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Sample records for spontaneous sex-linked recessive

  1. Analysis of dominant and recessive sex-linked lethal mutations induced by low radiation doses in genetically different strains of Drosophila melanogaster w and MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, M.M.; Kim, A.I.; Magomedova, M.A.; Fatkulbayanova, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    Frequencies of induced recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) and dominant lethal mutations (DLM) were analyzed in genetically different Drosophila melanogaster strains w and MS after their exposure to radiation on radioactive soil in laboratory conditions. The RSLLM test applied to males after their 14-day radiation exposure yielded controversial results. An analysis of induced and spontaneous DLM demonstrated an increase in the frequency of early embryonic lethal mutations in the experiment (radiation exposure) in comparison with the control (spontaneous mutation rate) in both strains examined

  2. Comparative study of different sexis mutability: recessive sex-linked and dominant lethals in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatti, K.V.; Dzhaparidze, L.A.; Mamon, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) and those realizing in embryogenesis of dominant lethals, which form in oo- and spermatogenesis of Drosophila and fly productivity under the effect of X-rays and N-nitroso-N methylourea (NMU), is studied. In the case of effect of both mutagens RSLLM form in spermatocytes with higher frequency as compared with oocytes. Dominant lethal mutations (DLM) during irradiation are also often registered in spermatocytes. NMU induces DLM in mitotic male cells with a very high frequency but is not effective during the effect on oocytes. When both mutagens affect males and X-rays affect females, the decrease of productivity is mainly conditioned by DLM. As NMU does not induce DLM in females realizing in embryogenesis but reduces productivity, a later lethal realization connected with their different nature is supposed. Differences in mole and female mutability found in the course of X-ray and NMU effect are discussed in connection with peculiarities of their mitotic cells and the nature of effect of mutagens applied [ru

  3. 40 CFR 798.5275 - Sex-linked recessive lethal test in drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... homozygous or hemizygous condition. (3) Sex-Linked genes are present on the sex (X or Y) chromosomes. Sex... their brothers. In the F2 generation, each culture shall be scored for the absence of wild-type males. If a culture appears to have arisen from an F1 female carrying a lethal in the parental X-chromosome...

  4. Analysis of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in genetically different strains of Drosophila melanogaster ms and w irradiated in the five-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl meltdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanyan, M.M.; Kim, A.I.; Magomedova, M.A.; Fatkulbayanova, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency of induced and spontaneous recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) in Drosophila melanogaster strains w and ms was estimated after their chronic irradiation in the five-kilometer zone of the Chernobyl' meltdown. The mutagenic effect of relatively low radiation doses was analyzed. In an experiment conducted in 1990, a significant increase in the RSLLM frequency was recorded, while, in 1991, no significant difference between the experiment and control was found

  5. Study of radiosensitive Drosophila lines. XI. Induction of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations in females of the mutant line rad(2)201/sup G1/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.R.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have studied the frequency of occurrence of recessive sex-linked lethal mutations (RSLLM) after treatment of the females with γ-rays as a function of the dose (from 5 to 20 Gy) and oogenesis stage. They have shown that within the dose range used the oocytes of the 14th and 7th development stage are more sensitive in females of the mutant line than in those of the control. They detected significant differences in the frequency of occurrence of RSLLM between the 14th and 7th stages of development of oocytes for both Drosophila lines investigated

  6. Sex-linked dominant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  7. Speciation through evolution of sex-linked genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvarnström, A; Bailey, R I

    2009-01-01

    Identification of genes involved in reproductive isolation opens novel ways to investigate links between stages of the speciation process. Are the genes coding for ecological adaptations and sexual isolation the same that eventually lead to hybrid sterility and inviability? We review the role of sex-linked genes at different stages of speciation based on four main differences between sex chromosomes and autosomes; (1) relative speed of evolution, (2) non-random accumulation of genes, (3) exposure of incompatible recessive genes in hybrids and (4) recombination rate. At early stages of population divergence ecological differences appear mainly determined by autosomal genes, but fast-evolving sex-linked genes are likely to play an important role for the evolution of sexual isolation by coding for traits with sex-specific fitness effects (for example, primary and secondary sexual traits). Empirical evidence supports this expectation but mainly in female-heterogametic taxa. By contrast, there is clear evidence for both strong X- and Z-linkage of hybrid sterility and inviability at later stages of speciation. Hence genes coding for sexual isolation traits are more likely to eventually cause hybrid sterility when they are sex-linked. We conclude that the link between sexual isolation and evolution of hybrid sterility is more intuitive in male-heterogametic taxa because recessive sexually antagonistic genes are expected to quickly accumulate on the X-chromosome. However, the broader range of sexual traits that are expected to accumulate on the Z-chromosome may facilitate adaptive speciation in female-heterogametic species by allowing male signals and female preferences to remain in linkage disequilibrium despite periods of gene flow.

  8. A Case of Hemophilia A Associated with Spontaneous Hemorrhagic Pleural Effusion and Intracranial Hem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Tutar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hemophilia A is a sex-linked recessive coagulation disorder almost exclusively occurring in male subjects and caused by a deficiency of factor VIII. It  is a rare disorder characterized by spontaneous hemorrhages. Spontaneous bleeding in the pleural space is very rare in hemophilia both in children and adults. Here in, we present the case of a 56-year-old hemophilia A patient with hemorrhagic pleural effusion and intracranial hematoma.

  9. nm1054: a spontaneous, recessive, hypochromic, microcytic anemia mutation in the mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Ohgami, Robert S.; Campagna, Dean R.; Antiochos, Brendan; Wood, Emily B.; Sharp, John J.; Barker, Jane E.; Fleming, Mark D.

    2005-01-01

    Hypochromic, microcytic anemias are typically the result of inadequate hemoglobin production because of globin defects or iron deficiency. Here, we describe the phenotypic characteristics and pathogenesis of a new recessive, hypochromic, microcytic anemia mouse mutant, nm1054. Although the mutation nm1054 is pleiotropic, also resulting in sparse hair, male infertility, failure to thrive, and hydrocephaly, the anemia is the focus of this study. Hematologic analysis reveals a moderately severe,...

  10. Review Recent progress in identification and characterization of loci associated with sex-linked congenital cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D D; Du, J Z; Topolewski, J; Wang, X M

    2016-07-29

    Congenital cataract is a common cause of blindness in children; however, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Genetic factors have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of congenital cataract. The current genetic models of congenital cataract include autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, and sex-linked inheritance. Sex-linked congenital cataract could be inherited through the X or Y chromosome. Congenital cataract is a symptom associated with several X-linked disorders, including Nance-Horan syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Conradi-Hünermann-Happle syndrome, oculo-facio-cardio-dental syndrome, and Alport syndrome. On the other hand, the mechanism and characteristics of Y-linked congenital cataract remains to be identified. Despite its rarity, sex-linked congenital cataract has been known to seriously affect the quality of life of patients. In this review, we present our current understanding of the genes and loci associated with sex-linked congenital cataract. This could help identify novel approaches for the prevention, early diagnosis, and comprehensive disease treatment.

  11. The distribution of and complementation relationships between spontaneous X-linked recessive lethal mutations recovered from crossing long-term laboratory stocks of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalet, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster males from a wild-type laboratory stock, were mated with virgin females of the M-6 stock, and 149 spontaneous independent non-mosaically transmitted, as well as 8 incidentally detected, mosaically transmitted, X-linked recessive lethal mutations were recovered from 95 704 F 2 cultures. 152 mutations were mapped over the entire length of the X-chromosome by complementation and/or crossover tests. Although there were far too few spontaneous mutations to make a meaningful comparison of relative mutability on a locus-by-locus basis, those loci displaying a relatively higher X-ray mutability, when taken as a group, tend to display a relatively higher spontaneous mutability, and those loci displaying a relatively lower X-ray mutability, when taken as a group, tend to display a relatively lower spontaneous mutability. (Auth.)

  12. Mutagenic Potential of Nitroguanidine in the Drosophila melanogaster Sex-Linked Recessive Lethal Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-01

    Raj K. Guipta, Lillie D. Witcher , Vilmar O.M. Villa, Don W. Korte, Jr. 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 15...MAJI, [*s,’u Stu,.dy Eirctor- Rj AJ(""MsGUPTA’ P-hDIEate i MAJ MSC PDDt Principal investigator E-~ D. WITCHER , BS/Date SGT, USA V Biological Scienceus...337-351. 15. Harbell JW, Witcher LD, Sebastian SE, Korte DW. Studies on the mutagenic potential of nitroguanidine and nitrosoguanidine. 1987 JANNAF

  13. Sex determination using free fetal DNA in early pregnancy: With the approach to sex linked recessive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Monfaredan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prenatal diagnosis is testing for detection of diseases or conditions in a fetus or embryo before it is born. Most of prenatal diagnostic (PD techniques are invasive and done in late stages of pregnancy. Using fetal DNA in maternal blood for fetal sex determination in early pregnancy might help in management of X-linked genetic diseases. This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of sex determination using fetal DNA in maternal blood at 8-12 weeks of gestation. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 30 pregnant women at 8-12 weeks of gestation were enrolled. The sex-determining region Y (SRY gene expression with the internal control (IC glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH was investigated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR using specific primers and probes. Results: Accuracy of sex determination with SRY gene expression in 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were 85%, 85%, 90% and 100% respectively. Conclusion: It seems that fetal sex determining using fetal DNA in maternal blood is a reliable method for early stage of pregnancy.

  14. Effect of gamma radiation and sex-linked recessive lethal mutations on sperm transfer in Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudelová, Jana; Cook, P. A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2001), s. 172-182 ISSN 0015-4040 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6007609 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.591, year: 2001

  15. Identifying new sex-linked genes through BAC sequencing in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blavet, Nicolas; Blavet, Hana; Muyle, A.; Käfer, J.; Cegan, R.; Deschamps, C.; Zemp, N.; Mousset, S.; Aubourg, S.; Bergero, R.; Charlesworth, D.; Hobza, Roman; Widmer, A.; Marais, G.A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, JUL 25 (2015), s. 546 ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/12/2220 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Sex chromosomes * Sex-linked gene s * Plant Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.867, year: 2015

  16. Inheritance patterns of new genetic markers and occurrence of spontaneous mosaicism in the monogenic blowfly Chrysomya rufifacies (Diptera:Calliphoridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullerich, F H

    1996-11-27

    Four new genetic markers for Chrysomya rufifacies, a fly with maternal sex determination, were characterized. The markers include one body colour mutant, black body (bl), and three eye colour mutants, brown eye (br), apricot eye (ap), and red eye (wr). Two of the latter, br and wr, turn out to be sex linked, the others behave as autosomal genes belonging to different linkage groups. wr is a hypomorphic and w an apomorphic mutation of the white gene, w/w is epistatic to br/br and to ap/ap. A preliminary genetic linkage map with the sex realizer F'/f and the loci br and w residing in homomorphic sex chromosomes is established. Evidence is presented that crossing over is absent in the male sex. The possible causes of the spontaneous appearance of mosaics for eye colour observed among individuals heterozygous for recessive genes are discussed.

