WorldWideScience

Sample records for spontaneous unequal sister

  1. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  2. X-ray- and TEM-induced mitotic recombination in Drosophila melanogaster: Unequal and sister-strand recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, H.J.

    1975-01-01

    Twin mosaic spots of dark-apricot and light-apricot ommatidia were found in the eyes of wsup(a)/wsup(a) females, of wsup(a) males, of females homozygous for In(1)sc 4 , wsup(a) and of attached-X females homozygous for wsup(a). The flies were raised from larvae which had been treated with 1,630 R of X-rays at the age of 48-52 hours. An additional group of wsup(a)/wsup(a) females and wsup(a) males came from larvae that had been fed with triethylene melamine (TEM) at the age of 22-24 hours. The twin spots apparently were the result of induced unequal mitotic recombination, i.e. from unequal sister-strand recombination in the males and from unequal sister-strand recombination as well as, possibly, unequal recombination between homologous strands in the females. That is, a duplication resulted in wsup(a)Dpwsup(a)/wsup(a) dark-apricto ommatidia and the corresponding deficiency in an adjacent area of wsup(a)/Dfwsup(a) light-apricot ommatidia. In an additional experiment sister-strand mitotic recombination in the ring-X chromosome of ring-X/rod-X females heterozygous for w and wsup(co) is believed to be the cause for X-ray induced single mosaic spots that show the phenotype of the rod-X marker. (orig.) [de

  3. Trex2 enables spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges without facilitating DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrache, Lavinia C; Hu, Lingchuan; Son, Mi Young; Li, Han; Wesevich, Austin; Scully, Ralph; Stark, Jeremy; Hasty, Paul

    2011-08-01

    Trex2 is a 3' → 5' exonuclease that removes 3'-mismatched sequences in a biochemical assay; however, its biological function remains unclear. To address biology we previously generated trex2(null) mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells and expressed in these cells wild-type human TREX2 cDNA (Trex2(hTX2)) or cDNA with a single-amino-acid change in the catalytic domain (Trex2(H188A)) or in the DNA-binding domain (Trex2(R167A)). We found the trex2(null) and Trex2(H188A) cells exhibited spontaneous broken chromosomes and trex2(null) cells exhibited spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements. We also found ectopically expressed human TREX2 was active at the 3' ends of I-SceI-induced chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs). Therefore, we hypothesized Trex2 participates in DNA DSB repair by modifying 3' ends. This may be especially important for ends with damaged nucleotides. Here we present data that are unexpected and prompt a new model. We found Trex2-altered cells (null, H188A, and R167A) were not hypersensitive to camptothecin, a type-1 topoisomerase inhibitor that induces DSBs at replication forks. In addition, Trex2-altered cells were not hypersensitive to γ-radiation, an agent that causes DSBs throughout the cell cycle. This observation held true even in cells compromised for one of the two major DSB repair pathways: homology-directed repair (HDR) or nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Trex2 deletion also enhanced repair of an I-SceI-induced DSB by both HDR and NHEJ without affecting pathway choice. Interestingly, however, trex2(null) cells exhibited reduced spontaneous sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) but this was not due to a defect in HDR-mediated crossing over. Therefore, reduced spontaneous SCE could be a manifestation of the same defect that caused spontaneous broken chromosomes and spontaneous chromosomal rearrangements. These unexpected data suggest Trex2 does not enable DSB repair and prompt a new model that posits Trex2 suppresses the formation of broken

  4. Sisters Hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna; Worre Hallberg, Gry

    2011-01-01

    Sisters Hope invites young scholars to visit our elite-school for run-away youngsters. Maybe you will be the next one to be collected and accepted?......Sisters Hope invites young scholars to visit our elite-school for run-away youngsters. Maybe you will be the next one to be collected and accepted?...

  5. Effects of a tumor promoter and an anti-promoter on spontaneous and UV-induced 6-thioguanine-resistant mutations and sister-chromatid exchanges in V79 Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Y.; Kano, Y.; Tatsumi, M.; Paul, P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of a tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and/or an anti-promoter antipain (protease inhibitor) on spontaneous and ultraviolet-induced sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and 6-thioguanine-resistant (6TGsup(r)) recessive mutations were examined in V79 Chinese hamster cells in culture. TPA and/or antipain neither significantly altered base-line and UV-induced immediate SCE frequencies, nor decreased the level of delayed SCEs which persisted 6-7 days after irradiation. TPA and/or antipain appeared to enhance the recovery of UV-induced 6TGsup(r) colonies at the plateau expression phase despite non-mutagenicity by themselves and unaltered metabolic cooperation. Thus, the results conceivably imply that the 6TGsup(r)-recessive mutation expression, but not fixation, can be modulated at the cell level by TPA and/or antipain. Our results, together with the recent results of Loveday and Latt, may argue against the notion that TPA enhances the antipain-suppressible SCEs as an index of mitotic recombination in relevance with a tumor-promotion mechanism. (orig.)

  6. A Hybrid Unequal Error Protection / Unequal Error Resilience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality layers are then assigned an Unequal Error Resilience to synchronization loss by unequally allocating the number of headers available for synchronization to them. Following that Unequal Error Protection against channel noise is provided to the layers by the use of Rate Compatible Punctured Convolutional ...

  7. Humanitarianism and Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Swamy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relationship between humanitarian aid and ecologically unequal exchange in the context of post-disaster reconstruction. I assess the manner in which humanitarian aid became a central part of the reconstruction process in India's Tamil Nadu state following the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. This article focuses on how the humanitarian “gift” of housing became a central plank of the state's efforts to push fishers inland while opening up coastal lands for various economic development projects such as ports, infrastructure, industries, and tourism. As part of the state and multilateral agency financed reconstruction process, the humanitarian aid regime provided “free” houses as gifts to recipients while expecting in return the formal abandonment of all claims to the coast. The humanitarian “gift” therefore helped depoliticize critical issues of land and resources, location and livelihood, which prior to the tsunami were subjects of long-standing political conflicts between local fisher populations and the state. The gift economy in effect played into an ongoing conflict over land and resources and effectively sought to ease the alienation of fishers from their coastal commons and near shore marine resource base. I argue that humanitarian aid, despite its associations with benevolence and generosity, presents a troubling and disempowering set of options for political struggles over land, resources, and social entitlements such as housing, thereby intensifying existing ecological and economic inequalities.

  8. "Sister to the tailor"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah

    2017-01-01

    Milliners, and their sisters, mantuamakers, modistes and marchandes de mode, were skilled artisans, businesswomen and tradeswomen. During the eighteenth century, they commandeered the high-class sewing that set fashion and created stars of their most famous, like Rose Bertrand, milliner to Marie...

  9. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article explores the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis. It reviews empirical literature about gender differences in behavioral, experimental, and neuro-economics as well as in other fields of behavioral research. It discusses gender differences along three dimensions of

  10. HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV / AIDS: An Unequal Burden Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... high-risk category, emphasizes Dr. Cargill. Photo: iStock HIV and Pregnancy Are there ways to help HIV- ...

  11. Two Nepali Sisters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Diaspora is an expansion of a national or family network that can be activated for the benefit of the family and home nation in multiple ways. The argument is based on two life stories. Two Nepali sisters attended Association of Overseas Technical Scholarships (AOTS) training courses in Japan...... at different times during the 1980s. The training was partly funded by official development assistance provided through the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). They used their training very differently, but between the two of them extended a family network from Japan and India...... still pursuing a career in a Japanese company. Their children have or are studying in Japan, India, and the USA. The Nepal-based sister is a key stakeholder in the regional cooperation in South Asia. By engaging network theories of weak ties and scaled networks, the life stories become templates...

  12. [Maternal death: unequal risks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defossez, A C; Fassin, D

    1989-01-01

    rates include political, geographic, and economic mechanisms of exclusion which affect the vast majority of the population in developing countries. Political power is concentrated in the hands of relatively small groups whose decisions about such expenditures as health care are usually more favorable to the privileged. A consequence of the very unequal regional development in most Third World countries is that health, educational, and most other resources are concentrated in large cities and perhaps 1 or 2 strategic regions, leaving most of the population underserved. The low social position of women leaves them doubly vulnerable. The social factors adding to risks of maternal mortality should be considered in programs of prevention if the causes and not just the consequences are to be addressed.

  13. Friel and his "sisters"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Grene

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay, occasioned by a revival of Brian Friel's version of Chekhov's Three Sisters at the Abbey Theatre in 2008, considers the circumstances surrounding its first production by the Field Day Theatre Company in 1981, and the motivation behind the decision to translate Chekhov's text into a specifically Irish dialect of English. It also analyses how Friel's plays since that date, notably the award-winning Dancing at Lughnasa (1990, have changed our perspective on the play.

  14. Sister chromatid exchange in peripheral blood lymphocytes as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) can be induced by various genotoxic treatments, suggesting that SCEs refl ect a DNA repair process and it may be a good index for assessment of genomic instability. However, the occurrence of genetic instability and in particular, of spontaneous SCEs has been strongly ...

  15. Unequal recognition, misrecognition and injustice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2012-01-01

    by the state of religious minorities. It argues that state–religion relations can be analysed as relations of recognition, which are not only unequal but also multi-dimensional, and that it is difficult to answer the question whether multi-dimensional recognitive inequalities are unjust or wrong if one...

  16. Sisters Hope - the exposed self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna; Hallberg, Gry Worre

    Sisters Hope is an art-educational method and a practice-led research tool, rooted in the construction of a fictional parallel universe revolving around the twin sisters Coco and Coca Pebber. Our work is rooted in the ambition to democratize the aesthetic dimension through ‘affective engineering......’ and the establishment of fictional spaces outside the institutional art context. In the Unfolding Academia-context Sisters Hope investigates new forms of research and (re)presentation through the creation of interactive and affective learning-spaces. At Collective Futures Sisters Hope explored questions such as: How...

  17. Hecke algebras with unequal parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Lusztig, G

    2003-01-01

    Hecke algebras arise in representation theory as endomorphism algebras of induced representations. One of the most important classes of Hecke algebras is related to representations of reductive algebraic groups over p-adic or finite fields. In 1979, in the simplest (equal parameter) case of such Hecke algebras, Kazhdan and Lusztig discovered a particular basis (the KL-basis) in a Hecke algebra, which is very important in studying relations between representation theory and geometry of the corresponding flag varieties. It turned out that the elements of the KL-basis also possess very interesting combinatorial properties. In the present book, the author extends the theory of the KL-basis to a more general class of Hecke algebras, the so-called algebras with unequal parameters. In particular, he formulates conjectures describing the properties of Hecke algebras with unequal parameters and presents examples verifying these conjectures in particular cases. Written in the author's precise style, the book gives rese...

  18. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  19. Epigenetic differences between sister chromatids?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lansdorp, Peter M.; Falconer, Ester; Tao, Jiang; Brind'Amour, Julie; Naumann, Ulrike; Kanz, L; Fibbe, WE; Lengerke, C; Dick, JE

    2012-01-01

    Semi-conservative replication ensures that the DNA sequence of sister chromatids is identical except for replication errors and variation in the length of telomere repeats resulting from replicative losses and variable end processing. What happens with the various epigenetic marks during DNA

  20. Somatomedin C deficiency in Asian sisters.

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, M E; Price, D A; Hill, D J

    1986-01-01

    Two sisters of Asian origin showed typical clinical and biochemical features of primary somatomedin C (SM-C) deficiency (Laron dwarfism). Abnormalities of SM-C binding proteins were observed, one sister lacking the high molecular weight (150 Kd) protein.

  1. Mechanisms of sister chromatid recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Sayaka; Machida, Isamu; Tsuji, Satsuki

    1985-01-01

    Studies using T948 as a model system have been carried out aimed at elucidating the mechanism of sister chromatid recombination (SCR). Characterization of U.V. light- and x-ray-induced SCR, the relationiship between SCR induction and DNA repair using rad mutations, and the relationship between SCR induction and the time of cell division using cdc mutations are presented. It has been supposed that SCR is induced at the phase of S-G 2 following DNA replication, that postreplication break of DNA strands is strongly involved in the induction of SCR, and that induction type of SCR, i.e., conversion type or recombination type, is dependent upon the type of molecular damage of DNA. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. What are sister chromatid exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of new staining techniques to visualise sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in cells exposed to mutagens has led to a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the formation of such exchanges. SCE are induced by a wide variety of different physical and chemical agents and their incidence provides a sensitive indicator of DNA damage in proliferating mammalian cells. It is shown that lesions which affect one or both strands of the DNA can result in the development of SCE, but only when damaged DNA undergoes replication. The nature of the lesions, the frequency and distribution of SEC in mammalian cells; the sensitivity of the cells to their induction by X-radiation, ultraviolet radiation and chemical mutagens, are discussed and possible mechanisms involved in the formation of SCE during replication considered. (Auth.)

  3. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  4. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  5. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  6. Kazhdan-Lusztig cells with unequal parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnafé, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    This monograph provides a comprehensive introduction to the Kazhdan-Lusztig theory of cells in the broader context of the unequal parameter case. Serving as a useful reference, the present volume offers a synthesis of significant advances made since Lusztig’s seminal work on the subject was published in 2002. The focus lies on the combinatorics of the partition into cells for general Coxeter groups, with special attention given to induction methods, cellular maps and the role of Lusztig's conjectures. Using only algebraic and combinatorial methods, the author carefully develops proofs, discusses open conjectures, and presents recent research, including a chapter on the action of the cactus group. Kazhdan-Lusztig Cells with Unequal Parameters will appeal to graduate students and researchers interested in related subject areas, such as Lie theory, representation theory, and combinatorics of Coxeter groups. Useful examples and various exercises make this book suitable for self-study and use alongside lecture c...

  7. Eruptive history of South Sister, Oregon Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierstein, J.; Hildreth, W.; Calvert, A.T.

    2011-01-01

    South Sister is southernmost and highest of the Three Sisters, three geologically dissimilar stratovolcanoes that together form a spectacular 20km reach along the Cascade crest in Oregon. North Sister is a monotonously mafic edifice as old as middle Pleistocene, Middle Sister a basalt-andesite-dacite cone built between 48 and 14ka, and South Sister is a basalt-free edifice that alternated rhyolitic and intermediate modes from 50ka to 2ka (largely contemporaneous with Middle Sister). Detailed mapping, 330 chemical analyses, and 42 radioisotopic ages show that the oldest exposed South Sister lavas were initially rhyolitic ~50ka. By ~37ka, rhyolitic lava flows and domes (72-74% SiO2) began alternating with radially emplaced dacite (63-68% SiO2) and andesite (59-63% SiO2) lava flows. Construction of a broad cone of silicic andesite-dacite (61-64% SiO2) culminated ~30ka in a dominantly explosive sequence that began with crater-forming andesitic eruptions that left fragmental deposits at least 200m thick. This was followed at ~27ka by growth of a steeply dipping summit cone of agglutinate-dominated andesite (56-60.5% SiO2) and formation of a summit crater ~800m wide. This crater was soon filled and overtopped by a thick dacite lava flow and then by >150m of dacitic pyroclastic ejecta. Small-volume dacite lavas (63-67% SiO2) locally cap the pyroclastic pile. A final sheet of mafic agglutinate (54-56% SiO2) - the most mafic product of South Sister - erupted from and drapes the small (300-m-wide) present-day summit crater, ending a summit-building sequence that lasted until ~22ka. A 20kyr-long-hiatus was broken by rhyolite eruptions that produced (1) the Rock Mesa coulee, tephra, and satellite domelets (73.5% SiO2) and (2) the Devils Chain of ~20 domes and short coulees (72.3-72.8% SiO2) from N-S vent alignments on South Sister's flanks. The compositional reversal from mafic summit agglutinate to recent rhyolites epitomizes the frequently changing compositional modes of the

  8. [Two Dutch sisters in analysis with Freud].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroeken, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The author provides persuasive or at least plausible data for the identity of two patients recorded by Freud in his working season of 1910/11. They were two sisters, living in The Hague/Leiden, who came from a rich banker's family, the van der Lindens. Whereas the treatment does not seem to have led to any decisive improvement for the older of the two, it may have encouraged the younger sister to seek divorce.

  9. Sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, Katja

    2013-01-01

    Meiotic divisions (meiosis I and II) are specialized cell divisions to generate haploid gametes. The first meiotic division with the separation of chromosomes is named reductional division. The second division, which takes place immediately after meiosis I without intervening S-phase, is equational, with the separation of sister chromatids, similar to mitosis. This meiotic segregation pattern requires the two-step removal of the cohesin complex holding sister chromatids together: cohesin is removed from chromosome arms that have been subjected to homologous recombination in meiosis I and from the centromere region in meiosis II. Cohesin in the centromere region is protected from removal in meiosis I, but this protection has to be removed—deprotected”—for sister chromatid segregation in meiosis II. Whereas the mechanisms of cohesin protection are quite well understood, the mechanisms of deprotection have been largely unknown until recently. In this review I summarize our current knowledge on cohesin deprotection. PMID:23574717

  10. Dam safety at Seven Sisters Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, R. W.; Gupta, R. C.

    1996-01-01

    A safety surveillance program for all hydraulic structures in Manitoba was first implemented in 1979, and updated in 1988. This contribution describes the current status of the program, and the nature of the issues that the program was designed to address. The Seven Sisters Station's dam on the Winnipeg River, about 90 km northeast of the City of Winnipeg, was used as an example. Extensive reviews of flood risks and downstream inundation potential at Seven Sisters' revealed a number of deficiencies; these findings will be incorporated into a corporate plan of overall remediation. Updating the program will also include efforts to ensure adherence to national dam safety guidelines. 5 figs

  11. Unequal-time correlators for cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitching, T. D.; Heavens, A. F.

    2017-03-01

    Measurements of the power spectrum from large-scale structure surveys have, to date, assumed an equal-time approximation, where the full cross-correlation power spectrum of the matter density field evaluated at different times (or distances) has been approximated either by the power spectrum at a fixed time or in an improved fashion, by a geometric mean P (k ;r1,r2)=[P (k ;r1)P (k ;r2)]1 /2 . In this paper we investigate the expected impact of the geometric mean ansatz and present an application in assessing the impact on weak-gravitational-lensing cosmological parameter inference, using a perturbative unequal time correlator. As one might expect, we find that the impact of this assumption is greatest at large separations in redshift Δ z ≳0.3 where the change in the amplitude of the matter power spectrum can be as much as 10 percent for k ≳5 h ⁢ Mpc-1 . However, of more concern is that the corrections for small separations, where the clustering is not close to zero, may not be negligibly small. In particular, we find that for a Euclid- or LSST-like weak lensing experiment, the assumption of equal-time correlators may result in biased predictions of the cosmic shear power spectrum, and that the impact is strongly dependent on the amplitude of the intrinsic alignment signal. To compute unequal-time correlations to sufficient accuracy will require advances in either perturbation theory to high k modes or extensive use of simulations.

  12. Clouston′s Disease in Three Sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakar Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available In a family of four children, all females, three sisters presented with Clouston′s disease or hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia. The case is reported for the rarity of presentation in a single generation with no history of other family members affected.

  13. Sisters Hope - Protected by the Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Anna; Hallberg, Gry Worre

    2011-01-01

    In this article we will introduce the fictional and art-pedagogical universe of Sisters Hope and describe how it in different ways transcends into contexts beyond the art world and thus functions as a tool to democratize the aesthetic dimension and mode of being within high schools, academia...

  14. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  15. The Unequal Power Relation in the Final Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almlund, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    if the interpretation also takes the unequal power relation into account. Consequently, interpreting the researched in a respectful manner is difficult. This article demonstrates the necessity of increasing awareness of the unequal power relation by posing, discussing and, to some extent answering, three methodological...... questions inspired by meta-theory that are significant for qualitative research and qualitative researchers to reflect on. This article concludes that respectful interpretation and consciously paying attention to the unequal power relation in the final interpretation require decentring the subject...

  16. Three Sisters Dam modifications and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courage, L.J.R. [Monenco AGRA Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Recent modifications and maintenance carried out at the Three Sisters Dam, in the Alberta Rockies south of the town of Canmore, were described. A detailed account was given of the dam`s geological setting, its abnormally high leakage through the foundation and its sinkhole activity. Results of studies aimed at finding the cause of leakage and sinkhole occurrences were reviewed. Modifications made to the dam since 1951 were detailed, as were modifications to handle probable maximum flood levels. Three approaches for estimating failure probabilities after identification of failure modes were described. The overall conclusion was that based on constant leakage, no settlement in the dam, penstocks, or the powerhouse since construction, the Three Sisters Dam was stable. 1 ref.

  17. Sister chromatoid exchanges in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Mimako; Awa, Akio

    1980-01-01

    Sister chromatoid exchange (SCE) frequencies in the peripheral lymphocyte with and without mitomycin-C (MMC) were studied, in the age of tens and thirties for an atomic-bomb survivor group and in thirties, fifties, and seventies for an unexposed group. The observation of 100 cells showed no statistically significant difference of SCE frequencies with aging or irradiation. The increasing rates of SCE frequencies by MMC showed no difference among the groups. The average increasing ratio by MMC was 3.6. (Nakanishi, T.)

  18. A proposal of a standardised nomenclature for terminal minute sister chromatid exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo E. Drets

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We described spontaneous minute sister chromatid exchanges (SCE in telomeric regions of human and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO chromosomes more than 10 years ago. These structures, which we called t-SCE, were detected by means of highly precise quantitative microphotometrical scanning and computer graphic image analysis. Recently, several authors using the CO-FISH method also found small SCEs in telomeric regions and called them T-SCE. The use of different terms for designating the same phenomenon should be avoided. We propose ter SCE as a uniform nomenclature for minute telomeric SCEs.

  19. Sister Mary Emil Penet, I.H.M.: Founder of the Sister Formation Conference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisky, Joan

    2006-01-01

    Mary Emil Penet, I.H.M., (1916-2001) used her talents and charisma to shape the first national organization of American women religious, the Sister Formation Conference (SFC; 1954-1964), facilitating the integrated intellectual, spiritual, psychological, and professional development of vowed women religious. In the decade preceding Vatican II, her…

  20. Three Sisters Dam: Investigations and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slopek, R.J.; Courage, L.J.R.; Keys, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The geotechnical investigations, monitoring and interpretation of data associated with the evaluation of the Three Sisters Dam, which has been suffering from excessive seepage and is in need of enhancement, are outlined. The Three Sisters Dam is located in the continental ranges of the Rocky Mountains in Alberta, impounding the Spray Reservoir, and is founded on 60 m of interbedded sand, gravel, silt and clay layers. The computer code PC-SEEP was used to evaluate seepage. Details are provided of drilling, ground-penetrating radar surveys, seismic surveys, penstock inspection, sinkhole activity, piezometer monitoring, silt wells, settlement monuments, and tailrace monitoring. The intensive investigations of the foundations showed that they consist of a complex formation of interfingered stratified layers and leases of talus and glaciofluvial deposits. Due to the depth and nature of these materials drill hole penetration was limited to the use of the Becker hammer. This equipment successfully delineated the major soil horizons of the foundation. The continued information attained from inspection, drilling, testing, radar surveys, seismic work, monitoring of piezometers, leakage, silt wells and settlement monuments indicated that there are no large voids within the foundation of the dam. 2 refs., 12 figs

  1. Two Sisters with Idiopathic Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Gencer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare cause of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage with unknown etiology. In the present report, the presentations of two sisters are described: one sister had IPH, eosinophilia and a high serum immunoglobulin E (IgE level; and the other had IPH, pneumothorax, eosinophilia and a high serum IgE level. Both cases had quite unusual presentations. The first patient was 23 years of age, and had suffered from dry cough and progressive dyspnea for four years. Her hemoglobin level was 60 g/L, total serum IgE level was 900 U/mL and eosinophilia was 9%. Her chest radiography revealed diffuse infiltration. She died due to respiratory failure. The second patient was 18 years of age. She had also suffered from dry cough and gradually increasing dyspnea for two years. She had partial pneumothorax in the right lung and diffuse infiltration in other pulmonary fields on chest radiography. Her hemoglobin level was 99 g/L, total serum IgE level was 1200 U/mL and eosinophilia was 8%. IPH was diagnosed by open lung biopsy. All these findings suggested that familial or allergic factors, as well as immunological factors, might have contributed to the etiology of IPH.

  2. Geographic variance of cardiovascular risk factors among community women: the national Sister to Sister campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvie, Jennifer L; Johnson, Caitlin E; Wang, Yun; Wan, Yun; Aslam, Farhan; Athanasopoulos, Leonidas V; Pollin, Irene; Foody, JoAnne M

    2011-01-01

    There are substantial variations in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and outcomes among women. We sought to determine geographic variation in risk factor prevalence in a contemporary sample of U.S. women. Using 2008-2009 Sister to Sister (STS) free heart screening data from 17 U.S. cities, we compared rates of obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)), hypertension (HTN ≥140/90 mm Hg), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C cities had higher rates of hyperglycemia and low HDL-C. In a large, community-based sample of women nationwide, this comprehensive analysis shows remarkable geographic variation in risk factors, which provides opportunities to improve and reduce a woman's CVD risk. Further investigation is required to understand the reasons behind such variation, which will provide insight toward tailoring preventive interventions to narrow gaps in CVD risk reduction in women.

  3. Building International Relations for Children through Sister Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryor, Carolyn B.

    1992-01-01

    Inspired by Sister Cities International and the NASSP's school-to-school exchange program, "sister school" pairings have proved to be workable educational programs with long-range impact on participants. Some post-cold war efforts include U.S.-USSR High School Academic Partnerships, Project Harmony, and Center for U.S.-USSR Initiatives.…

  4. Uncoupling of Sister Replisomes during Eukaryotic DNA Replication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yardimci, Hasan; Loveland, Anna B.; Habuchi, Satoshi; van Oijen, Antoine M.; Walter, Johannes C.

    2010-01-01

    The duplication of eukaryotic genomes involves the replication of DNA from multiple origins of replication. In S phase, two sister replisomes assemble at each active origin, and they replicate DNA in opposite directions. Little is known about the functional relationship between sister replisomes.

  5. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  6. The Theory of Unequal Exchange: The End of the Debate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Brown (Richard)

    1978-01-01

    textabstractThe overall objective of this work is to examine the theory of Unequal Exchange, the recent critiques of that, and its interrelation with questions concerning the effects and role of foreign investment in underdeveloped countries. Interest in this debate was stimulated largely by the

  7. The Dugdale solution for two unequal straight cracks weakening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A crack arrest model is proposed for an infinite elastic perfectly-plastic plate weakened by two unequal, quasi-static, collinear straight cracks. The Dugdale model solution is obtained for the above problem when the developed plastic zones are subjected to normal cohesive quadratically varying yield point stress. Employing ...

  8. Random linear network coding for streams with unequally sized packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Pedersen, Morten Videbæk

    2016-01-01

    State of the art Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) schemes assume that data streams generate packets with equal sizes. This is an assumption that results in the highest efficiency gains for RLNC. A typical solution for managing unequal packet sizes is to zero-pad the smallest packets. However, ...

  9. K-harmonic solution for three bound unequal particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, H.T.; Consoni, L.; Vallieres, M.

    1978-01-01

    The three bound unequal particles problem using K-harmonics is analysed concerning how the nature of interactions and asymmetries of the system will affect convergence of the solutions. Coulomb interaction which gives closed expressions for the matrix elements of the potential in the method is discussed [pt

  10. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  11. Consumerism and the Sister Carrie's American Dream%Consumerism and the Sister Carrie''s American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢亚丽

    2017-01-01

    From the aspect of consumerism to this text analyze Sister Carrie's"American dream"destruction. The author wholly and deeply analyzes the embodiment of consumerism in Dreiser's Sister Carrie and Dreiser's outlook and values under the effect of consumerism. To prove that the reason for destruction of Carrie's American dream is consumerism.

  12. Creating Sister Cities: An Exchange Across Hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M. T.; Cabezon, S. A.; Hardy, E.; Harrison, R. J.

    2008-06-01

    Sponsored by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) and the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), this project creates a cultural and educational exchange program between communities in South and North America, linking San Pedro de Atacama in Chile and Magdalena, New Mexico in the United States. Both communities have similar demographics, are in relatively undeveloped regions of high-elevation desert, and are located near major international radio astronomy research facilities. The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is just 40 km east of San Pedro; the Very Large Array (VLA) is just 40 km west of Magdalena. In February 2007, the Mayor of San Pedro and two teachers visited Magdalena for two weeks; in July 2007 three teachers from Magdalena will visit San Pedro. These visits enable the communities to lay the foundation for a permanent, unique partnership. The teachers are sharing expertise and teaching methodologies for physics and astronomy. In addition to creating science education opportunities, this project offers students linguistic and cultural connections. The town of San Pedro, Chile, hosts nearly 100,000 tourists per year, and English language skills are highly valued by local students. Through exchanges enabled by email and distance conferencing, San Pedro and Magdalena students will improve English and Spanish language skills while teaching each other about science and their respective cultures. This poster describes the AUI/NRAO Sister Cities program, including the challenges of cross-cultural communication and the rewards of interpersonal exchanges between continents and cultures.

  13. Splitting the chromosome: cutting the ties that bind sister chromatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasmyth, K; Peters, J M; Uhlmann, F

    2001-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, replicated DNA molecules remain physically connected from their synthesis in S phase until they are separated during anaphase. This phenomenon, called sister chromatid cohesion, is essential for the temporal separation of DNA replication and mitosis and for the equal separation of the duplicated genome. Recent work has identified a number of chromosomal proteins required for cohesion. In this review we discuss how these proteins may connect sister chromatids and how they are removed from chromosomes to allow sister chromatid separation at the onset of anaphase.

  14. Design and analysis of unequal split Bagley power dividers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Alnadi, Omar; Dib, Nihad; Al-Shamaileh, Khair; Sheta, Abdelfattah

    2015-03-01

    In this article, we propose a general design procedure to develop unequal split Bagley power dividers (BPDs). Based on the mathematical approach carried out in the insight of simple circuit and transmission line theories, exact design equations for 3-way and 5-way BPDs are derived. Utilising the developed equations leads to power dividers with the ability of offering different output power ratios through a suitable choice of the characteristic impedances of the interconnecting transmission lines. For verification purposes, a 1:2:1 3-way, 1:2:1:2:1 5-way and 1:3:1:3:1 5-way BPDs are designed and fabricated. The experimental and full-wave simulation results prove the validity of the designed unequal split BPDs.

  15. A Two Unequal Fluids (TUF) model for thermalhydraulics analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, R.A.; Liu, W.S.; Yousef, W.W.; Pascoe, J.

    1983-01-01

    TUF is an advanced two-phase flow computer code being developed at Ontario Hydro for analysis of thermalhydraulics transients in which the Homogeneous Equilibrium Model is not adequate, i.e., when the two phases (vapor and liquid) have Unequal Velocities (UV) and Unequal Temperatures (UT). The paper covers only one of the several development areas encompassed by TUF, namely its mathematical aspects. TUF's basic features include: numerical solution of mass-energy balance equations over fixed control volumes, semi-analytical solution of momentum equations at junctions (such that the solution is unconditionally stable and and has UV-UT choking and flooding limitations built-in). Two strategies are being developed: one based on the Porsching approach (for short-term use in an existing system code) and the other based on a two-step pressure field approach (computationally more efficient and unconditionally stable). Some simple test cases are presented

  16. The Theory of Exploitation as the Unequal Exchange of Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses the normative and positive foundations of the theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour (UEL). The key intuitions behind all of the main approaches to UEL exploitation are explicitly analysed as a series of formal claims in a general economic environment. It is then argued that these intuitions can be captured by one fundamental axiom - called Labour Exploitation - which defines the basic domain of all UEL exploitation forms and identifies the formal and the...

  17. The theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour

    OpenAIRE

    Veneziani, Roberto; Yoshihara, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the normative and positive foundations of the theory of exploitation as the unequal exchange of labour (UEL). The key intuitions behind all of the main approaches to UEL exploitation are explicitly analysed as a series of formal claims in a general economic environment. It is then argued that these intuitions can be captured by one fundamental axiom - called Labour Exploitation - which defines the basic domain of all UEL exploitation forms and identifies the formal and the...

  18. Sister kinetochores are mechanically fused during meiosis I in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangapani, Krishna K; Duro, Eris; Deng, Yi; Alves, Flavia de Lima; Ye, Qiaozhen; Opoku, Kwaku N; Ceto, Steven; Rappsilber, Juri; Corbett, Kevin D; Biggins, Sue; Marston, Adèle L; Asbury, Charles L

    2014-10-10

    Production of healthy gametes requires a reductional meiosis I division in which replicated sister chromatids comigrate, rather than separate as in mitosis or meiosis II. Fusion of sister kinetochores during meiosis I may underlie sister chromatid comigration in diverse organisms, but direct evidence for such fusion has been lacking. We used laser trapping and quantitative fluorescence microscopy to study native kinetochore particles isolated from yeast. Meiosis I kinetochores formed stronger attachments and carried more microtubule-binding elements than kinetochores isolated from cells in mitosis or meiosis II. The meiosis I-specific monopolin complex was both necessary and sufficient to drive these modifications. Thus, kinetochore fusion directs sister chromatid comigration, a conserved feature of meiosis that is fundamental to Mendelian inheritance. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Developing skills in clinical leadership for ward sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Katherine; Phillips, Natasha

    The Francis report has called for a strengthening of the ward sister's role. It recommends that sisters should operate in a supervisory capacity and should not be office bound. Effective ward leadership has been recognised as being vital to high-quality patient care and experience, resource management and interprofessional working. However, there is evidence that ward sisters are ill equipped to lead effectively and lack confidence in their ability to do so. University College London Hospitals Foundation Trust has recognised that the job has become almost impossible in increasingly large and complex organisations. Ward sisters spend less than 40% of their time on clinical leadership and the trust is undertaking a number of initiatives to support them in this role.

  20. Unequal error control scheme for dimmable visible light communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Keyan; Yuan, Lei; Wan, Yi; Li, Huaan

    2017-01-01

    Visible light communication (VLC), which has the advantages of a very large bandwidth, high security, and freedom from license-related restrictions and electromagnetic-interference, has attracted much interest. Because a VLC system simultaneously performs illumination and communication functions, dimming control, efficiency, and reliable transmission are significant and challenging issues of such systems. In this paper, we propose a novel unequal error control (UEC) scheme in which expanding window fountain (EWF) codes in an on-off keying (OOK)-based VLC system are used to support different dimming target values. To evaluate the performance of the scheme for various dimming target values, we apply it to H.264 scalable video coding bitstreams in a VLC system. The results of the simulations that are performed using additive white Gaussian noises (AWGNs) with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) are used to compare the performance of the proposed scheme for various dimming target values. It is found that the proposed UEC scheme enables earlier base layer recovery compared to the use of the equal error control (EEC) scheme for different dimming target values and therefore afford robust transmission for scalable video multicast over optical wireless channels. This is because of the unequal error protection (UEP) and unequal recovery time (URT) of the EWF code in the proposed scheme.

  1. Organization of Sisters of Mercy During World War One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sribnaia Anna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the labour organization of Russian sisters of mercy during World War One. The author indicates two periods which took place before and after the February Revolution. Based on archive documents and offi cial publications the article describes general structure of Russian Red Cross Society institutions and basic principles of sisters of mercy communities’ work. It examines the rules of new sisters’ employment, their training, service assignment and professional duties. The emphasis is put on nurses’ work in wartime. During first years of war sisters’ position was stable. Due to specifi c hierarchy in the managing structure sisters’ work was productive and demanded. After the February Revolution the managing system changed drastically as well as the status of sisters of mercy and their reception in society. The author gives a thorough examination of sisters’ position after reorganization of Russian Red Cross Society. In time of political instability Russian sisters of mercy were able to organize themselves into one big organization thus creating All-Russian Union of Sisters of Mercy. This article for the first time ever implements into scientific research a huge amount of documents which allowed a signifi cant extension of views on Bolsheviks’ political approaches to Russian Red Cross Society and institution of sisters of mercy.

  2. In vitro and occupational induction of sister-chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes with furfuryl alcohol and furfural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Arroyo, S.; Souza, V.

    1985-06-01

    Sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human lymphocytes were studied using the FPG technique in order to determine the cytogenetic effect of furfural and furfuryl alcohol. The induction of SCEs was also investigated in workers occupationally exposed to these solvents that are commonly used in the manufacture of furoic resins. The results obtained from the in vitro treatments show that furfural increased the number of SCEs, while furfuryl alcohol did not. In exposed workers, neither of these solvents increased the spontaneous frequency of SCEs per metaphase.

