induced emesis in the dog: effects of lesions and drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.O.; Briggs, D.B.; Knox, A.P.; Strominger, N.L.

    1986-01-01

    Dogs exposed to 8 Gy 60 Co gamma mid-abdominal irradiation exhibited emesis with an average latency of 102 min and an average of 7.4 episodes over 96 min. There were no significant changes in dogs subjected to a chronic bilateral subdiaphragmatic vagotomy, but emesis was prevented by ablation of the area postrema. Indomethacin pretreatment also prevented radiation-induced emesis in two of seven dogs and in the remainder reduced the average number of episodes. Domperidone pretreatment prevented radiation-induced emesis in all of four dogs tested. In electrophysiological studies recording from the area postrema the chemosensitive neurons were found to be normally silent in anesthetized preparations but excitable by a variety of emetic agents. After irradiation of the abdomen spontaneously active neurons were found with a discharge pattern that mirrored the behavioral pattern of postirradiation emesis. These studies are consistent with radiation-induced emesis being humorally mediated in the dog and implicate dopamine and/or prostaglandins as possible mediators

  4. Service Dogs in the Perioperative Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Janet A; Chappy, Sharon L

    2017-04-01

    Service dogs are critical for the independence of individuals with disabilities because they assist with daily living activities and help these individuals navigate society. Perioperative nurses need a working knowledge of disability laws pertaining to service dogs to provide patient-centered care for individuals using service dogs. This article provides information on the Americans With Disabilities Act regulations regarding service dogs, makes recommendations for the care of patients with service dogs across the perioperative continuum, and offers policy directives to ensure that safe, high-quality care is delivered to patients using service dogs. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Natural Vibration of a Beam with a Breathing Oblique Crack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijiang Ma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical method is proposed to calculate the natural frequency of a cantilever beam with a breathing oblique crack. A double-linear-springs-model is developed in the modal analysis process to describe the breathing oblique crack, and the breathing behaviour of the oblique crack is objectively simulated. The finite element method (FEM analysis software ABAQUS is used to calculate the geometric correction factors when the cracked plate is subjected to a pure bending moment at different oblique crack angles and relative depths. The Galerkin method is applied to simplify the cracked beam to a single degree of freedom system, allowing the natural frequency of the beam with the breathing oblique crack to be calculated. Compared with the natural frequencies of the breathing oblique cracked beam obtained using the ABAQUS FEM method, the proposed analytical method exhibits a high computational accuracy, with a maximum error of only 4.65%.

  6. ABA-Cloud: support for collaborative breath research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Ludescher, Thomas; King, Julian; Ager, Clemens; Trosin, Michael; Senocak, Uygar; Brezany, Peter; Feilhauer, Thomas; Amann, Anton

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces the advanced breath analysis (ABA) platform, an innovative scientific research platform for the entire breath research domain. Within the ABA project, we are investigating novel data management concepts and semantic web technologies to document breath analysis studies for the long run as well as to enable their full automatic reproducibility. We propose several concept taxonomies (a hierarchical order of terms from a glossary of terms), which can be seen as a first step toward the definition of conceptualized terms commonly used by the international community of breath researchers. They build the basis for the development of an ontology (a concept from computer science used for communication between machines and/or humans and representation and reuse of knowledge) dedicated to breath research.

  7. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  8. Patients' experiences of breathing retraining for asthma: a qualitative process analysis of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Arden-Close, E; Yardley, L; Kirby, S; Thomas, M; Bruton, A

    2017-01-01

    Poor symptom control and impaired quality of life are common in adults with asthma, and breathing retraining exercises may be an effective method of self-management. This study aimed to explore the experiences of participants in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial, which investigated the effectiveness of breathing retraining as a mode of asthma management. Sixteen people with asthma (11 women, 8 per group) who had taken part in the intervention arms of the BREATHE trial (breathing retr...

  9. Aspiration tests in aqueous foam using a breathing simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archuleta, M.M.