  17. Sex-linked genomic variation and its relationship to avian plumage dichromatism and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huateng; Rabosky, Daniel L

    2015-09-16

    Sexual dichromatism is the tendency for sexes to differ in color pattern and represents a striking form of within-species morphological variation. Conspicuous intersexual differences in avian plumage are generally thought to result from Darwinian sexual selection, to the extent that dichromatism is often treated as a surrogate for the intensity of sexual selection in phylogenetic comparative studies. Intense sexual selection is predicted to leave a footprint on genetic evolution by reducing the relative genetic diversity on sex chromosome to that on the autosomes. In this study, we test the association between plumage dichromatism and sex-linked genetic diversity using eight species pairs with contrasting levels of dichromatism. We estimated Z-linked and autosomal genetic diversity for these non-model avian species using restriction-site associated (RAD) loci that covered ~3 % of the genome. We find that monochromatic birds consistently have reduced sex-linked genomic variation relative to phylogenetically-paired dichromatic species and this pattern is robust to mutational biases. Our results are consistent with several interpretations. If present-day sexual selection is stronger in dichromatic birds, our results suggest that its impact on sex-linked genomic variation is offset by other processes that lead to proportionately lower Z-linked variation in monochromatic species. We discuss possible factors that may contribute to this discrepancy between phenotypes and genomic variation. Conversely, it is possible that present-day sexual selection -- as measured by the variance in male reproductive success -- is stronger in the set of monochromatic taxa we have examined, potentially reflecting the importance of song, behavior and other non-plumage associated traits as targets of sexual selection. This counterintuitive finding suggests that the relationship between genomic variation and sexual selection is complex and highlights the need for a more comprehensive survey

  18. Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boria, F; Maseda, R; Martín-Cameán, M; De la Calle, M; de Lucas, R

    2017-12-01

    Dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa is a rare inherited disease caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene. Its recessive variant (recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa) is characterized by the absence or considerably reduced expression of type VII collagen, which leads to marked fragility of the skin and mucous membranes and subsequent blister formation, whether spontaneously or following minimal injury. There have been very few reports of this disease in pregnant women. We present 2 cases of pregnant women with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa managed in our High-Risk Pregnancy Unit at Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid, Spain. Both patients underwent full-term cesarean delivery, with no further complications for mother or child. Although recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa increases the risk of maternal complications, a patient is not advised against pregnancy. With adequate monitoring, these patients can fulfil their desire to become mothers. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Forecasting US Recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte; Eriksen, Jonas Nygaard; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    We study the role of sentiment variables as predictors for US recessions. We combine sentiment variables with either classical recession predictors or common factors based on a large panel of macroeconomic and financial variables. Sentiment variables hold vast predictive power for US recessions i...... in excess of both the classical recession predictors and the common factors. The strong importance of the sentiment variables is documented both in-sample and out-of-sample....

  20. Genomic regions associated with the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin in Silkie chicken

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    Ming TIAN,Rui HAO,Suyun FANG,Yanqiang WANG,Xiaorong GU,Chungang FENG,Xiaoxiang HU,Ning LI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A unique characteristic of the Silkie chicken is its fibromelanosis phenotype. The dermal layer of its skin, its connective tissue and shank dermis are hyperpigmented. This dermal hyperpigmentation phenotype is controlled by the sex-linked inhibitor of dermal melanin gene (ID and the dominant fibromelanosis allele. This study attempted to confirm the genomic region associated with ID. By genotyping, ID was found to be closely linked to the region between GGA_rs16127903 and GGA_rs14685542 (8406919 bp on chromosome Z, which contains ten functional genes. The expression of these genes was characterized in the embryo and 4 days after hatching and it was concluded that MTAP, encoding methylthioadenosinephosphorylase, would be the most likely candidate gene. Finally, target DNA capture and sequence analysis was performed, but no specific SNP(s was found in the targeted region of the Silkie genome. Further work is necessary to identify the causal ID mutation located on chromosome Z.

  1. More Recess Time, Please!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rong; Coward, Fanni Liu

    2015-01-01

    Students in Shanghai, China, get much more recess time than their U.S. counterparts throughout their education. As U.S. education reform efforts seek ways of raising achievement, they have begun replacing recess with academic time. The lesson from Shanghai is that this may not be the best strategy. But whether the Shanghai system of more and…

  2. Starving for Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Mary Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Every weekday, millions of American schoolchildren throw away their half-eaten cafeteria lunches so that they can run outside to play. The traditional placement of lunch before recess, coupled with the recent decline in overall recess time to meet academic time constraints, forces children to choose between two essential needs: (1) food; and (2)…

  3. Disparity in population differentiation of sex-linked and autosomal variation in sibling species of the Jaera albifrons (Isopoda) complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegismund, H R

    2003-01-01

    locus, Gpi (glucose phosphate isomerase), the species differ substantially. This locus is sex linked in J. ischiosetosa, but in the two other species, J. albifrons and J. praehirsuta, it is either found on autosomes or is sex linked with a high recombination rate between the locus and the centromere...

  4. Structure and evolution of Apetala3, a sex-linked gene in Silene latifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cegan Radim

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolution of sex chromosomes is often accompanied by gene or chromosome rearrangements. Recently, the gene AP3 was characterized in the dioecious plant species Silene latifolia. It was suggested that this gene had been transferred from an autosome to the Y chromosome. Results In the present study we provide evidence for the existence of an X linked copy of the AP3 gene. We further show that the Y copy is probably located in a chromosomal region where recombination restriction occurred during the first steps of sex chromosome evolution. A comparison of X and Y copies did not reveal any clear signs of degenerative processes in exon regions. Instead, both X and Y copies show evidence for relaxed selection compared to the autosomal orthologues in S. vulgaris and S. conica. We further found that promoter sequences differ significantly. Comparison of the genic region of AP3 between the X and Y alleles and the corresponding autosomal copies in the gynodioecious species S. vulgaris revealed a massive accumulation of retrotransposons within one intron of the Y copy of AP3. Analysis of the genomic distribution of these repetitive elements does not indicate that these elements played an important role in the size increase characteristic of the Y chromosome. However, in silico expression analysis shows biased expression of individual domains of the identified retroelements in male plants. Conclusions We characterized the structure and evolution of AP3, a sex linked gene with copies on the X and Y chromosomes in the dioecious plant S. latifolia. These copies showed complementary expression patterns and relaxed evolution at protein level compared to autosomal orthologues, which suggests subfunctionalization. One intron of the Y-linked allele was invaded by retrotransposons that display sex-specific expression patterns that are similar to the expression pattern of the corresponding allele, which suggests that these transposable elements

  5. Manifestation of x-radiation induced sex-linked recessive lethal mutation impairing the development of imaginal disks and gonads in Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeleva, Eh.A.; Ivanov, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    A study was made of Drosophila melanogaster mutations impairing the development of imaginal disks. The state of gonads in these mutants was not studied. Using X-radiation a lethal mutation in X chromosome was obtained that induced degeneration of imaginal disks at the 3d stage of larva development. The gonads of the mutants at this stage of development vary in size. The transplantation tests showed that the mutation manifests itself in both the imaginal disks and the gonads

  6. Evidence for mito-nuclear and sex-linked reproductive barriers between the hybrid Italian sparrow and its parent species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra N Trier

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97% and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function ("mother's curse" at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome

  7. Evidence for Mito-Nuclear and Sex-Linked Reproductive Barriers between the Hybrid Italian Sparrow and Its Parent Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sætre, Glenn-Peter; Bailey, Richard I.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of reproductive isolation between homoploid hybrid species and their parent species have rarely been carried out. Here we investigate reproductive barriers between a recently recognized hybrid bird species, the Italian sparrow Passer italiae and its parent species, the house sparrow P. domesticus and Spanish sparrow P. hispaniolensis. Reproductive barriers can be difficult to study in hybrid species due to lack of geographical contact between taxa. However, the Italian sparrow lives parapatrically with the house sparrow and both sympatrically and parapatrically with the Spanish sparrow. Through whole-transcriptome sequencing of six individuals of each of the two parent species we identified a set of putatively parent species-diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. After filtering for coverage, genotyping success (>97%) and multiple SNPs per gene, we retained 86 species-informative, genic, nuclear and mitochondrial SNP markers from 84 genes for analysis of 612 male individuals. We show that a disproportionately large number of sex-linked genes, as well as the mitochondria and nuclear genes with mitochondrial function, exhibit sharp clines at the boundaries between the hybrid and the parent species, suggesting a role for mito-nuclear and sex-linked incompatibilities in forming reproductive barriers. We suggest that genomic conflict via interactions between mitochondria and sex-linked genes with mitochondrial function (“mother's curse”) at one boundary and centromeric drive at the other may best explain our findings. Hybrid speciation in the Italian sparrow may therefore be influenced by mechanisms similar to those involved in non-hybrid speciation, but with the formation of two geographically separated species boundaries instead of one. Spanish sparrow alleles at some loci have spread north to form reproductive barriers with house sparrows, while house sparrow alleles at different loci, including some on the same chromosome, have spread

  8. Bank profitability during recessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; de Haan, Leo; Hoeberichts, Marco; van Oordt, Maarten R C; Swank, Job

    This paper contributes to the literature on the relation between bank profitability and economic activity. When allowing for stronger co-movement of bank profit with economic activity during deep recessions, we find a much larger impact of output growth on bank profitability than commonly found in

  9. The Recess Renaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, Rusty

    2015-01-01

    The author tells of his work around the country and world on transforming how schools do recess, free play, and outside time by transforming their outdoor spaces to match. Instead of a playground of fixed structures like traditional school grounds, newer spaces are filled with loose materials that children can use to build forts, dens, and tree…

  10. Identification of a sex-linked SNP marker in the salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis using RAD sequencing.