  3. GNE Myopathy in Turkish Sisters with a Novel Homozygous Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gulden; Secil, Yaprak; Ceylaner, Serdar; Tokucoglu, Figen; Türe, Sabiha; Celebisoy, Mehmet; İncesu, Tülay Kurt; Akhan, Galip

    2016-01-01

    Background. Hereditary inclusion body myopathy is caused by biallelic defects in the GNE gene located on chromosome 9p13. It generally affects adults older than 20 years of age. Methods and Results. In this study, we present two Turkish sisters with progressive myopathy and describe a novel mutation in the GNE gene. Both sisters had slightly higher levels of creatine kinase (CK) and muscle weakness. The older sister presented at 38 years of age with an inability to climb steps, weakness, and a steppage gait. Her younger sister was 36 years old and had similar symptoms. The first symptoms of the disorder were seen when the sisters were 30 and 34 years old, respectively. The muscle biopsy showed primary myopathic features and presence of rimmed vacuoles. DNA analysis demonstrated the presence of previously unknown homozygous mutations [c.2152 G>A (p.A718T)] in the GNE genes. Conclusion. Based on our literature survey, we believe that ours is the first confirmed case of primary GNE myopathy with a novel missense mutation in Turkey. These patients illustrate that the muscle biopsy is still an important method for the differential diagnosis of vacuolar myopathies in that the detection of inclusions is required for the definitive diagnosis. PMID:27298745

  4. Mechanics of Sister Chromatids studied with a Polymer Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eZhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Sister chromatid cohesion denotes the phenomenon that sister chromatids are initially attached to each other in mitosis to guarantee the error-free distribution into the daughter cells. Cohesion is mediated by binding proteins and only resolved after mitotic chromosome condensation is completed. However, the amount of attachement points required to maintain sister chromatid cohesion while still allowing proper chromosome condensation is not known yet. Additionally the impact of cohesion on the mechanical properties of chromosomes also poses an interesting problem. In this work we study the conformational and mechanical properties of sister chromatids by means of computer simulations. We model both protein-mediated cohesion between sister chromatids and chromosome condensation with a dynamic binding mechanisms. We show in a phase diagram that only specific link concentrations lead to connected and fully condensed chromatids that do not intermingle with each other nor separate due to entropic forces. Furthermore we show that dynamic bonding between chromatids decrease the Young's modulus compared to non-bonded chromatids.

  5. Enhancement of Unequal Error Protection Properties of LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulliat Charly

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely recognized in the literature that irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC codes exhibit naturally an unequal error protection (UEP behavior. In this paper, we propose a general method to emphasize and control the UEP properties of LDPC codes. The method is based on a hierarchical optimization of the bit node irregularity profile for each sensitivity class within the codeword by maximizing the average bit node degree while guaranteeing a minimum degree as high as possible. We show that this optimization strategy is efficient, since the codes that we optimize show better UEP capabilities than the codes optimized for the additive white Gaussian noise channel.

  6. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  7. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  8. little sister: An Afro-Temporal Solo-Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Berry, Misty

    2017-07-03

    little sister: An Afro-Temporal Solo-Play is at once a memory-scape and a mytho-biography set to poetry, movement, and mixed media. A performance poem spanning from the Antebellum South to present-moment Chicago, it tells the story of a nomadic spirit named little-she who shape-shifts through the memories and imaginings of her sister, the narrator. Through the characters little-she and the narrator, the solo-performance explores embodied ways to rupture and relieve the impact of macro forms of violence in the micro realm of the everyday. To this end, little sister witnesses and disrupts the legacy of violence in the lives of queer Black women through a trans-temporal navigation of everyday encounters within familial, small groups and intimate partner spaces.

  9. Ecologically unequal exchange, recessions, and climate change: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaorui

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates how the ecologically unequal exchange of carbon dioxide emissions varies with economic recessions. I propose a country-specific approach to examine (1) the relationship between carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries and the "vertical flow" of exports to the United States; and (2) the variations of the relationship before, during, and after two recent economic recessions in 2001 and 2008. Using data on 69 developing nations between 2000 and 2010, I estimate time-series cross-sectional regression models with two-way fixed effects. Results suggest that the vertical flow of exports to the United States is positively associated with carbon dioxide emissions in developing countries. The magnitude of this relationship increased in 2001, 2009, and 2010, and decreased in 2008, but remained stable in non-recession periods, suggesting that economic recessions in the United States are associated with variations of ecologically unequal exchange. Results highlight the impacts of U.S. recessions on carbon emissions in developing countries through the structure of international trade. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Florence Nightingale and charity sisters: revisiting the history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilha, Maria Itayra Coelho de Souza; Mancia, Joel Rolim

    2005-01-01

    This study presents an historical analysis on the links between the nursing practice and the influence received from various religious orders/associations along the times, especially from Saint Vincent Paul's charity sisters. The professional nursing which was pioneered by Florence Nightingale in the XlXth century, was directly influenced by the teachings of love and fraternity. In addition, other contributions from the religious orders/associations were the concepts of altruism, valorization of an adequate environment for the care of patients, and the division of work in nursing. The study shows the influence of Charity Sisters on Florence Nightingale.

  11. Effect of chloramphenicol on sister chromatid exchange in bovine fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruga, M V; Catalan, J; Moreno, C

    1992-03-01

    The genotoxic potential of different chloramphenicol concentrations (5, 20, 40 and 60 micrograms ml-1) was investigated in bovine fibroblast primary lines by sister chromatid exchange assay. Chloramphenicol acted for long enough to ensure similar effects to persistent storage in the kidney. In this experiment 10 micrograms ml-1 of 5-bromodeoxyuridine was added for 60 hours for all doses of chloramphenicol and to the control. When the tissue culture cells were exposed to increasing doses, increased numbers of sister chromatid exchanges developed. Differences were significantly different to the control.

  12. Separase Is Required for Homolog and Sister Disjunction during Drosophila melanogaster Male Meiosis, but Not for Biorientation of Sister Centromeres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Ariane C; Chaurasia, Soumya; McKee, Bruce D; Lehner, Christian F

    2016-04-01

    Spatially controlled release of sister chromatid cohesion during progression through the meiotic divisions is of paramount importance for error-free chromosome segregation during meiosis. Cohesion is mediated by the cohesin protein complex and cleavage of one of its subunits by the endoprotease separase removes cohesin first from chromosome arms during exit from meiosis I and later from the pericentromeric region during exit from meiosis II. At the onset of the meiotic divisions, cohesin has also been proposed to be present within the centromeric region for the unification of sister centromeres into a single functional entity, allowing bipolar orientation of paired homologs within the meiosis I spindle. Separase-mediated removal of centromeric cohesin during exit from meiosis I might explain sister centromere individualization which is essential for subsequent biorientation of sister centromeres during meiosis II. To characterize a potential involvement of separase in sister centromere individualization before meiosis II, we have studied meiosis in Drosophila melanogaster males where homologs are not paired in the canonical manner. Meiosis does not include meiotic recombination and synaptonemal complex formation in these males. Instead, an alternative homolog conjunction system keeps homologous chromosomes in pairs. Using independent strategies for spermatocyte-specific depletion of separase complex subunits in combination with time-lapse imaging, we demonstrate that separase is required for the inactivation of this alternative conjunction at anaphase I onset. Mutations that abolish alternative homolog conjunction therefore result in random segregation of univalents during meiosis I also after separase depletion. Interestingly, these univalents become bioriented during meiosis II, suggesting that sister centromere individualization before meiosis II does not require separase.

  13. Sister chromatid exchange induced by X-irradiation of retinoblastoma lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovsky-Kaplan, I.; Jones, I.S.

    1984-01-01

    Lymphocyte cultures were employed to assess the degree of spontaneous and induced chromosomal fragility in retinoblastoma. Sister chromatid exchange (SCEs) were scored in metaphases. Three unilateral, three bilateral, eleven family members and controls were studied. Retinoblastoma (RB) lymphocytes did not exhibit increased spontaneous fragility. X-irradiation (25-200 rad) did not significantly increase SCE in unilateral retinoblastoma lymphocytes when compared with controls (P greater than 0.50). However, bilaterally affected subjects and three unaffected relatives demonstrated a statistically significant increase in SCE (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, hereditary retinoblastoma lymphocytes appear more radiosensitive than sporadic retinoblastoma, perhaps, reflecting the increased second malignancies in germinal mutation retinoblastoma. In addition, the analysis of radiation-induced SCE in peripheral blood lymphocytes of RB patients and family members may provide a valuable tool increasing the accuracy of genetic counseling for this disorder. Additional studies of RB patients and families are needed to assess the relevance of this approach to genetic counseling

  14. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  15. Freud on Brothers and Sisters: A Neglected Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwin-White, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores Freud's developing thought on brothers and sisters, and their importance in his psychoanalytical writings and clinical work. Freud's work on sibling psychology has been seriously undervalued. This paper aims to give due recognition to Freud's work in this area. (Contains 1 note.)

  16. Meiotic sister chromatid cohesion and recombination in two filamentous fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemst, van D.

    2000-01-01

    Homologous recombination and sister chromatid cohesion play important roles in the maintenance of genome integrity and the fidelity of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Within the living cell, the integrity of the DNA is threatened by various factors that cause DNA-lesions, of

  17. Sister broods in the spruce bark beetle, Ips typographus (L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Davídková, Markéta; Doležal, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 405, DEC 01 (2017), s. 13-21 ISSN 0378-1127 Grant - others:Lesy ČR(CZ) 08/2009-2015 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : re-emergence * sister broods * Ips typographus Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 3.064, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112717309507

  18. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis: an exploration of literature and bankers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This article tests the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis in two complementary, although incomplete ways. It reviews the diverse empirical literature in behavioral, experimental, and neuroeconomics as well as related fields of behavioral research. And it presents the findings from an

  19. The Lehman Sisters Hypothesis: an exploration of literature and bankers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThis article tests the Lehman Sisters Hypothesis in two complementary, although incomplete ways. It reviews the diverse empirical literature in behavioural, experimental, and neuroeconomics as well as related fields of behavioural research. And it presents the findings from an

  20. Adult Sibling Relationships with Brothers and Sisters with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Zach; Hall, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine perceptions of adult sibling relationships with a brother or sister with severe disabilities and the contexts affecting the relationships. Adult siblings without disabilities (N = 79) from 19 to 72 years of age completed an online survey with four open-ended questions about their relationship…

  1. Reconstitution of Nucleosomes with Differentially Isotope-labeled Sister Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liokatis, Stamatios

    2017-03-26

    Asymmetrically modified nucleosomes contain the two copies of a histone (sister histones) decorated with distinct sets of Post-translational Modifications (PTMs). They are newly identified species with unknown means of establishment and functional implications. Current analytical methods are inadequate to detect the copy-specific occurrence of PTMs on the nucleosomal sister histones. This protocol presents a biochemical method for the in vitro reconstitution of nucleosomes containing differentially isotope-labeled sister histones. The generated complex can be also asymmetrically modified, after including a premodified histone pool during refolding of histone subcomplexes. These asymmetric nucleosome preparations can be readily reacted with histone-modifying enzymes to study modification cross-talk mechanisms imposed by the asymmetrically pre-incorporated PTM using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Particularly, the modification reactions in real-time can be mapped independently on the two sister histones by performing different types of NMR correlation experiments, tailored for the respective isotope type. This methodology provides the means to study crosstalk mechanisms that contribute to the formation and propagation of asymmetric PTM patterns on nucleosomal complexes.

  2. El naturalismo americano: Theodore Dreiser y Sister Carrie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores G. ALONSO MULAS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Para situar a un escritor, como Theodore Dreiser, y especialmente su novela Sister Carrie dentro de un movimiento literario y de una etapa determinada de la historia americana, es necesario dar un breve repaso al naturalismo, llegado a América a través de Stephen Crane

  3. Scattering cross section of unequal length dipole arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a detailed and systematic analytical treatment of scattering by an arbitrary dipole array configuration with unequal-length dipoles, different inter-element spacing and load impedance. It provides a physical interpretation of the scattering phenomena within the phased array system. The antenna radar cross section (RCS) depends on the field scattered by the antenna towards the receiver. It has two components, viz. structural RCS and antenna mode RCS. The latter component dominates the former, especially if the antenna is mounted on a low observable platform. The reduction in the scattering due to the presence of antennas on the surface is one of the concerns towards stealth technology. In order to achieve this objective, a detailed and accurate analysis of antenna mode scattering is required. In practical phased array, one cannot ignore the finite dimensions of antenna elements, coupling effect and the role of feed network while estimating the antenna RCS. This book presents the RCS estimati...

  4. Improved Design of Unequal Error Protection LDPC Codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandberg Sara

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an improved method for designing unequal error protection (UEP low-density parity-check (LDPC codes. The method is based on density evolution. The degree distribution with the best UEP properties is found, under the constraint that the threshold should not exceed the threshold of a non-UEP code plus some threshold offset. For different codeword lengths and different construction algorithms, we search for good threshold offsets for the UEP code design. The choice of the threshold offset is based on the average a posteriori variable node mutual information. Simulations reveal the counter intuitive result that the short-to-medium length codes designed with a suitable threshold offset all outperform the corresponding non-UEP codes in terms of average bit-error rate. The proposed codes are also compared to other UEP-LDPC codes found in the literature.

  5. Sequential boundaries approach in clinical trials with unequal allocation ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayatollahi Seyyed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical trials, both unequal randomization design and sequential analyses have ethical and economic advantages. In the single-stage-design (SSD, however, if the sample size is not adjusted based on unequal randomization, the power of the trial will decrease, whereas with sequential analysis the power will always remain constant. Our aim was to compare sequential boundaries approach with the SSD when the allocation ratio (R was not equal. Methods We evaluated the influence of R, the ratio of the patients in experimental group to the standard group, on the statistical properties of two-sided tests, including the two-sided single triangular test (TT, double triangular test (DTT and SSD by multiple simulations. The average sample size numbers (ASNs and power (1-β were evaluated for all tests. Results Our simulation study showed that choosing R = 2 instead of R = 1 increases the sample size of SSD by 12% and the ASN of the TT and DTT by the same proportion. Moreover, when R = 2, compared to the adjusted SSD, using the TT or DTT allows to retrieve the well known reductions of ASN observed when R = 1, compared to SSD. In addition, when R = 2, compared to SSD, using the TT and DTT allows to obtain smaller reductions of ASN than when R = 1, but maintains the power of the test to its planned value. Conclusion This study indicates that when the allocation ratio is not equal among the treatment groups, sequential analysis could indeed serve as a compromise between ethicists, economists and statisticians.

  6. An Unequal Information Society: How Information Access Initiatives Contribute to the Construction of Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Madelyn Rose

    2016-01-01

    Unequal access to information has significant social and political consequences, and is itself a consequence of sociotechnical systems born of social, cultural, economic, and institutional context. Information is unequally distributed both within and between communities. While many factors that shape information inequality shift subtly over time,…

  7. Legal Marriage, Unequal Recognition, and Mental Health among Same-Sex Couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, Allen J; Frost, David M; Bowen, Kayla

    2018-04-01

    The authors examined whether the perception of unequal relationship recognition, a novel, couple-level minority stressor, has negative consequences for mental health among same-sex couples. Data came from a dyadic study of 100 ( N = 200) same-sex couples in the U.S. Being in a legal marriage was associated with lower perceived unequal recognition and better mental health; being in a registered domestic partnership or civil union - not also legally married - was associated with greater perceived unequal recognition and worse mental health. Actor Partner Interdependence Models tested associations between legal relationship status, unequal relationship recognition, and mental health (nonspecific psychological distress, depressive symptomatology, and problematic drinking), net controls (age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, and income). Unequal recognition was consistently associated with worse mental health, independent of legal relationship status. Legal changes affecting relationship recognition should not be seen as simple remedies for addressing the mental health effects of institutionalized discrimination.

  8. Geologic map of Three Sisters volcanic cluster, Cascade Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildreth, Wes; Fierstein, Judy; Calvert, Andrew T.

    2012-01-01

    The cluster of glaciated stratovolcanoes called the Three Sisters—South Sister, Middle Sister, and North Sister—forms a spectacular 20-km-long reach along the crest of the Cascade Range in Oregon. The three eponymous stratocones, though contiguous and conventionally lumped sororally, could hardly display less family resemblance. North Sister (10,085 ft), a monotonously mafic edifice at least as old as 120 ka, is a glacially ravaged stratocone that consists of hundreds of thin rubbly lava flows and intercalated falls that dip radially and steeply; remnants of two thick lava flows cap its summit. Middle Sister (10,047 ft), an andesite-basalt-dacite cone built between 48 and 14 ka, is capped by a thick stack of radially dipping, dark-gray, thin mafic lava flows; asymmetrically glaciated, its nearly intact west flank contrasts sharply with its steep east face. Snow and ice-filled South Sister is a bimodal rhyolitic-intermediate edifice that was constructed between 50 ka and 2 ka; its crater (rim at 10,358 ft) was created between 30 and 22 ka, during the most recent of several explosive summit eruptions; the thin oxidized agglutinate that mantles its current crater rim protects a 150-m-thick pyroclastic sequence that helped fill a much larger crater. For each of the three, the eruptive volume is likely to have been in the range of 15 to 25 km³, but such estimates are fairly uncertain, owing to glacial erosion. The map area consists exclusively of Quaternary volcanic rocks and derivative surficial deposits. Although most of the area has been modified by glaciation, the volcanoes are young enough that the landforms remain largely constructional. Furthermore, twelve of the 145 eruptive units on the map are postglacial, younger than the deglaciation that was underway by about 17 ka. The most recent eruptions were of rhyolite near South Sister, about 2,000 years ago, and of mafic magma near McKenzie Pass, about 1,500 years ago. As observed by trailblazing volcanologist

  9. Living with a brother or sister with epilepsy: siblings' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Annette; Appleton, Richard

    2009-12-01

    There is conflicting evidence about the impact of disability upon siblings, and very little research on the siblings of children with epilepsy. There is some evidence that siblings who have less accurate information exhibit more distress. The aim of this study was to assess siblings' response to having a brother or sister with epilepsy and to begin to develop information for them. Parents of children attending paediatric neurology outpatient departments were invited to participate in a pilot study. Parents who consented to take part were asked if they had previously received information for siblings. Parents and siblings participated in a semi-structured interview and siblings were also invited to submit a personal account of living with a brother or sister who had epilepsy. Twenty-five families with a child with epilepsy aged 2.5-15 years initially agreed to take part. None of the families stated that they had ever seen or received any information specifically for siblings. Fourteen siblings from the 25 families, aged 8-25 years, provided a personal account of what it was like living with a brother or sister with epilepsy. Siblings' accounts included both negative and positive feelings, and specifically feelings of care and love for their sibling. This initial study suggests that siblings of children with epilepsy have many positive but also early negative feelings. The results are limited by the size of the study, the fact that most siblings were older sisters, and the mean time since diagnosis was 6 years. Finally, it is hoped that the personal accounts collected in this study will be published for the benefit of other siblings of children with epilepsy.

  10. Broad phylogenomic sampling and the sister lineage of land plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Timme

    Full Text Available The tremendous diversity of land plants all descended from a single charophyte green alga that colonized the land somewhere between 430 and 470 million years ago. Six orders of charophyte green algae, in addition to embryophytes, comprise the Streptophyta s.l. Previous studies have focused on reconstructing the phylogeny of organisms tied to this key colonization event, but wildly conflicting results have sparked a contentious debate over which lineage gave rise to land plants. The dominant view has been that 'stoneworts,' or Charales, are the sister lineage, but an alternative hypothesis supports the Zygnematales (often referred to as "pond scum" as the sister lineage. In this paper, we provide a well-supported, 160-nuclear-gene phylogenomic analysis supporting the Zygnematales as the closest living relative to land plants. Our study makes two key contributions to the field: 1 the use of an unbiased method to collect a large set of orthologs from deeply diverging species and 2 the use of these data in determining the sister lineage to land plants. We anticipate this updated phylogeny not only will hugely impact lesson plans in introductory biology courses, but also will provide a solid phylogenetic tree for future green-lineage research, whether it be related to plants or green algae.

  11. Unequal subfamily proportions among honey bee queen and worker brood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilley; Oldroyd

    1997-12-01

    Queens from three colonies of feral honey bees, Apis mellifera were removed and placed in separate nucleus colonies. For each colony, eggs and larvae were taken from the nucleus and placed in the main hive on each of 3-4 consecutive weeks. Workers in the queenless parts selected young larvae to rear as queens. Queen pupae, together with the surrounding worker pupae, were removed from each colony and analysed at two to three microsatellite loci to determine their paternity. In all three colonies, the paternity of larvae chosen by the bees to rear as queens was not a random sample of the paternities in the worker brood, with certain subfamilies being over-represented in queens. These results support an important prediction of kin selection theory: when colonies are queenless, unequal relatedness within colonies could lead to the evolution of reproductive competition, that is some subfamilies achieving greater reproductive success than others. The mechanism by which such dominance is achieved could be through a system of kin recognition and nepotism, but we conclude that genetically based differential attractiveness of larvae for rearing as queens is more likely.Copyright 1997 The Association for the Study of Animal BehaviourCopyright 1997The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  12. Unequal arm space-borne gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, Shane L.; Hellings, Ronald W.; Hiscock, William A.

    2002-01-01

    Unlike ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors, large space-based systems will not be rigid structures. When the end stations of the laser interferometer are freely flying spacecraft, the armlengths will change due to variations in the spacecraft positions along their orbital trajectories, so the precise equality of the arms that is required in a laboratory interferometer to cancel laser phase noise is not possible. However, using a method discovered by Tinto and Armstrong, a signal can be constructed in which laser phase noise exactly cancels out, even in an unequal arm interferometer. We examine the case where the ratio of the armlengths is a variable parameter, and compute the averaged gravitational wave transfer function as a function of that parameter. Example sensitivity curve calculations are presented for the expected design parameters of the proposed LISA interferometer, comparing it to a similar instrument with one arm shortened by a factor of 100, showing how the ratio of the armlengths will affect the overall sensitivity of the instrument

  13. Quasi-human seniority-order algorithm for unequal circles packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Dingju

    2016-01-01

    In the existing methods for solving unequal circles packing problems, the initial configuration is given arbitrarily or randomly, but the impact of different initial configurations for existing packing algorithm to the speed of existing packing algorithm solving unequal circles packing problems is very large. The quasi-human seniority-order algorithm proposed in this paper can generate a better initial configuration for existing packing algorithm to accelerate the speed of existing packing algorithm solving unequal circles packing problems. In experiments, the quasi-human seniority-order algorithm is applied to generate better initial configurations for quasi-physical elasticity methods to solve the unequal circles packing problems, and the experimental results show that the proposed quasi-human seniority-order algorithm can greatly improve the speed of solving the problem.

  14. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shervin Assari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks’ diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks, policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States.

  15. The MCM-binding protein ETG1 aids sister chromatid cohesion required for postreplicative homologous recombination repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The DNA replication process represents a source of DNA stress that causes potentially spontaneous genome damage. This effect might be strengthened by mutations in crucial replication factors, requiring the activation of DNA damage checkpoints to enable DNA repair before anaphase onset. Here, we demonstrate that depletion of the evolutionarily conserved minichromosome maintenance helicase-binding protein ETG1 of Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in a stringent late G2 cell cycle arrest. This arrest correlated with a partial loss of sister chromatid cohesion. The lack-of-cohesion phenotype was intensified in plants without functional CTF18, a replication fork factor needed for cohesion establishment. The synergistic effect of the etg1 and ctf18 mutants on sister chromatid cohesion strengthened the impact on plant growth of the replication stress caused by ETG1 deficiency because of inefficient DNA repair. We conclude that the ETG1 replication factor is required for efficient cohesion and that cohesion establishment is essential for proper development of plants suffering from endogenous DNA stress. Cohesion defects observed upon knockdown of its human counterpart suggest an equally important developmental role for the orthologous mammalian ETG1 protein.

  16. Using the PLUM procedure of SPSS to fit unequal variance and generalized signal detection models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarlo, Lawrence T

    2003-02-01

    The recent addition of aprocedure in SPSS for the analysis of ordinal regression models offers a simple means for researchers to fit the unequal variance normal signal detection model and other extended signal detection models. The present article shows how to implement the analysis and how to interpret the SPSS output. Examples of fitting the unequal variance normal model and other generalized signal detection models are given. The approach offers a convenient means for applying signal detection theory to a variety of research.

  17. Familial Churg-Strauss Syndrome in a Sister and Brother.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyasin, Soheyla; Khoshkhui, Maryam; Amin, Reza

    2015-06-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS) is a granulomatous small vessel vasculitis. It is characterized by asthma, allergic granulomatosis and vasculitis. This syndrome is rare in children. A 5 years old boy was admitted with cough, fever and dyspnea for 2 weeks. On the basis of laboratory data (peripheral eosinophilia), associated with skin biopsy, and history of CSS in his sister, this disease was eventually diagnosed. The patient had good response to corticosteroid. In every asthmatic patient with prolonged fever, eosinophilia and multisystemic involvment, CSS should be considered.

  18. Sister-chromatid exchanges in nuclear fuel workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhavathi, P. Aruna; Fatima, Shehla K.; Padmavathi, P.; Kumari, C. Kusuma; Reddy, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures of 116 smokers and 80 non-smokers who were occupationally exposed to uranyl compounds were analysed for sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs). Blood samples were collected from 59 non-smokers (control group I) and 47 smokers (control group II) who were not exposed to uranium for control data. A significant increase in SCEs was observed among both smokers and non-smokers exposed to uranyl compounds when compared to their respective controls. In controls, a significant increase in the frequency of SCEs was observed in smokers when compared to non-smokers

  19. Dealing with conflict - The role of the ward sister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Cremer

    1980-09-01

    Full Text Available In the course of her duties, the ward sister has to contend with many forms of conflict, discord and dissension. These involve conflict of the intrapersonal, interpersonal and intergroup varieties. Conflict is in the main, disruptive and dysfunctional. Skilful management, however, embodying cooperative effort in its reduction can produce constructive and positive results. Conflict management strategies are therefore either restrictive or constructive. Persons in serious conflict suffer varied degrees of personality disequilibrium, which necessitates emotional first aid or crisis intervention. Such primary preventive care is applicable to patients, their relatives, and members of the nursing staff in such need.

  20. [Wolfram syndrome: clinical and genetic analysis in two sisters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conart, J-B; Maalouf, T; Jonveaux, P; Guerci, B; Angioi, K

    2011-10-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a severe genetic disorder defined by the association of diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy, deafness, and diabetes insipidus. Two sisters complained of progressive visual loss. Fundus examination evidenced optic atrophy. Their past medical history revealed diabetes mellitus and deafness since childhood. The association of these symptoms made the diagnosis of Wolfram syndrome possible. It was confirmed by molecular analysis, which evidenced composite WFS1 heterozygous mutations inherited from both their mother and father. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility of Wolfram syndrome when diagnosing optic atrophy in diabetic children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  2. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  3. Sister chromosome pairing maintains heterozygosity in parthenogenetic lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, Aracely A; Neaves, William B; Baumann, Diana P; Wiegraebe, Winfried; Baumann, Peter

    2010-03-11

    Although bisexual reproduction has proven to be highly successful, parthenogenetic all-female populations occur frequently in certain taxa, including the whiptail lizards of the genus Aspidoscelis. Allozyme analysis revealed a high degree of fixed heterozygosity in these parthenogenetic species, supporting the view that they originated from hybridization events between related sexual species. It has remained unclear how the meiotic program is altered to produce diploid eggs while maintaining heterozygosity. Here we show that meiosis commences with twice the number of chromosomes in parthenogenetic versus sexual species, a mechanism that provides the basis for generating gametes with unreduced chromosome content without fundamental deviation from the classic meiotic program. Our observation of synaptonemal complexes and chiasmata demonstrate that a typical meiotic program occurs and that heterozygosity is not maintained by bypassing recombination. Instead, fluorescent in situ hybridization probes that distinguish between homologues reveal that bivalents form between sister chromosomes, the genetically identical products of the first of two premeiotic replication cycles. Sister chromosome pairing provides a mechanism for the maintenance of heterozygosity, which is critical for offsetting the reduced fitness associated with the lack of genetic diversity in parthenogenetic species.

  4. Cortical Pathology in RRMS: Taking a Cue from Four Sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Calabrese

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although grey matter pathology is a relevant aspect of multiple sclerosis (MS both with physical and cognitive rebounds, its pathogenesis is still under investigation. To what extent the familial and sporadic cases of MS differ in cortical pathology has not been elucidated yet. Here we present a multiple case report of four sisters affected by MS, all of them having a very high burden of cortical pathology. Methods. The clinical and grey matter MRI parameters of the patients were compared with those of twenty-five-aged matched healthy women and 25 women affected by sporadic MS (matched for age, disease duration, EDSS, and white matter lesion load. Results. Despite their short disease duration (<5 years, the four sisters showed a significant cortical thinning compared to healthy controls ( and sporadic MS ( and higher CLs number ( and volume ( compared to sporadic MS. Discussion. Although limited to a single family, our observation is worth of interest since it suggests that familial factors may account for a peculiar involvement of the cortex in MS pathology. This hypothesis should be further evaluated in a large number of multiplex MS families.

  5. Unequal Gain of Equal Resources across Racial Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2017-08-05

    The health effects of economic resources (eg, education, employment, and living place) and psychological assets (eg, self-efficacy, perceived control over life, anger control, and emotions) are well-known. This article summarizes the results of a growing body of evidence documenting Blacks' diminished return, defined as a systematically smaller health gain from economic resources and psychological assets for Blacks in comparison to Whites. Due to structural barriers that Blacks face in their daily lives, the very same resources and assets generate smaller health gain for Blacks compared to Whites. Even in the presence of equal access to resources and assets, such unequal health gain constantly generates a racial health gap between Blacks and Whites in the United States. In this paper, a number of public policies are recommended based on these findings. First and foremost, public policies should not merely focus on equalizing access to resources and assets, but also reduce the societal and structural barriers that hinder Blacks. Policy solutions should aim to reduce various manifestations of structural racism including but not limited to differential pay, residential segregation, lower quality of education, and crime in Black and urban communities. As income was not found to follow the same pattern demonstrated for other resources and assets (ie, income generated similar decline in risk of mortality for Whites and Blacks), policies that enforce equal income and increase minimum wage for marginalized populations are essential. Improving quality of education of youth and employability of young adults will enable Blacks to compete for high paying jobs. Policies that reduce racism and discrimination in the labor market are also needed. Without such policies, it will be very difficult, if not impossible, to eliminate the sustained racial health gap in the United States. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open

  6. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  7. Interview: Tatyana Lipovskaya, Sisters Sexual Assault Recovery Centre, Moscow, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-01

    The Sisters' Sexual Assault Recovery Center was established in Moscow, Russia, in 1993, to address the needs of victims of sexual violence. The Center's help-line received 4029 crisis calls in 1994-97. Most clients are seeking information about medical services or legal aid. Others call about employment, HIV/AIDS, alcoholism, and drug abuse. Services are available without regard to age, sex, occupation, or sexual orientation. Program funding has come entirely from Western foundations and organizations. Although Russia has not passed a law on domestic violence, the post-Communism government is reluctantly starting to acknowledge that rape and domestic violence are serious social problems. The Center runs an educational program for law enforcement officers to increase their sensitivity and create an environment of safety for women who report sexual violence.

  8. Mercury poisoning in two 13-year-old twin sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezzat Khodashenas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mercury (Hg is a toxic agent that evaporates in room temperature and its inhalation may cause poisoning. Due to the nonspecific symptoms, diagnosis is difficult in special circumstances with no initial history of Hg exposure. We report two such cases of Hg poisoning. The patients were two sisters, presenting with pain in extremities, itchy rashes, sweating, salivation, weakness, and mood changes. They have used a compound that contains mercury, for treatment of pedicullosis three months before admission. This compound was purchased from a herbal shop and was applied locally on the scalps for 2 days. Their urinary mercury concentrations were 50 and 70 mg/L. They were successfully treated by D-penicillamine and gabapentin. In a patient with any kind of bone and joint pain, skin rash erythema and peripheral neuropathy, mercury poisoning should be considered as a differential diagnosis.

  9. Elastatinal and leupeptin: effects on u.v.-induced mutation and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.; Fujiwara, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Microbial protease inhibitors elastatinal and leupeptin were tested for cytotoxicity and for effects on spontaneous and u.v.-induced 6-thioguanine-resistant (6TGsup(r)) mutation and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in V79 Chinese hamster cells. Continuous treatment with elastatinal exhibited marked cytotoxicity, while leupeptin was almost non-cytotoxic. Elastatinal rapidly induced cytotoxic effects as a function of its concentration and time of exposure. Near maximum cytotoxicity was reached after exposures of 6-8 h and this was partially abolished by the presence of 2.5 μg cycloheximide per ml. Concentrations of either protease inhibitor which gave 60-80% survival had no appreciable effects on u.v. survival and frequencies of spontaneous and u.v.-induced 6TGsup(r) mutation and SCE. However, reconstruction experiments revealed that pretreatments of 6TGsup(r) and 6TGsup(s) (wild-type) cells with these inhibitors for 6 days tended to block metabolic co-operation in their co-cultures. Thus, elastatinal and leupeptin are neither clastogenic nor mutagenic by themselves, and do not alter mutation fixation and expression. (author)

  10. Elastatinal and leupeptin: effects on u.v.-induced mutation and sister-chromatid exchanges in Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, P.; Fujiwara, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Microbial protease inhibitors elastatinal and leupeptin were tested for cytotoxicity and for effects on spontaneous and u.v.-induced 6-thioguanine-resistant (6TGr) mutation and sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) in V79 Chinese hamster cells. Continuous treatment with elastatinal exhibited marked cytotoxicity, while leupeptin was almost non-cytotoxic. Elastatinal rapidly induced cytotoxic effects as a function of its concentration and time of exposure. Near maximum cytotoxicity was reached after exposure of 6-8 h and this was partially abolished by the presence of 2.5 micrograms cycloheximide per ml. Concentrations of either protease inhibitor which gave 60-80% survival had no appreciable effects on u.v. survival and frequencies of spontaneous and u.v.-induced 6TGr mutation and SCE. However, reconstruction experiments revealed that pretreatments of 6TGr and 6TGs (wild-type) cells with these inhibitors for 6 days tended to block metabolic co-operation in their co-cultures. Thus, elastatinal and leupeptin are neither clastogenic mutagenic by themselves, and do not alter mutation fixation and expression

  11. Spinal involvement in Camptodactyly Arthropathy Coxa-vara Pericarditis (CACP) syndrome in two Yemeni sisters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emad, Yasser; Ragab, Yasser; Ibrahim, Osama; Khalifa, Maher; Dawood, Ahmed; Rasker, Johannes J.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the work The objective of this clinical report is to describe the detailed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of the spine, knee and hip joints in two young sisters with Camptodactyly Arthropathy Coxa-vara Pericarditis (CACP) syndrome. Cases report In two young sisters, both had normal

  12. Brothers and Sisters of Adults with Mental Retardation: Gendered Nature of the Sibling Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsmond, Gael I.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2000-01-01

    Differences and similarities between 245 brothers and sisters of adults with mental retardation in the sibling relationship were examined. Sisters scored higher in the caregiving, companionship, and positive affect aspects of the sibling relationship. Sibling involvement increased over time, but was dependent upon changes in maternal health.…

  13. 20 CFR 725.225 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. 725.225 Section 725.225 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION... Benefits) § 725.225 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner...

  14. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome in young Hispanic women: findings from the national Sister to Sister campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Fátima; Naderi, Sahar; Wang, Yun; Johnson, Caitlin E; Foody, JoAnne M

    2013-04-01

    Hispanics are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population and have a higher prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors as compared with non-Hispanic whites. Further data suggests that Hispanics have undiagnosed complications of metabolic syndrome, namely diabetes mellitus, at an earlier age. We sought to better understand the epidemiology of metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women using data from a large, community-based health screening program. Using data from the Sister to Sister: The Women's Heart Health Foundation community health fairs from 2008 to 2009 held in 17 U.S. cities, we sought to characterize how cardiometabolic risk profiles vary across age for women by race and ethnicity. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) guidelines, which included three or more of the following: Waist circumference ≥35 inches, triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) <50 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mmHg, or a fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL. A total of 6843 community women were included in the analyses. Metabolic syndrome had a prevalence of 35%. The risk-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome in Hispanic women versus white women was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.4, 2.0). Dyslipidemia was the strongest predictor of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic women. This disparity appeared most pronounced for younger women. Additional predictors of metabolic syndrome included black race, increasing age, and smoking. In a large, nationally representative sample of women, we found that metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent among young Hispanic women. Efforts specifically targeted to identifying these high-risk women are necessary to prevent the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with metabolic syndrome.

  15. Harmonic elimination technique for a single-phase multilevel converter with unequal DC link voltage levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, N.; Zare, F.; Boora, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multilevel converters, because of the benefits they attract in generating high quality output voltage, are used in several applications. Various modulation and control techniques are introduced by several researchers to control the output voltage of the multilevel converters like space vector...... modulation and harmonic elimination (HE) methods. Multilevel converters may have a DC link with equal or unequal DC voltages. In this study a new HE technique based on the HE method is proposed for multilevel converters with unequal DC link voltage. The DC link voltage levels are considered as additional...

  16. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  17. The association between unequal parental treatment and the sibling relationship in Finland: The difference between full and half-siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsbacka, Mirkka; Tanskanen, Antti O

    2015-06-24

    Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults), we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206) from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  18. The Association between Unequal Parental Treatment and the Sibling Relationship in Finland: The Difference between Full and Half-Siblings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkka Danielsbacka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that unequal parental treatment is associated with relationship quality between siblings. However, it is unclear how it affects the relationship between full and half-siblings. Using data from the Generational Transmissions in Finland project (n = 1,537 younger adults, we study whether those who have half-siblings perceive more unequal parental treatment than those who have full siblings only. In addition, we study how unequal parental treatment is associated with sibling relationship between full, maternal, and paternal half-siblings. First, we found that individuals who have maternal and/or paternal half-siblings are more likely to have encountered unequal maternal treatment than individuals who have full siblings only. Second, we found that unequal parental treatment impairs full as well as maternal and paternal half-sibling relations in adulthood. Third, unequal parental treatment mediates the effect of genetic relatedness on sibling relations in the case of maternal half-siblings, but not in the case of paternal half-siblings. After controlling for unequal parental treatment, the quality of maternal half-sibling relationships did not differ from that of full siblings, whereas the quality of paternal half-sibling relationships still did. Fourth, the qualitative comments (n = 206 from the same population reveal that unequal parental treatment presents itself several ways, such as differential financial, emotional, or practical support.