    1995-12-01

    Non-toxic aqueous foams are being developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for the National Institute of Justice (NIJ) for use in crowd control, cell extractions, and group disturbances in the criminal justice prison systems. The potential for aspiration of aqueous foam during its use and the resulting adverse effects associated with complete immersion in aqueous foam is of major concern to the NIJ when examining the effectiveness and safety of using this technology as a Less-Than-Lethal weapon. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the maximum quantity of foam that might be aspirated by an individual following total immersion in an SNL-developed aqueous foam. A.T.W. Reed Breathing simulator equipped with a 622 Silverman cam was used to simulate the aspiration of an ammonium laureth sulfate aqueous foam developed by SNL and generated at expansion ratios in the range of 500:1 to 1000:1. Although the natural instinct of an individual immersed in foam is to cover their nose and mouth with a hand or cloth, thus breaking the bubbles and decreasing the potential for aspiration, this study was performed to examine a worst case scenario where mouth breathing only was examined, and no attempt was made to block foam entry into the breathing port. Two breathing rates were examined: one that simulated a sedentary individual with a mean breathing rate of 6.27 breaths/minute, and one that simulated an agitated or heavily breathing individual with a mean breathing rate of 23.7 breaths/minute. The results of this study indicate that, if breathing in aqueous foam without movement, an air pocket forms around the nose and mouth within one minute of immersion.

  10. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  11. Spontaneous pneumothorax in silicotuberculosis of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Vajo, J.; Krchnavy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the case of 62 years old man with the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom the basic pulmonary disease was silicotuberculosis of the lung. At clinic of occupational diseases in Kosice have been evidence 965 cases of silicosis and silicotuberculosis. From 1971 they have now the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax. The authors make discussion about possible mechanical and biochemical factors, which cause relatively low incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis of the lung. (authors)

  12. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Alisdair M; Christie, Michael R; McLaughlin, Kerry A; Syme, Harriet M; Graham, Peter; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH), CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH), CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc) and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD) were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation). Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016). Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037). Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015) and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017) were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  13. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisdair M Boag

    Full Text Available Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS, circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH, CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH, CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation. Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016. Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037. Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015 and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017 were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  14. Sleep disordered breathing following spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Fin; Jennum, Poul; Laub, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) commonly complain about difficulty in sleeping. Although various sleep disordered breathing definitions and indices are used that make comparisons between studies difficult, it seems evident that the frequency of sleep disorders is higher in individuals...... with SCI, especially with regard to obstructive sleep apnea. In addition, there is a correlation between the incidence of sleep disturbances and the spinal cord level injured, age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdominal girth, and use of sedating medications. Regulation of respiration is dependent...... on wakefulness and sleep. Thus, it is important to be aware of basic mechanisms in the regulation and control of sleep and awake states. Supine position decreases the vital capacity in tetraplegic individuals, and diminished responsiveness to Pa(CO)(2) may further decrease ventilatory reserve. There also may...

  15. Sleep disordered breathing in children with achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffanello, Marco; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Piacentini, Giorgio; Gasperi, Emma; Nosetti, Luana; Cavarzere, Paolo; Ramaroli, Diego Alberto; Mittal, Aliza; Antoniazzi, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Children with achondroplasia often have breathing problems, especially during sleep. The most important treatments are adenotonsillectomy (for treating upper obstruction) and/or neurosurgery (for resolving cervicomedullar junction stenosis). We reviewed the scientific literature on polysomnographic investigations which assessed the severity of respiratory disorders during sleep. Recent findings have highlighted the importance of clinical investigations in patients with achondroplasia, differentiating between those that look for neurological patterns and those that look for respiratory problems during sleep. In particular, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and somatosensory evoked potentials are the main tools to evaluate necessary neurosurgery and over myelopathy, respectively. The use of polysomnography enables clinicians to identify children with upper airway obstruction and to quantify disease severity; it is not suitable for MRI and/or neurosurgery considerations.