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    Stephen N Carmichael

    Full Text Available The salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837 is a parasitic copepod that can, if untreated, cause considerable damage to Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758 and incurs significant costs to the Atlantic salmon mariculture industry. Salmon lice are gonochoristic and normally show sex ratios close to 1:1. While this observation suggests that sex determination in salmon lice is genetic, with only minor environmental influences, the mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse is unknown. This paper describes the identification of a sex-linked Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP marker, providing the first evidence for a genetic mechanism of sex determination in the salmon louse. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq was used to isolate SNP markers in a laboratory-maintained salmon louse strain. A total of 85 million raw Illumina 100 base paired-end reads produced 281,838 unique RAD-tags across 24 unrelated individuals. RAD marker Lsa101901 showed complete association with phenotypic sex for all individuals analysed, being heterozygous in females and homozygous in males. Using an allele-specific PCR assay for genotyping, this SNP association pattern was further confirmed for three unrelated salmon louse strains, displaying complete association with phenotypic sex in a total of 96 genotyped individuals. The marker Lsa101901 was located in the coding region of the prohibitin-2 gene, which showed a sex-dependent differential expression, with mRNA levels determined by RT-qPCR about 1.8-fold higher in adult female than adult male salmon lice. This study's observations of a novel sex-linked SNP marker are consistent with sex determination in the salmon louse being genetic and following a female heterozygous system. Marker Lsa101901 provides a tool to determine the genetic sex of salmon lice, and could be useful in the development of control strategies.

  11. Integrative Analyses of miRNA-mRNA Interactions Reveal let-7b, miR-128 and MAPK Pathway Involvement in Muscle Mass Loss in Sex-Linked Dwarf Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Lin, Shumao; Li, Guihuan; Nie, Qinghua; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-01-01

    The sex-linked dwarf (SLD) chicken is an ideal model system for understanding growth hormone (GH)-action and growth hormone receptor (GHR) function because of its recessive mutation in the GHR gene. Skeletal muscle mass is reduced in the SLD chicken with a smaller muscle fiber diameter. Our previous study has presented the mRNA and miRNA expression profiles of the SLD chicken and normal chicken between embryo day 14 and seven weeks of age. However, the molecular mechanism of GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss is still unclear, and the key molecules and pathways underlying the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss also remain to be illustrated. Here, by functional network analysis of the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs between the SLD and normal chickens, we revealed that let-7b, miR-128 and the MAPK pathway might play key roles in the GHR-deficient induced muscle mass loss, and that the reduced cell division and growth are potential cellular processes during the SLD chicken skeletal muscle development. Additionally, we also found some genes and miRNAs involved in chicken skeletal muscle development, through the MAPK, PI3K-Akt, Wnt and Insulin signaling pathways. This study provides new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying muscle mass loss in the SLD chickens, and some regulatory networks that are crucial for chicken skeletal muscle development. PMID:26927061

  12. Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias

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    Palau Francesc

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxias (ARCA are a heterogeneous group of rare neurological disorders involving both central and peripheral nervous system, and in some case other systems and organs, and characterized by degeneration or abnormal development of cerebellum and spinal cord, autosomal recessive inheritance and, in most cases, early onset occurring before the age of 20 years. This group encompasses a large number of rare diseases, the most frequent in Caucasian population being Friedreich ataxia (estimated prevalence 2–4/100,000, ataxia-telangiectasia (1–2.5/100,000 and early onset cerebellar ataxia with retained tendon reflexes (1/100,000. Other forms ARCA are much less common. Based on clinicogenetic criteria, five main types ARCA can be distinguished: congenital ataxias (developmental disorder, ataxias associated with metabolic disorders, ataxias with a DNA repair defect, degenerative ataxias, and ataxia associated with other features. These diseases are due to mutations in specific genes, some of which have been identified, such as frataxin in Friedreich ataxia, α-tocopherol transfer protein in ataxia with vitamin E deficiency (AVED, aprataxin in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA1, and senataxin in ataxia with oculomotor apraxia (AOA2. Clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ancillary tests such as neuroimaging (magnetic resonance imaging, scanning, electrophysiological examination, and mutation analysis when the causative gene is identified. Correct clinical and genetic diagnosis is important for appropriate genetic counseling and prognosis and, in some instances, pharmacological treatment. Due to autosomal recessive inheritance, previous familial history of affected individuals is unlikely. For most ARCA there is no specific drug treatment except for coenzyme Q10 deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia.

  13. Anticipated stigma and blameless guilt: Mothers' evaluation of life with the sex-linked disorder, hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Angus

    2016-06-01

    Practical experience of a genetic disorder may influence how parents approach reproduction, if they know their child may be affected by an inherited condition. One important aspect of this practical experience is the stigmatisation which family members may experience or witness. We outline the concept of stigma and how it affects those in families with a condition that impacts upon physical appearance. We then consider the accounts given by females in families affected by the rare sex-linked disorder, X-linked hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (XHED), which principally affects males but can be passed through female carriers to affect their sons. The stigmatisation of affected males is as important in the accounts given by their womenfolk as the physical effects of the condition; this impacts on their talk about transmission of the disorder to the next generation. Perspectives may also change over time. The mothers of affected sons differ from their daughters, who do not yet have children, and from their mothers, who may express more strongly their sense of guilt at having transmitted the condition, despite there being no question of moral culpability. We conclude with suggestions about other contexts where the possibility of stigma may influence reproductive decisions. Copyright © 2016 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  15. Intrinsic Sex-Linked Variations in Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation Potential of Bone Marrow Multipotent Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragdon, Beth; Burns, Robert; Baker, Amelia H; Belkina, Anna C; Morgan, Elise F; Denis, Gerald V; Gerstenfeld, Louis C; Schlezinger, Jennifer J

    2015-02-01

    Bone formation and aging are sexually dimorphic. Yet, definition of the intrinsic molecular differences between male and female multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in bone is lacking. This study assessed sex-linked differences in MSC differentiation in 3-, 6-, and 9-month-old C57BL/6J mice. Analysis of tibiae showed that female mice had lower bone volume fraction and higher adipocyte content in the bone marrow compared to age-matched males. While both males and females lost bone mass in early aging, the rate of loss was higher in males. Similar expression of bone- and adipocyte-related genes was seen in males and females at 3 and 9 months, while at 6 months, females exhibited a twofold greater expression of these genes. Under osteogenic culture conditions, bone marrow MSCs from female 3- and 6-month-old mice expressed similar levels of bone-related genes, but significantly greater levels of adipocyte-related genes, than male MSCs. Female MSCs also responded to rosiglitazone-induced suppression of osteogenesis at a 5-fold lower (10 nM) concentration than male MSCs. Female MSCs grown in estrogen-stripped medium showed similar responses to rosiglitazone as MSCs grown in serum containing estrogen. MSCs from female mice that had undergone ovariectomy before sexual maturity also were sensitive to rosiglitazone-induced effects on osteogenesis. These results suggest that female MSCs are more sensitive to modulation of differentiation by PPARγ and that these differences are intrinsic to the sex of the animal from which the MSCs came. These results also may explain the sensitivity of women to the deleterious effects of rosiglitazone on bone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. What Caused the Great Recession?

    OpenAIRE

    Homburg, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines five possible explanations for the Great Recession of 2008 and 2009, using data for the United States and the eurozone. Of these five hypotheses, four are not supported by the data, while the fifth appears reasonable.

  17. Conservation of Sex-Linked Markers among Conspecific Populations of a Viviparous Skink, Niveoscincus ocellatus, Exhibiting Genetic and Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Christopher P; Ezaz, Tariq; Wapstra, Erik

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Sex determination systems are exceptionally diverse and have undergone multiple and independent evolutionary transitions among species, particularly reptiles. However, the mechanisms underlying these transitions have not been established. Here, we tested for differences in sex-linked markers in the only known reptile that is polymorphic for sex determination system, the spotted snow skink, Niveoscincus ocellatus, to quantify the genomic differences that have accompanied this transition. In a highland population, sex is determined genetically, whereas in a lowland population, offspring sex ratio is influenced by temperature. We found a similar number of sex-linked loci in each population, including shared loci, with genotypes consistent with male heterogamety (XY). However, population-specific linkage disequilibrium suggests greater differentiation of sex chromosomes in the highland population. Our results suggest that transitions between sex determination systems can be facilitated by subtle genetic differences. PMID:29659810

  18. Studies on metatherian sex chromosomes. XII. Sex-linked inheritance and probable paternal X-inactivation of alpha-galactosidase A in Australian marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, D W; Woolley, P A; Maynes, G M; Sherman, F S; Poole, W E

    1983-01-01

    An investigation of genetic variation in the electrophoretic mobility of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (EC 3.2.1.22) has been carried out for 33 species of Australian metatherian (marsupial) mammals. The results are compatible with the enzyme being sex-linked in macropodids (kangaroos and wallabies) and probably in dasyurids (marsupial 'mice', etc.), as it is in eutherian (placental) mammals. The results also suggest that the mode of dosage compensation for this locus is the same as for other sex-linked loci in kangaroos, i.e. paternal X inactivation, rather than the random X inactivation system of eutherian mammals. The bearing of the enzyme mobility data on phylogenetic relationships among macropodid species is discussed.

  19. Crises and the recent recession

    OpenAIRE

    Tatom, John

    2010-01-01

    The United States economy has suffered over the past four years from crises in mortgage foreclosures and in financial markets, as well as a long recession that some have referred to as the Great Recession. The links between these events, or more broadly the causes, extent and effects of these developments, are sources of continuing controversy and uncertainty. This paper attempts to disentangle the links between the mortgage foreclosure crisis, the financial crisis, a possible banking crisis ...

  20. The Great Recession was not so Great

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Recession is characterized by a GDP-decline that was unprecedented in the past decades. This paper discusses the implications of the Great Recession analyzing labor market data from 20 OECD countries. Comparing the Great Recession with the 1980s recession it is concluded that there is a

  1. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    . This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. RESULTS: The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys......BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...

  2. UV-induced recessive lethals in uvs strains of Neurospora which are deficient in UV mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaefer, E.

    1984-01-01

    The frequencies of spontaneous and UV-induced recessive lethal mutations were compared for UV-sensitive and wild-type heterokaryons of Neurospora crassa. These heterokaryons were homokaryotic either for one of two alleles of uvs-3, or for uvs-6 or uvs + . For uvs-3, which is known to have mutator effects, spontaneous recessive lethals were found to be 4-6 times more frequent than observed in uvs + . After correction for clonal distribution of spontaneous mutants, an observed 2-fold increase for uvs-6 was not statistically significant and may have been due to chance occurrence of a few large clones of mutants. Treatment with low doses of UV (50-200 J/m 2 ) produced very similar overall rates of increase for recessive lethals in uvs and uvs + heterokaryons. This means, that in contrast to results obtained when mutation to ad-3 was measured, both uvs-3 alleles showed highly significant increases for recessive lethals when treated with UV. It is proposed that certain types of UV damage may be processed into recessive lethal mutations by an alternate mechanism from that responsible for viable mutations. (Auth.)

