WorldWideScience

Sample records for spontaneously breaks time-reversal

  1. Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukhov, Igor N., E-mail: karnaui@yahoo.com

    2017-06-21

    Highlights: • Proposed a new approach for description of phase transitions in topological insulators. • Considered the mechanism of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators. • The Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics. - Abstract: The system of spinless fermions on a hexagonal lattice is studied. We have considered tight-binding model with the hopping integrals between the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor lattice sites, that depend on the direction of the link. The links are divided on three types depending on the direction, the hopping integrals are defined by different phases along the links. The energy of the system depends on the phase differences, the solutions for the phases, that correspond to the minimums of the energy, lead to a topological insulator state with the nontrivial Chern numbers. We have analyzed distinct topological states and phase transitions, the behavior of the chiral gapless edge modes, have defined the Chern numbers. The band structure of topological insulator (TI) is calculated, the ground-state phase diagram in the parameter space is obtained. We propose a novel mechanism of realization of TI, when the TI state is result of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry due to nontrivial stable solutions for the phases that determine the hopping integrals along the links and show that the Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics.

  2. Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in strongly interacting two-dimensional electron layers in silicon and germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, S; Mahapatra, S; Scappucci, G; Klesse, W M; Simmons, M Y; Ghosh, A

    2014-06-13

    We report experimental evidence of a remarkable spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking in two-dimensional electron systems formed by atomically confined doping of phosphorus (P) atoms inside bulk crystalline silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). Weak localization corrections to the conductivity and the universal conductance fluctuations were both found to decrease rapidly with decreasing doping in the Si:P and Ge:P delta layers, suggesting an effect driven by Coulomb interactions. In-plane magnetotransport measurements indicate the presence of intrinsic local spin fluctuations at low doping, providing a microscopic mechanism for spontaneous lifting of the time-reversal symmetry. Our experiments suggest the emergence of a new many-body quantum state when two-dimensional electrons are confined to narrow half-filled impurity bands.

  3. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Florian

    2009-01-26

    The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally

  4. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally

  5. Time-reversal symmetry breaking by ac field: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deviate from 2 thus signalling on the time-reversal breaking by the ac field. ... is also the parity effect: the enchancement is only present if either P or Q is even. ... analysis (see figure 1) is possible and the ergodic zero-dimensional approx-.

  6. Lateral Casimir-Polder forces by breaking time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Weernink, Ricardo R. Q. P. T.; Barcellona, Pablo; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2018-03-01

    We examine the lateral Casimir-Polder force acting on a circular rotating emitter near a dielectric plane surface. As the circular motion breaks time-reversal symmetry, the spontaneous emission in a direction parallel to the surface is in general anisotropic. We show that a lateral force arises which can be interpreted as a recoil force because of this asymmetric emission. The force is an oscillating function of the distance between the emitter and the surface, and the lossy character of the dielectric strongly influences the results in the near-field regime. The force exhibits also a population-induced dynamics, decaying exponentially with respect to time on time scales of the inverse of the spontaneous decay rate. We propose that this effect could be detected measuring the velocity acquired by the emitter, following different cycles of excitation and spontaneous decay. Our results are expressed in terms of the Green's tensor and can therefore easily be applied to more complex geometries.

  7. Crossover driven by time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, N.; Hashimoto, A.; Simons, B.D.; Altshuler, B.L.

    1994-01-01

    Parametric correlations of the energy spectra of quantum chaotic systems are presented in the presence of time-reversal symmetry-breaking perturbations. The spectra disperse as a function of two external perturbations, one of which preserves time-reversal symmetry, while the other violates it. Exact analytical expressions for the parametric two-point autocorrelation function of the density of states are derived in the crossover region by means of the supermatrix method. For the orthogonal-unitary crossover, the velocity distribution is determined and shown to deviate from Gaussian. (orig.)

  8. Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemm, E.R., E-mail: eschemm@alumni.stanford.edu [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Levenson-Falk, E.M. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, A. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute of Energy and Materials Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Polar Kerr effect (PKE) probes broken time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in superconductors. • Absence of PKE below Tc in CeCoIn{sub 5} is consistent with dx2-y2 order parameter symmetry. • PKE in the B phase of the multiphase superconductor UPt3 agrees with an E2u model. • Data on URu2Si2 show broken TRS and additional structure in the superconducting state. - Abstract: The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. With the notable exception of {sup 3}He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. Here we review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.

  9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  11. Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking

  12. Spectroscopic Visualization of Inversion and Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking Weyl Semi-metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidenkopf, Haim

    A defining property of a topological material is the existence of surface bands that cannot be realized but as the termination of a topological bulk. In a Weyl semi-metal these surface states are in the form of Fermi-arcs. Their open-contour Fermi-surface curves between pairs of surface projections of bulk Weyl cones. Such Dirac-like bulk bands, as opposed to the gapped bulk of topological insulators, land a unique opportunity to examine the deep notion of bulk to surface correspondence. We study the intricate properties both of inversion symmetry broken and of time-reversal symmetry broken Weyl semimetals using scanning tunneling spectroscopy. We visualize the Fermi arc states on the surface of the non-centrosymmetric Weyl semi-metal TaAs. Using the distinct structure and spatial distribution of the wavefunctions associated with the different topological and trivial bands we detect the scattering processes that involve Fermi arcs. Each of these imaged scattering processes entails information on the unique nature of Fermi arcs and their correspondence to the topological bulk. We further visualize the magnetic response of the candidate magnetic Weyl semimetal GdPtBi in which the magnetic order parameter is coupled to the topological classification. European Research Council (ERC-StG no. 678702, TOPO-NW\\x9D), the Israel Science Foundation (ISF), and the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF).

  13. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N = 2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    A model describing the interaction of N = 2 supergravity with a vector and a linear multiplet is constructed. The model admits the introduction of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking with two arbitrary scales, one of which can be equal to zero, corresponding to the partial super-Higgs effect (N = 2→N = 1). The cosmological term is automatically equal to zero

  14. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  15. The spontaneous ℤ_2 breaking Twin Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchesne, Hugues; Earl, Kevin; Grégoire, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Twin Higgs model seeks to address the little hierarchy problem by making the Higgs a pseudo-Goldstone of a global SU(4) symmetry that is spontaneously broken to SU(3). Gauge and Yukawa couplings, which explicitly break SU(4), enjoy a discrete ℤ_2 symmetry that accidentally maintains SU(4) at the quadratic level and therefore keeps the Higgs light. Contrary to most beyond the Standard Model theories, the quadratically divergent corrections to the Higgs mass are cancelled by a mirror sector, which is uncharged under the Standard Model groups. However, the Twin Higgs with an exact ℤ_2 symmetry leads to equal vevs in the Standard Model and mirror sectors, which is phenomenologically unviable. An explicit ℤ_2 breaking potential must then be introduced and tuned against the SU(4) breaking terms to produce a hierarchy of vevs between the two sectors. This leads to a moderate but non-negligible tuning. We propose a model to alleviate this tuning, without the need for an explicit ℤ_2 breaking sector. The model consists of two SU(4) fundamental Higgses, one whose vacuum preserves ℤ_2 and one whose vacuum breaks it. As the interactions between the two Higgses are turned on, the ℤ_2 breaking is transmitted from the broken to the unbroken sector and a small hierarchy of vevs is naturally produced. The presence of an effective tadpole and feedback between the two Higgses lead to a sizable improvement of the tuning. The resulting Higgs boson is naturally very Standard Model like.

  16. Time-reversal breaking and spin transport induced by magnetic impurities in a 2D topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derakhshan, V; Ketabi, S A; Moghaddam, A G

    2016-01-01

    We employed the formalism of bond currents, expressed in terms of non-equilibrium Green’s function to obtain the local currents and transport features of zigzag silicene ribbon in the presence of magnetic impurity. When only intrinsic and Rashba spin–orbit interactions are present, silicene behaves as a two-dimensional topological insulator with gapless edge states. But in the presence of finite intrinsic spin–orbit interaction, the edge states start to penetrate into the bulk of the sample by increasing Rashba interaction strength. The exchange interaction induced by local impurities breaks the time-reversal symmetry of the gapless edge states and influences the topological properties strongly. Subsequently, the singularity of partial Berry curvature disappears and the silicene nanoribbon becomes a trivial insulator. On the other hand, when the concentration of the magnetic impurities is low, the edge currents are not affected significantly. In this case, when the exchange field lies in the x – y plane, the spin mixing around magnetic impurity is more profound rather than the case in which the exchange field is directed along the z -axis. Nevertheless, when the exchange field of magnetic impurities is placed in the x – y plane, a spin-polarized conductance is observed. The resulting conductance polarization can be tuned by the concentration of the impurities and even completely polarized spin transport is achievable. (paper)

  17. Entanglement entropy of a three-spin-interacting spin chain with a time-reversal-breaking impurity at one boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, Tanay; Rajak, Atanu

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the effect of a time-reversal-breaking impurity term (of strength λd) on both the equilibrium and nonequilibrium critical properties of entanglement entropy (EE) in a three-spin-interacting transverse Ising model, which can be mapped to a p -wave superconducting chain with next-nearest-neighbor hopping and interaction. Importantly, we find that the logarithmic scaling of the EE with block size remains unaffected by the application of the impurity term, although, the coefficient (i.e., central charge) varies logarithmically with the impurity strength for a lower range of λd and eventually saturates with an exponential damping factor [˜exp(-λd) ] for the phase boundaries shared with the phase containing two Majorana edge modes. On the other hand, it receives a linear correction in term of λd for an another phase boundary. Finally, we focus to study the effect of the impurity in the time evolution of the EE for the critical quenching case where the impurity term is applied only to the final Hamiltonian. Interestingly, it has been shown that for all the phase boundaries, contrary to the equilibrium case, the saturation value of the EE increases logarithmically with the strength of impurity in a certain regime of λd and finally, for higher values of λd, it increases very slowly dictated by an exponential damping factor. The impurity-induced behavior of EE might bear some deep underlying connection to thermalization.

  18. Spontaneous Lorentz breaking at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-C.; Luty, Markus A.; Mukohyama, Shinji; Thaler, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    Theories that spontaneously break Lorentz invariance also violate diffeomorphism symmetries, implying the existence of extra degrees of freedom and modifications of gravity. In the minimal model ('ghost condensation') with only a single extra degree of freedom at low energies, the scale of Lorentz violation cannot be larger than about M ∼ 100GeV due to an infrared instability in the gravity sector. We show that Lorentz symmetry can be broken at much higher scales in a non-minimal theory with additional degrees of freedom, in particular if Lorentz symmetry is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a vector field. This theory can be constructed by gauging ghost condensation, giving a systematic effective field theory description that allows us to estimate the size of all physical effects. We show that nonlinear effects become important for gravitational fields with strength Φ 1/2 ∼> g, where g is the gauge coupling, and we argue that the nonlinear dynamics is free from singularities. We then analyze the phenomenology of the model, including nonlinear dynamics and velocity-dependent effects. The strongest bounds on the gravitational sector come from either black hole accretion or direction-dependent gravitational forces, and imply that the scale of spontaneous Lorentz breaking is M ∼ 12 GeV, g 2 10 15 GeV). If the Lorentz breaking sector couples directly to matter, there is a spin-dependent inverse-square law force, which has a different angular dependence from the force mediated by the ghost condensate, providing a distinctive signature for this class of models

  19. Spontaneous breaking of the BRST symmetry in the ABJM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal, Mir; Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the ghost condensation in the ABJM theory. We will perform our analysis in N=1 superspace. We show that in the Delbourgo–Jarvis–Baulieu–Thierry–Mieg gauge the spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry can occur in the ABJM theory. This spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry is caused by ghost–anti-ghost condensation. We will also show that in the ABJM theory, the ghost–anti-ghost condensates remain present in the modified abelian gauge. Thus, the spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry in ABJM theory can even occur in the modified abelian gauge

  20. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry and gauge invariance in supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohnius, M. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); West, P. (King' s Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1982-08-09

    Using the new minimal auxillary fields of N = 1 supergravity it is found possible to construct a model of local supersymmetry which spontaneously breaks both supersymmetry and gauge invariance. The status of the cosmological constant resulting from this breaking is discussed.

  1. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry and gauge invariance in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohnius, M.; West, P.

    1982-01-01

    Using the new minimal auxillary fields of N = 1 supergravity it is found possible to construct a model of local supersymmetry which spontaneously breaks both supersymmetry and gauge invariance. The status of the cosmological constant resulting from this breaking is discussed. (orig.)

  2. Strong evidence for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in (quenched) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, I.M.; Gibbs, P.; Schierholz, G.; Teper, M.; Gilchrist, J.P.; Schneider, H.

    1983-09-01

    We calculate the chiral condensate for all quark masses using Kogut-Susskind fermions in lattice-regularized quenched QCD. The large volume behaviour of at small quark masses demonstrates that the explicit U(1) chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. We perform the calculation for β = 5.1 to 5.9 and find very good continuum renormalization group behaviour. We infer that the spontaneous breaking we observe belongs to continuum QCD. This constitutes the first unambiguous demonstration of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in continuum quenched QCD. (orig.)

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Martini, M.; Molinari, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study the quantum phase transition occurring in an infinite homogeneous system of spin 1/2 fermions in a non-relativistic context. As an example we consider neutrons interacting through a simple spin-spin Heisenberg force. The two critical values of the coupling strength-signaling the onset into the system of a finite magnetization and of the total magnetization, respectively-are found and their dependence upon the range of the interaction is explored. The spin response function of the system in the region where the spin-rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken is also studied. For a ferromagnetic interaction the spin response along the direction of the spontaneous magnetization occurs in the particle-hole continuum and displays, for not too large momentum transfers, two distinct peaks. The response along the direction orthogonal to the spontaneous magnetization displays instead, beyond a softened and depleted particle-hole continuum, a collective mode to be identified with a Goldstone boson of type II. Notably, the random phase approximation on a Hartree-Fock basis accounts for it, in particular for its quadratic-close to the origin-dispersion relation. It is shown that the Goldstone boson contributes to the saturation of the energy-weighted sum rule for ∼25% when the system becomes fully magnetized (that is in correspondence of the upper critical value of the interaction strength) and continues to grow as the interaction strength increases

  5. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 4-dimensional heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, J.

    1989-07-01

    The evolution of a 4-dimensional heterotic string is considered in the background of its massless excitations such as graviton, antisymmetric tensor, gauge fields and scalar bosons. The compactified bosonic coordinates are fermionized. The world-sheet supersymmetry requirement enforces Thirring-like four fermion coupling to the background scalar fields. The non-abelian gauge symmetry is exhibited through the Ward identities of the S-matrix elements. The spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism is exhibited through the broken Ward identities. An effective 4-dimensional action is constructed and the consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is envisaged for the effective action. 19 refs

  6. Temperature renormalization group approach to spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manesis, E.; Sakakibara, S.

    1985-01-01

    We apply renormalization group equations that describe the finite-temperature behavior of Green's functions to investigate thermal properties of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Specifically, in the O(N).O(N) symmetric model we study the change of symmetry breaking patterns with temperature, and show that there always exists the unbroken symmetry phase at high temperature, modifying the naive result of leading order in finite-temperature perturbation theory. (orig.)

  7. Nonextensive Entropy, Prior PDFs and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Shafee, Fariel

    2008-01-01

    We show that using nonextensive entropy can lead to spontaneous symmetry breaking when a parameter changes its value from that applicable for a symmetric domain, as in field theory. We give the physical reasons and also show that even for symmetric Dirichlet priors, such a defnition of the entropy and the parameter value can lead to asymmetry when entropy is maximized.

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Manuel; Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytical model for the theoretical analysis of spin dynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This allows for an excellent intuitive understanding of the processes and provides good quantitative agreement with the experimental results...

  9. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V.; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We consider first type-II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators, but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave mixing cavity in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of ...

  10. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We first consider Type II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave-mixing cavity, in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity, complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of the parameter values.

  11. Evidence for Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking of the Superconducting State near Twin-Boundary Interfaces in FeSe Revealed by Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Watashige

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Junctions and interfaces consisting of unconventional superconductors provide an excellent experimental playground to study exotic phenomena related to the phase of the order parameter. Not only does the complex structure of unconventional order parameters have an impact on the Josephson effects, but it also may profoundly alter the quasiparticle excitation spectrum near a junction. Here, by using spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we visualize the spatial evolution of the LDOS near twin boundaries (TBs of the nodal superconductor FeSe. The π/2 rotation of the crystallographic orientation across the TB twists the structure of the unconventional order parameter, which may, in principle, bring about a zero-energy LDOS peak at the TB. The LDOS at the TB observed in our study, in contrast, does not exhibit any signature of a zero-energy peak, and an apparent gap amplitude remains finite all the way across the TB. The low-energy quasiparticle excitations associated with the gap nodes are affected by the TB over a distance more than an order of magnitude larger than the coherence length ξ_{ab}. The modification of the low-energy states is even more prominent in the region between two neighboring TBs separated by a distance ≈7ξ_{ab}. In this region, the spectral weight near the Fermi level (≈±0.2  meV due to the nodal quasiparticle spectrum is almost completely removed. These behaviors suggest that the TB induces a fully gapped state, invoking a possible twist of the order parameter structure, which breaks time-reversal symmetry.

  12. Spontaneous SUSY breaking without R symmetry in supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Omura, Yuji; Shigekami, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    We discuss spontaneous supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in a model with an anomalous U (1 )A symmetry. In this model, the size of the each term in the superpotential is controlled by the U (1 )A charge assignment and SUSY is spontaneously broken via the Fayet-Iliopoulos of U (1 )A at the metastable vacuum. In the global SUSY analysis, the gaugino masses become much smaller than the sfermion masses, because an approximate R symmetry appears at the SUSY breaking vacuum. In this paper, we show that gaugino masses can be as large as gravitino mass, taking the supergravity effect into consideration. This is because the R symmetry is not imposed so that the constant term in the superpotential, which is irrelevant to the global SUSY analysis, largely contributes to the soft SUSY breaking terms in the supergravity. As the mediation mechanism, we introduce the contributions of the field not charged under U (1 )A and the moduli field to cancel the anomaly of U (1 )A. We comment on the application of our SUSY breaking scenario to the grand unified theory.

  13. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari Rudina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks – Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss – Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  14. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina

    2018-03-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  15. Inertial Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Scale Invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2018-01-23

    Weyl invariant theories of scalars and gravity can generate all mass scales spontaneously, initiated by a dynamical process of "inertial spontaneous symmetry breaking" that does not involve a potential. This is dictated by the structure of the Weyl current, $K_\\mu$, and a cosmological phase during which the universe expands and the Einstein-Hilbert effective action is formed. Maintaining exact Weyl invariance in the renormalised quantum theory is straightforward when renormalisation conditions are referred back to the VEV's of fields in the action of the theory, which implies a conserved Weyl current. We do not require scale invariant regulators. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential.

  16. Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirzhnitz, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered

  17. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R}>10 GeV.

  18. Incoherent transport for phases that spontaneously break translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Griffin, Tom; Ziogas, Vaios

    2018-04-01

    We consider phases of matter at finite charge density which spontaneously break spatial translations. Without taking a hydrodynamic limit we identify a boost invariant incoherent current operator. We also derive expressions for the small frequency behaviour of the thermoelectric conductivities generalising those that have been derived in a translationally invariant context. Within holographic constructions we show that the DC conductivity for the incoherent current can be obtained from a solution to a Stokes flow for an auxiliary fluid on the black hole horizon combined with specific thermodynamic quantities associated with the equilibrium black hole solutions.

  19. Dynamical Compactification as a Mechanism of Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    1997-01-01

    Supersymmetry breaking and compactification of extra space-time dimensions may have a common dynamical origin if our universe is spontaneously generated in the form of a four-dimensional topological or non-topological defect in higher dimensional space-time. Within such an approach the conventional particles are zero modes trapped in the core of the defect. In many cases solutions of this type spontaneously break all supersymmetries of the original theory, so that the low-energy observer from ``our'' universe inside the core would not detect supersymmetry. Since the extra dimensions are not compact but, rather, inaccessible to low-energy observers, the usual infinite tower of the Kaluza-Klein excitations does not exist. Production of superpartners at the energy scale of SUSY restoration will be accompanied by four-momentum non-conservation. (Depending on the nature of the solution at hand, the non-conservation may either happen above some threshold energy or be continuous). In either case, the door to extra d...

  20. Stock market speculation: Spontaneous symmetry breaking of economic valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    2000-09-01

    Firm foundation theory estimates a security's firm fundamental value based on four determinants: expected growth rate, expected dividend payout, the market interest rate and the degree of risk. In contrast, other views of decision-making in the stock market, using alternatives such as human psychology and behavior, bounded rationality, agent-based modeling and evolutionary game theory, expound that speculative and crowd behavior of investors may play a major role in shaping market prices. Here, we propose that the two views refer to two classes of companies connected through a "phase transition". Our theory is based on (1) the identification of the fundamental parity symmetry of prices (p→-p), which results from the relative direction of payment flux compared to commodity flux and (2) the observation that a company's risk-adjusted growth rate discounted by the market interest rate behaves as a control parameter for the observable price. We find a critical value of this control parameter at which a spontaneous symmetry-breaking of prices occurs, leading to a spontaneous valuation in absence of earnings, similarly to the emergence of a spontaneous magnetization in Ising models in absence of a magnetic field. The low growth rate phase is described by the firm foundation theory while the large growth rate phase is the regime of speculation and crowd behavior. In practice, while large "finite-time horizon" effects round off the predicted singularities, our symmetry-breaking speculation theory accounts for the apparent over-pricing and the high volatility of fast growing companies on the stock markets.

  1. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An approach dealing with some of the complications which arise when studying spontaneous symmetry breaking beyond the tree-graph level in situations where the effective potential may not be used is discussed. These situations include quantum field theory on general curved backgrounds or in flat space-times with non-trivial topologies. Examples discussed are a twisted scalar field in S 1 xR 3 and instabilities in an expanding universe. From these it is seen that the topology and curvature of a space-time may affect the stability of the vacuum state. There can be critical length scales or times beyond which symmetries may be broken or restored in certain cases. These features are not present in Minkowski space-time and so would not show up in the usual types of early universe calculations. (U.K.)

  2. Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, D.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.

  3. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in early molecular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovitch Omer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important facet of early biological evolution is the selection of chiral enantiomers for molecules such as amino acids and sugars. The origin of this symmetry breaking is a long-standing question in molecular evolution. Previous models addressing this question include particular kinetic properties such as autocatalysis or negative cross catalysis. Results We propose here a more general kinetic formalism for early enantioselection, based on our previously described Graded Autocatalysis Replication Domain (GARD model for prebiotic evolution in molecular assemblies. This model is adapted here to the case of chiral molecules by applying symmetry constraints to mutual molecular recognition within the assembly. The ensuing dynamics shows spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, with transitions towards stationary compositional states (composomes enriched with one of the two enantiomers for some of the constituent molecule types. Furthermore, one or the other of the two antipodal compositional states of the assembly also shows time-dependent selection. Conclusion It follows that chiral selection may be an emergent consequence of early catalytic molecular networks rather than a prerequisite for the initiation of primeval life processes. Elaborations of this model could help explain the prevalent chiral homogeneity in present-day living cells. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Boris Rubinstein (nominated by Arcady Mushegian, Arcady Mushegian, Meir Lahav (nominated by Yitzhak Pilpel and Sergei Maslov.

  4. On spontaneous parity breaking in three-dimensional gauge-Higgs systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Farakos, K.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1991-04-01

    We address the question of spontaneous breaking of parity in three-dimensional euclidian SU(2) gauge-Higgs theory by Monte Carlo simulations. We observe no sign of spontaneous parity breaking in the behaviour of local gauge invariant operators. However, the presence of parity odd terms in the action can induce a phase transition to a parity odd ground state. (orig.)

  5. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in vortex systems with two repulsive lengthscales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P J; Desoky, W M; Milosević, M V; Chaves, A; Laloë, J-B; Moodera, J S; Bending, S J

    2015-10-23

    Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to study vortex structures in thin epitaxial films of the superconductor MgB2. Unusual vortex patterns observed in MgB2 single crystals have previously been attributed to a competition between short-range repulsive and long-range attractive vortex-vortex interactions in this two band superconductor; the type 1.5 superconductivity scenario. Our films have much higher levels of disorder than bulk single crystals and therefore both superconducting condensates are expected to be pushed deep into the type 2 regime with purely repulsive vortex interactions. We observe broken symmetry vortex patterns at low fields in all samples after field-cooling from above Tc. These are consistent with those seen in systems with competing repulsions on disparate length scales, and remarkably similar structures are reproduced in dirty two band Ginzburg-Landau calculations, where the simulation parameters have been defined by experimental observations. This suggests that in our dirty MgB2 films, the symmetry of the vortex structures is broken by the presence of vortex repulsions with two different lengthscales, originating from the two distinct superconducting condensates. This represents an entirely new mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems of superconducting vortices, with important implications for pinning phenomena and high current density applications.

  6. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  7. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and effective quark masses in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miransky, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The ultraviolet asymptotics of the dynamical effective quark mass is determined directly from the equation for the fermion mass function. The indications about the character of the dynamics of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD are obtained

  8. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu-Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 609-657 ISSN 2073-8994 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spontaneous symmetry breaking * Nambu-Goldstone bosons * effective field theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  9. Gauge principle, vector-meson dominance, and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Yoichiro

    1989-01-01

    The author concentrates on certain theoretical developments of the late 1950s which are concerned with the meaning and role of symmetries and symmetry breaking, and especially work done in Chicago, and notes his own involvement in this debate. He worked on symmetry-breaking in superconductivity, using a four-fermion interaction model. (UK)

  10. Spontaneous charge breaking in the NMSSM: dangerous or not?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Manuel E.; Opferkuch, Toby [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Staub, Florian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Nuclear Physics (IKP), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    We investigate the impact of charge-breaking minima on the vacuum stability of the NMSSM. We concentrate on the case of vanishing A-terms in the sfermion sector, i.e. the only potentially dangerous sources of charge breaking are vacuum expectation values of the charged Higgs fields. We find that, in contrast to Two-Higgs-Doublet Models like the MSSM, at both tree and loop level there exist global charge-breaking minima. Consequently, many regions of parameter space are rendered metastable, which otherwise would have been considered stable if these charge-breaking minima were neglected. However, the inclusion of these new scalar field directions has little impact on otherwise metastable vacuum configurations. (orig.)

  11. Gauged Supergravities and Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking from the Double Copy Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodaroli, M.; Günaydin, M.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.

    2018-04-01

    Supergravities with gauged R symmetry and Minkowski vacua allow for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and, as such, provide a framework for building supergravity models of phenomenological relevance. In this Letter, we initiate the study of double copy constructions for these supergravities. We argue that, on general grounds, we expect their scattering amplitudes to be described by a double copy of the type (spontaneously broken gauge theory)⊗ (gauge theory with broken supersymmetry). We present a simple realization in which the resulting supergravity has U (1 )R gauge symmetry, spontaneously broken N =2 supersymmetry, and massive gravitini. This is the first instance of a double copy construction of a gauged supergravity and of a theory with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. The construction extends in a straightforward manner to a large family of gauged Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories with or without spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking.

  12. Status of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Introduction to time reversal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theory and reaction mechanisms relevant to time reversal invariance are reviewed. Consequences of time reversal invariance are presented under the headings of CP tests, electromagnetic moments, weak emissions or absorptions, and scattering reactions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  14. Spontaneous breaking of conformal invariance and trace anomaly matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwimmer, A.; Theisen, S.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that when conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken the trace anomalies in the broken and unbroken phases are matched. This puts strong constraints on the various couplings of the dilaton. Using the uniqueness of the effective action for the Goldstone supermultiplet for broken N=1 superconformal symmetry the dilaton effective action is calculated.

  15. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the $S_3$-symmetric scalar sector

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Osland, P.; Rebelo, M.N.

    2016-02-23

    We present a detailed study of the vacua of the $S_3$-symmetric three-Higgs-doublet potential, specifying the region of parameters where these minimisation solutions occur. We work with a CP conserving scalar potential and analyse the possible real and complex vacua with emphasis on the cases in which the CP symmetry can be spontaneously broken. Results are presented both in the reducible-representation framework of Derman, and in the irreducible-representation framework. Mappings between these are given. Some of these implementations can in principle accommodate dark matter and for that purpose it is important to identify the residual symmetries of the potential after spontaneous symmetry breakdown. We are also concerned with constraints from vacuum stability.

  16. Dark matter, baryon asymmetry, and spontaneous B and L breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dulaney, Timothy R.; Wise, Mark B.; Perez, Pavel Fileviez

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the dark matter and the cosmological baryon asymmetry in a simple theory where baryon (B) and lepton (L) number are local gauge symmetries that are spontaneously broken. In this model, the cold dark matter candidate is the lightest new field with baryon number and its stability is an automatic consequence of the gauge symmetry. Dark matter annihilation is either through a leptophobic gauge boson whose mass must be below a TeV or through the Higgs boson. Since the mass of the leptophobic gauge boson has to be below the TeV scale, one finds that in the first scenario there is a lower bound on the elastic cross section of about 5x10 -46 cm 2 . Even though baryon number is gauged and not spontaneously broken until the weak scale, a cosmologically acceptable baryon excess is possible. There can be a tension between achieving both the measured baryon excess and the dark matter density.

  17. Canonical forms of tensor representations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for constructing canonical forms for any tensor representation of the classical compact Lie groups is given. This method is used to find a complete list of the symmetry breaking patterns produced by Higgs fields in the third-rank antisymmetric representations of U(n), SU(n) and SO(n) for n<=7. A simple canonical form is also given for kth-rank symmetric tensor representations. (author)

  18. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu–Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Brauner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a general principle that constitutes the underlying concept of a vast number of physical phenomena ranging from ferromagnetism and superconductivity in condensed matter physics to the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particles. I focus on manifestations of spontaneously broken symmetries in systems that are not Lorentz invariant, which include both nonrelativistic systems as well as relativistic systems at nonzero density, providing a self-contained review of the properties of spontaneously broken symmetries specific to such theories. Topics covered include: (i Introduction to the mathematics of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. (ii Minimization of Higgs-type potentials for higher-dimensional representations. (iii Counting rules for Nambu–Goldstone bosons and their dispersion relations. (iv Construction of effective Lagrangians. Specific examples in both relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are worked out in detail.

  19. Ward identities of local supersymmetry and spontaneous breaking of extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Girardello, L.; Porrati, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is a general agreement that any extended supergravity theory, in order to lead to a viable model with acceptable phenomenological implications, should admit spontaneous breaking to N = 1 local supersymmetry in a Minkowski background. It is then important to understand the possible patterns of partial breaking of extended local supersymmetry. These patterns strongly depend on the theory being formulated directly in 4-D or in higher-D. In general, the higher-D theories lead to partial breaking in 4-D anti-de Sitter spaces. Examples are known with partial breaking in flat space. They result respectively from a generalized dimensional reduction of the N = 1 theory in 11-D or from the spontaneous compactification of the 10-D low-energy theory from the superstring theory and of a 6-D Maxwell-Einstein supergravity model. We will comment later on this example. In this paper we will discuss some considerations which apply to theories formulated in 4-D

  20. Vacuum solutions of a gravity model with vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the vacuum solutions of a gravity model where Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken once a vector field acquires a vacuum expectation value. Results are presented for the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB. The purely radial LSB result corresponds to new black hole solutions. When possible, parametrized post-Newtonian parameters are computed and observational boundaries used to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale

  1. The flight of the bumblebee: solutions from a vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum solutions arising from a spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry due to the acquisition of a vacuum expectation value by a vector field are derived. These include the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB scenarios. It is found that the purely radial LSB case gives rise to new black hole solutions. Whenever possible. Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters are computed and compared to observational bounds, in order to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale

  2. e +e- modes and U(1) spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steininger, K.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by evidence for a chiral phase transition in strong coupling lattice QED, the authors calculate the two-particle spectrum of the broken QED phase. This is done in the framework of a Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model with U(1) symmetry including chiral symmetry and symmetry breaking properties of QED. The second order chiral phase transition behavior in our model and in lattice QED are in excellent agreement. The authors then present a detailed analysis of the spectra of the e + e - modes in the broken phase. The authors examine whether these modes have any possible relationship to the narrow e + e - resonances found in soft heavy ion collisions at GSL. The authors' answer is negative

  3. The role of DNA double-strand breaks in spontaneous homologous recombination in S. cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lettier, Gaëlle; Feng, Q.; Mayolo, A.A. de

    2006-01-01

    of meiosis and result from the induction of a large number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By analogy, it is generally believed that the rare spontaneous mitotic HR events are due to repair of DNA DSBs that accidentally occur during mitotic growth. Here we provide the first direct evidence that most...

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and self-consistent equations for the free-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1980-03-01

    A variational procedure for the free-energy is used to derive self-consistent equations that allow for spontaneous symmetry breaking. For an N-component phi 4 -model the equations are identical to those obtained by summing all loops to order 1/N. (author)

  5. Effective potential and spontaneous symmetry breaking in the noncommutative φ6 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking of the (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative φ 6 model in the small-θ limit. In this regime, considering the model as a cutoff theory, it is reasonable to assume translational invariance as a property of the vacuum state and study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking by an effective potential analysis. An investigation of up to the two-loop level reveals that noncommutative effects can modify drastically the shape of the effective potential. Under reasonable conditions, the nonplanar sector of the theory can become dominant and induce symmetry breaking for values of the mass and coupling constants not reached by the commutative counterpart

  6. Is spontaneous breaking of R-parity feasible in minimal low-energy supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato, B.; Leon, J.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Quiros, M.

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous violation of lepton number without breaking Lorentz invariance can, in principle, be incorporated in models with softly broken supersymmetry. We study the situation for minimal low-energy supergravity models coming from a GUT (hence not having hierarchy destabilizing light singlets) and where the SU(2)xU(1) breaking is radiative. It is found that for this type of model, R-parity breaking requires either too heavy a top quark for a realistic superpartner spectrum or too light a superpartner spectrum for a realistic top quark, making the spontaneous violation of lepton number in the third generation incompatible with present experimental data. We do not discard the possibility of having it in a fourth, heavier, generation. (orig.)

  7. Spontaneous symmetry breaking as a basis of particle mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions-so different in their manifestations-to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the 'standard model' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout and Englert and by Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble: the agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W ± and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story-though an incomplete story-and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some 'big questions' that will guide our explorations

  8. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout and Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W ± and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations

  9. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2007-04-01

    Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout & Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, & Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W{sup {+-}} and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations.

  10. Restoration of supersymmetric Slavnov-Taylor and Ward identities in the presence of soft and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.; Hollik, W.; Roth, M.; Stoeckinger, D.

    2004-01-01

    Supersymmetric Slavnov-Taylor and Ward identities are investigated in the presence of soft and spontaneous symmetry breaking. We consider an Abelian model where soft supersymmetry breaking yields a mass splitting between electron and selectron and triggers spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we derive the corresponding identities that relate the electron and selectron masses to the Yukawa coupling. We demonstrate that the identities are valid in dimensional reduction and invalid in dimensional regularization and compute the necessary symmetry-restoring counterterms

  11. Restoration of supersymmetric Slavnov-Taylor and Ward identities in presence of soft and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.; Hollik, W.; Roth, M.; Stoeckinger, D.

    2003-12-01

    Supersymmetric Slavnov-Taylor and Ward identities are investigated in presence of soft and spontaneous symmetry breaking. We consider an abelian model where soft supersymmetry breaking yields a mass splitting between electron and selectron and triggers spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we derive corresponding identities that relate the electron and selectron masses with the Yukawa coupling. We demonstrate that the identities are valid in dimensional reduction and invalid in dimensional regularization and compute the necessary symmetry-restoring counterterms. (orig.)

  12. Infrared aspects of spontaneous symmetry breaking of gauge theories in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    The spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in SU(N) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in two dimensions is investigated by calculating the order parameter , where psi is the fermion in the theory, in the authors approximation. In the chiral limit, where the mass of the fermion m → O, is found to be non-zero both in the finite N and N → infinity cases. This implies that chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken by infrared effects in all these cases. The Wilson loop expectation value is calculated for again SU(N) QCD in two dimensions, without fermions. In two dimensions, the Coulomb potential is linear, and thus confining. Under the authors approximation, the area law of the Wilson loop is indeed obtained as expected, for all values of N; in addition, the N-dependent polynomial multiplying the Wilson exponential is also obtained. In quantum electrodynamics (QED) in three dimensions there is a possibility of spontaneous breaking of parity. The authors consider this possibility by studying and the photon propagator. It is found that in the limit m → O, is zero and the photon has a zero mass pole. Therefore, there is no sign of spontaneous parity violation in (QED) in three dimensions induced by infrared effects, in contrast to the positive result of chiral symmetry breaking in two dimensions

  13. Reformulation od spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Weinberg-Salam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, A.S.; Rawat, S.; Negi, O.P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Weinberg-Salam model have been reformulated in terms of quaternion-valued field variables. The quaternion-valued scalar Lagrangian reduces to four different field equations associated with the scalar quartet of a quaternion field φ φ 0 +e 1φ1 +e 2φ2 +e 3φ3 . It has been shown that the quaternion gauge group SO(4) is spontaneously broken to two gauge groups of SU(2) non Abelian gauge fields. The Weinberg-Salam model of electroweak interaction has been extensively studied to enlarge the gauge group structure SU(2) L xSU(2) R xU(1)

  14. Noncritical generation of nonclassical frequency combs via spontaneous rotational symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Patera, Giuseppe; de Valcárcel, Germán J.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators (SPOPOs) are optical cavities driven by mode-locked lasers, and containing a nonlinear crystal capable of down-converting a frequency comb to lower frequencies. SPOPOs have received a lot of attention lately because their intrinsic multimode nature makes them compact sources of quantum correlated light with promising applications in modern quantum information technologies. In this work we show that SPOPOs are also capable of accessing the challenging and interesting regime where spontaneous symmetry breaking confers strong nonclassical properties to the emitted light, which has eluded experimental observation so far. Apart from opening the possibility of studying experimentally this elusive regime of dissipative phase transitions, our predictions will have a practical impact, since we show that spontaneous symmetry breaking provides a specific spatiotemporal mode with large quadrature squeezing for any value of the system parameters, turning SPOPOs into robust sources of highly nonclassical light above threshold.

  15. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in local gauge quantum field theory; the Higgs mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocchi, F.

    1977-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breakings in indefinite metric quantum field theories are analyzed and a generalization of the Goldstone theorem is proved. The case of local gauge quantum field theories is discussed in detail and a characterization is given of the occurrence of the Higgs mechanism versus the Goldstone mechanism. The Higgs phenomenon is explained on general grounds without the introduction of the so-called Higgs fields. The basic property is the relation between the local internal symmetry group and the local group of gauge transformations of the second kind. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of c-number gauge transformations of the second kind is shown to always occur if there are charged local fields. The implications about the absence of mass gap in the Wightman functions and the occurrence of massless particles associated with the unbroken generators in the Higgs phenomenon are discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Spontaneous breaking of N=2 to N=1 in rigid and local supersymmetric theories

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Porrati, Massimo

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the relation between rigid and local supersymmetric N=2 field theories, when half of the supersymmetries are spontaneously broken. In particular, we show that the recently found partial supersymmety breaking induced by electric and magnetic Fayet-Iliopoulos terms in rigid theories can be obtained by a suitable flat limit of previously constructed N=2 supergravity models with partial super-Higgs in the observable sector.

  17. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, quantization of the electric charge and the anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1990-01-01

    Cancellation of anomalies and on ensuring that fermions are massive, one obtains quantization of the electric charge, which is shown to be independent of the hypercharge quantum number of the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model. Ignorance of this fact can lead to pitfalls. It is shown that contrary to the popular belief, charge quantization is not a consequence of the anomalies but that in addition spontaneous symmetry breaking is essential. (author)

  18. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermion chirality in higher-dimensional gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1985-01-01

    The number of chiral fermions may change in the course of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We discuss solutions of a six-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory based on SO(12). In the resulting effective four-dimensional theory they can be interpreted as spontaneous breaking of a gauge group SO(10) to H=SU(3)sub(C)xSU(2)sub(L)xU(1)sub(R)xU(1)sub(B-L). For all solutions, the fermions which are chiral with respect to H form standard generations. However, the number of generations for the solutions with broken SO(10) may be different compared to the symmetric solutions. All solutions considered here exhibit a local generation group SU(2)sub(G)xU(1)sub(G). For the solutions with broken SO(10) symmetry, the leptons and quarks within one generation transform differently with respect to SU(2)sub(G)xU(1)sub(G). Spontaneous symmetry breaking also modifies the SO(10) relations among Yukawa couplings. All this has important consequences for possible fermion mass relations obtained from higher-dimensional theories. (orig.)

  19. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Arts and Science

    2013-10-15

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1){sub R} breaking scale f{sub a} is constrained as f{sub a}<10{sup 12-14} GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  20. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kamada, Kohei; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2013-10-01

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1) R breaking scale f a is constrained as f a 12-14 GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  1. Time reversal and parity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, K.

    1975-01-01

    A recent review by Henley discusses the present status of Time Reversal and Parity symmetry violations, and comments on the implications for high energy hadron scattering. This note will briefly summarize the situation with particular attention to the sizes of possible effects, relating them to experimental accuracy available or reasonably possible at the ZGS

  2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking due to the trade-off between attractive and repulsive couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyadevi, K; Karthiga, S; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilkumar, D V; Lakshmanan, M

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important phenomenon observed in various fields including physics and biology. In this connection, we here show that the trade-off between attractive and repulsive couplings can induce spontaneous symmetry breaking in a homogeneous system of coupled oscillators. With a simple model of a system of two coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators, we demonstrate how the tendency of attractive coupling in inducing in-phase synchronized (IPS) oscillations and the tendency of repulsive coupling in inducing out-of-phase synchronized oscillations compete with each other and give rise to symmetry breaking oscillatory states and interesting multistabilities. Further, we provide explicit expressions for synchronized and antisynchronized oscillatory states as well as the so called oscillation death (OD) state and study their stability. If the Hopf bifurcation parameter (λ) is greater than the natural frequency (ω) of the system, the attractive coupling favors the emergence of an antisymmetric OD state via a Hopf bifurcation whereas the repulsive coupling favors the emergence of a similar state through a saddle-node bifurcation. We show that an increase in the repulsive coupling not only destabilizes the IPS state but also facilitates the reentrance of the IPS state.