  16. The breathing mode and the nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.; Grammaticos, B.

    1981-01-01

    The role of nuclear surface in the breathing mode of nuclei is analyzed. We discuss a simple model in which the density varies according to a scaling of the coordinates. We show that this model reproduces accurately the results of microscopic calculations in heavy nuclei, and we use it to estimate the contribution of the surface to the effective compression modulus of semi-infinite nuclear matter. The calculation is performed in the framework of an extended Thomas-Fermi approximation and using several effective interactions. It is shown that the surface energy is maximum with respect to variations of the density around saturation density. The reduction of the effective compression modulus due to the surface turns to be proportional to the bulk compression modulus. The magnitude of the effect is compared with results of RPA calculations. Other contributions to the effective compressions modulus of finite nuclei are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  18. Particle transport in breathing quantum graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrasulov, D.U.; Yusupov, J.R.; Sabirov, K.K.; Sobirov, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Particle transport in nanoscale networks and discrete structures is of fundamental and practical importance. Usually such systems are modeled by so-called quantum graphs, the systems attracting much attention in physics and mathematics during past two decades [1-5]. During last two decades quantum graphs found numerous applications in modeling different discrete structures and networks in nanoscale and mesoscopic physics (e.g., see reviews [1-3]). Despite considerable progress made in the study of particle dynamics most of the problems deal with unperturbed case and the case of time-dependent perturbation has not yet be explored. In this work we treat particle dynamics for quantum star graph with time-dependent bonds. In particular, we consider harmonically breathing quantum star graphs, the cases of monotonically contracting and expanding graphs. The latter can be solved exactly analytically. Edge boundaries are considered to be time-dependent, while branching point is assumed to be fixed. Quantum dynamics of a particle in such graphs is studied by solving Schrodinger equation with time-dependent boundary conditions given on a star graph. Time-dependence of the average kinetic energy is analyzed. Space-time evolution of the Gaussian wave packet is treated for harmonically breathing star graph. It is found that for certain frequencies energy is a periodic function of time, while for others it can be non-monotonically growing function of time. Such a feature can be caused by possible synchronization of the particles motion and the motions of the moving edges of graph bonds. (authors) References: [1] Tsampikos Kottos and Uzy Smilansky, Ann. Phys., 76, 274 (1999). [2] Sven Gnutzmann and Uzy Smilansky, Adv. Phys. 55, 527 (2006). [3] S. GnutzmannJ.P. Keating, F. Piotet, Ann. Phys., 325, 2595 (2010). [4] P.Exner, P.Seba, P.Stovicek, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 21, 4009 (1988). [5] J. Boman, P. Kurasov, Adv. Appl. Math., 35, 58 (2005)

  19. Oral breathing: new early treatment protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Denotti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral breathing is a respiratory dysfunction that affects approximately 10-15% of child population. It is responsable of local effects and systemic effects, both immediate and long-term. They affect the growth of the subject and his physical health in many ways: pediatric, psycho-behavioral and cognitive. The etiology is multifactorial. It’s important the establishment of a vicious circle involving more areas and it is essential to stop it as soon as possible. In order to correct this anomaly, the pediatric dentist must be able to make a correct diagnosis to treat early the disfunction and to avoid the onset of cascade mechanisms. Who plays a central role is the pediatrician who first and frequently come into contact with little patients. He can identify the anomalies, and therefore collaborate with other specialists, including the dentist. The key aspect that guides us in the diagnosis, and allows us to identify the oral respirator, is the “adenoid facies”. The purpose of the study is to highlight the importance and benefits of an early and multidisciplinary intervention (pediatric, orthopedic-orthodontic-functional. A sample of 20 patients was selected with the following inclusion criteria: mouth breathing, transverse discrepancy > 4 mm, early mixed dentition, central and lateral permenent incisors, overjet increased, lip and nasal incompetence, snoring and/or sleep apnea episodes. The protocol of intervention includes the use of the following devices and procedures: a maxillary rapid expander (to correct the transverse discrepancy, to increase the amplitude of the upper respiratory airway and to reduce nasal resistances tract in association with myo-functional devices (nasal stimulator and oral obturator. They allow the reconstruction of a physiological balance between the perioral musculature and tongue, the acquisition of nasal and lips competence and the reduction of overjet. This protocol speeds up and stabilizes the results. The

  20. Breathing and Singing: Objective Characterization of Breathing Patterns in Classical Singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomoni, Sauro; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Singing involves distinct respiratory kinematics (i.e. movements of rib cage and abdomen) to quiet breathing because of different demands on the respiratory system. Professional classical singers often advocate for the advantages of an active control of the abdomen on singing performance. This is presumed to prevent shortening of the diaphragm, elevate the rib cage, and thus promote efficient generation of subglottal pressure during phonation. However, few studies have investigated these patterns quantitatively and inter-subject variability has hindered the identification of stereotypical patterns of respiratory kinematics. Here, seven professional classical singers and four untrained individuals were assessed during quiet breathing, and when singing both a standard song and a piece of choice. Several parameters were extracted from respiratory kinematics and airflow, and principal component analysis was used to identify typical patterns of respiratory kinematics. No group differences were observed during quiet breathing. During singing, both groups adapted to rhythmical constraints with decreased time of inspiration and increased peak airflow. In contrast to untrained individuals, classical singers used greater percentage of abdominal contribution to lung volume during singing and greater asynchrony between movements of rib cage and abdomen. Classical singers substantially altered the coordination of rib cage and abdomen during singing from that used for quiet breathing. Despite variations between participants, principal component analysis revealed consistent pre-phonatory inward movements of the abdominal wall during singing. This contrasted with untrained individuals, who demonstrated synchronous respiratory movements during all tasks. The inward abdominal movements observed in classical singers elevates intra-abdominal pressure and may increase the length and the pressure-generating capacity of rib cage expiratory muscles for potential improvements in voice