  19. Definition of spontaneous reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his view of driven versus spontaneous. There is a close link between ''spontaneous'' and ''instability.'' One of the prominent examples for instability is the thermal convection instability. Just to remind you, if you heat a fluid layer from below, it takes a certain Rayleigh number to make it unstable. Beyond the onset point you find qualitatively new features. That is called ''spontaneous,'' and this is a bit more than semantics. It's a new qualitative property that appears and it is spontaneous although we have an energy flux through the system. It's a misconception, to call this ''driven'' pointing at the energy flux through it. Of course, the convection would not exist without this energy flux. But what makes it ''spontaneous'' is that without any particular external signal, a new qualitative feature appears. And this is what is called an ''instability'' and ''spontaneous.'' From these considerations the author got a little reassured of what distinction should be made in the field of the magnetosphere. If we have a smooth energy transport into the magnetosphere and suddenly we have this qualitatively new feature (change of B-topology) coming up; then, using this terminology we don't have a choice other than calling this spontaneous or unstable, if you like. If we ''tell'' the system where it should make its neutral line and where it should make its plasmoids, then, it is driven. And this provides a very clear-cut observational distinction. The author emphasizes the difference he sees is a qualitative difference, not only a quantitative one

  20. Multi-type Step-wise group screening designs with unequal A-priori ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... design with unequal group sizes and obtain values of the group sizes that minimize the expected number of runs.. Keywords: Group Screening, Group factors, multi-type step-wise group screening, expected number of runs, Optimum group screening designs > East African Journal of Statistics Vol. 1 (1) 2005: pp. 49-67 ...

  1. Taxation and the unequal reach of the state: mapping state capacity in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, I.

    2015-01-01

    Even though the unequal reach of the state has become an important concern in the literature on developing democracies in Latin America, empirical measures of intracountry variation in state capacity are scarce. So far, attempts to develop valid measures of the reach of the state have often been

  2. Direct fourier method reconstruction based on unequally spaced fast fourier transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xiaofeng; Zhao Ming; Liu Li

    2003-01-01

    First, We give an Unequally Spaced Fast Fourier Transform (USFFT) method, which is more exact and theoretically more comprehensible than its former counterpart. Then, with an interesting interpolation scheme, we discusse how to apply USFFT to Direct Fourier Method (DFM) reconstruction of parallel projection data. At last, an emulation experiment result is given. (authors)

  3. Selections from Unequal Partners: Teaching about Power, Consent, and Healthy Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    deFur, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The Center for Sex Education recently published the fourth edition of "Unequal Partners: Teaching about Power, Consent, and Healthy Relationships, Volumes 1 and 2." Included here are two lesson plans about sexual consent selected from each volume. "What does it take … to give sexual consent?" [Sue Montfort and Peggy Brick] is…

  4. Ecological Unequal Exchange: International Trade and Uneven Utilization of Environmental Space in the World System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, James

    2007-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that international trade influences disproportionate cross-national utilization of global renewable natural resources. Such uneven dynamics are relevant to the consideration of inequitable appropriation of environmental space in particular and processes of ecological unequal exchange more generally. Using OLS regression…

  5. Globalization as Continuing Colonialism: Critical Global Citizenship Education in an Unequal World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikander, Pia

    2016-01-01

    In an unequal world, education about global inequality can be seen as a controversial but necessary topic for social science to deal with. Even though the world no longer consists of colonies and colonial powers, many aspects of the global economy follow the same patterns as during colonial times, with widening gaps between the world's richest and…

  6. Wide brick tunnel randomization - an unequal allocation procedure that limits the imbalance in treatment totals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Olga M; Tymofyeyev, Yevgen

    2014-04-30

    In open-label studies, partial predictability of permuted block randomization provides potential for selection bias. To lessen the selection bias in two-arm studies with equal allocation, a number of allocation procedures that limit the imbalance in treatment totals at a pre-specified level but do not require the exact balance at the ends of the blocks were developed. In studies with unequal allocation, however, the task of designing a randomization procedure that sets a pre-specified limit on imbalance in group totals is not resolved. Existing allocation procedures either do not preserve the allocation ratio at every allocation or do not include all allocation sequences that comply with the pre-specified imbalance threshold. Kuznetsova and Tymofyeyev described the brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that preserves the allocation ratio at every step and, in the two-arm case, includes all sequences that satisfy the smallest possible imbalance threshold. This article introduces wide brick tunnel randomization for studies with unequal allocation that allows all allocation sequences with imbalance not exceeding any pre-specified threshold while preserving the allocation ratio at every step. In open-label studies, allowing a larger imbalance in treatment totals lowers selection bias because of the predictability of treatment assignments. The applications of the technique in two-arm and multi-arm open-label studies with unequal allocation are described. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Retaliation against reporters of unequal treatment: Failing employee protection in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.; van Genugten, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Equal treatment in the workplace is considered one of the most fundamental rights of employees. This right also implies that employees must be able to address any form of unequal treatment freely and effectively, without fear of retaliation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the

  8. Benign multicystic mesothelioma: a case report of three sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rutherford

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Benign multicystic mesothelioma (BMCM is a rare tumor of the abdomen-peritoneum of unknown etiology. This benign tumor was initially described by Plaut in 1928 when he observed loose cysts in the pelvis during a surgery for a uterine leiomyoma.2 The mesothelial origin was later confirmed by electron micro-scopy by Mennemeyer and Smith in 1979.3 To date, there are approximately 140 cases of BMCM reported in the literature.4 This disease primarily occurs in pre-menopausal women and is associated with a history of pelvic inflammatory disease, prior abdominal surgery, and endometriosis.4,5 The pathogenesis of this disease remains controversial, with possible etiologies including a neoplastic versus a reactive process.5 In the literature, a few case reports discuss a possible genetic or familial association with BMCM.6 Specifically, one report describes a man with familial Mediterranean fever who developed BMCM. Although familial Mediter-ranean fever is associated with malignant mesothelioma, he had only BMCM, and did not suffer from malignant mesothelioma.6 A genetic evaluation and chromosomal analysis were not able to identify a specific genetic cause of the family’s pattern of disease. This case report describes two female siblings diagnosed with BMCM. In addition, a third sister also had findings consistent with BMCM, however, the discrete histological diagnosis was never confirmed.

  9. The unforgotten sisters female astronomers and scientists before Caroline Herschel

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardi, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Taking inspiration from Siv Cedering’s poem in the form of a fictional letter from Caroline Herschel that refers to “my long, lost sisters, forgotten in the books that record our science”, this book tells the lives of twenty-five female scientists, with specific attention to astronomers and mathematicians. Each of the presented biographies is organized as a kind of "personal file" which sets the biographee’s life in its historical context, documents her main works, highlights some curious facts, and records citations about her. The selected figures are among the most representative of this neglected world, including such luminaries as Hypatia of Alexandra, Hildegard of Bingen, Elisabetha Hevelius, and Maria Gaetana Agnesi. They span a period of about 4000 years, from En HeduAnna, the Akkadian princess, who was one of the first recognized female astronomers, to the dawn of the era of modern astronomy with Caroline Herschel and Mary Somerville. The book will be of interest to all who wish to learn more ...

  10. Narrative research on mental health recovery: two sister paradigms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector-Mersel, Gabriela; Knaifel, Evgeny

    2017-06-24

    Despite the breadth of narrative studies on individuals with severe mental illness, the suitability of narrative inquiry to exploring mental health recovery (MHR) has not been examined. (1) Examining the appropriateness of narrative inquiry to studying MHR; (2) assessing the extent to which narrative studies on MHR conform to the unique features of narrative research, as a distinctive form of qualitative inquiry. Review of empirical, theoretical and methodological literature on recovery and narrative inquiry. Considering the perspectives of recovery and narrative as paradigms, the similarity between their ontology and epistemology is shown, evident in 10 common emphases: meaning, identity, change and development, agency, holism, culture, uniqueness, context, language and giving voice. The resemblance between these "sister" paradigms makes narrative methodology especially fruitful for accessing the experiences of individuals in recovery. Reviewing narrative studies on MHR suggests that, currently, narrative research's uniqueness, centered on the holistic principle, is blurred on the philosophical, methodological and textual levels. Well-established narrative research has major implications for practice and policy in recovery-oriented mental health care. The narrative inquiry paradigm offers a possible path to enhancing the distinctive virtues of this research, realizing its potential in understanding and promoting MHR.

  11. The Politics of Exile: Ama Ata Aidoo's Our Sister Killjoy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gay Wilentz

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Ama Ata Aidoo's Our Sister Killjoy or Reflections from a Black-Eyed Squint is a relentless attack on the notions of exile as relief from the societal constraints of national development and freedom to live in a cultural environment conducive to creativity. In this personalized prose/poem, Aidoo questions certain prescribed theories of exile (including the reasons for exile—particularly among African men. The novel exposes a rarely heard viewpoint in literature in English—that of the African woman exile. Aidoo's protagonist Sissie, as the "eye" of her people, is a sojourner in the "civilized" world of the colonizers. In this article, I examine Aidoo's challenge to prevailing theories of exile, her questioning of the supposed superiority of European culture for the colonial subject, and her exposé of the politics of exile for African self-exile. Through a combination of prose, poetry, oral voicing and letter writing, Aidoo's Sissie reports back to her home community what she sees in the land of the colonizers and confronts those exiles who have forgotten their duty to their native land.

  12. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  13. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  14. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  15. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  16. [The work of Moscow communities of Sisters of Charity in own medical institutions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, K V

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the medical activities of Moscow communities of Sisters of Charity in curative and educational institutions organized by the communities themselves. The social ministration of communities on the territory of Moscow is considered.

  17. Psychopathology, childhood trauma, and personality traits in patients with borderline personality disorder and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Lise; Paris, Joel; Guttman, Herta; Russell, Jennifer

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to document and compare adverse childhood experiences, and personality profiles in women with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and their sisters, and to determine how these factors impact current psychopathology. Fifty-six patients with BPD and their sisters were compared on measures assessing psychopathology, personality traits, and childhood adversities. Most sisters showed little evidence of psychopathology. Both groups reported dysfunctional parent-child relationships and a high prevalence of childhood trauma. Subjects with BPD reported experiencing more emotional abuse and intrafamilial sexual abuse, but more similarities than differences between probands and sisters were found. In multilevel analyses, personality traits of affective instability and impulsivity predicted DIB-R scores and SCL-90-R scores, above and beyond trauma. There were few relationships between childhood adversities and other measures of psychopathology. Sensitivity to adverse experiences, as reflected in the development of psychopathology, appears to be influenced by personality trait profiles.

  18. 20 CFR 410.340 - Determination of relationship; parent, brother, or sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... domiciled (see § 410.392) at the time of his death would find, under the law they would apply in determining..., brother, or sister. Where, under such law, the individual does not bear the relationship to the miner of...

  19. Catholic nursing sisters and brothers and racial justice in mid-20th-century America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Barbra Mann

    2009-01-01

    This historical article considers nursing's work for social justice in the 1960s civil rights movement through the lens of religious sisters and brothers who advocated for racial equality. The article examines Catholic nurses' work with African Americans in the mid-20th century that took place amid the prevailing social conditions of poverty and racial disempowerment, conditions that were linked to serious health consequences. Historical methodology is used within the framework of "bearing witness," a term often used in relation to the civil rights movement and one the sisters themselves employed. Two situations involving nurses in the mid-20th century are examined: the civil rights movement in Selma, Alabama, and the actions for racial justice in Chicago, Illinois. The thoughts and actions of Catholic sister and brother nurses in the mid-20th century are chronicled, including those few sister nurses who stepped outside their ordinary roles in an attempt to change an unjust system entirely.

  20. Colchicine promotes a change in chromosome structure without loss of sister chromatid cohesion in prometaphase I-arrested bivalents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, E M; Parra, M T; Rufas, J S; Suja, J A

    2001-12-01

    In somatic cells colchicine promotes the arrest of cell division at prometaphase, and chromosomes show a sequential loss of sister chromatid arm and centromere cohesion. In this study we used colchicine to analyse possible changes in chromosome structure and sister chromatid cohesion in prometaphase I-arrested bivalents of the katydid Pycnogaster cucullata. After silver staining we observed that in colchicine-arrested prometaphase I bivalents, and in contrast to what was found in control bivalents, sister kinetochores appeared individualised and sister chromatid axes were completely separated all along their length. However, this change in chromosome structure occurred without loss of sister chromatid arm cohesion. We also employed the MPM-2 monoclonal antibody against mitotic phosphoproteins on control and colchicine-treated spermatocytes. In control metaphase I bivalents this antibody labelled the tightly associated sister kinetochores and the interchromatid domain. By contrast, in colchicine-treated prometaphase I bivalents individualised sister kinetochores appeared labelled, but the interchromatid domain did not show labelling. These results support the notion that MPM-2 phosphoproteins, probably DNA topoisomerase IIalpha, located in the interchromatid domain act as "chromosomal staples" associating sister chromatid axes in metaphase I bivalents. The disappearance of these chromosomal staples would induce a change in chromosome structure, as reflected by the separation of sister kinetochores and sister axes, but without a concomitant loss of sister chromatid cohesion.

  1. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  3. Analysis of covariance with pre-treatment measurements in randomized trials: comparison of equal and unequal slopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funatogawa, Ikuko; Funatogawa, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    In randomized trials, an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) is often used to analyze post-treatment measurements with pre-treatment measurements as a covariate to compare two treatment groups. Random allocation guarantees only equal variances of pre-treatment measurements. We hence consider data with unequal covariances and variances of post-treatment measurements without assuming normality. Recently, we showed that the actual type I error rate of the usual ANCOVA assuming equal slopes and equal residual variances is asymptotically at a nominal level under equal sample sizes, and that of the ANCOVA with unequal variances is asymptotically at a nominal level, even under unequal sample sizes. In this paper, we investigated the asymptotic properties of the ANCOVA with unequal slopes for such data. The estimators of the treatment effect at the observed mean are identical between equal and unequal variance assumptions, and these are asymptotically normal estimators for the treatment effect at the true mean. However, the variances of these estimators based on standard formulas are biased, and the actual type I error rates are not at a nominal level, irrespective of variance assumptions. In equal sample sizes, the efficiency of the usual ANCOVA assuming equal slopes and equal variances is asymptotically the same as those of the ANCOVA with unequal slopes and higher than that of the ANCOVA with equal slopes and unequal variances. Therefore, the use of the usual ANCOVA is appropriate in equal sample sizes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Do brothers and sisters of siblings with intelectual disability need the support of social work?

    OpenAIRE

    Cardová, Michaela

    2007-01-01

    This thesis explores the experience and support needs of siblings with a brother or sister with intellectual disability. Through review of what is a quite limited literature and from original qualitative research, involving interviews with siblings, the author examines their social reality, focusing especially on their relationships with their disabled brother or sister and with the wider society. Particular attention is given to identifying to what extent the siblings' lives are influenced b...

  5. Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes

    OpenAIRE

    Pongsavee Malinee

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. Methods The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0...

  6. Numerical study of two side-by-side cylinders with unequal diameters at low Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y Y; Wang, X K; Tan, S K

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional laminar flow about two side-by-side unequal cylinders with different diameter ratios d/D and centre-to-centre spacing ratios T/D at Re=300 (based on the larger cylinder diameter) was simulated using a CFD software. Comparisons of experimental and numerical results were made to elucidate the degree of interference due to d/D and T/D and their effects on the flow patterns and vortex shedding frequencies. The findings showed that the flow patterns behind two unequal cylinders were distinctly different from that behind two equal side-by-side cylinders, with distinct in-phase and anti-phase vortex shedding, and random switching of modes of vortex shedding.

  7. Effect of unequal fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers on flame dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Tariq [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, MI 48128-1491 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    The interaction of non-unity Lewis number (due to preferential diffusion and/or unequal rates of heat and mass transfer) with the coupled effect of radiation, chemistry and unsteadiness alters several characteristics of a flame. The present study numerically investigates this interaction with a particular emphasis on the effect of unequal and non-unity fuel and oxidizer Lewis numbers in a transient diffusion flame. The unsteadiness is simulated by considering the flame subjected to modulations in reactant concentration. Flames with different Lewis numbers (ranging from 0.5 to 2) and subjected to different modulating frequencies are considered. The results show that the coupled effect of Lewis number and unsteadiness strongly influences the flame dynamics. The impact is stronger at high modulating frequencies and strain rates, particularly for large values of Lewis numbers. Compared to the oxidizer side Lewis number, the fuel side Lewis number has greater influence on flame dynamics. (author)

  8. Load bearing capacity of welded joints between dissimilar pipelines with unequal wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Jonghyun; Kim, Youngpyo; Kim, Woosik [Korea Gas Corporation, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The behavior of the load bearing capacity of a pipeline with unequal wall thickness was evaluated using finite element analyses. Pipelines with a wall thickness ratio of 1.22-1.89 were adopted to investigate plastic collapse under tensile, internal pressure, or bending stress. A parametric study showed that the tensile strength and moment of a pipeline with a wall thickness ratio less than 1.5 were not influenced by the wall thickness ratio and taper angle; however, those of a pipeline with a wall thickness ratio more than 1.5 decreased considerably at a low taper angle. The failure pressure of a pipeline with unequal wall thickness was not influenced by the wall thickness ratio and taper angle.

  9. Modeling imperfectly repaired system data via grey differential equations with unequal-gapped times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Renkuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that grey differential equation models are useful in repairable system modeling. The arguments starts with the review on GM(1,1) model with equal- and unequal-spaced stopping time sequence. In terms of two-stage GM(1,1) filtering, system stopping time can be partitioned into system intrinsic function and repair effect. Furthermore, we propose an approach to use grey differential equation to specify a semi-statistical membership function for system intrinsic function times. Also, we engage an effort to use GM(1,N) model to model system stopping times and the associated operating covariates and propose an unequal-gapped GM(1,N) model for such analysis. Finally, we investigate the GM(1,1)-embed systematic grey equation system modeling of imperfectly repaired system operating data. Practical examples are given in step-by-step manner to illustrate the grey differential equation modeling of repairable system data

  10. Vibration energy harvesting using piezoelectric unimorph cantilevers with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Xiaotong; Shih, Wei-Heng; Shih, Wan Y.

    2010-01-01

    We have examined a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever (PUC) with unequal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths for vibration energy harvesting theoretically by extending the analysis of a PUC with equal piezoelectric and nonpiezoelectric lengths. The theoretical approach was validated by experiments. A case study showed that for a fixed vibration frequency, the maximum open-circuit induced voltage which was important for charge storage for later use occurred with a PUC that had a nonpiezo...

  11. Unequal Error Protected JPEG 2000 Broadcast Scheme with Progressive Fountain Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhao; Xu, Mai; Yin, Luiguo; Lu, Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel scheme, based on progressive fountain codes, for broadcasting JPEG 2000 multimedia. In such a broadcast scheme, progressive resolution levels of images/video have been unequally protected when transmitted using the proposed progressive fountain codes. With progressive fountain codes applied in the broadcast scheme, the resolutions of images (JPEG 2000) or videos (MJPEG 2000) received by different users can be automatically adaptive to their channel qualities, i.e. ...

  12. [Work and health inequalities: The unequal distribution of exposures at work in Germany and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragano, Nico; Wahrendorf, Morten; Müller, Kathrin; Lunau, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    Health inequalities in the working population may partly be due to the unequal exposure to work-related risk factors among different occupational positions. Empirical data, however, exploring the distribution of exposures at work according to occupational position for Germany is missing. This paper summarizes existing literature on occupational inequalities and discusses the role of working conditions. In addition, using European survey data, we study how various exposures at work vary by occupational class. Analyses are based on the European Working Condition Survey, and we compare the German sample (n = 2096) with the sample from the EU-27 countries (n = 34,529). To measure occupational position we use occupational class (EGP-classes). First, we describe the prevalence of 16 different exposures at work by occupational class for men and women. Second, we estimate regression models, and thereby investigate if associations between occupational class and self-perceived health are related to an unequal distribution of exposures at work. For various exposures at work we found a higher prevalence among manual workers and lower-skilled employees for both physical and psychosocial conditions. With few exceptions only, this finding was true for men and women and consistent for Germany and Europe. Results indicate that the unequal distribution of health-adverse conditions at work contribute towards existing health inequalities among the working population.

  13. Increased UV-induced sister-chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of first-degree relatives of melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knees-Matzen, S.; Roser, M.; Reimers, U.; Ehlert, U.; Weichenthal, M.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W.

    1991-01-01

    Cultured fibroblasts of 17 first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients and six first-degree relatives of cutaneous melanoma (CMM) patients with multiple CMM primaries were tested for in vitro sensitivity to UV light. Fibroblasts of nine familial CMM patients with a known UV-sensitivity and 19 healthy probands served as a control. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) was used as a parameter to detect UV-induced genotoxic damage. The authors found significantly (p less than 0.001) increased UV-induced SCE levels in familial melanoma patients, as well as in first-degree relatives of familial melanoma patients (p less than 0.001) after UV-A,B irradiation (375 J/m2), compared to the healthy probands without a family history of CMM. A significant (p less than 0.001) increase of UV-induced SCE was also observed in the relatives of CMM patients with multiple CMM primaries. In addition, the spontaneous SCE were significantly increased (p less than 0.05) in familial CMM patients. This study shows that increased UV sensitivity is a familial phenomenon. It is consistent with the concept of a genetic predisposition to CMM, which is based on increased UV sensitivity and may help to define groups with an elevated risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma

  14. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  15. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  16. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  17. IVF for premature ovarian failure: first reported births using oocytes donated from a twin sister.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Premature ovarian failure (POF) remains a clinically challenging entity because in vitro fertilisation (IVF) with donor oocytes is currently the only treatment known to be effective. METHODS: A 33 year-old nulligravid patient with a normal karyotype was diagnosed with POF; she had a history of failed fertility treatments and had an elevated serum FSH (42 mIU\\/ml). Oocytes donated by her dizygotic twin sister were used for IVF. The donor had already completed a successful pregnancy herself and subsequently produced a total of 10 oocytes after a combined FSH\\/LH superovulation regime. These eggs were fertilised with sperm from the recipient\\'s husband via intracytoplasmic injection and two fresh embryos were transferred to the recipient on day three. RESULTS: A healthy twin pregnancy resulted from IVF; two boys were delivered by caesarean section at 39 weeks\\' gestation. Additionally, four embryos were cryopreserved for the recipient\\'s future use. The sister-donor achieved another natural pregnancy six months after oocyte retrieval, resulting in a healthy singleton delivery. CONCLUSION: POF is believed to affect approximately 1% of reproductive age females, and POF patients with a sister who can be an oocyte donor for IVF are rare. Most such IVF patients will conceive from treatment using oocytes from an anonymous oocyte donor. This is the first report of births following sister-donor oocyte IVF in Ireland. Indeed, while sister-donor IVF has been successfully undertaken by IVF units elsewhere, this is the only known case where oocyte donation involved twin sisters. As with all types of donor gamete therapy, pre-treatment counselling is important in the circumstance of sister oocyte donation.

  18. [Analysis of genomic copy number variations in two sisters with primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanliang; Xu, Qiuyue; Cai, Xuemei; Li, Yixun; Song, Guibo; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Rongchen; Dai, Yong; Duan, Yong

    2015-12-01

    To analyze genomic copy number variations (CNVs) in two sisters with primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism. G-banding was performed for karyotype analysis. The whole genome of the two sisters were scanned and analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The results were confirmed with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). No abnormality was found by conventional G-banded chromosome analysis. Array-CGH has identified 11 identical CNVs from the sisters which, however, overlapped with CNVs reported by the Database of Genomic Variants (http://projects.tcag.ca/variation/). Therefore, they are likely to be benign. In addition, a -8.44 Mb 9p11.1-p13.1 duplication (38,561,587-47,002,387 bp, hg18) and a -80.9 kb 4q13.2 deletion (70,183,990-70,264,889 bp, hg18) were also detected in the elder and younger sister, respectively. The relationship between such CNVs and primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism was however uncertain. RT-qPCR results were in accordance with array-CGH. Two CNVs were detected in two sisters by array-CGH, for which further studies are needed to clarify their correlation with primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism.

  19. Unequal Expectations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    the role of causal inference in social science; and it discusses the potential of the findings of the dissertation to inform educational policy. In Chapters II and III, constituting the substantive contribution of the dissertation, I examine the process through which students form expectations...... of the relation between the self and educational prospects; evaluations that are socially bounded in that students take their family's social position into consideration when forming their educational expectations. One important consequence of this learning process is that equally talented students tend to make...... for their educational futures. Focusing on the causes rather than the consequences of educational expectations, I argue that students shape their expectations in response to the signals about their academic performance they receive from institutionalized performance indicators in schools. Chapter II considers...

  20. Unequal Solidarity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte; Muhr, Sara Louise

    2017-01-01

    crossing the Atlantic, the concept of diversity management merged with Danish universal welfare logics that offer a particular view on equality as sameness together with solidarity through corporate social responsibility. Drawing on 94 employee narratives about difference in a Danish workplace renowned......Due to the fact that immigration in Denmark is a more recent phenomenon, diversity management has had a much shorter history in politics as well as in business, and has not yet been institutionalized to the same degree as in for example North America, from where the concept originates. When...... for its diversity work, this article argues that a translation of the original American concept has taken place that turns diversity management into an ambiguous corporate activity when practised through Danish welfare logics. Paradoxically, corporate practices of social responsibility aimed at fostering...

  1. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  2. Frequent and efficient use of the sister chromatid for DNA double-strand break repair during budding yeast meiosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Goldfarb

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Recombination between homologous chromosomes of different parental origin (homologs is necessary for their accurate segregation during meiosis. It has been suggested that meiotic inter-homolog recombination is promoted by a barrier to inter-sister-chromatid recombination, imposed by meiosis-specific components of the chromosome axis. Consistent with this, measures of Holliday junction-containing recombination intermediates (joint molecules [JMs] show a strong bias towards inter-homolog and against inter-sister JMs. However, recombination between sister chromatids also has an important role in meiosis. The genomes of diploid organisms in natural populations are highly polymorphic for insertions and deletions, and meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs that form within such polymorphic regions must be repaired by inter-sister recombination. Efforts to study inter-sister recombination during meiosis, in particular to determine recombination frequencies and mechanisms, have been constrained by the inability to monitor the products of inter-sister recombination. We present here molecular-level studies of inter-sister recombination during budding yeast meiosis. We examined events initiated by DSBs in regions that lack corresponding sequences on the homolog, and show that these DSBs are efficiently repaired by inter-sister recombination. This occurs with the same timing as inter-homolog recombination, but with reduced (2- to 3-fold yields of JMs. Loss of the meiotic-chromosome-axis-associated kinase Mek1 accelerates inter-sister DSB repair and markedly increases inter-sister JM frequencies. Furthermore, inter-sister JMs formed in mek1Δ mutants are preferentially lost, while inter-homolog JMs are maintained. These findings indicate that inter-sister recombination occurs frequently during budding yeast meiosis, with the possibility that up to one-third of all recombination events occur between sister chromatids. We suggest that a Mek1-dependent reduction in

  3. Bartter syndrome in two sisters with a novel mutation of the CLCNKB gene, one with deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Pierre; Merouani, Aicha; He, Ning; Pei, York

    2011-09-01

    This article describes two sisters with type III Bartter syndrome (BS) due to a novel missense variant of the CLCNKB gene. The phenotypic expression of the disease was very different in these two siblings. In one sister, the disease followed a very severe course, especially in the neonatal period and as a toddler. Both the classic symptoms and the biochemical features of the syndrome were striking. In addition, she presented with sensorineural deafness, a complication yet unreported in this subtype of BS In contrast, the least affected sister was symptom free and the biochemical features of the disease although present remained discrete throughout the prolonged follow-up. It is suggested that such a difference in the phenotypic expression of the disease is possibly secondary to the modifier effect of a gene and/or results from environmental factor(s).

  4. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  5. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, C.; Cox, I.; Baldey, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  6. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, C; Cox, I; Baldey, A [St. F.X. Cabrini Hospital, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2002-07-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  7. ANALISIS PENGARUH KONFIGURASI EIGRP EQUAL DAN UNEQUAL COST LOAD BALANCING TERHADAP KINERJA ROUTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Bagus Saptonugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Routing protocol is tasked with finding the best route to send the packet. Assessed using the metric. If there is more than one route with the same metric value, Routing Information Path (RIP, Open Shortest Path First (OSPF, and Enhanched Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (EIGRP support equal cost load balancing to send packets to the destination. If there is more than one route with a different metric values, EIGRP can do unequal cost load balancing. Research needs to be conducted to determine the effect of the configuration of EIGRP equal and unequal cost load balancing on the performance of the router which can be used as a proof-of-concept testing that is part of the project design document on a network. Research networks using EIGRP as the routing protocol. After the equal and unequal load balancing is enabled by configuring the variance, CEF, per-destination load balancing, per-packet load balancing, or traffic sharing and analyzing its effect on the neighbor table, topology table, routing table, the data transmission, survivability, convergence, throughput, and utilization. This study used an emulator GNS3 as Cisco 2691 Router with Cisco IOS version 12:24 (25 c and advanced enterprise-adventerprisek9 image c2691-mz.124-25c.bin, and OPNET Modeler 14.5 for simulation. The results of the study can be used as a proof-of-concept testing in the design document for later use as contemplated in the manufacture of plan implementation and verification plan.

  8. Ukrainian and European Baroque in the Context of “Sister Arts” Idea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Shikirinskaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the “Sister Arts” tradition as the interrelationship of various art forms (poetry, fiction, painting, theatre, music etc. relative to the Baroque period. “Sister Arts” criticism, based on E.G. Lessing essay “Laocoön…” uses the inter-art analogies to appreciate the importance of literature in the Arts, as well as to comprehend aspects of the modern approach to the synthesis of the arts. The article presents the aesthetic concept of Baroque art and its realization in architecture, sculpture, decorative and applied arts, music and literature on the background of the European and Ukrainian cultural tradition.

  9. Synergistic convergence and split pons in horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis in two sisters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synergistic convergence is an ocular motor anomaly where on attempted abduction or on attempted horizontal gaze, both the eyes converge. It has been related to peripheral causes such as congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles (CFEOM, congenital cranial dysinnervation syndrome, ocular misinnervation or rarely central causes like horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, brain stem dysplasia. We hereby report the occurrence of synergistic convergence in two sisters. Both of them also had kyphoscoliosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain and spine in both the patients showed signs of brain stem dysplasia (split pons sign differing in degree (younger sister had more marked changes.

  10. IMPLEMENTASI SISTER PROVINCE PROVINSI JAWA TENGAH DENGAN NEGARA BAGIAN QUEENSLAND AUSTRALIA DI BIDANG PERTANIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Windiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalization on national context has insisted the central government to work together and share duties and rights with the local government in order to achieve the national interest.  In Indonesia, UU 32/2004 about local government provide the chance for them to become more active in foreign policy, such as doing the cooperation in sister province/sister city program. The Central Java Province had done many sister province/sister city program with some partners aboard, such as Fujian province (China, Chungchoeng buk-do province (South Korea and the Queensland province (Australia.  The cooperation cover many sectors such as agriculture, city and village development, transportation and tourism, industry, trade and infestation, education, science and technology, and other sectors that will be confer in advance. From all of the cooperation that have been done between Central Java Province and Queensland, the author, is interested to have research on farming, because central government has had many cows imported from Australia.  This research is become important because central java province is one of the major of national fresh meat distributors. This research is using a qualitative method, with descriptive type of research.  This research has three research questions: How effective is the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? What is the obstacle that holds the Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? How is the prospect of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sector? This result of this research is to prove that the implementation of Sister Province program in Central Java with the Queensland in farm sectors is not effective.  Some of the implementation variables of this program have not been fulfilled. Communication, financial resources and bureaucracy structure are some of the variables that have weakness on this program.  Act of

  11. An illness in the family: Dr. Maude Abbott and her sister, Alice Abbott.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores Maude Abbott's internationally significant career in medicine and her parallel commitment to caring for her sister, Alice Abbott. An examination of Abbott's life reveals the difficulties faced by an ambitious Canadian woman in medicine from the 1890s to the 1920s; difficulties compounded by caring for a sister with a mental illness. The Abbott archive suggests that it was far more difficult for a woman doctor to make the kind of sharp distinction between public and private life that might be expected of professional men.

  12. Differences between Inequalities and Unequal Exchange: Comments on the Papers by Chaves and Köhler

    OpenAIRE

    Raffer, Kunibert

    2006-01-01

    Köhler's critique of global wages, where he presents the concept of productivity with great clarity, combines very well with Chaves' presentation of Köhler's model of Unequal Exchange (UE). A brief and solid common position emerges. As I wrote that "the dimension of non-equivalence in a strict, logical sense" can only be shown by comparing real wages, I fully second Köhler's use of Purchase Power Parity (PPP)-data. In the 1980s, I explicitly referred to the research on PPP comparisons. Theref...

  13. Notes on a Dramaturgical Analysis of Unequal Small-Scale Corruption Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Daniel Manchinelly Mota

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, corruption has emerged as a relevant subject on a worldwide scale, because of its negative effects on the economy and State institutions, among other things. Research has focused on the macro aspects of corruption, emphasizing its causes and consequences. However, small-scale corruption has not been studied in such detail. This document proposes a theoretical-methodological framework for a dramaturgical analysis of small-scale corruption, with the aim of demonstrating that it is a stratified interaction. In this sense, corruption is an unequal experience for citizens, which depends on individuals’ social position.

  14. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  15. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  17. High-Dimensional Multivariate Repeated Measures Analysis with Unequal Covariance Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrar, Solomon W.; Kong, Xiaoli

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, test statistics for repeated measures design are introduced when the dimension is large. By large dimension is meant the number of repeated measures and the total sample size grow together but either one could be larger than the other. Asymptotic distribution of the statistics are derived for the equal as well as unequal covariance cases in the balanced as well as unbalanced cases. The asymptotic framework considered requires proportional growth of the sample sizes and the dimension of the repeated measures in the unequal covariance case. In the equal covariance case, one can grow at much faster rate than the other. The derivations of the asymptotic distributions mimic that of Central Limit Theorem with some important peculiarities addressed with sufficient rigor. Consistent and unbiased estimators of the asymptotic variances, which make efficient use of all the observations, are also derived. Simulation study provides favorable evidence for the accuracy of the asymptotic approximation under the null hypothesis. Power simulations have shown that the new methods have comparable power with a popular method known to work well in low-dimensional situation but the new methods have shown enormous advantage when the dimension is large. Data from Electroencephalograph (EEG) experiment is analyzed to illustrate the application of the results. PMID:26778861

  18. Material conditions of kindergartens as producers of experiences: uses of diversity and unequal relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Petrelli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents preliminary results of socio-anthropological research that took place in Early Education schools of the City of Buenos Aires. It focuses on the uses of sociocultural diversity and unequal relationships and their articulation with the materiality of everyday life conditions of the institutions in which fieldwork took place. It includes the analytical description of a social situation —the visit of an officer of the Ministry of Education to one of these Initial Schools in which research was carried on. This descriptions show the ways in which the different institutional subjects —teachers, parents, school directors, the staff member— refer to and produce the spaces in which their practices take place, and simultaneously, struggle for their places and put  under strain their diverse and unequal relationships. Afterwards, taking into account the Initial Education schools of a whole Educational District of the City, we analyze the features of the “educational offer” for Initial Schooling, the incorporation of devices  as cell phones  to everyday educational work of the kindergartens, as an aide to the teacher’s work, and the beginnings of the online school enrolment. These issues permit us to highlight the recent history of Argentina´s Initial Level teaching. The article accounts  that materiality, as the ethnographic descriptions evidence, permits to understand how, nowadays, relations of diversity and inequality come together.

  19. Understanding determinants of unequal distribution of stillbirth in Tehran, Iran: a concentration index decomposition approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Safiri, Saeid; Khedmati Morasae, Esmaeil; Shadi, Yahya; Omani-Samani, Reza

    2017-05-17

    The present inquiry set to determine the economic inequality in history of stillbirth and understanding determinants of unequal distribution of stillbirth in Tehran, Iran. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 5170 pregnancies in Tehran, Iran, since 2015. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to measure the asset-based economic status. Concentration index was used to measure socioeconomic inequality in stillbirth and then decomposed into its determinants. The concentration index and its 95% CI for stillbirth was -0.121 (-0.235 to -0.002). Decomposition of the concentration index showed that mother's education (50%), mother's occupation (30%), economic status (26%) and father's age (12%) had the highest positive contributions to measured inequality in stillbirth history in Tehran. Mother's age (17%) had the highest negative contribution to inequality. Stillbirth is unequally distributed among Iranian women and is mostly concentrated among low economic status people. Mother-related factors had the highest positive and negative contributions to inequality, highlighting specific interventions for mothers to redress inequality. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Error-Resilient Unequal Error Protection of Fine Granularity Scalable Video Bitstreams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua; Zeng, Bing; Shen, Guobin; Xiong, Zixiang; Li, Shipeng

    2006-12-01

    This paper deals with the optimal packet loss protection issue for streaming the fine granularity scalable (FGS) video bitstreams over IP networks. Unlike many other existing protection schemes, we develop an error-resilient unequal error protection (ER-UEP) method that adds redundant information optimally for loss protection and, at the same time, cancels completely the dependency among bitstream after loss recovery. In our ER-UEP method, the FGS enhancement-layer bitstream is first packetized into a group of independent and scalable data packets. Parity packets, which are also scalable, are then generated. Unequal protection is finally achieved by properly shaping the data packets and the parity packets. We present an algorithm that can optimally allocate the rate budget between data packets and parity packets, together with several simplified versions that have lower complexity. Compared with conventional UEP schemes that suffer from bit contamination (caused by the bit dependency within a bitstream), our method guarantees successful decoding of all received bits, thus leading to strong error-resilience (at any fixed channel bandwidth) and high robustness (under varying and/or unclean channel conditions).