  3. Bogoliubov condensation of gluons and spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.; Roepke, G.; Volkov, M.K.; Blaschke, D.; Pavel, H.P.; Litvin, A.

    1995-08-01

    The ''squeezed'' representation of commutation relations for gluon fields in QCD is formulated as the mathematical tool for the description of the gluon condensate. We first consider λφ 4 theory and show that the ''squeezed'' Bogoliubov condensate can lead to the spontaneous appearance of a mass. Using the ''squeezed'' representation, we show that in the non-Abelian theory spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking (SGSB) and the appearance of a constituent mass of gluons can be described. We construct a projector onto the oscillator - like variables, for which the ''squeezed'' representation is valid, by using the formal solution of the Gauss equation instead of fixing a gauge. We discuss the effects of the SGSB and present as an application of the approach the calculation of the gluon mass from the difference of the η' and the η - meson masses. (author). 27 refs

  4. Penrose limit, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and holography in a pp-wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sumit R.; Gomez, Cesar; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2002-01-01

    We argue that the gauge theory dual to the type IIB string theory in a ten-dimensional pp-wave background resides on a Euclidean subspace spanning four of the eight transverse coordinates. We then show that the evolution of the string along one of the light cone directions in the bulk is identifiable as the RG flow of the gauge theory, a relation facilitating the 'holography' of the pp-wave background. The 'holography' reorganizes the dual gauge theory into theories defined over Hilbert subspaces of fixed R charge. The reorganization breaks the SO(4,2)xSO(6) symmetry to a maximal subgroup SO(4)xSO(4) spontaneously. We argue that the low-energy string modes may be regarded as Goldstone modes resulting from such a symmetry breaking pattern

  5. Chains of benzenes with lithium-atom adsorption: Vibrations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Yenni P.; Stegmann, Thomas; Klein, Douglas J.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2017-09-01

    We study effects of different configurations of adsorbates on the vibrational modes as well as symmetries of polyacenes and poly-p-phenylenes focusing on lithium atom adsorption. We found that the spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different configurations. For more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essentially followed by the adsorbate. On poly-p-phenylenes we found that lithium adsorption reduces and often eliminates the torsion between rings thus increasing symmetry. There is spontaneous symmetry breaking in poly-p-phenylenes due to double adsorption of lithium atoms on alternating rings.

  6. Relativistic Hydrodynamics of Color-Flavor Locking Phase with Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sun; WANG Fan

    2004-01-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of color-flavor locking phase of three flavors of light quarks in high density QCD with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The basic hydrodynamic equations are presented based on the Poisson bracket method and the Goldstone phonon and the thermo phonon are compared. The dissipative equations are constructed in the frame of the first-order theory and all the transport coefficients are also defined, which could be looked on as the general case including the Landau's theory and the Eckart's theory

  7. Quark Yukawa pattern from spontaneous breaking of flavour SU(3) 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    A SU(3)Q × SU(3)u × SU(3)d invariant scalar potential breaking spontaneously the quark flavour symmetry can explain the Standard Model flavour puzzle. The approximate alignment in flavour space of the vacuum expectation values of the up and down 'Yukawa fields' results as a dynamical effect. The observed quark mixing angles, the weak CP violating phase, and hierarchical quark masses can be all reproduced at the cost of introducing additional (auxiliary) scalar multiplets, but without the need of introducing hierarchical parameters.

  8. Dipole mechanism of spontaneous breaking of N = 2 supersymmetry. II. Reformulation and generalization in harmonic superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, N.

    1985-01-01

    After elucidating the component structure of N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories in the harmonic superspace formalism with central charges, we reformulate our previous dipole mechanism of spontaneous breaking of N = 2 supersymmetry free from the Nambu-Goldstone-fermion difficulties in this formalism. This allows a generalization of our previous model of generating finiteness-preserving mass terms for scalar hypermultiplets; we can also obtain the gauge-fermion and scalar mass terms together with specific cubic interactions for scalar fields. The mechanism is equivalent to the so-called spurion method

  9. The complex Langevin analysis of spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by complex fermion determinant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nishimura, Jun [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI),1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-12-05

    In many interesting physical systems, the determinant which appears from integrating out fermions becomes complex, and its phase plays a crucial role in the determination of the vacuum. An example of this is QCD at low temperature and high density, where various exotic fermion condensates are conjectured to form. Another example is the Euclidean version of the type IIB matrix model for 10d superstring theory, where spontaneous breaking of the SO(10) rotational symmetry down to SO(4) is expected to occur. When one applies the complex Langevin method to these systems, one encounters the singular-drift problem associated with the appearance of nearly zero eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. Here we propose to avoid this problem by deforming the action with a fermion bilinear term. The results for the original system are obtained by extrapolations with respect to the deformation parameter. We demonstrate the power of this approach by applying it to a simple matrix model, in which spontaneous symmetry breaking from SO(4) to SO(2) is expected to occur due to the phase of the complex fermion determinant. Unlike previous work based on a reweighting-type method, we are able to determine the true vacuum by calculating the order parameters, which agree with the prediction by the Gaussian expansion method.

  10. Spontaneous Time Symmetry Breaking in System with Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibrium: Evidences in Experimental Economics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.

  11. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the BRST symmetry in presence of the Gribov horizon: Renormalizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capri, Marcio; Justo, Igor; Guimaraes, Marcelo; Sorella, Silvio; Dudal, David; Palhares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In recent years much attention has been devoted to the study of the issue of the Gribov copies and of its relevance for confinement in Yang-Mills theories. The existence of the Gribov copies is a general feature of the gauge-fixing quantization procedure, being related to the impossibility of finding a local gauge condition which picks up only one gauge configuration for each gauge orbit. As it has been shown by Gribov and Zwanziger, a partial solution of the Gribov problem in the Landau gauge can be achieved by restricting the domain of integration in the functional Euclidean integral to the first Gribov horizon. Among the various open aspects of the Gribov-Zwanziger framework, the issue of the BRST symmetry is a source of continuous investigations. In a recent work, we have been able to obtain an equivalent formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger action which displays an exact BRST symmetry which turns out to be spontaneously broken by the restriction of the domain of integration to the Gribov horizon. In particular, the BRST operator retains the important property of being nilpotent. Moreover, it has also been shown that the Goldstone mode associated to the spontaneous breaking of the BRST symmetry is completely decoupled. The aim of the present work is that of fills up a gap not addressed in the previous work, namely, the renormalizability to all orders of the spontaneous symmetry breaking formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger theory. As we shall see, the action obtained enjoys a large set of Ward identities which enables to prove that it is, in fact, multiplicatively renormalizable to all orders. (author)

  12. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  13. Theta, time reversal and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, Davide [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kapustin, Anton [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-05-17

    SU(N) gauge theory is time reversal invariant at θ=0 and θ=π. We show that at θ=π there is a discrete ’t Hooft anomaly involving time reversal and the center symmetry. This anomaly leads to constraints on the vacua of the theory. It follows that at θ=π the vacuum cannot be a trivial non-degenerate gapped state. (By contrast, the vacuum at θ=0 is gapped, non-degenerate, and trivial.) Due to the anomaly, the theory admits nontrivial domain walls supporting lower-dimensional theories. Depending on the nature of the vacuum at θ=π, several phase diagrams are possible. Assuming area law for space-like loops, one arrives at an inequality involving the temperatures at which CP and the center symmetry are restored. We also analyze alternative scenarios for SU(2) gauge theory. The underlying symmetry at θ=π is the dihedral group of 8 elements. If deconfined loops are allowed, one can have two O(2)-symmetric fixed points. It may also be that the four-dimensional theory around θ=π is gapless, e.g. a Coulomb phase could match the underlying anomalies.

  14. Theta, time reversal and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Komargodski, Zohar; Seiberg, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    SU(N) gauge theory is time reversal invariant at θ=0 and θ=π. We show that at θ=π there is a discrete ’t Hooft anomaly involving time reversal and the center symmetry. This anomaly leads to constraints on the vacua of the theory. It follows that at θ=π the vacuum cannot be a trivial non-degenerate gapped state. (By contrast, the vacuum at θ=0 is gapped, non-degenerate, and trivial.) Due to the anomaly, the theory admits nontrivial domain walls supporting lower-dimensional theories. Depending on the nature of the vacuum at θ=π, several phase diagrams are possible. Assuming area law for space-like loops, one arrives at an inequality involving the temperatures at which CP and the center symmetry are restored. We also analyze alternative scenarios for SU(2) gauge theory. The underlying symmetry at θ=π is the dihedral group of 8 elements. If deconfined loops are allowed, one can have two O(2)-symmetric fixed points. It may also be that the four-dimensional theory around θ=π is gapless, e.g. a Coulomb phase could match the underlying anomalies.

  15. Trex2 enables spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges without facilitating DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Hu, Lingchuan; Son, Mi Young; Li, Han; Wesevich, Austin; Scully, Ralph; Stark, Jeremy; Hasty, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Trex2 is a 3' → 5' exonuclease that removes 3'-mismatched sequences in a biochemical assay; however, its biological function remains unclear. To address biology we previously generated trex2(null) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and expressed in these cells wild-type human TREX2 cDNA (Trex2(hTX2)) or cDNA with a single-amino-acid change in the catalytic domain (Trex2(H188A)) or in the DNA-binding domain (Trex2(R167A)). We found the trex2(null) and Trex2(H188A) cells exhibited spontaneous broken chromosomes and trex2(null) cells exhibited spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements. We also found ectopically expressed human TREX2 was active at the 3' ends of I-SceI-induced chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs). Therefore, we hypothesized Trex2 participates in DNA DSB repair by modifying 3' ends. This may be especially important for ends with damaged nucleotides. Here we present data that are unexpected and prompt a new model. We found Trex2-altered cells (null, H188A, and R167A) were not hypersensitive to camptothecin, a type-1 topoisomerase inhibitor that induces DSBs at replication forks. In addition, Trex2-altered cells were not hypersensitive to γ-radiation, an agent that causes DSBs throughout the cell cycle. This observation held true even in cells compromised for one of the two major DSB repair pathways: homology-directed repair (HDR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Trex2 deletion also enhanced repair of an I-SceI-induced DSB by both HDR and NHEJ without affecting pathway choice. Interestingly, however, trex2(null) cells exhibited reduced spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) but this was not due to a defect in HDR-mediated crossing over. Therefore, reduced spontaneous SCE could be a manifestation of the same defect that caused spontaneous broken chromosomes and spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements. These unexpected data suggest Trex2 does not enable DSB repair and prompt a new model that posits Trex2 suppresses the formation of broken

  16. Dynamic spontaneous breaking of gauge invariance in asymptotically free theories. [Mechanism mass, group renormalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansel' m, A A; D' yakonov, D I [AN SSSR, Leningrad. Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of dynamic spontaneous breaking of the Coleman-Weinberg gauge invariance is discussed in which scalar fields assume nonzero mean values owing to quantum effects in higher orders of the perturbation theory. Group renormalization methods are used to study scalar electrodynamics and gauge theories similar to that of Yang and Mills; for these gauge theories it is established that by choosing proper constants it is possible to combine the acquisition of a mass by particles, owing to a dynamic violation of symmetry, with the asymptotic freedom of the theory. The symmetry violation is found to be closely related to infrared poles observed in effective charge for asymptotically free theories. The emerging masses of particles automatically cover these poles. It is proved that physical results due to symmetry violation do not depend, at least in the first non-trivial order of the perturbation theory, on the initial gauging of vector fields.

  17. Truncation effects in the functional renormalization group study of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defenu, N.; Mati, P.; Márián, I.G.; Nándori, I.; Trombettoni, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for O(N) models using functional renormalization group techniques. We show that even the local potential approximation (LPA) when treated exactly is sufficient to give qualitatively correct results for systems with continuous symmetry, in agreement with the Mermin-Wagner theorem and its extension to systems with fractional dimensions. For general N (including the Ising model N=1) we study the solutions of the LPA equations for various truncations around the zero field using a finite number of terms (and different regulators), showing that SSB always occurs even where it should not. The SSB is signalled by Wilson-Fisher fixed points which for any truncation are shown to stay on the line defined by vanishing mass beta functions.

  18. Chiral polarization scale of QCD vacuum and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horv, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been found that dynamics of pure glue QCD supports the low energy band of Dirac modes with local chiral properties qualitatively different from that of a bulk: while bulk modes suppress chirality relative to statistical independence between left and right, the band modes enhance it. The width of such chirally polarized zone – chiral polarization scale bigwedge ch – has been shown to be finite in the continuum limit at fixed physical volume. Here we present evidence that bigwedge ch remains non-zero also in the infinite volume, and is therefore a dynamical scale in the theory. Our experiments in N f = 2+1 QCD support the proposition that the same holds in the massless limit, connecting bigwedge ch to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In addition, our results suggest that thermal agitation in quenched QCD destroys both chiral polarization and condensation of Dirac modes at the same temperature T ch > T c .

  19. Charged tensor matter fields and Lorentz symmetry violation via spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colatto, L.P.; Penna, A.L.A.; Santos, W.C.

    2003-10-01

    We consider a model with a charged vector field along with a Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond (CSKR) matter field coupled to a U(1) gauge potential. We obtain a natural Lorentz symmetry violation due to the local U(1) spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism triggered by the imaginary part of the vector matter. The choice of the unitary gauge leads to the decoupling of the gauge-Kr sector from the Higgs-Kr sector. The excitation spectrum is carefully analyzed and the physical modes are identified. We propose an identification of the neutral massive spin-1 Higgs-like field with the massive Z' boson of the so-called mirror matter models. (author)

  20. Esoteric elementary particle phenomena in undergraduate physics: spontaneous symmetry breaking and scale invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    We take two rather abstract concepts from elementary particle physics, and show that there actually exist analogs to both of them in undergraduate physics. In the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking, we provide an example where the most symmetrical state of a simple system suddenly becomes unstable, while a less symmetrical state develops lower energy and becomes stable. In the case of scale invariance, we consider an example with no natural scale determined, and show that a straightforward dimensional analysis of the problem leads to incorrect results, because of the occurrence of infinities, even though they would appear to be irrelevant infinities that might not be expected to affect the dimensions of the answer. We then show how a simple use of the scale invariance of the problem leads to the correct answer

  1. Spontaneous CP breaking in QCD and the axion potential: an effective Lagrangian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Rossi, Giancarlo; Veneziano, Gabriele; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2017-12-01

    Using the well-known low-energy effective Lagrangian of QCD — valid for small (non-vanishing) quark masses and a large number of colors — we study in detail the regions of parameter space where CP is spontaneously broken/unbroken for a vacuum angle θ = π. In the CP broken region there are first order phase transitions as one crosses θ = π, while on the (hyper)surface separating the two regions, there are second order phase transitions signalled by the vanishing of the mass of a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson and by a divergent QCD topological susceptibility. The second order point sits at the end of a first order line associated with the CP spontaneous breaking, in the appropriate complex parameter plane. When the effective Lagrangian is extended by the inclusion of an axion these features of QCD imply that standard calculations of the axion potential have to be revised if the QCD parameters fall in the above mentioned CP broken region, in spite of the fact that the axion solves the strong- CP problem. These last results could be of interest for axionic dark matter calculations if the topological susceptibility of pure Yang-Mills theory falls off sufficiently fast when temperature is increased towards the QCD deconfining transition.

  2. Twisted Spectral Triple for the Standard Model and Spontaneous Breaking of the Grand Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devastato, Agostino, E-mail: agostino.devastato@na.infn.it; Martinetti, Pierre, E-mail: martinetti@dima.unige.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Grand symmetry models in noncommutative geometry, characterized by a non-trivial action of functions on spinors, have been introduced to generate minimally (i.e. without adding new fermions) and in agreement with the first order condition an extra scalar field beyond the standard model, which both stabilizes the electroweak vacuum and makes the computation of the mass of the Higgs compatible with its experimental value. In this paper, we use a twist in the sense of Connes-Moscovici to cure a technical problem due to the non-trivial action on spinors, that is the appearance together with the extra scalar field of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded and - thanks to a twisted version of the first-order condition that we introduce here - also permits to understand the breaking to the standard model as a dynamical process induced by the spectral action, as conjectured in [24]. This is a spontaneous breaking from a pre-geometric Pati-Salam model to the almost-commutativegeometryofthestandardmodel,withtwoHiggs-likefields: scalar and vector.

  3. Spontaneous mirror left-right symmetry breaking for leptogenesis parametrized by Majorana neutrino mass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Pei-Hong

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a mirror copy of the ordinary fermions and Higgs scalars for embedding the SU(2) L × U(1) Y electroweak gauge symmetry into an SU(2) L × SU(2) R × U(1) B-L left-right gauge symmetry. We then show the spontaneous left-right symmetry breaking can automatically break the parity symmetry motivated by solving the strong CP problem. Through the SU(2) R gauge interactions, a mirror Majorana neutrino can decay into a mirror charged lepton and two mirror quarks. Consequently we can obtain a lepton asymmetry stored in the mirror charged leptons. The Yukawa couplings of the mirror and ordinary charged fermions to a dark matter scalar then can transfer the mirror lepton asymmetry to an ordinary lepton asymmetry which provides a solution to the cosmic baryon asymmetry in association with the SU(2) L sphaleron processes. In this scenario, the baryon asymmetry can be well described by the neutrino mass matrix up to an overall factor.

  4. Zurek–Kibble Symmetry Breaking Process in Superconducting Rings; Spontaneous Fluxon Formation in Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, Roberto; Dmitriev, P

    2007-01-01

    We report on new investigations of spontaneous symmetry breaking in non-adiabatic phase transitions. This Zurek-Kibble (ZK) process is mimicked in solid state systems by trapping of magnetic flux quanta, fluxons, in a long annular Josephson tunnel junction quenched through the normal-superconducting...

  5. Time reversal and the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupp, T. E.; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Jones, G. L.; Garcia, A.; Mumm, H. P.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K.; Trull, C.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2013-01-01

    We have measured the triple correlation D n >/J n ·(β e x p-hat ν ) with a polarized cold-neutron beam (Mumm et al., Phys Rev Lett 107:102301, 2011; Chupp et al., Phys Rev C 86:035505, 2012). A non-zero value of D can arise due to parity-even-time-reversal-odd interactions that imply CP violation. Final-state effects also contribute to D at the level of 10  − 5 and can be calculated with precision of 1 % or better. The D coefficient is uniquely sensitive to the imaginary part of the ratio of axial-vector and vector beta-decay amplitudes as well as to scalar and tensor interactions that could arise due to beyond-Standard-Model physics. Over 300 million proton-electron coincidence events were used in a blind analysis with the result D = [ − 0.94±1.89 (stat)±0.97(sys)]×10  − 4 . Assuming only vector and axial vector interactions in beta decay, our result can be interpreted as a measure of the phase of the axial-vector coupling relative to the vector coupling, φ AV = 180.012 ° ± 0.028 °. This result also improves constrains on certain non-VA interactions.

  6. Time reversal and the neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chupp, T. E., E-mail: chupp@umich.edu; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P. [Univeristy of Michigan (United States); Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K. [University of California and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States); Jones, G. L. [Hamilton College (United States); Garcia, A. [University of Washington (United States); Mumm, H. P.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (United States); Trull, C.; Wietfeldt, F. E. [Tulane University (United States); Wilkerson, J. F. [University of North Carolina (United States); Collaboration: emiT II Collaboration

    2013-03-15

    We have measured the triple correlation D/J{sub n}{center_dot}({beta}{sub e} x p-hat{sub {nu}}) with a polarized cold-neutron beam (Mumm et al., Phys Rev Lett 107:102301, 2011; Chupp et al., Phys Rev C 86:035505, 2012). A non-zero value of D can arise due to parity-even-time-reversal-odd interactions that imply CP violation. Final-state effects also contribute to D at the level of 10{sup - 5} and can be calculated with precision of 1 % or better. The D coefficient is uniquely sensitive to the imaginary part of the ratio of axial-vector and vector beta-decay amplitudes as well as to scalar and tensor interactions that could arise due to beyond-Standard-Model physics. Over 300 million proton-electron coincidence events were used in a blind analysis with the result D = [ - 0.94{+-}1.89 (stat){+-}0.97(sys)] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup - 4}. Assuming only vector and axial vector interactions in beta decay, our result can be interpreted as a measure of the phase of the axial-vector coupling relative to the vector coupling, {phi}{sub AV} = 180.012 Degree-Sign {+-} 0.028 Degree-Sign . This result also improves constrains on certain non-VA interactions.

  7. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of Bose-Fermi mixtures in double-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S. K.; Malomed, B. A.; Salasnich, L.; Toigo, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of a superfluid Bose-Fermi (BF) mixture in a double-well potential (DWP). The mixture is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) for the bosons, coupled to an equation for the order parameter of the Fermi superfluid, which is derived from the respective density functional in the unitarity limit (a similar model applies to the BCS regime, too). Straightforward SSB in the degenerate Fermi gas loaded into a DWP is impossible, as it requires an attractive self-interaction, and the intrinsic nonlinearity in the Fermi gas is repulsive. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that the symmetry breaking is possible in the mixture with attraction between fermions and bosons, like 40 K and 87 Rb. Numerical results are represented by dependencies of asymmetry parameters for both components on particle numbers of the mixture, N F and N B , and by phase diagrams in the (N F ,N B ) plane, which displays regions of symmetric and asymmetric ground states. The dynamical picture of the SSB, induced by a gradual transformation of the single-well potential into the DWP, is reported too. An analytical approximation is proposed for the case when the GPE for the boson wave function may be treated by means of the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation. Under a special linear relationship between N F and N B , the TF approximation allows us to reduce the model to a single equation for the fermionic function, which includes competing repulsive and attractive nonlinear terms. The latter one directly displays the mechanism of the generation of the effective attraction in the Fermi superfluid, mediated by the bosonic component of the mixture.

  8. Spontaneous Symmetry-Breaking in a Network Model for Quadruped Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous symmetry-breaking proves a mechanism for pattern generation in legged locomotion of animals. The basic timing patterns of animal gaits are produced by a network of spinal neurons known as a Central Pattern Generator (CPG). Animal gaits are primarily characterized by phase differences between leg movements in a periodic gait cycle. Many different gaits occur, often having spatial or spatiotemporal symmetries. A natural way to explain gait patterns is to assume that the CPG is symmetric, and to classify the possible symmetry-breaking periodic motions. Pinto and Golubitsky have discussed a four-node model CPG network for biped gaits with ℤ2 × ℤ2 symmetry, classifying the possible periodic states that can arise. A more specific rate model with this structure has been analyzed in detail by Stewart. Here we extend these methods to quadruped gaits, using an eight-node network with ℤ4 × ℤ2 symmetry proposed by Golubitsky and coworkers. We formulate a rate model and calculate how the first steady or Hopf bifurcation depends on its parameters, which represent four connection strengths. The calculations involve a distinction between “real” gaits with one or two phase shifts (pronk, bound, pace, trot) and “complex” gaits with four phase shifts (forward and reverse walk, forward and reverse buck). The former correspond to real eigenvalues of the connection matrix, the latter to complex conjugate pairs. The partition of parameter space according to the first bifurcation, ignoring complex gaits, is described explicitly. The complex gaits introduce further complications, not yet fully understood. All eight gaits can occur as the first bifurcation from a fully synchronous equilibrium, for suitable parameters, and numerical simulations indicate that they can be asymptotically stable.

  9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Instituto de Fisica, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Meza-Aldama, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hypercomplex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the U(1) gauge field theory, corresponds to a hybrid potential with two real components, and with U(1) x SO(1,1) as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and such as Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the hyperbolic electrodynamics does not admit topological defects associated with continuous symmetries. (orig.)

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ4 theory in light-front field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Pinsky, S.; van de Sande, B.

    1993-01-01

    We study spontaneous symmetry breaking in (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory using the light-front formulation of field theory. Since the physical vacuum is always the same as the perturbative vacuum in light-front field theory the fields must develop a vacuum expectation value through the zero-mode components of the field. We solve the nonlinear operator equation for the zero mode in the one-mode approximation. We find that spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs at λ critical =4π(3+ √3 )μ 2 , which is consistent with the value λ critical =54.27μ 2 obtained in the equal-time theory. We calculate the vacuum expectation value as a function of the coupling constant in the broken phase both numerically and analytically using the δ expansion. We find two equivalent broken phases. Finally we show that the energy levels of the system have the expected behavior for the broken phase

  11. Light-front quantized field theory (an introduction): spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dirac procedure is used to construct the Hamiltonian formulation of the scalar field theory on the light-front. The theory is quantized and the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the front form and the instant form dynamics are compared. The phase transition in (φ 4 )2 theory is also discussed and found to be of the second order. (author). 36 refs

  12. Phase transition of the first kind with respect to the density in a model of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry motivated by quantum chromodynamics is considered at a finite density of the quarks and zero temperature. For zero chemical potential the dynamical quark mass, the bag constant, and the vacuum expectation value are estimated. The dependence of the grand thermodynamic potential on the chemical potential of the quarks and of the energy on the particle number density are calculated. It is found that there is a phase transition of the first kind with respect to the density of the quarks accompanied by restoration of the chiral symmetry. The critical values of the fermion density are found

  13. Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, and eventually of parity, in a σ-model with two Mexican hats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacosa, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A σ-model with two linked Mexican hats is discussed. This scenario could be realized in low-energy QCD when the ground state and the first excited (pseudo)scalar mesons are included, and where not only in the subspace of the ground states, but also in that of the first excited states, a Mexican hat potential is present. This possibility can change some basic features of a low-energy hadronic theory of QCD. It is also shown that spontaneous breaking of parity can occur in the vacuum for some parameter choice of the model. (orig.)

  14. Time reversibility in the quantum frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masot-Conde, Fátima [Escuela Superior Ingenieros, Dpt. Física Aplicada III, Universidad de Sevilla Isla Mágica, 41092- Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-12-04

    Classic Mechanics and Electromagnetism, conventionally taken as time-reversible, share the same concept of motion (either of mass or charge) as the basis of the time reversibility in their own fields. This paper focuses on the relationship between mobile geometry and motion reversibility. The goal is to extrapolate the conclusions to the quantum frame, where matter and radiation behave just as elementary mobiles. The possibility that the asymmetry of Time (Time’s arrow) is an effect of a fundamental quantum asymmetry of elementary particles, turns out to be a consequence of the discussion.

  15. Constraints on a parity-even/time-reversal-odd interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2000-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement, one of the results of the CPLEAR experiment. What is the situation then with regard to time-reversal-invariance non-conservation in systems other than the neutral kaon system? Two classes of tests of time-reversal-invariance need to be distinguished: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance non-conserving (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. This in turn provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. The better constraint stems also from the measurement of the electric dipole moment of the neutron. Of all the other tests, measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering provide the next better constraint. The latter experiments were performed at TRIUMF (at 477 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (at 183 MeV). Weak decay experiments (the transverse polarization of the muon in K + →π 0 μ + ν μ and the transverse polarization of the positrons in polarized muon decay) have the potential to provide comparable or possibly better constraints

  16. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ4 theory in light-front field theory. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, S.S.; van de Sande, B.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory in light-front field theory using a Tamm-Dancoff truncation. We show that, even though light-front field theory has a simple vacuum state which is an eigenstate of the full Hamiltonian, the field can develop a nonzero vacuum expectation value. This occurs because the zero mode of the field must satisfy an operator-valued constraint equation. In the context of (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory we present solutions to the constraint equation using a Tamm-Dancoff truncation to a finite number of particles and modes. We study the behavior of the zero mode as a function of coupling and Fock space truncation. The zero mode introduces new interactions into the Hamiltonian which breaks the Z 2 symmetry of the theory when the coupling is stronger than the critical coupling. We investigate the energy spectrum in the symmetric and broken phases, show that the theory does not break down in the vicinity of the critical coupling, and discuss the connection to perturbation theory. Finally, we study the spectrum of the field φ and show that, in the broken phase, the field is localized away from φ=0 as one would expect from equal-time calculations. We explicitly show that tunneling occurs

  17. Time reversal technique for gas leakage detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A O; Polovinka, Yu A

    2015-04-01

    The acoustic remote sensing of subsea gas leakage traditionally uses sonars as active acoustic sensors and hydrophones picking up the sound generated by a leak as passive sensors. When gas leaks occur underwater, bubbles are produced and emit sound at frequencies intimately related to their sizes. The experimental implementation of an acoustic time-reversal mirror (TRM) is now well established in underwater acoustics. In the basic TRM experiment, a probe source emits a pulse that is received on an array of sensors, time reversed, and re-emitted. After time reversal, the resulting field focuses back at the probe position. In this study, a method for enhancing operation of the passive receiving system has been proposed by using it in the regime of TRM. Two factors, the local character of the acoustic emission signal caused by the leakage and a resonant nature of the bubble radiation at their birth, make particularly effective scattering with the conjugate wave (CW). Analytical calculations are performed for the scattering of CW wave on a single bubble when CW is formed by bubble birthing wail received on an array, time reversed, and re-emitted. The quality of leakage detection depends on the spatio-temporal distribution of ambient noise.

  18. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in ΡΤ symmetric systems with nonlinear damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthiga, S.; Chandrasekar, V.K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, we discuss the remarkable role of position dependent damping in determining the parametric regions of symmetry breaking in nonlinear ΡΤ -symmetric systems. We illustrate the nature of ΡΤ-symmetry preservation and breaking with reference to a remarkable integrable scalar nonlinear system. In the two dimensional cases of such position dependent damped systems, we unveil the existence of a class of novel bi-ΡΤ -symmetric systems which have two fold ΡΤ symmetries. We discuss the dynamics of these systems and show how symmetry breaking occurs, that is whether the symmetry breaking of the two ΡΤ symmetries occurs in pair or occurs one by one. The addition of linear damping in these nonlinearly damped systems induces competition between the two types of damping. This competition results in a ΡΤ phase transition in which the ΡΤ symmetry is broken for lower loss/gain strength and is restored by increasing the loss/gain strength. We also show that by properly designing the form of the position dependent damping, we can tailor the ΡΤ-symmetric regions of the system. (author)

  19. On the membrane paradigm and spontaneous breaking of horizon BMS symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eling, Christopher; Oz, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    We consider a BMS-type symmetry action on isolated horizons in asymptotically flat spacetimes. From the viewpoint of the non-relativistic field theory on a horizon membrane, supertranslations shift the field theory spatial momentum. The latter is related by a Ward identity to the particle number symmetry current and is spontaneously broken. The corresponding Goldstone boson shifts the horizon angular momentum and can be detected quantum mechanically. Similarly, area preserving superrotations are spontaneously broken on the horizon membrane and we identify the corresponding gapless modes. In asymptotically AdS spacetimes we study the BMS-type symmetry action on the horizon in a holographic superfluid dual. We identify the horizon supertranslation Goldstone boson as the holographic superfluid Goldstone mode.

  20. Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we will study the spontaneous breakdown of the Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity. Our analysis will be done in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. We will also analyse the modification of the BRST and anti-BRST transformations by the formation of this ghost condensate. It will be shown that even though the modified BRST and anti-BRST transformations are not nilpotent, their nilpotency is restored on-shell.

  1. Time-Reversal Generation of Rogue Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabchoub, Amin; Fink, Mathias

    2014-03-01

    The formation of extreme localizations in nonlinear dispersive media can be explained and described within the framework of nonlinear evolution equations, such as the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS). Within the class of exact NLS breather solutions on a finite background, which describe the modulational instability of monochromatic wave trains, the hierarchy of rational solutions localized in both time and space is considered to provide appropriate prototypes to model rogue wave dynamics. Here, we use the time-reversal invariance of the NLS to propose and experimentally demonstrate a new approach to constructing strongly nonlinear localized waves focused in both time and space. The potential applications of this time-reversal approach include remote sensing and motivated analogous experimental analysis in other nonlinear dispersive media, such as optics, Bose-Einstein condensates, and plasma, where the wave motion dynamics is governed by the NLS.

  2. Time reversal tests in polarized neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asahi, Koichiro; Bowman, J.D.; Crawford, B.

    1998-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In recent years the nuclear weak interaction has been studied in the compound nucleus via parity violation. The observed parity-violating effects are strongly enhanced by nuclear structure. The predictions are that the interaction of polarized neutrons with polarized nuclear targets could be also used to perform sensitive tests of time-reversal-violation because of the nuclear enhancements. The author has designed experiments to search for time-reversal violation in neutron-nucleus interactions. He has also developed techniques to polarize neutrons with laser-polarized 3 He gas targets. Using the polarized 3 He neutron spin filter, he has performed two experiments at LANSCE: an absolute neutron beam polarization measurement with an accuracy of 0.2--0.3% and a neutron spin-rotation measurement on a 139 La sample

  3. dRGT theory of massive gravity from spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabian, Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    In this note we propose a topological action for a Poincare times diffeomorphism invariant gauge theory. We show that there is Higgs phase where the gauge symmetry is spontaneous broken to a diagonal Lorentz subgroup and gives the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the dRGT potential terms. In this vacuum, there are five (three from Goldstone modes) propagating degrees of freedom which form polarizations of a massive spin 2 particle, an extra healthy heavy scalar (Higgs) mode and no Boulware-Deser ghost mode. We further show that the action can be derived in a limit from a topological de Sitter invariant gauge theory in 4 dimensions.

  4. String dynamics, spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry, and dual scalar field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Luxin

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of a vortex string, which describes the Nambu-Goldstone modes of the spontaneous breakdown of the target space D=4, N=1 supersymmetry and internal U(1) R symmetry to the world sheet ISO(1,1) symmetry, is constructed by using the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting action describing the low energy oscillations of the string into the covolume (super)space is found to have an invariant synthesis form of the Akulov-Volkov and Nambu-Goto actions. Its dual scalar field action is obtained by means of introducing two vectorial Lagrangian multipliers into the action of the string.

  5. Normalization sum rule and spontaneous breaking of U(N) invariance in random matrix ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canali, C.M.; Kravtsov, V.E.

    1995-03-01

    It is shown that the two-level correlation function R(s,s') in the invariant random matrix ensembles (RME) with soft confinement exhibits a ''ghost peak'' at s approx. -s'. This lifts the sum rule prohibition for the level number variance to have a Poisson-like term var(n) = ηn that is typical of RME with broken U(N) symmetry. Thus we conclude that the U(N) invariance is broken spontaneously in the RME with soft confinement, η playing the role of an order-parameter. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig

  6. Sum rules for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking parameters of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Stern, J.

    1981-03-01

    We discuss in the spirit of the work of Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov (SVZ), sum rules involving current-current vacuum correlation functions, whose Wilson expansion starts off with the operators anti qq or (anti qq) 2 , and thus provide information about the chiral symmetry breaking parameters of QCD. We point out that under the type of crude approximations made by SVZ, a value of sub(vac) (250MeV) 3 is obtained from one of these sum rules, in agreement with current expectations. Further we show that a Borel transformed version of the Weinberg sum rule, for VV - AA, current products seem only to make sense for an A 1 mass close to 1.3GeV and it makes little sense with the current algebra mass Msub(A)=anti 2M. We also give an estimate for the chiral symmetry breaking parameters μ 1 6 =2 2 (anti qsub(L) lambda sup(a)γsub(μ)qsub(L))(anti qsub(R) lambdasup(a) γsup(μ)qsub(R)) >sub(vac) entering in the Weinberg sum rules and μ 2 6 =g 2 sub(vac) entering in a new sum rule we propose involving antisymmetric tensor currents J=anti q σsub(μnu) q. (author)

  7. The pseudo-conformal universe: scale invariance from spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel theory of the very early universe which addresses the traditional horizon and flatness problems of big bang cosmology and predicts a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. Unlike inflation, this scenario requires no exponential accelerated expansion of space-time. Instead, the early universe is described by a conformal field theory minimally coupled to gravity. The conformal fields develop a time-dependent expectation value which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal symmetry down to so(4,1), the symmetries of de Sitter, giving perturbations a scale invariant spectrum. The solution is an attractor, at least in the case of a single time-dependent field. Meanwhile, the metric background remains approximately flat but slowly contracts, which makes the universe increasingly flat, homogeneous and isotropic, akin to the smoothing mechanism of ekpyrotic cosmology. Our scenario is very general, requiring only a conformal field theory capable of developing the appropriate time-dependent expectation values, and encompasses existing incarnations of this idea, specifically the U(1) model of Rubakov and the Galileon Genesis scenario. Its essential features depend only on the symmetry breaking pattern and not on the details of the underlying lagrangian. It makes generic observational predictions that make it potentially distinguishable from standard inflation, in particular significant non-gaussianities and the absence of primordial gravitational waves

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem in non-Hermitian field theories arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Millington, Peter; Seynaeve, Dries

    We demonstrate the extension to PT-symmetric field theories of the Goldstone theorem, confirming that the spontaneous appearance of a field vacuum expectation value via minimisation of the effective potential in a non-Hermitian model is accompanied by a massless scalar boson. Laying a basis for our analysis, we first show how the conventional quantisation of the path-integral formulation of quantum field theory can be extended consistently to a non-Hermitian model by considering PT conjugation instead of Hermitian conjugation. The extension of the Goldstone theorem to a PT-symmetric field theory is made possible by the existence of a conserved current that does not, however, correspond to a symmetry of the non-Hermitian Lagrangian. In addition to extending the proof of the Goldstone theorem to a PT-symmetric theory, we exhibit a specific example in which we verify the existence of a massless boson at the tree and one-loop levels.

  9. Topological defect formation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in ion Coulomb crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, K; Keller, J; Partner, H L; Nigmatullin, R; Burgermeister, T; Meier, D M; Kuhlmann, K; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B; Zurek, W H; del Campo, A; Mehlstäubler, T E

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry breaking phase transitions play an important role in nature. When a system traverses such a transition at a finite rate, its causally disconnected regions choose the new broken symmetry state independently. Where such local choices are incompatible, topological defects can form. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts the defect densities to follow a power law that scales with the rate of the transition. Owing to its ubiquitous nature, this theory finds application in a wide field of systems ranging from cosmology to condensed matter. Here we present the successful creation of defects in ion Coulomb crystals by a controlled quench of the confining potential, and observe an enhanced power law scaling in accordance with numerical simulations and recent predictions. This simple system with well-defined critical exponents opens up ways to investigate the physics of non-equilibrium dynamics from the classical to the quantum regime.

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and neutral stability in the noncanonical Hamiltonian formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Eliezer, S.

    1985-10-01

    The noncanonical Hamiltonian formalism is based upon a generalization of the Poisson bracket, a particular form of which is possessed by continuous media fields. Associated with this generalization are special constants of motion called Casimirs. These are constants that can be viewed as being built into the phase space, for they are invariant for all Hamiltonians. Casimirs are important because when added to the Hamiltonian they yield an effective Hamiltonian that produces equilibrium states upon variation. The stability of these states can be ascertained by a second variation. Goldstone's theorem, in its usual context, determines zero eigenvalues of the mass matrix for a given vacuum state, the equilibrium with minimum energy. Here, since for fluids and plasmas the vacuum state is uninteresting, we examine symmetry breaking for general equilibria. Broken symmetries imply directions of neutral stability. Two examples are presented: the nonlinear Alfven wave of plasma physics and the Korteweg-de Vries soliton. 46 refs

  11. Topological Field Theory of Time-Reversal Invariant Insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Xiao-Liang; Hughes, Taylor; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-03-19

    We show that the fundamental time reversal invariant (TRI) insulator exists in 4 + 1 dimensions, where the effective field theory is described by the 4 + 1 dimensional Chern-Simons theory and the topological properties of the electronic structure is classified by the second Chern number. These topological properties are the natural generalizations of the time reversal breaking (TRB) quantum Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions. The TRI quantum spin Hall insulator in 2 + 1 dimensions and the topological insulator in 3 + 1 dimension can be obtained as descendants from the fundamental TRI insulator in 4 + 1 dimensions through a dimensional reduction procedure. The effective topological field theory, and the Z{sub 2} topological classification for the TRI insulators in 2+1 and 3+1 dimensions are naturally obtained from this procedure. All physically measurable topological response functions of the TRI insulators are completely described by the effective topological field theory. Our effective topological field theory predicts a number of novel and measurable phenomena, the most striking of which is the topological magneto-electric effect, where an electric field generates a magnetic field in the same direction, with an universal constant of proportionality quantized in odd multiples of the fine structure constant {alpha} = e{sup 2}/hc. Finally, we present a general classification of all topological insulators in various dimensions, and describe them in terms of a unified topological Chern-Simons field theory in phase space.

  12. Focusing over Optical Fiber Using Time Reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A time-reversal array in multimode fiber is proposed for lossless remotely controlled switching using passive optical splitters. The signal to be transmitted is digitally pre-distorted so that it is routed through the physical layer in order to arrive at only one receiver in an array. System...... performance in the presence of additive white gaussian noise, modal group delay, and timing error is investigated numerically for single-mode and 10-mode fiber. Focusing using a two-transmitter array and 44 km of single- mode fiber is demonstrated experimentally for 3 GBd QPSK signals with a bit error rate...

  13. Some factors affecting time reversal signal reconstruction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Kober, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 70, September (2015), s. 604-608 ISSN 1875-3892. [ICU International Congress on Ultrasonics 2015. Metz, 10.05.2015-15.05.2015] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : nondestructive testing * time reversal signal processing * ultrasonic source reconstruction * acoustic emission * coda wave interferometry Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1875389215007762/1-s2.0-S1875389215007762-main.pdf?_tid=1513a4a2-9e5b-11e5-9693-00000aab0f27&acdnat=1449655153_455a4e32a1135236d0796c3f973ff58e

  14. Spontaneous B-L breaking as the origin of the hot early universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, W.; Domcke, V.; Schmitz, K.