  3. The Great Recession: a comparison of recession magnitudes in Europe, USA and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Mazurek, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    In this article recession magnitudes in Europe, the USA and Japan during the Great Recession are compared. The strongest recessions (of severe category) occurred in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, while recessions in Japan and the USA were significantly weaker. Even the strongest recession (in Latvia) was found smaller in its magnitude than the Great Depression 1929-1933 in the USA. Hence, comparisons of the Great Recession to the Great Depression in the literature are somewhat exaggerated.

  4. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  5. Recessed floating pier caps for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Presented are alternate designs for two existing bridges in Virginia - one with steel beams and the other with prestressed concrete beams - whereby the pier caps are recessed within the depth of the longitudinal beams. The purpose of this recession i...

  6. Present Day Recession Effects on Human Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Bujor Anca Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Specific characteristic for recession situation are: instability, anxiety, unpredictable attitude and behavior accentuation of knowledge, cognitive filters and erroneous interpretation of social, economic or existential realities. In this paper, for knowing this recession from the perspective of human resources, I started from determining some objectives such as: Knowledge of present recession peculiarities, of its area and depth, learning recession effects, its impact upon human resources, i...

  7. Molecular Method for Sex Identification of Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis Using a Novel Sex-Linked Microsatellite Marker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Liao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis is one of the most important flatfish species for aquaculture in China. To produce a monosex population, we attempted to develop a marker-assisted sex control technique in this sexually size dimorphic fish. In this study, we identified a co-dominant sex-linked marker (i.e., CyseSLM by screening genomic microsatellites and further developed a novel molecular method for sex identification in the tongue sole. CyseSLM has a sequence similarity of 73%–75% with stickleback, medaka, Fugu and Tetraodon. At this locus, two alleles (i.e., A244 and A234 were amplified from 119 tongue sole individuals with primer pairs CyseSLM-F1 and CyseSLM-R. Allele A244 was present in all individuals, while allele A234 (female-associated allele, FAA was mostly present in females with exceptions in four male individuals. Compared with the sequence of A244, A234 has a 10-bp deletion and 28 SNPs. A specific primer (CyseSLM-F2 was then designed based on the A234 sequence, which amplified a 204 bp fragment in all females and four males with primer CyseSLM-R. A time-efficient multiplex PCR program was developed using primers CyseSLM-F2, CyseSLM-R and the newly designed primer CyseSLM-F3. The multiplex PCR products with co-dominant pattern could be detected by agarose gel electrophoresis, which accurately identified the genetic sex of the tongue sole. Therefore, we have developed a rapid and reliable method for sex identification in tongue sole with a newly identified sex-linked microsatellite marker.

  8. The trauma of a recession.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, S M

    2011-09-01

    Employment in construction in Ireland fell by 10% from nearly 282,000 in the second quarter of 2007 to 255,000 in the same period of 2008. Our study looks at the differences in soft tissue upper limb trauma dynamics of a pre- and post-recession Ireland. Construction accounted for 330 patients (27%) of all hand injuries in 2006, but only 18 (3%) in 2009. Our data shows a significant drop in hand injuries related to the construction industry, and more home\\/DIY cases and deliberate self-harm presenting in their stead.

  9. The etiology and prevalence of gingival recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Moawia M; Cohen, Robert E

    2003-02-01

    Gingival recession in its localized or generalized form is an undesirable condition resulting in root exposure. The result often is not esthetic and may lead to sensitivity and root caries. Exposed root surfaces also are prone to abrasion. The purpose of this article is to describe the prevalence, etiology and factors associated with gingival recession. The authors reviewed cross-sectional epidemiologic studies of gingival recession and found that they correlated the prevalence of recession to trauma, sex, malpositioned teeth, inflammation and tobacco consumption. The recent surveys they reviewed revealed that 88 percent of people 65 years of age and older and 50 percent of people 18 to 64 years of age have one or more sites with recession. The presence and extent of gingival recession also increased with age. More than 50 percent of the population has one or more sites with gingival recession of 1 mm or more. The prevalence of gingival recession was found in patients with both good and poor oral hygiene. It has been proposed that recession is multifactorial, with one type being associated with anatomical factors and another type with physiological or pathological factors. Recession has been found more frequently on buccal surfaces than on other aspects of the teeth. Dentists should be knowledgeable about the etiology, prevalence and associating factors of gingival recession, as well as treatment options, so that appropriate treatment modalities can be offered to patients. Treatments for gingival recession include gingival grafting, guided tissue regeneration and orthodontic therapy. Such treatments typically result in esthetic improvement, elimination of sensitivity and a decreased risk of developing root caries.

  10. Female-only sex-linked amplified fragment length polymorphism markers support ZW/ZZ sex determination in the giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xue-Hui; Qiu, Gao-Feng

    2013-12-01

    Sex determination mechanisms in many crustacean species are complex and poorly documented. In the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, a ZW/ZZ sex determination system was previously proposed based on sex ratio data obtained by crosses of sex-reversed females (neomales). To provide molecular evidence for the proposed system, novel sex-linked molecular markers were isolated in this species. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) using 64 primer combinations was employed to screen prawn genomes for DNA markers linked with sex loci. Approximately 8400 legible fragments were produced, 13 of which were uniquely identified in female prawns with no indication of corresponding male-specific markers. These AFLP fragments were reamplified, cloned and sequenced, producing two reliable female-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers. Additional individuals from two unrelated geographic populations were used to verify these findings, confirming female-specific amplification of single bands. Detection of internal polymorphic sites was conducted by designing new primer pairs based on these internal fragments. The internal SCAR fragments also displayed specificity in females, indicating high levels of variation between female and male specimens. The distinctive feature of female-linked SCAR markers can be applied for rapid detection of prawn gender. These sex-specific SCAR markers and sex-associated AFLP candidates unique to female specimens support a sex determination system consistent with female heterogamety (ZW) and male homogamety (ZZ). © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. Effect of Sex-linked Feathering Genes on Body Weight, Age At Sexual Maturity, Feed Intake and Subsequent Laying Performance of Baladi Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. AI-Sobayel

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 320 twenty week-old slow and rapid feathering Saudi Arabian Baladi pullers were used to assess the effect of sex-linked feathering genes on body weight, age at sexual maturity, feed intake and subsequent laying performance. Similar numbers of rapid feathering Leghorns pullets were included in the study for the purpose of comparison. The experimental birds of each genotypic group were randomly divided into four replicates and subjected to standard management practices. Slow feathering Baladi pullers had higher (P<0.05 adult body weight, rate of mortality, and feed intake and a similar age at sexual maturity but showed lower (P< 0.05 hen-day, and hen-housed egg production and feed conversion compared with rapid feathering Baladi pullets. Rapid feathering Leghorns had higher (P<0.05 adult body weight. age at sexual maturity, hen-day egg production, rate of mortality and feed intake and lower feed intake/kg eggs than rapid and slow feathering Baladi. However, rapid feathering Baladi and Leghorns had similar hen-housed egg production and feed intake per dozen eggs and had better (l’<0.05' performance than slow feathering Baladi.

  12. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal. PMID:28617202

  13. The Great Recession and Workers' Health Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kanghyock

    2018-03-01

    During a recession, cost-sharing of employer-sponsored health benefits could increase to reduce labor costs in the U.S. Using a variation in the severity of recession shocks across industries, I find evidence that the enrollment rate of high deductible health plans (HDHPs) among workers covered by employer-sponsored health benefits increased more among firms in industries that experienced severe recession shocks. As potential mechanisms, I study employer-side and worker-side mechanisms. I find that employers changed health benefit offerings to force or incentivize workers to enroll in HDHPs. But I find little evidence of an increase in workers' demand for HDHPs due to a reduction in income. These results suggest that the HDHP enrollment rate increased during the Great Recession, as employers tried to save costs of offering health benefits. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Great Recession and confidence in homeownership

    OpenAIRE

    Anat Bracha; Julian Jamison

    2013-01-01

    Confidence in homeownership shifts for those who personally experienced real estate loss during the Great Recession. Older Americans are confident in the value of homeownership. Younger Americans are less confident.

  15. Hospital Capital Investment During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Hospital capital investment is important for acquiring and maintaining technology and equipment needed to provide health care. Reduction in capital investment by a hospital has negative implications for patient outcomes. Most hospitals rely on debt and internal cash flow to fund capital investment. The great recession may have made it difficult for hospitals to borrow, thus reducing their capital investment. I investigated the impact of the great recession on capital investment made by California hospitals. Modeling how hospital capital investment may have been liquidity constrained during the recession is a novel contribution to the literature. I estimated the model with California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development data and system generalized method of moments. Findings suggest that not-for-profit and public hospitals were liquidity constrained during the recession. Comparing the changes in hospital capital investment between 2006 and 2009 showed that hospitals used cash flow to increase capital investment by $2.45 million, other things equal.

  16. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Schoolyards are recognized as important settings for physical activity interventions during recess. However, varying results have been reported. This pilot study was conducted to gain in-depth knowledge of children's physical activity behavior during recess using a mixed-methods approach combining...... participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... preferred the schoolyard over the field to avoid the competitive soccer games on the field whereas boys dominated the field playing soccer. Using a mixed-methods approach to investigate children's physical activity behavior during recess helped gain in-depth knowledge that can aid development of future...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive primary microcephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific Articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (7 links) MICROCEPHALY 1, PRIMARY, AUTOSOMAL RECESSIVE MICROCEPHALY 2, PRIMARY, AUTOSOMAL ...