  1. The Political Economy of the Water Footprint: A Cross-National Analysis of Ecologically Unequal Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared B. Fitzgerald

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an important social and ecological issue that is becoming increasingly problematic with the onset of climate change. This study explores the extent to which water resources in developing countries are affected by the vertical flow of exports to high-income countries. In examining this question, the authors engage the sociological theory of ecologically unequal exchange, which argues that high-income countries are able to partially externalize the environmental costs of their consumption to lower-income countries. The authors use a relatively new and underutilized measure of water usage, the water footprint, which quantifies the amount of water used in the entire production process. Ordinary least squares (OLS and robust regression techniques are employed in the cross-national analysis of 138 countries. The results provide partial support of the propositions of ecologically unequal exchange theory. In particular, the results highlight the importance of structural position in the global economy for understanding the effects of trade on water resources.

  2. Unequal Exchange of Air Pollution and Economic Benefits Embodied in China's Exports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Hubacek, Klaus; Liu, Yu; Wang, Jinnan; Feng, Kuishuang; Jiang, Ling; Jiang, Hongqiang; Zhang, Bing; Bi, Jun

    2018-04-03

    As the world's factory, China has enjoyed huge economic benefits from international export but also suffered severe environmental consequences. Most studies investigating unequal environmental exchange associated with trade took China as a homogeneous entity ignoring considerable inequality and outsourcing of pollution within China. This paper traces the regional mismatch of export-induced economic benefits and environmental costs along national supply chains by using the latest multiregional input-output model and emission inventory for 2012. The results indicate that approximately 56% of the national GDP induced by exports has been received by developed coastal regions, while about 72% of air pollution embodied in national exports, measured as aggregated atmospheric pollutant equivalents (APE), has been mainly incurred by less developed central and western regions. For each yuan of export-induced GDP, developed regions only incurred 0.4-0.6 g APE emissions, whereas less developed regions from western or central China had to suffer 4-8 times the amount of emissions. This is due to poorer regions providing lower value added and higher emission-intensive inputs and having lower environmental standards and less efficient technologies. Our results may pave a way to mitigate the unequal relationship between developed and less developed regions from the perspective of environment-economy nexus.

  3. Genome-wide mapping of sister chromatid exchange events in single yeast cells using Strand-seq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claussin, Clemence; Porubsky, David; Spierings, Diana C. J.; Halsema, Nancy; Rentas, Stefan; Guryev, Victor; Lansdorp, Peter M.; Chang, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Homologous recombination involving sister chromatids is the most accurate, and thus most frequently used, form of recombination-mediated DNA repair. Despite its importance, sister chromatid recombination is not easily studied because it does not result in a change in DNA sequence, making

  4. Phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits explains dispersal limitation and genomic differentiation of Streptomyces sister-taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudoir, Mallory J; Buckley, Daniel H

    2018-06-07

    The latitudinal diversity gradient is a pattern of biogeography observed broadly in plants and animals but largely undocumented in terrestrial microbial systems. Although patterns of microbial biogeography across broad taxonomic scales have been described in a range of contexts, the mechanisms that generate biogeographic patterns between closely related taxa remain incompletely characterized. Adaptive processes are a major driver of microbial biogeography, but there is less understanding of how microbial biogeography and diversification are shaped by dispersal limitation and drift. We recently described a latitudinal diversity gradient of species richness and intraspecific genetic diversity in Streptomyces by using a geographically explicit culture collection. Within this geographically explicit culture collection, we have identified Streptomyces sister-taxa whose geographic distribution is delimited by latitude. These sister-taxa differ in geographic distribution, genomic diversity, and ecological traits despite having nearly identical SSU rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomic analysis reveals genomic differentiation of these sister-taxa consistent with restricted gene flow across latitude. Furthermore, we show phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits between the sister-taxa suggesting that thermal trait adaptation limits dispersal and gene flow across climate regimes as defined by latitude. Such phylogenetic conservatism of thermal traits is commonly associated with latitudinal diversity gradients for plants and animals. These data provide further support for the hypothesis that the Streptomyces latitudinal diversity gradient was formed as a result of historical demographic processes defined by dispersal limitation and driven by paleoclimate dynamics.

  5. Constraining volcanic inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Field in Oregon, USA, through microgravity and deformation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Jeffrey; William-Jones, Glyn; Johnson, Dan; Eggers, Al

    2012-10-01

    Microgravity data were collected between 2002 and 2009 at the Three Sisters Volcanic Complex, Oregon, to investigate the causes of an ongoing deformation event west of South Sister volcano. Three different conceptual models have been proposed as the causal mechanism for the deformation event: (1) hydraulic uplift due to continual injection of magma at depth, (2) pressurization of hydrothermal systems and (3) viscoelastic response to an initial pressurization at depth. The gravitational effect of continual magma injection was modeled to be 20 to 33 μGal at the center of the deformation field with volumes based on previous deformation studies. The gravity time series, however, did not detect a mass increase suggesting that a viscoelactic response of the crust is the most likely cause for the deformation from 2002 to 2009. The crust, deeper than 3 km, in the Three Sisters region was modeled as a Maxwell viscoelastic material and the results suggest a dynamic viscosity between 1018 to 5 × 1019 Pa s. This low crustal viscosity suggests that magma emplacement or stall depth is controlled by density and not the brittle ductile transition zone. Furthermore, these crustal properties and the observed geochemical composition gaps at Three Sisters can be best explained by different melt sources and limited magma mixing rather than fractional crystallization. More generally, low intrusion rates, low crustal viscosity, and multiple melt sources could also explain the whole rock compositional gaps observed at other arc volcanoes.

  6. Food Yields and Nutrient Analyses of the Three Sisters: A Haudenosaunee Cropping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Mt.Pleasant

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have studied The Three Sisters, a traditional cropping system of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois, from multiple perspectives. However, there is no research examining food yields, defined as the quantities of energy and protein produced per unit land area, from the cropping system within Iroquoia. This article compares food yields and other nutrient contributions from the Three Sisters, comprised of interplanted maize, bean and pumpkin, with monocultures of these same crops. The Three Sisters yields more energy (12.25 x 106 kcal/ha and more protein (349 kg/ha than any of the crop monocultures or mixtures of monocultures planted to the same area. The Three Sisters supplies 13.42 people/ha/yr. with energy and 15.86 people/ha/yr. with protein. Nutrient contents of the crops are further enhanced by nixtamalization, a traditional processing technique where maize is cooked in a high alkaline solution. This process increases calcium, protein quality, and niacin in maize.

  7. Teaching Sisters and Transnational Networks: Recruitment and Education Expansion in the Long Nineteenth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raftery, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the management of the education enterprise of teaching Sisters, with reference to their transnational networking. The article suggests that orders of women religious were the first all-female transnational networks, engaged constantly in work that was characterised by "movement, ebb and circulation". The mobility of…

  8. 99mTc-DMSA Uptake in a Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule From Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Sleiman; Azzumeea, Fahad; Fahad Alzayed, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    A 50-year-old woman with ovarian cancer underwent Tc-DMSA scan to evaluate the functional status of the right hydronephrotic kidney. The images incidentally revealed a well-defined focus of mild radiotracer uptake at the midanterior abdominal wall, which correlated with a metastatic Sister Mary Joseph's nodule seen on CT performed a week earlier.

  9. Subcortical laminar heterotopia in two sisters and their mother : MRI, clinical findings and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Valk, PHM; Snoeck, [No Value; Meiners, LC; des Portes, [No Value; Chelly, J; Pinard, JM; Ippel, PF; van Nieuwenhuizen, O

    MR imaging, clinical data and underlying pathogenesis of subcortical laminar heterotopia (SCLH), also known as band heterotopia, in two sisters and their mother are presented. On MR imaging a different degree of SCLH was found in all three affected family-members. The inversion recovery sequence was

  10. Social Functioning among Girls with Fragile X or Turner Syndrome and Their Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocco, Michele M. M.; Baumgardner, Thomas; Freund, Lisa S.; Reiss, Allan L.

    1998-01-01

    Social behaviors among girls (ages 6-16) with fragile X (n=8) or Turner syndrome (n=9) were examined to address the role of family environment versus biological determinants of social dysfunction. Compared to their sisters, subjects had lower IQS and higher rating of social and attention problems. (Author/CR)

  11. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  12. Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongsavee, Malinee

    2009-10-30

    Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI). The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation) and induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human.

  13. Effect of borax on immune cell proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsavee Malinee

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Borax is used as a food additive. It becomes toxic when accumulated in the body. It causes vomiting, fatigue and renal failure. Methods The heparinized blood samples from 40 healthy men were studied for the impact of borax toxicity on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation and sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. The MTT assay and Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE technic were used in this experiment with the borax concentrations of 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml. Results It showed that the immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation was decreased when the concentrations of borax increased. The borax concentration of 0.6 mg/ml had the most effectiveness to the lymphocyte proliferation and had the highest cytotoxicity index (CI. The borax concentrations of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/ml significantly induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes (P Conclusion Borax had effects on immune cell proliferation (lymphocyte proliferation and induced sister chromatid exchange in human chromosomes. Toxicity of borax may lead to cellular toxicity and genetic defect in human.

  14. Linking Shorebird Conservation and Education Along Flyways: An Overview of the Shorebird Sister Schools Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillary Chapman; Heather Johnson

    2005-01-01

    The Shorebird Sister Schools Program (SSSP) is an internet-based environmental education program that provides a forum for students, biologists, and shorebird enthusiasts to track shorebird migration and share observations along flyways. The program?s vision is to engage public participation in the conservation of shorebirds and their wetland, grassland, and shoreline...

  15. Improving Emotion Regulation and Sibling Relationship Quality: The More Fun with Sisters and Brothers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Denise E.; Kramer, Laurie

    2008-01-01

    We examined the role of emotion regulation (ER) in improving sibling relationship quality (SRQ) by evaluating the More Fun With Sisters and Brothers Program where 4- to 8-year-old siblings from 95 families were taught emotional and social competencies. Parents reported on SRQ and ER, and sibling interactions were observed in homes. SRQ and ER…

  16. Mentoring in Schools: An Impact Study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Carla; Grossman, Jean Baldwin; Kauh, Tina J.; McMaken, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This random assignment impact study of Big Brothers Big Sisters School-Based Mentoring involved 1,139 9- to 16-year-old students in 10 cities nationwide. Youth were randomly assigned to either a treatment group (receiving mentoring) or a control group (receiving no mentoring) and were followed for 1.5 school years. At the end of the first school…

  17. "Brothers and Sisters": A Novel Way to Teach Human Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumpus, Minnette

    2000-01-01

    The novel "Brothers and Sisters" by Bebe Moore Campbell was used in a management course to explore human resource management issues, concepts, and theories. The course included prereading and postreading surveys, lecture, book review, and examination. Most of the students (92%) felt the novel was an appropriate way to meet course…

  18. Metazoan Scc4 homologs link sister chromatid cohesion to cell and axon migration guidance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V.C. Seitan (Vlad); P.A. Banks (Peter); S. Laval (Steve); N.A. Majid (Nazia); D. Dorsett (Dale); A. Rana (Amer); J. Smith (Jeremy); A. Bateman (Alex); S. Krpic (Sanja); A. Hostert (Arnd); S.M. Rollins; H. Erdjument-Bromage (Hediye); P. Tempst (Paul); C.Y. Benard (Claire); S. Hekimi (Siegfried); S.F. Newbury (Sarah); T. Strachan (Tom)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractSaccharomyces cerevisiae Scc2 binds Scc4 to form an essential complex that loads cohesin onto chromosomes. The prevalence of Scc2 orthologs in eukaryotes emphasizes a conserved role in regulating sister chromatid cohesion, but homologs of Scc4 have not hitherto been identified outside

  19. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats.

  20. 20 CFR 410.380 - Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of dependency; parent, brother... MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Relationship and Dependency § 410.380 Determination of dependency; parent, brother, or sister. An individual who is the miner's...

  1. Living with a Brother Who Has an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Sister's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Zara O.; Halloran, Maeve O.; Doody, Owen

    2016-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are born into families and influence family functioning both positively and negatively. One of the most enduring relationships a person with ASD will have is their relationship with a brother or sister. Services for people with ASD should provide effective support to families, which include brothers,…

  2. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  3. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  4. "If I only touch her cloak": the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph in New Orleans hospital, 1834-1860.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Hyejung Grace; Kim, Ock-Joo

    2015-04-01

    This study is about the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph in New Orleans' Charity Hospital during the years between 1834 and 1860. The Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph was founded in 1809 by Saint Elizabeth Ann Bailey Seton (first native-born North American canonized in 1975) in Emmitsburg, Maryland. Seton's Sisters of Charity was the first community for religious women to be established in the United States and was later incorporated with the French Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul in 1850. A call to work in New Orleans' Charity Hospital in the 1830s meant a significant achievement for the Sisters of Charity, since it was the second oldest continuously operating public hospitals in the United States until 2005, bearing the same name over the decades. In 1834, Sister Regina Smith and other sisters were officially called to Charity Hospital, in order to supersede the existing "nurses, attendants, and servants," and take a complete charge of the internal management of Charity Hospital. The existing scholarship on the history of hospitals and Catholic nursing has not integrated the concrete stories of the Sisters of Charity into the broader histories of institutionalized medicine, gender, and religion. Along with a variety of primary sources, this study primarily relies on the Charity Hospital History Folder stored at the Daughters of Charity West Center Province Archives. Located in the "Queen city of the South," Charity Hospital was the center of the southern medical profession and the world's fair of people and diseases. Charity Hospital provided the sisters with a unique situation that religion and medicine became intertwined. The Sisters, as nurses, constructed a new atmosphere of caring for patients and even their families inside and outside the hospital, and built their own separate space within the hospital walls. As hospital managers, the Sisters of Charity were put in complete charge of the hospital, which was never seen in other hospitals. By

  5. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  6. Extensive range overlap between heliconiine sister species: evidence for sympatric speciation in butterflies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Neil; Kozak, Krzysztof M; Phillimore, Albert B; Mallet, James

    2015-06-30

    Sympatric speciation is today generally viewed as plausible, and some well-supported examples exist, but its relative contribution to biodiversity remains to be established. We here quantify geographic overlap of sister species of heliconiine butterflies, and use age-range correlations and spatial simulations of the geography of speciation to infer the frequency of sympatric speciation. We also test whether shifts in mimetic wing colour pattern, host plant use and climate niche play a role in speciation, and whether such shifts are associated with sympatry. Approximately a third of all heliconiine sister species pairs exhibit near complete range overlap, and analyses of the observed patterns of range overlap suggest that sympatric speciation contributes 32%-95% of speciation events. Müllerian mimicry colour patterns and host plant choice are highly labile traits that seem to be associated with speciation, but we find no association between shifts in these traits and range overlap. In contrast, climatic niches of sister species are more conserved. Unlike birds and mammals, sister species of heliconiines are often sympatric and our inferences using the most recent comparative methods suggest that sympatric speciation is common. However, if sister species spread rapidly into sympatry (e.g. due to their similar climatic niches), then assumptions underlying our methods would be violated. Furthermore, although we find some evidence for the role of ecology in speciation, ecological shifts did not show the associations with range overlap expected under sympatric speciation. We delimit species of heliconiines in three different ways, based on "strict and " "relaxed" biological species concepts (BSC), as well as on a surrogate for the widely-used "diagnostic" version of the phylogenetic species concept (PSC). We show that one reason why more sympatric speciation is inferred in heliconiines than in birds may be due to a different culture of species delimitation in the two

  7. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  8. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  9. Unequal Marriages within the Russian Imperial Home and the 1911 Meeting of the Grand Dukes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav V. Dumin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In celebrating the 400th anniversary of the Russian Imperial Household in 2013, it is important to remember that the historic dynasty did not disappear in 1917 and, as with the earlier ruling dynasties, it still retains its status and its structure based on the Law on Succession and the Provision on the Imperial Family. These documents, in part, define that the dynasty includes just the Romanov descendants born from marital unions with the ruling or previously ruling dynasties. The rest of the Romanov descendants that were born from unequal, morganatic marriages, did not belong to the Russian Imperial Family and, correspondingly, did not have the right to the throne. Until 1911, these marriages were simply forbidden for all members of the dynasty. In mentioning representatives of the Romanov family, popular literature and the media often do not mention this circumstance and instead include individuals who were not part of the dynasty, even though they were descended from the Russian Emperors through the paternal or the maternal line. Representatives of the so-called “Association of the Romanov Household”, descendants of Grand Dukes or Dukes of Imperial Blood from unequal marriages, would often point to a decree made by Nicholas II in 1911. The decree stated that the lesser Romanovs, dukes and duchesses of imperial blood, that is, great grandchildren and more distant descendants of Emperors, could enter into unequal marriages with Royal Permission. However, the theory stating that this decree somehow still gave these descendants dynastic rights is refuted through the materials that we have uncovered in the State Archives of the Russian Federation detailing the meeting of the Grand Dukes, called together by the order of Nicholas II and the resolution of the Emperor at the end of this meeting that is published in the article. As such, out of all the Romanov descendants still alive today, the status of being a true member of the dynasty only

  10. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal accumulation of air in the ...

  11. Ziprasidone-induced spontaneous orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boora, K; Chiappone, K; Dubovsky, S; Xu, J

    2010-06-01

    Neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been associated with sexual dysfunction, including impotence and decreased libido. Spontaneous ejaculation without sexual arousal during typical antipsychotic treatment is a rare condition that has been described with zuclopentixol, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. Here, we are reporting a case of spontaneous orgasm with ziprasidone in a bipolar patient. This patient began to repeatedly experience spontaneous sexual arousal and orgasm, which she had never experienced in the past. Ziprasidone might be causing an increase in sexual orgasm by 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, which preclinical evidence suggests that it facilitates dopamine release in the cortex.

  12. Designing an efficient LT-code with unequal error protection for image transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Marques, F.; Schwartz, C.; Pinho, M. S.; Finamore, W. A.

    2015-10-01

    The use of images from earth observation satellites is spread over different applications, such as a car navigation systems and a disaster monitoring. In general, those images are captured by on board imaging devices and must be transmitted to the Earth using a communication system. Even though a high resolution image can produce a better Quality of Service, it leads to transmitters with high bit rate which require a large bandwidth and expend a large amount of energy. Therefore, it is very important to design efficient communication systems. From communication theory, it is well known that a source encoder is crucial in an efficient system. In a remote sensing satellite image transmission, this efficiency is achieved by using an image compressor, to reduce the amount of data which must be transmitted. The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), a multinational forum for the development of communications and data system standards for space flight, establishes a recommended standard for a data compression algorithm for images from space systems. Unfortunately, in the satellite communication channel, the transmitted signal is corrupted by the presence of noise, interference signals, etc. Therefore, the receiver of a digital communication system may fail to recover the transmitted bit. Actually, a channel code can be used to reduce the effect of this failure. In 2002, the Luby Transform code (LT-code) was introduced and it was shown that it was very efficient when the binary erasure channel model was used. Since the effect of the bit recovery failure depends on the position of the bit in the compressed image stream, in the last decade many e orts have been made to develop LT-code with unequal error protection. In 2012, Arslan et al. showed improvements when LT-codes with unequal error protection were used in images compressed by SPIHT algorithm. The techniques presented by Arslan et al. can be adapted to work with the algorithm for image compression

  13. A Hybrid Fuzzy Multi-hop Unequal Clustering Algorithm for Dense Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat K. Guirguis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering is carried out to explore and solve power dissipation problem in wireless sensor network (WSN. Hierarchical network architecture, based on clustering, can reduce energy consumption, balance traffic load, improve scalability, and prolong network lifetime. However, clustering faces two main challenges: hotspot problem and searching for effective techniques to perform clustering. This paper introduces a fuzzy unequal clustering technique for heterogeneous dense WSNs to determine both final cluster heads and their radii. Proposed fuzzy system blends three effective parameters together which are: the distance to the base station, the density of the cluster, and the deviation of the noders residual energy from the average network energy. Our objectives are achieving gain for network lifetime, energy distribution, and energy consumption. To evaluate the proposed algorithm, WSN clustering based routing algorithms are analyzed, simulated, and compared with obtained results. These protocols are LEACH, SEP, HEED, EEUC, and MOFCA.

  14. Discrete- vs. Continuous-Time Modeling of Unequally Spaced Experience Sampling Method Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia de Haan-Rietdijk

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Experience Sampling Method is a common approach in psychological research for collecting intensive longitudinal data with high ecological validity. One characteristic of ESM data is that it is often unequally spaced, because the measurement intervals within a day are deliberately varied, and measurement continues over several days. This poses a problem for discrete-time (DT modeling approaches, which are based on the assumption that all measurements are equally spaced. Nevertheless, DT approaches such as (vector autoregressive modeling are often used to analyze ESM data, for instance in the context of affective dynamics research. There are equivalent continuous-time (CT models, but they are more difficult to implement. In this paper we take a pragmatic approach and evaluate the practical relevance of the violated model assumption in DT AR(1 and VAR(1 models, for the N = 1 case. We use simulated data under an ESM measurement design to investigate the bias in the parameters of interest under four different model implementations, ranging from the true CT model that accounts for all the exact measurement times, to the crudest possible DT model implementation, where even the nighttime is treated as a regular interval. An analysis of empirical affect data illustrates how the differences between DT and CT modeling can play out in practice. We find that the size and the direction of the bias in DT (VAR models for unequally spaced ESM data depend quite strongly on the true parameter in addition to data characteristics. Our recommendation is to use CT modeling whenever possible, especially now that new software implementations have become available.

  15. An Unequal Secure Encryption Scheme for H.264/AVC Video Compression Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yibo; Wang, Jidong; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Tsunoo, Yukiyasu; Goto, Satoshi

    H.264/AVC is the newest video coding standard. There are many new features in it which can be easily used for video encryption. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to do video encryption for H.264/AVC video compression standard. We define Unequal Secure Encryption (USE) as an approach that applies different encryption schemes (with different security strength) to different parts of compressed video data. This USE scheme includes two parts: video data classification and unequal secure video data encryption. Firstly, we classify the video data into two partitions: Important data partition and unimportant data partition. Important data partition has small size with high secure protection, while unimportant data partition has large size with low secure protection. Secondly, we use AES as a block cipher to encrypt the important data partition and use LEX as a stream cipher to encrypt the unimportant data partition. AES is the most widely used symmetric cryptography which can ensure high security. LEX is a new stream cipher which is based on AES and its computational cost is much lower than AES. In this way, our scheme can achieve both high security and low computational cost. Besides the USE scheme, we propose a low cost design of hybrid AES/LEX encryption module. Our experimental results show that the computational cost of the USE scheme is low (about 25% of naive encryption at Level 0 with VEA used). The hardware cost for hybrid AES/LEX module is 4678 Gates and the AES encryption throughput is about 50Mbps.

  16. Unequal cluster sizes in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristunas, Caroline; Morris, Tom; Gray, Laura

    2017-11-15

    To investigate the extent to which cluster sizes vary in stepped-wedge cluster randomised trials (SW-CRT) and whether any variability is accounted for during the sample size calculation and analysis of these trials. Any, not limited to healthcare settings. Any taking part in an SW-CRT published up to March 2016. The primary outcome is the variability in cluster sizes, measured by the coefficient of variation (CV) in cluster size. Secondary outcomes include the difference between the cluster sizes assumed during the sample size calculation and those observed during the trial, any reported variability in cluster sizes and whether the methods of sample size calculation and methods of analysis accounted for any variability in cluster sizes. Of the 101 included SW-CRTs, 48% mentioned that the included clusters were known to vary in size, yet only 13% of these accounted for this during the calculation of the sample size. However, 69% of the trials did use a method of analysis appropriate for when clusters vary in size. Full trial reports were available for 53 trials. The CV was calculated for 23 of these: the median CV was 0.41 (IQR: 0.22-0.52). Actual cluster sizes could be compared with those assumed during the sample size calculation for 14 (26%) of the trial reports; the cluster sizes were between 29% and 480% of that which had been assumed. Cluster sizes often vary in SW-CRTs. Reporting of SW-CRTs also remains suboptimal. The effect of unequal cluster sizes on the statistical power of SW-CRTs needs further exploration and methods appropriate to studies with unequal cluster sizes need to be employed. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Unequal Probability Marking Approach to Enhance Security of Traceback Scheme in Tree-Based WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changqin; Ma, Ming; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Anfeng; Zuo, Zhengbang

    2017-06-17

    Fog (from core to edge) computing is a newly emerging computing platform, which utilizes a large number of network devices at the edge of a network to provide ubiquitous computing, thus having great development potential. However, the issue of security poses an important challenge for fog computing. In particular, the Internet of Things (IoT) that constitutes the fog computing platform is crucial for preserving the security of a huge number of wireless sensors, which are vulnerable to attack. In this paper, a new unequal probability marking approach is proposed to enhance the security performance of logging and migration traceback (LM) schemes in tree-based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The main contribution of this paper is to overcome the deficiency of the LM scheme that has a higher network lifetime and large storage space. In the unequal probability marking logging and migration (UPLM) scheme of this paper, different marking probabilities are adopted for different nodes according to their distances to the sink. A large marking probability is assigned to nodes in remote areas (areas at a long distance from the sink), while a small marking probability is applied to nodes in nearby area (areas at a short distance from the sink). This reduces the consumption of storage and energy in addition to enhancing the security performance, lifetime, and storage capacity. Marking information will be migrated to nodes at a longer distance from the sink for increasing the amount of stored marking information, thus enhancing the security performance in the process of migration. The experimental simulation shows that for general tree-based WSNs, the UPLM scheme proposed in this paper can store 1.12-1.28 times the amount of stored marking information that the equal probability marking approach achieves, and has 1.15-1.26 times the storage utilization efficiency compared with other schemes.

  18. Merger of binary neutron stars of unequal mass in full general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke; Uryu-bar, Ko-barji

    2003-01-01

    We present results of three dimensional numerical simulations of the merger of unequal-mass binary neutron stars in full general relativity. A Γ-law equation of state P=(Γ-1)ρε is adopted, where P, ρ, ε, and Γ are the pressure, rest mass density, specific internal energy, and the adiabatic constant, respectively. We take Γ=2 and the baryon rest-mass ratio Q M to be in the range 0.85-1. The typical grid size is (633,633,317) for (x,y,z). We improve several implementations since the latest work. In the present code, the radiation reaction of gravitational waves is taken into account with a good accuracy. This fact enables us to follow the coalescence all the way from the late inspiral phase through the merger phase for which the transition is triggered by the radiation reaction. It is found that if the total rest mass of the system is more than ∼1.7 times of the maximum allowed rest mass of spherical neutron stars, a black hole is formed after the merger, irrespective of the mass ratios. The gravitational waveforms and outcomes in the merger of unequal-mass binaries are compared with those in equal-mass binaries. It is found that the disk mass around the so formed black holes increases with decreasing rest-mass ratios and decreases with increasing compactness of neutron stars. The merger process and the gravitational waveforms also depend strongly on the rest-mass ratios even for the range Q M =0.85-1

  19. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  20. Hematome Extra - Dural Rachidien Spontane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl. Gros

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Four personal cases of Spontaneous Spinal Epidurdl Hemerrhage are Reported. And 29 additional cases have been analysed by reviewing the literature. The clinical radiologcal and surgical aspects were discussed.

  1. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  2. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  3. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  4. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  5. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  6. Cross-Country Variation in Adult Skills Inequality: Why Are Skill Levels and Opportunities so Unequal in Anglophone Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andy; Green, Francis; Pensiero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This article examines cross-country variations in adult skills inequality and asks why skills in Anglophone countries are so unequal. Drawing on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's recent Survey of Adult Skills and other surveys, it investigates the differences across countries and country groups in inequality in both…

  7. Statistical Power and Optimum Sample Allocation Ratio for Treatment and Control Having Unequal Costs Per Unit of Randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng

    2003-01-01

    This article considers optimal sample allocation between the treatment and control condition in multilevel designs when the costs per sampling unit vary due to treatment assignment. Optimal unequal allocation may reduce the cost from that of a balanced design without sacrificing any power. The optimum sample allocation ratio depends only on the…

  8. Random Shift and XOR of Unequal-sized Packets (RaSOR) to Shave off Transmission Overhead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghouti, Maroua; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Fitzek, Frank Hanns Paul

    2017-01-01

    We propose the design of a novel coding scheme of unequal-sized packets. Unlike the conventional wisdom that consists of brute-force zero-padding in Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC), we exploit this heterogeneity to shave off this trailing overhead and transmit considerably less coded packets....

  9. The use of convent archival records in medical research: the School Sisters of Notre Dame archives and the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzwald, Gari-Anne; Wildt, Sister Carol Marie

    2004-01-01

    The School Sisters of Notre Dame (SSND) archives program in a cooperative system for the arrangement and preservation of the records of the SSND provinces in North America, including records of individual sisters. Archival records include autobiographies, school and college transcripts, employment histories, and family socioeconomic data. The Nun Study, a longitudinal study of Alzheimer's disease and aging in 678 SSND sisters, compares data extracted from these records with data on late-life cognitive and physical function and postmortem brain neuropathology to explore early life factor that may affect late-life cognitive function and longevity.

  10. Umbilical metastasis (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatomirović Željka

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule is the eponym for metastatic involvement of the umbilicus. This less common entity is the sign of disseminated malignant disease, mainly of digestive and gynecologic origin, and is associated with a poor prognosis. A case of Sister Mary Joseph’s nodule in a 76-year-old woman in whom the umbilical metastasis was the first sign of malignant disease in presented. The diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma was established by fine needle aspiration cytology of the umbilical nodule. Radiological and ultrasonographic investigation disclosed carcinoma of the gallbladder with pancreas, stomach, and colon invasion as well as peritoneal dissemination. The diagnosis was confirmed by exploratory laparatomy and histological examination of the excised umbilical nodule.

  11. The first record of a trans-oceanic sister-group relationship between obligate vertebrate troglobites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosanta Chakrabarty

    Full Text Available We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes, and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the sister group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of the Indian Ocean (separated by nearly 7,000 km are each others closest relatives and owe their origins to the break up of the southern supercontinent, Gondwana, at the end of the Cretaceous period. Trans-oceanic sister-group relationships are otherwise unknown between blind, cave-adapted vertebrates and our results provide an extraordinary case of Gondwanan vicariance.

  12. Maria Carolina and Marie Antoinette: Sisters and Queens in the mirror of Jacobin Public Opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Recca

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Marie Antoinette of Franceand Maria Carolina of Naples, both consorts, contributed to a flourishing of matronage, reproducing conceptions of royal femininity that embraced both the private and public roles they were expected to fulfil. However, while the political role of the first Queen has been largely reconsidered, her sister Maria Carolina has not yet been adjudicated impartially. This is somewhat curious, because Maria Carolina inherited from her sister the same disregard towards the Revolution and this, as perceived by the Jacobins, was duly proposed in their acrimonious criticism of her political role. This paper aims to focus on this criticism, analysing how the charges against Maria Carolina in the post-French revolutionary period, were a political duplication of the Jacobin attacks on Marie Antoinette from 1791 onwards. From this point of view, the paper will focus on the portrait of Maria Carolina in 1793 revolutionary Parisby Giuseppe Gorani, an Italian Jacobin noble. His Mémoires Secrets – where Maria Carolina was represented as a wicked woman in the same terms previously employed to denounce her sister Marie Antoinette by the French Republicans – was well known across Italy. This subject dominated the main pamphlets and brochures published in Naples in 1799, during the brief duration of the Neapolitan Republic, because it legitimised the rebellion against the monarchy. After the fall of the Neapolitan Republic, the political attacks on Maria Carolina continued likewise in France, where many Neapolitan patriots were obliged to flee. Analysing  Giuseppe Gorani’s Mémoires we gather that the portrait of Marie Antoinette’s sister was painted according to the main stereotypes of  French revolutionary political culture.

  13. On Brothers and Sisters: South Asian and Japanese Idea Systems and their Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, Stephen M.

    2017-01-01

    The role expectations of cross siblings varies across culture. Such expectations, while not rigidly prescribing actual behaviors nevertheless influences relations between brothers and sisters in observable ways. In South Asia, a cultural rhetoric of sororal sacrifice and support coupled with fraternal protection are commonplace. While such noble sibling roles are regularly transgressed they remain powerful idioms of the relationship and transgressions require appropriate cultural justificatio...

  14. Birth weight and fetal growth in infants born to female hairdressers and their sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmon, A; Rylander, L

    2009-03-01

    To investigate birth weight and fetal growth in female hairdressers, while controlling for intergenerational effects and effects related to childhood exposures. A cohort of women who had attended vocational schools for hairdressers were compared to their sisters with respect to birth weight and fetal growth (measured as small for gestational age (SGA) or large for gestational age (LGA), respectively) in their infants. In total, 6223 infants born to 3137 hairdressers and 8388 infants born to 3952 hairdressers' sisters were studied. Among the infants born to the hairdressers' sisters, the distribution of birth weights were wider than that among the infants born to the hairdressers. This was also reflected in that hairdresser cohort affiliation tended to be protective against both SGA (odds ratio 0.80; 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 1.31) and LGA (0.77; 0.54 to 1.09). For LGA, this effect was even more pronounced among women who had actually worked as hairdressers during at least one pregnancy (0.60; 0.39 to 0.92). The infants born to these women also had a significantly lower mean birth weight (3387 g vs 3419 g; p = 0.033). The results from the present study suggest that infants born to hairdressers have a decreased risk of being LGA. This is most likely not caused by a shift in birth weight distribution or abnormal glucose metabolism.

  15. Getting SaaS-y. Why the sisters of Mercy Health System opted for on-demand portfolio management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Sisters of Mercy Health System chose the SaaS model as a simpler way to plan, execute, and monitor strategic business initiatives. It also provided something that was easy to use and offered quick time to value.

  16. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  17. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  18. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  19. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  20. Investigation of Unequal Planar Wireless Electricity Device for Efficient Wireless Power Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Mohd Salleh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the design and investigation of a pair of unequally sized wireless electricity (Witricity devices that are equipped with integrated planar coil strips. The proposed pair of devices consists of two different square-shaped resonator sizes of 120 mm × 120 mm and 80 mm × 80 mm, acting as a transmitter and receiver, respectively. The devices are designed, simulated and optimized using the CST Microwave Studio software prior to being fabricated and verified using a vector network analyzer (VNA. The surface current results of the coupled devices indicate a good current density at 10 mm to 30 mm distance range. This good current density demonstrates that the coupled devices’ surface has more electric current per unit area, which leads to a good performance up to 30 mm range. Hence, the results also reveal good coupling efficiency between the coupled devices, which is approximately 54.5% at up to a 30 mm distance, with both devices axially aligned. In addition, a coupling efficiency of 50% is achieved when a maximum lateral misalignment (LM of 10 mm, and a varied angular misalignment (AM from 0° to 40° are implemented to the proposed device.

  1. Income inequality and status seeking: searching for positional goods in unequal U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walasek, Lukasz; Brown, Gordon D A

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that income inequality is associated with lower societal well-being, but the psychosocial causes of this relationship are poorly understood. A social-rank hypothesis predicts that members of unequal societies are likely to devote more of their resources to status-seeking behaviors such as acquiring positional goods. We used Google Correlate to find search terms that correlated with our measure of income inequality, and we controlled for income and other socioeconomic factors. We found that of the 40 search terms used more frequently in states with greater income inequality, more than 70% were classified as referring to status goods (e.g., designer brands, expensive jewelry, and luxury clothing). In contrast, 0% of the 40 search terms used more frequently in states with less income inequality were classified as referring to status goods. Finally, we showed how residual-based analysis offers a new methodology for using Google Correlate to provide insights into societal attitudes and motivations while avoiding confounds and high risks of spurious correlations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Comparative Racialization and Unequal Justice in the Era of Black Lives Matter: The Dylan Yang Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pao Lee Vue

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a close examination of the Dylan Yang-Isaiah Powell case in Wausau, Wisconsin, we argue that while Hmong experiences may have remained marginalized or invisible in the era of Black Lives Matter, this case and the mobilization efforts around it suggest both commonalities and disjunctures among boys of color, especially in relation to the US justice system. The Dylan Yang case, in which a Hmong teen was convicted of murder for the stabbing of another boy, perceived to be black Latino, in an altercation at his home, demands comparative racialization analytics to gain perspective on the implementation of unequal justice. Unpacking the effects of the gangster stereotype, especially for Southeast Asian youth, we suggest how, despite the Asian American model minority trope, Hmong American boys have been racialized as monstrous thugs comparable (but not identical to their black and Latino counterparts, and thus treated by law enforcement as suspects in need of “cataloging” as part of the school-to-prison pipeline. We also delve into the actual practices of young men in order to reveal their strategies in tense and conflictual multiracial contexts, then turn to issues such as long sentences and juvenile solitary confinement that imply the disposability of young lives of color. We conclude with a curation of links to articles, blogs and social media that we invite readers to explore using the critical lens we provide.