    2012-03-15

    The decay of a false vacuum of unbroken B-L symmetry is an intriguing and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase yields hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The dynamics of the B - L breaking Higgs field and thermal processes produce an abundance of heavy neutrinos whose decays generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and gravitino dark matter. We study the phase transition for the full supersymmetric Abelian Higgs model. For the subsequent reheating process we give a detailed time-resolved description of all particle abundances. The competition of cosmic expansion and entropy production leads to an intermediate period of constant 'reheating' temperature, during which baryon asymmetry and dark matter are produced. Consistency of hybrid inflation, leptogenesis and gravitino dark matter implies relations between neutrino parameters and superparticle masses, in particular a lower bound on the gravitino mass of 10 GeV.

  15. Time-reversal and Bayesian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debski, Wojciech

    2017-04-01

    Probabilistic inversion technique is superior to the classical optimization-based approach in all but one aspects. It requires quite exhaustive computations which prohibit its use in huge size inverse problems like global seismic tomography or waveform inversion to name a few. The advantages of the approach are, however, so appealing that there is an ongoing continuous afford to make the large inverse task as mentioned above manageable with the probabilistic inverse approach. One of the perspective possibility to achieve this goal relays on exploring the internal symmetry of the seismological modeling problems in hand - a time reversal and reciprocity invariance. This two basic properties of the elastic wave equation when incorporating into the probabilistic inversion schemata open a new horizons for Bayesian inversion. In this presentation we discuss the time reversal symmetry property, its mathematical aspects and propose how to combine it with the probabilistic inverse theory into a compact, fast inversion algorithm. We illustrate the proposed idea with the newly developed location algorithm TRMLOC and discuss its efficiency when applied to mining induced seismic data.

  16. Time reversibility, computer simulation, algorithms, chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, William Graham

    2012-01-01

    A small army of physicists, chemists, mathematicians, and engineers has joined forces to attack a classic problem, the "reversibility paradox", with modern tools. This book describes their work from the perspective of computer simulation, emphasizing the author's approach to the problem of understanding the compatibility, and even inevitability, of the irreversible second law of thermodynamics with an underlying time-reversible mechanics. Computer simulation has made it possible to probe reversibility from a variety of directions and "chaos theory" or "nonlinear dynamics" has supplied a useful vocabulary and a set of concepts, which allow a fuller explanation of irreversibility than that available to Boltzmann or to Green, Kubo and Onsager. Clear illustration of concepts is emphasized throughout, and reinforced with a glossary of technical terms from the specialized fields which have been combined here to focus on a common theme. The book begins with a discussion, contrasting the idealized reversibility of ba...

  17. Light-front quantized field theory: (an introduction). Spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    The field theory quantized on the light-front is compared with the conventional equal-time quantized theory. The arguments based on the micro causality principle would imply that the light-front field theory may become nonlocal with respect to the longitudinal coordinate even though the corresponding equal-time formulation is local. This is found to be the case for the scalar theory. The conventional instant form theory is sometimes required to be constrained by invoking external physical considerations; the analogous conditions seem to be already built in the theory on the light-front. In spite of the different mechanisms of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the two forms of dynamics they result in the same physical content. The phase transition in (φ 4 ) 2 theory is also discussed. The symmetric vacuum state for vanishingly small couplings is found to turn into an unstable symmetric one when the coupling is increased and may result in a phase transition of the second order in contrast to the first order transition concluded from the usual variational methods. (author)

  18. Low-amplitude instability as a premise for the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the new integrable semidiscrete nonlinear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.; Vakhnenko, Vyacheslav O.

    2014-01-01

    The new integrable semidiscrete multicomponent nonlinear system characterized by two coupling parameters is presented. Relying upon the lowest local conservation laws the concise form of the system is given and its selfconsistent symmetric parametrization in terms of four independent field variables is found. The comprehensive analysis of quartic dispersion equation for the system low-amplitude excitations is made. The criteria distinguishing the domains of stability and instability of low-amplitude excitations are formulated and a collection of qualitatively distinct realizations of a dispersion law are graphically presented. The loop-like structure of a low-amplitude dispersion law of reduced system emerging within certain windows of adjustable coupling parameter turns out to resemble the loop-like structure of a dispersion law typical of beam-plasma oscillations. Basing on the peculiarities of low-amplitude dispersion law as the function of adjustable coupling parameter it is possible to predict the windows of spontaneous symmetry breaking even without an explicit knowledge of the system Lagrangian function. Having been rewritten in terms of properly chosen modified field variables the reduced four wave integrable system can be qualified as consisting of two coupled nonlinear lattice subsystems, namely the self-dual ladder network and the vibrational ones

  19. A time-reversal invariant topological phase at the surface of a 3D topological insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonderson, Parsa; Nayak, Chetan; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2013-01-01

    A 3D fermionic topological insulator has a gapless Dirac surface state protected by time-reversal symmetry and charge conservation symmetry. The surface state can be gapped by introducing ferromagnetism to break time-reversal symmetry, introducing superconductivity to break charge conservation, or entering a topological phase. In this paper, we construct a minimal gapped topological phase that preserves both time-reversal and charge conservation symmetries and supports Ising-type non-Abelian anyons. This phase can be understood heuristically as emerging from a surface s-wave superconducting state via the condensation of eight-vortex composites. The topological phase inherits vortices supporting Majorana zero modes from the surface superconducting state. However, since it is time-reversal invariant, the surface topological phase is a distinct phase from the Ising topological phase, which can be viewed as a quantum-disordered spin-polarized p x + ip y superconductor. We discuss the anyon model of this topological phase and the manner in which time-reversal symmetry is realized in it. We also study the interfaces between the topological state and other surface gapped phases. (paper)

  20. Physics in the intrinsic coordinate frames with the universal mean field potential: spontaneous parity breaking and exotic shapes in high-spin states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of a ''universal'' average field as a basis of intrinsic-frame nuclear physics is stressed. The symmetries of such an average field are discussed. As an important application, an overwiew is given of the recent progress in understanding the octupole-type (intrinsic-parity breaking) degrees of freedom in nuclei. Their importance and the new consequences resulting from the related symmetries and spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomena are emphasized: the presence of static and/or dynamic isovector deformations and their implications, the possible low-energy E1 cooling in moderately hot nuclei at high spins, possible new forms of rotational dumping effects in rotating nuclei etc

  1. Breast cancer detection using time reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh Sajjadieh, Mohammad Hossein

    Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death after lung cancer among women. Mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have certain limitations in detecting breast cancer, especially during its early stage of development. A number of studies have shown that microwave breast cancer detection has potential to become a successful clinical complement to the conventional X-ray mammography. Microwave breast imaging is performed by illuminating the breast tissues with an electromagnetic waveform and recording its reflections (backscatters) emanating from variations in the normal breast tissues and tumour cells, if present, using an antenna array. These backscatters, referred to as the overall (tumour and clutter) response, are processed to estimate the tumour response, which is applied as input to array imaging algorithms used to estimate the location of the tumour. Due to changes in the breast profile over time, the commonly utilized background subtraction procedures used to estimate the target (tumour) response in array processing are impractical for breast cancer detection. The thesis proposes a new tumour estimation algorithm based on a combination of the data adaptive filter with the envelope detection filter (DAF/EDF), which collectively do not require a training step. After establishing the superiority of the DAF/EDF based approach, the thesis shows that the time reversal (TR) array imaging algorithms outperform their conventional conterparts in detecting and localizing tumour cells in breast tissues at SNRs ranging from 15 to 30dB.

  2. II. The Standard Model in the Isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen Representation without Higgs Bosons in the Fermion Sector. Spontaneous Breaking of Parity and "Dark Matter" Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Neznamov, V. P.

    2011-01-01

    The Standard Model with massive fermions is formulated in the isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen representation. SU(2)xU(1) - invariance of the theory in this representation is independent of whether fermions possess mass or not, and, consequently, it is not necessary to introduce interactions between Higgs bosons and fermions. The study discusses a possible relation between spontaneous breaking of parity in the isotopic Foldy-Wouthuysen representation and the composition of elementary particles of "d...

  3. Spontaneous continum symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some recent results on the Goldstone's theories and Coleman's theorem in the framework of Classical or Quantum Statistical Mechanics of discrete systems in lattice or in continum are related. (L.C.) [pt

  4. Three dimensional time reversal optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Alrubaiee, M.; Xu, M.; Gayen, S. K.

    2011-03-01

    Time reversal optical tomography (TROT) approach is used to detect and locate absorptive targets embedded in a highly scattering turbid medium to assess its potential in breast cancer detection. TROT experimental arrangement uses multi-source probing and multi-detector signal acquisition and Multiple-Signal-Classification (MUSIC) algorithm for target location retrieval. Light transport from multiple sources through the intervening medium with embedded targets to the detectors is represented by a response matrix constructed using experimental data. A TR matrix is formed by multiplying the response matrix by its transpose. The eigenvectors with leading non-zero eigenvalues of the TR matrix correspond to embedded objects. The approach was used to: (a) obtain the location and spatial resolution of an absorptive target as a function of its axial position between the source and detector planes; and (b) study variation in spatial resolution of two targets at the same axial position but different lateral positions. The target(s) were glass sphere(s) of diameter ~9 mm filled with ink (absorber) embedded in a 60 mm-thick slab of Intralipid-20% suspension in water with an absorption coefficient μa ~ 0.003 mm-1 and a transport mean free path lt ~ 1 mm at 790 nm, which emulate the average values of those parameters for human breast tissue. The spatial resolution and accuracy of target location depended on axial position, and target contrast relative to the background. Both the targets could be resolved and located even when they were only 4-mm apart. The TROT approach is fast, accurate, and has the potential to be useful in breast cancer detection and localization.

  5. Tests of time reversal in neutron-nucleus scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments to test time-reversal invariance are discussed. The experiments are based on observables constructed from the momentum and spin vectors of epithermal neutrons and from the spin of an aligned or polarized target. It is shown that the proposed tests are detailed balance tests of time-reversal invariance. The status of the experiments is briefly reviewed. 14 refs., 5 figs

  6. Time reversed Lamb wave for damage detection in a stiffened aluminum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijudas, C R; Mitra, M; Mujumdar, P M

    2013-01-01

    According to the concept of time reversibility of the Lamb wave, in the absence of damage, a Lamb wave signal can be reconstructed at the transmitter location if a time reversed signal is sent back from the receiver location. This property is used for baseline-free damage detection, where the presence of damage breaks down the time reversibility and the mismatch between the reconstructed and the input signal is inferred as the presence of damage. This paper presents an experimental and a simulation study of baseline-free damage detection in a stiffened aluminum plate by time reversed Lamb wave (TRLW). In this study, single Lamb wave mode (A 0 ) is generated and sensed using piezoelectric (PZT) transducers through specific transducer placement and amplitude tuning. Different stiffening configurations such as plane and T-stiffeners are considered. Damage cases of disbonding of stiffeners from the base plate, and vertical and embedded cracks in the stiffened plate, are studied. The results show that TRLW based schemes can efficiently identify the presence of damage in a stiffened plate. (paper)

  7. DSP-Based Focusing over Optical Fiber Using Time Reversal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piels, Molly; Porto da Silva, Edson; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel

    2014-01-01

    A time-reversal array in multimode fiber is proposed for lossless switching using passive optical splitters. Numerical investigations are performed, and a two-transmitter array that routes a 3GBd QPSK signal through the physical layer is demonstrated experimentally.......A time-reversal array in multimode fiber is proposed for lossless switching using passive optical splitters. Numerical investigations are performed, and a two-transmitter array that routes a 3GBd QPSK signal through the physical layer is demonstrated experimentally....

  8. Parity- and time-reversal-violating moments of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vries, Jordy de, E-mail: devries@kvi.nl [KVI, theory group (Netherlands)

    2013-03-15

    I present the calculation of parity- and time-reversal-violating moments of the nucleon and light nuclei, originating from the QCD {theta}-bar term and effective dimension-six operators. By applying chiral effective field theory these calculations are performed in a unified framework. I argue that measurements of a few light-nuclear electric dipole moments would shed light on the mechanism of parity and time-reversal violation.

  9. Estimate of Passive Time Reversal Communication Performance in Shallow Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunhyo Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Time reversal processes have been used to improve communication performance in the severe underwater communication environment characterized by significant multipath channels by reducing inter-symbol interference and increasing signal-to-noise ratio. In general, the performance of the time reversal is strongly related to the behavior of the q -function, which is estimated by a sum of the autocorrelation of the channel impulse response for each channel in the receiver array. The q -function depends on the complexity of the communication channel, the number of channel elements and their spacing. A q -function with a high side-lobe level and a main-lobe width wider than the symbol duration creates a residual ISI (inter-symbol interference, which makes communication difficult even after time reversal is applied. In this paper, we propose a new parameter, E q , to describe the performance of time reversal communication. E q is an estimate of how much of the q -function lies within one symbol duration. The values of E q were estimated using communication data acquired at two different sites: one in which the sound speed ratio of sediment to water was less than unity and one where the ratio was higher than unity. Finally, the parameter E q was compared to the bit error rate and the output signal-to-noise ratio obtained after the time reversal operation. The results show that these parameters are strongly correlated to the parameter E q .

  10. Predictions of the spontaneous symmetry-breaking theory for visual code completeness and spatial scaling in single-cell learning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, C J

    2001-05-01

    This article shows analytically that single-cell learning rules that give rise to oriented and localized receptive fields, when their synaptic weights are randomly and independently initialized according to a plausible assumption of zero prior information, will generate visual codes that are invariant under two-dimensional translations, rotations, and scale magnifications, provided that the statistics of their training images are sufficiently invariant under these transformations. Such codes span different image locations, orientations, and size scales with equal economy. Thus, single-cell rules could account for the spatial scaling property of the cortical simple-cell code. This prediction is tested computationally by training with natural scenes; it is demonstrated that a single-cell learning rule can give rise to simple-cell receptive fields spanning the full range of orientations, image locations, and spatial frequencies (except at the extreme high and low frequencies at which the scale invariance of the statistics of digitally sampled images must ultimately break down, because of the image boundary and the finite pixel resolution). Thus, no constraint on completeness, or any other coupling between cells, is necessary to induce the visual code to span wide ranges of locations, orientations, and size scales. This prediction is made using the theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which we have previously shown can also explain the data-driven self-organization of a wide variety of transformation invariances in neurons' responses, such as the translation invariance of complex cell response.

  11. Time reversal imaging, Inverse problems and Adjoint Tomography}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagner, J.; Larmat, C. S.; Capdeville, Y.; Kawakatsu, H.; Fink, M.

    2010-12-01

    With the increasing power of computers and numerical techniques (such as spectral element methods), it is possible to address a new class of seismological problems. The propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media is simulated more and more accurately and new applications developed, in particular time reversal methods and adjoint tomography in the three-dimensional Earth. Since the pioneering work of J. Claerbout, theorized by A. Tarantola, many similarities were found between time-reversal methods, cross-correlations techniques, inverse problems and adjoint tomography. By using normal mode theory, we generalize the scalar approach of Draeger and Fink (1999) and Lobkis and Weaver (2001) to the 3D- elastic Earth, for theoretically understanding time-reversal method on global scale. It is shown how to relate time-reversal methods on one hand, with auto-correlations of seismograms for source imaging and on the other hand, with cross-correlations between receivers for structural imaging and retrieving Green function. Time-reversal methods were successfully applied in the past to acoustic waves in many fields such as medical imaging, underwater acoustics, non destructive testing and to seismic waves in seismology for earthquake imaging. In the case of source imaging, time reversal techniques make it possible an automatic location in time and space as well as the retrieval of focal mechanism of earthquakes or unknown environmental sources . We present here some applications at the global scale of these techniques on synthetic tests and on real data, such as Sumatra-Andaman (Dec. 2004), Haiti (Jan. 2010), as well as glacial earthquakes and seismic hum.

  12. Naphthalocyanine-based time reversal mirror at 800 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galaup, Jean-Pierre; Fraigne, Sebastien; Le Goueet, Jean-Louis; Likforman, Jean-Pierre; Joffre, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    We performed pulse shaping and time reversal experiments using spectral holography based on persistent spectral hole burning in free-base naphthalocyanine-doped films. The application of a new pulse re-compression scheme based on a programmable hole burning material acting as a time reversal mirror is considered. In this work, we adapted the Fourier transform spectral interferometry technique for measuring the amplitude and phase of photon echo signals produced by diffraction of femtosecond pulses on a spectral hologram. We therefore demonstrated that we could control the pulses diffracted from the hologram by shaping and then characterizing these pulses in both amplitude and phase by spectral interferometry

  13. Subtleties in the BABAR measurement of time-reversal violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efrati, Aielet

    2015-01-01

    A first measurement of time-reversal (T) asymmetries that are not also CP asymmetries has been recently achieved by the B A B AR collaboration. In this talk, which follows the work done in Ref. [1], I discuss the subtleties of this measurement in the presence of direct CP violation, CPT violation, wrong strangeness decays and wrong sign semi-leptonic decays. In particular, I explain why, in order to identify the measured asymmetries with time-reversal violation, one needs to assume (i) the absence of wrong strangeness decays or of CPT violation in strangeness changing decays, and (ii) the absence of wrong sign decays. (paper)

  14. Time-reversed absorbing condition: application to inverse problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assous, F; Kray, M; Nataf, F; Turkel, E

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce time-reversed absorbing conditions in time-reversal methods. They enable one to 'recreate the past' without knowing the source which has emitted the signals that are back-propagated. We present two applications in inverse problems: the reduction of the size of the computational domain and the determination, from boundary measurements, of the location and volume of an unknown inclusion. The method does not rely on any a priori knowledge of the physical properties of the inclusion. Numerical tests with the wave and Helmholtz equations illustrate the efficiency of the method. This technique is fairly insensitive to noise in the data

  15. Time reversal symmetry violation in the YbF molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, B. E., E-mail: ben.sauer@imperial.ac.uk; Devlin, J. A.; Hudson, J. J.; Kara, D. M.; Smallman, I. J.; Tarbutt, M. R.; Hinds, E. A. [Blackett Laboratory Imperial College London, Centre for Cold Matter (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-15

    We present a summary of the techniques used to test time reversal symmetry by measuring the permanent electric dipole moment of the YbF molecule. The results of a recent measurement (Hudson et al., Nature 473:493, 2011) are reported. We review some systematic effects which might mimic time reversal violation and describe how they are overcome. We then discuss improvements to the sensitivity of the apparatus, including both short term technical enhancements as well as a longer term goal to use laser cooled YbF in the experiment.

  16. Constraints of a parity-conserving/time-reversal-non-conserving interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2002-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement at CPLEAR. One then can ask the question: What about tests of time-reversal-invariance in systems other than the kaon system? Tests of time-reversal-invariance can be distinguished as belonging to two classes: the first one deals with time-reversal-invariance-non-conserving (T-odd)/parity violating (P-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with T-odd/P-even interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a T-odd/P-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron ( -26 e.cm [95% C.L.]). It provides a limit on a T-odd/P-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is less than 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Experimental limits on a T-odd/P-even interaction are much less stringent. Following the standard approach of describing the nucleon-nucleon interaction in terms of meson exchanges, it can be shown that only charged ρ-meson exchange and A 1 -meson exchange can lead to a T-odd/P-even interaction. The better constraints stem from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and from measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering. The latter experiments were executed at TRIUMF (497 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (183 MeV). All other experiments, like detailed balance experiments, polarization - analyzing power difference determinations, and five-fold correlation experiments with polarized incident nucleons and aligned nuclear targets, have been shown to be at least an order to magnitude less sensitive. Is there room for further experimentation?

  17. Transducer frequency response variations investigated by time reversal calibration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 2 (2016), A16-A16 ISSN 1213-3825. [Europen Conference on Acoustic Emission Testing /32./. 07.09.2016-09.09.2016, Praha] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : calibration * time reversal * transducer * frequency response Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  18. Nonlinear Time-Reversal in a Wave Chaotic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Matthew; Taddese, Biniyam; Ott, Edward; Antonsen, Thomas; Anlage, Steven

    2012-02-01

    Time reversal mirrors are particularly simple to implement in wave chaotic systems and form the basis for a new class of sensors [1-3]. These sensors work by applying the quantum mechanical concepts of Loschmidt echo and fidelity decay to classical waves. The sensors make explicit use of time-reversal invariance and spatial reciprocity in a wave chaotic system to remotely measure the presence of small perturbations to the system. The underlying ray chaos increases the sensitivity to small perturbations throughout the volume explored by the waves. We extend our time-reversal mirror to include a discrete element with a nonlinear dynamical response. The initially injected pulse interacts with the nonlinear element, generating new frequency components originating at the element. By selectively filtering for and applying the time-reversal mirror to the new frequency components, we focus a pulse only onto the element, without knowledge of its location. Furthermore, we demonstrate transmission of arbitrary patterns of pulses to the element, creating a targeted communication channel to the exclusion of 'eavesdroppers' at other locations in the system. [1] Appl. Phys. Lett. 95, 114103 (2009) [2] J. Appl. Phys. 108, 1 (2010) [3] Acta Physica Polonica A 112, 569 (2007)

  19. Underwater Time Service and Synchronization Based on Time Reversal Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hao; Wang, Hai-bin; Aissa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil; Pyndiah, Ramesh

    2010-09-01

    Real time service and synchronization are very important to many underwater systems. But the time service and synchronization in existence cannot work well due to the multi-path propagation and random phase fluctuation of signals in the ocean channel. The time reversal mirror technique can realize energy concentration through self-matching of the ocean channel and has very good spatial and temporal focusing properties. Based on the TRM technique, we present the Time Reversal Mirror Real Time service and synchronization (TRMRT) method which can bypass the processing of multi-path on the server side and reduce multi-path contamination on the client side. So TRMRT can improve the accuracy of time service. Furthermore, as an efficient and precise method of time service, TRMRT could be widely used in underwater exploration activities and underwater navigation and positioning systems.

  20. Analysis of Time Reversible Born-Oppenheimer Molecular Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the time reversible Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics (TRBOMD scheme, which preserves the time reversibility of the Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics even with non-convergent self-consistent field iteration. In the linear response regime, we derive the stability condition, as well as the accuracy of TRBOMD for computing physical properties, such as the phonon frequency obtained from the molecular dynamics simulation. We connect and compare TRBOMD with Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics in terms of accuracy and stability. We further discuss the accuracy of TRBOMD beyond the linear response regime for non-equilibrium dynamics of nuclei. Our results are demonstrated through numerical experiments using a simplified one-dimensional model for Kohn-Sham density functional theory.

  1. Test of time-reversal invariance at COSY (TRIC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eversheim, D., E-mail: evershei@hiskp.uni-bonn.de; Valdau, Yu. [University Bonn, Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Germany); Lorentz, B. [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    At the Cooler Synchrotron COSY a novel (P-even, T-odd) null test of time-reversal invariance to an accuracy of 10{sup - 6} is planned as an internal target transmission experiment. The parity conserving time-reversal violating observable is the total cross-section asymmetry A{sub y,xz}. This quantity is measured using a polarized proton beam with an energy of 135 MeV and an internal tensor polarized deuteron target from the PAX atomic beam source. The reaction rate will be measured by means of an integrating beam current transformer. Thus, in this experiment the cooler synchroton ring serves as ideal forward spectrometer, as a detector, and an accelerator.

  2. Non-linear time reversal ultrasonic pseudo-tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Vejvodová, Šárka; Krofta, Josef; Převorovský, David

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, 3/4 (2011), s. 206-213 ISSN 1741-8410. [NDT in Progress. Praha, 05.11.2007-07.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : NDT * nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy * time reversal mirrors * ultrasonic pseudo-tomography Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.inderscience.com/offer.php?id=43216

  3. Time reversal in photoacoustic tomography and levitation in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palamodov, V P

    2014-01-01

    A class of photoacoustic acquisition geometries in R n is considered such that the spherical mean transform admits an exact filtered back projection reconstruction formula. The reconstruction is interpreted as a time reversion mirror that reproduces exactly an arbitrary source distribution in the cavity. A series of examples of non-uniqueness of the inverse potential problem is constructed based on the same geometrical technique. (paper)

  4. Time reversal signal processing in acoustic emission testing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef; Kober, Jan; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Chlada, Milan; Dos Santos, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acoustic emission (AE) * ultrasonic testing (UT) * signal processing * source location * time reversal acoustic s * acoustic emission * signal processing and transfer Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Slides/637_Prevorovsky.pdf

  5. Unitarity and time reversal in the Glauber model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazard, C.; Lombard, R.J.

    1984-12-01

    It has been pointed out by Formanek (1976-1980) that for incident energies above the particle production threshold the usual Glauber formulation of particle-nucleus scattering violates unitarity and time reversal invariance. We propose a simple method for recovering T-invariance and we discuss unitarity in view of the proposed modification. Numerical estimates are given to check the importance of T-invariance effects

  6. Time reversibility of quantum diffusion in small-world networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sung-Guk; Kim, Beom Jun

    2012-02-01

    We study the time-reversal dynamics of a tight-binding electron in the Watts-Strogatz (WS) small-world networks. The localized initial wave packet at time t = 0 diffuses as time proceeds until the time-reversal operation, together with the momentum perturbation of the strength η, is made at the reversal time T. The time irreversibility is measured by I = |Π( t = 2 T) - Π( t = 0)|, where Π is the participation ratio gauging the extendedness of the wavefunction and for convenience, t is measured forward even after the time reversal. When η = 0, the time evolution after T makes the wavefunction at t = 2 T identical to the one at t = 0, and we find I = 0, implying a null irreversibility or a complete reversibility. On the other hand, as η is increased from zero, the reversibility becomes weaker, and we observe enhancement of the irreversibility. We find that I linearly increases with increasing η in the weakly-perturbed region, and that the irreversibility is much stronger in the WS network than in the local regular network.

  7. New Limit on Time-Reversal Violation in Beta Decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumm, H. P.; Chupp, T. E.; Cooper, R. L.; Coulter, K. P.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Garcia, A.; Jones, G. L.; Nico, J. S.; Thompson, A. K.; Trull, C. A.; Wietfeldt, F. E.; Wilkerson, J. F.

    2011-01-01

    We report the results of an improved determination of the triple correlation DP·(p e xp v ) that can be used to limit possible time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons and constrain extensions to the standard model. Our result is D=[-0.96±1.89(stat)±1.01(sys)]x10 -4 . The corresponding phase between g A and g V is φ AV =180.013 deg. ±0.028 deg. (68% confidence level). This result represents the most sensitive measurement of D in nuclear β decay.

  8. Electric Dipole States and Time Reversal Violation in Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear Schiff moment is essential in the mechanism that induces a parity and time reversal violation in the atom. In this presentation we explore theoretically the properties and systematics of the isoscalar dipole in nuclei with the emphasis on the low-energy strength and the inverse energy weighted sum which determines the Schiff moment. We also study the influence of the isovector dipole strength distribution on the Schiff moment. The influence of a large neutron excess in nuclei is examined. The centroid energies of the isoscalar giant resonance (ISGDR) and the overtone of the isovector giant dipole resonance (OIVGDR) are given for a range of nuclei. (paper)

  9. Interplay of Coulomb interactions and disorder in three-dimensional quadratic band crossings without time-reversal symmetry and with unequal masses for conduction and valence bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Ipsita; Nandkishore, Rahul M.

    2018-03-01

    Coulomb interactions famously drive three-dimensional quadratic band crossing semimetals into a non-Fermi liquid phase of matter. In a previous work [Nandkishore and Parameswaran, Phys. Rev. B 95, 205106 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevB.95.205106], the effect of disorder on this non-Fermi liquid phase was investigated, assuming that the band structure was isotropic, assuming that the conduction and valence bands had the same band mass, and assuming that the disorder preserved exact time-reversal symmetry and statistical isotropy. It was shown that the non-Fermi liquid fixed point is unstable to disorder and that a runaway flow to strong disorder occurs. In this paper, we extend that analysis by relaxing the assumption of time-reversal symmetry and allowing the electron and hole masses to differ (but continuing to assume isotropy of the low energy band structure). We first incorporate time-reversal symmetry breaking disorder and demonstrate that there do not appear any new fixed points. Moreover, while the system continues to flow to strong disorder, time-reversal-symmetry-breaking disorder grows asymptotically more slowly than time-reversal-symmetry-preserving disorder, which we therefore expect should dominate the strong-coupling phase. We then allow for unequal electron and hole masses. We show that whereas asymmetry in the two masses is irrelevant in the clean system, it is relevant in the presence of disorder, such that the `effective masses' of the conduction and valence bands should become sharply distinct in the low-energy limit. We calculate the RG flow equations for the disordered interacting system with unequal band masses and demonstrate that the problem exhibits a runaway flow to strong disorder. Along the runaway flow, time-reversal-symmetry-preserving disorder grows asymptotically more rapidly than both time-reversal-symmetry-breaking disorder and the Coulomb interaction.

  10. Time reversal for ultrasonic transcranial surgery and echographic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanter, Mickael; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Vignon, Francois; Fink, Mathias

    2005-09-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is able to induce non-invasively controlled and selective destruction of tissues by focusing ultrasonic beams within organs, analogous to a magnifying glass that concentrates enough sunlight to burn a hole in paper. The brain is an attractive organ in which to perform ultrasonic tissue ablation, but such an application has been hampered by the strong defocusing effect of the skull bone. Our group has been involved in this topic for several years, providing proofs of concept and proposing technological solutions to this problem. Thanks to a high-power time-reversal mirror, presented here are in vivo thermal lesions induced through the skull of 12 sheep. Thermal lesions were confirmed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance post-treatment images and histological examination. These results provide striking evidence that noninvasive ultrasound brain surgery is feasible. A recent approach for high-resolution brain ultrasonic imaging will also be discussed with a skull aberration correction technique based on twin arrays technology. The correction of transcranial ultrasonic images is implemented on a new generation of time-reversal mirrors relying on a fully programmable transmit and receive beamformer.

  11. Time-reversal invariance in multiple collisions between coupled masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1989-01-01

    The time evolution of two mechanical oscillators coupled by a spring can (but need not) exhibit an instant t = 2t' when the initial conditions at t = 0 have been exactly restored. When that is the case, then at t = t' energy and momentum have been exchanged exactly as in an elastic collision between two free particles, and the evolution of the system from t = t' to 2t' is related to that from 0 to t' by time-reversal invariance. A similar ''simulation of elastic scattering'' at t = t' can occur for two free particles coupled via collisions with an intermediary mass that bounces back and forth between the two particles provided the intermediary is left at rest at t = t'. Examined here is the time evolution of the exchange of momentum and energy for these two examples, determining the values of the coupling spring constant (or mass value) of the intermediating spring (or mass) needed to simulate single elastic scattering between free particles, and looking at the manifestation of time-reversal invariance

  12. Time reversal invariance - a test in free neutron decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lising, Laura Jean [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Time reversal invariance violation plays only a small role in the Standard Model, and the existence of a T-violating effect above the predicted level would be an indication of new physics. A sensitive probe of this symmetry in the weak interaction is the measurement of the T-violating ''D''-correlation in the decay of free neutrons. The triple-correlation Dσn∙pe x pv involves three kinematic variables, the neutron spin, electron momentu, and neutrino (or proton) momentum, and changes sign under time reversal. This experiment detects the decay products of a polarized cold neutron beam with an octagonal array of scintillation and solid-state detectors. Data from first run at NIST's Cold Neutron Research Facility give a D-coefficient of -0.1 ± 1.3(stat.) ± 0.7(syst) x 10-3 This measurement has the greatest bearing on extensions to the Standard model that incorporate leptoquarks, although exotic fermion and lift-right symmetric models also allow a D as large as the present limit.

  13. Transmission mode acoustic time-reversal imaging for nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, Sean K.; Devaney, Anthony J.

    2002-11-01

    In previous ASA meetings and JASA papers, the extended and formalized theory of transmission mode time reversal in which the transceivers are noncoincident was presented. When combined with the subspace concepts of a generalized MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) algorithm, this theory is used to form super-resolution images of scatterers buried in a medium. These techniques are now applied to ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of parts, and shallow subsurface seismic imaging. Results are presented of NDE experiments on metal and epoxy blocks using data collected from an adaptive ultrasonic array, that is, a ''time-reversal machine,'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Also presented are the results of seismo-acoustic subsurface probing of buried hazardous waste pits at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. [Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by University of California Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.] [Work supported in part by CenSSIS, the Center for Subsurface Sensing and Imaging Systems, under the Engineering Research Centers Program of the NSF (award number EEC-9986821) as well as from Air Force Contracts No. F41624-99-D6002 and No. F49620-99-C0013.

  14. Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkewitz, Benjamin; Wang, Ying Min; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Mathy, Alexandre; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-04-01

    Focusing of light in the diffusive regime inside scattering media has long been considered impossible. Recently, this limitation has been overcome with time reversal of ultrasound-encoded light (TRUE), but the resolution of this approach is fundamentally limited by the large number of optical modes within the ultrasound focus. Here, we introduce a new approach, time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE), which demixes these spatial modes by variance encoding to break the resolution barrier imposed by the ultrasound. By encoding individual spatial modes inside the scattering sample with unique variances, we effectively uncouple the system resolution from the size of the ultrasound focus. This enables us to demonstrate optical focusing and imaging with diffuse light at an unprecedented, speckle-scale lateral resolution of ~5 µm.

  15. Speckle-scale focusing in the diffusive regime with time-reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkewitz, Benjamin; Wang, Ying Min; Horstmeyer, Roarke; Mathy, Alexandre; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-04-01

    Focusing of light in the diffusive regime inside scattering media has long been considered impossible. Recently, this limitation has been overcome with time reversal of ultrasound-encoded light (TRUE), but the resolution of this approach is fundamentally limited by the large number of optical modes within the ultrasound focus. Here, we introduce a new approach, time reversal of variance-encoded light (TROVE), which demixes these spatial modes by variance-encoding to break the resolution barrier imposed by the ultrasound. By encoding individual spatial modes inside the scattering sample with unique variances, we effectively uncouple the system resolution from the size of the ultrasound focus. This enables us to demonstrate optical focusing and imaging with diffuse light at unprecedented, speckle-scale lateral resolution of ~ 5 μm.

  16. Parity and time-reversal violation in nuclei and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1986-01-01

    Two topics are briefly reviewed: the parity (P)-violating NN interaction and the time-reversal (T) and P-violating electric moments (EDM's) of atoms. The ΔI = 1 P-violating NN amplitude dominated by weak π +- exchange is found to be appreciably smaller than bag-model predictions. This may be a dynamical symmetry of flavor-conserving hadronic weak processes reminiscent of the ΔI = 1/2 rule in flavor-changing decays. General principles of experimental searches for atomic EDM's are discussed. Atomic EDM's are sensitive to electronic or nuclear EDM's and to a P-and-T-violating electron-quark interaction. Even though the experimental precision is still ∼10 4 times worse than counting statistics, the recent results have reached a sensitivity to nuclear EDM's which rivals that of the neutron EDM data. Further significant improvements can be expected

  17. Time-reversal-violating Schiff moment of 199Hg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jesus, J.H. de; Engel, J.

    2005-01-01

    We calculate the Schiff moment of the nucleus 199 Hg, created by πNN vertices that are odd under parity (P) and time-reversal (T). Our approach, formulated in diagrammatic perturbation theory with important core-polarization diagrams summed to all orders, gives a close approximation to the expectation value of the Schiff operator in the odd-A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov ground state generated by a Skyrme interaction and a weak P- and T-odd pion-exchange potential. To assess the uncertainty in the results, we carry out the calculation with several Skyrme interactions, the quality of which we test by checking predictions for the isoscalar-E1 strength distribution in 208 Pb, and estimate most of the important diagrams we omit

  18. Time-Reversal Study of the Hemet (CA) Tremor Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larmat, C. S.; Johnson, P. A.; Guyer, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Since its first observation by Nadeau & Dolenc (2005) and Gomberg et al. (2008), tremor along the San Andreas fault system is thought to be a probe into the frictional state of the deep part of the fault (e.g. Shelly et al., 2007). Tremor is associated with slow, otherwise deep, aseismic slip events that may be triggered by faint signals such as passing waves from remote earthquakes or solid Earth tides.Well resolved tremor source location is key to constrain frictional models of the fault. However, tremor source location is challenging because of the high-frequency and highly-scattered nature of tremor signal characterized by the lack of isolated phase arrivals. Time Reversal (TR) methods are emerging as a useful tool for location. The unique requirement is a good velocity model for the different time-reversed phases to arrive coherently onto the source point. We present results of location for a tremor source near the town of Hemet, CA, which was triggered by the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake (Gomberg et al., 2008) and by the 2009 M 6.9 Gulf of California earthquake. We performed TR in a volume model of 88 (N-S) x 70 (W-E) x 60 km (Z) using the full-wave 3D wave-propagation package SPECFEM3D (Komatitsch et al., 2002). The results for the 2009 episode indicate a deep source (at about 22km) which is about 4km SW the fault surface scarp. We perform STA/SLA and correlation analysis in order to have independent confirmation of the Hemet tremor source. We gratefully acknowledge the support of the U. S. Department of Energy through the LANL/LDRD Program for this work.

  19. High-resolution and super stacking of time-reversal mirrors in locating seismic sources

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Weiping; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.; Zhan, Ge; Boonyasiriwat, Chaiwoot

    2011-01-01

    Time reversal mirrors can be used to backpropagate and refocus incident wavefields to their actual source location, with the subsequent benefits of imaging with high-resolution and super-stacking properties. These benefits of time reversal mirrors

  20. Concerning tests of time-reversal invariance via the polarization-analyzing power equality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Previous tests of time-reversal invariance via comparisons of polarizations and analyzing powers in nuclear scattering have been examined. It is found that all of these comparisons fail as adequate tests of time-reversal invariance either because of a lack of experimental precision or the lack of sensitivity to any time-reversal symmetry violation

  1. Imaging Method Based on Time Reversal Channel Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional time reversal imaging (TRI method builds imaging function by using the maximal value of signal amplitude. In this circumstance, some remote targets are missed (near-far problem or low resolution is obtained in lossy and/or dispersive media, and too many transceivers are employed to locate targets, which increases the complexity and cost of system. To solve these problems, a novel TRI algorithm is presented in this paper. In order to achieve a high resolution, the signal amplitude corresponding to focal time observed at target position is used to reconstruct the target image. For disposing near-far problem and suppressing spurious images, combining with cross-correlation property and amplitude compensation, channel compensation function (CCF is introduced. Moreover, the complexity and cost of system are reduced by employing only five transceivers to detect four targets whose number is close to that of transceivers. For the sake of demonstrating the practicability of the proposed analytical framework, the numerical experiments are actualized in both nondispersive-lossless (NDL media and dispersive-conductive (DPC media. Results show that the performance of the proposed method is superior to that of conventional TRI algorithm even under few echo signals.

  2. Laser oriented 36K for time reversal symmetry measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.R.; Anderson, W.S.; Calaprice, F.P.; Cates, G.D.; Jones, G.L.; Krieger, D.A.; Vogelaar, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    We have produced very large nuclear alignments in radioactive 36 K (half-life 0.34 sec) through laser optical pumping techniques. The 36 K was created through (p,n) reactions using a 50 nA, 22 MeV proton beam, and a 3.3 atmosphere 36 Ar target. Measurements were made with the target cell at room temperature, when direct optical pumping produces nuclear orientation in the 36 K, and at elevated temperatures 160 degree C and 180 degree C where the 36 K is oriented through a combination of direct optical pumping and spin exchange. The fraction of the maximal nuclear alignment for the 180 degree C data was determined to be 0.46±0.07 stat±0.05 syst through measurements of the γ-ray anisotropy following positron decay. Roughly 10 5 or more decays of oriented 36 K occurred each second. The application of the superallowed decay of 36 K to measurements of time-reversal symmetry in β decay is discussed

  3. First direct observation of time-reversal violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Aslanides, E.; Bertin, V.; Ealet, A.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Le Gac, R.; Montanet, F.; Touchard, F.; Backenstoss, G.; Benelli, A.; Kokkas, P.; Leimgruber, F.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Polivka, G.; Rickenbach, R.; Schietinger, T.; Tauscher, L.; Vlachos, S.; Bargassa, P.

    2000-01-01

    Using its unique capability of strangeness tagging at K 0 production in pp-bar→K ± π ± K 0 (K-bar) 0 ) and at decay with the lepton charge in semileptonic decays CPLEAR measured the semileptonic decay-rate asymmetry (R(K-bar) 0 →e + π - ν)-R(K 0 →e - π + ν-bar)/R(K-bar) 0 →e + π - ν)+R(K 0 →e - π + ν-bar). The asymmetry, fitted over the eigentime interval 1-20 τ S , yielded a non-zero result of (6.6±1.3 stat ±1.1 syst )x10 -3 . A thorough phenomenological analysis identifies T violation in K 0 mixing and/or CPT violation in semileptonic decays as possible interpretations. A confrontation with world data on neutral kaon decays, however, excludes the latter with sufficient precision to establish the result as the first direct observation of time reversal non-invariance

  4. Multiple time-reversed guide-sources in shallow water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumond, Charles F.; Fromm, David M.; Lingevitch, Joseph F.; Gauss, Roger C.; Menis, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Detection in a monostatic, broadband, active sonar system in shallow water is degraded by propagation-induced spreading. The detection improvement from multiple spatially separated guide sources (GSs) is presented as a method to mitigate this degradation. The improvement of detection by using information in a set of one-way transmissions from a variety of positions is shown using sea data. The experimental area is south of the Hudson Canyon off the coast of New Jersey. The data were taken using five elements of a time-reversing VLA. The five elements were contiguous and at midwater depth. The target and guide source was an echo repeater positioned at various ranges and at middepth. The transmitted signals were 3.0- to 3.5-kHz LFMs. The data are analyzed to show the amount of information present in the collection, a baseline probability of detection (PD) not using the collection of GS signals, the improvement in PD from the use of various sets of GS signals. The dependence of the improvement as a function of range is also shown. [The authors acknowledge support from Dr. Jeffrey Simmen, ONR321OS, and the chief scientist Dr. Charles Holland. Work supported by ONR.