  18. Succumbing to the Call of Violence – Sex-Linked Development of Appetitive Aggression in Relation to Familial and Organized Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike Augsburger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Appetitive aggression is the attraction to violent behavior, which can peak in the experience of a combat high. In various war and conflict scenarios, members of armed groups have reported developing a desire to hunt and even kill humans. More recently, we reported that the phenomenon has also been observed in female ex-combatants with varying participation in warfare. Despite recent investigations on risk factors for appetitive aggression, sex-specific pathways in the development of appetitive aggression have not yet been delineated. This study investigated moderation effects of sex on previously identified risk factors for appetitive aggression by means of regression analyses in a sample of individuals with varying degrees of warfare participation (overall sample, n = 602. First examining a sample characterized by backgrounds heterogeneous in both sociodemographic data and war experiences, the analysis was then replicated in a subsample of fighters active during the civil war (combatant sample, n = 109. In both samples, regression analyses revealed significant moderation effects of sex. Childhood maltreatment and traumatic events had positive associations on the development of appetitive aggression for males but a negative (childhood maltreatment or no (traumatic events association for females. Perpetrated events were more strongly correlated with appetitive aggression for females than for males. This pattern was pronounced for the combatant sample. These results are in favor of sex-linked pathways. In both sexes, appetitive aggression may have evolved as a biologically prepared response to cruel environments but might develop along different trajectories. The current study highlights the need for addressing appetitive aggression in order to support peace-building processes and emphasizes sex specific starting-points.

  19. Sex-linked mitochondrial behavior during early embryo development in Ruditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia Veneridae) a species with the Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Liliana; Ghiselli, Fabrizio; Passamonti, Marco

    2012-05-01

    In most metazoans mitochondria are inherited maternally. However, in some bivalve molluscs, two mitochondrial lineages are present: one transmitted through females (F-type), the other through males (M-type). This unique system is called Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI) of mitochondria. In DUI species, M-type mitochondria have to invade the germ line of male embryos during development, otherwise sperm would transmit F-type mtDNA and DUI would fail. The mechanisms by which sperm mitochondria enter the germ line are still unknown. To address this question, we traced the movement of spermatozoon mitochondria (M-type) in embryos of the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum by fertilizing eggs with sperm stained with the mitochondrial-specific vital dye MitoTracker Green. As in Mytilus DUI species, in R. philippinarum the distribution of sperm mitochondria follows two different patterns: an aggregated one in which these organelles locate near the first cleavage furrow, and a dispersed one in which sperm mitochondria are scattered. The presence of the two mitochondrial patterns in these taxa, together with their absence in species with Strictly Maternal Inheritance (SMI), confirms that their occurrence is related to DUI. Moreover, a Real-Time qPCR analysis showed that neither M-type nor F-type mitochondria undergo replication boosts in the earliest embryo development. This is the first study on sex-linked mtDNA copy number carried out by qPCR analysis on embryos of a DUI species and the first time the segregation patterns of sperm mitochondria are described in a DUI system other than Mytilus. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Shadow of trouble : the effect of pre-recession characteristics on the severity of recession impact

    OpenAIRE

    Knudsen, Eirik Sjåholm

    2011-01-01

    The recent financial crisis has heightened the need to understand why some firms are more severely affected by recessions than others and how different firm and industry characteristics affect firms’ vulnerability to such shocks. To study these questions empirically, we complement secondary financial data with primary data from an extensive questionnaire about the effects of the recent recession distributed to 5000 Norwegian CEOs in late 2010. We find that high pre-recession operating profit...

  1. The diverse impacts of the great recession

    OpenAIRE

    Makoto Nakajima

    2013-01-01

    The Great Recession had a large negative impact on the U.S. economy. Asset prices, most notably stock and house prices, declined substantially, resulting in a loss in wealth for many American households. In this article, Makoto Nakajima documents how diverse households were affected in a variety of dimensions during the Great Recession, in particular between 2007 and 2009, using newly available data from the 2007-2009 Survey of Consumer Finances. He discusses why it is important to look at th...

  2. Academic Performance and the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Adamopoulou, Effrosyni; Tanzi, Giulia M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study how the Great Recession affected university students in terms of performance, with a special focus on the dropout probability. To do so, we use individual-level data on a representative sample of university students in Italy in 2007 and 2011. We measure the severity of the recession in terms of increases in adult and youth unemployment rate and we exploit geographical variation to achieve identification. On the one hand, an increase in adult male unemployment rate deter...

  3. Gingival Recession in Orthodontics: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Aakash; Shah, Purvesh; Goje, Santosh Kumar; Shah, Romil; Modi, Bhumi

    2017-01-01

    By clinical definition, gingival recession refers to the exposure of the root surface by an apical shift in the position of the gingiva. Recession is important because it can lead to poor esthetics, tooth hypersensitivity, loss of periodontal support, difficulties in maintenance of oral hygiene, and increased susceptibility to caries. Although its etiology is not fully understood, periodontal disease and mechanical trauma are considered the primary factors in the pathogenesis of gingival rece...

  4. A Traffic Jam Theory of Recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer La'O

    2013-01-01

    I construct a dynamic economy in which agents are interconnected: the output produced by one agent is the consumption good of another. I show that this economy can generate recessions which resemble traffic jams. At the micro level, each individual agent waits for his own income to increase before he increases his spending. However, his spending behavior affects the income of another agent. Thus, the spending behavior of agents during recessions resembles the stop-and-go behavior of vehicles ...

  5. A Simulation Study of Recessed Type Hydrostatic Journal Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Shih-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a simulation model is established to study effects of the bearing system parameters on bearing performance. The static performance (such as load capacity, stiffness and flow about various dimensions of multi-recess type hydrostatic journal bearings with constant-resistant restrictor compensation was investigated. The parameters studied includes length/diameter ratio, number of recess, recess length ratio, recess width ratio, initial ratio between recess pressure to supply pressure, and eccentricity.

  6. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  7. Bond return predictability in expansions and recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther; Jensen, Magnus David Sander

    We document that over the period 1953-2011 US bond returns are predictable in expansionary periods but unpredictable during recessions. This result holds in both in-sample and out-of-sample analyses and using both univariate regressions and combination forecasting techniques. A simulation study s...... but not in expansions. Thus, our results indicate that there is not a common predictive pattern of stock and bond returns associated with the state of the economy....... shows that our tests have power to reject unpredictability in both expansions and recessions. To judge the economic significance of the results we compute utility gains for a meanvariance investor who takes the predictability patterns into account and show that utility gains are positive in expansions...... but negative in recessions. The results are also consistent with tests showing that the expectations hypothesis of the term structure holds in recessions but not in expansions. However, the results for bonds are in sharp contrast to results for stocks showing that stock returns are predictable in recessions...

  8. The Effect of Recessions on Firms’ Boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Eirik Sjåholm; Foss, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    The economic theory of the firm offers conflicting predictions of how the two major effects of recessions, changes in demand and access to credit, affect firm boundaries. Using data on Norwegian firms in the recent recession, we find support for both increased and reduced vertical integration...... of core activities in response to a recessionary shock. Further, we find a negative interaction effect between reductions in access to credit and reductions in demand on insourcing of core activities, but no such effect on outsourcing of core activities. We argue that this finding may highlight a possible...

  9. Recession-An issue for organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel GEORGESCU

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reality in all organization is that the directors and board are in the position of highest influence and their primary responsibility is leadership. As such, considering the consequences of a recession such as we currently face is not the time for directors to abdicate their responsibilities – it is time for governance leadership. The directors and the board must think and respond strategically. The article shows a matrix for positioning the general manager in recession that is similarly with BCG matrix and in the final a table with a set of essential questions for helping the board in new strategies building.

  10. Studies on Drosophila radiosensitive strains. 7 Influence of maternal genotype on the rates of recessive and dominant lethal mutations induces by γ-rays in males

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varentsova, E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Basc line males have been γ-irradiated and hybridized either with females of radiosensitive mutant rad (2)201sup(G1) of with females of control line Canton-S. Recessive sex linkage lethal mutations (RSLLM) and dominiant lethal mutations (DLM) have been considered. Mother genotype is shown to affect formation of mutations induced in males of tester line. The level of spontaneous and induced dominant lethalies was slightly higher after crotsing with females of radiosenssitive mutant as compared with control line. Differences are not disclosed by spontaneous level of recessive lethal mutations, but the effect of rad (2)201sup(G1) mutation on yield of recessive lethal mutations induces in males is revealed; dose dependence of frequency of arising this type of mutations differs from linear dependence described in literature

  11. A spontaneous mutation characterized by chronic proliferative dermatitis in C57BL mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HogenEsch, H.; Gijbels, M. J.; Offerman, E.; van Hooft, J.; van Bekkum, D. W.; Zurcher, C.

    1993-01-01

    Chronic proliferative dermatitis is a new spontaneous mutation in C57BL/Ka mice. Breeding results suggest an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Mutant mice develop skin lesions at the age of 5 to 6 weeks. The lesions occur in the ventral and dorsal skin of the body, whereas ears, footpads, and

  12. Are recessions good for workplace safety?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; van Ours, J.

    2006-01-01

    Empirical evidence shows that in recessions the rate of workplace accidents goes down. This paper presents a theory and an empirical investigation to explain this phenomenon. The theory is based on the idea that reporting an accident affects the reputation of a worker and raises the probability that

  13. Nevada, the Great Recession, and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2013-01-01

    The impact of the Great Recession and its aftermath has been devastating in Nevada, especially for public education. This article discusses the budget shortfalls and the impact of the economic crisis in Nevada using case study methodology. It provides a review of documents, including Governor Gibbon's proposals for the public K-12 education system…

  14. The Labor Market and the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobijn, B.; Elsby, M.W.L.; Sahin, A.

    2010-01-01

    From the perspective of a wide range of labor market outcomes, the recession that began in 2007 represents the deepest downturn in the postwar era. Early on, the nature of labor market adjustment displayed a notable resemblance to that observed in past severe downturns. During the latter half of

  15. Recess for Students with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.

    2010-01-01

    During recess, the participation of a student with visual impairments in terms of movement can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and general education teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with visual impairments and present basic solutions to improve the participation of these students in the…

  16. Weathering the Recession in College Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmas, William A.

    2010-01-01

    The current global recession has increased personal stress levels throughout our society. With dwindling resources, institutions of higher learning are especially prone to budgetary cutbacks during such periods. Based on 22 years of experience as a health service director, the author offers some personal insights in the hope that they will help…

  17. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  18. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  19. Formulating the spring discharge-function for the recession period ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prediction of spring water availability during the recession period is the key to its proper management. The spring discharge-rate can be forecasted by studying its behaviour for the past recession periods. Expressing recession curve in mathematical terms requires its quantitative analyses in priori. It was found that the fitting ...

  20. Gingival Recession in a Child‑Patient; Easily Missed Etiologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gingival recession – the apical migration of the marginal gingiva[1]. - results from several factors. In a study of historical interest, Baker and Seymour[2] suggested plaque‑induced inflammation as an important cause of gingival recession. Determinants of gingival recession identified among Nigerians were age, calculus, ...