  3. An improved energy aware distributed unequal clustering protocol for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrinda Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an improved version of the energy aware distributed unequal clustering protocol (EADUC is projected. The EADUC protocol is commonly used for solving energy hole problem in multi-hop wireless sensor networks. In the EADUC, location of base station and residual energy are given importance as clustering parameters. Based on these parameters, different competition radii are assigned to nodes. Herein, a new approach has been proposed to improve the working of EADUC, by electing cluster heads considering number of nodes in the neighborhood in addition to the above two parameters. The inclusion of the neighborhood information for computation of the competition radii provides better balancing of energy in comparison with the existing approach. Furthermore, for the selection of next hop node, the relay metric is defined directly in terms of energy expense instead of only the distance information used in the EADUC and the data transmission phase has been extended in every round by performing the data collection number of times through use of major slots and mini-slots. The methodology used is of retaining the same clusters for a few rounds and is effective in reducing the clustering overhead. The performance of the proposed protocol has been evaluated under three different scenarios and compared with existing protocols through simulations. The results show that the proposed scheme outperforms the existing protocols in terms of network lifetime in all the scenarios.

  4. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of UVA irradiation in Chinese hamster ovary cells measured by specific locus mutations, sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundgren, Karsten; Wulf, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    The increasing use of artificial UVA (320-400 nm) suntanning devices has brought attention to possible hazardous effects of UVA. In contrast with earlier studies, several groups recently have described that UVA possibly is mutagenic. We evaluate the genotoxic properties of broad band UVA using CHO cells and three different assays: specific locus (HGPRT) mutations, chromosome aberrations, and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). The UVA-source was an UVASUN 2000 S (Mutzhas), emitting UVA above 340 nm. The survival curve of the cells exhibited a shoulder up to 200 kJ/m 2 , that was followed by exponential killing at higher fluences. Mutations were induced linearly in the fluence range of 0-200 kJ/m 2 to a level seven fold higher than the spontaneous, followed by a decrease at fluences above 300 kJ/m 2 . Over the total range of tested fluences (0-300 kJ/m 2 ) a linear dose-response relationship was observed for UVA-induced SCEs. A significantly higher percentage of the cells showed chromosomes with aberrations at the higher levels of exposure (200, 300 and 400 kJ/m 2 ), but no dose response was demonstrated. Our results confirm recent findings showing that UVA is mutagenic in mammalian cells and suggest that UVA exposure may contribute to the total burden of genetic damage caused by exposure to ultraviolet light. (author)

  5. Chocolate and The Consumption of Forests: A Cross-National Examination of Ecologically Unequal Exchange in Cocoa Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D. Noble

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the potential links between specialization in cocoa exports and deforestation in developing nations through the lens of ecologically unequal exchange. Although chocolate production was once considered to have only minimal impacts on forests, recent reports suggest damaging trends due to increased demand and changing cultivation strategies. I use two sets of regression analyses to show the increased impact of cocoa export concentration on deforestation over time for less-developed nations. Overall, the results confirm that cocoa exports are associated with deforestation in the most recent time period, and suggest that specialization in cocoa exports is an important form of ecologically unequal exchange, where the environmental costs of chocolate consumption in the Global North are externalized to nations in the Global South, further impairing possibilities for successful or sustainable development.

  6. China, Japan, and the United States in World War II: The Relinquishment of Unequal Treaties in 1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Ma

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine how the United States transformed its foreign policy to promote China as an “equal state” in international politics during World War II, with focus on the process of the American relinquishment of its unequal treaties with China in 1943. In particular, it concentrates on analyzing the conflicts between the United States and Japan in the process of relinquishment. By examining the rivalry between the United States and Japan in the social warfare – propaganda – we can see that the relinquishment of the unequal treaties in 1943 not only marked a historical turning point in America’s China policy, but also had a great impact on the transformation of East Asian politics in World War II and its influence in the world politics.

  7. The Capability Threshold: Re-examining the Definition of the Middle Class in an Unequal Developing Country

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Ronelle; McAravey, Camren; van der Berg, Servaas

    2015-01-01

    In a polarised and highly unequal country such as South Africa, it is unlikely that a definition of the middle class that is based on an income threshold will adequately capture the political and social meanings of being middle class. We therefore propose a multi-dimensional definition, rooted in the ideas of empowerment and capability, and find that the 'empowered middle class' has expanded significantly since 1993 also across vulnerable subgroups such as blacks, female-headed households and...

  8. Indirect intergenic suppression of a radiosensitive mutant of Sordaria macrospora defective in sister-chromatid cohesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A D; Leblon, G; Zickler, D

    1986-01-01

    Six ultra violet (UV) mutageneses were performed on the spo76 UV-sensitive mutant of Sordaria macrospora. Spo76 shows an early centromere cleavage associated with an arrest at the first meiotic division and therefore does not form ascospores. Moreover, it exhibits altered pairing structure (synaptonemal complex), revealing a defect in the sister-chromatid cohesiveness. From 37 revertants which partially restored sporulation, 34 extragenic suppressors of spo76 were isolated. All suppressors are altered in chromosomal pairing but, unlike spo76, show a wild type centromere cleavage. The 34 suppressors were assigned to six different genes and mapped. Only one of the suppressor genes is involved in repair functions.

  9. Photoreactivation of ultraviolet light-induced sister chromatid exchanges in potorous cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizaki, K.; Nikaido, O.; Takebe, H.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to visible light after UV-irradiation showed a remarkable effect on UV-induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs). After 6-h exposure to visible light (3 x 10 5 J/m 2 ), two-thirds of the UV-induced SCEs were prevented, confirming Kato's findings. (Nature 249, 552-3, 1974) Exposure to visible light before UV irradiation had no effect. This effect of visible light on UV-induced CSEs was temperature dependent, suggesting the presence of enzymatic photoreactivation. (author)

  10. Macrocephaly, epilepsy, autism, dysmorphic features, and mental retardation in two sisters: a new autosomal recessive syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Orstavik, K H; Strømme, P; Ek, J; Torvik, A; Skjeldal, O H

    1997-01-01

    We report two sisters with macrocephaly, epilepsy, and severe mental retardation. The first child was a 14 year old girl born at term after a normal pregnancy, with birth weight 3600 g and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC) 36 cm (75th centile). Her head size increased markedly during the first six months of life, and was later stable at 2-3 cm above the 97.5th centile. Her development was characterised by psychomotor delay, epilepsy, and autistic features. Her face appeared mildly dysmorphi...

  11. Sister chromatid exchanges and micronuclei analysis in lymphocytes of men exposed to simazine through drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Susanna; Rubio, Arantxa; Sueiro, Rosa Ana; Garrido, Joaquín

    2003-06-06

    In some cities of the autonomous community of Extremadura (south-west of Spain), levels of simazine from 10 to 30 ppm were detected in tap water. To analyse the possible effect of this herbicide, two biomarkers, sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and micronuclei (MN), were used in peripheral blood lymphocytes from males exposed to simazine through drinking water. SCE and MN analysis failed to detect any statistically significant increase in the people exposed to simazine when compared with the controls. With respect to high frequency cells (HFC), a statistically significant difference was detected between exposed and control groups.

  12. Two Cases of Endometrial Cancer in Twin Sisters with Myotonic Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Y. Koh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe two cases of endometrial cancer (EC occurring in nulligravid twin sisters with myotonic dystrophy. Both tested negative for Lynch syndrome and both were treated with laparoscopic hysterectomy with bilateral salpingooophorectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Although EC tends to run in families, the diagnosis in itself is not considered sufficient cause for screening or prophylactic measures in close relatives. However, the presence of additional risk factors, such as nulligravidity and myotonic dystrophy in the underlying cases, may call for extra vigilance in first-degree family members.

  13. A schedule to demonstrate radiation-induced sister chromatid exchanges in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    The reciprocal interchange between the chromatids of a chromosome, termed sister chromatid exchange (SCE), is considered to be one of the most sensitive and accurate cytogenetic parameters and respond to toxic chemicals at very low doses. But the response of SCE to ionizing radiation is very poor. Human lymphocytes fail to give SCE response when irradiated at G 0 . Probably the primary lesions induced at G 0 do not remain available long enough to find expression as SCEs. Based on this assumption a schedule was developed using caffeine to demonstrate radiation induced SCEs. Following this schedule a dose-dependent increase in the frequency of radiation induced SCEs has been observed. (orig.)

  14. Emergence of ethnochoreology internationally: The Janković sisters, Maud Karpeles, and Gertrude Kurath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunin Elsie Ivancich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A fifty-year (1962-2012 period has been shown as a history of ethnochoreology supported by living memories of members of the International Council for Traditional Music (ICTM Study Group on Ethnochoreology. Recently uncovered and juxtapositioned correspondence of three predecessors within earlier years of the International Folk Music Council (IFMC broadens the history. This article reveals the emergence of ethnochoreology during the 1950s with publications of the two Janković sisters in Serbia with that of Gertrude Kurath in the United States, alongside correspondence with Maud Karpeles, the unheralded founder of the IFMC.

  15. Evaluation of the persistence in the induction of Sister Chromatid Exchanges (SCE) by alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez R, R.; Huerta V, C.; MOrales R, P.R.

    2006-01-01

    The persistence in the induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) by the alkylating agents methyl and ethyl-methanesulfonates (MMS and EMS) was evaluated. For it, to groups of mice its were administered a dose of these agents and later its were analyzed the induced SCE's in two periods: early and late. Both agents caused high increments of SCE in the early period and small in the late one; however, the caused lately by EMS was significantly bigger. This late induction of SCE by EMS possibly is associated with an epigenetic change or with the presence of etiladucts in the phosphodiester bonds of the DNA. (Author)

  16. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  17. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  19. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  20. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  1. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  2. Genesis by meiotic unequal crossover of a de novo deletion that contributes to steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinnott, P.; Collier, S.; Dyer, P.A.; Harris, R.; Strachan, T.; Costigan, C.

    1990-01-01

    The HLA-linked human steroid 21-hydroxylase gene CYP21B and its closely homologous pseudogene CYP21A are each normally located centromeric to a fourth component of complement (C4) gene, C4B and C4A, respectively, in an organization suggesting tandem duplication of a ca. 30-kilobase DNA unit containing a CYP21 gene and a C4 gene. Such an organization has been considered to facilitate gene deletion and addition events by unequal crossover between the tandem repeats. The authors have identified a steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency patient who has a maternally inherited disease haplotype that carries a de novo deletion of a ca. 30-kilobase repeat unit including the CYP21B gene and associated C4B gene. This disease haplotype appears to have been generated as a result of meiotic unequal crossover between maternal homologous chromosomes. One of the maternal haplotypes is the frequently occurring HLA-DR3,B8,A1 haplotype that normally carries a deletion of a ca. 30-kilobase unit including the CYP21A gene and C4A gene. Haplotypes of this type may possible act as premutations, increasing the susceptibility of developing a 21-hydroxylase deficiency mutation by facilitating unequal chromosome pairing

  3. Can conditional cash transfer programs generate equality of opportunity in highly unequal societies? Evidence from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Bohn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines whether the state, through conditional cash transfer programs (CCT, can reduce the poverty and extremely poverty in societies marred by high levels of income concentration. We focus on one of the most unequal countries in the globe, Brazil, and analyze the extent to which this country's CCT program - Bolsa Família (BF, Family Grant program - is able to improve the life chances of extremely poor beneficiaries, through the three major goals of PBF: First, to immediately end hunger; second, to create basic social rights related to healthcare and education; finally, considering also complementary policies, to integrate adults into the job market. The analysis relies on a quantitative survey with 4,000 beneficiaries and a qualitative survey comprised of in-depth interviews with 38 program's participants from all the regions of the country in 2008, it means that this study is about the five first years of the PBF. In order to answer the research questions, we ran four probit analyses related: a the determinants of the realization of prenatal care; b the determinants of food security among BF beneficiaries, c the determinants that adult BF recipients will return to school, d the determinants that a BF beneficiary will obtain a job. Important results from the study are: First, those who before their participation on PBF were at the margins have now been able to access healthcare services on a more regular basis. Thus, the women at the margins who were systematically excluded - black women, poorly educated and from the North - now, after their participation in the CCT program, have more access to prenatal care and can now count with more availability of public healthcare network. Second, before entering the Bolsa Família program, 50.3% of the participants faced severe food insecurity. This number went down to 36.8% in very five years. Men are more likely than women; non-blacks more likely than blacks; and South and Centre

  4. A Case of Spontaneously Resolved Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kahraman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A condition of intrapleural air-space accumulation in individuals without any history of trauma or lung disease is called as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP. Sixteen-years-old male patient admitted with complains of chest pain and dyspnea beginning 3 day ago. On physical examination, severity of breath sounds decreased on right side. Chest radiograph was taken and right-sided pneumothorax was detected and tube thoracostomy was inserted. Two months ago the patient referred to a doctor with similar complaints and physical examination and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The radiograph was retrospectively examined and bilateral PSP was detected. We presented the case duo to spontaneous recovery of bilateral PSP is seen very rarely and so contributes data to the literature. In patients admitted to the clinic with chest pain and shortness of breath, pneumothorax should be considered at differential diagnosis.

  5. THE EFFECT OF UNEQUAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE STANDARD AND QUALITY OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JELENA TOSKOVIC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s the Western Balkan countries entered the transition process which involved the transition from a centrally-planned to a market economy. Thus, these countries were forced to adhere to the basic neoliberal principles based on the Washington consensus, which has promoted the liberalization, privatization and stabilization. This model, in all transition countries, and thus the countries of the Western Balkans (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, FYR Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, was governed by the same guidelines. However, the consequence occurred but economic and social crisis that led to decades of growth of economic inequality. Deformation of the unequal distribution led to the economic and social stratification which is disabled out of the economic crisis in which these countries found. In this paper we analyzed indicators Gini coefficient, the standard of living and quality of life that affect the life of the inhabitants of the Western Balkans. Gini coefficient as the most commonly used measure for measuring economic inequality, measured the distribution of income or consumption expenditure among households or individuals who within an economy deviates from the even distribution. The standard of living is determined by the totality of the conditions of life and work of the individual layers of the population of a country in a given time period.It is related to quality of life and is used for comparative reviews and comparisons of geographic areas, a number of vacation days, and then to compare different periods in history and more. Quality of life is intangible thesis, which includes the assessment of quality of life factors such as employment, income, health, education, science, energy, knowledge and technology, the environment, human rights, protection and recreation, infrastructure, national security, public safety, etc. All these factors combine to affect the life of the population, which from the beginning of the

  6. Applying a new unequally weighted feature fusion method to improve CAD performance of classifying breast lesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargari Khuzani, Abolfazl; Danala, Gopichandh; Heidari, Morteza; Du, Yue; Mashhadi, Najmeh; Qiu, Yuchen; Zheng, Bin

    2018-02-01

    Higher recall rates are a major challenge in mammography screening. Thus, developing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) scheme to classify between malignant and benign breast lesions can play an important role to improve efficacy of mammography screening. Objective of this study is to develop and test a unique image feature fusion framework to improve performance in classifying suspicious mass-like breast lesions depicting on mammograms. The image dataset consists of 302 suspicious masses detected on both craniocaudal and mediolateral-oblique view images. Amongst them, 151 were malignant and 151 were benign. The study consists of following 3 image processing and feature analysis steps. First, an adaptive region growing segmentation algorithm was used to automatically segment mass regions. Second, a set of 70 image features related to spatial and frequency characteristics of mass regions were initially computed. Third, a generalized linear regression model (GLM) based machine learning classifier combined with a bat optimization algorithm was used to optimally fuse the selected image features based on predefined assessment performance index. An area under ROC curve (AUC) with was used as a performance assessment index. Applying CAD scheme to the testing dataset, AUC was 0.75+/-0.04, which was significantly higher than using a single best feature (AUC=0.69+/-0.05) or the classifier with equally weighted features (AUC=0.73+/-0.05). This study demonstrated that comparing to the conventional equal-weighted approach, using an unequal-weighted feature fusion approach had potential to significantly improve accuracy in classifying between malignant and benign breast masses.

  7. Climate change and unequal phenological changes across four trophic levels: constraints or adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both, Christiaan; van Asch, Margriet; Bijlsma, Rob G; van den Burg, Arnold B; Visser, Marcel E

    2009-01-01

    1. Climate change has been shown to affect the phenology of many organisms, but interestingly these shifts are often unequal across trophic levels, causing a mismatch between the phenology of organisms and their food. 2. We consider two alternative hypotheses: consumers are constrained to adjust sufficiently to the lower trophic level, or prey species react more strongly than their predators to reduce predation. We discuss both hypotheses with our analyses of changes in phenology across four trophic levels: tree budburst, peak biomass of herbivorous caterpillars, breeding phenology of four insectivorous bird species and an avian predator. 3. In our long-term study, we show that between 1988 and 2005, budburst advanced (not significantly) with 0.17 d yr(-1), while between 1985 and 2005 both caterpillars (0.75 d year(-1)) and the hatching date of the passerine species (range for four species: 0.36-0.50 d year(-1)) have advanced, whereas raptor hatching dates showed no trend. 4. The caterpillar peak date was closely correlated with budburst date, as were the passerine hatching dates with the peak caterpillar biomass date. In all these cases, however, the slopes were significantly less than unity, showing that the response of the consumers is weaker than that of their food. This was also true for the avian predator, for which hatching dates were not correlated with the peak availability of fledgling passerines. As a result, the match between food demand and availability deteriorated over time for both the passerines and the avian predators. 5. These results could equally well be explained by consumers' insufficient responses as a consequence of constraints in adapting to climate change, or by them trying to escape predation from a higher trophic level, or both. Selection on phenology could thus be both from matches of phenology with higher and lower levels, and quantifying these can shed new light on why some organisms do adjust their phenology to climate change, while

  8. Changes in Siblings Over Time After the Death of a Brother or Sister From Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akard, Terrah Foster; Skeens, Micah A; Fortney, Christine A; Dietrich, Mary S; Gilmer, Mary Jo; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru; Davies, Betty; Wray, Sarah; Gerhardt, Cynthia A

    2018-02-27

    Limited research has examined the impact of a child's death from cancer on siblings. Even less is known about how these siblings change over time. This study compared changes in siblings 1 (T1) and 2 (T2) years after the death of a brother or sister from cancer based on bereaved parent and sibling interviews. Participants across 3 institutions represented 27 families and included bereaved mothers (n = 21), fathers (n = 15), and siblings (n = 26) ranging from 8 to 17 years old. Participants completed semistructured interviews. Content analysis identified emerging themes and included frequency counts of participant responses. McNemar tests examined differences in the frequency of responses between T1 and T2 data. Participants reported similar types of changes in bereaved siblings at both time points, including changes in sibling relationships, life perspectives, their personal lives, and school performance. A new theme of "openness" emerged at T2. Frequencies of responses differed according to mother, father, or sibling informant. Overall, participants less frequently reported changes at T2 versus T1. Compared with findings in the first year, participants reported greater sibling maturity at follow-up. Overall changes in bereaved siblings continued over 2 years with less frequency over time, with the exception of increases in maturity and openness. Providers can educate parents regarding the impact of death of a brother or sister over time. Nurses can foster open communication in surviving grieving siblings and parents as potential protective factors in families going through their grief.

  9. Three Sisters Mountain Village development transformation of old coal mine properties into modern day use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, B.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discussed the development of the Three Sisters Mountain Village, located close to Canmore, Alberta. The paper provided the history and background of the mining and development of the site. It discussed underground mining methodology and planned housing and industrial development. The village included plans for 10,000 residential homes, 2 golf courses, a wellness centre, a school, commercial buildings and wildlife corridors. Environmental concerns were also addressed, as Canmore contains a series of natural wildlife corridors, which act as migration and travelling routes for elk and deer as well as cougars, grizzly bears, and other animals. These routes are essential for the survival of the different herds and animal species. The development progress strategy was discussed. The Three Sisters Mountain Village Development commissioned Golder Associates Ltd. to study and address the environmental concerns of the stakeholders regarding the migrating routes of wildlife. Mining works mitigation, including mapping of the constraint zones, knowledge of subsidence issues and the effects of subsidence on structural stress and the ability to analysis field data to predict potential problems was also presented along with a methodology for mitigation and choice of backfill material to be used to fill the mine workings. The advantages of using concrete paste backfill were also identified

  10. Three Sisters Mountain Village development transformation of old coal mine properties into modern day use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, B. [Golder Paste Technology Ltd., Sudbury, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discussed the development of the Three Sisters Mountain Village, located close to Canmore, Alberta. The paper provided the history and background of the mining and development of the site. It discussed underground mining methodology and planned housing and industrial development. The village included plans for 10,000 residential homes, 2 golf courses, a wellness centre, a school, commercial buildings and wildlife corridors. Environmental concerns were also addressed, as Canmore contains a series of natural wildlife corridors, which act as migration and travelling routes for elk and deer as well as cougars, grizzly bears, and other animals. These routes are essential for the survival of the different herds and animal species. The development progress strategy was discussed. The Three Sisters Mountain Village Development commissioned Golder Associates Ltd. to study and address the environmental concerns of the stakeholders regarding the migrating routes of wildlife. Mining works mitigation, including mapping of the constraint zones, knowledge of subsidence issues and the effects of subsidence on structural stress and the ability to analysis field data to predict potential problems was also presented along with a methodology for mitigation and choice of backfill material to be used to fill the mine workings. The advantages of using concrete paste backfill were also identified.

  11. Childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in anorexia nervosa patients, their unaffected sisters and healthy controls: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degortes, Daniela; Zanetti, Tatiana; Tenconi, Elena; Santonastaso, Paolo; Favaro, Angela

    2014-07-01

    Although there is evidence that childhood perfectionistic traits predate the onset of eating disorders, few studies to date have examined the prevalence and clinical correlates of these traits in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and their unaffected sisters. The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits in patients with lifetime AN, their unaffected sisters and healthy women. A total of 116 AN patients, 32 healthy sisters and 119 controls were assessed by the EATATE Interview to assess traits such as perfectionism, inflexibility, rule-bound traits, drive for order and symmetry, and excessive doubt and cautiousness. Both self-report and maternal reports were collected. AN patients reported more childhood obsessive-compulsive traits than their healthy sisters and controls. In contrast, no differences between healthy controls and unaffected sisters emerged. In patients with AN, a dose-response relationship was found between the number of childhood obsessive-compulsive traits and psychopathology, including body image distortion, thus indicating that these traits are an important feature to be considered in assessing and treating eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  12. Sisters in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families: communal coping, social integration, and psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehly, Laura M; Peters, June A; Kuhn, Natalia; Hoskins, Lindsey; Letocha, Anne; Kenen, Regina; Loud, Jennifer; Greene, Mark H

    2008-08-01

    We investigated the association between psychological distress and indices of social integration and communal coping among sisters from hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) families. Sixty-five sisters from 31 HBOC families completed the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 and the Colored Eco-Genetic Relationship Map, which identified members of participants' social support networks. Hierarchical linear models were used for all analyses to account for the clustering of sisters within families. Intra-family correlation coefficients suggested that sisters shared perceptions of breast cancer risk and worry, but not ovarian cancer risk and worry. Further, sisters demonstrated shared levels of anxiety and somatization, but not depressive symptoms. Communal coping indices quantifying shared support resources were negatively related to anxiety and somatization. The number of persons with whom cancer risk information was shared exhibited a positive trend with somatization. Social integration, as measured by the size of participants' emotional support network, was negatively associated with anxiety. Lower depression scores were observed among participants with more persons playing multiple support roles and fewer persons providing tangible assistance. Understanding how support relationships impact well-being among persons adjusting to HBOC risk, and the particular role of family in that process, will facilitate developing appropriate management approaches to help cancer-prone families adjust to their cancer risk.

  13. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  14. Happiness matters : exploring the linkages between personality, personal happiness, and work-related psychological health among priests and sisters in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Leslie J.; Crea, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This study responds to the challenge posed by Rossetti’s work to explore the antecedents and consequences of individual differences in happiness among priests and religious sisters. The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was completed together with measures of personality and work-related psychological health by 95 priests and 61 religious sisters. Overall the data demonstrated high levels of personal happiness among priests and religious sisters, but also significant signs of vulnerability. Pers...

  15. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  16. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  17. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  18. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  19. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  20. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  1. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  2. Spontaneous Scalarization: Dead or Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis; Gerosa, Davide; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Macedo, Caio; Okada da Silva, Hector; Pani, Paolo; Sotani, Hajime; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In 1993, Damour and Esposito-Farese showed that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass weak-field gravitational tests and exhibit nonperturbative strong-field deviations away from General Relativity in systems involving neutron stars. These deviations are possible in the presence of ``spontaneous scalarization,'' a phase transition similar in nature to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. More than twenty years after the original proposal, binary pulsar experiments have severely constrained the possibility of spontaneous scalarization occurring in nature. I will show that these experimental constraints have important implications for the torsional oscillation frequencies of neutron stars and for the so-called ``I-Love-Q'' relations in scalar-tensor theories. I will also argue that there is still hope to observe strong scalarization effects, despite the strong experimental bounds on the original mechanism. In particular, I will discuss two mechanisms that could produce strong scalarization in neutron stars: anisotropy and multiscalarization. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award PHY-1055103.

  3. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  4. Higher incidence of spontaneous sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) and X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, T.; Das, B.C.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes from human and muntjac (barking deer) females who were at an advanced stage of pregnancy (32-37 weeks pregnant women and 20-24 weeks pregnant muntjacs) showed an enhanced frequency of SCEs and X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations when compared with those of nonpregnant females. Lymphocyte cultures of nonpregnant females to which sex hormones progesterone, oestrogen and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) were added together exogenously also showed higher frequency of SCEs. The plausible reason(s) for such high incidence of SCEs during pregnancy is discussed. (orig.)

  5. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  6. Early Development of Squamous Cell Carsinoma in Two Sister Cases with pidermodysplasia Verruciformis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Çalka

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (Lewandowsky-Lutz syndrome is an uncommon disease characterized by multiple plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, defects of cell-mediated immunity, and tendency to develop skin malignancies, primarily on sun-exposed areas. Most commonly it is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of skin cancer found in patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Human papilloma virus 5, 8, and 47 are found in more than 90% of epidermodysplasia verruciformis skin cancers. Treatment for epidermodysplasia verruciformis consists largely of preventive measures. Photoprotection remains essential for management. In this report, two sister case of epidermodisplasia verruciformis with plane warts, pityriasis versicolor-like lesions, and squamous cell carcinomas on sun-exposed areas of skin was presented for it is a rarely encountered disease and associated with early development of malignancy.

  7. Roles of the sister chromatid cohesion apparatus in gene expression, development, and human syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorsett, Dale

    2006-01-01

    The sister chromatid cohesion apparatus mediates physical pairing of duplicated chromosomes. This pairing is essential for appropriate distribution of chromosomes into the daughter cells upon cell division. Recent evidence shows that the cohesion apparatus, which is a significant structural component of chromosomes during interphase, also affects gene expression and development. The Cornelia de Lange (CdLS) and Roberts/SC phocomelia (RBS/SC) genetic syndromes in humans are caused by mutations affecting components of the cohesion apparatus. Studies in Drosophila suggest that effects on gene expression are most likely responsible for developmental alterations in CdLS. Effects on chromatid cohesion are apparent in RBS/SC syndrome, but data from yeast and Drosophila point to the likelihood that changes in expression of genes located in heterochromatin could contribute to the developmental deficits. PMID:16819604

  8. Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Ingebritsen, Steven; Thatcher, Wayne; Lu, Zhong; Iverson, Justin

    2002-04-01

    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The last eruption in the volcanic center occurred ~1500 years ago. Multiple satellite images from 1992 through 2000 indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted during 1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a crustal magma reservoir prior to the uplift. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km.

  9. Laparoscopic Scar: a mimicker of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule on positron emission tomography/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setty, B.; Blake, M.A.; Holalkere, N.S.; Blaszkowsky, L.S.; Fischman, A.

    2006-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/CT is an established imaging method in the diagnosis and staging of cancers. 18 F -fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) is the most commonly used radiotracer in positron emission tomography/CT. It is a tumour viability agent and usually its uptake within a lesion reflects the presence of a viable tumour tissue. However, false-positive FDG uptake is known to occur in benign processes of either inflammatory or infectious aetiology. We describe FDG uptake at the site of laparoscopic scar that mimicked Sister Mary Joseph's nodule in a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma. Here, the knowledge of the patient's history and subtle imaging findings helped in accurate staging of the patient. In this case report, we emphasize the value of the knowledge of the patient history and awareness of different pitfalls of FDG to achieve a correct diagnosis on positron emission tomography/CT

  10. Sibling recognition and the development of identity: intersubjective consequences of sibling differentiation in the sister relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivona, Jeanine M

    2013-01-01

    Identity is, among other things, a means to adapt to the others around whom one must fit. Psychoanalytic theory has highlighted ways in which the child fits in by emulating important others, especially through identification. Alternately, the child may fit into the family and around important others through differentiation, an unconscious process that involves developing or accentuating qualities and desires in oneself that are expressly different from the perceived qualities of another person and simultaneously suppressing qualities and desires that are perceived as similar. With two clinical vignettes centered on the sister relationship, the author demonstrates that recognition of identity differences that result from sibling differentiation carries special significance in the sibling relationship and simultaneously poses particular intersubjective challenges. To the extent that the spotlight of sibling recognition delimits the lateral space one may occupy, repeatedly frustrated desires for sibling recognition may have enduring consequences for one's sense of self-worth and expectations of relationships with peers and partners.

  11. Elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies in New Zealand Vietnam War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R E; Edwards, L A; Podd, J V

    2007-01-01

    From July 1965 until November 1971, New Zealand Defence Force Personnel fought in the Vietnam War. During this time more than 76,500,000 litres of phenoxylic herbicides were sprayed over parts of Southern Vietnam and Laos, the most common being known as 'Agent Orange'. The current study aimed to ascertain whether or not New Zealand Vietnam War veterans show evidence of genetic disturbance arising as a consequence of their now confirmed exposure to these defoliants. A sample group of 24 New Zealand Vietnam War veterans and 23 control volunteers were compared using an SCE (sister chromatid exchange) analysis. The results from the SCE study show a highly significant difference (P Vietnam War veterans studied here were exposed to a clastogenic substance(s) which continues to exert an observable genetic effect today, and suggest that this is attributable to their service in Vietnam. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Sister chromatid exchange in children of Seventh-Day Adventists and matched controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, R; Waksvik, H; Fønnebø, V

    1991-03-01

    The low risk of cancer in Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) has been suggested to be due to genetic selection. To investigate this claim we examined the sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequency in peripheral blood lymphocytes in 16 SDA children in Tromsø, all aged 0.5-8 years and 16 controls matched for sex and age. In 12 of 16 pairs, the SDA children had a lower SCE frequency than the controls. The mean difference was 4.06 (95% confidence interval -17.02-8.89, P = 0.51). There was no sex difference, and no correlation between age and SCE frequency. The genetic starting point with regard to SCE frequency seems to be the same for SDA children and controls.

  13. Mutagen-induced sister chromatid exchanges in xeroderma pigmentosum and normal lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, P.E.; Jager, M.; Evans, H.J.

    1978-01-01

    The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), by ultra-violet irradiation and by three chemical mutagens that differ in the type of repair response that they elicit, has been compared in lymphocytes from a control and from an individual suffering from the DNA excision repair deficiency syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum (XP). The XP lymphocytes were found to be more sensitive in terms of SCE response, not only to UV irradiation, but also to all of the chemicals studied. The results indicate that the abnormality of DNA repair in this XP patient is expressed not only in the defective excision of thymine dimers, or other UV photoproducts, but also in a reduced ability to repair other types of DNA lesion. (author)

  14. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Ylenia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes, to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles, or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation

  15. EPRI/DOE High Burnup Fuel Sister Pin Test Plan Simplification and Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saltzstein, Sylvia J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorenson, Ken B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hanson, Brady [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Billone, Mike [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Scaglione, John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Rose [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevard, Bruce [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-07-01

    The EPRI/DOE High Burnup Confirmatory Data Project (herein called the "Demo") is a multi-year, multi-entity confirmation demonstration test with the purpose of providing quantitative and qualitative data to show how high-burnup fuel ages in dry storage over a ten-year period. The Demo involves obtaining 32 assemblies of high-burnup PWR fuel of four common cladding alloys from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant, drying them according to standard plant procedures, and then storing them in an NRC-licensed TN-3 2B cask on the North Anna dry storage pad for ten years. After the ten-year storage time, the cask will be opened and the rods will be examined for signs of aging. Twenty-five rods from assemblies of similar claddings, in-reactor placement, and burnup histories (herein called "sister rods") have been shipped from the North Anna Nuclear Power Plant and are currently being nondestructively tested at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. After the non-destructive testing has been completed for each of the twenty-five rods, destructive analysis will be performed at ORNL, PNNL, and ANL to obtain mechanical data. Opinions gathered from the expert interviews, ORNL and PNNL Sister Rod Test Plans, and numerous meetings has resulted in the Simplified Test Plan described in this document. Some of the opinions and discussions leading to the simplified test plan are included here. Detailed descriptions and background are in the ORNL and PNNL plans in the appendices . After the testing described in this simplified test plan h as been completed , the community will review all the collected data and determine if additional testing is needed.

  16. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results

  17. Evolutionary comparison of prenylation pathway in kinetoplastid Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Indira Singh; Kaur, Jaspreet; Krishna, Shagun; Ghosh, Arpita; Singh, Prashant; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Singh, Neeloo

    2015-11-21

    Leptomonas is monogenetic kinetoplastid parasite of insects and is primitive in comparison to Leishmania. Comparative studies of these two kinetoplastid may share light on the evolutionary transition to dixenous parasitism in Leishmania. In order to adapt and survive within two hosts, Leishmania species must have acquired virulence factors in addition to mechanisms that mediate susceptibility/resistance to infection in the pathology associated with disease. Rab proteins are key mediators of vesicle transport and contribute greatly to the evolution of complexity of membrane transport system. In this study we used our whole genome sequence data of these two divergent kinetoplastids to analyze the orthologues/paralogues of Rab proteins. During change of lifestyle from monogenetic (Leptomonas) to digenetic (Leishmania), we found that the prenyl machinery remained unchanged. Geranylgeranyl transferase-I (GGTase-I) was absent in both Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas. Farnesyltransferase (FTase) and geranylgeranyl transferase-II (GGTase-II) were identified for protein prenylation. We predict that activity of the missing alpha-subunit (α-subunit) of GGTase-II in Leptomonas was probably contributed by the α-subunit of FTase, while beta-subunit (β-subunit) of GGTase-II was conserved and indicated functional conservation in the evolution of these two kinetoplastids. Therefore the β-subunit emerges as an excellent target for compounds inhibiting parasite activity in clinical cases of co-infections. We also confirmed that during the evolution to digenetic life style in Leishmania, the parasite acquired capabilities to evade drug action and maintain parasite virulence in the host with the incorporation of short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR/MDR) superfamily in Rab genes. Our study based on whole genome sequences is the first to build comparative evolutionary analysis and identification of prenylation proteins in Leishmania and its sister Leptomonas. The information

  18. Differences in mycorrhizal communities between Epipactis palustris, E. helleborine and its presumed sister species E. neerlandica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemyn, Hans; Waud, Michael; Lievens, Bart; Brys, Rein

    2016-07-01

    In orchid species that have populations occurring in strongly contrasting habitats, mycorrhizal divergence and other habitat-specific adaptations may lead to the formation of reproductively isolated taxa and ultimately to species formation. However, little is known about the mycorrhizal communities associated with recently diverged sister taxa that occupy different habitats. In this study, 454 amplicon pyrosequencing was used to investigate mycorrhizal communities associating with Epipactis helleborine in its typical forest habitat and with its presumed sister species E. neerlandica that almost exclusively occurs in coastal dune habitats. Samples of the phylogenetically more distant E. palustris, which co-occurred with E. neerlandica, were also included to investigate the role of habitat-specific conditions on mycorrhizal communities. A total of 105 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of putative orchid mycorrhizal fungi were observed in the three studied species. The majority of these fungi were endophytic fungi of Helotiales and ectomycorrhizal fungi belonging to Thelephoraceae, Sebacinaceae and Inocybaceae. In addition, a large number of other ectomycorrhizal taxa were detected, including Cortinarius, Cenococcum, Tuber, Geopora, Wilcoxina, Meliniomyces, Hebeloma, Tricholoma, Russula and Peziza Mycorrhizal communities differed significantly between the three species, but differences were most pronounced between the forest species (E. helleborine) and the two dune slack species (E. neerlandica and E. palustris). The results clearly showed that recently diverged orchid species that occupy different habitats were characterized by significantly different mycorrhizal communities and call for more detailed experiments that aim at elucidating the contribution of habitat-specific adaptations in general and mycorrhizal divergence in particular to the process of speciation in orchids. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany

  19. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  20. Spontaneous coronary dissection: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Gustavo J. Ventura; Deslandes, Alexandre de O.; Santos, Paulo César de Souza; Cruz, Alexandre de Araújo; Saraiva, Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar o caso de um homem de 62 anos, com quadro de dissecção coronariana espontânea, localizada em 1/3 inicial de coronária circunflexa esquerda, tratado cirurgicamente com revascularização miocárdica. A operação realizada com sucesso demonstra, nesse caso, ser o único meio possível de cura.The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the case of a 62-year-old man, with spontaneous coronary dissection of the left circumflex artery, treated surgically by myocardial ...