  5. Time-reversal of electromagnetic scattering for small scatterer classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J Torquil; Berryman, James G

    2012-01-01

    Time-reversal operators, or the alternatively labelled, but equivalent, multistatic response matrix methods, are used to show how to determine the number of scatterers present in an electromagnetic scattering scenario that might be typical of UneXploded Ordinance (UXO) detection, classification and removal applications. Because the nature of the target UXO application differs from that of many other common inversion problems, emphasis is placed here on classification and enumeration rather than on detailed imaging. The main technical issues necessarily revolve around showing that it is possible to find a sufficient number of constraints via multiple measurements (i.e. using several distinct views at the target site) to solve the enumeration problem. The main results show that five measurements with antenna pairs are generally adequate to solve the classification and enumeration problems. However, these results also demonstrate a need for decreasing noise levels in the multistatic matrix as the number n of scatterers increases for the intended practical applications of the method. (paper)

  6. Search for time reversal violation in neutron decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorel, P.

    2006-06-01

    The topic of this thesis is the implementation of an experimental setup designed to measure the R- and N-parameters in polarized neutron decay, together with the data analysis. Four observables are necessary for this measurement: the neutron polarization, the electron momentum and both transverse components of the electron polarization. These last two are measured using a Mott polarimeter. The other observables are determined using the same detectors. The precision to be reached on the R-parameter is 0.5%. A non zero value would sign a time reversal invariance violation and therefore would be a hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. This document presents the work done to prepare and optimize the experimental setup before the data acquisition run performed in 2004. Particular care was taken on the scintillator walls, used to trigger the acquisition and measure the electron energy. The second part concerns the implementation of methods to extract R and N from the data, and the study of the background recorded simultaneously. (author)

  7. Time reversal violation in radiative beta decay: experimental plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, J. A.; McNeil, J.; Anholm, M.; Gorelov, A.; Melconian, D.; Ashery, D.

    2017-01-01

    Some explanations for the excess of matter over antimatter in the universe involve sources of time reversal violation (TRV) in addition to the one known in the standard model of particle physics. We plan to search for TRV in a correlation between the momenta of the beta, neutrino, and the radiative gamma sometimes emitted in nuclear beta decay. Correlations involving three (out of four) momenta are sensitive at lowest order to different TRV physics than observables involving spin, such as electric dipole moments and spin-polarized beta decay correlations. Such experiments have been done in radiative kaon decay, but not in systems involving the lightest generation of quarks. An explicit low-energy physics model being tested produces TRV effects in the Fermi beta decay of the neutron, tritium, or some positron-decaying isotopes. We will present plans to measure the TRV asymmetry in radiative beta decay of laser-trapped 38mK at better than 0.01 sensitivity, including suppression of background from positron annihilation. Supported by NSERC, D.O.E., Israel Science Foundation. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada.

  8. Time-reversal-noninvariant, parity-conserving nuclear interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.; Hoering, A.; Washington Univ., Seattle, WA; Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the authors quantify the relationship between compound nucleus (CN) and electric dipole moment (edm) constraints on long-ranged time-reversal-noninvariant (TRNI), parity-conserving (PC) interactions. It begins by reviewing the work that has been done in compound nuclei. In the second section, it considers the general form of the TRNI PC interaction in meson exchange models. In the third section discusses one mechanism for generating an atomic edm, a TRNI PC nuclear interaction mediate by ρ exchange coupled with Z exchange between atomic electrons and the nucleus. While a variety of other mechanisms can similarly generate edms from TRNI PC interactions this example has some interesting experimental consequences. The limits extracted are then translated into a constraint on α, the ratio of typical TRNI and TRI N N matrix elements. It is concluded that such atomic edm limits on TRNI PC interactions are at least comparable to those obtained in the best CN studies. These limits from long-distance contributions to edms are then compared to the stringent bounds obtained recently by Conti and Khriplovich from studies of short-ranged mechanisms. 37 refs., 2 figs

  9. Test of time-reversal invariance at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdau, Yury [Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn Univ. (Germany); National Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute B.P. Konstantinov, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Eversheim, Dieter [Helmholtz Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn Univ. (Germany); Lorentz, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institute fuer Kernphysik (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The experiment to test the Time Reversal Invariance at Cosy (TRIC) is under the preparation by the PAX collaboration. It is planned to improve present limit on the T-odd P-even interaction by at least one order of magnitude using a unique genuine null observable available in double polarized proton-deuteron scattering. The TRIC experiment is planned as a transmission experiment using a tensor polarized deuterium target placed at the internal target place of the Cooler-Synchrotron COSY-Juelich. Total double polarized cross section will be measured observing a beam current change due to the interaction of a polarized proton beam with an internal tensor polarized deuterium target from the PAX atomic beam source. Hence, in this experiment COSY will be used as an accelerator, detector and ideal zero degree spectrometer. In addition to the high intensity polarized proton beam and high density polarized deuterium target, a new high precision beam current measurement system will be prepared for the TRIC experiment. In this report status of all the activities of PAX collaboration towards realization of the TRIC experiment will be presented.

  10. Time-reversed lasing in the terahertz range and its preliminary study in sensor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Yun, E-mail: shenyunoptics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Liu, Huaqing [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Deng, Xiaohua [Institute of Space Science and Technology, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wang, Guoping [Key Laboratory of Artificial Micro- and Nano-Structures of Ministry of Education and School of Physics and Technology, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2017-02-05

    Time-reversed lasing in a uniform slab and a grating structure are investigated in the terahertz range. The results show that both the uniform slab and grating can support terahertz time-reversed lasing. Nevertheless, due to the tunable effective refractive index, the grating structure can not only exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab, but also can realize significant absorption in a broader operating frequency range. Furthermore, applications of terahertz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are preliminarily studied in a single-channel coherent perfect absorber system. - Highlights: • Time-reversed lasing are investigated in the terahertz range. • The grating structure exhibit time-reversed lasing more effectively and flexibly than a uniform slab. • THz time-reversed lasing for novel concentration/thickness sensors are studied.

  11. The suggestion about the absence of the phase transition, vacuum degeneration, spontaneous symmetry breaking and zero-mass Goldstone-bosons in QFT models of the type gphi4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastavenko, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    The usual proof of the phase transition existence in the gphi 4 model is considered. (For M 2 >M 0 2 minimum of the effective potential is at phi(0)=0, for M 2 >M 0 2 this minimum is at phi(0)=+-lambda not equal to 0, lambda→+ infinity at M 2 →- infinity). This proof is shown to be wrong, thus suggesting the absence in the model considered of the phase transition, vacuum degeneration, spontaneous symmetry breaking and zero-mass Goldstone-bosons

  12. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  13. A time reversal damage imaging method for structure health monitoring using Lamb waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hai-Yan; Cao Ya-Ping; Sun Xiu-Li; Chen Xian-Hua; Yu Jian-Bo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the Lamb wave imaging method combining time reversal for health monitoring of a metallic plate structure. The temporal focusing effect of the time reversal Lamb waves is investigated theoretically. It demonstrates that the focusing effect is related to the frequency dependency of the time reversal operation. Numerical simulations are conducted to study the time reversal behaviour of Lamb wave modes under broadband and narrowband excitations. The results show that the reconstructed time reversed wave exhibits close similarity to the reversed narrowband tone burst signal validating the theoretical model. To enhance the similarity, the cycle number of the excited signal should be increased. Experiments combining finite element model are then conducted to study the imaging method in the presence of damage like hole in the plate structure. In this work, the time reversal technique is used for the recompression of Lamb wave signals. Damage imaging results with time reversal using broadband and narrowband excitations are compared to those without time reversal. It suggests that the narrowband excitation combined time reversal can locate and determine the size of structural damage more precisely, but the cycle number of the excited signal should be chosen reasonably

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to coffee C21 and reduction of spontaneous DNA strand breaks pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of coffee compared to water on spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The evidence provided in animal and in vitro studies is not sufficient to predict the occurrence of an effect of coffee C21 consumption on the reduction of spontaneous DNA strand breaks in humans. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect......Following an application from Tchibo GmbH, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... to coffee C21 and reduction of spontaneous DNA strand breaks. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim based on newly developed scientific evidence. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is coffee C21, which is sufficiently characterised. The claimed...

  15. Spontaneous Symmetric Breaking Mechanism in the Evolution of Strategic Alliance Based on Markov Switching Model%基于马尔科夫状态转换的战略联盟自发性对称破缺机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋波; 徐飞

    2013-01-01

    This paper focused on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the evolution of strategic alliance, from systematic perspective, viewed strategic alliance as a complex social economic system, from time, space, material, information and energy five dimensions. And the Markov random model was introduced into the study on the status switching of strategic alliance, and then the spontaneous symmetric breaking mechanism of strategic alliance was illustrated based on the Markov switching model, in order to predict the equilibrium status of strategic alliance. This paper provides a new theory perspective for the research on the stability and evolution of strategic alliance.%针对企业战略联盟演变过程中的自发性对称破缺现象,以系统观的视角,将战略联盟视作一个复杂社会经济系统,从时间、空间、物质、信息和能量5个维度描述战略联盟系统的状态,并将马尔科夫过程的状态随机转换模型引入战略联盟状态迁移的研究,深入阐述联盟自发性对称破缺机制,从而预测联盟的平衡状态,为战略联盟演变及稳定性的研究提供了新的理论视角.

  16. Computation by symmetry operations in a structured model of the brain: Recognition of rotational invariance and time reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrann, John V.; Shaw, Gordon L.; Shenoy, Krishna V.; Leng, Xiaodan; Mathews, Robert B.

    1994-06-01

    Symmetries have long been recognized as a vital component of physical and biological systems. What we propose here is that symmetry operations are an important feature of higher brain function and result from the spatial and temporal modularity of the cortex. These symmetry operations arise naturally in the trion model of the cortex. The trion model is a highly structured mathematical realization of the Mountcastle organizational principle [Mountcastle, in The Mindful Brain (MIT, Cambridge, 1978)] in which the cortical column is the basic neural network of the cortex and is comprised of subunit minicolumns, which are idealized as trions with three levels of firing. A columnar network of a small number of trions has a large repertoire of quasistable, periodic spatial-temporal firing magic patterns (MP's), which can be excited. The MP's are related by specific symmetries: Spatial rotation, parity, ``spin'' reversal, and time reversal as well as other ``global'' symmetry operations in this abstract internal language of the brain. These MP's can be readily enhanced (as well as inherent categories of MP's) by only a small change in connection strengths via a Hebb learning rule. Learning introduces small breaking of the symmetries in the connectivities which enables a symmetry in the patterns to be recognized in the Monte Carlo evolution of the MP's. Examples of the recognition of rotational invariance and of a time-reversed pattern are presented. We propose the possibility of building a logic device from the hardware implementation of a higher level architecture of trion cortical columns.

  17. Time reversal invariance for a nonlinear scatterer exhibiting contact acoustic nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanloeuil, Philippe; Rose, L. R. Francis; Veidt, Martin; Wang, Chun H.

    2018-03-01

    The time reversal invariance of an ultrasonic plane wave interacting with a contact interface characterized by a unilateral contact law is investigated analytically and numerically. It is shown analytically that despite the contact nonlinearity, the re-emission of a time reversed version of the reflected and transmitted waves can perfectly recover the original pulse shape, thereby demonstrating time reversal invariance for this type of contact acoustic nonlinearity. With the aid of finite element modelling, the time-reversal analysis is extended to finite-size nonlinear scatterers such as closed cracks. The results show that time reversal invariance holds provided that all the additional frequencies generated during the forward propagation, such as higher harmonics, sub-harmonics and zero-frequency component, are fully included in the retro-propagation. If the scattered waves are frequency filtered during receiving or transmitting, such as through the use of narrowband transducers, the recombination of the time-reversed waves will not exactly recover the original incident wave. This discrepancy due to incomplete time invariance can be exploited as a new method for characterizing damage by defining damage indices that quantify the departure from time reversal invariance. The sensitivity of these damage indices for various crack lengths and contact stress levels is investigated computationally, indicating some advantages of this narrowband approach relative to the more conventional measurement of higher harmonic amplitude, which requires broadband transducers.

  18. Time reversal in polarized neutron decay: the emiT experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, G L; Anaya, J M; Bowles, T J; Chupp, T E; Coulter, K P; Dewey, M S; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; García, A; Greene, G L; Hwang, S R; Lising, L J; Mumm, H P; Nico, J S; Robertson, R G H; Steiger, T D; Teasdale, W A; Thompson, A K; Wasserman, E G; Wietfeldt, F E; Wilkerson, J F

    2000-01-01

    The standard electro-weak model predicts negligible violation of time-reversal invariance in light quark processes. We report on an experimental test of time-reversal invariance in the beta decay of polarized neutrons as a search for physics beyond the standard model. The emiT collaboration has measured the time-reversal-violating triple-correlation in neutron beta decay between the neutron spin, electron momentum, and neutrino momentum often referred to as the D coefficient. The first run of the experiment produced 14 million events which are currently being analyzed. However, a second run with improved detectors should provide greater statistical precision and reduced systematic uncertainties.

  19. Time Reversal Reconstruction Algorithm Based on PSO Optimized SVM Interpolation for Photoacoustic Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic imaging is an innovative imaging technique to image biomedical tissues. The time reversal reconstruction algorithm in which a numerical model of the acoustic forward problem is run backwards in time is widely used. In the paper, a time reversal reconstruction algorithm based on particle swarm optimization (PSO optimized support vector machine (SVM interpolation method is proposed for photoacoustics imaging. Numerical results show that the reconstructed images of the proposed algorithm are more accurate than those of the nearest neighbor interpolation, linear interpolation, and cubic convolution interpolation based time reversal algorithm, which can provide higher imaging quality by using significantly fewer measurement positions or scanning times.

  20. Lectures of David Olive on gauge theories and Lie algebras with some applications to spontaneous symmetry breaking and integrable dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Turok, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Professor David Olive was a renowned British theoretical physicist who made seminal contributions to superstrings, quantum gauge theories and mathematical physics. He was awarded the Dirac Medal by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste in 1997, with his long-standing collaborator Peter Goddard. David Olive was a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Founding Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. David Olive was known for his visionary conjectures, including electromagnetic duality in spontaneously broken gauge theories, as well as his exceptionally clear and insightful style of exposition. These lectures, delivered by David Olive in 1982 at the University of Virginia, provide a pedagogical, self-contained introduction to gauge theory, Lie algebras, electromagnetic duality and integrable models. Despite enormous subsequent developments, they still provide a valuable entry point to some of the deepest topics in quantum gauge theory.

  1. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  2. Time Reversal Acoustic Structural Health Monitoring Using Array of Embedded Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) structural health monitoring with an embedded sensor array represents a new approach to in-situ nondestructive evaluation of air-space...

  3. Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic Method of Friction Stir Weld Assessment, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the project is demonstration of the feasibility of Friction Stir Weld (FSW) assessment by novel Nonlinear Time Reversal Acoustic (TRA) method. Time...

  4. Two applications of time reversal mirrors: Seismic radio and seismic radar

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2011-01-01

    Two seismic applications of time reversal mirrors (TRMs) are introduced and tested with field experiments. The first one is sending, receiving, and decoding coded messages similar to a radio except seismic waves are used. The second one is, similar

  5. Closeout Report - Search for Time Reversal Symmetry Violation with TREK at J-PARC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, Michael [Hampton Univ., VA (United States)

    2015-04-15

    academic positions. Two former graduate students of the group have graduated and received their PhD degrees in nuclear physics (Dr. Anusha Liyanage and Dr. Ozgur Ates). In particular, this award has enabled Dr. Kohl to pursue the TREK project (Time Reversal Experiment with Kaons) at J-PARC, which he has been leading and advancing as International Spokesperson. Originally proposed as a search for time reversal symmetry violation [6], the project has evolved into a precision test of lepton flavor universality in the Standard Model along with sensitive searches for physics beyond the Standard Model through a possible discovery of new particles such as a sterile neutrino or a neutral gauge boson from the hidden sector in the mass region up to 300 MeV/c2 [7]. Experiment TREK/E36, first proposed in 2010, has been mounted between November 2014 and April 2015, and commissioning with beam has been started in April 2015, with production running anticipated in early summer and late fall 2015. It uses the apparatus from the previous KEK/E-246 experiment with partial upgrades to measure the ratio of decay widths of leptonic two-body decays of the charged kaon to µν and eν, respectively, which is highly sensitive to the ratio of electromagnetic charged lepton couplings and possible new physics processes that could differentiate between μ and e, hence breaking lepton flavor universality of the Standard Model. Through the searches for neutral massive particles, TREK/E36 can severely constrain any new physics scenarios designed to explain the proton radius puzzle [12, 13].

  6. Time reversal focusing of elastic waves in plates for an educational demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Christopher; Anderson, Brian E; Young, Sarah M

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a visual demonstration of time reversal focusing of vibrations in a thin plate. Various plate materials are tested to provide optimal conditions for time reversal focusing. Specifically, the reverberation time in each plate and the vibration coupling efficiency from a shaker to the plate are quantified to illustrate why a given plate provides the best spatially confined focus as well as the highest focal amplitude possible. A single vibration speaker and a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) are used to provide the time reversal focusing. Table salt is sprinkled onto the plate surface to allow visualization of the high amplitude, spatially localized time reversal focus; the salt is thrown upward only at the focal position. Spatial mapping of the vibration focusing on the plate using the SLDV is correlated to the visual salt jumping demonstration. The time reversal focusing is also used to knock over an object when the object is placed at the focal position; some discussion of optimal objects to use for this demonstration are given.

  7. High-resolution and super stacking of time-reversal mirrors in locating seismic sources

    KAUST Repository

    Cao, Weiping

    2011-07-08

    Time reversal mirrors can be used to backpropagate and refocus incident wavefields to their actual source location, with the subsequent benefits of imaging with high-resolution and super-stacking properties. These benefits of time reversal mirrors have been previously verified with computer simulations and laboratory experiments but not with exploration-scale seismic data. We now demonstrate the high-resolution and the super-stacking properties in locating seismic sources with field seismic data that include multiple scattering. Tests on both synthetic data and field data show that a time reversal mirror has the potential to exceed the Rayleigh resolution limit by factors of 4 or more. Results also show that a time reversal mirror has a significant resilience to strong Gaussian noise and that accurate imaging of source locations from passive seismic data can be accomplished with traces having signal-to-noise ratios as low as 0.001. Synthetic tests also demonstrate that time reversal mirrors can sometimes enhance the signal by a factor proportional to the square root of the product of the number of traces, denoted as N and the number of events in the traces. This enhancement property is denoted as super-stacking and greatly exceeds the classical signal-to-noise enhancement factor of. High-resolution and super-stacking are properties also enjoyed by seismic interferometry and reverse-time migration with the exact velocity model. © 2011 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  8. Comparison of source moment tensor recovered by diffraction stacking migration and source time reversal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Zhang, W.

    2017-12-01

    Diffraction stacking migration is an automatic location methods and widely used in microseismic monitoring of the hydraulic fracturing. It utilizes the stacking of thousands waveform to enhance signal-to-noise ratio of weak events. For surface monitoring, the diffraction stacking method is suffered from polarity reverse among receivers due to radiation pattern of moment source. Joint determination of location and source mechanism has been proposed to overcome the polarity problem but needs significantly increased computational calculations. As an effective method to recover source moment tensor, time reversal imaging based on wave equation can locate microseismic event by using interferometry on the image to extract source position. However, the time reversal imaging is very time consuming compared to the diffraction stacking location because of wave-equation simulation.In this study, we compare the image from diffraction stacking and time reversal imaging to check if the diffraction stacking can obtain similar moment tensor as time reversal imaging. We found that image produced by taking the largest imaging value at each point along time axis does not exhibit the radiation pattern, while with the same level of calculation efficiency, the image produced for each trial origin time can generate radiation pattern similar to time reversal imaging procedure. Thus it is potential to locate the source position by the diffraction stacking method for general moment tensor sources.

  9. Modelling and Comparative Performance Analysis of a Time-Reversed UWB System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popovski K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of multipath propagation lead to a significant decrease in system performance in most of the proposed ultra-wideband communication systems. A time-reversed system utilises the multipath channel impulse response to decrease receiver complexity, through a prefiltering at the transmitter. This paper discusses the modelling and comparative performance of a UWB system utilising time-reversed communications. System equations are presented, together with a semianalytical formulation on the level of intersymbol interference and multiuser interference. The standardised IEEE 802.15.3a channel model is applied, and the estimated error performance is compared through simulation with the performance of both time-hopped time-reversed and RAKE-based UWB systems.

  10. Time-reversal acoustics and ultrasound-assisted convection-enhanced drug delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbricht, William; Sistla, Manjari; Ghandi, Gaurav; Lewis, George; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2013-08-01

    Time-reversal acoustics is an effective way of focusing ultrasound deep inside heterogeneous media such as biological tissues. Convection-enhanced delivery is a method of delivering drugs into the brain by infusing them directly into the brain interstitium. These two technologies are combined in a focusing system that uses a "smart needle" to simultaneously infuse fluid into the brain and provide the necessary feedback for focusing ultrasound using time-reversal acoustics. The effects of time-reversal acoustics-focused ultrasound on the spatial distribution of infused low- and high-molecular weight tracer molecules are examined in live, anesthetized rats. Results show that exposing the rat brain to focused ultrasound significantly increases the penetration of infused compounds into the brain. The addition of stabilized microbubbles enhances the effect of ultrasound exposure.

  11. Quantum-Enhanced Sensing Based on Time Reversal of Nonlinear Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemann, D; Strobel, H; Muessel, W; Schulz, J; Lewis-Swan, R J; Kheruntsyan, K V; Oberthaler, M K

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a nonlinear detection scheme exploiting time-reversal dynamics that disentangles continuous variable entangled states for feasible readout. Spin-exchange dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates is used as the nonlinear mechanism which not only generates entangled states but can also be time reversed by controlled phase imprinting. For demonstration of a quantum-enhanced measurement we construct an active atom SU(1,1) interferometer, where entangled state preparation and nonlinear readout both consist of parametric amplification. This scheme is capable of exhausting the quantum resource by detecting solely mean atom numbers. Controlled nonlinear transformations widen the spectrum of useful entangled states for applied quantum technologies.

  12. Time reversibility of intracranial human EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heyden, M. J.; Diks, C.; Pijn, J. P. M.; Velis, D. N.

    1996-02-01

    Intracranial electroencephalograms from patients suffering from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy were tested for time reversibility. If the recorded time series is irreversible, the input of the recording system cannot be a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. We confirmed experimentally that the measurement equipment did not introduce irreversibility in the recorded output when the input was a realisation of a linear Gaussian random process. In general, the non-seizure recordings are reversible, whereas the seizure recordings are irreversible. These results suggest that time reversibility is a useful property for the characterisation of human intracranial EEG recordings in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

  13. Time-reversal focusing of an expanding soliton gas in disordered replicas

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2011-05-31

    We investigate the properties of time reversibility of a soliton gas, originating from a dispersive regularization of a shock wave, as it propagates in a strongly disordered environment. An original approach combining information measures and spin glass theory shows that time-reversal focusing occurs for different replicas of the disorder in forward and backward propagation, provided the disorder varies on a length scale much shorter than the width of the soliton constituents. The analysis is performed by starting from a new class of reflectionless potentials, which describe the most general form of an expanding soliton gas of the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  14. Time-reversal focusing of an expanding soliton gas in disordered replicas

    KAUST Repository

    Fratalocchi, Andrea; Armaroli, A.; Trillo, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the properties of time reversibility of a soliton gas, originating from a dispersive regularization of a shock wave, as it propagates in a strongly disordered environment. An original approach combining information measures and spin glass theory shows that time-reversal focusing occurs for different replicas of the disorder in forward and backward propagation, provided the disorder varies on a length scale much shorter than the width of the soliton constituents. The analysis is performed by starting from a new class of reflectionless potentials, which describe the most general form of an expanding soliton gas of the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation.

  15. Discover potential in a search for time-reversal invariance violation in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudkov, Vladimir, E-mail: gudkov@sc.edu; Song, Young-Ho [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United States)

    2013-03-15

    Time reversal invariance violating (TRIV) effects in low energy physics could be very important in searching for new physics, being complementary to neutron and atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) measurements. In this relation, we discuss a sensitivity of some TRIV observables to different models of time-reversal (CP) violation and their dependencies on nuclear structure. As a measure of a sensitivity of TRIV effects to the value of TRIV nucleon coupling constant, we introduce a coefficient of a 'discovery potential', which shows a possible factor for improving the current limits of the EDM experiments by measuring nuclear TRIV effects.

  16. Effective Lagrangians and parity-conserving time-reversal violation at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.; Frampton, P.H.; Springer, R.P.

    1996-01-01

    Using effective Lagrangians, we argue that any time-reversal-violating but parity-conserving effects are too small to be observed in flavor-conserving nuclear processes without dramatic improvement in experimental accuracy. In the process we discuss other arguments that have appeared in the literature. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. On the focusing conditions in time-reversed acoustics, seismic interferometry, and Marchenko imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wapenaar, C.P.A.; Van der Neut, J.R.; Thorbecke, J.W.; Vasconcelos, I.; Van Manen, D.J.; Ravasi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the close links between the fields of time-reversed acoustics, seismic interferometry and Marchenko imaging, a number of subtle differences exist. This paper reviews the various focusing conditions of these methods, the causality/acausality aspects of the corresponding focusing wavefields,

  18. Experimental study of time-reversal invariance in neutron-nucleus interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaparov, E.I.; Shimizu, H.M.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental approaches for the test of time-reversal invariance in neutron-nucleus interactions are reviewed. Possible transmission experiments with polarized neutron beams and polarized or aligned targets are discussed as well as neutron capture experiments with unpolarized resonance neutrons. 102 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  19. The invariance of classical electromagnetism under Charge-conjugation, Parity and Time-reversal (CPT) transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norbury, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The invariance of classical electromagnetism under charge-conjugation, parity, and time-reversal (CPT) is studied by considering the motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields. Upon applying CPT transformations to various physical quantities and noting that the motion still behaves physically demonstrates invariance.

  20. Derivation of the Time-Reversal Anomaly for (2 +1 )-Dimensional Topological Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Yuji; Yonekura, Kazuya

    2017-09-01

    We prove an explicit formula conjectured recently by Wang and Levin for the anomaly of time-reversal symmetry in (2 +1 )-dimensional fermionic topological quantum field theories. The crucial step is to determine the cross-cap state in terms of the modular S matrix and T2 eigenvalues, generalizing the recent analysis by Barkeshli et al. in the bosonic case.

  1. Optimal One Bit Time Reversal For UWB Impulse Radio In Multi-User Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Hung Tuan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, with the purpose of further reducing the complexity of the system, while keeping its temporal and spatial focusing performance, we investigate the possibility of using optimal one bit time reversal (TR) system for impulse radio ultra wideband multi-user wireless communications...

  2. The time-reversal- and parity-violating nuclear potential in chiral effective theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maekawa, C. M.; Mereghetti, E.; de Vries, J.; van Kolck, U.

    2011-01-01

    We derive the parity- and time-reversal-violating nuclear interactions stemming from the QCD (theta) over bar term and quark/gluon operators of effective dimension 6: quark electric dipole moments, quark and gluon chromo-electric dipole moments, and two four-quark operators. We work in the framework

  3. On the record process of time-reversible spectrally-negative Markov additive processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Ivanovs; M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study the record process of a spectrally-negative Markov additive process (MAP). Assuming time-reversibility, a number of key quantities can be given explicitly. It is shown how these key quantities can be used when analyzing the distribution of the all-time maximum attained by MAPs

  4. A time reversal transmission approach for multi-user UWB communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Kovacs Z., Istvan; Eggers, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose and evaluate the performance of the time reversal technique in impulse radio UWB communications. The evaluation was based on measured channel impulse responses in the UWB frequency band of 3 to 5 GHz of a 4x1 MISO system with both vertical and horizontal polarization at t...

  5. Majorana bound states in two-channel time-reversal-symmetric nanowire systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaidamauskas, Erikas; Paaske, Jens; Flensberg, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We consider time-reversal-symmetric two-channel semiconducting quantum wires proximity coupled to a conventional s-wave superconductor. We analyze the requirements for a non-trivial topological phase, and find that necessary conditions are 1) the determinant of the pairing matrix in channel space...

  6. Statistics of resonances and time reversal reconstruction in aluminum acoustic chaotic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antoniuk, O.; Sprik, R.

    2010-01-01

    The statistical properties of wave propagation in classical chaotic systems are of fundamental interest in physics and are the basis for diagnostic tools in materials science. The statistical properties depend in particular also on the presence of time reversal invariance in the system, which can be

  7. The nucleon electric dipole form factor from dimension-six time-reversal violation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Mereghetti, E.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; van Kolck, U.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the electric dipole form factor of the nucleon that arises as a low-energy manifestation of time-reversal violation in quark-gluon interactions of effective dimension 6: the quark electric and chromoelectric dipole moments, and the gluon chromoelectric dipole moment. We use the

  8. Optical Time Reversal from Time-Dependent Epsilon-Near-Zero Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vezzoli, Stefano; Bruno, Vincenzo; DeVault, Clayton; Roger, Thomas; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Ferrera, Marcello; Clerici, Matteo; Dubietis, Audrius; Faccio, Daniele

    2018-01-01

    Materials with a spatially uniform but temporally varying optical response have applications ranging from magnetic field-free optical isolators to fundamental studies of quantum field theories. However, these effects typically become relevant only for time variations oscillating at optical frequencies, thus presenting a significant hurdle that severely limits the realization of such conditions. Here we present a thin-film material with a permittivity that pulsates (uniformly in space) at optical frequencies and realizes a time-reversing medium of the form originally proposed by Pendry [Science 322, 71 (2008), 10.1126/science.1162087]. We use an optically pumped, 500 nm thick film of epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) material based on Al-doped zinc oxide. An incident probe beam is both negatively refracted and time reversed through a reflected phase-conjugated beam. As a result of the high nonlinearity and the refractive index that is close to zero, the ENZ film leads to time reversed beams (simultaneous negative refraction and phase conjugation) with near-unit efficiency and greater-than-unit internal conversion efficiency. The ENZ platform therefore presents the time-reversal features required, e.g., for efficient subwavelength imaging, all-optical isolators and fundamental quantum field theory studies.

  9. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  10. On the character of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusijnin, V.P.; Kushnir, V.A.; Miransky, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories is discussed. It is shown that the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry in gauge theories is incompatible with the PCAAC dynamics. 12 refs

  11. Investigation of the effects of metal-wire resonators in sub-wavelength array based on time-reversal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Hui-Lin; Xiao, Shao-Qiu

    2016-01-01

    The resonant metalens consisting of metal-wire resonators with equally finite length can break the diffraction barrier well suited for super-resolution imaging. In this study, a basic combination constructed by two metal-wire resonators with different lengths is proposed, and its resonant characteristics is analyzed using the method of moments (MoM). Based on the time reversal (TR) technique, this kind of combination can be applied to a sub-wavelength two-element antenna array with a 1/40-wavelength interval to make the elements work simultaneously with little interference in the frequency band of 1.0-1.5 GHz and 1.5-2.0 GHz, respectively. The simulations and experiments show that analysis of MoM and the application of the resonators can be used to design multi-frequency sub-wavelength antenna arrays efficiently. This general design method is convenient and can be used for many applications, such as weakening jamming effectiveness in communication systems, and sub-wavelength imaging in a broad frequency band.

  12. Non-Abelian parafermions in time-reversal-invariant interacting helical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Christoph P.; Tiwari, Rakesh P.; Meng, Tobias; Schmidt, Thomas L.

    2015-02-01

    The interplay between bulk spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions produces umklapp scattering in the helical edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator. If the chemical potential is at the Dirac point, umklapp scattering can open a gap in the edge state spectrum even if the system is time-reversal invariant. We determine the zero-energy bound states at the interfaces between a section of a helical liquid which is gapped out by the superconducting proximity effect and a section gapped out by umklapp scattering. We show that these interfaces pin charges which are multiples of e /2 , giving rise to a Josephson current with 8 π periodicity. Moreover, the bound states, which are protected by time-reversal symmetry, are fourfold degenerate and can be described as Z4 parafermions. We determine their braiding statistics and show how braiding can be implemented in topological insulator systems.

  13. Time-reversibility in seismic sequences: Application to the seismicity of Mexican subduction zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesca, L.; Flores-Márquez, E. L.; Ramírez-Rojas, A.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we investigate the time-reversibility of series associated with the seismicity of five seismic areas of the subduction zone beneath the Southwest Pacific Mexican coast, applying the horizontal visibility graph method to the series of earthquake magnitudes, interevent times, interdistances and magnitude increments. We applied the Kullback-Leibler divergence D that is a metric for quantifying the degree of time-irreversibility in time series. Our findings suggest that among the five seismic areas, Jalisco-Colima is characterized by time-reversibility in all the four seismic series. Our results are consistent with the peculiar seismo-tectonic characteristics of Jalisco-Colima, which is the closest to the Middle American Trench and belongs to the Mexican volcanic arc.

  14. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulders, P.J. [National Inst. for Nuclear Physics and High Energy Physics, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Levelt, J. [Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  15. Time reversal mirror and perfect inverse filter in a microscopic model for sound propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, Hernan L.; Danieli, Ernesto P.; Pastawski, Horacio M.

    2007-01-01

    Time reversal of quantum dynamics can be achieved by a global change of the Hamiltonian sign (a hasty Loschmidt daemon), as in the Loschmidt Echo experiments in NMR, or by a local but persistent procedure (a stubborn daemon) as in the time reversal mirror (TRM) used in ultrasound acoustics. While the first is limited by chaos and disorder, the last procedure seems to benefit from it. As a first step to quantify such stability we develop a procedure, the perfect inverse filter (PIF), that accounts for memory effects, and we apply it to a system of coupled oscillators. In order to ensure a numerical many-body dynamics intrinsically reversible, we develop an algorithm, the pair partitioning, based on the Trotter strategy used for quantum dynamics. We analyze situations where the PIF gives substantial improvements over the TRM

  16. Test of feasibility of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, Deepak

    2007-01-01

    The first results of a feasibility test of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance are reported. The Time Reversal Invariance test at COSY (TRIC) was planned to measure the time reversal violating observable A y,xz with an accuracy of 10 -6 in proton-deuteron (p-d) scattering. A novel technique for measuring total cross sections is introduced and the achievable precision of this measuring technique is tested. The correlation coefficient A y,y in p-d scattering fakes a time-reversal violating effect. This work reports the feasibility test of the novel method in the measurement of A y,y in p-p scattering. The first step in the experimental design was the development of a hard real-time data acquisition system. To meet stringent latency requirements, the capabilities of Windows XP had to be augmented with a real-time subsystem. The remote control feature of the data acquisition enables users to operate it from any place via an internet connection. The data acquisition proved its reliability in several beam times without any failures. The analysis of the data showed the presence of 1/f noise which substantially limits the quality of our measurements. The origin of 1/f noise was traced and found to be the Barkhausen noise from the ferrite core of the beam current transformer (BCT). A global weighted fitting technique based on a modified Wiener-Khinchin method was developed and used to suppress the influence of 1/f noise, which increased the error bar of the results by a factor 3. This is the only deviation from our expectations. The results are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  17. High amplitude ultrasound pulse generation using time-reversal through a multiple scattering medium

    OpenAIRE

    ARNAL , Bastien; Pernot , Mathieu; Fink , Mathias; Tanter , Mickaël

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In histotripsy, soft tissues can be fragmented using very high pressure ultrasound pulses. Using time-reversal cavity is a way to generate high pressure pulses with a limited number of acoustic sources. The principle was already demonstrated by Montaldo et al. using a solid metal cavity, but low transmission coefficient was obtained due to the strong impedance mismatch at the metal/water interface. We propose here to use a waveguide filled with water containing a 2D mu...

  18. Test of feasibility of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Deepak

    2007-07-01

    The first results of a feasibility test of a novel high precision test of time reversal invariance are reported. The Time Reversal Invariance test at COSY (TRIC) was planned to measure the time reversal violating observable A{sub y,xz} with an accuracy of 10{sup -6} in proton-deuteron (p-d) scattering. A novel technique for measuring total cross sections is introduced and the achievable precision of this measuring technique is tested. The correlation coefficient A{sub y,y} in p-d scattering fakes a time-reversal violating effect. This work reports the feasibility test of the novel method in the measurement of A{sub y,y} in p-p scattering. The first step in the experimental design was the development of a hard real-time data acquisition system. To meet stringent latency requirements, the capabilities of Windows XP had to be augmented with a real-time subsystem. The remote control feature of the data acquisition enables users to operate it from any place via an internet connection. The data acquisition proved its reliability in several beam times without any failures. The analysis of the data showed the presence of 1/f noise which substantially limits the quality of our measurements. The origin of 1/f noise was traced and found to be the Barkhausen noise from the ferrite core of the beam current transformer (BCT). A global weighted fitting technique based on a modified Wiener-Khinchin method was developed and used to suppress the influence of 1/f noise, which increased the error bar of the results by a factor 3. This is the only deviation from our expectations. The results are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  19. Generic transmission zeros in time-reversal symmetric single channel transport through quasi-1d systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H. W.

    1999-01-01

    Wh study phase coherent transport in a single channel system using the scattering matrix approach. It is show that the Friedel sum rule and the time-reversal symmetry result in the generic appearance of transmission zeros in quasi-1d systems. The transmission zeros naturally lead to abrupt phase changes (without any intrinsic energy scale) and in-phase resonances, thus providing insights to recent experiments on phase coherent transport through a quantum dot

  20. Time Reversal Methods for Structural Health Monitoring of Metallic Structures Using Guided Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    measure elastic properties of thin isotropic materials and laminated composite plates. Two types of waves propagate a symmetric wave and antisymmetric...compare it to the original signal. In this time reversal procedure wave propagation from point-A to point-B and can be modeled as a convolution ...where * is the convolution operator and transducer transmit and receive transfer function are neglected for simplification. In the frequency

  1. Acoustic wave focusing in complex media using Nonlinear Time Reversal coded signal processing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Lints, M.; Kůs, V.; Salupere, A.; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2014) ISSN 1435-4934. [European Conference on Non-Destructive Testing (ECNDT 2014) /11./. Praha, 06.10.2014-10.10.2014] Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : ultrasonic testing (UT) * signal processing * TR- NEWS * nonlinear time reversal * NDT * nonlinear acoustics Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/events/ECNDT2014/app/content/Slides/590_DosSantos_Rev1.pdf

  2. Nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy in symbiosis with time reversal for localization of defects: TR-NEWS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dos Santos, S.; Vejvodová, Šárka; Převorovský, Zdeněk

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2009), s. 14-14 ISSN 1213-3825. [NDT in PROGRESS. 12.11.2009-14.11.2009, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA MPO(CZ) FR-TI1/274 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) * ESAM * time reversal (TR) * TR-NEWS imaging * tomography * DORT Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  3. Differential geometric invariants for time-reversal symmetric Bloch-bundles: The “Real” case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Nittis, Giuseppe; Gomi, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    Topological quantum systems subjected to an even (resp. odd) time-reversal symmetry can be classified by looking at the related “Real” (resp. “Quaternionic”) Bloch-bundles. If from one side the topological classification of these time-reversal vector bundle theories has been completely described in De Nittis and Gomi [J. Geom. Phys. 86, 303–338 (2014)] for the “Real” case and in De Nittis and Gomi [Commun. Math. Phys. 339, 1–55 (2015)] for the “Quaternionic” case, from the other side it seems that a classification in terms of differential geometric invariants is still missing in the literature. With this article and its companion [G. De Nittis and K. Gomi (unpublished)] we want to cover this gap. More precisely, we extend in an equivariant way the theory of connections on principal bundles and vector bundles endowed with a time-reversal symmetry. In the “Real” case we generalize the Chern-Weil theory and we show that the assignment of a “Real” connection, along with the related differential Chern class and its holonomy, suffices for the classification of “Real” vector bundles in low dimensions.