  1. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  2. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  3. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  4. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  5. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  6. Spontaneous baryogenesis in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Cottingham, W.N.; Whittingham, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we extent the results of previous work on spontaneous baryogenesis to general models involving charge-parity (CP) violation in the Higgs sector. We show how to deal with Chern-Simons terms appearing in the effective potential arising from phase changes in the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields. In particular, this enables us to apply this mechanism to general supersymmetric models including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the extended model with a gauge singlet. A comparison is made between this approach, and that in which one solves the equations of motion for Higgs winding modes. As anticipated in earlier work, the effect of the latter approach is found to be small. (Author)

  7. Efficacy of a Respiratory Training System on the Regularity of Breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Hyuk; Park, Hee Chul; Han, Young Yih; Ju, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jung Suk; Ahn, Yong Chan

    2008-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of respiratory gated 4-dimensional radiation therapy for more regular and stable respiratory period and amplitude, a respiration training system was designed, and its efficacy was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The experiment was designed to measure the difference in respiration regularity following the use of a training system. A total of 11 subjects (9 volunteers and 2 patients) were included in the experiments. Three different breathing signals, including free breathing (free-breathing), guided breathing that followed training software (guided-breathing), and free breathing after the guided-breathing (post guided-breathing), were consecutively recorded in each subject. The peak-to-peak (PTP) period of the breathing signal, standard deviation (SD), peak-amplitude and its SD, area of the one cycle of the breathing wave form, and its root mean square (RMS) were measured and computed. Results: The temporal regularity was significantly improved in guided-breathing since the SD of breathing period reduced (free-breathing 0.568 vs guided-breathing 0.344, p=0.0013). The SD of the breathing period representing the post guided-breathing was also reduced, but the difference was not statistically significant (free-breathing 0.568 vs. guided-breathing 0.512, p=ns). Also the SD of measured amplitude was reduced in guided-breathing (free-breathing 1.317 vs. guided-breathing 1.068, p=0.187), although not significant. This indicated that the tidal volume for each breath was kept more even in guided-breathing compared to free-breathing. There was no change in breathing pattern between free-breathing and guided-breathing. The average area of breathing wave form and its RMS in postguided-breathing, however, was reduced by 7% and 5.9%, respectively. Conclusion: The guided-breathing was more stable and regular than the other forms of breathing data. Therefore, the developed respiratory training system was effective in improving the temporal

  8. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  9. Reduced Dental Plaque Formation in Dogs Drinking a Solution Containing Natural Antimicrobial Herbal Enzymes and Organic Matcha Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Lindinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an exploratory, multicenter clinical study confirmed the hypothesis that a novel, natural, and safe oral care product (OCP reduced the rate of plaque formation on teeth of dogs consuming the OCP (antimicrobial plant-derived enzymes, organic matcha green tea, cultured dextrose, sodium bicarbonate, and ascorbic acid compared to controls. Healthy dogs without periodontitis, of varying breeds, sex, and age, were recruited and enrolled, using nonrandomized stratification methods, into a control and treatment groups. Treatment group dogs drank only water into which OCP was suspended, for 28 days. Control group dogs drank their normal household water. On day 0 all teeth were cleaned by a veterinarian and gingivitis was assessed. On days 14, 21, and 28 plaque index, plaque thickness, gingivitis, freshness of breath, and general health were assessed. Over the 28 days of study, dogs on the OCP had significant reduction in plaque index and plaque thickness compared to controls. By day 14 OCP reduced plaque formation by 37%; the 28-day reduction in plaque index and coverage averaged 22% with no measurable gingivitis or calculus. Conclusion. Using the OCP attenuated dental plaque formation when consumed as normal drinking water and in the absence of other modes of oral care.