  1. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as sister to the coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous sister relationships. We used primers d...

  3. 20 CFR 222.40 - When determinations of relationship are made for parent, grandchild, brother or sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When determinations of relationship are made... RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS Relationship as Parent..., brother or sister. (a) Parent. The claimant's relationship as a parent of the employee is determined when...

  4. Historical biogeography and diversification of truffles in the Tuberaceae and their newly identified Southern hemisphere sister lineage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory Bonito; Matthew E. Smith; Michael Nowak; Rosanne A. Healy; Gonzalo Guevara; Efren Cazares; Akihiko Kinoshita; Eduardo R. Nouhra; Laura S. Dominguez; Leho Tedersoo; Claude Murat; Yun Wang; Baldomero Arroyo Moreno; Donald H. Pfister; Kazuhide Nara; Alessandra Zambonelli; James M. Trappe; Rytas. Vilgalys

    2013-01-01

    In this study we reassessed the biogeography and origin of the Tuberaceae and their relatives using multiple loci and a global sampling of taxa. Multiple independent transitions from an aboveground to a belowground truffie fruiting body form have occurred in the Tuberaceae and in its newly recognized sister lineage...

  5. The development of SisterTalk: a cable TV-delivered weight control program for black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Lovell, H Joan; Risica, Patricia M; Goldman, Roberta; Odoms-Young, Angela; Strolla, Leslie O; Decaille, Donna O; Caron, Colleen; Lasater, Thomas M

    2003-12-01

    Overweight and obesity have reached epidemic proportions in the United States, with black women disproportionately affected. SisterTalk is a weight control program designed specifically for delivery to black women via cable TV. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks and formative research that guided the development and cultural tailoring of SisterTalk are described. Social Action Theory was applied in the development of SisterTalk along with a detailed behavioral analysis of the way that black women view weight and weight loss within the context of their cultural and social realities. The entire intervention development process was framed using this information, rather than by changing only superficial aspects of program delivery. Community networking and both qualitative and quantitative interview techniques from the fields of social marketing and cultural anthropology were used to involve black women from Boston in the design and implementation of a program that would be practical, appealing, and culturally sensitive. Also discussed are strategies for evaluating the program, and lessons learned that might have broader applicability are highlighted. The development of the SisterTalk program could provide a useful starting point for development of successful weight control programs for black women in other parts of the United States as well as for other ethnic and racial groups.

  6. UBL5 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing and sister chromatid cohesion in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Varmark, Hanne; Vitting-Seerup, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    UBL5 is an atypical ubiquitin-like protein, whose function in metazoans remains largely unexplored. We show that UBL5 is required for sister chromatid cohesion maintenance in human cells. UBL5 primarily associates with spliceosomal proteins, and UBL5 depletion decreases pre-mRNA splicing efficien...

  7. Sister Mary Theresa Brentano, OSB's Innovative Use of Magnetic Audio Tapes: An Overlooked Story in the History of Educational Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Linda

    This paper tells the story of Sister Mary Theresa Brentano, O.S.B's (1902-1987) innovative use of magnetic audiotapes to provide instruction for students in grades K-12. From 1952 to approximately 1968, Brentano implemented, refined, and tested her tape teaching methods with special emphasis on individualizing instruction in the elementary school.…

  8. 'For Good, God, and the Empire': French Franciscan Sisters in Ethiopia 1896-1937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In 1897, four French Franciscan sisters arrived in Ethiopia, having been summoned there by the Capuchin missionaries. In 1925, they ran an orphanage, a dispensary, a leper colony and 10 schools with 350 girl students. The students were freed slaves, orphans and upper-class Ethiopian and European girls. After providing a brief background to the…

  9. 77 FR 48993 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of... proposed data collection projects, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the... Sister Study: A Prospective Study of the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Breast Cancer. Type...

  10. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  11. A Slicing Tree Representation and QCP-Model-Based Heuristic Algorithm for the Unequal-Area Block Facility Layout Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Shiang Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The facility layout problem is a typical combinational optimization problem. In this research, a slicing tree representation and a quadratically constrained program model are combined with harmony search to develop a heuristic method for solving the unequal-area block layout problem. Because of characteristics of slicing tree structure, we propose a regional structure of harmony memory to memorize facility layout solutions and two kinds of harmony improvisation to enhance global search ability of the proposed heuristic method. The proposed harmony search based heuristic is tested on 10 well-known unequal-area facility layout problems from the literature. The results are compared with the previously best-known solutions obtained by genetic algorithm, tabu search, and ant system as well as exact methods. For problems O7, O9, vC10Ra, M11*, and Nug12, new best solutions are found. For other problems, the proposed approach can find solutions that are very similar to previous best-known solutions.

  12. Inflation of type I error rates by unequal variances associated with parametric, nonparametric, and Rank-Transformation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. Zimmerman

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that the two-sample Student t test fails to maintain its significance level when the variances of treatment groups are unequal, and, at the same time, sample sizes are unequal. However, introductory textbooks in psychology and education often maintain that the test is robust to variance heterogeneity when sample sizes are equal. The present study discloses that, for a wide variety of non-normal distributions, especially skewed distributions, the Type I error probabilities of both the t test and the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test are substantially inflated by heterogeneous variances, even when sample sizes are equal. The Type I error rate of the t test performed on ranks replacing the scores (rank-transformed data is inflated in the same way and always corresponds closely to that of the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. For many probability densities, the distortion of the significance level is far greater after transformation to ranks and, contrary to known asymptotic properties, the magnitude of the inflation is an increasing function of sample size. Although nonparametric tests of location also can be sensitive to differences in the shape of distributions apart from location, the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test and rank-transformation tests apparently are influenced mainly by skewness that is accompanied by specious differences in the means of ranks.

  13. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  14. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  15. Spontaneous pneumothorax in silicotuberculosis of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Vajo, J.; Krchnavy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the case of 62 years old man with the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom the basic pulmonary disease was silicotuberculosis of the lung. At clinic of occupational diseases in Kosice have been evidence 965 cases of silicosis and silicotuberculosis. From 1971 they have now the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax. The authors make discussion about possible mechanical and biochemical factors, which cause relatively low incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis of the lung. (authors)

  16. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  17. Sister chromatid cohesion defects are associated with chromosome instability in Hodgkin lymphoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajesh, Babu V; Lichtensztejn, Zelda; McManus, Kirk J

    2013-01-01

    Chromosome instability manifests as an abnormal chromosome complement and is a pathogenic event in cancer. Although a correlation between abnormal chromosome numbers and cancer exist, the underlying mechanisms that cause chromosome instability are poorly understood. Recent data suggests that aberrant sister chromatid cohesion causes chromosome instability and thus contributes to the development of cancer. Cohesion normally functions by tethering nascently synthesized chromatids together to prevent premature segregation and thus chromosome instability. Although the prevalence of aberrant cohesion has been reported for some solid tumors, its prevalence within liquid tumors is unknown. Consequently, the current study was undertaken to evaluate aberrant cohesion within Hodgkin lymphoma, a lymphoid malignancy that frequently exhibits chromosome instability. Using established cytogenetic techniques, the prevalence of chromosome instability and aberrant cohesion was examined within mitotic spreads generated from five commonly employed Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines (L-1236, KM-H2, L-428, L-540 and HDLM-2) and a lymphocyte control. Indirect immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were performed to evaluate the localization and expression of six critical proteins involved in the regulation of sister chromatid cohesion. We first confirmed that all five Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines exhibited chromosome instability relative to the lymphocyte control. We then determined that each Hodgkin lymphoma cell line exhibited cohesion defects that were subsequently classified into mild, moderate or severe categories. Surprisingly, ~50% of the mitotic spreads generated from L-540 and HDLM-2 harbored cohesion defects. To gain mechanistic insight into the underlying cause of the aberrant cohesion we examined the localization and expression of six critical proteins involved in cohesion. Although all proteins produced the expected nuclear localization pattern, striking differences in RAD21

  18. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  19. Spontaneous baryogenesis in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Cottingham, W.N.; Whittingham, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we extent the results of previous work on spontaneous baryogenesis to general models involving charge-parity (CP) violation in the Higgs sector. We show how to deal with Chern-Simons terms appearing in the effective potential arising from phase changes in the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields. In particular, this enables us to apply this mechanism to general supersymmetric models including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the extended model with a gauge singlet. A comparison is made between this approach, and that in which one solves the equations of motion for Higgs winding modes. As anticipated in earlier work, the effect of the latter approach is found to be small. (Author)

  20. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  2. TO THE SOLUTION OF PROBLEMS ABOUT THE RAILWAYS CALCULATION FOR STRENGTH TAKING INTO ACCOUNT UNEQUAL ELASTICITY OF THE SUBRAIL BASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kurhan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The module of elasticity of the subrail base is one of the main characteristics for an assessment intense the deformed condition of a track. Need for different cases to consider unequal elasticity of the subrail base repeatedly was considered, however, results contained rather difficult mathematical approaches and the obtained decisions didn't keep within borders of standard engineering calculation of a railway on strength. Therefore the purpose of this work is obtaining the decision within this document. Methodology. It is offered to consider a rail model as a beam which has the distributed loading of such outline corresponding to value of the module of elasticity that gives an equivalent deflection at free seating on bearing parts. Findings. The method of the accounting of gradual change of the module of elasticity of the subrail base by means of the correcting coefficient in engineering calculation of a way on strength was received. Expansion of existing calculation of railways strength was developed for the accounting of sharp change of the module of elasticity of the subrail base (for example, upon transition from a ballast design of a way on the bridge. The characteristic of change of forces operating from a rail on a basis, depending on distance to the bridge on an approach site from a ballast design of a way was received. The results of the redistribution of forces after a sudden change in the elastic modulus of the base under the rail explain the formation of vertical irregularities before the bridge. Originality. The technique of engineering calculation of railways strength for performance of calculations taking into account unequal elasticity of the subrail base was improved. Practical value. The obtained results allow carrying out engineering calculations for an assessment of strength of a railway in places of unequal elasticity caused by a condition of a way or features of a design. The solution of the return task on

  3. Homozygous Inactivating Mutation in NANOS3 in Two Sisters with Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza G. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increasing understanding of female reproduction, the molecular diagnosis of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is seldom obtained. The RNA-binding protein NANOS3 poses as an interesting candidate gene for POI since members of the Nanos family have an evolutionarily conserved function in germ cell development and maintenance by repressing apoptosis. We performed mutational analysis of NANOS3 in a cohort of 85 Brazilian women with familial or isolated POI, presenting with primary or secondary amenorrhea, and in ethnically-matched control women. A homozygous p.Glu120Lys mutation in NANOS3 was identified in two sisters with primary amenorrhea. The substituted amino acid is located within the second C2HC motif in the conserved zinc finger domain of NANOS3 and in silico molecular modelling suggests destabilization of protein-RNA interaction. In vitro analyses of apoptosis through flow cytometry and confocal microscopy show that NANOS3 capacity to prevent apoptosis was impaired by this mutation. The identification of an inactivating missense mutation in NANOS3 suggests a mechanism for POI involving increased primordial germ cells (PGCs apoptosis during embryonic cell migration and highlights the importance of NANOS proteins in human ovarian biology.

  4. Merotelic kinetochore attachment in oocyte meiosis II causes sister chromatids segregation errors in aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin-Mei; Li, Jian; Tang, Ji-Xin; Hao, Xiao-Xia; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Sun, Tie-Cheng; Wang, Xiu-Xia; Zhang, Yan; Chen, Su-Ren; Liu, Yi-Xun

    2017-08-03

    Mammalian oocyte chromosomes undergo 2 meiotic divisions to generate haploid gametes. The frequency of chromosome segregation errors during meiosis I increase with age. However, little attention has been paid to the question of how aging affects sister chromatid segregation during oocyte meiosis II. More importantly, how aneuploid metaphase II (MII) oocytes from aged mice evade the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) mechanism to complete later meiosis II to form aneuploid embryos remains unknown. Here, we report that MII oocytes from naturally aged mice exhibited substantial errors in chromosome arrangement and configuration compared with young MII oocytes. Interestingly, these errors in aged oocytes had no impact on anaphase II onset and completion as well as 2-cell formation after parthenogenetic activation. Further study found that merotelic kinetochore attachment occurred more frequently and could stabilize the kinetochore-microtubule interaction to ensure SAC inactivation and anaphase II onset in aged MII oocytes. This orientation could persist largely during anaphase II in aged oocytes, leading to severe chromosome lagging and trailing as well as delay of anaphase II completion. Therefore, merotelic kinetochore attachment in oocyte meiosis II exacerbates age-related genetic instability and is a key source of age-dependent embryo aneuploidy and dysplasia.

  5. Shakespeare’s Weird Sisters – In Between Outlandish Womanhood and Prophesing Moirae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avarvarei Simona Catrinel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to map the meandering expression of otherness when womanhood constructs an epiphanic encounter with time and fortune. Hereinafter, hegemonic, oppressive masculinity meets peripheral, prophesying femininity in an intricate exercise of doing and becoming Shakespeare‘s Weird Sisters, forming a complex mythological construction, whose uniqueness arises from the duality of their personae, reflection of displaced femininity, somewhat grotesque, peripheral within the realm of marginality itself. They are not only weird expressions of the Other, they are the other self of themselves, as alter ego expressions. There is a constant, minutely woven border crossing that does not only (redefine the geometry of becoming, but it also permeates gender constructions, making femaleness look androgynous and ruthless. Foretelling dreams of glory, mightiness or summoning lost humanity, these three Parcae rewrite the myth of the androgynous and its story about the quest of the Other. It is this Other that will be explored from a variety of angles that speak of masculinity, femininity, sanity, irrationality, consciousness, unconsciousness, freewill and fate.

  6. Challenging stereotypes? The older woman in the TV series Brothers & Sisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oró-Piqueras, Maricel

    2014-12-01

    The TV series, Brothers & Sisters, broadcast from 2006 to 2011 by ABC (USA) and a year later by Channel 4 (UK) with quite high audience rates, starts when the patriarchal figure, William Walker, dies of a heart attack and two female figures around their sixties come center stage: his wife, Nora Walker, and his long-term lover, Holly Harper. Once the patriarchal figure disappears, the female characters regain visibility by entering the labor market and starting relationships with other men. In that sense, both protagonists experience aging as a time in which they are increasingly freed from social and family constraints. However, their roles as nurturers keep on bringing them back to the domestic space in which they are safe from being involved in uncomfortable and unsuitable situations. Drawing on previous studies on the representation of the older woman in fictional media, this article intends to discern to what extent stereotypes related to the older woman are challenged through the two main protagonists of a contemporary TV series. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of oxygen free radicals in the induction of sister chromatid exchanges by cigarette smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.K.; Brown, B.G.; Rice, W.Y. Jr.; Doolittle, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    Cigarette smoke has been reported to contain free radicals and free radical generators in both the gas and particulate phases. Studies in our laboratory have shown that both cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) and smoke bubbled through phosphate buffered saline solution (smoke-PBS) increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in Chinese hamster ovary cells in a dose-dependent manner. Since oxygen free radicals have been shown to cause SCEs and other chromosomal damage, we investigated the role of these radicals in the induction of SCEs by CSC and smoke-PBS. Addition of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase or the oxygen-radical scavenger ascorbic acid failed to reduce the SCE frequency in the presence of either CSC or smoke-PBS. Additional studies indicated that the quantity of hydrogen peroxide produced in CSC or smoke-PBS is too small to account for the observed SCE induction. It appears, therefore, that SCE induction by CSC or smoke-PBS does not involve the participation of oxygen free radicals

  8. Higgs Signals in a Type I 2HDM or with a Sister Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Daniele S.M. [Fermilab; Fox, Patrick J. [Fermilab; Weiner, Neal J. [New York U.

    2012-07-01

    In models where an additional SU(2)-doublet that does not have couplings to fermions participates in electroweak symmetry breaking, the properties of the Higgs boson are changed. At tree level, in the neighborhood of the SM-like range of parameter space, it is natural to have the coupling to vectors, cV, approximately constant, while the coupling to fermions, cf, is suppressed. This leads to enhanced VBF signals of gamma gamma while keeping other signals of Higgses approximately constant (such as WW* and ZZ*), and suppressing higgs to tau tau. Sizable tree-level effects are often accompanied by light charged Higgs states, which lead to important constraints from b to s gamma and top to b H+, but also often to similarly sizable contributions to the inclusive h to gamma gamma signal from radiative effects. In the simplest model, this is described by a Type I 2HDM, and in supersymmetry is naturally realized with 'sister Higgs' fields. In such a scenario, additional light charged states can contribute further with fewer constraints from heavy flavor decays. With supersymmetry, Grand Unification motivates the inclusion of colored partner fields. These G-quarks may provide additional evidence for such a model.

  9. Divergence in male cricket song and female preference functions in three allopatric sister species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Ralf Matthias; Blankers, Thomas; Gray, David A

    2016-05-01

    Multivariate female preference functions for male sexual signals have rarely been investigated, especially in a comparative context among sister species. Here we examined male signal and female preference co-variation in three closely related, but allopatric species of Gryllus crickets and quantified male song traits as well as female preferences. We show that males differ conspicuously in either one of two relatively static song traits, carrier frequency or pulse rate; female preference functions for these traits also differed, and would in combination enhance species discrimination. In contrast, the relatively dynamic song traits, chirp rate and chirp duty cycle, show minimal divergence among species and relatively greater conservation of female preference functions. Notably, among species we demonstrate similar mechanistic rules for the integration of pulse and chirp time scales, despite divergence in pulse rate preferences. As these are allopatric taxa, selection for species recognition per se is unlikely. More likely sexual selection combined with conserved properties of preference filters enabled divergent coevolution of male song and female preferences.

  10. Pediatric familial neuromyelitis optica in two sisters with long term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuquilin, Miguel; Mullaguri, Naresh; Weinshenker, Brian

    2016-07-01

    Neuromyelitis optica causes bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinal extensive transverse myelitis. Although usually sporadic, 3% of cases of neuromyelitis optica are familial. The interval over which attacks continue and the long term prognosis for pediatric-onset neuromyelitis optica are not well defined. We describe two patients with pediatric familial neuromyelitis optica with the longest clinical follow-up of a pediatric case reported in the literature to our knowledge. One woman developed blindness with bilateral eye involvement within a few weeks at age 3. This was followed by transverse myelitis with paraparesis at age 19 leading to diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica. Her serum anti-aquaporin 4 antibody was later found to be positive. She continued with sporadic myelitis-related relapses but remained ambulant until age 40 when she had a more severe relapse. There was evidence of longitudinal extensive T2 hyperintensity in the thoracic spinal cord. Her sister also developed blindness at age 3.5 followed by myelitis 1year later with multiple relapses of gait impairment until her death from pneumonia at age 21. These patients represent the rare occurrence of neuromyelitis optica in children within the same family and show that this disease can have prolonged periods of remission but a continued tendency to relapse, supporting the need for lifelong immunosuppression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Origin of a function by tandem gene duplication limits the evolutionary capability of its sister copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasselmann, Martin; Lechner, Sarah; Schulte, Christina; Beye, Martin

    2010-07-27

    The most remarkable outcome of a gene duplication event is the evolution of a novel function. Little information exists on how the rise of a novel function affects the evolution of its paralogous sister gene copy, however. We studied the evolution of the feminizer (fem) gene from which the gene complementary sex determiner (csd) recently derived by tandem duplication within the honey bee (Apis) lineage. Previous studies showed that fem retained its sex determination function, whereas the rise of csd established a new primary signal of sex determination. We observed a specific reduction of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratios in Apis to non-Apis fem. We found a contrasting pattern at two other genetically linked genes, suggesting that hitchhiking effects to csd, the locus under balancing selection, is not the cause of this evolutionary pattern. We also excluded higher synonymous substitution rates by relative rate testing. These results imply that stronger purifying selection is operating at the fem gene in the presence of csd. We propose that csd's new function interferes with the function of Fem protein, resulting in molecular constraints and limited evolvability of fem in the Apis lineage. Elevated silent nucleotide polymorphism in fem relative to the genome-wide average suggests that genetic linkage to the csd gene maintained more nucleotide variation in today's population. Our findings provide evidence that csd functionally and genetically interferes with fem, suggesting that a newly evolved gene and its functions can limit the evolutionary capability of other genes in the genome.

  12. Very low sister-chromatid exchange rate in Seventh-Day Adventists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, H C; Iversen, A S; Husum, B; Niebuhr, E

    1986-08-01

    42 Seventh-Day Adventists (SDAs) and 42 controls matched for sex, age and occupation had their sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) examined in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This was done to examine if the SCE frequency was lower in this group of people, who are known to have a decreased cancer risk compared to the general population. The average SCE/cell in 30 cells from each person was 5.54 +/- 0.07 (mean +/- standard error of the mean) for the SDAs and 8.00 +/- 0.15 for the controls, the difference being statistically significant (p less than 0.00001). No difference in SCE frequency was found between SDAs eating only an ovo-lacto-vegetarian diet and those eating some fish or meat. The mitotic index (MI) was significantly higher and the replication index (RI) was significantly lower in SDAs than in controls. No correlation was found between gamma (a statistical transformation of SCEs/cell) and MI or RI within the groups of SDAs or controls. In the pooled data there was a negative correlation of gamma and MI and a positive correlation of gamma and RI. Of the interpersonal variation in gamma 8% and 14% could be explained by MI and RI. The finding of a lower SCE frequency in a group of SDAs who have a low risk of cancer might indirectly indicate a relation between SCE and cancer and encourages further studies of SCE and diet.

  13. Sister chromatid exchanges and structural chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes in operating room personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husum, B; Niebuhr, E; Wulf, H C; Norgaard, I

    1983-06-01

    Information on possible chromosomal damage in humans after long-term exposure to trace concentrations of waste anaesthetic gases is scarce. We examined peripheral lymphocytes in operating room personnel for both chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Following a standardized procedure of cultivation and staining, 30 cells from each person were scored for SCE and 100 cells from each person were examined for chromosome aberrations. A total of 45 persons were examined, representing anaesthetists (n . 15), operating room nurses assisting the surgeon (n . 10), nurses circulating in the operating room (n . 8) and healthy, unexposed controls (n . 12). The median duration of working in the operating room was 102 months, respectively. Time-weighted concentration levels of 2.5-4.3 p.p.m. of halothane and 25-400 p.p.m. of nitrous oxide were measured in the breathing zones of the anaesthetists during mask anaesthesia. Examination of SCE and chromosome aberrations yielded corresponding qualitative results. With both tests, no statistically significant difference was observed between the four groups of persons. It was concluded that by examination of both SCE and chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in operating room personnel, no indication was found of a mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to trace concentrations of waste anaesthetic gases.

  14. Evidence that cyclophosphamide can to induce exchanges in the sister chromatids (ICH) through secondary injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales R, P.; Rodriguez R, R.

    1997-01-01

    By means of the use of destination protocol of ICH inductive injuries (DLI-ICH), it was studied if interchanges in the sister chromatids (ICH) induced by cyclophosphamide (CP), in the second post-treatment division (ICH-2) are produced by secondary injuries or by fresh injuries. For discard between these possibilities it was administered CP at different periods before of the first post-treatment division, taking as reference the administered time for high dose of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU ) which was approximately at the beginning of this division. The ICH frequencies that occur in the first, the second and the third synthesis stages (S) were determined. It was observed that when the administered CP was four hours before BrdU , the ICH frequencies of the second and the third S were reduced. The frequency of the first ICH increased lightly in relation to those of the normal protocol (0.5 h before BrdU ) and that the supplying of CP six hours before caused almost a total reduction of ICH of second and third S and an important increment of ICH of first S.This was interpreted as evidence that the ICH-2 are product of secondary injuries. (Author)

  15. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  16. Fear and loathing in Mississippi: the attack on cAMP sister spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Kate

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY In 1993, the small rural community of Ovett, Miss., and a group of self-described radical lesbian feminists clashed over the establishment by the women of a feminist educational retreat known as Camp Sister Spirit. This dispute took the form of physical and psychological harassment of the women, wide-open public debate in the community, in the press, and on television, federal mediation efforts, and two lawsuits. This article analyzes this dispute using Mary Daly's seven patterns of the sado-ritual syndrome (Daly, 1978). The analysis examines the ideological and moral standpoints of the participants, the issues of "blaming the victim" and scapegoating, the development of the conflict from a dispute between neighbors to the involvement of international media, national activists and the Clinton Administration, the transformation of the conflict from a political to legal dispute, the representations of the groups within the community and the media, the effect of public opinion on the dispute, and the politics of the media in the dispute.

  17. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  18. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  19. Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, A.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Huygen, F.J.; van Eijs, F.; van Kleef, M.; Bauer, M.C.R.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) usually develops after a noxious event, but spontaneous onsets have been described in 3-11% of the cases. The existence of spontaneous-onset CRPS is highly debated and the aim of the present study was therefore to compare the phenotypic characteristics of CRPS

  20. Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued

  2. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  3. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  4. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  5. Children's Spontaneous Vocalisations during Play: Aesthetic Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June; Gabriel, Martha; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of spontaneous vocalisations in the self-chosen, unstructured outdoor play of children aged 3-12. Spontaneous vocalisations encompass the whole range of children's unprompted, natural, expressive vocal soundings beyond spoken language. Non-participant observations at childcare centres and on elementary school…

  6. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  7. Application of derivative spectrophotometry under orthogonal polynomial at unequal intervals: determination of metronidazole and nystatin in their pharmaceutical mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korany, Mohamed A; Abdine, Heba H; Ragab, Marwa A A; Aboras, Sara I

    2015-05-15

    This paper discusses a general method for the use of orthogonal polynomials for unequal intervals (OPUI) to eliminate interferences in two-component spectrophotometric analysis. In this paper, a new approach was developed by using first derivative D1 curve instead of absorbance curve to be convoluted using OPUI method for the determination of metronidazole (MTR) and nystatin (NYS) in their mixture. After applying derivative treatment of the absorption data many maxima and minima points appeared giving characteristic shape for each drug allowing the selection of different number of points for the OPUI method for each drug. This allows the specific and selective determination of each drug in presence of the other and in presence of any matrix interference. The method is particularly useful when the two absorption spectra have considerable overlap. The results obtained are encouraging and suggest that the method can be widely applied to similar problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sample Size Estimation for Negative Binomial Regression Comparing Rates of Recurrent Events with Unequal Follow-Up Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    A sample size formula is derived for negative binomial regression for the analysis of recurrent events, in which subjects can have unequal follow-up time. We obtain sharp lower and upper bounds on the required size, which is easy to compute. The upper bound is generally only slightly larger than the required size, and hence can be used to approximate the sample size. The lower and upper size bounds can be decomposed into two terms. The first term relies on the mean number of events in each group, and the second term depends on two factors that measure, respectively, the extent of between-subject variability in event rates, and follow-up time. Simulation studies are conducted to assess the performance of the proposed method. An application of our formulae to a multiple sclerosis trial is provided.

  9. Sample size for comparing negative binomial rates in noninferiority and equivalence trials with unequal follow-up times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongqiang

    2017-05-25

    We derive the sample size formulae for comparing two negative binomial rates based on both the relative and absolute rate difference metrics in noninferiority and equivalence trials with unequal follow-up times, and establish an approximate relationship between the sample sizes required for the treatment comparison based on the two treatment effect metrics. The proposed method allows the dispersion parameter to vary by treatment groups. The accuracy of these methods is assessed by simulations. It is demonstrated that ignoring the between-subject variation in the follow-up time by setting the follow-up time for all individuals to be the mean follow-up time may greatly underestimate the required size, resulting in underpowered studies. Methods are provided for back-calculating the dispersion parameter based on the published summary results.

  10. Brewing Unequal Exchanges in Coffee: A Qualitative Investigation into the Consequences of the Java Trade in Rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly F. Austin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study represents a qualitative case study examining the broad impacts of coffee cultivation from a rural region in Eastern Uganda, the Bududa District. Over 20 interviews with coffee cultivators provide insights into how the coffee economy impacts gender relations, physical health, deforestation, and economic conditions. While there are some material benefits from cultivating and selling coffee beans, a lack of long-term economic stability for households and the consequences for the status of women, the health of the community, and the local environment calls into question the efficacy of coffee production as a viable development scheme that significantly enhances overall community well-being. This research hopes to bring attention to the mechanisms that enable broader unequal exchange relationships by focusing on the perspectives and experiences of growers in Bududa, Uganda, where a considerable amount of world coffee is grown and supplied to consumers in core nations.

  11. Photodouble ionization studies of the Ne(2s{sup 2}) state under unequal energy sharing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolognesi, P [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Kheifets, A [Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Otranto, S [Physics Department, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla MO (United States); CONICET and Depto. de Fisica, Universidad Nacional del Sur, 8000 Bahia Blanca (Argentina); Coreno, M [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); CNR-TASC, Gas Phase Photoemission Beamline at Elettra, Area Science Park, Trieste (Italy); Feyer, V [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences, Uzhgorod (Ukraine); Colavecchia, F D [CONICET and Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 SC de Bariloche (Argentina); Garibotti, C R [CONICET and Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 SC de Bariloche (Argentina); Avaldi, L [CNR-IMIP, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Monterotondo Scalo, Rome (Italy); CNR-TASC, Gas Phase Photoemission Beamline at Elettra, Area Science Park, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-04-28

    The triple differential cross section (TDCS) of the He{sup 2+}(1s{sup -2}) and Ne{sup 2+}(2s{sup -2}) states has been studied under unequal energy sharing conditions and perpendicular geometry, for a ratio of about 3 between the energies of the two ejected electrons. The dynamical quantities which govern the photodouble ionization (PDI) process, i.e. the squared moduli of the gerade and ungerade complex amplitudes and the cosine of their relative phase, have been extracted from the experimental data. The results from the two targets have been compared between themselves as well as with the theoretical predictions of the SC3 and convergent close coupling (CCC) calculations. This work represents a joint experimental and theoretical approach to the investigation of PDI of atomic systems with more than two electrons.

  12. The sigh of the oppressed: The palliative effects of ideology are stronger for people living in highly unequal neighbourhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Nikhil K; Greaves, Lara M; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G

    2017-09-01

    Ideologies that legitimize status hierarchies are associated with increased well-being. However, which ideologies have 'palliative effects', why they have these effects, and whether these effects extend to low-status groups remain unresolved issues. This study aimed to address these issues by testing the effects of the ideology of Symbolic Prejudice on well-being among low- and high-status ethnic groups (4,519 Europeans and 1,091 Māori) nested within 1,437 regions in New Zealand. Results showed that Symbolic Prejudice predicted increased well-being for both groups, but that this relationship was stronger for those living in highly unequal neighbourhoods. This suggests that it is precisely those who have the strongest need to justify inequality that accrue the most psychological benefit from subscribing to legitimizing ideologies. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Ultraviolet-induced formation of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in cultured fibroblasts of patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roser, M.; Boehm, A.O.; Oldigs, M.; Weichenthal, M.; Reimers, U.; Schmidt-Preuss, U.; Breitbart, E.W.; Ruediger, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    Genetically enhanced sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) radiation may play an important role in the development of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). This was studied in cultured fibroblasts of 26 CMM patients and controls by micronucleus (MN) test and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after UV irradiation (375 J/m2). Sister chromatid exchange and MN formation were used as parameters to detect the UV-induced genotoxic damage in the individual cell strains. We found that the UV-induced level of MN was significantly increased in CMM patients (p = 0.0005), being most pronounced in the familial cases (p = 0.0001). Ultraviolet-induced SCE was also elevated in CMM patients (p = 0.001), but there was no difference between familial and nonfamilial cases. The present findings indicate that genetic predisposition contributes to the development of CMM in a subset of CMM patients and may be due to an enhanced susceptibility to UV light

  14. Induction of sister chromatid exchange in the presence of gadolinium-DTPA and its reduction by dimethyl sulfoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Etsuo; Fukuda, Hozumi; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Matsubara, Sho

    1996-01-01

    The authors investigate the frequency of sister chromatid exchange (SCE) after the addition of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA to venous blood samples. Venous blood was obtained from nonsmokers. Samples were incubated with Gd-DTPA alone or in combination with mitomycin C, cytarabine, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and then evaluated for SCEs. The frequency of SCE increased with the concentration of Gd-DTPA and as each chemotherapeutic agent was added. Sister chromatid exchange frequencies were lower when the blood was treated with a combination of Gd-DTPA and DMSO compared with Gd-DTPA alone. The increase in frequency of SCE seen after the addition of Gd-DTPA was decreased by the addition of DMSO, indicating the production of hydroxyl radicals. The effect likely is dissociation-related. 14 refs., 6 tabs

  15. Relative efficiency of unequal versus equal cluster sizes in cluster randomized trials using generalized estimating equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxia; Colditz, Graham A

    2018-05-01

    There is growing interest in conducting cluster randomized trials (CRTs). For simplicity in sample size calculation, the cluster sizes are assumed to be identical across all clusters. However, equal cluster sizes are not guaranteed in practice. Therefore, the relative efficiency (RE) of unequal versus equal cluster sizes has been investigated when testing the treatment effect. One of the most important approaches to analyze a set of correlated data is the generalized estimating equation (GEE) proposed by Liang and Zeger, in which the "working correlation structure" is introduced and the association pattern depends on a vector of association parameters denoted by ρ. In this paper, we utilize GEE models to test the treatment effect in a two-group comparison for continuous, binary, or count data in CRTs. The variances of the estimator of the treatment effect are derived for the different types of outcome. RE is defined as the ratio of variance of the estimator of the treatment effect for equal to unequal cluster sizes. We discuss a commonly used structure in CRTs-exchangeable, and derive the simpler formula of RE with continuous, binary, and count outcomes. Finally, REs are investigated for several scenarios of cluster size distributions through simulation studies. We propose an adjusted sample size due to efficiency loss. Additionally, we also propose an optimal sample size estimation based on the GEE models under a fixed budget for known and unknown association parameter (ρ) in the working correlation structure within the cluster. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. SisterTalk: final results of a culturally tailored cable television delivered weight control program for Black women

    OpenAIRE

    Risica, Patricia Markham; Gans, Kim M; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Kirtania, Usree; Lasater, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity among Black women continues to exceed that of other women. Most weight loss programs created without reference to specific cultural contexts are less effective for Black than White women. Weight control approaches accessible to Black women and adapted to relevant cultural contexts are important for addressing this problem. This paper reports the final results of SisterTalk, the randomized controlled trial of a cable TV weight control program oriented toward Black women. Met...

  17. Sister-chromatid exchange induced by X-ray of human lymphocytes and the effect of L-crysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramovski, I.; Vorsanger, G.; Hirschhorn, K.

    1978-01-01

    A staining technique that detects sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) has been used to examine the response of human lymphocyte chromosomes to various dosages of X-irradiation. The SCE frequency was markedly increased following irradiation. However, the increase was of a significantly smaller magnitude when irradiation occurred in the presence of an antimutagenic agent. Scoring SCEs may provide a useful technique for assaying the mutagenic effects of environmental carcinogens as well as the protective effects of antimutagenic agents. (Auth.)

  18. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  19. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  2. RPA Mediates Recruitment of MRX to Forks and Double-Strand Breaks to Hold Sister Chromatids Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Andrew; Hegnauer, Anna Maria; Hustedt, Nicole; Deshpande, Ishan; Poli, Jérôme; Eglinger, Jan; Pasero, Philippe; Gut, Heinz; Shinohara, Miki; Hopfner, Karl-Peter; Shimada, Kenji; Gasser, Susan M

    2016-12-01

    The Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 (MRX) complex is related to SMC complexes that form rings capable of holding two distinct DNA strands together. MRX functions at stalled replication forks and double-strand breaks (DSBs). A mutation in the N-terminal OB fold of the 70 kDa subunit of yeast replication protein A, rfa1-t11, abrogates MRX recruitment to both types of DNA damage. The rfa1 mutation is functionally epistatic with loss of any of the MRX subunits for survival of replication fork stress or DSB recovery, although it does not compromise end-resection. High-resolution imaging shows that either the rfa1-t11 or the rad50Δ mutation lets stalled replication forks collapse and allows the separation not only of opposing ends but of sister chromatids at breaks. Given that cohesin loss does not provoke visible sister separation as long as the RPA-MRX contacts are intact, we conclude that MRX also serves as a structural linchpin holding sister chromatids together at breaks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Psyche’s Sisters: Ambivalence of Sisterhood in Twentieth-century Irish Women’s Short Stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and evaluates representations of problematic sisterly relationships in twentieth-century Irish women’s stories which display an emphasis on ambivalence and sibling rivalry.  The paper is based primarily on the literary output of Mary Lavin, Clare Boylan, Moy McCrory, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne, Jan Kennedy, Mary Morrissy and Claire Keegan.  The paper seeks, by reference both to feminist studies and Irish women’s short stories, to demonstrate the consequences and causes of a divided sisterhood which itself may be traced back to a suppression of expression of female solidarity embedded in western culture and manifested in western literary heritage.  Typically, such stories depict a conflict sourced in the need to develop self-identity and framed within the constraints imposed by separate social roles.  This kind of conflict results potentially in rivalry, antagonism, ambivalence, and the domination of one sibling by another.  Daughters/sisters are often depicted in these stories both as competing with each other for limited resources and also as seeking a sense of personal identity through mutual polarisation.  There are also stories into which are woven undertones of domination disguised as sisterly closeness, for which the actual motivation seems to be a repressed aspiration for intimacy.