  4. Fast damage imaging using the time-reversal technique in the frequency–wavenumber domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, R; Huang, G L; Yuan, F G

    2013-01-01

    The time-reversal technique has been successfully used in structural health monitoring (SHM) for quantitative imaging of damage. However, the technique is very time-consuming when it is implemented in the time domain. In this paper, we study the technique in the frequency–wavenumber (f–k) domain for fast real-time imaging of multiple damage sites in plates using scattered flexural plate waves. Based on Mindlin plate theory, the time reversibility of dispersive flexural waves in an isotropic plate is theoretically investigated in the f–k domain. A fast damage imaging technique is developed by using the cross-correlation between the back-propagated scattered wavefield and the incident wavefield in the frequency domain. Numerical simulations demonstrate that the proposed technique cannot only localize multiple damage sites but also potentially identify their sizes. Moreover, the time-reversal technique in the f–k domain is about two orders of magnitude faster than the method in the time domain. Finally, experimental testing of an on-line SHM system with a sparse piezoelectric sensor array is conducted for fast multiple damage identification using the proposed technique. (paper)

  5. A Baseline-Free Defect Imaging Technique in Plates Using Time Reversal of Lamb Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyunjo; Cho, Sungjong; Wei, Wei

    2011-01-01

    We present an analytical investigation for a baseline-free imaging of a defect in plate-like structures using the time-reversal of Lamb waves. We first consider the flexural wave (A 0 mode) propagation in a plate containing a defect, and reception and time reversal process of the output signal at the receiver. The received output signal is then composed of two parts: a directly propagated wave and a scattered wave from the defect. The time reversal of these waves recovers the original input signal, and produces two additional sidebands that contain the time-of-flight information on the defect location. One of the side-band signals is then extracted as a pure defect signal. A defect localization image is then constructed from a beamforming technique based on the time-frequency analysis of the side band signal for each transducer pair in a network of sensors. The simulation results show that the proposed scheme enables the accurate, baseline-free imaging of a defect. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  6. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll

  7. Spontaneously broken global symmetries and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.; Vilenkin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Phase transitions associated with spontaneously broken global symmetries, in case these occur in nature, can have important cosmological implications. This is illustrated through two examples. The first one shows how the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry, present, for instance, in the minimal SU(5) model, can lead to an inflationary phase. The second example illustrates how topologically stable strings associated with the breaking of U(1) symmetry make an appearance at (or near) the end of the inflationary era

  8. Search for Time Reversal Violation in Neutron Decay: A Measurement of the Transverse Polarization of Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodek, K.; Kaczmarek, A.; Kistryn, St.; Kuzniak, M.; Zejma, J.; Pulut, J.; Kirch, K.; Bialek, A.; Kozela, A.; Ban, G.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Gorel, P.; Beck, M.; Lindroth, A.; Severijns, N.; Stephan, E.; Czarnecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    A non-zero value of the R-correlation coefficient due to the e - polarization component, perpendicular to the plane spanned by the spin of the decaying neutron and the electron momentum, would signal a violation of time reversal symmetry and thus physics beyond the Standard Model. The value of the N-correlation coefficient, given by the transverse e - polarization component within that plane, is expected to be finite. The measurement of N serves as an important systematic check of the apparatus for the R-measurement. The first phase of data taking has been completed. Preliminary results from a limited data sample show no deviations from the Standard Model predictions

  9. New results for time reversed symplectic dynamic systems and quadratic functionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Simon Hilscher

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine time scale symplectic (or Hamiltonian systems and the associated quadratic functionals which contain a forward shift in the time variable. Such systems and functionals have a close connection to Jacobi systems for calculus of variations and optimal control problems on time scales. Our results, among which we consider the Reid roundabout theorem, generalize the corresponding classical theory for time reversed discrete symplectic systems, as well as they complete the recently developed theory of time scale symplectic systems.

  10. In situ calibration of acoustic emission transducers by time reversal method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kober, Jan; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Chlada, Milan

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 240, April (2016), s. 50-56 ISSN 0924-4247 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : time reversed acoustic s * calibration * in situ * acoustic emission Subject RIV: BI - Acoustic s Impact factor: 2.499, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0924424716300334/1-s2.0-S0924424716300334-main.pdf?_tid=0acf4736-ef6d-11e5-b826-00000aacb362&acdnat=1458568911_1c21eda9762b905a684ff939463ef3fe

  11. Numerical Simulation of Ultrasonic Time Reversal Mirror in a Plate with Defect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2008), s. 1-5 ISSN 1435-4934. [NDT in Progress. Praha, 05.11.2007-07.11.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1393; GA ČR GA103/06/1711 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : defect detection * nonlinear ultrasonic spectroscopy * time reversal mirror Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics http://www.ndt.net/ search /docs.php3?showForm=off&edit=1&MainSource=53&AuthorID=2812

  12. Multiuser underwater acoustic communication using single-element virtual time reversal mirror

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN JingWei; WANG YiLin; WANG Lei; HUI JunYing

    2009-01-01

    Pattern time delay shift coding (PDS) scheme is introduced and combined with spread spectrum tech-nique called SS-PDS for short which is power-saving and competent for long-range underwater acous-tic networks.Single-element virtual time reversal mirror (VTRM) is presented in this paper and validated by the lake trial results.Employing single-element VTRM in multiuser communication system based on SS-PDS can separate different users' information simultaneously at master node as indicated in the simulation results.

  13. Time-reversal asymmetry: polarization and analyzing power in nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioux, C.; Roy, R.; Slobodrian, R.J.; Conzett, H.E.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the proton polarization in the reactions 7 Li( 3 He, p vector) 9 Be and 9 Be( 3 He, p vector) 11 B and of the analyzing powers in the inverse reactions, initiated by polarized protons at the same center-of-mass energies, show significant differences. This implies the failure of the polarization-analyzing-power theorem and, prima facie, of time-reversal invariance in these reactions. The reaction 2 H( 3 He, p vector) 4 He and its inverse have also been investigated and show smaller differences. A discussion of instrumental asymmetries is presented

  14. Noncolocated Time-Reversal MUSIC: High-SNR Distribution of Null Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuonzo, Domenico; Rossi, Pierluigi Salvo

    2017-04-01

    We derive the asymptotic distribution of the null spectrum of the well-known Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) in its computational Time-Reversal (TR) form. The result pertains to a single-frequency non-colocated multistatic scenario and several TR-MUSIC variants are here investigated. The analysis builds upon the 1st-order perturbation of the singular value decomposition and allows a simple characterization of null-spectrum moments (up to the 2nd order). This enables a comparison in terms of spectrums stability. Finally, a numerical analysis is provided to confirm the theoretical findings.

  15. Splitting of the rate matrix as a definition of time reversal in master equation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fei; Le, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by recent progress in nonequilibrium fluctuation relations, we present a generalized time reversal for stochastic master equation systems with discrete states, which is defined as a splitting of the rate matrix into irreversible and reversible parts. An immediate advantage of this definition is that a variety of fluctuation relations can be attributed to different matrix splittings. Additionally, we find that the accustomed total entropy production formula and conditions of the detailed balance must be modified appropriately to account for the reversible rate part, which was previously ignored. (paper)

  16. Bounds on Time Reversal Violation From Polarized Neutron Capture With Unpolarized Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, E D; Gould, C R; Mitchell, G E; Sharapov, E I

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed constraints on parity-odd time-reversal noninvariant interactions derived from measurements of the energy dependence of parity-violating polarized neutron capture on unpolarized targets. As previous authors found, a perturbation in energy dependence due to a parity (P)-odd time (T)-odd interaction is present. However, the perturbation competes with T-even terms which can obscure the T-odd signature. We estimate the magnitudes of these competing terms and suggest strategies for a practicable experiment.

  17. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  18. Measuring the spin Chern number in time-reversal-invariant Hofstadter optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dan-Wei, E-mail: zdanwei@126.com [Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, SPTE, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Cao, Shuai, E-mail: shuaicao2004@163.com [Department of Applied Physics, College of Electronic Engineering, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 China (China)

    2016-10-14

    We propose an experimental scheme to directly measure the spin Chern number of the time-reversal-invariant Hofstadter model in optical lattices. We first show that this model can be realized by using ultracold Fermi atoms with two pseudo-spin states encoded by the internal Zeeman states in a square optical lattice and the corresponding topological Bloch bands are characterized by the spin Chern number. We then propose and numerically demonstrate that this topological invariant can be extracted from the shift of the hybrid Wannier center in the optical lattice. By spin-resolved in situ detection of the atomic densities along the transverse direction combined with time-of-flight measurement along another spatial direction, the spin Chern number in this system is directly measured. - Highlights: • The cold-atom optical-lattice scheme for realizing the time-reversal-invariant Hofstadter model is proposed. • The intrinsic spin Chern number related to the hybrid Wannier center in the optical lattice is investigated. • Direct measurement of the spin Chern number in the proposed system is theoretically demonstrated.

  19. The double-slit experiment and the time-reversed fire alarm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halabi, T.

    2010-01-01

    When both slits of the double-slit experiment are open, closing one paradoxically increases the detection rate at some points on the detection screen. Feynman famously warned that temptation to understand such a puzzling feature only draws into blind alleys. Nevertheless, we gain insight into this feature by drawing an analogy between the double-slit experiment and a time-reversed fire alarm. Much as closing the slit increases probability of a future detection, ruling out fire drill scenarios, having heard the fire alarm, increases probability of a past fire (using Bayesian inference). Classically, Bayesian inference is associated with computing probabilities of past events. We therefore identify this feature of the double-slit experiment with a time-reversed thermodynamic arrow. We believe that much of the enigma of quantum mechanics is simply due to some variation of time's arrow. In further support of this, we employ a plausible formulation of the thermodynamic arrow to derive an uncertainty in classical mechanics that is reminiscent of quantum uncertainty.

  20. Deterministic time-reversible thermostats: chaos, ergodicity, and the zeroth law of thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Puneet Kumar; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Hoover, William Graham; Griswold Hoover, Carol

    2015-09-01

    The relative stability and ergodicity of deterministic time-reversible thermostats, both singly and in coupled pairs, are assessed through their Lyapunov spectra. Five types of thermostat are coupled to one another through a single Hooke's-law harmonic spring. The resulting dynamics shows that three specific thermostat types, Hoover-Holian, Ju-Bulgac, and Martyna-Klein-Tuckerman, have very similar Lyapunov spectra in their equilibrium four-dimensional phase spaces and when coupled in equilibrium or nonequilibrium pairs. All three of these oscillator-based thermostats are shown to be ergodic, with smooth analytic Gaussian distributions in their extended phase spaces (coordinate, momentum, and two control variables). Evidently these three ergodic and time-reversible thermostat types are particularly useful as statistical-mechanical thermometers and thermostats. Each of them generates Gibbs' universal canonical distribution internally as well as for systems to which they are coupled. Thus they obey the zeroth law of thermodynamics, as a good heat bath should. They also provide dissipative heat flow with relatively small nonlinearity when two or more such temperature baths interact and provide useful deterministic replacements for the stochastic Langevin equation.

  1. Impact source identification in finite isotropic plates using a time-reversal method: theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chunlin; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to identify impact sources on plate-like structures based on the synthetic time-reversal (T-R) concept using an array of sensors. The impact source characteristics, namely, impact location and impact loading time history, are reconstructed using the invariance of time-reversal concept, reciprocal theory, and signal processing algorithms. Numerical verification for two finite isotropic plates under low and high velocity impacts is performed to demonstrate the versatility of the synthetic T-R method for impact source identification. The results show that the impact location and time history of the impact force with various shapes and frequency bands can be readily obtained with only four sensors distributed around the impact location. The effects of time duration and the inaccuracy in the estimated impact location on the accuracy of the time history of the impact force using the T-R method are investigated. Since the T-R technique retraces all the multi-paths of reflected waves from the geometrical boundaries back to the impact location, it is well suited for quantifying the impact characteristics for complex structures. In addition, this method is robust against noise and it is suggested that a small number of sensors is sufficient to quantify the impact source characteristics through simple computation; thus it holds promise for the development of passive structural health monitoring (SHM) systems for impact monitoring in near real-time

  2. Analysis of Current-mode Detectors For Resonance Detection In Neutron Optics Time Reversal Symmetry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Grant; Noptrex Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    One of the most promising explanations for the observed matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe is the search for new sources of time-reversal (T) symmetry violation. The current amount of violation seen in the kaon and B-meson systems is not sufficient to describe this asymmetry. The Neutron Optics Time Reversal Experiment Collaboration (NOPTREX) is a null test for T violation in polarized neutron transmission through a polarized 139La target. Due to the high neutron flux needed for this experiment, as well as the ability to effectively subtract background noise, a current-mode neutron detector that can resolve resonances at epithermal energies has been proposed. In order to ascertain if this detector design would meet the requirements for the eventual NOPTREX experiment, prototypical detectors were tested at the NOBORU beam at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (JPARC) facility. Resonances in In and Ta were measured and the collected data was analyzed. This presentation will describe the analysis process and the efficacy of the detectors will be discussed. Department of Energy under Contract DE-SC0008107, UGRAS Scholarship.

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, L. H.

    2005-11-01

    One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would

  4. Performance analysis of an acoustic time reversal system in dynamic and random oceanic environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Sunny Rajendra

    This dissertation provides a theoretical framework along with specific performance predictions for an acoustic time reversal system in shallow oceanic environments. Acoustic time-reversal is a robust means of retrofocusing acoustic energy, in both time and space, to the original sound-source location without any information about the acoustic environment in which it is deployed. The effect of three performance limiting oceanic complexities addressed, include (i)ambient noise field, (ii)reflection and volume scattering from a deterministic soliton internal wave traveling on the thermocline between two water masses, and (iii)volume scattering from a random superposition of linear internal waves convecting a gradient in the sound speed profile. The performance analysis establishes acoustic time reversal to be a promising technology for a two-way communication system in an oceanic medium. For an omni-directional noisy environment a general formulation for the probability of retrofocusing is developed that includes the effect of the medium, accounts for the system hardware and the acoustic parameters. Monte-Carlo simulations in both, a free-space environment and a shallow-ocean sound-channel environment compare well with theory. A 41 element TRA spanning a shallow water depth of 60 m is predicted to return a 70% focal probability at -15 dB SNR for a source to array range of 6 km. Preliminary research with broadband signals suggest that they should outperform narrowband response in both free space and sound channel environments. The impact of the nonlinear solitary waves is addressed using a two-path Green's function to treat the presence of a flat thermocline, and the single scattering Born approximation to address scattering from the soliton internal wave. It is predicted that a stationary soliton located along ray turning paths between the source and the TRA can lead to both enhanced and degraded focal performance. Based on extension of previous research in wave

  5. Classical reconstruction of interference patterns of position-wave-vector-entangled photon pairs by the time-reversal method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Tomita, Akihisa

    2018-02-01

    The quantum interference of entangled photons forms a key phenomenon underlying various quantum-optical technologies. It is known that the quantum interference patterns of entangled photon pairs can be reconstructed classically by the time-reversal method; however, the time-reversal method has been applied only to time-frequency-entangled two-photon systems in previous experiments. Here, we apply the time-reversal method to the position-wave-vector-entangled two-photon systems: the two-photon Young interferometer and the two-photon beam focusing system. We experimentally demonstrate that the time-reversed systems classically reconstruct the same interference patterns as the position-wave-vector-entangled two-photon systems.

  6. The imaginary-time path integral and non-time-reversal-invariant saddle points of the Euclidean action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, I.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss new bounce-like (but non-time-reversal-invariant) solutions to Euclidean equations of motion, which we dub boomerons. In the Euclidean path integral approach to quantum theories, boomerons make an imaginary contribution to the vacuum energy. The fake vacuum instability can be removed by cancelling boomeron contributions against contributions from time reversed boomerons (anti-boomerons). The cancellation rests on a sign choice whose significance is not completely understood in the path integral method. (orig.)

  7. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2018-01-01

    storytelling to enact fruitful breakings of patterns unbecoming. The claim being, that the hamster wheel of Work-life anno 2016 needs reconfiguration and the simple yet fruitful manner by which this is done is through acknowledging the benefits of bodies, spaces and artifacts – and the benefits of actually...... taking a break, discontinuing for a moment in order to continue better, wiser and more at ease. Both within and as part of the daily routines, and – now and then – outside these routines in the majesty of nature with time to explore and redirect the course of life in companionships with fellow man...

  8. Acoustic Longitudinal Field NIF Optic Feature Detection Map Using Time-Reversal & MUSIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K

    2006-02-09

    We developed an ultrasonic longitudinal field time-reversal and MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) based detection algorithm for identifying and mapping flaws in fused silica NIF optics. The algorithm requires a fully multistatic data set, that is one with multiple, independently operated, spatially diverse transducers, each transmitter of which, in succession, launches a pulse into the optic and the scattered signal measured and recorded at every receiver. We have successfully localized engineered ''defects'' larger than 1 mm in an optic. We confirmed detection and localization of 3 mm and 5 mm features in experimental data, and a 0.5 mm in simulated data with sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio. We present the theory, experimental results, and simulated results.

  9. Photoacoustic imaging in scattering media by combining a correlation matrix filter with a time reversal operator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Wei; Tao, Chao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2017-09-18

    Acoustic scattering medium is a fundamental challenge for photoacoustic imaging. In this study, we reveal the different coherent properties of the scattering photoacoustic waves and the direct photoacoustic waves in a matrix form. Direct waves show a particular coherence on the antidiagonals of the matrix, whereas scattering waves do not. Based on this property, a correlation matrix filter combining with a time reversal operator is proposed to preserve the direct waves and recover the image behind a scattering layer. Both numerical simulations and photoacoustic imaging experiments demonstrate that the proposed approach effectively increases the image contrast and decreases the background speckles in a scattering medium. This study might improve the quality of photoacoustic imaging in an acoustic scattering environment and extend its applications.

  10. First direct observation of time-reversal non-invariance in the neutral-kaon system

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Santoni, C; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1998-01-01

    We report on the first observation of time-reversal symmetry violation through a comparison of the probabilities of $\\bar{K}^0$ transforming into $K^0$ and $K^0$ into $\\bar{K}^0$ as a function of the neutral-kaon eigentime $t$. The comparison is based on the analysis of the neutral-kaon semileptonic decays recorded in the CPLEAR experiment. There, the strangeness of the neutral kaon at time $t=0$ was tagged by the kaon charge in the reaction $p\\bar{p} \\rightarrow K^{\\pm} \\pi^{\\mp} K^0(\\bar{K}^0)$ at rest, whereas the strangeness of the kaon at the decay time $t=\\tau$ was tagged by the lepton charge in the final state. An average decay-rate asymmetry \\begin{equation*} \\langle^{R(\\bar{K}^0_{t=0} \\to e^+\\pi^-\

  11. Infrared absorption, multiphonon processes and time reversal effect on Si and Ge band structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunert, H.W.; Machatine, A.G.J.; Malherbe, J.B.; Barnas, J.; Hoffmann, A.; Wagner, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    We have examined the effect of Time Reversal Symmetry (TRS) on vibrational modes and on the electronic band structure of Si and Ge. Most of the primary non-interacting modes are not affected by TRS. Only phonons originating from high symmetry lines S and A of the Brillouin Zone (BZ) indicate extra degeneracy. Selection rules for some two and three phonons originating from high symmetry lines are determined. The states of electrons and holes described by electronic band structure due to spin-inclusion are assigned by spinor representations of the double space group. Inclusion of the TRS into the band structure results in extra degeneracy of electrons and holes, and therefore optical selection rules suppose to be modified

  12. On null tests of time-reversal invariance in scattering and reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conzett, H.E.

    1993-01-01

    There have been suggestions in the literature, both recently and in the more distant past, that, in the lowest-order Born approximation, time-reversal (T)-odd experimental observables in certain reactions are required by T-symmetry to vanish. These observables are the final-state spin-correlation coefficient C xy in the reaction e + e - → τ + τ - and the target analysing power A oy in the inclusive process ep → eX with a polarized proton target. These assertions are in direct conflict with a theorem that states that there can be no null-test of T-symmetry in such processes; that is, T-symmetry does not require any single observable to vanish. This talk addresses the resolution of that conflict

  13. Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J. Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.

  14. The brief time-reversibility of the local Lyapunov exponents for a small chaotic Hamiltonian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, Franz; Hoover, William G.; Hoover, Carol G.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We consider the local Lyapunov spectrum for a four-dimensional Hamilton system. •Its stable periodic motion can be reversed for long times. •In the chaotic motion, time reversal occurs only for a short time. •Perturbations will change this short unstable case into a different stable case. •These observations might relate chaos to the Second Law of Thermodynamics. - Abstract: We consider the local (instantaneous) Lyapunov spectrum for a four-dimensional Hamiltonian system. Its stable periodic motion can be reversed for long times. Its unstable chaotic motion, with two symmetric pairs of exponents, cannot. In the latter case reversal occurs for more than a thousand fourth-order Runge–Kutta time steps, followed by a transition to a new set of paired Lyapunov exponents, unrelated to those seen in the forward time direction. The relation of the observed chaotic dynamics to the Second Law of Thermodynamics is discussed

  15. Time-Reversal MUSIC Imaging with Time-Domain Gating Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heedong; Ogawa, Yasutaka; Nishimura, Toshihiko; Ohgane, Takeo

    A time-reversal (TR) approach with multiple signal classification (MUSIC) provides super-resolution for detection and localization using multistatic data collected from an array antenna system. The theory of TR-MUSIC assumes that the number of antenna elements is greater than that of scatterers (targets). Furthermore, it requires many sets of frequency-domain data (snapshots) in seriously noisy environments. Unfortunately, these conditions are not practical for real environments due to the restriction of a reasonable antenna structure as well as limited measurement time. We propose an approach that treats both noise reduction and relaxation of the transceiver restriction by using a time-domain gating technique accompanied with the Fourier transform before applying the TR-MUSIC imaging algorithm. Instead of utilizing the conventional multistatic data matrix (MDM), we employ a modified MDM obtained from the gating technique. The resulting imaging functions yield more reliable images with only a few snapshots regardless of the limitation of the antenna arrays.

  16. Ergodic time-reversible chaos for Gibbs' canonical oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, William Graham; Sprott, Julien Clinton; Patra, Puneet Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nosé's pioneering 1984 work inspired a variety of time-reversible deterministic thermostats. Though several groups have developed successful doubly-thermostated models, single-thermostat models have failed to generate Gibbs' canonical distribution for the one-dimensional harmonic oscillator. A 2001 doubly-thermostated model, claimed to be ergodic, has a singly-thermostated version. Though neither of these models is ergodic this work has suggested a successful route toward singly-thermostated ergodicity. We illustrate both ergodicity and its lack for these models using phase-space cross sections and Lyapunov instability as diagnostic tools. - Highlights: • We develop cross-section and Lyapunov methods for diagnosing ergodicity. • We apply these methods to several thermostatted-oscillator problems. • We demonstrate the nonergodicity of previous work. • We find a novel family of ergodic thermostatted-oscillator problems.

  17. Compound-nuclear tests of time reversal invariance in the nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, J.B.; Pandey, A.; Smith, J.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for the effects of time-reversal noninvariance (TRNI) in complex systems is reviewed. Applied to the compound-nuclear data for energy-level, width and cross-section fluctuations (the latter for detailed-balance pairs of reactions proceeding through the compound nucleus) this gives bounds on multiparticle TRNI Hamiltonian matrix elements. Using a fluctuation-free form of statistical spectroscopy the results are reduced to bounds on α, the relative magnitude of the TRNI nucleon-nucleon interaction. The level and width analyses for heavy nuclei gave α ≤ 2 x 10 -3 at high (∼99%) statistical confidence; preliminary calculations for detailed balance with 24 Mg(α,p) 27 Al and its inverse gives α ≤ 4 x 10 -3 at the same high confidence, but ≤0.2 x 10 -3 at 80% confidence. Suggestions are made about experiments which should yield sharper bounds. 28 refs., 1 tab

  18. Test of parity and time reversal invariance with low energy polarized neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaike, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of helicity asymmetries in slow neutron reactions on nuclei have been performed by transmission and capture γ-ray detection. Large enhancements of parity-violation effects have been observed on p-wave resonances of various medium and heavy nuclei. The weak matrix elements in hadron reactions have been deduced from these experimental results. Neutron spin precession near the p-wave resonance has been measured. In recent years violation of time reversal invariance is being searched for in the neutron reactions in which large enhancements of the parity violation effects have been observed. The measurement of the term σ n ·(k n x I) in a neutron reaction using polarized neutrons and a polarized target is an example of the test of T-violation. Polarizations of the neutron and lanthanum nucleus for these experiments are also presented. (author)

  19. Non invasive transcostal focusing based on the decomposition of the time reversal operator: in vitro validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochard, Étienne; Prada, Claire; Aubry, Jean-François; Fink, Mathias

    2010-03-01

    Thermal ablation induced by high intensity focused ultrasound has produced promising clinical results to treat hepatocarcinoma and other liver tumors. However skin burns have been reported due to the high absorption of ultrasonic energy by the ribs. This study proposes a method to produce an acoustic field focusing on a chosen target while sparing the ribs, using the decomposition of the time-reversal operator (DORT method). The idea is to apply an excitation weight vector to the transducers array which is orthogonal to the subspace of emissions focusing on the ribs. The ratio of the energies absorbed at the focal point and on the ribs has been enhanced up to 100-fold as demonstrated by the measured specific absorption rates.

  20. Precise discussion of time-reversal asymmetries in B-meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozumi, Takuya; Okane, Hideaki; Umeeda, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    BaBar collaboration announced that they observed time reversal (T) asymmetry through B meson system. In the experiment, time dependencies of two distinctive processes, B_−→ (B"0)-bar and (B"0)-bar →B_− (− expresses CP value) are compared with each other. In our study, we examine event number difference of these two processes. In contrast to the BaBar asymmetry, the asymmetry of events number includes the overall normalization difference for rates. Time dependence of the asymmetry is more general and it includes terms absent in one used by BaBar collaboration. Both of the BaBar asymmetry and ours are naively thought to be T-odd since two processes compared are related with flipping time direction. We investigate the time reversal transformation property of our asymmetry. Using our notation, one can see that the asymmetry is not precisely a T-odd quantity, taking into account indirect CP and CPT violation of K meson systems. The effect of ϵ_K is extracted and gives rise to O(10"−"3) contribution. The introduced parameters are invariant under rephasing of quarks so that the coefficients of our asymmetry are expressed as phase convention independent quantities. Some combinations of the asymmetry enable us to extract parameters for wrong sign decays of B_d meson, CPT violation, etc. We also study the reason why the T-even terms are allowed to contribute to the asymmetry, and find that several conditions are needed for the asymmetry to be a T-odd quantity.

  1. Digital Sequences and a Time Reversal-Based Impact Region Imaging and Localization Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Yuan, Shenfang; Mei, Hanfei; Qian, Weifeng

    2013-01-01

    To reduce time and cost of damage inspection, on-line impact monitoring of aircraft composite structures is needed. A digital monitor based on an array of piezoelectric transducers (PZTs) is developed to record the impact region of impacts on-line. It is small in size, lightweight and has low power consumption, but there are two problems with the impact alarm region localization method of the digital monitor at the current stage. The first one is that the accuracy rate of the impact alarm region localization is low, especially on complex composite structures. The second problem is that the area of impact alarm region is large when a large scale structure is monitored and the number of PZTs is limited which increases the time and cost of damage inspections. To solve the two problems, an impact alarm region imaging and localization method based on digital sequences and time reversal is proposed. In this method, the frequency band of impact response signals is estimated based on the digital sequences first. Then, characteristic signals of impact response signals are constructed by sinusoidal modulation signals. Finally, the phase synthesis time reversal impact imaging method is adopted to obtain the impact region image. Depending on the image, an error ellipse is generated to give out the final impact alarm region. A validation experiment is implemented on a complex composite wing box of a real aircraft. The validation results show that the accuracy rate of impact alarm region localization is approximately 100%. The area of impact alarm region can be reduced and the number of PZTs needed to cover the same impact monitoring region is reduced by more than a half. PMID:24084123

  2. Monitoring of Pre-Load on Rock Bolt Using Piezoceramic-Transducer Enabled Time Reversal Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Linsheng; Wang, Bo; Chen, Dongdong; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-27

    Rock bolts ensure structural stability for tunnels and many other underground structures. The pre-load on a rock bolt plays an important role in the structural reinforcement and it is vital to monitor the pre-load status of rock bolts. In this paper, a rock bolt pre-load monitoring method based on the piezoceramic enabled time reversal method is proposed. A lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patch transducer, which works as an actuator to generate stress waves, is bonded onto the anchor plate of the rock bolt. A smart washer, which is fabricated by sandwiching a PZT patch between two metal rings, is installed between the hex nut and the anchor plate along the rock bolt. The smart washer functions as a sensor to detect the stress wave. With the increase of the pre-load values on the rock bolt, the effective contact surface area between the smart washer and the anchor plate, benefiting the stress wave propagation crossing the contact surface. With the help of time reversal technique, experimental results reveal that the magnitude of focused signal clearly increases with the increase of the pre-load on a rock bolt before the saturation which happens beyond a relatively high value of the pre-load. The proposed method provides an innovative and real time means to monitor the pre-load level of a rock bolt. By employing this method, the pre-load degradation process on a rock bolt can be clearly monitored. Please note that, currently, the proposed method applies to only new rock bolts, on which it is possible to install the PZT smart washer.

  3. Detecting a subsurface cylinder by a Time Reversal MUSIC like method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimene, Raffaele; Dell'Aversano, Angela; Leone, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution the problem of imaging a buried homogeneous circular cylinder is dealt with for a two-dimensional scalar geometry. Though the addressed geometry is extremely simple as compared to real world scenarios, it can be considered of interest for a classical GPR civil engineering applicative context: that is the subsurface prospecting of urban area in order to detect and locate buried utilities. A large body of methods for subsurface imaging have been presented in literature [1], ranging from migration algorithms to non-linear inverse scattering approaches. More recently, also spectral estimation methods, which benefit from sub-array data arrangement, have been proposed and compared in [2].Here a Time Reversal MUSIC (TRM) like method is employed. TRM has been initially conceived to detect point-like scatterers and then generalized to the case of extended scatterers [3]. In the latter case, no a priori information about the scatterers is exploited. However, utilities often can be schematized as circular cylinders. Here, we develop a TRM variant which use this information to properly tailor the steering vector while implementing TRM. Accordingly, instead of a spatial map [3], the imaging procedure returns the scatterer's parameters such as its center position, radius and dielectric permittivity. The study is developed by numerical simulations. First the free-space case is considered in order to more easily introduce the idea and the problem mathematical structure. Then the analysis is extended to the half-space case. In both situations a FDTD forward solver is used to generate the synthetic data. As usual in TRM, a multi-view/multi-static single-frequency configuration is considered and emphasis is put on the role played by the number of available sensors. Acknowledgement This work benefited from networking activities carried out within the EU funded COST Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." [1] A. Randazzo and R

  4. Conductance fluctuations in disordered superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry near two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.; Furusaki, A.; Ludwig, A.W.W.; Mudry, C.

    2007-01-01

    We extend the analysis of the conductance fluctuations in disordered metals by Altshuler, Kravtsov, and Lerner (AKL) to disordered superconductors with broken time-reversal symmetry in d=(2+ε) dimensions (symmetry classes C and D of Altland and Zirnbauer). Using a perturbative renormalization group analysis of the corresponding non-linear sigma model (NLσM) we compute the anomalous scaling dimensions of the dominant scalar operators with 2s gradients to one-loop order. We show that, in analogy with the result of AKL for ordinary, metallic systems (Wigner-Dyson classes), an infinite number of high-gradient operators would become relevant (in the renormalization group sense) near two dimensions if contributions beyond one-loop order are ignored. We explore the possibility to compare, in symmetry class D, the ε=(2-d) expansion in d<2 with exact results in one dimension. The method we use to perform the one-loop renormalization analysis is valid for general symmetric spaces of Kaehler type, and suggests that this is a generic property of the perturbative treatment of NLσMs defined on Riemannian symmetric target spaces

  5. Prospects for Searching for Time-Reversal Violation In Pa-229

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaideep

    2017-09-01

    Certain pear-shaped nuclei are expected to have enhanced sensitivity to time-reversal and parity-violating interactions originating within the nuclear medium. In particular, Pa-229 is thought to be about 100,000 times more sensitive than Hg-199 which currently sets some of the most stringent limits for these types of interactions. Several challenges would first have to be addressed in order to take advantage of this discovery potential. First, there is not currently a significant source of Pa-229; however, there are plans to harvest Pa-229 from the FRIB beam dump. Second, the spin-5/2 nucleus of Pa-229 limits its coherence time while also making it sensitive to systematic effects related to local field gradients. On the other hand, this also gives Pa-229 an additional source of signal in the form of a magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) which violates the same symmetries as an EDM but is not observable in spin-1/2 systems. Third, in order to compensate for the small atom numbers and short coherence times, the Pa-229 atoms would have to be probed with exceptionally large electric & magnetic fields that are only possible if Pa-229 is a part of a polar molecule or embedded inside of an optical crystal. I will present an our plans to test some of these concepts using stable Pr-141.

  6. Increasing The Electric Field For An Improved Search For Time-Reversal Violation Using Radium-225

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Adam

    2017-09-01

    Radium-225 atoms, because of their unusual pear-shaped nuclei, have an enhanced sensitivity to the violation of time reversal symmetry. A breakdown of this fundamental symmetry could help explain the apparent scarcity of antimatter in the Universe. Our goal is to improve the statistical sensitivity of an ongoing experiment that precisely measures the EDM of Radium-225. This can be done by increasing the electric field acting on the Radium atoms. We do this by increasing the voltage that can be reliably applied between two electrodes, and narrowing the gap between them. We use a varying high voltage system to condition the electrodes using incremental voltage ramp tests to achieve higher voltage potential differences. Using an adjustable gap mount to change the distance between the electrodes, specific metals for their composition, and a clean room procedure to keep particulates out of the system, we produce a higher and more stable electric field. Progress is marked by measurements of the leakage current between the electrodes during our incremental voltage ramp tests or emulated tests of the actual experiment, with low and constant current showing stability of the field. This project is supported by Michigan State University, and the US DOE, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  7. A real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection and quantification of Vesiculovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lavado Tolardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Vesiculoviruses (VSV are zoonotic viruses that cause vesicular stomatitis disease in cattle, horses and pigs, as well as sporadic human cases of acute febrile illness. Therefore, diagnosis of VSV infections by reliable laboratory techniques is important to allow a proper case management and implementation of strategies for the containment of virus spread. We show here a sensitive and reproducible real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR for detection and quantification of VSV. The assay was evaluated with arthropods and serum samples obtained from horses, cattle and patients with acute febrile disease. The real-time RT-PCR amplified the Piry, Carajas, Alagoas and Indiana Vesiculovirus at a melting temperature 81.02 ± 0.8ºC, and the sensitivity of assay was estimated in 10 RNA copies/mL to the Piry Vesiculovirus. The viral genome has been detected in samples of horses and cattle, but not detected in human sera or arthropods. Thus, this assay allows a preliminary differential diagnosis of VSV infections.

  8. Superconductivity in 2+1 dimensions without parity or time-reversal violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorey, N.; Mavromatos, N.E.

    1990-01-01

    A model of dynamical holes in a planar quantum antiferromagnet is analysed in the limit of large spin and small doping concentration. The long-wavelength limit of this system is found to be a relativistic QFT of multiflavour Dirac fermions with both four-fermion and statistical chiral gauge interactions. The Schwinger-Dyson equation for the fermion self-energy is solved in the limit of many flavours and the theory is found to possess a phase in which the global vector symmetry of the effective action is realised in the Kosterlitz-Thouless mode. The theory exhibits superconductivity without parity or time-reversal violation in this phase and the charge quantum assumes the phenomenologically relevant value of 2e. The mechanism is conjectured to be 'holepair' condensation due primarily to the statistical gauge interaction. Although there is a formal similarity with BCS theory the physical origin of the attraction between holes is quite different. The model may provide a prototype for further studies in realistic microscopic systems that attempt to simulate planar high temperature superconducting oxides. (orig.)

  9. Laser ultrasound and simulated time reversal on bulk waves for non destructive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diot, G; Walaszek, H; Kouadri-David, A; Guégan, S; Flifla, J

    2014-01-01

    Laser welding of aluminium generally creates embedded welding defects, such as porosities or cracks. Non Destructive Inspection (NDI) after processing may ensure an acceptable weld quality by defect detection. Nowadays, NDI techniques used to control the inside of a weld are mainly limited to X-Rays or ultrasonics. The current paper describes the use of a Laser Ultrasound (LU) technique to inspect porosities in 2 and 4-mm thick sheet lap welds. First experimentations resulted in the detection of 0.5-mm drilled holes in bulk aluminium sheets. The measurement of the depth of these defects is demonstrated too. Further experimentations shows the applicability of the LU technique to detect porosities in aluminium laser welds. However, as the interpretation of raw measures is limiting the detection capacity of this technique, we developed a signal processing using Time-Reversal capabilities to enhance detection capacities. Furthermore, the signal processing output is a geometrical image of the material's inner state, increasing the ease of interpretation. It is based on a mass-spring simulation which enables the back-propagation of the acquired ultrasound signal. The spring-mass simulation allows the natural generation of all the different sound waves and thus enables the back-propagation of a raw signal without any need of filtering or wave identification and extraction. Therefore the signal processing uses the information contained in the compression wave as well as in the shear wave

  10. Detecting closing delaminations in laminated composite plates using nonlinear structural intensity and time reversal mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberti, Alfredo; Semperlotti, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Closing delaminations in composite laminated structures exhibit a nonlinear dynamic response when excited by high frequency elastic waves. The contact acoustic nonlinear effects taking place at the damage interface act as a mechanism of energy redistribution from the driving frequency to the nonlinear harmonic frequencies. In this paper, we extend the concept of nonlinear structural intensity (NSI) to the analysis of closing delaminations in composite laminated plates. NSI is calculated using a method based on a combination of finite element and finite difference techniques, which is suitable for processing both numerical and experimental data. NSI is proven to be an effective metric to identify the presence and location of closing delaminations. The highly directional nature of orthotropic composites results in vibrational energy propagating in a different direction from that of the initial elastic wave. This aspect reduces the ability to effectively interrogate the damage and, therefore, the sensitivity to the damage. The time reversal mirror technique is explored as a possible approach to overcome the effect of the material directionality and increase the ability to interrogate the damage. Numerical simulations show that this technique is able to overcome the material directionality and to drastically enhance the ability to interrogate the damage. (paper)

  11. Time Reversal UWB Communication System: A Novel Modulation Scheme with Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaleghi A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new modulation scheme is proposed for a time reversal (TR ultra wide-band (UWB communication system. The new modulation scheme uses the binary pulse amplitude modulation (BPAM and adds a new level of modulation to increase the data rate of a TR UWB communication system. Multiple data bits can be transmitted simultaneously with a cost of little added interference. Bit error rate (BER performance and the maximum achievable data rate of the new modulation scheme are theoretically analyzed. Two separate measurement campaigns are carried out to analyze the proposed modulation scheme. In the first campaign, the frequency responses of a typical indoor channel are measured and the performance is studied by the simulations using the measured frequency responses. Theoretical and the simulative performances are in strong agreement with each other. Furthermore, the BER performance of the proposed modulation scheme is compared with the performance of existing modulation schemes. It is shown that the proposed modulation scheme outperforms QAM and PAM for in an AWGN channel. In the second campaign, an experimental validation of the proposed modulation scheme is done. It is shown that the performances with the two measurement campaigns are in good agreement.

  12. Time Reversal Migration for Passive Sources Using a Maximum Variance Imaging Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H.; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2017-01-01

    The conventional time-reversal imaging approach for micro-seismic or passive source location is based on focusing the back-propagated wavefields from each recorded trace in a source image. It suffers from strong background noise and limited acquisition aperture, which may create unexpected artifacts and cause error in the source location. To overcome such a problem, we propose a new imaging condition for microseismic imaging, which is based on comparing the amplitude variance in certain windows, and use it to suppress the artifacts as well as find the right location for passive sources. Instead of simply searching for the maximum energy point in the back-propagated wavefield, we calculate the amplitude variances over a window moving in both space and time axis to create a highly resolved passive event image. The variance operation has negligible cost compared with the forward/backward modeling operations, which reveals that the maximum variance imaging condition is efficient and effective. We test our approach numerically on a simple three-layer model and on a piece of the Marmousi model as well, both of which have shown reasonably good results.

  13. Tunneling magnetoresistance in junctions composed of ferromagnets and time-reversal invariant topological superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhongbo; Wan, Shaolong

    2016-01-01

    Tunneling magnetoresistance between two ferrromagnets is an issue of fundamental importance in spintronics. In this work, we show that tunneling magnetoresistance can also emerge in junctions composed of ferromagnets and time-reversal invariant topological superconductors without spin-rotation symmetry. Here the physical origin is that when the spin-polarization direction of an injected electron from the ferromagnet lies in the same plane of the spin-polarization direction of Majorana zero modes, the electron will undergo a perfect spin-equal Andreev reflection, while injected electrons with other spin-polarization directions will be partially Andreev reflected and partially normal reflected, which consequently has a lower conductance, and therefore, the magnetoresistance effect emerges. Compared to conventional magnetic tunnel junctions, an unprecedented advantage of the junctions studied here is that arbitrary high tunneling magnetoresistance can be obtained even when the magnetization of the ferromagnets are weak and the insulating tunneling barriers are featureless. Our findings provide a new fascinating mechanism to obtain high tunneling magnetoresistance. (paper)

  14. Performance analysis of passive time reversal communication technique for multipath interference in shallow sea acoustic channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Yukihiro; Shimura, Takuya; Deguchi, Mitsuyasu; Watanabe, Yoshitaka; Ochi, Hiroshi; Meguro, Koji

    2017-07-01

    In this study, the performance of passive time reversal (PTR) communication techniques in multipath rich underwater acoustic environments is investigated. It is recognized empirically and qualitatively that a large number of multipath arrivals could generally raise the demodulation result of PTR. However, the relationship between multipath and the demodulation result is hardly evaluated quantitatively. In this study, the efficiency of the PTR acoustic communication techniques for multipath interference cancelation was investigated quantitatively by applying a PTR-DFE (decision feed-back filter) scheme to a synthetic dataset of a horizontal underwater acoustic channel. Mainly, in this study, we focused on the relationship between the signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) of datasets and the output signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of demodulation results by a parametric study approach. As a result, a proportional relation between SIR and OSNR is confirmed in low-SNR datasets. It was also found that PTR has a performance limitation, that is OSNR converges to a typical value depending on the number of receivers. In conclusion, results indicate that PTR could utilize the multipath efficiently and also withstand the negative effects of multipath interference at a given limitation.