  10. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  12. Craniological parameters of Yugoslav shepherd dog sharplanina

    OpenAIRE

    UROŠEVIĆ, Milivoje M.; DROBNJAK, Darko; STOJIĆ, Petar; UROŠEVIĆ, Milan B.

    2017-01-01

    Yugoslav Shepherd Dog Sharplanina is among the oldest dog breeds on the Balkan Peninsula. Since ancient times, dogs of this breed have been bred in the mountainous regions in the southeast of the former Yugoslavia, primarily in the Shara Mountain, based on which the breed was named the Yugoslav Shepherd Dog Sharplanina. Today, according to the FCI classification the breed belongs to Group 2. Countries of origin of this breed are Macedonia and Serbia. The goal of this paper is to evaluate and ...

  13. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  14. Energy requirements for racing endurance sled dogs*

    OpenAIRE

    Loftus, John P.; Yazwinski, Molly; Milizio, Justin G.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sled dogs have unique dietary energy requirements. At present, there is disparity in the literature regarding energy expenditure and thus energy requirements of these dogs. We sought to further elucidate energy requirements for endurance sled dogs under field conditions. Three sled dog teams completing the 2011 Yukon Quest volunteered to provide diet history. Nutritional content was evaluated and a mock meal was analysed for each team. Race data were obtained from www.yukonquest.com...

  15. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-31

    isolant. Inoculated dogs develo- ped signs of the disease which included fever , weight loss, lym- phodenopathy, corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of...in Alsatian dogs infected with E. canis, was not seen in thesedogs; however, 2 dogs devel- oped cutaneous petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages at...included fever , weight loss, lymphadenopathy, - -- 19 corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of 3 dogs that died during the course of the study, one died with

  16. Sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivathamboo, Shobi; Perucca, Piero; Velakoulis, Dennis; Jones, Nigel C; Goldin, Jeremy; Kwan, Patrick; O'Brien, Terence J

    2018-04-01

    Epilepsy is a group of neurological conditions in which there is a pathological and enduring predisposition to generate recurrent seizures. Evidence over the last few decades suggests that epilepsy may be associated with increased sleep-disordered breathing, which may contribute towards sleep fragmentation, daytime somnolence, reduced seizure control, and cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality. Chronic sleep-disordered breathing can result in loss of gray matter and cause deficits to memory and global cognitive function. Sleep-disordered breathing is a novel and independent predictor of sudden cardiac death and, as such, may be involved in the mechanisms leading to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. Despite this, the long-term consequences of sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy remain unknown, and there are no guidelines for screening or treating this population. There is currently insufficient evidence to indicate continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for the primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, and recent evidence has failed to show any reduction of fatal or nonfatal cardiovascular endpoints. Treatment of sleep-disordered breathing may potentially improve seizure control, daytime somnolence, and neurocognitive outcomes, but few studies have examined this relationship. In this review, we examine sleep-disordered breathing in epilepsy, and discuss the potential effect of epilepsy treatments. We consider the role of CPAP and other interventions for sleep-disordered breathing and discuss their implications for epilepsy management.

  17. Sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Anthony E; Sitrin, Robert G; Bauman, Kristy A

    2016-07-01

    Spinal cord injury commonly results in neuromuscular weakness that impacts respiratory function. This would be expected to be associated with an increased likelihood of sleep-disordered breathing. (1) Understand the incidence and prevalence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (2) Understand the relationship between injury and patient characteristics and the incidence of sleep disordered breathing in spinal cord injury. (3) Distinguish between obstructive sleep apnea and central sleep apnea incidence in spinal cord injury. (4) Clarify the relationship between sleep disordered breathing and stroke, myocardial infarction, metabolic dysfunction, injuries, autonomic dysreflexia and spasticity incidence in persons with spinal cord injury. (5) Understand treatment tolerance and outcome in persons with spinal cord injury and sleep disordered breathing. Extensive database search including PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and Web of Science. Given the current literature limitations, sleep disordered breathing as currently defined is high in patients with spinal cord injury, approaching 60% in motor complete persons with tetraplegia. Central apnea is more common in patients with tetraplegia than in patients with paraplegia. Early formal sleep study in patients with acute complete tetraplegia is recommended. In patients with incomplete tetraplegia and with paraplegia, the incidence of sleep-disordered breathing is significantly higher than the general population. With the lack of correlation between symptoms and SDB, formal study would be reasonable. There is insufficient evidence in the literature on the impact of treatment on morbidity, mortality and quality of life outcomes.