  4. Boys Go Fishing, Girls Work at Home: Gender Roles, Poverty and Unequal School Access among Semi-Nomadic Fishing Communities in South Western Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento Moreira, Catarina; Rabenevanana, Man Wai; Picard, David

    2017-01-01

    Drawing from data gathered in South Western Madagascar in 2011, the work explores the combination of poverty and traditional gender roles as a critical factor in determining unequal school access among young people from semi-nomadic fishing communities. It demonstrates that from the age of early puberty, most boys go fishing with their fathers and…

  5. Recognition Memory zROC Slopes for Items with Correct versus Incorrect Source Decisions Discriminate the Dual Process and Unequal Variance Signal Detection Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starns, Jeffrey J.; Rotello, Caren M.; Hautus, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the dual process and unequal variance signal detection models by jointly modeling recognition and source confidence ratings. The 2 approaches make unique predictions for the slope of the recognition memory zROC function for items with correct versus incorrect source decisions. The standard bivariate Gaussian version of the unequal…

  6. The "Hamburger Connection" as Ecologically Unequal Exchange: A Cross-National Investigation of Beef Exports and Deforestation in Less-Developed Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    This study explores Norman Myers's concept of the "hamburger connection" as a form of ecologically unequal exchange, where more-developed nations are able to transfer the environmental costs of beef consumption to less-developed nations. I used ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to test whether deforestation in less-developed…

  7. Spontaneous pneumothorax in diffuse cystic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Joseph; Lee, Yun Chor Gary; Gupta, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are characterized by the presence of air-filled lung cysts. These cysts are prone to rupture, leading to the development of recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, and management DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. DCLDs are responsible for approximately 10% of apparent primary spontaneous pneumothoraces. Computed tomography screening for DCLDs (Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) following the first spontaneous pneumothorax has recently been shown to be cost-effective and can help facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying disorders. Patients with DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax have a very high rate of recurrence, and thus pleurodesis should be considered following the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients, rather than waiting for a recurrent episode. Prior pleurodesis is not a contraindication to future lung transplant. Although DCLDs are uncommon, spontaneous pneumothorax is often the sentinel event that provides an opportunity for diagnosis. By understanding the burden and implications of pneumothoraces in DCLDs, clinicians can facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of the underlying disorders.

  8. Strategy for Fuel Rod Receipt, Characterization, Sample Allocation for the Demonstration Sister Rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marschman, Steven C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Warmann, Stephan A. [Portage, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rusch, Chris [NAC International, Inc., Norcross, GA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    , inert gas backfilling, and transfer to an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) for multi-year storage. To document the initial condition of the used fuel prior to emplacement in a storage system, “sister ” fuel rods will be harvested and sent to a national laboratory for characterization and archival purposes. This report supports the demonstration by describing how sister rods will be shipped and received at a national laboratory, and recommending basic nondestructive and destructive analyses to assure the fuel rods are adequately characterized for UFDC work. For this report, a hub-and-spoke model is proposed, with one location serving as the hub for fuel rod receipt and characterization. In this model, fuel and/or clad would be sent to other locations when capabilities at the hub were inadequate or nonexistent. This model has been proposed to reduce DOE-NE’s obligation for waste cleanup and decontamination of equipment.

  9. Health assessment of gasoline and fuel oxygenate vapors: micronucleus and sister chromatid exchange evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Ceinwen A; Hoffman, Gary M; Gudi, Ramadevi; Clark, Charles R

    2014-11-01

    Micronucleus and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) tests were performed for vapor condensate of baseline gasoline (BGVC), or gasoline with oxygenates, methyl tert-butyl ether (G/MTBE), ethyl tert butyl ether (G/ETBE), t-amyl methyl ether (G/TAME), diisopropyl ether (G/DIPE), t-butyl alcohol (TBA), or ethanol (G/EtOH). Sprague Dawley rats (the same 5/sex/group for both endpoints) were exposed to 0, 2000, 10,000, or 20,000mg/m(3) of each condensate, 6h/day, 5days/week over 4weeks. Positive controls (5/sex/test) were given cyclophosphamide IP, 24h prior to sacrifice at 5mg/kg (SCE test) and 40mg/kg (micronucleus test). Blood was collected from the abdominal aorta for the SCE test and femurs removed for the micronucleus test. Blood cell cultures were treated with 5μg/ml bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) for SCE evaluation. No significant increases in micronucleated immature erythrocytes were observed for any test material. Statistically significant increases in SCE were observed in rats given BGVC alone or in female rats given G/MTBE. G/TAME induced increased SCE in both sexes at the highest dose only. Although DNA perturbation was observed for several samples, DNA damage was not expressed as increased micronuclei in bone marrow cells. Inclusion of oxygenates in gasoline did not increase the effects of gasoline alone or produce a cytogenetic hazard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Correlates of monoicy and dioicy in hornworts, the apparent sister group to vascular plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Juan Carlos; Renner, Susanne S

    2013-11-02

    Whether male and female gametes are produced by single or separate individuals shapes plant mating and hence patterns of genetic diversity among and within populations. Haploid-dominant plants ("bryophytes": liverworts, mosses and hornworts) can have unisexual (dioicous) or bisexual (monoicous) gametophytes, and today, 68% of liverwort species, 57% of moss species, and 40% of hornwort species are dioicous. The transitions between the two sexual systems and possible correlations with other traits have been studied in liverworts and mosses, but not hornworts. Here we use a phylogeny for 98 of the 200 species of hornworts, the sister group to vascular plants, representing roughly equal proportions of all monoicous and all dioicous species, to test whether transitions in sexual systems are predominantly from monoicy to dioicy as might be expected based on studies of mosses. We further investigate possible correlations between sexual system and spore size, antheridium number, ploidy level, and diversification rate, with character selection partly based on findings in mosses and liverworts. Hornworts underwent numerous transitions between monoicy and dioicy. The transition rate from dioicy to monoicy was 2× higher than in the opposite direction, but monoicous groups have higher extinction rates; diversification rates do not correlate with sexual system. A correlation important in mosses, that between monoicy and polyploidy, apparently plays a small role: of 20 species with chromosome counts, only one is polyploid, the monoicous Anthoceros punctatus. A contingency test revealed that transitions to dioicy were more likely in species with small spores, supporting the hypothesis that small but numerous spores may be advantageous for dioicous species that depend on dense carpets of gametophytes for reproductive assurance. However, we found no evidence for increased antheridium-per-chamber numbers in dioicous species. Sexual systems in hornworts are labile, and the higher

  11. Associations among personal care product use patterns and exogenous hormone use in the NIEHS Sister Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kyla W; Baird, Donna D; Herring, Amy H; Engel, Lawrence S; Nichols, Hazel B; Sandler, Dale P; Troester, Melissa A

    2017-09-01

    It is hypothesized that certain chemicals in personal care products may alter the risk of adverse health outcomes. The primary aim of this study was to use a data-centered approach to classify complex patterns of exposure to personal care products and to understand how these patterns vary according to use of exogenous hormone exposures, oral contraceptives (OCs) and post-menopausal hormone therapy (HT). The NIEHS Sister Study is a prospective cohort study of 50,884 US women. Limiting the sample to non-Hispanic blacks and whites (N=47,019), latent class analysis (LCA) was used to identify groups of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use based on responses to 48 survey questions. Personal care products were categorized into three product types (beauty, hair, and skincare products) and separate latent classes were constructed for each type. Adjusted prevalence differences (PD) were calculated to estimate the association between exogenous hormone use, as measured by ever/never OC or HT use, and patterns of personal care product use. LCA reduced data dimensionality by grouping of individuals with similar patterns of personal care product use into mutually exclusive latent classes (three latent classes for beauty product use, three for hair, and four for skin care. There were strong differences in personal care usage by race, particularly for haircare products. For both blacks and whites, exogenous hormone exposures were associated with higher levels of product use, especially beauty and skincare products. Relative to individual product use questions, latent class variables capture complex patterns of personal care product usage. These patterns differed by race and were associated with ever OC and HT use. Future studies should consider personal care product exposures with other exogenous exposures when modeling health risks.

  12. A comparison of leaf crystal macropatterns in the two sister genera Piper and Peperomia (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Harry T; Wanke, Stefan; Samain, Marie-Stéphanie

    2012-06-01

    This is the first large-scale study comparing leaf crystal macropatterns of the species-rich sister genera Piper and Peperomia. It focuses on identifying types of calcium oxalate crystals and their macropatterns in leaves of both genera. The Piper results are placed in a phylogenetic context to show evolutionary patterns. This information will expand knowledge about crystals and provide specific examples to help study their form and function. One example is the first-time observation of Piper crystal sand tumbling in chlorenchyma vacuoles. Herbarium and fresh leaves were cleared of cytoplasmic content and examined with polarizing microscopy to identify types of crystals and their macropatterns. Selected hydrated herbarium and fresh leaf punches were processed for scanning electron microscopy and x-ray elemental analysis. Vibratome sections of living Piper and Peperomia leaves were observed for anatomical features and crystal movement. Both genera have different leaf anatomies. Piper displays four crystal types in chlorenchyma-crystal sand, raphides, styloids, and druses, whereas Peperomia displays three types-druses, raphides, and prisms. Because of different leaf anatomies and crystal types between the genera, macropatterns are completely different. Crystal macropattern evolution in both is characterized by increasing complexity, and both may use their crystals for light gathering and reflection for efficient photosynthesis under low-intensity light environments. Both genera have different leaf anatomies, types of crystals and crystal macropatterns. Based on Piper crystals associated with photosynthetic tissues and low-intensity light, further study of their function and association with surrounding chloroplasts is warranted, especially active crystal movement.

  13. The Relationship between Dioxin Congeners in the Breast Milk of Vietnamese Women and Sister Chromatid Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Suzuki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between dioxin concentrations in breast milk and the sister chromatid exchange (SCE frequency in women from herbicide-sprayed and non sprayed areas. Blood samples were taken from 21 women with high TCDD (tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin levels from sprayed areas, 23 women with moderate TCDD levels from sprayed areas, and 19 women from non sprayed areas to determine their SCE frequency. The SCE frequencies for the high and moderate TCDD groups from the sprayed area and for the non sprayed area group were 2.40, 2.19, and 1.48 per cell, respectively. Multiple regression analysis showed that the standardized β values for 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexaCDD (β = 0.60, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptaCDD (β = 0.64, and octaCDD (β = 0.65 were higher than those for TCDD (β = 0.34 and 1,2,3,7,8-pentaCDD (β = 0.42. The adjusted R2 value for polyCDDs (R2 = 0.38 was higher than that for polyCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ (toxic equivalents; R2 = 0.23. This study therefore shows that levels of hexa-, hepta-, and octaCDD, which were previously regarded as being less toxic than TCDD, are closely related to SCE frequency and that the level of dioxin (pg/g lipid is potentially more useful as an indicator than TEQ value for explaining SCE frequency.

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  15. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  16. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  17. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.

    2006-02-01

    Tumescence at the Three Sisters volcanic center began sometime between summer 1996 and summer 1998 and was discovered in April 2001 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Swelling is centered about 5 km west of the summit of South Sister, a composite basaltic-andesite to rhyolite volcano that last erupted between 2200 and 2000 yr ago, and it affects an area ˜20 km in diameter within the Three Sisters Wilderness. Yearly InSAR observations show that the average maximum displacement rate was 3-5 cm/yr through summer 2001, and the velocity of a continuous GPS station within the deforming area was essentially constant from June 2001 to June 2004. The background level of seismic activity has been low, suggesting that temperatures in the source region are high enough or the strain rate has been low enough to favor plastic deformation over brittle failure. A swarm of about 300 small earthquakes ( Mmax = 1.9) in the northeast quadrant of the deforming area on March 23-26, 2004, was the first notable seismicity in the area for at least two decades. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) established tilt-leveling and EDM networks at South Sister in 1985-1986, resurveyed them in 2001, the latter with GPS, and extended them to cover more of the deforming area. The 2001 tilt-leveling results are consistent with the inference drawn from InSAR that the current deformation episode did not start before 1996, i.e., the amount of deformation during 1995-2001 from InSAR fully accounts for the net tilt at South Sister during 1985-2001 from tilt-leveling. Subsequent InSAR, GPS, and leveling observations constrain the source location, geometry, and inflation rate as a function of time. A best-fit source model derived from simultaneous inversion of all three datasets is a dipping sill located 6.5 ± 2.5 km below the surface with a volume increase of 5.0 × 10 6 ± 1.5 × 10 6 m 3/yr (95% confidence limits). The most likely cause of tumescence is a pulse of basaltic magma

  19. Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocyte cultures of human peripheral blood after the combined effect of γ-radiation and caffeine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugis, V.Yu.; Pyatkin, E.K.

    1986-01-01

    Keeping of human peripheral blood lymphocytes, irradiated in vitro with 60 Co-γ-quanta at a dose of 3 Gy at G 0 phase, with caffeine of 16 and 160 μg/ml during cultivation with PHA had no appreciable influence on the fraquency of sister chromatid exchanges. A minor increase in the number of sister chromatid exchanges was only noted when nonirradiated and irradiated lymphocytes were cultured with 160 μg/ml caffeine

  20. Metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers of women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Bulent; Vellanki, Priyathama; Ata, Baris; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2018-02-01

    To provide an evidence-based assessment of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia in first-degree relatives of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Systematic review and meta-analysis. Not applicable. Mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers of women with and without PCOS. An electronic-based search with the use of PubMed from 1960 to June 2015 and cross-checked references of relevant articles. Metabolic syndrome, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and surrogate markers, including systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic BP, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides. Fourteen of 3,346 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Prevalence of the following was significantly increased in relatives of women with PCOS: metabolic syndrome (risk ratio [RR] 1.78 [95% confidence interval 1.37, 2.30] in mothers, 1.43 [1.12, 1.81] in fathers, and 1.50 [1.12, 2.00] in sisters), hypertension (RR 1.93 [1.58, 2.35] in fathers, 2.92 [1.92, 4.45] in sisters), and dyslipidemia (RR 3.86 [2.54, 5.85] in brothers and 1.29 [1.11, 1.50] in fathers). Moreover, systolic BP (mothers, sisters, and brothers), total cholesterol (mothers and sisters), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (sisters), and triglycerides (mothers and sisters) were significantly higher in first-degree relatives of PCOS probands than in controls. Our results show evidence of clustering for metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in mothers, fathers, sisters, and brothers of women with PCOS. PROSPERO 2016 CRD42016048557. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied

  2. Radiologic findings of acute spontaneous subdural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Bae, Won Kyong; Gyu, Cha Jang; Kim, Gun Woo; Cho, Won Su; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Kyung Suk [Soonchunhyang University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of). Chonan Hospital

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the characteristic CT and cerebral angiographic findings in patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematomas and correlate these imaging findings with causes of bleeding and clinical outcome. Twenty-one patients with nontraumatic acute spontaneous subdural hematoma presenting during the last five years underwent CT scanning and cerebral angiography was performed in twelve. To determine the cause of bleedings, CT and angiographic findings were retrospectively analysed. Clinical history, laboratory and operative findings, and final clinical outcome were reviewed. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma is a rare condition, and the mortality rate is high. In patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematoma, as seen on CT, associated subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage is strongly indicative of intracerebral vascular abnormalities such as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral angiography is necessary. To ensure proper treatment and thus markedly reduce mortality, the causes of bleedings should be prompty determined by means of cerebral angiography. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  3. Spontaneous neonatal gastrointestinal perforation: surgical or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cases of spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in neonates at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The perinatal stress factors were caesarian delivery, prematurity and fetal distress due to prolonged obstructed labour.

  4. Rapid and spontaneous recovery in autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Pargaonkar, Amol

    2009-01-01

    Recovery in autistic disorder is rare. There are few reports of recovery from autistic disorder after a few years of therapeutic intervention. We report here a case of autistic disorder who recovered spontaneously without any intervention in 13 days.

  5. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  6. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  7. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  9. Spontaneously broken global symmetries and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.; Vilenkin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Phase transitions associated with spontaneously broken global symmetries, in case these occur in nature, can have important cosmological implications. This is illustrated through two examples. The first one shows how the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry, present, for instance, in the minimal SU(5) model, can lead to an inflationary phase. The second example illustrates how topologically stable strings associated with the breaking of U(1) symmetry make an appearance at (or near) the end of the inflationary era

  10. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Manoranjan Dash; Thitta Mohanty; Jyoti Patnaik; Narayan Mishra; Saswat Subhankar; Priyadarsini Parida

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a ra...

  11. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  12. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  13. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  14. Symmetry restoration in spontaneously broken induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Russo, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the recuperation of expected invariant behaviours in a non-metric gravity theory in which the full general relativistic invariance is broken spontaneously. We show how dangerous increasing energy behaviours of physical amplitudes cancel in a highly non-trivial way. This evidences the expected loss of the vacuum generated scale in the UV regime and gives support for the consistency of spontaneously broken gravity theories. (orig.)

  15. Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking

  16. Spontaneous Vesicle Recycling in the Synaptic Bouton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eTruckenbrodt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca2+, which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca2+ levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca2+ sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca2+. The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs responding to Ca2+ fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  17. In vivo study on the replicative model validity of sister chromatid exchanges production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz V, V.L.

    1996-01-01

    The sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) frequency determination has been used as index of damage to DNA, however the biological meaning of this event is still ignored. Different models in order to explain the mechanism of their formation have been proposed and they could be contained in two categories: a) those that consider that the SCE is produced by means of discreet lesions to the DNA and that they occur in the place of the lesion, and b) those that propose that the SCE is caused by a group of lesions and that therefore the place in which they occur could not be associated with a lesion in particular. The model of Painter (1980) belongs to this last group. It suggests that the region of the DNA where the clusters are united, is the only place in which the exchange of double chain could happen during the synthesis of the DNA and makes the prediction that since the x rays retard the beginning of the duplication, the pretreatment with ionizing radiation would reduce the frequency of SCE induced by agents capable to block the lengthening of the chain of DNA, that are the most efficient SCE inducers. The objective of the present work was to establish the validity of this replicative model for the SCE formation, based in its prediction. The effect of the unilateral preexposition of mouse to gamma radiation was determined on the SCE induction by Mitomycin C (MMC), in cells of the femoral bone marrow In vivo. This strategy allows to determine the effect of the pretreatment in the same organism, minimizing the variability of the response between individuals. There was not a significant variability between the frequencies of SCE, basal and induced by gamma radiation or MMC in the same organism. The animals that received the gamma radiation pretreatment, showed a reduction of approximately the 30 % in the frequency of SCE, assuming an additive effect of the radiation with the MMC. These results coincide with the prediction of the model of Painter, however it is not

  18. Basalt Weathering in a Cold and Icy Climate: Three Sisters, Oregon as an Analog for Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Horgan, B.; Smith, R. J.; Scudder, N. A.; Rutledge, A. M.; Bamber, E.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    There is abundant evidence for liquid water on early Mars, but the debate remains whether early Mars was warm and wet or cold and icy with punctuated periods of melting. To further investigate the hypothesis of a cold and icy early Mars, we collected rocks and sediments from the Collier and Diller glacial valleys in the Three Sisters volcanic complex in Oregon. We analyzed rocks and sediments with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning and transmission electron microscopies with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM, TEM, EDS), and visible, short-wave infrared (VSWIR) and thermal-IR (TIR) spectroscopies to characterize chemical weathering and sediment transport through the valleys. Here, we focus on the composition and mineralogy of the weathering products and how they compare to those identified on the martian surface. Phyllosilicates (smectite), zeolites, and poorly crystalline phases were discovered in pro- and supra-glacial sediments, whereas Si-rich regelation films were found on hand samples and boulders in the proglacial valleys. Most phyllosilicates and zeolites are likely detrital, originating from hydrothermally altered units on North Sister. TEM-EDS analyses of the flour samples demonstrate a variety of poorly crystalline (i.e., no long-range crystallographic order) phases: iron oxides, devitrified volcanic glass, and Fe-Si-Al phases. The CheMin XRD on the Curiosity rover in Gale crater has identified significant amounts of X-ray amorphous materials in all samples measured to date. The amorphous component is likely a combination of silicates, iron oxides, and sulfates. Although we have not yet observed amorphous sulfate in the samples from Three Sisters, the variety of poorly crystalline weathering products found at this site is consistent with the variable composition of the X-ray amorphous component identified by CheMin. We suggest that these amorphous phases on Mars could have formed in a similarly cold and icy environment.

  19. Magmatic Activity Beneath the Quiescent Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, Inferred from Satellite InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C. W.; Dzurisin, D.; Ingebritsen, S.; Thatcher, W.; Lu, Z.; Iverson, J.

    2001-12-01

    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The uplift is centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano, the youngest stratovolcano in the volcanic center. The center has been volcanically inactive since the last eruption ~1500 years ago. Multiple European Space Agency ERS-1 and 2 satellite images from 1992 through 2000, used in this study, were selected based on orbital separation and time of year. Summer and early autumn scenes were necessary to avoid decorrelation from snow cover. Interferograms generated from these images indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an apparently ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted ~1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a magma reservoir prior to the uplift. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and a positive correlation between chloride concentration and spring temperature were found within the uplift area, with larger SO4/Cl ratios in springs at higher elevations. These findings are indicative of a high-temperature hydrothermal system driven by magma intrusions. The current inflation episode observed with InSAR may lead to an eruption, but the more persistent geochemical evidence suggests that the episode is likely the latest in a series of hitherto undetected magma intrusions. We do not yet know if the inflation has abated, is continuing, or has accelerated since October 2000--we only know that the highest rate of uplift occurred in the last year for which ERS-2 data was available (1999- 2000). In May of 2001, a continuous GPS receiver and seismometer were installed by the USGS within the Three Sisters Wilderness to monitor the

  20. Chiasmata promote monopolar attachment of sister chromatids and their co-segregation toward the proper pole during meiosis I.

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    Yukinobu Hirose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The chiasma is a structure that forms between a pair of homologous chromosomes by crossover recombination and physically links the homologous chromosomes during meiosis. Chiasmata are essential for the attachment of the homologous chromosomes to opposite spindle poles (bipolar attachment and their subsequent segregation to the opposite poles during meiosis I. However, the overall function of chiasmata during meiosis is not fully understood. Here, we show that chiasmata also play a crucial role in the attachment of sister chromatids to the same spindle pole and in their co-segregation during meiosis I in fission yeast. Analysis of cells lacking chiasmata and the cohesin protector Sgo1 showed that loss of chiasmata causes frequent bipolar attachment of sister chromatids during anaphase. Furthermore, high time-resolution analysis of centromere dynamics in various types of chiasmate and achiasmate cells, including those lacking the DNA replication checkpoint factor Mrc1 or the meiotic centromere protein Moa1, showed the following three outcomes: (i during the pre-anaphase stage, the bipolar attachment of sister chromatids occurs irrespective of chiasma formation; (ii the chiasma contributes to the elimination of the pre-anaphase bipolar attachment; and (iii when the bipolar attachment remains during anaphase, the chiasmata generate a bias toward the proper pole during poleward chromosome pulling that results in appropriate chromosome segregation. Based on these results, we propose that chiasmata play a pivotal role in the selection of proper attachments and provide a backup mechanism that promotes correct chromosome segregation when improper attachments remain during anaphase I.

  1. Emplacement of Holocene silicic lava flows and domes at Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanoes, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Jonathan H.; Anderson, Steven W.

    2017-07-19

    This field guide for the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth’s Interior (IAVCEI) Scientific Assembly 2017 focuses on Holocene glassy silicic lava flows and domes on three volcanoes in the Cascade Range in Oregon and California: Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanoes. Although obsidian-rich lava flows have been of interest to geologists, archaeologists, pumice miners, and rock hounds for more than a century, many of their emplacement characteristics had not been scientifically observed until two very recent eruptions in Chile. Even with the new observations, several eruptive processes discussed in this field trip guide can only be inferred from their final products. This makes for lively debates at outcrops, just as there have been in the literature for the past 30 years.Of the three volcanoes discussed in this field guide, one (South Sister) lies along the main axis defined by major peaks of the Cascade Range, whereas the other two lie in extensional tectonic settings east of the axis. These two tectonic environments influence volcano morphology and the magmatic and volcanic processes that form silicic lava flows and domes. The geomorphic and textural features of glass-rich extrusions provide many clues about their emplacement and the magma bodies that fed them.The scope of this field guide does not include a full geologic history or comprehensive explanation of hazards associated with a particular volcano or volcanic field. The geochemistry, petrology, tectonics, and eruption history of Newberry, South Sister, and Medicine Lake volcanic centers have been extensively studied and are discussed on other field excursions. Instead, we seek to explore the structural, textural, and geochemical evolution of well-preserved individual lava flows—the goal is to understand the geologic processes, rather than the development, of a specific volcano.

  2. Phylogenetic Analysis of Seven WRKY Genes across the Palm Subtribe Attaleinae (Arecaceae) Identifies Syagrus as Sister Group of the Coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerow, Alan W.; Noblick, Larry; Borrone, James W.; Couvreur, Thomas L. P.; Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Hahn, William J.; Kuhn, David N.; Nakamura, Kyoko; Oleas, Nora H.; Schnell, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    Background The Cocoseae is one of 13 tribes of Arecaceae subfam. Arecoideae, and contains a number of palms with significant economic importance, including the monotypic and pantropical Cocos nucifera L., the coconut, the origins of which have been one of the “abominable mysteries” of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes weakly supported American ancestry for the coconut but ambiguous sister relationships. In this paper, we use multiple single copy nuclear loci to address the phylogeny of the Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, and resolve the closest extant relative of the coconut. Methodology/Principal Findings We present the results of combined analysis of DNA sequences of seven WRKY transcription factor loci across 72 samples of Arecaceae tribe Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae, representing all genera classified within the subtribe, and three outgroup taxa with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches, producing highly congruent and well-resolved trees that robustly identify the genus Syagrus as sister to Cocos and resolve novel and well-supported relationships among the other genera of the Attaleinae. We also address incongruence among the gene trees with gene tree reconciliation analysis, and assign estimated ages to the nodes of our tree. Conclusions/Significance This study represents the as yet most extensive phylogenetic analyses of Cocoseae subtribe Attaleinae. We present a well-resolved and supported phylogeny of the subtribe that robustly indicates a sister relationship between Cocos and Syagrus. This is not only of biogeographic interest, but will also open fruitful avenues of inquiry regarding evolution of functional genes useful for crop improvement. Establishment of two major clades of American Attaleinae occurred in the Oligocene (ca. 37 MYBP) in Eastern Brazil. The divergence of Cocos from Syagrus is estimated at 35 MYBP. The biogeographic and morphological congruence that we see for

  3. On the Efficient Broadcasting of Heterogeneous Services over Band-Limited Channels: Unequal Power Allocation for Wavelet Packet Division Multiplexing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Murroni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple transmission of heterogeneous services is a central aspect of broadcasting technology. Often, in this framework, the design of efficient communication systems is complicated by stringent bandwidth constraint. In wavelet packet division multiplexing (WPDM, the message signals are waveform coded onto wavelet packet basis functions. The overlapping nature of such waveforms in both time and frequency allows improving the performance over the commonly used FDM and TDM schemes, while their orthogonality properties permit to extract the message signals by a simple correlator receiver. Furthermore, the scalable structure of WPDM makes it suitable for broadcasting heterogeneous services. This work investigates unequal error protection (UEP of data which exhibit different sensitivities to channel errors to improve the performance of WPDM for transmission over band-limited channels. To cope with bandwidth constraint, an appropriate distribution of power among waveforms is proposed which is driven by the channel error sensitivities of the carried message signals in case of Gaussian noise. We address this problem by means of the genetic algorithms (GAs, which allow flexible suboptimal solution with reduced complexity. The mean square error (MSE between the original and the decoded message, which has a strong correlation with subjective perception, is used as an optimization criterion.

  4. Taming of the few-The unequal distribution of greenhouse gas emissions from personal travel in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brand, Christian; Boardman, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from personal transport have risen steadily in the UK. Yet, surprisingly little is known about who exactly is contributing to the problem and the extent to which different groups of the population will be affected by any policy responses. This paper describes an innovative methodology and evaluation tool for profiling annual greenhouse gas emissions from personal travel across all modes of travel. A case study application of the methodology involving a major survey of UK residents provides an improved understanding of the extent to which individual and household travel activity patterns, choice of transport mode, geographical location, socio-economic and other factors impact on greenhouse gas emissions. Air and car travel dominate overall emissions. Conversely, land-based public transport accounts for a very small proportion of emissions on average. There is a highly unequal distribution of emissions amongst the population, independent of the mode of travel, location and unit of analysis. The top 10% of emitters are responsible for 43% of emissions and the bottom 10% for only 1%. Income, economic activity, age, household structure and car availability significantly influence emissions levels. Key policy implications of the results are discussed. The paper concludes by suggesting potential applications of the methodology and evaluation tool

  5. Hangup effect in unequal mass binary black hole mergers and further studies of their gravitational radiation and remnant properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, James; Lousto, Carlos O.

    2018-04-01

    We present the results of 74 new simulations of nonprecessing spinning black hole binaries with mass ratios q =m1/m2 in the range 1 /7 ≤q ≤1 and individual spins covering the parameter space -0.95 ≤α1 ,2≤0.95 . We supplement those runs with 107 previous simulations to study the hangup effect in black hole mergers, i.e. the delay or prompt merger of spinning holes with respect to nonspinning binaries. We perform the numerical evolution for typically the last ten orbits before the merger and down to the formation of the final remnant black hole. This allows us to study the hangup effect for unequal mass binaries leading us to identify the spin variable that controls the number of orbits before merger as S→ hu.L ^ , where S→ hu=(1 +1/2 m/2 m1 )S→ 1+(1 +1/2 m/1 m2 )S→ 2 . We also combine the total results of those 181 simulations to obtain improved fitting formulas for the remnant final black hole mass, spin and recoil velocity as well as for the peak luminosity and peak frequency of the gravitational strain, and find new correlations among them. This accurate new set of simulations enhances the number of available numerical relativity waveforms available for parameter estimation of gravitational wave observations.

  6. Separate and unequal: the influence of neighborhood and school characteristics on spatial proximity between fast food and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Loh, Ji Meng

    2010-08-01

    Social science and health literature have identified residential segregation as a critical factor in exposure to health-related resources, including food environments. Differential spatial patterning of food environments surrounding schools has significant import for youth. We examined whether fast food restaurants clustered around schools in New York City, and whether any observed clustering varied as a function of school type, school racial demographics, and area racial and socioeconomic demographics. We geocoded fast food locations from 2006 (n=817) and schools from 2004-2005 (n=2096; public and private, elementary and secondary) in the five boroughs of New York City. A point process model (inhomogeneous cross-K function) examined spatial clustering. A minimum of 25% of schools had a fast food restaurant within 400 m. High schools had higher fast food clustering than elementary schools. Public elementary and high schools with large proportions of Black students or in block groups with large proportions of Black residents had higher clustering than White counterparts. Finally, public high schools had higher clustering than private counterparts, with 1.25 to 2 times as many restaurants than expected by chance. The results suggest that the geography of opportunity as it relates to school food environments is unequal in New York City. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Unequal Structure of the German Education System: Structural Reasons for Educational Failures of Turkish Youth in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Kelly, Patricia

    The paper examines the educational experiences of Turkish youth in Germany with special references to the statistical data of Educational Report, PISA surveys. The results of the educational statistics of Germany show that more than group characteristics like social and cultural capital, structural and institutional factors (multi-track system with its selective mechanism, education policy, context of negative reception of Germany, institutional discrimination, and lack of intercultural curriculum) could have a decisive role in hampering the educational and labor market integration and social mobility of Turkish youth. This can be explained by a mix of factors: the education system which does not foster the educational progress of children from disadvantaged families; the high importance of school degrees for accessing to the vocational training system and the labor market; and direct and indirect institutional discrimination in educational area in Germany. Thus, this work suggests that the nature of the education system in Germany remains deeply "unequal," "hierarchical" and "exclusive." This study also demonstrates maintaining the marginalized position of Turkish children in Germany means that the country of origin or the immigrants' background is still a barrier to having access to education and the labor market of Germany.

  8. Unequal Protection of Video Streaming through Adaptive Modulation with a Trizone Buffer over Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razavi Rouzbeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bluetooth enhanced data rate wireless channel can support higher-quality video streams compared to previous versions of Bluetooth. Packet loss when transmitting compressed data has an effect on the delivered video quality that endures over multiple frames. To reduce the impact of radio frequency noise and interference, this paper proposes adaptive modulation based on content type at the video frame level and content importance at the macroblock level. Because the bit rate of protected data is reduced, the paper proposes buffer management to reduce the risk of buffer overflow. A trizone buffer is introduced, with a varying unequal protection policy in each zone. Application of this policy together with adaptive modulation results in up to 4 dB improvement in objective video quality compared to fixed rate scheme for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and around 10 dB for a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The paper also reports a consistent improvement in video quality over a scheme that adapts to channel conditions by varying the data rate without accounting for the video frame packet type or buffer congestion.

  9. Unequal Protection of Video Streaming through Adaptive Modulation with a Trizone Buffer over Bluetooth Enhanced Data Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouzbeh Razavi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Bluetooth enhanced data rate wireless channel can support higher-quality video streams compared to previous versions of Bluetooth. Packet loss when transmitting compressed data has an effect on the delivered video quality that endures over multiple frames. To reduce the impact of radio frequency noise and interference, this paper proposes adaptive modulation based on content type at the video frame level and content importance at the macroblock level. Because the bit rate of protected data is reduced, the paper proposes buffer management to reduce the risk of buffer overflow. A trizone buffer is introduced, with a varying unequal protection policy in each zone. Application of this policy together with adaptive modulation results in up to 4 dB improvement in objective video quality compared to fixed rate scheme for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and around 10 dB for a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The paper also reports a consistent improvement in video quality over a scheme that adapts to channel conditions by varying the data rate without accounting for the video frame packet type or buffer congestion.

  10. Influence of irradiation at different stages of mitotic cycle upon production of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoshina, M.M.; Poryadkova, N.A.; Luchnik, N.V.

    1982-01-01

    Frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and microexchanges in Chinese hamster cells has been studied by means of the method of differential staining of chromatids on irradiation at different stages of the mitotic cycle. It is shown that the irradiation enhances frequency of SCE and microexchanges if it is carried out before the end of DNA replication synthesis. Comparison of frequency depenedence of radiation-induced microexchanges and SCE at different stages of the mitotic cycle results in the conclusion that the microexchanges are none other than small SCE

  11. A Clarion Call for Social Work Attention: Brothers and Sisters of Persons With Acquired Brain Injury in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund

    2016-08-11

    This article presents a clarion call for increased social work attention to the needs of siblings of persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) in the United States. The article overviews how siblings are psychosocially affected, how they provide care to the injured brothers and sisters, and how they personally develop as a result of their experiences. The article highlights the fact that social workers and other professionals often overlook the needs of siblings of persons with ABI and makes an appeal for social workers to advance clinical practice and research to benefit this often neglected population.

  12. Sister mary joseph′s nodule: A case of umbilical cutaneous metastasis with signet ring cell histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadeh Valid

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The metastasis of a visceral malignancy to the umbilicus is known as "Sister Mary Joseph′s nodule". It is a rare clinical sign indicating advanced, metastasizing intraabdominal cancer. We report a 50-year-old man who developed metastatic skin cancer in the form of semicircular indurated plaque on top of which was a firm mobile rounded nodule at the umbilical area. Histopathological examination demonstrated diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff and mucicarmine positive signet ring cells, suggesting gastric carcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining showed that these cells were positive for cytokeratins and epithelial membrane antigen, suggesting epithelial origin.

  13. Inhibition of protein synthesis does not antagonize induction of UV-induced sister-chromatid exchange in xeroderma pigmentosum cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sono, Akira; Sakaguchi, Kengo.