  15. Focused fluorescence excitation with time-reversed ultrasonically encoded light and imaging in thick scattering media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Puxiang; Suzuki, Yuta; Xu, Xiao; Wang, Lihong V

    2013-01-01

    Scattering dominates light propagation in biological tissue, and therefore restricts both resolution and penetration depth in optical imaging within thick tissue. As photons travel into the diffusive regime, typically 1 mm beneath human skin, their trajectories transition from ballistic to diffusive due to the increased number of scattering events, which makes it impossible to focus, much less track, photon paths. Consequently, imaging methods that rely on controlled light illumination are ineffective in deep tissue. This problem has recently been addressed by a novel method capable of dynamically focusing light in thick scattering media via time reversal of ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) diffused light. Here, using photorefractive materials as phase conjugate mirrors, we show a direct visualization and dynamic control of optical focusing with this light delivery method, and demonstrate its application for focused fluorescence excitation and imaging in thick turbid media. These abilities are increasingly critical for understanding the dynamic interactions of light with biological matter and processes at different system levels, as well as their applications for biomedical diagnosis and therapy. (letter)

  16. Newmark-Beta-FDTD method for super-resolution analysis of time reversal waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sheng-Bing; Shao, Wei; Ma, Jing; Jin, Congjun; Wang, Xiao-Hua

    2017-09-01

    In this work, a new unconditionally stable finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method with the split-field perfectly matched layer (PML) is proposed for the analysis of time reversal (TR) waves. The proposed method is very suitable for multiscale problems involving microstructures. The spatial and temporal derivatives in this method are discretized by the central difference technique and Newmark-Beta algorithm, respectively, and the derivation results in the calculation of a banded-sparse matrix equation. Since the coefficient matrix keeps unchanged during the whole simulation process, the lower-upper (LU) decomposition of the matrix needs to be performed only once at the beginning of the calculation. Moreover, the reverse Cuthill-Mckee (RCM) technique, an effective preprocessing technique in bandwidth compression of sparse matrices, is used to improve computational efficiency. The super-resolution focusing of TR wave propagation in two- and three-dimensional spaces is included to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Time reversal optical tomography locates fluorescent targets in a turbid medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Cai, W.; Gayen, S. K.

    2013-03-01

    A fluorescence optical tomography approach that extends time reversal optical tomography (TROT) to locate fluorescent targets embedded in a turbid medium is introduced. It uses a multi-source illumination and multi-detector signal acquisition scheme, along with TR matrix formalism, and multiple signal classification (MUSIC) to construct pseudo-image of the targets. The samples consisted of a single or two small tubes filled with water solution of Indocyanine Green (ICG) dye as targets embedded in a 250 mm × 250 mm × 60 mm rectangular cell filled with Intralipid-20% suspension as the scattering medium. The ICG concentration was 1μM, and the Intralipid-20% concentration was adjusted to provide ~ 1-mm transport length for both excitation wavelength of 790 nm and fluorescence wavelength around 825 nm. The data matrix was constructed using the diffusely transmitted fluorescence signals for all scan positions, and the TR matrix was constructed by multiplying data matrix with its transpose. A pseudo spectrum was calculated using the signal subspace of the TR matrix. Tomographic images were generated using the pseudo spectrum. The peaks in the pseudo images provided locations of the target(s) with sub-millimeter accuracy. Concurrent transmission TROT measurements corroborated fluorescence-TROT findings. The results demonstrate that TROT is a fast approach that can be used to obtain accurate three-dimensional position information of fluorescence targets embedded deep inside a highly scattering medium, such as, a contrast-enhanced tumor in a human breast.

  18. Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing through highly scattering ex vivo human cataractous lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Shen, Yuecheng; Ruan, Haowen; Brodie, Frank L.; Wong, Terence T. W.; Yang, Changhuei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2018-01-01

    Normal development of the visual system in infants relies on clear images being projected onto the retina, which can be disrupted by lens opacity caused by congenital cataract. This disruption, if uncorrected in early life, results in amblyopia (permanently decreased vision even after removal of the cataract). Doctors are able to prevent amblyopia by removing the cataract during the first several weeks of life, but this surgery risks a host of complications, which can be equally visually disabling. Here, we investigated the feasibility of focusing light noninvasively through highly scattering cataractous lenses to stimulate the retina, thereby preventing amblyopia. This approach would allow the cataractous lens removal surgery to be delayed and hence greatly reduce the risk of complications from early surgery. Employing a wavefront shaping technique named time-reversed ultrasonically encoded optical focusing in reflection mode, we focused 532-nm light through a highly scattering ex vivo adult human cataractous lens. This work demonstrates a potential clinical application of wavefront shaping techniques.

  19. Echodentography based on nonlinear time reversal tomography: Ultrasonic nonlinear signature identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Serge Dos; Farova, Zuzana; Kus, Vaclav; Prevorovsky, Zdenek

    2012-05-01

    This paper examines possibilities of using Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS) methods in dental investigations. Themain task consisted in imaging cracks or other degradation signatures located in dentin close to the Enamel-Dentine Junction (EDJ). NEWS approach was investigated experimentally with a new bi-modal acousto-optic set-up based on the chirp-coded nonlinear ultrasonic time reversal (TR) concepts. Complex internal structure of the tooth is analyzed by the TR-NEWS procedure adapted to tomography-like imaging of the tooth damages. Ultrasonic instrumentation with 10 MHz bandwidth has been set together including laser vibrometer used to detect responses of the tooth on its excitation carried out by a contact piezoelectric transducer. Bi-modal TR-NEWS images of the tooth were created before and after focusing, which resulted from the time compression. The polar B-scan of the tooth realized with TR-NEWS procedure is suggested to be applied as a new echodentography imaging.

  20. Locating the source of diffusion in complex networks by time-reversal backward spreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhesi; Cao, Shinan; Wang, Wen-Xu; Di, Zengru; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-03-01

    Locating the source that triggers a dynamical process is a fundamental but challenging problem in complex networks, ranging from epidemic spreading in society and on the Internet to cancer metastasis in the human body. An accurate localization of the source is inherently limited by our ability to simultaneously access the information of all nodes in a large-scale complex network. This thus raises two critical questions: how do we locate the source from incomplete information and can we achieve full localization of sources at any possible location from a given set of observable nodes. Here we develop a time-reversal backward spreading algorithm to locate the source of a diffusion-like process efficiently and propose a general locatability condition. We test the algorithm by employing epidemic spreading and consensus dynamics as typical dynamical processes and apply it to the H1N1 pandemic in China. We find that the sources can be precisely located in arbitrary networks insofar as the locatability condition is assured. Our tools greatly improve our ability to locate the source of diffusion in complex networks based on limited accessibility of nodal information. Moreover, they have implications for controlling a variety of dynamical processes taking place on complex networks, such as inhibiting epidemics, slowing the spread of rumors, pollution control, and environmental protection.

  1. Time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing for deep-tissue optogenetic modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brake, Joshua; Ruan, Haowen; Robinson, J. Elliott; Liu, Yan; Gradinaru, Viviana; Yang, Changhuei

    2018-02-01

    The problem of optical scattering was long thought to fundamentally limit the depth at which light could be focused through turbid media such as fog or biological tissue. However, recent work in the field of wavefront shaping has demonstrated that by properly shaping the input light field, light can be noninvasively focused to desired locations deep inside scattering media. This has led to the development of several new techniques which have the potential to enhance the capabilities of existing optical tools in biomedicine. Unfortunately, extending these methods to living tissue has a number of challenges related to the requirements for noninvasive guidestar operation, speed, and focusing fidelity. Of existing wavefront shaping methods, time-reversed ultrasonically encoded (TRUE) focusing is well suited for applications in living tissue since it uses ultrasound as a guidestar which enables noninvasive operation and provides compatibility with optical phase conjugation for high-speed operation. In this paper, we will discuss the results of our recent work to apply TRUE focusing for optogenetic modulation, which enables enhanced optogenetic stimulation deep in tissue with a 4-fold spatial resolution improvement in 800-micron thick acute brain slices compared to conventional focusing, and summarize future directions to further extend the impact of wavefront shaping technologies in biomedicine.

  2. Time Reversal Migration for Passive Sources Using a Maximum Variance Imaging Condition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H.

    2017-05-26

    The conventional time-reversal imaging approach for micro-seismic or passive source location is based on focusing the back-propagated wavefields from each recorded trace in a source image. It suffers from strong background noise and limited acquisition aperture, which may create unexpected artifacts and cause error in the source location. To overcome such a problem, we propose a new imaging condition for microseismic imaging, which is based on comparing the amplitude variance in certain windows, and use it to suppress the artifacts as well as find the right location for passive sources. Instead of simply searching for the maximum energy point in the back-propagated wavefield, we calculate the amplitude variances over a window moving in both space and time axis to create a highly resolved passive event image. The variance operation has negligible cost compared with the forward/backward modeling operations, which reveals that the maximum variance imaging condition is efficient and effective. We test our approach numerically on a simple three-layer model and on a piece of the Marmousi model as well, both of which have shown reasonably good results.

  3. Time-reversal symmetric work distributions for closed quantum dynamics in the histories framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Harry J D; Anders, Janet

    2017-01-01

    A central topic in the emerging field of quantum thermodynamics is the definition of thermodynamic work in the quantum regime. One widely used solution is to define work for a closed system undergoing non-equilibrium dynamics according to the two-point energy measurement scheme. However, due to the invasive nature of measurement the two-point quantum work probability distribution cannot describe the statistics of energy change from the perspective of the system alone. We here introduce the quantum histories framework as a method to characterise the thermodynamic properties of the unmeasured , closed dynamics. Constructing continuous power operator trajectories allows us to derive an alternative quantum work distribution for closed quantum dynamics that fulfils energy conservation and is time-reversal symmetric. This opens the possibility to compare the measured work with the unmeasured work, contrasting with the classical situation where measurement does not affect the work statistics. We find that the work distribution of the unmeasured dynamics leads to deviations from the classical Jarzynski equality and can have negative values highlighting distinctly non-classical features of quantum work. (fast track communication)

  4. Theory of superconductivity with non-Hermitian and parity-time reversal symmetric Cooper pairing symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, Ananya; Das, Tanmoy

    2018-01-01

    Recently developed parity (P ) and time-reversal (T ) symmetric non-Hermitian systems govern a rich variety of new and characteristically distinct physical properties, which may or may not have a direct analog in their Hermitian counterparts. We study here a non-Hermitian, PT -symmetric superconducting Hamiltonian that possesses a real quasiparticle spectrum in the PT -unbroken region of the Brillouin zone. Within a single-band mean-field theory, we find that real quasiparticle energies are possible when the superconducting order parameter itself is either Hermitian or anti-Hermitian. Within the corresponding Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory, we find that several properties are characteristically distinct and novel in the non-Hermitian pairing case than its Hermitian counterpart. One of our significant findings is that while a Hermitian superconductor gives a second-order phase transition, the non-Hermitian one produces a robust first-order phase transition. The corresponding thermodynamic properties and the Meissner effect are also modified accordingly. Finally, we discuss how such a PT -symmetric pairing can emerge from an antisymmetric potential, such as the Dzyloshinskii-Moriya interaction, but with an external bath, or complex potential, among others.

  5. Odd-parity magnetoresistance in pyrochlore iridate thin films with broken time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, T. C.; Kozuka, Y.; Uchida, M.; Tsukazaki, A.; Arima, T.; Kawasaki, M.

    2015-01-01

    A new class of materials termed topological insulators have been intensively investigated due to their unique Dirac surface state carrying dissipationless edge spin currents. Recently, it has been theoretically proposed that the three dimensional analogue of this type of band structure, the Weyl Semimetal phase, is materialized in pyrochlore oxides with strong spin-orbit coupling, accompanied by all-in-all-out spin ordering. Here, we report on the fabrication and magnetotransport of Eu2Ir2O7 single crystalline thin films. We reveal that one of the two degenerate all-in-all-out domain structures, which are connected by time-reversal operation, can be selectively formed by the polarity of the cooling magnetic field. Once formed, the domain is robust against an oppositely polarised magnetic field, as evidenced by an unusual odd field dependent term in the magnetoresistance and an anomalous term in the Hall resistance. Our findings pave the way for exploring the predicted novel quantum transport phenomenon at the surfaces/interfaces or magnetic domain walls of pyrochlore iridates. PMID:25959576

  6. Quantitative evaluation of stone fragments in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy using a time reversal operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Chieh; Zhou, Yufeng

    2017-03-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has been used widely in the noninvasive treatment of kidney calculi. The fine fragments less than 2 mm in size can be discharged by urination, which determines the success of ESWL. Although ultrasonic and fluorescent imaging are used to localize the calculi, it's challenging to monitor the stone comminution progress, especially at the late stage of ESWL when fragments spread out as a cloud. The lack of real-time and quantitative evaluation makes this procedure semi-blind, resulting in either under- or over-treatment after the legal number of pulses required by FDA. The time reversal operator (TRO) method has the ability to detect point-like scatterers, and the number of non-zero eigenvalues of TRO is equal to that of the scatterers. In this study, the validation of TRO method to identify stones was illustrated from both numerical and experimental results for one to two stones with various sizes and locations. Furthermore, the parameters affecting the performance of TRO method has also been investigated. Overall, TRO method is effective in identifying the fragments in a stone cluster in real-time. Further development of a detection system and evaluation of its performance both in vitro and in vivo during ESWL is necessary for application.

  7. Two applications of time reversal mirrors: Seismic radio and seismic radar

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.

    2011-07-08

    Two seismic applications of time reversal mirrors (TRMs) are introduced and tested with field experiments. The first one is sending, receiving, and decoding coded messages similar to a radio except seismic waves are used. The second one is, similar to radar surveillance, detecting and tracking a moving object(s) in a remote area, including the determination of the objects speed of movement. Both applications require the prior recording of calibrationGreen’s functions in the area of interest. This reference Green’s function will be used as a codebook to decrypt the coded message in the first application and as a moving sensor for the second application. Field tests show that seismicradar can detect the moving coordinates ( x(t), y(t), z(t)) of a person running through a calibration site. This information also allows for a calculation of his velocity as a function of location. Results with the seismic radio are successful in seismically detecting and decoding coded pulses produced by a hammer. Both seismic radio and radar are highly robust to signals in high noise environments due to the super-stacking property of TRMs.

  8. Directional absorption by phased arrays of plasmonic nanoantennae probed with time-reversed Fourier microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, Gabriel; Barten, Tommy; Grzela, Grzegorz; Rivas, Jaime Gómez

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that an ordered array of aluminum nanopyramids, behaving as a phased array of optical antennae, strongly modifies light absorption in thin layers of dye molecules. Photoluminescence measurements as a function of the illumination angle are performed using a time-reversed Fourier microscope. This technique enables a variable-angle plane-wave illumination of nanostructures in a microscope-based setup. Our measurements reveal an enhancement of the light conversion in certain directions of illumination, which indicate the efficient diffractive coupling between the free space radiation and the surface plasmons. Numerical simulations confirm that surface modes supported by the periodic array enhance the intensity of the pump field in the space between particles, where the dye molecules are located, yielding a directional plasmonic-mediated enhancement of the optical absorption. This combined experimental and numerical characterization of the angular dependence of light absorption in nanostructures can be beneficial for the design and optimization of devices in which the harvesting of light plays a major role. (paper)

  9. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  10. Deformation effect and five-fold correlation time reversal test in neutron resonances using aligned 165Ho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, P.R.; Roberson, N.R.; Gould, C.R.; Haase, D.G.

    1993-01-01

    In 1988, Bunakov proposed a test of parity (P) even time reversal (T) violation in the neighborhood of two interfering p-wave resonances of the same spin. A similar enhancement exists if a d-wave and s-wave resonance interfere. Until now, however, no suitable resonances have been located in nuclei which can be aligned, and the only tests of time reversal violation in neutron transmission have been carried out with MeV-energy neutrons. The authors estimate the deformation effect cross sections for neutron resonances in aligned 165 Ho, and estimate the sensitivity of a five-fold correlation time reversal test carried out on a resonance that exhibits a deformation effect

  11. Breaking away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, G M; Sosnow, P L

    1995-05-01

    While life as hospital employees was comfortable, the lure of independence won out for these two emergency department physicians. Breaking away to develop a new company was not easy, but it's paid off for the entrepreneurs of the Capital Region Emergency Medicine, P.C. Developing an emergency medicine business meant learning all aspects of business: billing services, evaluating legal services, raising capital, and becoming employers. The advantage has been an ability to use profits to improve the moral of staff, an increase in salary, and an overall sense of satisfaction.

  12. Test of time reversal invariance in p-p elastic scattering at 198.5 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.A.; Greeniaus, L.G.; Moss, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    A precise measurement of the polarization-analyzing power difference in p-p elastic scattering has been made at 198.5 MeV to improve the experimental limits on time reversal violation in proton-proton scattering in this energy region. The experiment was performed in a kinematic regime where sensitivities to time reversal violating amplitudes should be high. Experimental methods which eliminated the need to refer to absolute values of the beam polarization or to the analyzing power of a polarimeter were used. The result is (P-A) = 0.0047 with a statistical uncertainty of +- 0.0025 and a systematic uncertainty of +- 0.0015

  13. Full-waveform detection of non-impulsive seismic events based on time-reversal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Ericka Alinne; Hjörleifsdóttir, Vala; Liu, Qinya

    2017-12-01

    We present a full-waveform detection method for non-impulsive seismic events, based on time-reversal principles. We use the strain Green's tensor as a matched filter, correlating it with continuous observed seismograms, to detect non-impulsive seismic events. We show that this is mathematically equivalent to an adjoint method for detecting earthquakes. We define the detection function, a scalar valued function, which depends on the stacked correlations for a group of stations. Event detections are given by the times at which the amplitude of the detection function exceeds a given value relative to the noise level. The method can make use of the whole seismic waveform or any combination of time-windows with different filters. It is expected to have an advantage compared to traditional detection methods for events that do not produce energetic and impulsive P waves, for example glacial events, landslides, volcanic events and transform-fault earthquakes for events which velocity structure along the path is relatively well known. Furthermore, the method has advantages over empirical Greens functions template matching methods, as it does not depend on records from previously detected events, and therefore is not limited to events occurring in similar regions and with similar focal mechanisms as these events. The method is not specific to any particular way of calculating the synthetic seismograms, and therefore complicated structural models can be used. This is particularly beneficial for intermediate size events that are registered on regional networks, for which the effect of lateral structure on the waveforms can be significant. To demonstrate the feasibility of the method, we apply it to two different areas located along the mid-oceanic ridge system west of Mexico where non-impulsive events have been reported. The first study area is between Clipperton and Siqueiros transform faults (9°N), during the time of two earthquake swarms, occurring in March 2012 and May

  14. Dynamical symmetry breaking with hypercolour and high colour representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoupanos, G.

    1985-01-01

    A model is presented in which the electroweak gauge group is spontaneously broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the existence of high colour representations. An unattractive feature of this scenario was the necessity to introduce elementary Higgs fields in order to obtain the spontaneous symmetry breaking of part of the theory. In the present model, this breaking can also be understood dynamically with the introduction of hypercolour interactions. (author)

  15. Spontaneous parity violation and minimal Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, H.; Martins Simoes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a model for the spontaneous breaking of parity with two Higgs doublets and two neutral Higgs singlets which are even and odd under D-parity. The condition υ R >>υ L can be satisfied without introducing bidoublets, and it is induced by the breaking of D-parity through the vacuum expectation value of the odd Higgs singlet. Examples of left-right symmetric and mirror fermions models in grand unified theories are presented. (orig.)

  16. A single-sided homogeneous Green's function representation for holographic imaging, inverse scattering, time-reversal acoustics and interferometric Green's function retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wapenaar, Kees; Thorbecke, Jan; van der Neut, Joost

    2016-04-01

    Green's theorem plays a fundamental role in a diverse range of wavefield imaging applications, such as holographic imaging, inverse scattering, time-reversal acoustics and interferometric Green's function retrieval. In many of those applications, the homogeneous Green's function (i.e. the Green's function of the wave equation without a singularity on the right-hand side) is represented by a closed boundary integral. In practical applications, sources and/or receivers are usually present only on an open surface, which implies that a significant part of the closed boundary integral is by necessity ignored. Here we derive a homogeneous Green's function representation for the common situation that sources and/or receivers are present on an open surface only. We modify the integrand in such a way that it vanishes on the part of the boundary where no sources and receivers are present. As a consequence, the remaining integral along the open surface is an accurate single-sided representation of the homogeneous Green's function. This single-sided representation accounts for all orders of multiple scattering. The new representation significantly improves the aforementioned wavefield imaging applications, particularly in situations where the first-order scattering approximation breaks down.

  17. Dynamical study of symmetries: breaking and restauration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, P.

    1986-09-01

    First symmetry breaking (spontaneous) is explained and the physical implication discussed for infinite systems. The relation with phase transitions is indicated. Then the specific aspects of symmetry breaking in finite systems is treated and illustrated in detail for the case of translational invariance with the help of an oversimplified but exactly solvable model. The method of projection (restauration of symmetry) is explained for the static case and also applied to the model. Symmetry breaking in the dynamical case and for instance the notion of a soft mode responsible for the symmetry breaking is discussed in the case of superfluidity and another exactly solvable model is introduced. The Goldstone mode is treated in detail. Some remarks on analogies with the breaking of chiral symmetry are made. Some recent developments in the theory of symmetry restauration are briefly outlined [fr

  18. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  19. Supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzert, K.

    2002-11-01

    The mechanism of supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature is still only partly understood. Though it has been proven that temperature always breaks supersymmetry, the spontaneous nature of this breaking remains unclear, in particular the role of the Goldstone fermion. The aim of this work is to unify two existing approaches to the subject. From a hydrodynamic point of view, it has been argued under very general assumptions that in any supersymmetric quantum field theory at finite temperature there should exist a massless fermionic collective excitation, named phonino because of the analogy to the phonon. In the framework of a self-consistent resummed perturbation theory, it is shown for the example of the Wess-Zumino model that this mode fits very well into the quantum field theoretical framework pursued by earlier works. Interpreted as a bound state of boson and fermion, it contributes to the supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi identities in a way showing that supersymmetry is indeed broken spontaneously with the phonino playing the role of the Goldstone fermion. The second part of the work addresses the case of supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that also here the phonino exists and must be interpreted as the Goldstone mode. This knowledge allows a generalization to a wider class of models. (orig.)

  20. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    the challenges of the million-dollar question is stemming from the ‘bets on the future’ – or what David Boje coins as ‘antenarratives’, (Boje, 2008) that emerged through various reconfiguring story actions, on two different occasions. The paper thus elaborates on two cases of restorying events; One taking place...... that language and the social has been granted too much power on the dispense of the bodily, physical and biological – or in short, in dispense of the material. The break To be or not to be poses the theoretical notion of dis-/continuity (Barad, 2007, 2010) from the quantum approach to storytelling (Strand 2012...... in their use of the communicative platform of Object theatre from the methodology of Material Storytelling (Strand 2012). The Bets on the Future piece discusses the extend to which the cases of using this kind of technologies may provide fruitful ‘bets on the future’ in regard to the million-dollar question...

  1. Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Gauge symmetry breaking in gauge theories -- in search of clarification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries in gauge theories from a philosophical angle, taking into account the fact that the notion of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry, though widely employed in textbook expositions of the Higgs mechanism, is not supported by

  3. Dynamics of symmetry breaking in strongly coupled QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1988-10-01

    I review the dynamical structure of strong coupled QED in the quenched planar limit. The symmetry structure of this theory is examined with reference to the nature of both chiral and scale symmetry breaking. The renormalization structure of the strong coupled phase is analysed. The compatibility of spontaneous scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied using effective lagrangian methods. 14 refs., 3 figs

  4. Pair breaking and density of states in disordered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinkauf, A.; Zittartz, J.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that pair breaking occurs in a disordered superconductor due to spatial variations of the order parameter, although the system is time reversal invariant. The pair breaking effect is reflected by the occurence of some interesting fine structure in the one particle density of states. Discrete bound states and split-off impurity bands show up in the single impurity case and for very dilute alloys, respectively. For finite alloy concentrations the calculations are done within the CPA. Although principally important, the fine structure is concentrated in an energy range too narrow to be detected experimentally. (orig.) [de

  5. Implementation on Electronic Circuits and RTR Pragmatical Adaptive Synchronization: Time-Reversed Uncertain Dynamical Systems' Analysis and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We expose the chaotic attractors of time-reversed nonlinear system, further implement its behavior on electronic circuit, and apply the pragmatical asymptotically stability theory to strictly prove that the adaptive synchronization of given master and slave systems with uncertain parameters can be achieved. In this paper, the variety chaotic motions of time-reversed Lorentz system are investigated through Lyapunov exponents, phase portraits, and bifurcation diagrams. For further applying the complex signal in secure communication and file encryption, we construct the circuit to show the similar chaotic signal of time-reversed Lorentz system. In addition, pragmatical asymptotically stability theorem and an assumption of equal probability for ergodic initial conditions (Ge et al., 1999, Ge and Yu, 2000, and Matsushima, 1972 are proposed to strictly prove that adaptive control can be accomplished successfully. The current scheme of adaptive control—by traditional Lyapunov stability theorem and Barbalat lemma, which are used to prove the error vector—approaches zero, as time approaches infinity. However, the core question—why the estimated or given parameters also approach to the uncertain parameters—remains without answer. By the new stability theory, those estimated parameters can be proved approaching the uncertain values strictly, and the simulation results are shown in this paper.

  6. Polar Kerr Effect from Time-Reversal Symmetry Breaking in the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor PrOs4Sb12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson-Falk, E. M.; Schemm, E. R.; Aoki, Y.; Maple, M. B.; Kapitulnik, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present polar Kerr effect measurements of the filled skutterudite superconductor PrOs4 Sb12 . Simultaneous ac susceptibility measurements allow us to observe the superconducting transition under the influence of heating from the optical beam. A nonzero Kerr angle θK develops below the superconducting transition, saturating at ˜300 nrad at low temperatures. This result is repeated across several measurements of multiple samples. By extrapolating the measured θK(T ) to zero optical power, we are able to show that the Kerr angle onset temperature in one set of measurements is consistent with the transition to the B phase at TC 2. We discuss the possible explanations for this result and its impact on the understanding of multiphase and inhomogeneous superconductivity in PrOs4 Sb12 .

  7. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-23

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation.

  8. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  9. Inflation from supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, I. [UMR CNRS 7589 Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Chatrabhuti, A.; Isono, H.; Knoops, R. [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pathumwan, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-11-15

    We explore the possibility that inflation is driven by supersymmetry breaking with the superpartner of the goldstino (sgoldstino) playing the role of the inflaton. Moreover, we impose an R-symmetry that allows one to satisfy easily the slow-roll conditions, avoiding the so-called η-problem, and leads to two different classes of small-field inflation models; they are characterised by an inflationary plateau around the maximum of the scalar potential, where R-symmetry is either restored or spontaneously broken, with the inflaton rolling down to a minimum describing the present phase of our Universe. To avoid the Goldstone boson and be left with a single (real) scalar field (the inflaton), R-symmetry is gauged with the corresponding gauge boson becoming massive. This framework generalises a model studied recently by the present authors, with the inflaton identified by the string dilaton and R-symmetry together with supersymmetry restored at weak coupling, at infinity of the dilaton potential. The presence of the D-term allows a tuning of the vacuum energy at the minimum. The proposed models agree with cosmological observations and predict a tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial perturbations 10{sup -9}

  10. Position-dependent radiative transfer as a tool for studying Anderson localization: Delay time, time-reversal and coherent backscattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tiggelen, B. A.; Skipetrov, S. E.; Page, J. H.

    2017-05-01

    Previous work has established that the localized regime of wave transport in open media is characterized by a position-dependent diffusion coefficient. In this work we study how the concept of position-dependent diffusion affects the delay time, the transverse confinement, the coherent backscattering, and the time reversal of waves. Definitions of energy transport velocity of localized waves are proposed. We start with a phenomenological model of radiative transfer and then present a novel perturbational approach based on the self-consistent theory of localization. The latter allows us to obtain results relevant for realistic experiments in disordered quasi-1D wave guides and 3D slabs.

  11. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eversheim, P.D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p-vector - p-vector excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Juelich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions are discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets. (orig.)

  12. The polarized atomic-beam target for the EDDA experiment and the time-reversal invariance test at COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversheim, P. D.; Altmeier, M.; Felden, O.

    1997-02-01

    For the the EDDA experiment, which was set up to measure the p¯-p¯ excitation function during the acceleration ramp of the cooler synchrotron COSY at Jülich, a polarized atomic-beam target was designed regarding the restrictions imposed by the geometry of the EDDA detector. Later, when the time-reversal invariance experiment is to be performed, the EDDA detector will serve as efficient internal polarimeter and the source has to deliver tensor polarized deuterons. The modular design of this polarized atomic-beam target that allows to meet these conditions will be discussed in comparison to other existing polarized atomic-beam targets.

  13. Topological phases in a three-dimensional topological insulator with a time-reversal invariant external field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoyong; Ren, Xiaobin; Wang, Gangzhi; Peng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of a time-reversal invariant external field on the topological phases of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator. By taking the momentum k z as a parameter, we calculate the spin-Chern number analytically. It is shown that both the quantum spin Hall phase and the integer quantum Hall phase can be realized in our system. When the strength of the external field is varied, a series of topological phase transitions occurs with the closing of the energy gap or the spin-spectrum gap. In a tight-binding form, the surface modes are discussed numerically to confirm the analytically results. (paper)

  14. Near-threshold photoionization of hydrogenlike uranium studied in ion-atom collisions via the time-reversed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhlker, T; Ma, X; Ludziejewski, T; Beyer, H F; Bosch, F; Brinzanescu, O; Dunford, R W; Eichler, J; Hagmann, S; Ichihara, A; Kozhuharov, C; Krämer, A; Liesen, D; Mokler, P H; Stachura, Z; Swiat, P; Warczak, A

    2001-02-05

    Radiative electron capture, the time-reversed photoionization process occurring in ion-atom collisions, provides presently the only access to photoionization studies for very highly charged ions. By applying the deceleration mode of the ESR storage ring, we studied this process in low-energy collisions of bare uranium ions with low- Z target atoms. This technique allows us to extend the current information about photoionization to much lower energies than those accessible for neutral heavy elements in the direct reaction channel. The results prove that for high- Z systems, higher-order multipole contributions and magnetic corrections persist even at energies close to the threshold.

  15. Construction and properties of a topological index for periodically driven time-reversal invariant 2D crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Carpentier

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present mathematical details of the construction of a topological invariant for periodically driven two-dimensional lattice systems with time-reversal symmetry and quasienergy gaps, which was proposed recently by some of us. The invariant is represented by a gap-dependent Z2-valued index that is simply related to the Kane–Mele invariants of quasienergy bands but contains an extra information. As a byproduct, we prove new expressions for the two-dimensional Kane–Mele invariant relating the latter to Wess–Zumino amplitudes and the boundary gauge anomaly.

  16. Current status and future prospect of space and time reversal symmetry violation on low energy neutron reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yasuhiro

    1993-01-01

    In this report, the papers on symmetry violation under space reflection and time reversal and neutron spin, neutron spin rotation and P-violation, parity nonconservation in neutron capture reaction, some advantage of the search for CP-violation in neutron scattering, dynamic polarization of 139 La target, alexandrite laser for optical pumping, polarized 3 He system for T- and P-violation neutron experiments, control of neutron spin in T-violation neutron experiment, symmetry regarding time and space and angular distribution and angular correlation of radiation and particle beams, T-violation due to low temperature nuclear polarization and axion exploration using nuclear transition are collected. (K.I.)

  17. The experimental investigation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    If Nature is supersymmetric at the weak interaction scale, what can we hope to learn from experiments on supersymmetric particles? The most mysterious aspect of phenomenological supersymmetry is the mechanism of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. This mechanism ties the observable pattern of supersymmetric particle masses to aspects of the underlying unified theory at very small distance scales. In this article, I will discuss a systematic experimental program to determine the mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. Both pp and e + e - colliders of the next generation play an essential role

  18. PZT-Based Detection of Compactness of Concrete in Concrete Filled Steel Tube Using Time Reversal Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart aggregate-based approach is proposed for the concrete compactness detection of concrete filled steel tube (CFST columns. The piezoceramic-based smart aggregates (SAs were embedded in the predetermined locations prior to the casting of concrete columns to establish a wave-based smart sensing system for the concrete compactness detection purpose. To evaluate the efficiency of the developed approach, six specimens of the CFST columns with the rectangular cross-section were produced by placing some artificial defects during casting of concrete for simulating various uncompacted voids such as cavities, cracks, and debond. During the test, the time reversal technology was applied to rebuild the received signals and launch the reversed signals again by SAs, to overcome the issue of the lack of the prototype. Based on the proposed nonprototype, two indices of time reversibility (TR and symmetry (SYM were applied to relatively evaluate the level of concrete compactness in the range of the two SAs. The experimental results show that the developed method can effectively detect the compactness of concrete in CFST columns.

  19. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  20. Unification of SUSY breaking and GUT breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-18

    We build explicit supersymmetric unification models where grand unified gauge symmetry breaking and supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking are caused by the same sector. Besides, the SM-charged particles are also predicted by the symmetry breaking sector, and they give the soft SUSY breaking terms through the so-called gauge mediation. We investigate the mass spectrums in an explicit model with SU(5) and additional gauge groups, and discuss its phenomenological aspects. Especially, nonzero A-term and B-term are generated at one-loop level according to the mediation via the vector superfields, so that the electro-weak symmetry breaking and 125 GeV Higgs mass may be achieved by the large B-term and A-term even if the stop mass is around 1 TeV.

  1. A Perspective for Time-Varying Channel Compensation with Model-Based Adaptive Passive Time-Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lussac P. MAIA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Underwater communications mainly rely on acoustic propagation which is strongly affected by frequency-dependent attenuation, shallow water multipath propagation and significant Doppler spread/shift induced by source-receiver-surface motion. Time-reversal based techniques offer a low complexity solution to decrease interferences caused by multipath, but a complete equalization cannot be reached (it saturates when maximize signal to noise ratio and these techniques in conventional form are quite sensible to channel variations along the transmission. Acoustic propagation modeling in high frequency regime can yield physical-based information that is potentially useful to channel compensation methods as the passive time-reversal (pTR, which is often employed in Digital Acoustic Underwater Communications (DAUC systems because of its low computational cost. Aiming to overcome the difficulties of pTR to solve time-variations in underwater channels, it is intended to insert physical knowledge from acoustic propagation modeling in the pTR filtering. Investigation is being done by the authors about the influence of channel physical parameters on propagation of coherent acoustic signals transmitted through shallow water waveguides and received in a vertical line array of sensors. Time-variant approach is used, as required to model high frequency acoustic propagation on realistic scenarios, and applied to a DAUC simulator containing an adaptive passive time-reversal receiver (ApTR. The understanding about the effects of changes in physical features of the channel over the propagation can lead to design ApTR filters which could help to improve the communications system performance. This work presents a short extension and review of the paper 12, which tested Doppler distortion induced by source-surface motion and ApTR compensation for a DAUC system on a simulated time-variant channel, in the scope of model-based equalization. Environmental focusing approach

  2. Effective potential and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David

    2010-01-01

    The nonequilibrium effective potential is calculated for the Frank model of spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in chemistry in which external noise is introduced to account for random environmental effects. The well-mixed limit, corresponding to negligible diffusion, and the case of diffusion in two space dimensions are studied in detail. White noise has a disordering effect in the former case, whereas in the latter case a phase transition occurs for external noise exceeding a critical intensity which racemizes the system.

  3. QUANTIFICATION OF ENTEROVIRUS AND HEPATITIS A VIRUSES IN WELLS AND SPRINGS IN EAST TENNESSEE USING REAL-TIME REVERSE TRANSCIPTION PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project involves development, validation testing and application of a fast, efficient method of quantitatively measuring occurrence and concentration of common human viral pathogens, enterovirus and hepatitis A virus, in ground water samples using real-time reverse transcrip...

  4. Measurement of the speed of sound in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok-Kyoung [Maritime Security Research Center, KIOST, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A new method for measuring the speed of sound (SOS) in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics (TRA) focusing system was proposed and validated with measurements obtained by using the conventional pulse-transmission technique. The SOS measured in 14 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using the two methods was highly correlated each other, although the SOS measured by using the TRA focusing system was slightly lower by an average of 2.2 m/s. The SOS measured by using the two methods showed high correlation coefficients of r = 0.92 with the apparent bone density, consistent with the behavior in human trabecular bone in vitro. These results prove the efficacy of the new method based on the principle of TRA to measure the SOS in trabecular bone.

  5. Photoelectric effect in the relativistic domain revealed by the time-reversed process for highly charged uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehlker, T.; Mokler, P.H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Warczak, A.

    1996-10-01

    The photoelectric effect in the near relativistic energy regime of 80 to 350 keV is studied by the time-reversed process in ion-atom collisions, i.e. by the radiative capture of a quasi-free target electron. We review shell and subshell differential photon-angular distribution studies of radiative capture into highly-charged uranium ions. The experimental data are compared with exact relativistic calculations and give detailed insight into both the atomic structure of high-Z few-electron ions and into the fundamental electron-photon interaction process involved. In particular it is shown that the angular-differential measurements provide a unique method to study the magnetic interaction in relativistic electron-photon encoun- (orig.)

  6. Ultrasound shock wave generator with one-bit time reversal in a dispersive medium, application to lithotripsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaldo, Gabriel; Roux, Philippe; Derode, Arnaud; Negreira, Carlos; Fink, Mathias

    2002-02-01

    The building of high-power ultrasonic sources from piezoelectric ceramics is limited by the maximum voltage that the ceramics can endure. We have conceived a device that uses a small number of piezoelectric transducers fastened to a cylindrical metallic waveguide. A one-bit time- reversal operation transforms the long-lasting low-level dispersed wave forms into a sharp pulse, thus taking advantage of dispersion to generate high-power ultrasound. The pressure amplitude that is generated at the focus is found to be 15 times greater than that achieved with comparable standard techniques. Applications to lithotripsy are discussed and the destructive efficiency of the system is demonstrated on pieces of chalk.

  7. A Numerical Investigation of the Time Reversal Mirror Technique for Trans-skull Brain Cancer Ultrasound Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Zahedmanesh

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The medical applications of ultrasound on human brain are highly limited by the phase and amplitude aberrations induced by the heterogeneities of the skull. However, it has been shown that time reversing coupled with amplitude compensation can overcome these aberrations. In this work, a model for 2D simulation of the time reversal mirror technique is proposed to study the possibility of targeting any point within the brain without the need for craniotomy and to calculate the acoustic pressure field and the resulting temperature distribution within the skull and brain during a High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU transcranial therapy. Materials and Methods: To overcome the sensitivity of the wave pattern to the heterogeneous geometry of the skull, a real MRI derived 2D model is constructed. The model should include the real geometry of brain and skull. The model should also include the couplant medium which has the responsibility of coupling the transducer to the skull for the penetration of ultrasound. The clinical substance used as the couplant is water. The acoustic and thermal parameters are derived from the references. Next, the wave propagation through the skull is computed based on the Helmholtz equation, with a 2D finite element analysis. The acoustic simulation is combined with a 2D thermal diffusion analysis based on Pennes Bioheat equation and the temperature elevation inside the skull and brain is computed. The numerical simulations were performed using the FEMLAB 3.2 software on a PC having 8 GB RAM and a 2.4 MHz dual CPU. Results: It is seen that the ultrasonic waves are exactly focalized at the location where the hydrophone has been previously implanted. There is no penetration into the sinuses and the waves are reflected from their surface because of the high discrepancy between the speed of sound in bone and air.  Under the focal pressure of 2.5 MPa and after 4 seconds of sonication the temperature at the focus

  8. Parity-even and time-reversal-odd neutron optical potential in spinning matter induced by gravitational torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.N., E-mail: ivanov@kph.tuwien.ac.at [Atominstitut, Technische Universität Wien, Stadionallee 2, A-1020 Wien (Austria); Snow, W.M., E-mail: wsnow@indiana.edu [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States); Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47408 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    Recent theoretical work has shown that spin 1/2 particles moving through unpolarized matter which sources torsion fields experience a new type of parity-even and time-reversal-odd optical potential if the matter is spinning in the lab frame. This new type of optical potential can be sought experimentally using the helicity dependence of the total cross sections for longitudinally polarized neutrons moving through a rotating cylindrical target. In combination with recent experimental constraints on short-range P-odd, T-even torsion interactions derived from polarized neutron spin rotation in matter one can derive separate constraints on the time components of scalar and pseudoscalar torsion fields in matter. We estimate the sensitivity achievable in such an experiment and briefly outline some of the potential sources of systematic error to be considered in any future experimental search for this effect.

  9. Parity-even and time-reversal-odd neutron optical potential in spinning matter induced by gravitational torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical work has shown that spin 1/2 particles moving through unpolarized matter which sources torsion fields experience a new type of parity-even and time-reversal-odd optical potential if the matter is spinning in the lab frame. This new type of optical potential can be sought experimentally using the helicity dependence of the total cross sections for longitudinally polarized neutrons moving through a rotating cylindrical target. In combination with recent experimental constraints on short-range P-odd, T-even torsion interactions derived from polarized neutron spin rotation in matter one can derive separate constraints on the time components of scalar and pseudoscalar torsion fields in matter. We estimate the sensitivity achievable in such an experiment and briefly outline some of the potential sources of systematic error to be considered in any future experimental search for this effect.

  10. Introduction to symmetry-breaking phenomena in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    The notion of broken symmetries started slowly to emerge in the 19th century. The early studies of Pasteur on the parity asymmetry of life, the studies of Curie on piezoelectricity and on the symmetries of effects versus the symmetry of causes ( which clearly excluded spontaneous symmetry breaking), are important historical landmarks. However the possibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking within the usual principles of statistical mechanics, waited for the work of Peierls and Onsager. The whole theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, as well as the construction of field theoretic models as long distance limit of yet unknown physics, relies nowadays on the concept of criticality associated to spontaneous symmetry breaking. The phenomena of Goldstone bosons, of Meissner-Higgs effects, are central to the theory of condensed matter as well as to particle physics. In cosmology as well, the various inflationary scenarios begin similarly with this same concept. The three lectures will provide a simple ...