  1. Is Outdoor Recreation Recession-proof? An Empirical Investigation on Iowan’s Lake Recreation Behavior During 2009 Recession.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Mohammad Mainul; Kling, Catherine L.; Herriges, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    The US economy was hit hard by a recession during 2008–2009, which is considered the longest and most severe economic crisis since the end of Great Depression. The recession affected individual economic well-being through unemployment, stock market crashes, and falling real estate prices, all of which generated low consumer confidence. While much is known about the effect of recessions on macro-level variables, much less is known about how the effects of recession alter household-level consum...

  2. Semiconductor structure and recess formation etch technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Bin; Sun, Min; Palacios, Tomas Apostol

    2017-02-14

    A semiconductor structure has a first layer that includes a first semiconductor material and a second layer that includes a second semiconductor material. The first semiconductor material is selectively etchable over the second semiconductor material using a first etching process. The first layer is disposed over the second layer. A recess is disposed at least in the first layer. Also described is a method of forming a semiconductor structure that includes a recess. The method includes etching a region in a first layer using a first etching process. The first layer includes a first semiconductor material. The first etching process stops at a second layer beneath the first layer. The second layer includes a second semiconductor material.

  3. Labor Unions and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Milkman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of the Great Recession on the U.S. labor movement. After reviewing the classic industrial relations literature on the relationship between unionization rates and business cycles, we analyze historical union density trends. After documenting the relentless downward trend in the private sector from the early 1980s, with no apparent relationship to the business cycle, we analyze the negative impact of the political dynamic that unfolded in the wake of the Great Recession on public-sector unionism in sharp contrast to what took place during the Great Depression. We also explore the new forms of labor organizing that have emerged in the private sector, which have capitalized on the growing public concern about rising inequality sparked by Occupy Wall Street.

  4. POSSIBLE RECESSION CURVE APPLICATIONS FOR RETENTION EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Liberacki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article was to present possible applications of recession flow curve in a small lowland watershed retention discharge size evaluation. The examined woodland micro catchment area of 0.52 sq km is located in Puszcza Zielonka in central Wielkopolska. The Hutka catchment is typically woody with high retention abilities. The catchment of the Hutka watercourse is forested in 89%, the other 11% is covered by swamps and wasteland. The predominant sites are fresh mixed coniferous forest (BMśw, fresh coniferous forest (Bśw and alder carr forest (Ol. Landscape in catchment is characterized by a large number of interior depressions, filled partly with rainwater or peatbogs, with poorly developed natural drainage. The watercourses do not exceed 1 km in length, the mean width is approx. 0.5 m, while mean depth ranges from 0.2 to 0.3 m. During hydrological research conducted in 1997/1998–1999/2000, 35 major (characteristic raised water stages were observed in Hutka after substantial precipitation. The recession curve dating from 18–24 September 2000 has the α and n rates nearest to average. Comparing the model curve and the curve created by observing watercourse flow, one can notice their resemblance and that they have similar ordinate values as well as shape. In the case of other recession curves, the maximum differences of ordinate values are also about 0.1–0.2 l/s/km2. The measuured α and n rates do not reveal any regularities. There are no significant statistical Horton model parameter (for recession flow curves dependencies between α and n and e.g. initial flows (Qo or the whole period of high water waves (Qp. Consequently, calculated relation between these parameters is only an approximation for the general evaluation of the retention discharge in the catchment area towards retention with flow function.

  5. Financialisation, oil and the Great Recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gkanoutas-Leventis, Angelos; Nesvetailova, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the role of world oil price hike of 2007–08 in serving to transform the financial and banking crisis into what is commonly referred to the Great Recession. Existing literature on the global crisis of 2007–09 tends to view it as a financial or banking phenomenon, with analyses focusing mainly on state policies, governance mechanisms and market dynamics in transforming the banking crisis of 2007–08 into the economic recession of 2008-12/13 Although often attributing the global meltdown to wider phenomenon of financialisation, rarely do existing perspectives delve into the role of the commodity sector in the global credit crunch. In this paper, we aim to fill this gap, by inquiring into the role played by oil as a financial asset class in the political economy of the global crisis. - Highlights: • We study the oil price and its effects on the Great Recession. • We approach oil as a financial asset class. • We observe the transformation of oil through deregulation.

  6. Short communication. A spontaneous mutant of L-202 rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Yzaguire, A.; Padrones, T.

    2009-07-01

    A new spontaneous phenotype of the rice cultivar L-202 was found. Mendelian analysis indicates that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. The objectives of this study were: to characterize it, to determine if it is heritable and if so, its genetic basis. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. Selfing the new phenotype resulted in a uniform progeny, with the traits of the parent plant (wild type). Crossing the new phenotype with the normal L-202 cultivar resulted in a uniform F1 hybrid generation, with the wild type. The F2 generation showed a mendelian segregation which did not depart significantly from three normal plants : one new phenotype. It is concluded that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. (Author) 3 refs.

  7. X-ray-induced recessive lethal mutations in adult and foetal female mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luening, K.G.; Eiche, A.

    1982-01-01

    Tests of X-ray-induced recessive lethal mutations in adult and foetal mouse females were performed. The tests were based on family analysis which provided a possibility of making a distinction between pre-existing recessive lethal mutations and newly arisen (spontaneous + induced) ones. The way the tests were carried out provided material for the estimation of the frequency of spontaneous lethal mutations per genome. The two different estimates from this material, 0.72 and 0.91%, respectively, are similar and fall within the range previously suggested by Luening. The difference, though statistically non-significant, between data from irradiated mature and maturing oocytes in adult females and material from the unirradiated part, indicates a mutation rate of 13 x 10 -5 per rad per gamete according to one estimate and 8-12 x 10 -5 according to the other in comparison with 9 x 10 -5 from irradiated spermatogonia. In the limited data obtained after foetal irradiation, there is no indication of oogonia and developing oocytes being more sensitive to irradiation than oocytes in adult females fertilized within 6 weeks of treatment. (orig.)

  8. Arachnoid Pit and Extensive Sinus Pnematization as the Cause of Spontaneous Lateral Intrasphenoidal Encephalocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AlMontasheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral sphenoid encephalocele, especially within the lateral aspect of the sphenoid sinus, when the sphenoid sinus has pneumatized extensively into the pterygoid recess, are considered exceedingly rare. We report a rare case of lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele with spontaneous cerebral spinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea. Computed tomography demonstrated bilateral arachnoid pit, extensive sphenoid sinus pneumatization, and a defect in the superior wall of the left lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated anteromedial temporal lobe herniating through the bony defect.

  9. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Coal industry defies recession with record exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, Denis.

    1994-01-01

    Despite the worldwide recession which has adversely affected many commodities, the New South Wales coal industry achieved record production and exports during 1992-93. Although saleable coal production increased by only a modest 0.7%, experts rose by an impressive 7.1% to 57.4 million tonnes. Coking coal jumped by 14.6% to 23.6 million tonnes while thermal coal increased by 2.7% to 33.8 million tonnes. The value of coal experts amounted at $3.1 million. 1 tab

  11. State Government Revenue Recovery from the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    James Alm; David L. Sjoquist

    2014-01-01

    The "Great Recession" lasted from December 2007 to June 2009, and it wreaked havoc on the revenues of state (and local) governments. While the U.S. economy has improved since the end of the Great Recession, state government revenues have in most cases still not completely recovered. We use various indicators to measure how different states have -- or have not -- recovered in the aftermath of the Great Recession, and we also attempt to explain why these different patterns of recovery have emer...

  12. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  13. Carrier testing for autosomal-recessive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Hilary; Ford, Jason

    2003-08-01

    The aim of carrier testing is to identify carrier couples at risk of having offspring with a serious genetic (autosomal recessive) disorder. Carrier couples are offered genetic consultation where their reproductive options, including prenatal diagnosis, are explained. The Ashkenazi Jewish population is at increased risk for several recessively inherited disorders (Tay-Sachs disease, Cystic fibrosis, Canavan disease, Gaucher disease, Familial Dysautonomia, Niemann-Pick disease, Fanconi anemia, and Bloom syndrome). Unlike Tay-Sachs disease, there is no simple biochemical or enzymatic test to detect carriers for these other disorders. However, with the rapid identification of disease-causing genes in recent years, DNA-based assays are increasingly available for carrier detection. Approximately 5% of the world's population carries a mutation affecting the globin chains of the hemoglobin molecule. Among the most common of these disorders are the thalassemias. The global birth rate of affected infants is at least 2 per 1000 (in unscreened populations), with the greatest incidence in Southeast Asian, Indian, Mediterranean, and Middle Eastern ethnic groups. Carriers are detected by evaluation of red cell indices and morphology, followed by more sophisticated hematological testing and molecular analyses. The following issues need to be considered in the development of a carrier screening program: (1) test selection based on disease severity and test accuracy; (2) funding for testing and genetic counselling; (3) definition of the target population to be screened; (4) development of a public and professional education program; (5) informed consent for screening; and (6) awareness of community needs.

  14. Child Poverty and the Great Recession in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Bitler; Hilary Hoynes; Elira Kuka

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of the Great Recession, median real household income fell from $61,597 in 2007 to $57,025 in 2010 and $51,007 in 2012. Given that the effects of the Great Recession on unemployment were greater for less skilled workers the authors expect the effects of the Great Recession on household incomes to be larger in relative terms for individuals in the lower end of the income distribution. To explore this issue, in this paper, they comprehensively examine the effects of the Great Recess...

  15. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  16. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  17. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  18. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  19. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  20. Prevalence of gingival recession after orthodontic tooth movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jason W; Campbell, Phillip M; Tadlock, Larry P; Boley, Jimmy; Buschang, Peter H

    2017-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the long-term prevalence of gingival recession after orthodontic tooth movements, focusing on the effects of mandibular incisor proclination and expansion of maxillary posterior teeth. Records of 205 patients (162 female, 43 male) were obtained from 2 private practice orthodontists. Using pretreatment (age, 14.0 ± 5.9 years) and posttreatment (age, 16.5 ± 6.0 years) lateral cephalograms and dental models, mandibular incisor proclination and maxillary arch widths were measured. Gingival recession was measured based on posttreatment and postretention (age, 32.3 ± 8.5 years) intraoral photographs and models. Associations between tooth movements and gingival recession were evaluated statistically. Only 5.8% of teeth exhibited recession at the end of orthodontic treatment (only 0.6% had recession >1 mm). After retention, 41.7% of the teeth showed recession, but the severity was limited (only 7.0% >1 mm). There was no relationship between mandibular incisor proclination during treatment and posttreatment gingival recession. Incisors that finished treatment angulated (IMPA) at 95° or greater did not show significantly more recession than did those that finished less than 95°. There were weak positive correlations (r = 0.17-0.41) between maxillary arch width increases during treatment and posttreatment recession. Orthodontic treatment is not a major risk factor for the development of gingival recession. Although greater amounts of maxillary expansion during treatment increase the risks of posttreatment recession, the effects are minimal. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Intimate Partner Violence in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Daniel; Harknett, Kristen; McLanahan, Sara

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the Great Recession was marked by severe negative shocks to labor market conditions. In this study, we combine longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study with U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics data on local area unemployment rates to examine the relationship between adverse labor market conditions and mothers' experiences of abusive behavior between 2001 and 2010. Unemployment and economic hardship at the household level were positively related to abusive behavior. Further, rapid increases in the unemployment rate increased men's controlling behavior toward romantic partners even after we adjust for unemployment and economic distress at the household level. We interpret these findings as demonstrating that the uncertainty and anticipatory anxiety that go along with sudden macroeconomic downturns have negative effects on relationship quality, above and beyond the effects of job loss and material hardship.