    1988-01-01

    Cycloheximide strongly antagonizes the induction of sisterchromatid exchanges by ethyl methanesulfonate or mitomycin C in human skin fibroblast and xeroderma pigmentosum cells (group A). Analogous behavior has been observed in several other species including Chinese hamster and plant cells. This report documents an exception to that pattern: cycloheximide fails to antagonize UV-induced sister chromatid exchange in xeroderma pigmentosum cells, whereas it does in normal human skin fibroblast cells. A genetic defect in these cells is postulated to alter the UV-mediated DNA recombination process. (author)

  14. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

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    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  15. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

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    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  16. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  17. Glacial alteration of volcanic terrains: A chemical investigation of the Three Sisters, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Alicia; Horgan, Briony; Havig, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    Glacial silica cycling is more efficient than previously reported, and in some settings, particularly glaciated mafic volcanics, can be the dominant weathering process. Based on field work at glaciated volcanic sites, we hypothesize that this is due to a combination of high rates of silica dissolution from mafic bedrock and reprecipitation of silica in the form of opaline silica coatings and other poorly crystalline silicate alteration phases. The high rate of bedrock comminution in subglacial environments results in high rates of both chemical and physical weathering, due to the increased reactive mineral surface area formed through glacial grinding. In most bedrock types, carbonate weathering is enhanced and silica fluxes are depressed in glacial outwash compared with global average riverine catchment runoff due to low temperatures and short residence times. However, in mafic systems, higher dissolved SiO2 concentrations have been observed. The major difference between observed glacial alteration of volcanic bedrock and more typical continental terrains is the absence of significant dissolved carbonate in the former. In the absence of carbonate minerals which normally dominate dissolution processes at glacier beds, carbonation of feldspar can become the dominant weathering process, which can result in a high proportion of dissolved silica fluxes in glacial outwash waters compared to the total cation flux. Mafic volcanic rocks are particularly susceptible to silica mobility, due to the high concentration of soluble minerals (i.e. plagioclase) as compared to the high concentration of insoluble quartz found in felsic rocks. To investigate melt-driven chemical weathering of mafic volcanics, water and rock samples were collected during July 2016 from glaciated volcanic bedrock in the Three Sisters Wilderness, Oregon, U.S.A. (44°9'N, 121°46'W): Collier Glacier (basaltic andesite, andesite), Hayden Glacier (andesite, dacite), and Diller Glacier (basalt). Here we

  18. Temporal clumping of prey and coexistence of unequal interferers: experiments on social forager groups of brown trout feeding on invertebrate drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Mikael; Skov, Christian; Koed, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Environmental fluctuations have been proposed to enhance the coexistence of competing phenotypes. Evaluations are here presented on the effects of prey density and short-term temporal clumping of prey availability on the relative foraging success of unequal interferers in social forager groups...... of juvenile brown trout Salmo trutta feeding on drifting invertebrate prey (frozen chironomids). Groups of three trout with established linear dominance hierarchies (dominant, intermediate and subordinate) were subjected to three different total numbers of prey, combined with three different levels...

  19. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  20. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  1. Monte Carlo Simulations Comparing Fisher Exact Test and Unequal Variances t Test for Analysis of Differences Between Groups in Brief Hospital Lengths of Stay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Bayman, Emine O; Dexter, Elisabeth U

    2017-12-01

    We examined type I and II error rates for analysis of (1) mean hospital length of stay (LOS) versus (2) percentage of hospital LOS that are overnight. These 2 end points are suitable for when LOS is treated as a secondary economic end point. We repeatedly resampled LOS for 5052 discharges of thoracoscopic wedge resections and lung lobectomy at 26 hospitals. Unequal variances t test (Welch method) and Fisher exact test both were conservative (ie, type I error rate less than nominal level). The Wilcoxon rank sum test was included as a comparator; the type I error rates did not differ from the nominal level of 0.05 or 0.01. Fisher exact test was more powerful than the unequal variances t test at detecting differences among hospitals; estimated odds ratio for obtaining P < .05 with Fisher exact test versus unequal variances t test = 1.94, with 95% confidence interval, 1.31-3.01. Fisher exact test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney had comparable statistical power in terms of differentiating LOS between hospitals. For studies with LOS to be used as a secondary end point of economic interest, there is currently considerable interest in the planned analysis being for the percentage of patients suitable for ambulatory surgery (ie, hospital LOS equals 0 or 1 midnight). Our results show that there need not be a loss of statistical power when groups are compared using this binary end point, as compared with either Welch method or Wilcoxon rank sum test.

  2. Reducing HIV risk among transgender women in Thailand: a quasi-experimental evaluation of the sisters program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangta Pawa

    Full Text Available Transgender women are particularly at risk of HIV infection, but little evidence exists on effective HIV prevention strategies with this population. We evaluated whether Sisters, a peer-led program for transgender women, could reduce HIV risks in Pattaya, Thailand. The study used time-location sampling to recruit 308 transgender women in Pattaya into a behavioral survey in 2011. Coarsened exact matching was used to create statistically equivalent groups of program participants and non-participants, based on factors influencing likelihood of program participation. Using multivariable logistic regression, we estimated effects of any program participation and participation by delivery channel on: condom use at last sex; consistent condom and condom/water-based lubricant use in the past 3 months with commercial, casual, and regular partners; and receipt of HIV testing in the past 6 months. Program coverage reached 75% of the population. In a matched sub-sample (n = 238, participation in outreach was associated with consistent condom/water-based lubricant use with commercial partners (AOR 3.22, 95% CI 1.64-6.31. Attendance at the Sisters drop-in center was associated with receiving an HIV test (AOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.47-4.52. Dedicated transgender-friendly programs are effective at reducing HIV risks and require expansion to better serve this key population and improve HIV prevention strategies.

  3. Regulation of Centromere Localization of the Drosophila Shugoshin MEI-S332 and Sister-Chromatid Cohesion in Meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Cristina; Kashevsky, Helena; Pinto, Belinda; Clarke, Astrid; Orr-Weaver, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    The Shugoshin (Sgo) protein family helps to ensure proper chromosome segregation by protecting cohesion at the centromere by preventing cleavage of the cohesin complex. Some Sgo proteins also influence other aspects of kinetochore-microtubule attachments. Although many Sgo members require Aurora B kinase to localize to the centromere, factors controlling delocalization are poorly understood and diverse. Moreover, it is not clear how Sgo function is inactivated and whether this is distinct from delocalization. We investigated these questions in Drosophila melanogaster, an organism with superb chromosome cytology to monitor Sgo localization and quantitative assays to test its function in sister-chromatid segregation in meiosis. Previous research showed that in mitosis in cell culture, phosphorylation of the Drosophila Sgo, MEI-S332, by Aurora B promotes centromere localization, whereas Polo phosphorylation promotes delocalization. These studies also suggested that MEI-S332 can be inactivated independently of delocalization, a conclusion supported here by localization and function studies in meiosis. Phosphoresistant and phosphomimetic mutants for the Aurora B and Polo phosphorylation sites were examined for effects on MEI-S332 localization and chromosome segregation in meiosis. Strikingly, MEI-S332 with a phosphomimetic mutation in the Aurora B phosphorylation site prematurely dissociates from the centromeres in meiosis I. Despite the absence of MEI-S332 on meiosis II centromeres in male meiosis, sister chromatids segregate normally, demonstrating that detectable levels of this Sgo are not essential for chromosome congression, kinetochore biorientation, or spindle assembly. PMID:25081981

  4. A CO-FISH assay to assess sister chromatid segregation patterns in mitosis of mouse embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Stephan; Burkett, Sandra S; Lewandoski, Mark; Klar, Amar J S

    2013-05-01

    Sister chromatids contain identical DNA sequence but are chiral with respect to both their helical handedness and their replication history. Emerging evidence from various model organisms suggests that certain stem cells segregate sister chromatids nonrandomly to either maintain genome integrity or to bias cellular differentiation in asymmetric cell divisions. Conventional methods for tracing of old vs. newly synthesized DNA strands generally lack resolution for individual chromosomes and employ halogenated thymidine analogs with profound cytotoxic effects on rapidly dividing cells. Here, we present a modified chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization (CO-FISH) assay, where identification of individual chromosomes and their replication history is achieved in subsequent hybridization steps with chromosome-specific DNA probes and PNA telomere probes. Importantly, we tackle the issue of BrdU cytotoxicity and show that our method is compatible with normal mouse ES cell biology, unlike a recently published related protocol. Results from our CO-FISH assay show that mitotic segregation of mouse chromosome 7 is random in ES cells, which contrasts previously published results from our laboratory and settles a controversy. Our straightforward protocol represents a useful resource for future studies on chromatid segregation patterns of in vitro-cultured cells from distinct model organisms.

  5. Introgression and selection shaped the evolutionary history of sympatric sister-species of coral reef fishes (genus: Haemulon)

    KAUST Repository

    Bernal, Moisé s A.; Gaither, Michelle R.; Simison, W. Brian; Rocha, Luiz A.

    2016-01-01

    Closely related marine species with large overlapping ranges provide opportunities to study mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between such lineages. Here, we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister-species. On the other hand, complete lineage sorting was observed at the nuclear loci and most of the SNPs. Under neutral expectations, the smaller effective population size of mtDNA should lead to fixation of mutations faster than nDNA. Thus, these results suggest that hybridization in the recent past (0.174-0.263Ma) led to introgression of the mtDNA, with little effect on the nuclear genome. Analyses of the SNP data revealed 28 loci potentially under divergent selection between the two species. The combination of mtDNA introgression and limited nuclear DNA introgression provides a mechanism for the evolution of independent lineages despite recurrent hybridization events. This study adds to the growing body of research that exemplifies how genetic divergence can be maintained in the presence of gene flow between closely related species.

  6. Ancient fossil specimens of extinct species are genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi

    2009-01-01

    There exists a remarkable correlation between genetic distance as measured by protein or DNA dissimilarity and time of species divergence as inferred from fossil records. This observation has provoked the molecular clock hypothesis. However, data inconsistent with the hypothesis have steadily accumulated in recent years from studies of extant organisms. Here the published DNA and protein sequences from ancient fossil specimens were examined to see if they would support the molecular clock hypothesis. The hypothesis predicts that ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant to an outgroup than extant sister species are. Also, two distinct ancient specimens cannot be genetically more distant than their extant sister species are. The findings here do not conform to these predictions. Neanderthals are more distant to chimpanzees and gorillas than modern humans are. Dinosaurs are more distant to frogs than extant birds are. Mastodons are more distant to opossums than other placental mammals are. The genetic distance between dinosaurs and mastodons is greater than that between extant birds and mammals. Therefore, while the molecular clock hypothesis is consistent with some data from extant organisms, it has yet to find support from ancient fossils. Far more damaging to the hypothesis than data from extant organisms, which merely question the constancy of mutation rate, the study of ancient fossil organisms here challenges for the first time the fundamental premise of modern evolution theory that genetic distances had always increased with time in the past history of life on Earth. PMID:18600632

  7. Introgression and selection shaped the evolutionary history of sympatric sister-species of coral reef fishes (genus: Haemulon)

    KAUST Repository

    Bernal, Moisés A.

    2016-11-22

    Closely related marine species with large overlapping ranges provide opportunities to study mechanisms of speciation, particularly when there is evidence of gene flow between such lineages. Here, we focus on a case of hybridization between the sympatric sister-species Haemulon maculicauda and H. flaviguttatum, using Sanger sequencing of mitochondrial and nuclear loci, as well as 2422 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) obtained via restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RADSeq). Mitochondrial markers revealed a shared haplotype for COI and low divergence for CytB and CR between the sister-species. On the other hand, complete lineage sorting was observed at the nuclear loci and most of the SNPs. Under neutral expectations, the smaller effective population size of mtDNA should lead to fixation of mutations faster than nDNA. Thus, these results suggest that hybridization in the recent past (0.174-0.263Ma) led to introgression of the mtDNA, with little effect on the nuclear genome. Analyses of the SNP data revealed 28 loci potentially under divergent selection between the two species. The combination of mtDNA introgression and limited nuclear DNA introgression provides a mechanism for the evolution of independent lineages despite recurrent hybridization events. This study adds to the growing body of research that exemplifies how genetic divergence can be maintained in the presence of gene flow between closely related species.

  8. The Scc2/Scc4 complex acts in sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation by maintaining nucleosome-free regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Serra, Lidia; Kelly, Gavin; Patel, Harshil; Stewart, Aengus; Uhlmann, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The cohesin complex is at the heart of many chromosomal activities, including sister chromatid cohesion and transcriptional regulation1-3. Cohesin loading onto chromosomes depends on the Scc2/Scc4 cohesin loader complex4-6, but the chromatin features that form cohesin loading sites remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the RSC chromatin remodeling complex recruits budding yeast Scc2/Scc4 to broad nucleosome-free regions, that the cohesin loader itself helps to maintain. Consequently, inactivation of the cohesin loader or RSC complex have similar effects on nucleosome positioning, gene expression and sister chromatid cohesion. These results reveal an intimate link between local chromatin structure and higher order chromosome architecture. Our findings pertain to the similarities between two severe human disorders, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, caused by mutations in the human cohesin loader, and Coffin-Siris syndrome, resulting from mutations in human RSC complex components7-9. Both could arise from gene misregulation due to related changes in the nucleosome landscape. PMID:25173104

  9. Unique geometry of sister kinetochores in human oocytes during meiosis I may explain maternal age-associated increases in chromosomal abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Patel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The first meiotic division in human oocytes is highly error-prone and contributes to the uniquely high incidence of aneuploidy observed in human pregnancies. A successful meiosis I (MI division entails separation of homologous chromosome pairs and co-segregation of sister chromatids. For this to happen, sister kinetochores must form attachments to spindle kinetochore-fibres emanating from the same pole. In mouse and budding yeast, sister kinetochores remain closely associated with each other during MI, enabling them to act as a single unified structure. However, whether this arrangement also applies in human meiosis I oocytes was unclear. In this study, we perform high-resolution imaging of over 1900 kinetochores in human oocytes, to examine the geometry and architecture of the human meiotic kinetochore. We reveal that sister kinetochores in MI are not physically fused, and instead individual kinetochores within a pair are capable of forming independent attachments to spindle k-fibres. Notably, with increasing female age, the separation between kinetochores increases, suggesting a degradation of centromeric cohesion and/or changes in kinetochore architecture. Our data suggest that the differential arrangement of sister kinetochores and dual k-fibre attachments may explain the high proportion of unstable attachments that form in MI and thus indicate why human oocytes are prone to aneuploidy, particularly with increasing maternal age.

  10. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  11. Glycemia in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  12. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  13. Associative memory model with spontaneous neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-01

    We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input (i.e., spontaneous activity) is modified by an input to generate a target response that is memorized for recall upon the same input. Suitable design of synaptic connections enables the model to memorize input/output (I/O) mappings equaling 70% of the total number of neurons, where the evoked activity distinguishes a target pattern from others. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities, as reported in recent experimental studies.

  14. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Spontaneous Bilateral Meningoencephalocoeles of the Temporal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Rose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous tegmen tympani defects are rare with even rarer bilateral cases. The symptoms are nonspecific; hence, a high index of suspicion is required to prevent serious intracranial complications. We present a case of spontaneous bilateral tegmen tympani defects with associated meningoencephalocoeles in a 54-year-old male who presented with the signs and symptoms of severe meningitis. After careful workup which included a lumbar puncture, CT and MRI scans, both defects were repaired using a middle fossa approach. The patient made an uneventful recovery with complete cessation of otorrhoea and improvement in his hearing.

  16. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  17. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Thitta; Patnaik, Jyoti; Mishra, Narayan; Subhankar, Saswat; Parida, Priyadarsini

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a rare entity in a middle-aged male.

  18. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-12-01

    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Salvatore; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2018-07-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the plantar fascia are uncommon injuries. They typically occur at its calcaneal insertion and usually represent a complication of plantar fasciitis and local treatment with steroid injections. In contrast, distal ruptures commonly result from traumatic injuries. We describe the case of a spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia in a 48-year-old woman with a low level of physical activity and no history of direct injury to the foot, plantar fasciitis, or steroid injections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  1. Bradycardia after Tube Thoracostomy for Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomi Fashola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an elderly patient who became bradycardic after chest tube insertion for spontaneous pneumothorax. Arrhythmia is a rare complication of tube thoracostomy. Unlike other reported cases of chest tube induced arrhythmias, the bradycardia in our patient responded to resuscitative measures without removal or repositioning of the tube. Our patient, who had COPD, presented with shortness of breath due to spontaneous pneumothorax. Moments after tube insertion, patient developed severe bradycardia that responded to Atropine. In patients requiring chest tube insertion, it is important to be prepared to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitative therapy in case the patient develops a life-threatening arrhythmia.

  2. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Dash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a rare entity in a middle-aged male.

  3. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon

    2014-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  4. Job mismatching, unequal opportunities and long-term sickness absence in female white-collar workers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmark, Hélène

    2009-01-01

    To investigate associations between long-term sick-listing and factors at work and in family life. Associations were investigated in a cross-sectional case-referent study. The study base included women in white-collar jobs, aged 30-55 years, living in three urban areas in Sweden between February 2004 and October 2004. A postal questionnaire was constructed with questions on occupational and family circumstances, and sent to 513 randomly selected female white-collar workers, of whom 233 had ongoing sick-leave of 90 days or more. The response rate was 81% (n = 413). Most of the women in this study were in managerial positions. The unadjusted associations showed that sick-listed women with children showed the highest estimates regarding reported long working hours, bullying, high mental strain, low control and low influence at work, and work-family imbalance. In a regression model, the strongest associations were: experiencing too high mental strain in work tasks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.09-3.15) and low control and influence at work (OR=2.17, 95% CI= 1.60-2.94). Sick-listed women reported an overall higher dissatisfaction with their workplace and working life. There seems to be a greater tendency for the sick-listed women in this study to experience low control and too high mental strain at work and to live in traditional family relationships with unequal opportunities. The women who were sick-listed were probably less able to cope with work stress and to find a balance between work and family life.

  5. Spontaneous remission of post-transplant recurrent focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassam Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old girl with a history of steroid and cyclosporine (CsA resistant nephrotic syndrome owing to focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS has progressed to end-stage renal disease (ESRD for which she underwent hemodialysis for 18 months before she successfully received a fully matched kidney transplant from her sister at the age of nine years. The post transplantation (Tx period was marked by an early and massive proteinuria indicating recurrent FSGS for which she received 12 sessions of plasmapheresis (PP; unfortunately, she did not appear to have any response to the PP therapy; thereafter, a conservative management comprising essentially enalapril and losartan has been initiated and was also not successful during the first four months, however, a very gradual response has been noticed to occur after five months of conservative therapy and ultimately, the patient attained complete remission after 21 months of treatment. Amazingly, 15 months after discontinuation of enalapril and losartan, she remained in a complete and sustained remission with a good renal allograft function. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case ever reported in the literature of a "spontaneous" remission of post transplant recurrent FSGS.

  6. DNA Amplification by Breakage/Fusion/Bridge Cycles Initiated by Spontaneous Telomere Loss in a Human Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony W.l. Lo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of genomic instability is an important step in generatingthe multiple genetic changes required for cancer. One consequence of genomic instability is the overexpression of oncogenes due to gene amplification. One mechanism for gene amplification is the breakagelfusionlbridge (B/F/Bcyclethatinvolvesthe repeated fusion and breakage of chromosomes following the loss of a telomere. B/F/B cycles have been associated with low-copy gene amplification in human cancer cells, and have been proposed to be an initiating event in high-copy gene amplification. We have found that spontaneous telomere loss on a marker chromosome 16 in a human tumor cell line results in sister chromatid fusion and prolonged periods of chromosome instability. The high rate of anaphase bridges involving chromosome 16 demonstrates that this instability results from B/F/B cycles. The amplification of subtelomeric DNA on the marker chromosome provides conclusive evidence that B/F/B cycles initiated by spontaneous telomere loss are a mechanism for gene amplification in human cancer cells.

  7. Arts, Crafts, and Rural Rehabilitation: the Sisters of Charity, Halifax, and Vocational Education in Terence Bay, Nova Scotia, 1938-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha MULLALLY

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Responding to rural poverty associated with the declining fishery, the rise of industrial capitalism, and the impact of the Great Depression, the Sisters of Charity, Halifax, implemented a vocational training program in weaving and carpentry in the small community of Terence Bay, Nova Scotia in 1938. Senator William Dennis, a proponent of the New Democracy Movement, financed the program. Because the Sisters based their claims to success on observed behavioural changes among the residents of Terence Bay, the program can be seen as an example of liberal therapeutics in education, a model that placed emphasis on achieving social goals rather than transferring discrete skills and capacities to pupils. Focusing on the years 1938-43, this paper outlines the rehabilitation efforts at Terence Bay, describes the programs the Sisters implemented, and evaluates the definitions of success ascribed to their training school just a few years later.

  8. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  9. Spatial Memory in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontag, Thomas-A.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Hauser, Joachim; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W.

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory.

  10. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  11. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory evaluation indicated that the techniques of nixtamalization, fermentation and cowpea fortification used for the processing of the products did not influence their acceptability by the panel. Nixtamalized maize can therefore be subjected to spontaneous fermentation with cowpea fortification to enhance the functional, ...

  12. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  13. Spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Nikolaidis, I.; Dimakakos, P.

    1986-01-01

    A case of a spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli communication is presented in a 65 year old patient who was admitted to the Hospital with severe abdominal pain simulating a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The diagnosis was suspected on a CT examination and established by a free flow aortogram and selective catheterization of the cisterna chyli through the aorta. (orig.)

  14. Spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Nikolaidis, I.; Dimakakos, P.

    1986-02-01

    A case of a spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli communication is presented in a 65 year old patient who was admitted to the Hospital with severe abdominal pain simulating a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The diagnosis was suspected on a CT examination and established by a free flow aortogram and selective catheterization of the cisterna chyli through the aorta. (orig.).

  15. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  16. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.

    2008-01-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  17. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous emission from active dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    and engineered due to the dependence of the emission rate on the location and polarisation of the emitters in the structure. This paper addresses the methods of quantum electrodynamics of dielectric media which enable calculation of the local rate of spontaneous emission in active microstructures....

  19. Synchronization of cubic distortion spontaneous otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Wit, HP

    A spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectrum may contain equally spaced emission peaks. Then, two peaks, at frequencies, f(1) and f(2), respectively, apparently generate a distortion product at f(d)=2f(1)-f(2) [or 2f(2)-f(1)]. For the three emission peaks of nine of such triplets tin six emission

  20. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  1. Spontaneous fluxoid formation in superconducting loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Rivers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the experimental verification of the Zurek-Kibble scenario in an isolated superconducting ring over a wide parameter range. The probability of creating a single flux quantum spontaneously during the fast normal-superconducting phase transition of a wide Nb loop clearly follows...

  2. A Spontaneous Joint Infection with Corynebacterium striatum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scholle, David

    2006-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a ubiquitous saprophyte with the potential to cause bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Until now, spontaneous infection of a natural joint has not been reported. When phenotyping failed, gene sequencing was used to identify the species. The isolate demonstrated high-level resistance to most antibiotics.

  3. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N = 2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    A model describing the interaction of N = 2 supergravity with a vector and a linear multiplet is constructed. The model admits the introduction of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking with two arbitrary scales, one of which can be equal to zero, corresponding to the partial super-Higgs effect (N = 2→N = 1). The cosmological term is automatically equal to zero

  5. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole brains were removed and the medial prefrontal cortex excised and processed for histomorphologic studies by haematoxylin and eosin, and cresyl fast violet techniques. Neurobehavioural test revealed less spontaneous alternation in 156 mg/kg Allium sativum group, while the prefrontal cortices of the test groups ...

  6. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  7. Spontaneously broken version of N=4 supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special scenario of reduction from the space of D=10 dimensions is used to construct the theory with describes interaction of supergravity with only one multiplet of matter in the framework of spontaneously broken N=4 supersymmetry. 6 refs.; 1 fig

  8. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianta, M.; Varma, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  9. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  10. Starting and Stopping Spontaneous Family Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…

  11. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  12. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm

    2017-05-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  13. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  14. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  15. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  16. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  17. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  18. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  19. Detection of sister-species in invasive populations of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Wee Tek; Walsh, Thomas K.; Kanyesigye, Dalton; Adumo, Stella; Abongosi, Joseph; Ochen, Stephen; Sserumaga, Julius; Alibu, Simon; Abalo, Grace; Asea, Godfrey; Agona, Ambrose

    2018-01-01

    The fall armyworm (FAW) Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) is a species native to the Americas. This polyphagous lepidopteran pest was first reported in Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Principe in 2016, but its presence in eastern Africa has not been confirmed via molecular characterisation. In this study, FAW specimens from western and central Uganda were identified based on the partial mtDNA COI gene sequences, with mtDNA COI haplotypes matching those identified in Nigeria and São Tomé. In this study, we sequence an additional partial mtDNA Cyt b gene and also the partial mtDNA COIII gene in Ugandan FAW samples. We detected identical mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for both the mtDNA Cyt b and COI partial genes, while combining the mtDNA COI/Cyt b haplotypes and mtDNA COIII haplotypes enabled a new maternal lineage in the Ugandan corn-preferred FAW samples to be identified. Our results suggested that the African incursions of S. frugiperda involved at least three maternal lineages. Recent full genome, phylogenetic and microsatellite analyses provided evidence to support S. frugiperda as likely consisted of two sympatric sister species known as the corn-preferred and rice-preferred strains. In our Ugandan FAW populations, we identified the presence of mtDNA haplotypes representative of both sister species. It is not known if both FAW sister species were originally introduced together or separately, and whether they have since spread as a single population. Further analyses of additional specimens originally collected from São Tomé, Nigeria and throughout Africa would be required to clarify this issue. Importantly, our finding showed that the genetic diversity of the African corn-preferred FAW species is higher than previously reported. This potentially contributed to the success of FAW establishment in Africa. Furthermore, with the additional maternal lineages detected, there is likely an increase in paternal lineages, thereby increasing

  20. Exploring the transition from\\ud staff nurse to\\ud ward sister/manager –\\ud An exploratory case study

    OpenAIRE

    Enterkin, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background\\ud The ward sister/manager figure has traditionally been considered the ward based\\ud clinical leader. This role has evolved over time in response to professional and\\ud political demands; despite or because of this, reports of role ambiguity exist and\\ud the ward sister/manager position has become increasingly difficult to recruit to,\\ud with nurses arguably looking to roles perceived to have greater influence and\\ud status, but less onerous managerial responsibility. Understandin...

  1. On unequal footing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ounanian, Kristen; Delaney, Alyne; Raakjær, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    This article concentrates on five marine sectors active in the marine environment (fisheries, offshore renewable energy, offshore oil and gas, navigation, and coastal tourism) and on non-industry stakeholders represented by environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (eNGOs) and how they have...... waters: (a) Boundaries; (b) policy and management coordination; and (c) balancing values and user conflicts have been explored. The paper concludes that from a governance perspective it is clear that the MSFD has not been that well-thought through. The consistency of the overall legal frameworks...

  2. Different, Unequal or Unconnected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor García Canclini

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The author proposes three key elements for dealing with the subject of interculturality and globalisation: difference, inequality and unconnectedness. He wonders not only about how to recognise the differences or correct the inequalities, but also about how to connectthe majorities to the global networks. For this, in the first place, he situates inequality and difference, and he deals with the latter from the theorisations of ethnic studies. And, secondly, he takes up the articulation of differences and inequalities proposed by Pierre Bourdieu and modified by authors that developed different perspectives based on their initial collaboration with him, such as Claude Grignon, Jean-Claude Passeron and Luc Boltanski. Canclini isattracted by these authors’ attempts to “open up the national horizon at a time when interculturality is globalising.”

  3. Different, Unequal or Unconnected

    OpenAIRE

    Néstor García Canclini

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes three key elements for dealing with the subject of interculturality and globalisation: difference, inequality and unconnectedness. He wonders not only about how to recognise the differences or correct the inequalities, but also about how to connectthe majorities to the global networks. For this, in the first place, he situates inequality and difference, and he deals with the latter from the theorisations of ethnic studies. And, secondly, he takes up the articulation of dif...

  4. Unequal Welfare States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Soede; J.C. Vrooman; P.M. Ferraresi; G. Segre

    2004-01-01

    The financial sustainability of the ageing welfare states in Europe has become a key policy issue recently. This study highlights a different aspect of the ageing process, namely its potential impact on income distributions. Since older people usually live on a lower income, their growing share

  5. Unequal by Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    generates inequality. Second, inequality is sustained by inadequate integration methods that merge a formal–informal hierarchy, which results in peer competition and majority elites. The structural approach to organizational diversity developed in this article nuances the current research on diversity...

  6. Preventing Ageing Unequally

    Science.gov (United States)

    OECD Publishing, 2017

    2017-01-01

    This report examines how the two global mega-trends of population ageing and rising inequalities have been developing and interacting, both within and across generations. Taking a life-course perspective the report shows how inequalities in education, health, employment and earnings compound, resulting in large differences in lifetime earnings…

  7. An unequable race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günzel, Franziska; Holm, Anna B.

    In this paper we review how openness towards technological innovation and opening of the traditional business model in the newspaper industry has led to an undermining of the industry’s dominant business model and to a dismantling of the extended business model configuration. More specifically, we...... discuss how changes introduced during the on-going development of digital platforms of news production and delivery has affected key components of these business models, namely value creation, proposition, delivery and capture. By using a multiple case study approach we have examined the development...... of the three leading Danish newspaper titles business models. The findings suggest that openness towards new technology needs to be coupled with openness towards business model experimentation to secure that new technologies do not solely dictate company’s future path. Instead learning experiences through...

  8. Sister chromatid exchanges induced in CHO cells by X-rays or 5.5 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocian, E.; Rosiek, O.; Sablinski, J.; Ziemba-Zoltowska, B.

    1986-01-01

    The induction of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) by X-rays (1-9 Gy) and 5.5 MeV neutrons (0.5-4 Gy) was studied in CHO cells. A dose-dependent increase of the frequency of SCE was found for both radiations when cells with BrdUrd substituted DNA were irradiated. The similar doubling dose, approx. 4 Gy, was found for X-rays and neutrons. The increase of the SCE frequency was not clearly dependent on the dose when cells with BrdUrd unsubstituted DNA were irradiated. In this case a dose of 4 Gy enhanced the SCE frequency only by the factor of 1.3. (author)

  9. Screening for Y Chromosome Microdeletion in a Nonobstructive Azoospermic Male Patient with Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation from His Sister

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Gurkan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic DNA of a patient diagnosed with nonobstructive azoospermia and with the history of allogenic bone marrow transplantation from his sister due to chronic myeloid leukemia was isolated from peripheral blood in order to screen Y chromosome microdeletions. 13 short tagged sites belonging to AZF a, b, and c loci were detected with multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique. Bands were determined in ZFX/ZFY wells, whereas no bands were determined in wells of other STS regions. DNA isolation was done from buccal mucosa smear to obtain genomic DNA from patient's own cells and multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique was performed again. Bands were seen in all wells of 13 STS regions. Y chromosome microdeletion was not detected in the patient. In conclusion, genomic DNA isolation in patients undergoing BMT should be done from patients' own cells.

  10. 2 case reports of the polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on the cranial and maxillofacial bones of the sisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Pyung; Park, Chang Seo

    1979-01-01

    The authors observed 2 cases of fibrous dysplasia on the cranial and maxillofacial bones in 31.28 aged sisters, who had come to the Infirmary of Dental College, Yonsei University. The serial roentgenograms and clinical findings had been taken and the results established as polyostotic fibrous dysplasia according to the findings in their images. To author have obtained the results as follows: 1. Bony expansion of the mandible occurred at 18 years of age and the facial asymmetry appeared due to development of the lesions. 2. The traumatic history were not noted but weak tendency of familial history noted. 3. Endocrine disturbances, hyperpigmentation on the skin and premature puberty in the infancy were not noted. 4. We have concluded these diseases as polyostotic fibrous dysplasia on the cranial and maxillofacial bones with weak familial tendency according to the findings.

  11. Alkaline DNA fragmentation, DNA disentanglement evaluated viscosimetrically and sister chromatid exchanges, after treatment in vivo with nitrofurantoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, S; Pala, M; Russo, P; Balbi, C; Abelmoschi, M L; Taningher, M; Zunino, A; Ottaggio, L; de Ferrari, M; Carbone, A; Santi, L

    1983-07-01

    Nitrofurantoin was not positive as a carcinogen in long term assays. In vitro it was positive in some short term tests and negative in others. We have examined Nitrofurantoin for its capability of inducing DNA damage in vivo. With the alkaline elution technique, Nitrofurantoin appeared clearly positive in all the tissues examined (liver, kidney, lung, spleen and bone marrow). In the liver we also observed some cross-linking effect. In bone marrow cells Nitrofurantoin was also clearly positive in terms of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) induction. DNA damage in vivo was also examined with a viscosimetric method, more sensitive than alkaline elution. With this method the results were essentially negative, suggesting that the two methods detect different types of damage. In view of its positivity in many organs and in two short term tests in vivo, the carcinogenic potential of Nitrofurantoin should be reconsidered.

  12. In vivo persistence of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) induced by gamma rays in mouse bone marrow cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales-Ramirez, P.; Vallarino-Kelly, T.; Rodriguez-Reyes, R.

    1984-01-01

    The sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies induced in bone marrow cells by in vivo irradiation with gamma rays before or after bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation were compared. The frequency of SCE at different postirradiation times was also measured in bone marrow cells in vivo, irradiated before BrdUrd incorporation. Increased sensitivity to SCE induction by radiation was found in cells after BrdUrd incorporation for one cycle when compared with cells irradiated before BrdUrd incorporation. The increased SCE frequency persisted for at least 72 hr after the initial irradiation, implying that the gamma ray-induced lesion(s) capable of eliciting an SCE are persistent and cannot be easily repaired

  13. Sister chromatid exchanges in X-ray irradiated blood lymphocytes from patients with hereditary diseases with radioresistant DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleskach, N.M.; Andriadze, M.I.; Mikhel'son, V.M.; Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray irradiation induced sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in blood lymphocytes from patient with Down's syndrome and adult progeria (in both the cases radioresistant DNA synthesis takes place). In normal lymphocytes (in which ionizing radiation inhibits the replicative synthesis of DNA) the rate of SCE rises with the rise of radiation dose. Thus, the rate of SCE in X-ray irradiated lymphocytes is in reverse dependence with radioresistance of replicative synthesis of DNA. The data obtained are explained in accordance with the replicative hypothesis of the SCE nature (Painter, 1980a): in cells of patients with Down's syndrome, xeroderma pigmentosum from 2 and progeria of adults the time of existence of partly replicated clusters of replicons is decreased due to radioresistant replicative synthesis of DNA, but the presence of partly replicated clusters of replicons in necessary for SCE formation. Therefore the rate of SCF in X-irradiated cells of these patients decreases

  14. Differential features of sister-chromatid exchange responses to ultraviolet radiation and caffeine in xeroderma pigmentosum lymphoblastoid cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohda, H.; Oikawa, A.

    1983-01-01

    Sister-chromatic exchange (SCE) induced by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and viability after UV irradiation were studied in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 7 patients with xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) and 6 normal donors. UV irradiation caused significant increases of SCEs in both XP and normal cells. In 3 XP cell lines, which were deficient in unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) and sensitive to the killing effect of UV, very high SCE frequencies were observed after UV irradiation. Cells from a patient with the De Sanctis-Cacchione syndrome were the most sensitive to UV in terms of both SCE induction and cell killing. In 2 of 4 UDS-proficient XP cell lines tested, the incidences of UV-induced SCEs were similar to those in normal cell lines, but in 2 other UDS-proficient lines from 2 XP patients with skin cancer, the frequencies of UV-induced SCEs were significantly higher than in normal cells. (orig./AJ)

  15. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary metastases of synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Azevedo, C.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The association of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary tumor is uncommon and with pulmonary metastases is rare. The clinical and radiological features of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax from a synovial sarcoma in a 14 years old boy are described. (author) [pt

  16. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  17. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, G.; Cutler, A.

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners' experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ

  18. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...

  19. Thoracoscopic modified pleural tent for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Riken; Matsuwaki, Rie; Tachibana, Keisei; Karita, Shin; Nakazato, Yoko; Tanaka, Ryota; Nagashima, Yasushi; Takei, Hidefumi; Kondo, Haruhiko

    2016-08-01

    We developed a modified pleural tent (m-tent) procedure and used it in our hospital in almost 30 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. The objective of this study was to clarify the feasibility and effectiveness of a thoracoscopic m-tent for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. From July 2013 to November 2014, 107 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax were treated in our institution. Eighty-nine of these patients were analysed retrospectively. The inclusion criteria for thoracoscopic m-tent for spontaneous pneumothorax were multiple and widespread bullae, postoperative relapse and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The surgical procedures were usually performed through three ports. After bullectomy, an m-tent is made to strip the parietal pleura off the chest wall from about the level of the fourth or fifth rib to the apex, and two or three ligations are then applied to fix the pleural tent and lung parenchyma. Patients in whom an m-tent was not indicated underwent bullectomy plus coverage using absorbable materials. Twenty-seven patients underwent bullectomy plus m-tent (m-tent group) and 62 underwent bullectomy plus coverage over a staple line using an absorbable material such as a polyglycolic acid sheet or nitrocellulose sheet (coverage group). No severe postoperative complications were observed in either group. The m-tent and coverage groups showed significant differences in operation time (129 vs 86 min, mean), haemorrhage (12.8 vs 7.2 ml), postoperative hospital stay (3.7 vs 2.9 days) and postoperative painkiller intake (8.6 vs 6.8 days). Recurrence was observed in 1 (3.7%) and 2 patients (3.2%), respectively. The thoracoscopic m-tent procedure requires a longer operation, a longer hospital stay and greater painkiller intake. However, these differences are acceptable, and an m-tent should be considered as an option for pleural reinforcement in spontaneous pneumothorax, especially in patients who are complicated with severe pulmonary

  20. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low