  11. Photo control of transport properties in a disordered wire: Average conductance, conductance statistics, and time-reversal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takuya; Oka, Takashi; Demler, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the full conductance statistics of a disordered 1D wire under the application of light. We develop the transfer matrix method for periodically driven systems to analyze the conductance of a large system with small frequency of light, where coherent photon absorptions play an important role to determine not only the average but also the shape of conductance distributions. The average conductance under the application of light results from the competition between dynamic localization and effective dimension increase, and shows non-monotonic behavior as a function of driving amplitude. On the other hand, the shape of conductance distribution displays a crossover phenomena in the intermediate disorder strength; the application of light dramatically changes the distribution from log-normal to normal distributions. Furthermore, we propose that conductance of disordered systems can be controlled by engineering the shape, frequency and amplitude of light. Change of the shape of driving field controls the time-reversals symmetry and the disordered system shows analogous behavior as negative magneto-resistance known in static weak localization. A small change of frequency and amplitude of light leads to a large change of conductance, displaying giant opto-response. Our work advances the perspective to control the mean as well as the full conductance statistics by coherently driving disordered systems. - Highlights: ► We study conductance of disordered systems under the application of light. ► Full conductance distributions are obtained. ► A transfer matrix method is developed for driven systems. ► Conductances are dramatically modified upon the application of light. ► Time-reversal symmetry can also be controlled by light application.

  12. Duality after supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadmi, Yael; Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    1998-05-01

    Starting with two supersymmetric dual theories, we imagine adding a chiral perturbation that breaks supersymmetry dynamically. At low energy we then get two theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms that are generated dynamically. With a canonical Kaehler potential, some of the scalars of the ''magnetic'' theory typically have negative mass-squared, and the vector-like symmetry is broken. Since for large supersymmetry breaking the ''electric'' theory becomes ordinary QCD, the two theories are then incompatible. For small supersymmetry breaking, if duality still holds, the magnetic theory analysis implies specific patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD with small soft masses

  13. Large eddy simulation of breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Deigaard, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model is used to simulate wave breaking, the large scale water motions and turbulence induced by the breaking process. The model consists of a free surface model using the surface markers method combined with a three-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence....... The incoming waves are specified by a flux boundary condition. The waves are approaching in the shore-normal direction and are breaking on a plane, constant slope beach. The first few wave periods are simulated by a two-dimensional model in the vertical plane normal to the beach line. The model describes...... the steepening and the overturning of the wave. At a given instant, the model domain is extended to three dimensions, and the two-dimensional flow field develops spontaneously three-dimensional flow features with turbulent eddies. After a few wave periods, stationary (periodic) conditions are achieved...

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and vector-meson dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.; Pagels, H.

    1977-01-01

    This article is a continuation of our previous work on the rho-π puzzle. It examines further consequences of the unification of partial conservation of axial-vector current (PCAC) and vector-meson dominance (VMD) in which the pion is a Goldstone state and the rho is a ''dormant'' Goldstone state. Our new picture of the vector mesons does not require an A 1 meson although such a state is not ruled out. The Weinberg sum rules which provide the raison d'etre for the A 1 are reexamined. The first Weinberg sum rule can be accommodated without a narrow A 1 state although some enhancement seems required. Examining the J/sup P C/ = 1 +- nonet we conclude that a new state, the isoscalar octet partner of the B (1235) should exist around 1.7 GeV assuming ideal mixing. Without a detailed assumption on the mixing angle, its mass should be in the range 1.4 to 1.7 GeV. We also discuss the photon-rho interactions. In the standard VMD picture the predicted rate for rho → π + γ fails by five standard deviations, while in our picture this undesired result is averted

  15. Spontaneous symmetry breaking by double lithium adsorption in polyacenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Yenni. P.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    We show that adsorption of one lithium atom to polyacenes, i.e. chains of linearly fused benzene rings, will cause such chains to be slightly deformed. If we adsorb a second identical atom on the opposite side of the same ring, this deformation is dramatically enhanced despite the fact that a symmetric configuration seems possible. We argue, that this may be due to an instability of the Jahn-Teller type possibly indeed to a Peierls instability.

  16. Spontaneous breaking of spacetime symmetries and the inverse Higgs effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš; Watanabe, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 8 (2014), 085004 ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : phenomenological Lagrangians * broken generators Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  17. Dissipation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in brain dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Walter J; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We compare the predictions of the dissipative quantum model of the brain with neurophysiological data collected from electroencephalograms resulting from high-density arrays fixed on the surfaces of primary sensory and limbic areas of trained rabbits and cats. Functional brain imaging in relation to behavior reveals the formation of coherent domains of synchronized neuronal oscillatory activity and phase transitions predicted by the dissipative model

  18. N=1 superstrings with spontaneously broken symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.

    1988-01-01

    We construct N=1 chiral superstrings with spontaneously broken gauge symmetry in four space-time dimensions. These new string solutions are obtained by a generalized coordinate-dependent Z 2 orbifold compactification of some non-chiral five-dimensional N=1 and N=2 superstrings. The scale of symmetry breaking is arbitrary (at least classically) and it can be chosen hierarchically smaller than the string scale (α') -1/2 . (orig.)

  19. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, J B; Perez-Mercader, J; Sanchez, F J

    1987-04-16

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems.

  20. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.B.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems. (orig.)

  1. Brane Lorentz symmetry from Lorentz breaking in the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Carvalho, C [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    We propose the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking of a bulk vector field as a way to generate the selection of bulk dimensions invisible to the standard model confined to the brane. By assigning a nonvanishing vacuum value to the vector field, a direction is singled out in the bulk vacuum, thus breaking the bulk Lorentz symmetry. We present the condition for induced Lorentz symmetry on the brane, as phenomenologically required.

  2. Time reversal optical tomography and decomposition methods for detection and localization of targets in highly scattering turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin

    New near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) approaches were developed to detect, locate, and image small targets embedded in highly scattering turbid media. The first approach, referred to as time reversal optical tomography (TROT), is based on time reversal (TR) imaging and multiple signal classification (MUSIC). The second approach uses decomposition methods of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) and principal component analysis (PCA) commonly used in blind source separation (BSS) problems, and compare the outcomes with that of optical imaging using independent component analysis (OPTICA). The goal is to develop a safe, affordable, noninvasive imaging modality for detection and characterization of breast tumors in early growth stages when those are more amenable to treatment. The efficacy of the approaches was tested using simulated data, and experiments involving model media and absorptive, scattering, and fluorescent targets, as well as, "realistic human breast model" composed of ex vivo breast tissues with embedded tumors. The experimental arrangements realized continuous wave (CW) multi-source probing of samples and multi-detector acquisition of diffusely transmitted signal in rectangular slab geometry. A data matrix was generated using the perturbation in the transmitted light intensity distribution due to the presence of absorptive or scattering targets. For fluorescent targets the data matrix was generated using the diffusely transmitted fluorescence signal distribution from the targets. The data matrix was analyzed using different approaches to detect and characterize the targets. The salient features of the approaches include ability to: (a) detect small targets; (b) provide three-dimensional location of the targets with high accuracy (~within a millimeter or 2); and (c) assess optical strength of the targets. The approaches are less computation intensive and consequently are faster than other inverse image reconstruction methods that

  3. Spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, ZhiRui; Zhang, ZhenWei; Xu, DaZhi; Zhao, Nan; Sun, ChangPu

    2018-04-01

    We study the spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the gauge couplings between the center-of-mass and the relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originate from the symmetries of the ring geometry and the corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. In particular, such spontaneous decoherence does not occur at all at the thermodynamic limit because the nontrivial boundary conditions become the trivial Born-von Karman boundary conditions when the perimeter of the ring container tends to infinity. Our investigation shows that a thermal macroscopic object with certain symmetries has a chance for its quantum properties to degrade even without applying an external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment.

  4. Modeling of the attenuation of stress waves in concrete based on the Rayleigh damping model using time-reversal and PZT transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhen; Huo, Linsheng; Gao, Weihang; Li, Hongnan; Song, Gangbing

    2017-10-01

    Wave-based concrete structural health monitoring has attracted much attention. A stress wave experiences significant attenuation in concrete, however there is a lack of a unified method for predicting the attenuation coefficient of the stress wave. In this paper, a simple and effective absorption attenuation model of stress waves in concrete is developed based on the Rayleigh damping model, which indicates that the absorption attenuation coefficient of stress waves in concrete is directly proportional to the square of the stress wave frequency when the damping ratio is small. In order to verify the theoretical model, related experiments were carried out. During the experiments, a concrete beam was designed in which the d33-model piezoelectric smart aggregates were embedded to detect the propagation of stress waves. It is difficult to distinguish direct stress waves due to the complex propagation paths and the reflection and scattering of stress waves in concrete. Hence, as another innovation of this paper, a new method for computing the absorption attenuation coefficient based on the time-reversal method is developed. Due to the self-adaptive focusing properties of the time-reversal method, the time-reversed stress wave focuses and generates a peak value. The time-reversal method eliminates the adverse effects of multipaths, reflection, and scattering. The absorption attenuation coefficient is computed by analyzing the peak value changes of the time-reversal focused signal. Finally, the experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical model.

  5. Charge transport of graphene ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction with pairing state of broken time reversal symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaser Hajati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the charge transport through a graphene-based ferromagnetic-insulator-superconductor junction with a broken time reversal symmetry (BTRS of dx2−y2 + is and dx2−y2 + idxy superconductor using the extended Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk formalism. Our analysis have shown several charateristics in this junction, providing a useful probe to understand the role of the order parameter symmetry in the superconductivity. We find that the presence of the BTRS (X state in the superconductor region has a strong effect on the tunneling conductance curves which leads to a decrease in the height of the zero-bias conductance peak (ZBCP. In particular, we show that the magnitude of the superconducting proximity effect depends to a great extent on X and by increasing X, the zero-bias charge conductance oscillations with respect to the rotation angle β are suppressed. In addition, we find that at the maximum rotation angle β = π/4, introducing BTRS in the FIS junction causes oscillatory behavior of the zero-bias charge conductance with the barrier strength (χG by a period of π and by approaching the X to 1, the amplitude of charge conductance oscillations increases. This behavior is drastically different from none BTRS similar graphene junctions. At last, we suggest an experimental setup for verifying our predicted effects.

  6. A Robust Pre-Filter and Power Loading Design for Time Reversal UWB Systems over Time-Correlated MIMO Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Alizadeh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Conventional Time Reversal (TR technique suffers from performance degradation in time varying Multiple-Input Multiple-Output Ultra-Wideband (MIMO-UWB systems due to outdating Channel State Information (CSI over time progressions. That is, the outdated CSI degrades the TR performance significantly in time varying channels. The correlation property of time correlated channels can improve the TR performance against other traditional TR designs. Based on this property, at first, we propose a robust TR-MIMO-UWB system design for a time-varying channel in which the CSI is updated only at the beginning of each block of data where the CSI is assumed to be known. As the channel varies over time, pre-processor blindly pre-equalizes the channel during the next symbol time by using the correlation property. Then, a novel recursive power allocation strategy is derived over time-correlated time-varying TR-MIMO-UWB channels. We show that the proposed power loading technique, considerably improves the BER performance of TR-MIMO-UWB system in imperfect CSI with robust pre-filter. The proposed algorithms lead to a cost-efficient CSI updating procedure for the TR optimization. Simulation results are provided to confirm the new design performance against traditional method.

  7. A semi-analytical model of a time reversal cavity for high-amplitude focused ultrasound applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Tanter, M.; Pernot, M.

    2017-09-01

    Time reversal cavities (TRC) have been proposed as an efficient approach for 3D ultrasound therapy. They allow the precise spatio-temporal focusing of high-power ultrasound pulses within a large region of interest with a low number of transducers. Leaky TRCs are usually built by placing a multiple scattering medium, such as a random rod forest, in a reverberating cavity, and the final peak pressure gain of the device only depends on the temporal length of its impulse response. Such multiple scattering in a reverberating cavity is a complex phenomenon, and optimisation of the device’s gain is usually a cumbersome process, mostly empirical, and requiring numerical simulations with extremely long computation times. In this paper, we present a semi-analytical model for the fast optimisation of a TRC. This model decouples ultrasound propagation in an empty cavity and multiple scattering in a multiple scattering medium. It was validated numerically and experimentally using a 2D-TRC and numerically using a 3D-TRC. Finally, the model was used to determine rapidly the optimal parameters of the 3D-TRC which had been confirmed by numerical simulations.

  8. Exogenous reference gene normalization for real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis under dynamic endogenous transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Stephen; Gallaher, Zachary; Czaja, Krzysztof

    2012-05-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is widely used to investigate transcriptional changes following experimental manipulations to the nervous system. Despite the widespread utilization of qPCR, the interpretation of results is marred by the lack of a suitable reference gene due to the dynamic nature of endogenous transcription. To address this inherent deficiency, we investigated the use of an exogenous spike-in mRNA, luciferase, as an internal reference gene for the 2(-∆∆Ct) normalization method. To induce dynamic transcription, we systemically administered capsaicin, a neurotoxin selective for C-type sensory neurons expressing the TRPV-1 receptor, to adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We later isolated nodose ganglia for qPCR analysis with the reference being either exogenous luciferase mRNA or the commonly used endogenous reference β-III tubulin. The exogenous luciferase mRNA reference clearly demonstrated the dynamic expression of the endogenous reference. Furthermore, variability of the endogenous reference would lead to misinterpretation of other genes of interest. In conclusion, traditional reference genes are often unstable under physiologically normal situations, and certainly unstable following the damage to the nervous system. The use of exogenous spike-in reference provides a consistent and easily implemented alternative for the analysis of qPCR data.

  9. An Adjoint Sensitivity Method Applied to Time Reverse Imaging of Tsunami Source for the 2009 Samoa Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossen, M. Jakir; Gusman, Aditya; Satake, Kenji; Cummins, Phil R.

    2018-01-01

    We have previously developed a tsunami source inversion method based on "Time Reverse Imaging" and demonstrated that it is computationally very efficient and has the ability to reproduce the tsunami source model with good accuracy using tsunami data of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami. In this paper, we implemented this approach in the 2009 Samoa earthquake tsunami triggered by a doublet earthquake consisting of both normal and thrust faulting. Our result showed that the method is quite capable of recovering the source model associated with normal and thrust faulting. We found that the inversion result is highly sensitive to some stations that must be removed from the inversion. We applied an adjoint sensitivity method to find the optimal set of stations in order to estimate a realistic source model. We found that the inversion result is improved significantly once the optimal set of stations is used. In addition, from the reconstructed source model we estimated the slip distribution of the fault from which we successfully determined the dipping orientation of the fault plane for the normal fault earthquake. Our result suggests that the fault plane dip toward the northeast.

  10. Novel Robust Optimization and Power Allocation of Time Reversal-MIMO-UWB Systems in an Imperfect CSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Alizadeh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Time Reversal (TR technique is an attractive solution for a scenario where the transmission system employs low complexity receivers with multiple antennas at both transmitter and receiver sides. The TR technique can be combined with a high data rate MIMO-UWB system as TR-MIMO-UWB system. In spite of TR's good performance in MIMO-UWB systems, it suffers from performance degradation in an imperfect Channel State Information (CSI case. In this paper, at first a robust TR pre-filter is designed together with a MMSE equalizer in TR-MIMO-UWB system where is robust against channel imperfection conditions. We show that the robust pre-filter optimization technique, considerably improves the BER performance of TR-MIMO-UWB system in imperfect CSI, where temporal focusing of the TR technique is kept, especially for high SNR values. Then, in order to improve the system performance more than ever, a power loading scheme is developed by minimizing the average symbol error rate in an imperfect CSI. Numerical and simulation results are presented to confirm the performance advantage attained by the proposed robust optimization and power loading in an imperfect CSI scenario.

  11. Nucleon electric dipole moments and the isovector parity- and time-reversal-odd pion–nucleon coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seng, Chien-Yeah [Amherst Center for Fundamental Interactions, Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Vries, Jordy de [Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik, and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Mereghetti, Emanuele [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Patel, Hiren H. [Particle and Astro-Particle Physics Division, Max-Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics (MPIK), Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Ramsey-Musolf, Michael [Amherst Center for Fundamental Interactions, Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kellogg Radiation Laboratory, California Institute of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-07

    The isovector time-reversal- and parity-violating pion–nucleon coupling g{sup ¯}{sub π}{sup (1)} is uniquely sensitive to dimension-six interactions between right-handed light quarks and the Standard Model Higgs doublet that naturally arises in left-right symmetric models. Recent work has used the g{sup ¯}{sub π}{sup (1)}-induced one-loop contribution to the neutron electric dipole moment d{sub n}, together with the present experimental d{sub n} bound, to constrain the CP-violating parameters of the left-right symmetric model. We show that this and related analyses are based on an earlier meson theory d{sub n} computation that is not consistent with the power-counting appropriate for an effective field theory. We repeat the one-loop calculation using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and find that the resulting d{sub n} sensitivity to g{sup ¯}{sub π}{sup (1)} is suppressed, implying more relaxed constraints on the parameter space of the left-right symmetric model. Assuming no cancellations between this loop contribution and other contributions, such as the leading order EDM low-energy constant, the present limit on d{sub n} implies |g{sup ¯}{sub π}{sup (1)}|≲1.1×10{sup −10}.

  12. Nucleon electric dipole moments and the isovector parity- and time-reversal-odd pion–nucleon coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yeah Seng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The isovector time-reversal- and parity-violating pion–nucleon coupling g¯π(1 is uniquely sensitive to dimension-six interactions between right-handed light quarks and the Standard Model Higgs doublet that naturally arises in left-right symmetric models. Recent work has used the g¯π(1-induced one-loop contribution to the neutron electric dipole moment dn, together with the present experimental dn bound, to constrain the CP-violating parameters of the left-right symmetric model. We show that this and related analyses are based on an earlier meson theory dn computation that is not consistent with the power-counting appropriate for an effective field theory. We repeat the one-loop calculation using heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory and find that the resulting dn sensitivity to g¯π(1 is suppressed, implying more relaxed constraints on the parameter space of the left-right symmetric model. Assuming no cancellations between this loop contribution and other contributions, such as the leading order EDM low-energy constant, the present limit on dn implies |g¯π(1|≲1.1×10−10.

  13. A sensitive, reproducible, and economic real-time reverse transcription PCR detecting avian metapneumovirus subtypes A and B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzo, G; Drigo, M; Lupini, C; Catelli, E; Laconi, A; Listorti, V; Bonci, M; Naylor, C J; Martini, M; Cecchinato, M

    2014-06-01

    Use of real-time PCR is increasing in the diagnosis of infectious disease due to its sensitivity, specificity, and speed of detection. These characteristics make it particularly suited for the diagnosis of viral infections, like avian metapneumovirus (AMPV), for which effective control benefits from continuously updated knowledge of the epidemiological situation. Other real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCRs have been published based on highly specific fluorescent dye-labeled probes, but they have high initial cost, complex validation, and a marked susceptibility to the genetic variability of their target sequence. With this in mind, we developed and validated a SYBR Green I-based quantitative RT-PCR for the detection of the two most prevalent AMPV subtypes (i.e., subtypes A and B). The assay demonstrated an analytical sensitivity comparable with that of a previously published real-time RT-PCR and the ability to detect RNA equivalent to approximately 0.5 infectious doses for both A and B subtypes. The high efficiency and linearity between viral titer and crossing point displayed for both subtypes make it suited for viral quantification. Optimization of reaction conditions and the implementation of melting curve analysis guaranteed the high specificity of the assay. The stable melting temperature difference between the two subtypes indicated the possibility of subtyping through melting temperature analysis. These characteristics make our assay a sensitive, specific, and rapid tool, enabling contemporaneous detection, quantification, and discrimination of AMPV subtype A and B.

  14. Bubbles and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.

  15. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  16. Gauge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy

  17. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affleck, I.

    1985-03-01

    Supersymmetry, and in particular, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, offers the hope of a natural solution of the gauge hierarchy problem in grand unification. I briefly review recent work on dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four-dimensional Higgs theories and its application to grand unified model building

  18. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for identification of wild poliovirus 1 & 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepa K; Nalavade, Uma P; Deshpande, Jagadish M

    2015-10-01

    The poliovirus serotype identification and intratypic differentiation by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assay is suitable for serotype mixtures but not for intratypic mixtures of wild and vaccine poliovirus strains. This study was undertaken to develop wild poliovirus 1 and 3 (WPV1 and WPV3) specific rRT-PCR assays for use. Specific primers and probes for rRT-PCR were designed based on VP1 sequences of WPV1 and WPV3 isolated in India since 2000. The specificity of the rRT-PCR assays was evaluated using WPV1 and WPV3 of different genetic lineages, non-polio enteroviruses (NPEVs) and mixtures of wild/wild and wild/Sabin vaccine strains. The sensitivity of the assays was determined by testing serial 10-fold dilutions of wild poliovirus 1 and 3 stock suspensions of known titre. No cross-reactivity with Sabin strains, intertypic wild poliovirus isolates or 27 types of NPEVs across all the four Enterovirus species was found for both the wild poliovirus 1 and 3 rRT-PCR assays. All WPV1 and WPV3 strains isolated since 2000 were successfully amplified. The rRT-PCR assays detected 10 4.40 CCID 50 /ml of WPV1 and 10 4.00 CCID 50 /ml of WPV3, respectively either as single isolate or mixture with Sabin vaccine strains or intertypic wild poliovirus. rRT-PCR assays for WPV1 and WPV3 have been validated to detect all the genetic variations of the WPV1 and WPV3 isolated in India for the last decade. When used in combination with the current rRT-PCR assay testing was complete for confirmation of the presence of wild poliovirus in intratypic mixtures.

  19. Optimization and Validation of a Real Time Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction with RNA Internal Control to Detect Rubella RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winny Xie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: According to a report from WHO, cases of rubella infection in Indonesia has increased up to 10-fold from 2007 to 2011. Despite no data of congenital rubella syndrome in the report, there are approximately 45,000 cases of babies born with heart failure and 0.1-0.3% live births with congenital deafness in Indonesia. Allegedly, rubella infection during pregnancy may play a role in this condition. This study aimed to optimize and validate a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR method to detect rubella virus RNA as an aid for the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection. METHODS: Method optimization was conducted using nucleic acids extracted from Trimovax Merieux vaccine with the High Pure Viral Nucleic Acid Kit. One step RT-qPCR was performed with Quantifast Multiplex RTPCR+R Kit. Target synthetic DNA was designed and used to determine the sensitivity of the method. RNA internal control was synthesized to control the process of extraction and amplification. RESULTS: The analytical sensitivity of this method was as low as 5 copies target synthetic DNA/μl. The mean Coefficient of Variation (CV % of the critical threshold (Ct obtained were 2.71%, 1.20%, 1.62%, and 1.59% for within run, between run, between kit lots, and between operators, respectively. Recovery of the target synthetic DNA from amniotic fluid was 100.51% (by the log copies/μl at the concentration of 1,000,000 copies/μl. CONCLUSIONS: RT-qPCR is successfully used for the detection of rubella virus RNA in vaccine and synthetic nucleic acid. With its high sensitivity, good precision and recovery, this method offers a means to improve the diagnosis of congenital rubella infection in developing countries like Indonesia. KEYWORDS: congenital rubella, RT-qPCR, prenatal diagnosis, amniotic fluid.

  20. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dacheux

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR. The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135 including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5% and saliva (54% samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco. This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for

  1. Dual Combined Real-Time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Diagnosis of Lyssavirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacheux, Laurent; Larrous, Florence; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Faouzi, Abdellah; Troupin, Cécile; Nourlil, Jalal; Buchy, Philippe; Bourhy, Herve

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of lyssavirus infection (including rabies) in animals and humans is based on laboratory confirmation. The reference techniques for post-mortem rabies diagnosis are still based on direct immunofluorescence and virus isolation, but molecular techniques, such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based methods, are increasingly being used and now constitute the principal tools for diagnosing rabies in humans and for epidemiological analyses. However, it remains a key challenge to obtain relevant specificity and sensitivity with these techniques while ensuring that the genetic diversity of lyssaviruses does not compromise detection. We developed a dual combined real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (combo RT-qPCR) method for pan-lyssavirus detection. This method is based on two complementary technologies: a probe-based (TaqMan) RT-qPCR for detecting the RABV species (pan-RABV RT-qPCR) and a second reaction using an intercalating dye (SYBR Green) to detect other lyssavirus species (pan-lyssa RT-qPCR). The performance parameters of this combined assay were evaluated with a large panel of primary animal samples covering almost all the genetic variability encountered at the viral species level, and they extended to almost all lyssavirus species characterized to date. This method was also evaluated for the diagnosis of human rabies on 211 biological samples (positive n = 76 and negative n = 135) including saliva, skin and brain biopsies. It detected all 41 human cases of rabies tested and confirmed the sensitivity and the interest of skin biopsy (91.5%) and saliva (54%) samples for intra-vitam diagnosis of human rabies. Finally, this method was successfully implemented in two rabies reference laboratories in enzootic countries (Cambodia and Morocco). This combined RT-qPCR method constitutes a relevant, useful, validated tool for the diagnosis of rabies in both humans and animals, and represents a promising tool for lyssavirus

  2. Rapid and sensitive detection of canine distemper virus by real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianchang; Wang, Jinfeng; Li, Ruiwen; Liu, Libing; Yuan, Wanzhe

    2017-08-15

    Canine distemper, caused by Canine distemper virus (CDV), is a highly contagious and fatal systemic disease in free-living and captive carnivores worldwide. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), as an isothermal gene amplification technique, has been explored for the molecular detection of diverse pathogens. A real-time reverse transcription RPA (RT-RPA) assay for the detection of canine distemper virus (CDV) using primers and exo probe targeting the CDV nucleocapsid protein gene was developed. A series of other viruses were tested by the RT-RPA.Thirty-two field samples were further tested by RT-RPA, and the resuts were compared with those obtained by the real-time RT-PCR. The RT-RPA assay was performed successfully at 40 °C, and the results were obtained within 3 min-12 min. The assay could detect CDV, but did not show cross-detection of canine parvovirus-2 (CPV-2), canine coronavirus (CCoV), canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), pseudorabies virus (PRV) or Newcastle disease virus (NDV), demonstrating high specificity. The analytical sensitivity of RT-RPA was 31.8 copies in vitro transcribed CDV RNA, which is 10 times lower than the real-time RT-PCR. The assay performance was validated by testing 32 field samples and compared to real-time RT-PCR. The results indicated an excellent correlation between RT-RPA and a reference real-time RT-PCR method. Both assays provided the same results, and R 2 value of the positive results was 0.947. The results demonstrated that the RT-RPA assay offers an alternative tool for simple, rapid, and reliable detection of CDV both in the laboratory and point-of-care facility, especially in the resource-limited settings.

  3. Reference genes for gene expression analysis by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerregaard, Henriette; Pedersen, Shona; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Marcussen, Niels

    2011-12-01

    Differentiation between malignant renal cell carcinoma and benign oncocytoma is of great importance to choose the optimal treatment. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of renal tumor is therefore crucial; however, existing imaging techniques and histologic examinations are incapable of providing an optimal differentiation profile. Analysis of gene expression of molecular markers is a new possibility but relies on appropriate standardization to compare different samples. The aim of this study was to identify stably expressed reference genes suitable for the normalization of results extracted from gene expression analysis of renal tumors. Expression levels of 8 potential reference genes (ATP5J, HMBS, HPRT1, PPIA, TBP, 18S, GAPDH, and POLR2A) were examined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in tumor and normal tissue from removed kidneys from 13 patients with renal cell carcinoma and 5 patients with oncocytoma. The expression levels of genes were compared by gene stability value M, average gene stability M, pairwise variation V, and coefficient of variation CV. More candidates were not suitable for the purpose, but a combination of HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J, and TBP was found to be the best combination with an average gene stability value M of 0.9 and a CV of 0.4 in the 18 tumors and normal tissues. A combination of 4 genes, HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J, and TBP, is a possible reference in renal tumor gene expression analysis by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. A combination of four genes, HMBS, PPIA, ATP5J and TBP, being stably expressed in tissues from RCC is possible reference genes for gene expression analysis.

  4. Symmetry-breaking and high-spin states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, F C [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1992-08-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in nuclear matter would require Nambu-Goldstone bosons in the system. A model calculation gives the nature of these excitations. In finite nuclei the excitations will be a mixture of rotational, surface vibrations and pseudo-Goldstone bosons. A search for such excitations would be fruitful. (author). 5 refs.

  5. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  6. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  7. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  8. Spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral p-wave superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusaki, Akira; Matsumoto, Masashige; Sigrist, Manfred

    2001-08-01

    In a chiral superconductor with broken time-reversal symmetry a ``spontaneous Hall effect'' may be observed. We analyze this phenomenon by taking into account the surface properties of a chiral superconductor. We identify two main contributions to the spontaneous Hall effect. One contribution originates from the Bernoulli (or Lorentz) force due to spontaneous currents running along the surfaces of the superconductor. The other contribution has a topological origin and is related to the intrinsic angular momentum of Cooper pairs. The latter can be described in terms of a Chern-Simons-like term in the low-energy field theory of the superconductor and has some similarities with the quantum Hall effect. The spontaneous Hall effect in a chiral superconductor is, however, nonuniversal. Our analysis is based on three approaches to the problem: a self-consistent solution of the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation, a generalized Ginzburg-Landau theory, and a hydrodynamic formulation. All three methods consistently lead to the same conclusion that the spontaneous Hall resistance of a two-dimensional superconducting Hall bar is of order h/(ekFλ)2, where kF is the Fermi wave vector and λ is the London penetration depth; the Hall resistance is substantially suppressed from a quantum unit of resistance. Experimental issues in measuring this effect are briefly discussed.

  9. Supersymmetry breaking and Nambu-Goldstone fermions with cubic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannomiya, Noriaki; Katsura, Hosho; Nakayama, Yu

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a lattice fermion model in one spatial dimension with supersymmetry (SUSY) but without particle number conservation. The Hamiltonian is defined as the anticommutator of two nilpotent supercharges Q and Q†. Each supercharge is built solely from spinless fermion operators and depends on a parameter g . The system is strongly interacting for small g , and in the extreme limit g =0 , the number of zero-energy ground states grows exponentially with the system size. By contrast, in the large-g limit, the system is noninteracting and SUSY is broken spontaneously. We study the model for modest values of g and show that under certain conditions spontaneous SUSY breaking occurs in both finite and infinite chains. We analyze the low-energy excitations both analytically and numerically. Our analysis suggests that the Nambu-Goldstone fermions accompanying the spontaneous SUSY breaking have cubic dispersion at low energies.

  10. The Ku Heterodimer and the Metabolism of Single-Ended DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Balestrini (Alessia); D. Ristic (Dejan); I. Dionne (Isabelle); X.Z. Liu (Xiao); C. Wyman (Claire); R.J. Wellinger (Raymund); J.H.J. Petrini (John)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractSingle-ended double-strand breaks (DSBs) are a common form of spontaneous DNA break, generated when the replisome encounters a discontinuity in the DNA template. Given their prevalence, understanding the mechanisms governing the fate(s) of single-ended DSBs is important. We describe the

  11. Spontaneously generated gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-01-01

    We show, following a recent suggestion of Adler, that gravity may arise as a consequence of dynamical symmetry breaking in a scale- and gauge-invariant world. Our calculation is not tied to any specific scheme of dynamical symmetry breaking. A representation for Newton's coupling constant in terms of flat-space quantities is derived. The sign of Newton's coupling constant appears to depend on infrared details of the symmetry-breaking mechanism

  12. Outbreak of hepatitis E virus infection in Darfur, Sudan: effectiveness of real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis of dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérens, Audrey; Guérin, Philippe Jean; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Nicand, Elisabeth

    2009-06-01

    Biological samples collected in refugee camps during an outbreak of hepatitis E were used to compare the accuracy of hepatitis E virus RNA amplification by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for sera and dried blood spots (concordance of 90.6%). Biological profiles (RT-PCR and serology) of asymptomatic individuals were also analyzed.

  13. Exactly soluble local bosonic cocycle models, statistical transmutation, and simplest time-reversal symmetric topological orders in 3+1 dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2017-05-01

    We propose a generic construction of exactly soluble local bosonic models that realize various topological orders with gappable boundaries. In particular, we construct an exactly soluble bosonic model that realizes a (3+1)-dimensional [(3+1)D] Z2-gauge theory with emergent fermionic Kramers doublet. We show that the emergence of such a fermion will cause the nucleation of certain topological excitations in space-time without pin+ structure. The exactly soluble model also leads to a statistical transmutation in (3+1)D. In addition, we construct exactly soluble bosonic models that realize 2 types of time-reversal symmetry-enriched Z2 topological orders in 2+1 dimensions, and 20 types of simplest time-reversal symmetry-enriched topological (SET) orders which have only one nontrivial pointlike and stringlike topological excitation. Many physical properties of those topological states are calculated using the exactly soluble models. We find that some time-reversal SET orders have pointlike excitations that carry Kramers doublet, a fractionalized time-reversal symmetry. We also find that some Z2 SET orders have stringlike excitations that carry anomalous (nononsite) Z2 symmetry, which can be viewed as a fractionalization of Z2 symmetry on strings. Our construction is based on cochains and cocycles in algebraic topology, which is very versatile. In principle, it can also realize emergent topological field theory beyond the twisted gauge theory.

  14. Supersymmetry breaking and composite extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Sundrum, Raman

    2002-01-01

    We study supergravity models in four dimensions where the hidden sector is superconformal and strongly coupled over several decades of energy below the Planck scale, before undergoing spontaneous breakdown of scale invariance and supersymmetry. We show that large anomalous dimensions can suppress Kaehler contact terms between the hidden and visible sectors, leading to models in which the hidden sector is 'sequestered' and anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking can naturally dominate, thus solving the supersymmetric flavor problem. We construct simple, explicit models of the hidden sector based on supersymmetric QCD in the conformal window. The present approach can be usefully interpreted as having an extra dimension responsible for sequestering replaced by the many states of a (spontaneously broken) strongly coupled superconformal hidden sector, as dictated by the anti-de Sitter conformal field theory correspondence

  15. Boost breaking in the EFT of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delacrétaz, Luca V.; Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Noumi, Toshifumi, E-mail: lvd@stanford.edu, E-mail: tnoumi@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-01

    If time-translations are spontaneously broken, so are boosts. This symmetry breaking pattern can be non-linearly realized by either just the Goldstone boson of time translations, or by four Goldstone bosons associated with time translations and boosts. In this paper we extend the Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation to consider the case in which the additional Goldstone bosons associated with boosts are light and coupled to the Goldstone boson of time translations. The symmetry breaking pattern forces a coupling to curvature so that the mass of the additional Goldstone bosons is predicted to be equal to √2 H in the vast majority of the parameter space where they are light. This pattern therefore offers a natural way of generating self-interacting particles with Hubble mass during inflation. After constructing the general effective Lagrangian, we study how these particles mix and interact with the curvature fluctuations, generating potentially detectable non-Gaussian signals.

  16. Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.

  17. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  18. Nonrandom distribuion of chromosome breaks in cultured lymphocytes of normal subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayme, S.; Mattei, J.F.; Mattei, M.G.; Aurran, Y.; Giraud, F.

    1976-02-29

    Breakpoint distribution was studied from cultured lymphocytes on 7653 metaphases from 524 subjects whose karyotypes were normal. The mean break rate was 5% in both sexes. The frequency increased significantly after 40 years and varied during the year. The location of the breaks was very different from the expected random distribution. The break frequency for each chromosome was different according to the type of break (chromatid, simple chromosomal and chromosomal involving rearrangements). The location of the breaks was also studied according to the type of band and with respect to the centromere. A comparison between spontaneous breaks, x-ray induced breaks, breaks in Fanconi's anemia and in congenital rearrangements, show very significant differences.

  19. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; California Univ., Berkeley

    1990-01-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a clasical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated

  20. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1990-05-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 26 refs

  1. The scale of supersymmetry breaking as a free parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polonsky, N.

    2001-01-01

    While supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model can be fully described in terms of explicitly broken global supersymmetry, this description is only effective. Once related to spontaneous breaking in a more fundamental theory, the effective parameters translate to functions of two distinct scales, the scale of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and the scale of its mediation to the standard-model fields. The scale dependence will be written explicitly and the full spectrum of supersymmetry breaking operators which emerges will be explored. It will be shown that, contrary to common lore, scale-dependent operators can play an important role in determining the phenomenology. For example, theories with low-energy supersymmetry breaking, such as gauge mediation, may correspond to a scalar potential which is quite different than in theories with high-energy supersymmetry breaking, such as gravity mediation. As a concrete example, the Higgs mass prediction will be discussed in some detail and its upper bound will be shown to be sensitive to the supersymmetry breaking scale

  2. Aspects of soft and spontaneous CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.; Harada, M.

    1999-01-01

    We study four different models for CP violation: the standard Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) model, the aspon model of spontaneous breaking, and two models of soft breaking. In all except the standard model, the strong CP problem is addressed and solved. Testable predictions for the area of the unitarity triangle and for (ε ' /ε) K are emphasized. The issue of CP violation may well become the first place where the standard model of particle theory is shown definitively to be deficient. There are two reasons for expecting this to happen: (1) the strong CP problem is still not understood in the unadorned standard model and (2) the KM mechanism, although unquestionably present, may not provide the full explanation of ε K and (ε ' /ε) K . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  3. Rapid Genome Detection of Schmallenberg Virus and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus by Use of Isothermal Amplification Methods and High-Speed Real-Time Reverse Transcriptase PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (R...

  4. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  5. Breaking the silence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Kirkevold, Marit; McCallin, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    and individual interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed that the main concern of the patients was feeling isolated, which was resolved using a process of interactional integration. Interactional integration begins by breaking the silence to enable the progression from...

  6. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain a bet...

  7. Definition of spontaneous reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his view of driven versus spontaneous. There is a close link between ''spontaneous'' and ''instability.'' One of the prominent examples for instability is the thermal convection instability. Just to remind you, if you heat a fluid layer from below, it takes a certain Rayleigh number to make it unstable. Beyond the onset point you find qualitatively new features. That is called ''spontaneous,'' and this is a bit more than semantics. It's a new qualitative property that appears and it is spontaneous although we have an energy flux through the system. It's a misconception, to call this ''driven'' pointing at the energy flux through it. Of course, the convection would not exist without this energy flux. But what makes it ''spontaneous'' is that without any particular external signal, a new qualitative feature appears. And this is what is called an ''instability'' and ''spontaneous.'' From these considerations the author got a little reassured of what distinction should be made in the field of the magnetosphere. If we have a smooth energy transport into the magnetosphere and suddenly we have this qualitatively new feature (change of B-topology) coming up; then, using this terminology we don't have a choice other than calling this spontaneous or unstable, if you like. If we ''tell'' the system where it should make its neutral line and where it should make its plasmoids, then, it is driven. And this provides a very clear-cut observational distinction. The author emphasizes the difference he sees is a qualitative difference, not only a quantitative one

  8. The geometric role of symmetry breaking in gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, Derek K

    2012-01-01

    In gravity, breaking symmetry from a group G to a group H plays the role of describing geometry in relation to the geometry of the homogeneous space G/H. The deep reason for this is Cartan's 'method of equivalence,' giving, in particular, an exact correspondence between metrics and Cartan connections. I argue that broken symmetry is thus implicit in any gravity theory, for purely geometric reasons. As an application, I explain how this kind of thinking gives a new approach to Hamiltonian gravity in which an observer field spontaneously breaks Lorentz symmetry and gives a Cartan connection on space.

  9. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  10. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  11. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  12. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  13. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re-theorizat......-theorization of journalistic practice in the online context and helpfully explores well-evidenced limitations to online news production, such as the relationship between original reporting and the use of ”shovelware.”......This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re...

  14. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... in a media environment where immediacy rules (Domingo 2008a). Following this research the primary focus of this paper is the category breaking news and Tuchmans developing news, but as they are all connected the analysis will also draw upon the other categories in Tuchmans typology. The theoretical framework...

  15. Fermion masses in potential models of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1983-01-01

    A class of models of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking is considered, based on the Hamiltonian with an instantaneous potential interaction of fermions. An explicit mass term mΨ-barΨ is included and the physical meaning of the mass parameter is discussed. It is shown that if the Hamiltonian is normal-ordered (i.e. self-energy omitted), then the mass m introduced in the Hamiltonian is not the current mass appearing in the current algebra relations. (author)

  16. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows.

  17. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  18. Using a modified time-reverse imaging technique to locate low-frequency earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault near Cholame, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmann, Tobias; Harrington, Rebecca M.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new method to locate low-frequency earthquakes (LFEs) within tectonic tremor episodes based on time-reverse imaging techniques. The modified time-reverse imaging technique presented here is the first method that locates individual LFEs within tremor episodes within 5 km uncertainty without relying on high-amplitude P-wave arrivals and that produces similar hypocentral locations to methods that locate events by stacking hundreds of LFEs without having to assume event co-location. In contrast to classic time-reverse imaging algorithms, we implement a modification to the method that searches for phase coherence over a short time period rather than identifying the maximum amplitude of a superpositioned wavefield. The method is independent of amplitude and can help constrain event origin time. The method uses individual LFE origin times, but does not rely on a priori information on LFE templates and families.We apply the method to locate 34 individual LFEs within tremor episodes that occur between 2010 and 2011 on the San Andreas Fault, near Cholame, California. Individual LFE location accuracies range from 2.6 to 5 km horizontally and 4.8 km vertically. Other methods that have been able to locate individual LFEs with accuracy of less than 5 km have mainly used large-amplitude events where a P-phase arrival can be identified. The method described here has the potential to locate a larger number of individual low-amplitude events with only the S-phase arrival. Location accuracy is controlled by the velocity model resolution and the wavelength of the dominant energy of the signal. Location results are also dependent on the number of stations used and are negligibly correlated with other factors such as the maximum gap in azimuthal coverage, source–station distance and signal-to-noise ratio.