  2. The Impact of the Recession on College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg-Cross, Linda; Green, Rodney

    2010-01-01

    This article had three goals: (a) to provide a brief economic review of the relationship between recessionary times, institutional reactions, and the life trajectory of recession-era college students; (b) to discuss the recession-related psychosocial stressors facing today's college students; and (c) to discuss how counseling centers can help…

  3. Students with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Justice, Michael J.; Rosko, Kelly M.

    2014-01-01

    The participation of a student with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of children with ADHD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these children in the recess setting. Initially, the…

  4. On the Nature of the Heisei Recession (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Kouichi Hamada

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inquire into possible causes of the Heisei Recession, the stagnation that has plagued the Japanese economy since the 1990s. As a preliminary step to interpret empirical analyses, one would need to understand by what linkages of causes and effects this recession has been brought about.

  5. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates

  6. Who Suffers during Recessions? NBER Working Paper No. 17951

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoynes, Hilary W.; Miller, Douglas L.; Schaller, Jessamyn

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we examine how business cycles affect labor market outcomes in the United States. We conduct a detailed analysis of how cycles affect outcomes differentially across persons of differing age, education, race, and gender, and we compare the cyclical sensitivity during the Great Recession to that in the early 1980s recession. We present…

  7. American undergraduate students' value development during the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Heejung; Twenge, Jean M; Greenfield, Patricia M

    2017-02-01

    The Great Recession's influence on American undergraduate students' values was examined, testing Greenfield's and Kasser's theories concerning value development during economic downturns. Study 1 utilised aggregate-level data to investigate (a) population-level value changes between the pre-recession (2004-2006: n = 824,603) and recession freshman cohort (2008-2010: n = 662,262) and (b) overall associations of population-level values with national economic climates over long-term periods by correlating unemployment rates and concurrent aggregate-level values across 1966-2015 (n = 10 million). Study 2 examined individual-level longitudinal value development from freshman to senior year, and whether the developmental trajectories differed between those who completed undergraduate education before the Great Recession (freshmen in 2002, n = 12,792) versus those who encountered the Great Recession during undergraduate years (freshmen in 2006, n = 13,358). Results suggest American undergraduate students' increased communitarianism (supporting Greenfield) and materialism (supporting Kasser) during the Great Recession. The recession also appears to have slowed university students' development of positive self-views. Results contribute to the limited literature on the Great Recession's influence on young people's values. They also offer theoretical and practical implications, as values of this privileged group of young adults are important shapers of societal values, decisions, and policies. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.

  8. Unemployment of non-western immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007–February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western

  9. Students with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Sturgis, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    The participation of a student with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with OCD and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the definition,…

  10. Gingival Recession in a Child‑Patient; Easily Missed Etiologies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... be acting in consonance (Concomitant multiple etiologies [CME]). The factors were a high frenal attachment, traumatic overbite and bruxism induced by premature tooth contacts. Pedodontists and periodontists should rule out CME in cases of gingival recession in the child‑patient. Keywords: Bruxism, Gingival recession, ...

  11. Students with Sickle Cell Anemia Participating in Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Matthew D.; Devlin, Katharine M.

    2011-01-01

    The participation of a student with Sickle Cell Anemia in recess can often be both challenging and rewarding for the student and teacher. This paper will address common characteristics of students with Sickle Cell Anemia and present basic solutions to improve the experience of these students in the recess setting. Initially the definition,…

  12. Business Recovery Strategies in the Economic Crisis of Recession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines Nigeria's theoretical economic foundation, the consequence of recession generally and specifically on the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate (2008-2010) and on companies together with customers reaction. Business recovery strategies for an upturn over the economic crisis of recession in ...

  13. A etiologia multifatorial da recessão periodontal The etiologic factors of periodontal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ferreira Gazel Yared

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A literatura apresenta vários fatores relacionados na etiologia da recessão periodontal, além do processo inflamatório induzido pelo biofilme bacteriano, os quais incluem fatores externos e anatômicos locais. Por meio deste estudo, revistou-se a literatura sobre tais fatores, cujo conhecimento é de grande importância para o ortodontista, contribuindo durante o diagnóstico, planejamento e tratamento ortodôntico propriamente dito.The literature shows that besides dental plaque, some external and anatomic local factors are still related to gingival recession etiology. This study reviewed the literature about those factors, which knownledge is of great benefit to the orthodontist, contributing during diagnostic, planning and orthodontic treatment.

  14. Health Impacts of the Great Recession: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Falconi, April; Downing, Janelle

    2016-03-01

    The severity, sudden onset, and multipronged nature of the Great Recession (2007-2009) provided a unique opportunity to examine the health impacts of macroeconomic downturn. We comprehensively review empirical literature examining the relationship between the Recession and mental and physical health outcomes in developed nations. Overall, studies reported detrimental impacts of the Recession on health, particularly mental health. Macro- and individual-level employment- and housing-related sequelae of the Recession were associated with declining fertility and self-rated health, and increasing morbidity, psychological distress, and suicide, although traffic fatalities and population-level alcohol consumption declined. Health impacts were stronger among men and racial/ethnic minorities. Importantly, strong social safety nets in some European countries appear to have buffered those populations from negative health effects. This literature, however, still faces multiple methodological challenges, and more time may be needed to observe the Recession's full health impact. We conclude with suggestions for future work in this field.

  15. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  16. Economic recession and suicidal behaviour: Possible mechanisms and ameliorating factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, Camilla; Hawton, Keith; Gunnell, David; Platt, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    A growing body of research evidence from countries around the world indicates that economic recession is associated with increases in suicide, particularly in males of working age. To explore contributory and ameliorating factors associated with economic recession and suicide and thereby stimulate further research in this area and encourage policy makers to consider how best to reduce the impact of recession on mental health and suicidal behaviour. We conducted a selective review of the worldwide literature focusing on possible risk factors, mechanisms and preventative strategies for suicidal behaviour linked to economic recession. A model of how recession might affect suicide rates is presented. A major and often prolonged effect of recession is on unemployment and job insecurity. Other important effects include those exerted by financial loss, bankruptcy and home repossession. It is proposed these factors may lead directly or indirectly to mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and binge drinking and then to suicidal behaviour. Countries with active labour market programmes and sustained welfare spending during recessions have less marked increases in suicide rates than those that cut spending on welfare and job-search initiatives for the unemployed. Other measures likely to help include targeted interventions for unemployed people, membership of social organisations and responsible media reporting. Good primary care and mental health services are needed to cope with increased demand in times of economic recession but some governments have in fact reduced healthcare spending as an austerity measure. The research evidence linking recession, unemployment and suicide is substantial, but the evidence for the other mechanisms we have investigated is much more tentative. We describe the limitations of the existing body of research as well as make suggestions for future research into the effects of economic recession on suicidal behaviour. © The Author

  17. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  18. DOES CONJUNCTIVAL INCISION INFLUENCE MEDIAL RECTUS MUSCLE RECESSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina G. Dimitrova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the role of conjunctival incision in medial rectus muscle recessions as surgical treatment of choice in esotropia. Methods: The study included 200 patients (370 eyes, operated on for esotropia in the period of 2000-2014. 170 of them (340 eyes underwent bilateral medial rectus muscle recessions and 30- unilateral medial rectus muscle recession for various forms of alternating/alternated esotropia. We compared the effect (Δ/mm recession of fornix and limbal approach. Diagnostic, surgical and statistical methods were used. Results: Limbal incision was performed on 110 patients (55,3% and fornix approach was done in 89 cases (44,7%. The mean effect corrected prism diopters for each mm of recession (Δ/mm differed significantly in the two groups, being bigger in cases with fornix incision (p<0,001 . Conclusion: The type of conjunctival incision in medial rectus muscle recessions have an influence not only on the cosmetic appearance, but also on the functional result. This is especially true for large recessions.

  19. The Great Recession and America's Geography of Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian C; Monnat, Shannon M

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession-related increases in unemployment.