  18. The Way Dogs (Canis familiaris Look at Human Emotional Faces Is Modulated by Oxytocin. An Eye-Tracking Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dogs have been shown to excel in reading human social cues, including facial cues. In the present study we used eye-tracking technology to further study dogs’ face processing abilities. It was found that dogs discriminated between human facial regions in their spontaneous viewing pattern and looked most to the eye region independently of facial expression. Furthermore dogs played most attention to the first two images presented, afterwards their attention dramatically decreases; a finding that has methodological implications. Increasing evidence indicates that the oxytocin system is involved in dogs’ human-directed social competence, thus as a next step we investigated the effects of oxytocin on processing of human facial emotions. It was found that oxytocin decreases dogs’ looking to the human faces expressing angry emotional expression. More interestingly, however, after oxytocin pre-treatment dogs’ preferential gaze toward the eye region when processing happy human facial expressions disappears. These results provide the first evidence that oxytocin is involved in the regulation of human face processing in dogs. The present study is one of the few empirical investigations that explore eye gaze patterns in naïve and untrained pet dogs using a non-invasive eye-tracking technique and thus offers unique but largely untapped method for studying social cognition in dogs.

  19. Testosterone-induced benign prostatic hyperplasia rat and dog as facile models to assess drugs targeting lower urinary tract symptoms.

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    Jing Li

    Full Text Available Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH is an age-related disease, affecting a majority of elderly men worldwide. Medical management of BPH is an alternative to surgical treatment of this disease. Currently, α1-adrenergic receptor (α1-AR antagonists are among the first line drugs to treat BPH by reducing the tension of urinary track and thus the obstructive symptoms in voiding. In drug development, old male dogs with spontaneous BPH are considered the golden standard of the animal models. However, old dogs (>6 years are expensive and not all old dogs develop BPH. So it is necessary to develop more accessible animal models for drug efficacy evaluation. Here we describe the development of testosterone-induced BPH models in both rats and young adult dogs and their applications in the in vivo evaluation of α1-AR antagonist. The BPH rats and dogs induced by chronic testosterone treatment have significantly increased micturition frequency and reduced mean voided volume, very similar to the clinical symptoms of BPH patients. Silodosin, an α1-AR antagonist, significantly reduces the urinary frequency and increases the voided volume in BPH model animals in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that testosterone-induced BPH rat and dog models might provide a more efficient way to evaluate micturition behavior in anti-BPH drug studies.

  20. REVIEW: DOG, MASTER, AND RELATIVES

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    Reviewed by Caihua Dorji (Tshe dpal rdo rje ཚེ་དཔལ་རྡོ་རྗེ། Caihuan Duojie 才还多杰

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stag 'bum rgyal (b. 1966 is from a herding family in Mang ra (Guinan County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province. A member of the China Writers' Association and the Standing Committee of Mtsho lho Writers' Association, Stag 'bum rgyal teaches the Tibetan language at Mang ra Nationalities Middle School. He graduated from Mtsho lho Nationalities Normal School in 1986 and began his teaching career in the same year. Later in 1988, he attended a training program at Northwest Nationalities University and earned a graduation certificate. Stag 'bum rgyal has published more than sixty short stories, novellas, and novels since 1980s. Among his novellas, Sgo khyi 'The Watch Dog', Khyi rgan 'The Old Dog', h+'a pa gsos pa'i zin bris 'The Story of Dog Adoption', Mi tshe'i glu dbyangs 'The Song of Life', and khyi dang bdag po/ da dung gnyen tshan dag 'Dog, Master, and Relatives' have been translated into Chinese and published in such magazines as Xizang Wenxue 'Tibet Literature', Minzu Wenxue 'Nationalities Literature', and Qinghai Hu 'Qinghai Lake'. Rnam shes 'The Soul', Rgud 'Degeneration', and khyi dang bdag po/ da dung gnyen tshan dag 'Dog, Master, and Relatives', won the Sbrang char Literature Prize in 1999, 2003, and 2006, respectively. ..........