  19. The spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.

    1980-02-01

    It is suggested that the usual path integral representation of Euclidean vacuum amplitude (tunneling amplitude) in QCD must be supplemented by the explicit boundary condition corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of chiral SU(N) x SU(N). Adopting the trial wave function introduced by Nambu and Jona-Lasinio, one sees that such a path integral automatically breaks also the additional chiral U(1) symmetry of massless quarks. The catastrophe of semi-classical approach to QCD and 'U(1) problem' would be avoided in this way and one has, in principle, a better starting point for the self-consistent calculation

  20. High-frequency Total Focusing Method (TFM) imaging in strongly attenuating materials with the decomposition of the time reversal operator associated with orthogonal coded excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, Eduardo Lopez; Robert, Sébastien; Prada, Claire

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the Total Focusing Method (TFM) is used to image defects in a High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The viscoelastic attenuation of this material corrupts the images with a high electronic noise. In order to improve the image quality, the Decomposition of the Time Reversal Operator (DORT) filtering is combined with spatial Walsh-Hadamard coded transmissions before calculating the images. Experiments on a complex HDPE joint demonstrate that this method improves the signal-to-noise ratio by more than 40 dB in comparison with the conventional TFM.

  1. One-way propagation of bulk states and robust edge states in photonic crystals with broken inversion and time-reversal symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jin-Cheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Deng, Wei-Min; Chen, Min; Dong, Jian-Wen

    2018-07-01

    The valley is a flexible degree of freedom for light manipulation in photonic systems. In this work, we introduce the valley concept in magnetic photonic crystals with broken inversion symmetry. One-way propagation of bulk states is demonstrated by exploiting the pseudo-gap where bulk states only exist at one single valley. In addition, the transition between Hall and valley-Hall nontrivial topological phases is also studied in terms of the competition between the broken inversion and time-reversal symmetries. At the photonic boundary between two topologically distinct photonic crystals, we illustrate the one-way propagation of edge states and demonstrate their robustness against defects.

  2. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus: Interlaboratory ring trial to evaluate real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detection methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernike, Kerstin; Bonilauri, Paolo; Dauber, Malte

    2012-01-01

    To compare the real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays used for the diagnosis of Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a Europe-wide interlaboratory ring trial was conducted. A variety of PRRSV strains including North American...... (NA) and European (EU) genotype isolates were analyzed by the participants. Great differences regarding qualitative diagnostics as well as analytical sensitivity were observed between the individual RT-qPCR systems, especially when investigating strains from the EU genotype. None of the assays...

  3. Spontaneously broken realization of supersymmetry in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.; Trieste Univ.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that if supersymmetry is relevant for the physical world it must be broken either spontaneously or explicitly. Renormalizability and simplicity are in favor of a spontaneous realization of the symmetry breaking. When supersymmetry is spontaneously broken the spinorial analogue of the Goldstone phenomenon occurs, namely massless particles arise in the spectrum of the theory which carry the same quantum numbers of the broken generators Qsup(i) they are N spin 1/2 Goldstone fermions (goldstinos). These particles may be eaten by spin 3/2 gauge particles (gravitinos) when supersymmetry is gauged. It is shown that both the Higgs effect and super Higgs effect have taken place. 8 of the spin 1/2 particles have been eaten by the spin 3/2 particles and 24 of 70 scalars have been eaten by the spin 3/2 particles and 24 of 70 scalars have been eaten by 24 of the 28 vector particles to provide them with mass. The conclusion is that the number of mass relations is, in general, equal to r-1, where r is the rank of the algebra which generates the spectrum

  4. Dual descriptions of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrilligator, K.; Thomas, S.

    1996-08-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking is considered in models which admit descriptions in terms of electric, confined, or magnetic degrees of freedom in various limits. In this way, a variety of seemingly different theories which break supersymmetry are actually interrelated by confinement or duality. Specific examples are given in which there are two dual descriptions of the supersymmetry breaking ground state

  5. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  7. Chiral symmetry breaking and the pion quark structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, V.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in hadronic matter is first studied in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model on one hand and its generalisation to finite hadron size on the other hand. The analysis uses a variational procedure modelled after the BCS superconductor. Our study indicates for example, a great sensitivity of various quantities characterizing the breaking of symmetry to the shape of the interaction. Also the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry is essentially related to the mechanism of confinement. When a symmetry is spontaneously broken, there exists a Goldstone particle of zero mass. This is true in our model. This particle, the pion, is obtained as solution of a Bethe Salpeter equation for a qantiq bound state. This enables us to establish a connection between the pion as a Goldstone boson related to spontaneous symmetry breaking and the quark-antiquark structure of the pion. The finite mass of the physical pion is obtained with non zero current quark mass. Various properties of this particle are then studied in the RPA formalism. One important point of our model is the highly collective character of the pion. 85 refs [fr

  8. Expansion shock waves in the implosion process from a time-reversible molecular-dynamics simulation of a dual explosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Nobuyoshi; Abe, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Why does not an expansion shock wave exist in a gaseous medium in nature? The reason has been widely believed to be the irreversibility in nature, while an obvious demonstration for this belief has not been accomplished yet. In order to resolve the question from a microscopic viewpoint, an implosion process dual to an explosion process was investigated by means of the molecular-dynamics method (MD). To this aim, we employed a ''bit-reversible algorithm (Bit MD)'' that was completely time-reversible in a microscopic viewpoint and was free from any round-off error. Here we show that, through a dual implosion simulation (i.e., a time-reversible simulation of the explosion), a kind of expansion shock wave is successfully formed in the Bit MD simulation. Furthermore, we show that when the controlled noise is intentionally added to the Bit MD, the expansion shock wave disappears dramatically and turns into an isentropic expansion wave, even if the noise is extremely small. Since the controlled noise gives rise to the irreversibility in the Bit MD simulation, it can be concluded that the irreversibility in the system prohibits the expansion shock wave from appearing in the system

  9. Radiatively induced breaking of conformal symmetry in a superpotential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbuzov, A.B.; Cirilo-Lombardo, D.J.

    2016-01-01

    Radiatively induced symmetry breaking is considered for a toy model with one scalar and one fermion field unified in a superfield. It is shown that the classical quartic self-interaction of the superfield possesses a quantum infrared singularity. Application of the Coleman–Weinberg mechanism for effective potential leads to the appearance of condensates and masses for both scalar and fermion components. That induces a spontaneous breaking of the initial classical symmetries: the supersymmetry and the conformal one. The energy scales for the scalar and fermion condensates appear to be of the same order, while the renormalization scale is many orders of magnitude higher. A possibility to relate the considered toy model to conformal symmetry breaking in the Standard Model is discussed.

  10. Translational Symmetry Breaking and Gapping of Heavy-Quasiparticle Pocket in URu2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Rikiya; Tsubota, Koji; Ishiga, Toshihiko; Sunagawa, Masanori; Sonoyama, Jyunki; Aoki, Dai; Flouquet, Jacques; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    URu2Si2 is a uranium compound that exhibits a so-called ‘hidden-order’ transition at ~17.5 K. However, the order parameter of this second-order transition as well as many of its microscopic properties remain unclarified despite considerable research. One of the key questions in this regard concerns the type of spontaneous symmetry breaking occurring at the transition; although rotational symmetry breaking has been detected, it is not clear whether another type of symmetry breaking also occurs. Another key question concerns the property of Fermi-surface gapping in the momentum space. Here we address these key questions by a momentum-dependent observation of electronic states at the transition employing ultrahigh-resolution three-dimensional angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our results provide compelling evidence of the spontaneous breaking of the lattice's translational symmetry and particle-hole asymmetric gapping of a heavy quasiparticle pocket at the transition. PMID:24084937

  11. Inertial Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2018-03-19

    We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.

  12. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic ...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  13. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship....... Following the so-called 'Dogma' concept developed by Danish filmmakers, this contribution aim to explore the key elements making up the recipes guiding the entrepreneurship training program exercised by the school. Key factors forming a community of learning practice are outlined as well as the critical...... pedagogical elements on which the education in entrepreneurship rests....

  14. More dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, C.; Randall, L.; Skiba, W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of theories which dynamically break supersymmetry based on the gauge group SU(n) x SU(3) x U(1) for even n. These theories are interesting in that no dynamical superpotential is generated in the absence of perturbations. For the example SU(4) x SU(3) x U(1) we explicitly demonstrate that all flat directions can be lifted through a renormalizable superpotential and that supersymmetry is dynamically broken. We derive the exact superpotential for this theory, which exhibits new and interesting dynamical phenomena. For example, modifications to classical constraints can be field dependent. We also consider the generalization to SU(n) x SU(3) x U(1) models (with even n>4). We present a renormalizable superpotential which lifts all flat directions. Because SU(3) is not confining in the absence of perturbations, the analysis of supersymmetry breaking is very different in these theories from the n=4 example. When the SU(n) gauge group confines, the Yukawa couplings drive the SU(3) theory into a regime with a dynamically generated superpotential. By considering a simplified version of these theories we argue that supersymmetry is probably broken. (orig.)

  15. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  16. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  17. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  18. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  19. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)

  20. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In these two lectures the author discusses electroweak symmetry breaking from a general perspective, stressing properties that are model independent and follow just from the assumption that the electroweak interactions are described by a spontaneously broken gauge theory. This means he assumes the Higgs mechanism though not necessarily the existence of Higgs bosons. The first lecture presents the general framework of a spontaneously broken gauge theory: (1) the Higgs mechanism sui generis, with or without Higgs boson(s) and (2) the implications of symmetry and unitarity for the mass scale and interaction strength of the new physics that the Higgs mechanism requires. In addition he reviews a softer theoretical argument based on the naturalness problem which leads to a prejudice against Higgs bosons unless they are supersymmetric. This is a prejudice, not a theorem, and it could be overturned in the future by a clever new idea. In the second lecture he illustrates the general framework by reviewing some specific models: (1) the Weinberg-Salam model of the Higgs sector; (2) the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Weinberg-Salam model; and (3) technicolor as an example of the Higgs mechanism without Higgs bosons. He concludes the second lecture with a discussion of strong WW scattering that must occur if L SB lives above 1 TeV. In particular he describes some of the experimental signals and backgrounds at the SSC. 57 refs., 12 figs

  1. Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Daniel, E-mail: pelander@purdue.edu [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Lawrance, Robert; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV.

  2. Lattice QCD with light quark masses: Does chiral symmetry get broken spontaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, I.M.; Schierholz, G.; Teper, M.; Gilchrist, J.P.; Schneider, H.

    1983-03-01

    We present a first direct calculation of the properties of QCD for the small quark masses of phenomenological interest without extrapolations. We describe methods specially adapted to invert the fermion matrix at small quark masses. We use these methods to calculate directly on presently used lattice sizes with different boundary conditions. As is to be expected for a finite system, we do not observe spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. By comparing the results obtained on lattices of different size we see, however, indications that are consistent with eventual spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the infinite volume limit. Our calculations underline the importance of using antiperiodic boundary conditions for fermions. (orig.)

  3. Improved Safety for Molecular Diagnosis of Classical Rabies Viruses by Use of a TaqMan Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR "Double Check" Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, B.; Freuling, C. M.; Wakeley, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    To improve the diagnosis of classical rabies virus with molecular methods, a validated, ready-to-use, real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) assay was developed. In a first step, primers and 6-carboxyfluorescien-labeled TaqMan probes specific for rabies virus were selected from the consensus...... sequence of the nucleoprotein gene of 203 different rabies virus sequences derived from GenBank. The selected primer-probe combination was highly specific and sensitive. During validation using a sample set of rabies virus strains from the virus archives of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut (FLI; Germany......), the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (VLA; United Kingdom), and the DTU National Veterinary Institute (Lindholm, Denmark), covering the global diversity of rabies virus lineages, it was shown that both the newly developed assay and a previously described one had some detection failures. This was overcome...

  4. Development of field-based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Chikungunya and O'nyong-nyong viruses in mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darci R; Lee, John S; Jahrling, Jordan; Kulesh, David A; Turell, Michael J; Groebner, Jennifer L; O'Guinn, Monica L

    2009-10-01

    Chikungunya (CHIK) and O'nyong-nyong (ONN) are important emerging arthropod-borne diseases. Molecular diagnosis of these two viruses in mosquitoes has not been evaluated, and the effects of extraneous mosquito tissue on assay performance have not been tested. Additionally, no real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay exists for detecting ONN virus (ONNV) RNA. We describe the development of sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detecting CHIK and ONN viral RNA in mosquitoes, which have application for field use. In addition, we compared three methods for primer/probe design for assay development by evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. This comparison resulted in development of virus-specific assays that could detect less than one plaque-forming unit equivalent of each of the viruses in mosquitoes. The use of these assays will aid in arthropod-borne disease surveillance and in the control of the associated diseases.

  5. Small break loss of coolant accidents: Bottom and side break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, P.G.; Richter, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A LOCA can be caused, e.g. by a small break in the primary cooling system. The rate of fluid escaping through such a break will define the time until the core will be uncovered. Therefore the prediction of fluid loss and pressure transient is of major importance to plan for timely action in response to such an event. Stratification of the two phases might be present upstream of the break, thus, the location of the break relative to the vapor-liquid interface and the overall upstream fluid conditions are relevant for the calculation of fluid loss. Experimental results and analyses are presented here for small breaks at the bottom or at the side of a small pressure vessel. It was found that in such a case the onset of the so-called ''vapor pull through'' is important but swelling at sufficient depressurization rates of the liquid due to flashing is also of significance. It was also discovered that in the bottom break the flow rate is strongly dependent on the break entrance quality of the vapour-liquid mixture. The side break can be treated similarly to the bottom break if the interface level is above the break. The analyses developed on the basis of experimental observations showed reasonable agreement of predicted and measured pressure transients. It was possible to calculate the changing interface level and mixture void fraction history in a way compatible with the behavior observed during the experiments. Even though the experiments were performed at low pressures, this work should help to get a better understanding of physical phenomena occurring in a full scale small break LOCA. (orig./HP)

  6. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  7. A Generalized Yang-Mills Model and Dynamical Breaking of Gauge Symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dianfu; Song Heshan

    2005-01-01

    A generalized Yang-Mills model, which contains, besides the vector part V μ , also a scalar part S, is constructed and the dynamical breaking of gauge symmetry in the model is also discussed. It is shown, in terms of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills model. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills model and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  8. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  9. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  10. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, C.; Cox, I.; Baldey, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  11. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, C; Cox, I; Baldey, A [St. F.X. Cabrini Hospital, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2002-07-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  12. R-parity breaking phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1996-02-01

    We review various features of the R-parity breaking phenomenology, with particular attention to the low energy observables, and to the patterns of the R-parity breaking interactions that arise in Grand Unified models. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.

  14. Symmetry and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)

  15. study and analysis of asa river hypothetical dam break using hec-ras

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impounded reservoirs provide beneficial functions such as flood control, recreation, hydropower and water supply but they also carry potential risks. Spontaneous dam break phenomenon can occur and the resultant flooding may cause substantial loss of life and property damage downstream of the dam. A hypothetical dam ...

  16. Mirror Symmetry Breaking and Restoration: The Role of Noise and Chiral Bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David

    2009-01-01

    The nonequilibrium effective potential is computed for the Frank model of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking (SMSB) in chemistry in which external noise is introduced to account for random environmental effects. When these fluctuations exceed a critical magnitude, mirror symmetry is restored. The competition between ambient noise and the chiral bias due to physical fields and polarized radiation can be explored with this potential.

  17. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  18. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  20. Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems. (author)

  1. Spontaneous Wave Generation from Submesoscale Fronts and Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakespeare, C. J.; Hogg, A.

    2016-02-01

    Submesoscale features such as eddies, fronts, jets and filaments can be significant sources of spontaneous wave generation at the ocean surface. Unlike near-inertial waves forced by winds, these spontaneous waves are typically of higher frequency and can propagate through the thermocline, whereupon they break and drive mixing in the ocean interior. Here we investigate the spontaneous generation, propagation and subsequent breaking of these waves using a combination of theory and submesoscale resolving numerical models. The mechanism of generation is nearly identical to that of lee waves where flow is deflected over a rigid obstacle on the sea floor. Here, very sharp fronts and filaments of order 100m width moving in the submesoscale surface flow generate "surface lee waves" by presenting an obstacle to the surrounding stratified fluid. Using our numerical model we quantify the net downward wave energy flux from the surface, and where it is dissipated in the water column. Our results suggest an alternative to the classical paradigm where the energy associated with mixing in the ocean interior is sourced from bottom-generated lee waves.

  2. Use of a novel virus inactivation method for a multicenter avian influenza real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction proficiency study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spackman, Erica; Suarez, David L

    2005-01-01

    Proficiency assessments are important elements in quality control for diagnostic laboratories. Traditionally, proficiency testing for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays has involved the use of clinical samples, samples "spiked" with live agents or DNA plasmids. Because of government regulations and biosecurity concerns, distribution of live high-consequence pathogens of livestock and poultry, such as avian influenza, is not possible, and DNA plasmids are not technically suitable for evaluating RNA virus detection. Therefore, a proficiency testing panel using whole avian influenza in a diluent containing a phenolic disinfectant that inactivates the virus while preserving the RNA for at least 8 weeks at -70 C was developed and used in a multicenter proficiency assessment for a type A influenza real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR test. The test, which was highly standardized, except for variation in the real-time RT-PCR equipment used, was shown to be highly reproducible by proficiency testing in 12 laboratories in the United States, Canada, and Hong Kong. Variation in cycle threshold values among 35 data sets and 490 samples was minimal (CV = 5.19%), and sample identifications were highly accurate (96.7% correct identifications) regardless of real-time PCR instrumentation.

  3. A novel duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of hepatitis C viral RNA with armored RNA as internal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Shuang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hepatitis C virus (HCV genome is extremely heterogeneous. Several HCV infections can not be detected using currently available commercial assays, probably because of mismatches between the template and primers/probes. By aligning the HCV sequences, we developed a duplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay using 2 sets of primers/probes and a specific armored RNA as internal control. The 2 detection probes were labelled with the same fluorophore, namely, 6-carboxyfluorescein (FAM, at the 5' end; these probes could mutually combine, improving the power of the test. Results The limit of detection of the duplex primer/probe assay was 38.99 IU/ml. The sensitivity of the assay improved significantly, while the specificity was not affected. All HCV genotypes in the HCV RNA Genotype Panel for Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques could be detected. In the testing of 109 serum samples, the performance of the duplex real-time RT-PCR assay was identical to that of the COBAS AmpliPrep (CAP/COBAS TaqMan (CTM assay and superior to 2 commercial HCV assay kits. Conclusions The duplex real-time RT-PCR assay is an efficient and effective viral assay. It is comparable with the CAP/CTM assay with regard to the power of the test and is appropriate for blood-donor screening and laboratory diagnosis of HCV infection.

  4. Search for time reversal violation in neutron decay; Recherche d'une violation de l'invariance sous le renversement du temps dans la desintegration du neutron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorel, P

    2006-06-15

    The topic of this thesis is the implementation of an experimental setup designed to measure the R- and N-parameters in polarized neutron decay, together with the data analysis. Four observables are necessary for this measurement: the neutron polarization, the electron momentum and both transverse components of the electron polarization. These last two are measured using a Mott polarimeter. The other observables are determined using the same detectors. The precision to be reached on the R-parameter is 0.5%. A non zero value would sign a time reversal invariance violation and therefore would be a hint of physics beyond the Standard Model. This document presents the work done to prepare and optimize the experimental setup before the data acquisition run performed in 2004. Particular care was taken on the scintillator walls, used to trigger the acquisition and measure the electron energy. The second part concerns the implementation of methods to extract R and N from the data, and the study of the background recorded simultaneously. (author)

  5. Evaluating viral interference between Influenza virus and Newcastle disease virus using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Shengqiang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous and sequential allantoic cavity inoculations of Specific-pathogen-free (SPF chicken eggs with Influenza virus (AIV and Newcastle disease virus (NDV demonstrated that the interaction of AIV and NDV during co-infection was variable. Our research revisited the replication interference potential of AIV and NDV using real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR for AIV and NDV to specifically detect the viral genomes in mixed infections. Results Data from this survey showed that when different doses of NDV (Lasota or F48E8 and AIV (F98 or H5N1 were simultaneously inoculated into embryonating chicken eggs (ECE, interference with the growth of NDV occurred, while interference with the growth of AIV did not occur. When equal amount of the two viruses were sequentially employed, the degree of interference was dependent upon the time of superinfection and the virulence of virus. Conclusion AIV have a negative impact on NDV growth if they are inoculated simultaneously or sequentially and that the degree of interference depended upon the quantity and relative virulence of the virus strains used; however, interference with AIV was not observed. Only if NDV were inoculated at an earlier time will NDV able to interfere with the growth of AIV.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR assay for the detection and identification of the four subgroups of avian metapneumovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionie, O; Toquin, D; Sellal, E; Bouley, S; Zwingelstein, F; Allée, C; Bougeard, S; Lemière, S; Eterradossi, N

    2007-02-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is an important pathogen causing respiratory diseases and egg drops in several avian species. Four AMPV subgroups have been identified. The laboratory diagnosis of AMPV infections relies on serological methods, on labour-intensive virus isolation procedures, and on recently developed subgroup specific reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) protocols. In the present study, both the specificity and sensitivity of a commercial real-time reverse transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) for the detection and identification of the four AMPV subgroups were evaluated. Fifteen non-AMPV avian viruses belonging to 7 genera and 32 AMPV belonging to the 4 subgroups were tested. No non-AMPV virus was detected, whereas all AMPV viruses were identified in agreement with their previous molecular and antigenic subgroup assignment. The sensitivity and quantitating ability of the RRT-PCR assay were determined using serial dilutions of RNA derived either from AMPV virus stocks or from runoff transcripts. In all cases, linear dose/responses were observed. The detection limits of the different subgroups ranged from 500 to 5000 RNA copies and from 0.03 to 3.16TCID50/ml. The results were reproducible under laboratory conditions, thus showing that quantitative RRT-PCR is a new and powerful tool for the rapid and sensitive detection, identification and quantitation of AMPVs.

  7. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  8. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  9. Partial breaking of N = 1, D = 10 supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, S.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper is described the spontaneous partial breaking of N =1, D =10 supersymmetry to N = (1, 0), d = 6 and its dimensionally-reduced versions in the framework of nonlinear realizations. The basic Goldstone superfield is N = (1, 0), d = 6 hyper multiplet superfield satisfying a nonlinear generalization of the standard hyper multiplet constraint. It is here interpreted the generalized constraint as the manifestly world volume supersymmetric form of equations of motion of the type 1 super 5-brane in D 10. The related issues here addressed are a possible existence of brane extension of off-shell hyper multiplet actions, the possibility to utilize vector N = (1, 0), d =6 supermultiplet as the Goldstone one, and the description of 1/4 breaking of N =1, D = 11 supersymmetry

  10. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  11. Colour-symmetry-breaking effects in hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A possibility of colour symmetry U(1)xSU(3)sub(C) spontaneous breaking and integer-charged quarks is considered. It is argued that one-photon processes are sensitive only to the colour-averaged charges of quarks and gluons. The true charges can be observed in rigid processes involving at least two real photons. The available now experimental data on processes #betta#p → #betta#X, #betta##betta# → jet+jet are in better agreement with the integer-charges than with the standard QCD

  12. Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseyan, H.Z.

    1983-01-01

    A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory

  13. Sgoldstino-less inflation and low energy SUSY breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Coone, Dries; Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Heurtier, Lucien, E-mail: rargurio@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: a.a.coone@rug.nl, E-mail: lucien.heurtier@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: alberto.mariotti@vub.ac.be [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP225, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-07-01

    We assess the range of validity of sgoldstino-less inflation in a scenario of low energy supersymmetry breaking. We first analyze the consistency conditions that an effective theory of the inflaton and goldstino superfields should satisfy in order to be faithfully described by a sgoldstino-less model. Enlarging the scope of previous studies, we investigate the case where the effective field theory cut-off, and hence also the sgoldstino mass, are inflaton-dependent. We then introduce a UV complete model where one can realize successfully sgoldstino-less inflation and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking, combining the α-attractor mechanism and a weakly coupled model of spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. In this class of models we find that, given current limits on superpartner masses, the gravitino mass has a lower bound of the order of the MeV, i.e. we cannot reach very low supersymmetry breaking scales. On the plus side, we recognize that in this framework, one can derive the complete superpartner spectrum as well as compute inflation observables, the reheating temperature, and address the gravitino overabundance problem. We then show that further constraints come from collider results and inflation observables. Their non trivial interplay seems a staple feature of phenomenological studies of supersymmetric inflationary models.

  14. Anatomy of new SUSY breaking holographic RG flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique andInternational Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Musso, Daniele [International Center of Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, I 34014 Trieste (Italy); Redigolo, Diego [Physique Théorique et Mathématique andInternational Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France)

    2015-03-17

    We find and thoroughly study new supergravity domain wall solutions which are holographic realizations of supersymmetry breaking strongly coupled gauge theories. We set ourselves in an N=2 gauged supergravity with a minimal content in order to reproduce a dual N=1 effective SCFT which has a U(1){sub R} symmetry, a chiral operator whose components are responsible for triggering the RG flow, and an additional U(1){sub F} symmetry. We present a full three dimensional parameter space of solutions, which generically break supersymmetry. Some known solutions are recovered for specific sets of values of the parameters, with the new solutions interpolating between them. The generic backgrounds being singular, we provide a stability test of their dual theories by showing that there are no tachyonic resonances in the two point correlators. We compute the latter by holographic renormalization. We also carefully analyze the appearance of massless modes, such as the dilaton and the R axion, when the respective symmetries are spontaneously broken, and their lifting when the breaking is explicit. We further comment on the application of such class of backgrounds as archetypes of strongly coupled hidden sectors for gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In particular, we show that it is possible to model in this way all types of hierarchies between the visible sector gaugino and sfermion masses.

  15. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji

    2017-01-01

    While one might assume that the force to break a chemical bond gives a measure of the bond strength, this intuition is misleading. If the force is loaded slowly, thermal fluctuations may break the bond before it is maximally stretched, and the breaking force will be less than the bond can sustain...... of a single Au-Au bond and show that the breaking force is dependent on the loading rate. We probe the temperature and structural dependencies of breaking and suggest that the paradox can be explained by fast breaking of atomic wires and slow breaking of point contacts giving very similar breaking forces....

  16. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  17. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  18. Spin-rotation symmetry breaking and triplet superconducting state in doped topological insulator CuxBi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guo-Qing

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept for understanding physics ranging from the elementary particles to states of matter. For example, the superconducting state breaks global gauge symmetry, and unconventional superconductors can break additional symmetries. In particular, spin rotational symmetry is expected to be broken in spin-triplet superconductors. However, experimental evidence for such symmetry breaking has not been obtained so far in any candidate compounds. We report 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance measurements which showed that spin rotation symmetry is spontaneously broken in the hexagonal plane of the electron-doped topological insulator Cu0.3Bi2Se3 below the superconducting transition temperature Tc =3.4 K. Our results not only establish spin-triplet (odd parity) superconductivity in this compound, but also serve to lay a foundation for the research of topological superconductivity (Ref.). We will also report the doping mechanism and superconductivity in Sn1-xInxTe.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal accumulation of air in the ...

  20. Design and performance of the CDC real-time reverse transcriptase PCR swine flu panel for detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Bo; Wu, Kai-Hui; Emery, Shannon; Villanueva, Julie; Johnson, Roy; Guthrie, Erica; Berman, LaShondra; Warnes, Christine; Barnes, Nathelia; Klimov, Alexander; Lindstrom, Stephen

    2011-07-01

    Swine influenza viruses (SIV) have been shown to sporadically infect humans and are infrequently identified by the Influenza Division of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) after being received as unsubtypeable influenza A virus samples. Real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) procedures for detection and characterization of North American lineage (N. Am) SIV were developed and implemented at CDC for rapid identification of specimens from cases of suspected infections with SIV. These procedures were utilized in April 2009 for detection of human cases of 2009 A (H1N1) pandemic (pdm) influenza virus infection. Based on genetic sequence data derived from the first two viruses investigated, the previously developed rRT-PCR procedures were optimized to create the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel for detection of the 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza virus. The analytical sensitivity of the CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was shown to be 5 copies of RNA per reaction and 10(-1.3 - -0.7) 50% infectious doses (ID(50)) per reaction for cultured viruses. Cross-reactivity was not observed when testing human clinical specimens or cultured viruses that were positive for human seasonal A (H1N1, H3N2) and B influenza viruses. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel was distributed to public health laboratories in the United States and internationally from April 2009 until June 2010. The CDC rRT-PCR Swine Flu Panel served as an effective tool for timely and specific detection of 2009 A (H1N1) pdm influenza viruses and facilitated subsequent public health response implementation.

  1. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method for detection of Canine distemper virus modified live vaccine shedding for differentiation from infection with wild-type strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Rebecca P; Sanchez, Elena; Riley, Matthew C; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) remains a common cause of infectious disease in dogs, particularly in high-density housing situations such as shelters. Vaccination of all dogs against CDV is recommended at the time of admission to animal shelters and many use a modified live virus (MLV) vaccine. From a diagnostic standpoint for dogs with suspected CDV infection, this is problematic because highly sensitive diagnostic real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests are able to detect MLV virus in clinical samples. Real-time PCR can be used to quantitate amount of virus shedding and can differentiate vaccine strains from wild-type strains when shedding is high. However, differentiation by quantitation is not possible in vaccinated animals during acute infection, when shedding is low and could be mistaken for low level vaccine virus shedding. While there are gel-based RT-PCR assays for differentiation of vaccine strains from field strains based on sequence differences, the sensitivity of these assays is unable to match that of the real-time RT-PCR assay currently used in the authors' laboratory. Therefore, a real-time RT-PCR assay was developed that detects CDV MLV vaccine strains and distinguishes them from wild-type strains based on nucleotide sequence differences, rather than the amount of viral RNA in the sample. The test is highly sensitive, with detection of as few as 5 virus genomic copies (corresponding to 10(-1) TCID(50)). Sequencing of the DNA real-time products also allows phylogenetic differentiation of the wild-type strains. This test will aid diagnosis during outbreaks of CDV in recently vaccinated animals.

  2. Development of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to quantify insulin-like growth factor receptor and insulin receptor expression in equine tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B. Hughes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insulin-like growth factor system (insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin-like growth factor 2, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor and six insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins and insulin are essential to muscle metabolism and most aspects of male and female reproduction. Insulin-like growth factor and insulin play important roles in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation and the maintenance of cell differentiation in mammals. In order to better understand the local factors that regulate equine physiology, such as muscle metabolism and reproduction (e.g., germ cell development and fertilisation, real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for quantification of equine insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were developed. The assays were sensitive: 192 copies/µLand 891 copies/µL for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, messenger ribonucleic acid and insulin receptor respectively (95%limit of detection, and efficient: 1.01 for the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor assay and 0.95 for the insulin receptor assay. The assays had a broad linear range of detection (seven logs for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and six logs for insulin receptor. This allowed for analysis of very small amounts of messenger ribonucleic acid. Low concentrations of both insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid were detected in endometrium, lung and spleen samples, whilst high concentrations were detected in heart, muscle and kidney samples, this was most likely due to the high level of glucose metabolism and glucose utilisation by these tissues. The assays developed for insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor and insulin receptor messenger ribonucleic acid expression have been shown to work on equine tissue and will contribute to the understanding of insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1

  3. Investigations on the frequency of norovirus contamination of ready-to-eat food items in Istanbul, Turkey, by using real-time reverse transcription PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Aysun; Bostan, Kamil; Altan, Eda; Muratoglu, Karlo; Turan, Nuri; Tan, Derya; Helps, Christopher; Yilmaz, Huseyin

    2011-05-01

    Investigation of norovirus (NoV) contamination of food items is important because many outbreaks occur after consumption of contaminated shellfish, vegetables, fruits, and water. The frequency of NoV contamination in food items has not previously been investigated in Turkey. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of human NoV genogroups (G) I and II in ready-to-eat tomatoes, parsley, green onion, lettuce, mixed salads, and cracked wheat balls. RNA was extracted with the RNeasy Mini Kit, and a real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR assay was performed using primers specific for NoV GI and GII. Among the 525 samples analyzed, NoV GII was detected in 1 green onion sample and 1 tomato sample by both SYBR Green and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays; no GI virus was detected. The Enterobactericaeae and Escherichia coli levels in the NoV-positive green onion were 6.56 and 1.28 log CFU/g, and those in the tomato were 5.55 and 1.30 log CFU/g, respectively. No significant difference in the bacterial levels was found between the NoV-positive and NoV-negative samples. This study is the first in which NoV GII was found in ready-to-eat food collected from Istanbul, Turkey; thus, these foods may be considered a risk to human health. Epidemiological studies and measures to prevent NoV infection should be considered.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Three Homogenization Methods for Isolating Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Nucleic Acids From Sputum Samples for Real-Time Reverse Transcription PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Heungsup; Yong, Dongeun; Ki, Chang Seok; Kim, Jae Seok; Seong, Moon Woo; Lee, Hyukmin; Kim, Mi Na

    2016-09-01

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) of sputum samples is commonly used to diagnose Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infection. Owing to the difficulty of extracting RNA from sputum containing mucus, sputum homogenization is desirable prior to nucleic acid isolation. We determined optimal homogenization methods for isolating viral nucleic acids from sputum. We evaluated the following three sputum-homogenization methods: proteinase K and DNase I (PK-DNase) treatment, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) treatment, and N-acetyl-L-cysteine and sodium citrate (NALC) treatment. Sputum samples were spiked with inactivated MERS-CoV culture isolates. RNA was extracted from pretreated, spiked samples using the easyMAG system (bioMérieux, France). Extracted RNAs were then subjected to rRT-PCR for MERS-CoV diagnosis (DiaPlex Q MERS-coronavirus, SolGent, Korea). While analyzing 15 spiked sputum samples prepared in technical duplicate, false-negative results were obtained with five (16.7%) and four samples (13.3%), respectively, by using the PBS and NALC methods. The range of threshold cycle (Ct) values observed when detecting upE in sputum samples was 31.1-35.4 with the PK-DNase method, 34.7-39.0 with the PBS method, and 33.9-38.6 with the NALC method. Compared with the control, which were prepared by adding a one-tenth volume of 1:1,000 diluted viral culture to PBS solution, the ranges of Ct values obtained by the PBS and NALC methods differed significantly from the mean control Ct of 33.2 (both Phomogenizing sputum samples prior to RNA extraction.

  5. Locating S-wave sources for the SPE-5 explosion using time reversal methods and a close-in, 1000 sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, S. C.; Pitarka, A.; Mellors, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) is producing new data to study the generation of seismic waves from explosive sources. Preliminary results show that far-field S-waves are generated both within the non-elastic volume surrounding explosive sources and by P- to S-wave scattering. The relative contribution of non-elastic phenomenology and elastic-wave scattering to far-field S-waves has been debated for decades, and numerical simulations based on the SPE experiments are addressing this question. The match between observed and simulated data degrades with event-station distance and with increasing time in each seismogram. This suggests that a more accurate model of subsurface elastic properties could result in better agreement between observed and simulated seismograms. A detailed model of subsurface structure has been developed using geologic maps and the extensive database of borehole logs, but uncertainty in structural details remains high. The large N instrument deployment during the SPE-5 experiment offers an opportunity to use time-reversal techniques to back project the wave field into the subsurface to locate significant sources of scattered energy. The large N deployment was nominally 1000, 5 Hz sensors (500 Z and 500 3C geophones) deployed in a roughly rectangular array to the south and east of the SPE-5 shot. Sensor spacing was nominally 50 meters in the interior portion of the array and 100 meters in the outer region, with two dense lines at 25 m spacing. The array covers the major geologic boundary between the Yucca Flat basin and the granitic Climax Stock in which the SPE experiments have been conducted. Improved mapping of subsurface scatterers is expected to result in better agreement between simulated and observed seismograms and aid in our understanding of S-wave generation from explosions. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  6. Evaluation and optimization of SYBR Green real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction as a tool for diagnosis of the Flavivirus genus in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilia Farignoli Romeiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: The genus Flavivirus includes several pathogenic species that cause severe illness in humans. Therefore, a rapid and accurate molecular method for diagnosis and surveillance of these viruses would be of great importance. Here, we evaluate and optimize a quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method for the diagnosis of the Flavivirus genus. METHODS: We evaluated different commercial kits that use the SYBR Green system for real-time RT-PCR with a primer set that amplifies a fragment of the NS5 flavivirus gene. The specificity and sensitivity of the assay were tested using twelve flaviviruses and ribonucleic acid (RNA transcribed from the yellow fever virus. Additionally, this assay was evaluated using the sera of 410 patients from different regions of Brazil with acute febrile illness and a negative diagnosis for the dengue virus. RESULTS: The real-time RT-PCR amplified all flaviviruses tested at a melting temperature of 79.92 to 83.49°C. A detection limit of 100 copies per ml was determined for this assay. Surprisingly, we detected dengue virus in 4.1% (17/410 of samples from patients with febrile illness and a supposedly negative dengue infection diagnosis. The viral load in patients ranged from 2.1×107to 3.4×103copies per ml. CONCLUSIONS: The real-time RT-PCR method may be very useful for preliminary diagnoses in screenings, outbreaks, and other surveillance studies. Moreover, this assay can be easily applied to monitor viral activity and to measure viral load in pathogenesis studies.

  7. Preliminary results on ghrelin mRNA quantification in buffalo calves during fasting and refeeding by real-time reverse transcription PCR assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Neglia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this trial was to evaluate ghrelin response to milk administration in 20 days old buffalo calves. The trial was carried out on 5 female buffalo calves with a mean age of 21.2±2.8 days. Five blood samples were collected from each animal into EDTA tubes, starting at 07.00 until 15.00, at 2-h intervals. At 09.00, after the second blood sample, replaced milk was administered to the calves. Blood samples were immediately placed at 4°C until processing, which was performed on the same day. We used real-time reverse transcription PCR system to detect the expression of ghrelin mRNA levels in blood of buffalo calves. Two calves showed a low ghrelin concentration at the start of the trial (Group A = low ghrelin concentration and three calves a high ghrelin concentration (Group B = high ghrelin concentration. Ghrelin expression was significantly higher either two hours (P<0.01 and just before feeding (P<0.05 in Group B vs. Group A. However, in both cases, a significant (P<0.05 difference was observed within each group between -2 and 6 hours after feeding. Therefore, ghrelin concentration tended to increase in animals that showed low levels and, similarly, it lowered in animals that showed high concentration. If these results will be confirmed, may represent the evidence that also in buffalo calves the ghrelin system may affect feed intake. Further studies are needed in order to better evaluate the ghrelin system in buffalo calves.

  8. Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Ziprasidone-induced spontaneous orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boora, K; Chiappone, K; Dubovsky, S; Xu, J

    2010-06-01

    Neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been associated with sexual dysfunction, including impotence and decreased libido. Spontaneous ejaculation without sexual arousal during typical antipsychotic treatment is a rare condition that has been described with zuclopentixol, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. Here, we are reporting a case of spontaneous orgasm with ziprasidone in a bipolar patient. This patient began to repeatedly experience spontaneous sexual arousal and orgasm, which she had never experienced in the past. Ziprasidone might be causing an increase in sexual orgasm by 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, which preclinical evidence suggests that it facilitates dopamine release in the cortex.

  10. Spontaneous CP violation from a quaternionic Kaluza-Klein theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the isomorphism between the universal covering group of the six dimensional Lorentz group and the special linear group over the quaternions, a locally quaternionic covariant quantum mechanics is postulated to exist in six space-time dimensions. Compactifying onto the space-time M 4 x S 2 complex theory is retrieved on the four dimensional Minkowski space with the essential quaternionic nature confined to S 2 . Quaternionic spinors are introduced and a dimensionally reduced theory recovered which exhibits a CP violating effect via spontaneous symmetry breaking. 20 refs

  11. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias

    2010-08-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  12. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias

    2010-08-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  13. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  14. Hematome Extra - Dural Rachidien Spontane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl. Gros

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Four personal cases of Spontaneous Spinal Epidurdl Hemerrhage are Reported. And 29 additional cases have been analysed by reviewing the literature. The clinical radiologcal and surgical aspects were discussed.

  15. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  16. Goldstone mode and pair-breaking excitations in atomic Fermi superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus G.; Kinnunen, Jami J.; Bruun, Georg M.; Vale, Chris J.

    2017-10-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a central paradigm of elementary particle physics, magnetism, superfluidity and superconductivity. According to Goldstone's theorem, phase transitions that break continuous symmetries lead to the existence of gapless excitations in the long-wavelength limit. These Goldstone modes can become the dominant low-energy excitation, showing that symmetry breaking has a profound impact on the physical properties of matter. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the elementary excitations in a homogeneous strongly interacting Fermi gas through the crossover from a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules using two-photon Bragg spectroscopy. The spectra exhibit a discrete Goldstone mode, associated with the broken-symmetry superfluid phase, as well as pair-breaking single-particle excitations. Our techniques yield a direct determination of the superfluid pairing gap and speed of sound in close agreement with strong-coupling theories.

  17. Mirror Symmetry Breaking by Chirality Synchronisation in Liquids and Liquid Crystals of Achiral Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschierske, Carsten; Ungar, Goran

    2016-01-04

    Spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking is an efficient way to obtain homogeneously chiral agents, pharmaceutical ingredients and materials. It is also in the focus of the discussion around the emergence of uniform chirality in biological systems. Tremendous progress has been made by symmetry breaking during crystallisation from supercooled melts or supersaturates solutions and by self-assembly on solid surfaces and in other highly ordered structures. However, recent observations of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking in liquids and liquid crystals indicate that it is not limited to the well-ordered solid state. Herein, progress in the understanding of a new dynamic mode of symmetry breaking, based on chirality synchronisation of transiently chiral molecules in isotropic liquids and in bicontinuous cubic, columnar, smectic and nematic liquid crystalline phases is discussed. This process leads to spontaneous deracemisation in the liquid state under thermodynamic control, giving rise to long-term stable symmetry-broken fluids, even at high temperatures. These fluids form conglomerates that are capable of extraordinary strong chirality amplification, eventually leading to homochirality and providing a new view on the discussion of emergence of uniform chirality in prebiotic systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  19. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  20. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.