  20. Recent declines in cancer incidence: related to the Great Recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Canchola, Alison J; Nelson, David O; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Cheng, Iona; Shariff-Marco, Salma; DeRouen, Mindy; Catalano, Ralph; Satariano, William A; Davidson-Allen, Kathleen; Glaser, Sally L

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, cancer case counts in the U.S. underwent a large, rapid decline-an unexpected change given population growth for older persons at highest cancer risk. As these declines coincided with the Great Recession, we examined whether they were related to economic conditions. Using California Cancer Registry data from California's 30 most populous counties, we analyzed trends in cancer incidence during pre-recession (1996-2007) and recession/recovery (2008-2012) periods for all cancers combined and the ten most common sites. We evaluated the recession's association with rates using a multifactorial index that measured recession impact, and modeled associations between case counts and county-level unemployment rates using Poisson regression. Yearly cancer incidence rate declines were greater during the recession/recovery (3.3% among males, 1.4% among females) than before (0.7 and 0.5%, respectively), particularly for prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers. Lower case counts, especially for prostate and liver cancer among males and breast cancer, melanoma, and ovarian cancer among females, were associated with higher unemployment rates, irrespective of time period, but independent of secular effects. The associations for melanoma translated up to a 3.6% decrease in cases with each 1% increase in unemployment. Incidence declines were not greater in counties with higher recession impact index. Although recent declines in incidence of certain cancers are not differentially impacted by economic conditions related to the Great Recession relative to pre-recession conditions, the large recent absolute declines in the case counts of some cancer may be attributable to the large declines in unemployment in the recessionary period. This may occur through decreased engagement in preventive health behaviors, particularly for clinically less urgent cancers. Continued monitoring of trends is important to detect any rises in incidence rates as deferred diagnoses come to

  1. The Great Recession and America's geography of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thiede

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the US since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective: To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods: We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results: The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions: The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, and the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state disparities in local labor market conditions. Contribution: To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately

  2. Onychophagia and postorthodontic isolated gingival recession: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Incerti Parenti, Serena; Zucchelli, Giovanni

    2012-12-01

    This clinical report describes the diagnosis and the management of isolated-type recession defects of complex etiology in 2 healthy postorthodontic patients. The lesions were confined to 1 mandibular incisor and were associated with an abnormal buccolingual inclination of the affected tooth despite a lingual retainer made with a round stainless steel twisted wire. After careful questioning, it was determined that the recession defects were indirect effects of habitual onychophagia. The concomitant fingernail-biting habit and the lingual bonded retainer led to the indirect development of bone dehiscence and, consequently, gingival recession. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mining of lethal recessive genetic variation in Danish cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of artificial insemination in cattle breeding Worldwide leads to reduced effective population sizes and increased inbreeding levels. Increased inbreeding result in increased probalility of expression of recessive defective alleles, which probably is reflected in a decline...... in fertility. The primary objective of this PhD projekt was to identify recessive lethal gentic variants in the main Danish dairy cattle breed. Holstein-Friesian utilzing next generation sequencing (NGS) data. This study shows a potential for the use of the NGS-based reverse genetic approach in identifying...... lethal or semi-lethal recessive gentic variation...

  4. Alcohol use during the great recession of 2008-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, Jacob; Basu, Sanjay; Coutts, Adam; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in alcohol use in the USA during the Great Recession. Drinking participation, drinking frequency, drinking intensity, total alcohol consumption and frequency of binge drinking were assessed in a nationally representative sample of 2,050,431 US women and men aged 18 and older, interviewed between 2006 and 2010. The prevalence of any alcohol use significantly declined during the economic recession, from 52.0% in 2006-2007 to 51.6% in 2008-2009 (P Great Recession there was an increase in abstention from alcohol and a rise in frequent binging.

  5. Laminar flow in a recess of a hydrostatic bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Andres, Luis A.; Velthuis, Johannes F. M.

    1992-01-01

    The flow in a recess of a hydrostatic journal bearing is studied in detail. The Navier-Stokes equations for the laminar flow of an incompressible liquid are solved numerically in a two-dimensional plane of a typical bearing recess. Pressure- and shear-induced flows, as well as a combination of these two flow conditions, are analyzed. Recess friction, pressure-ram effects at discontinuities in the flow region, and film entrance pressure loss effects are calculated. Entrance pressure loss coefficients over a forward-facing step are presented as functions of the mean flow Reynolds number for pure-pressure and shear-induced laminar flows.

  6. The Role of Credit in Predicting US Recessions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pönkä, Harri

    are useful predictors of US recessions over and above the control variables both in and out of sample. Especially the excess bond premium, capturing the cyclical changes in the relationship between default risk and credit spreads, is found to be a powerful predictor. Overall, models that combine credit......We study the role of credit in forecasting US recession periods with probit models. We employ both classical recession predictors and common factors based on a large panel of financial and macroeconomic variables as control variables. Our findings suggest that a number of credit variables...

  7. Urbanization and the global malaria recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, Andrew J; Gething, Peter W; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2013-04-17

    The past century has seen a significant contraction in the global extent of malaria transmission, resulting in over 50 countries being declared malaria free, and many regions of currently endemic countries eliminating the disease. Moreover, substantial reductions in transmission have been seen since 1900 in those areas that remain endemic today. Recent work showed that this malaria recession was unlikely to have been driven by climatic factors, and that control measures likely played a significant role. It has long been considered, however, that economic development, and particularly urbanization, has also been a causal factor. The urbanization process results in profound socio-economic and landscape changes that reduce malaria transmission, but the magnitude and extent of these effects on global endemicity reductions are poorly understood. Global data at subnational spatial resolution on changes in malaria transmission intensity and urbanization trends over the past century were combined to examine the relationships seen over a range of spatial and temporal scales. A consistent pattern of increased urbanization coincident with decreasing malaria transmission and elimination over the past century was found. Whilst it remains challenging to untangle whether this increased urbanization resulted in decreased transmission, or that malaria reductions promoted development, the results point to a close relationship between the two, irrespective of national wealth. The continuing rapid urbanization in malaria-endemic regions suggests that such malaria declines are likely to continue, particularly catalyzed by increasing levels of direct malaria control.

  8. THE FORCE METAPHOR IN CONCEPTUALIZING ECONOMIC RECESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurga Cibulskienė

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive metaphor analysts comprehend metaphor as a convenient way of not only talking about real life events but also thinking about them: connecting ideas, explaining abstract ideas that are difficult to grasp, conveying messages and emotions, etc. Thus, metaphor in real-world discourse is increasingly becoming the focus of many cognitive studies. In political discourse, metaphor is seen as an ideological tool of deliberate attempts to influence, persuade and manipulate people. As Charteris-Black (2005: 16 put it, politicians try to establish themselves in a positive light or legitimize themselves, i.e., by presenting evidence that they are charismatic leaders who are capable of running their country efficiently. Legitimization goes hand in hand with delegitimization, i.e., negative other-presentation. Metaphor as a cognitive mechanism of ideology may serve both as positive self-representation and as a tool for fault-finding in others. Thus, the study focuses on how three Lithuanian socio-political groups (the leading party, the opposition, and the media legitimize themselves and delegitimize their opponents by using force metaphors to conceptualize the worldwide economic recession. The findings indicate that although the same conceptual metaphor is used for legitimization and delegitimization, its fulfilment scenario appears to be markedly different and it carries different rhetorical implications in the three discourses.

  9. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  10. The origin and differentiation of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes Z, W, X, and Y in the frog Rana rugosa, inferred from the sequences of a sex-linked gene, ADP/ATP translocase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, I; Ohtani, H; Nakamura, M; Ichikawa, Y; Saitoh, K

    1998-12-01

    Sex chromosomes of the Japanese frog Rana rugosa are heteromorphic in the male (XX/XY) or in the female (ZZ/ZW) in two geographic forms, whereas they are still homomorphic in both sexes in two other forms (Hiroshima and Isehara types). To make clear the origin and differentiation mechanisms of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes, we isolated a sex-linked gene, ADP/ATP translocase, and constructed a phylogenetic tree of the genes derived from the sex chromosomes. The tree shows that the Hiroshima gene diverges first, and the rest form two clusters: one includes the Y and Z genes and the other includes the X, W, and Isehara genes. The Hiroshima gene shares more sequence similarity with the Y and Z genes than with the X, W, and Isehara genes. This suggests that the Y and Z sex chromosomes originate from the Hiroshima type, whereas the X and W chromosomes originate from the Isehara-type sex chromosome. Thus, we infer that hybridization between two ancestral forms, with the Hiroshima-type sex chromosome in one and the Isehara-type sex chromosome in the other, was the primary event causing differentiation of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes.

  11. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  12. Recession-Tolerant Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  13. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  14. Heat Shield Recession Measurements Using Remote Spectral Sensors, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OKSI proposes a minimally invasive in-flight diagnostic to measure heat shield recession during flight tests. These measurements can be used to validate models and...

  15. Formal identity of gravitational and weakly interacting recession

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muheim, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    The author discusses the construction of models using the five elementary constants esub(s), h/2π, G, c and ksub(B) which can produce a macro or micro world with exacticity. All physical processes in nature determine the gravitational universe recession. A diagram is presented comparing the gravitational and weakly interacting recession. The Big-Bang model is discussed. (A.N.K.)

  16. The Great Recession and America’s Geography of Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian C.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Great Recession of 2007–2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. Contribution To present new estimates of the recession’s impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession

  17. A New Keynesian Perspective on the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Peter N. Ireland

    2010-01-01

    With an estimated New Keynesian model, this paper compares the "Great Recession" of 2007-09 to its two immediate predecessors in 1990-91 and 2001. The model attributes all three downturns to a similar mix of aggregate demand and supply disturbances. The most recent series of adverse shocks lasted longer and became more severe, however, prolonging and deepening the Great Recession. In addition, the zero lower bound on the nominal interest rate prevented monetary policy from stabilizing the US ...

  18. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Cerveny, J.; Ours, J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...

  19. The Indian Stock Market and the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Arindam MANDAL; Prasun BHATTACHARJEE

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes the impact of the outbreak of the Great Recession of 2007 on the behavior of the Indian stock market. The SENSEX index of the Bombay Stock Exchange is analyzed for the prerecession period of January 2002 – November 2007 and the postrecession outbreak period of December 2007 – July 2010. Substantial increase in SENSEX return volatility observed during the post-recession outbreak period, whereas no substantial difference in returns between two periods is...

  20. Bilateral lateral rectus recession versus unilateral recession resection for basic intermittent exotropia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Ting; Chen, Jingchang

    2018-03-01

    To compare the outcomes between bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR) and unilateral recession resection (R&R) procedures in the treatment of basic intermittent exotropia. Databases from Medline, Embase, Web of Science and the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials were searched prior to June 2, 2017. From these searches, three eligible randomized studies and three retrospective cohort trials, which compared conventional BLR versus R&R procedure were identified. Differences observed between these two interventions (BLR versus R&R) were expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The data on rates of success, recurrence, and overcorrection were pooled and analyzed using a random-effects model. Our findings, as generated from the pooled estimates, suggested that success rates for the R&R procedure were significantly greater than that of BLR (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31-0.79; P = 0.003) and patients subjected to the BLR procedure were more likely to be recurrent (OR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.17-5.10; P = 0.02). No statistically significant differences in the combined results for overcorrection rates were present between the BLR and R&R procedures (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.32-2.28; P = 0.75). The overall findings from this meta-analysis indicated that the conventional R&R procedure is associated with higher success rates and lower recurrence rates in patients with basic intermittent exotropia.

  1. Investigation of finite difference recession computation techniques applied to a nonlinear recession problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, J D

    1978-03-01

    This report presents comparisons of results of five implicit and explicit finite difference recession computation techniques with results from a more accurate ''benchmark'' solution applied to a simple one-dimensional nonlinear ablation problem. In the comparison problem a semi-infinite solid is subjected to a constant heat flux at its surface and the rate of recession is controlled by the solid material's latent heat of fusion. All thermal properties are assumed constant. The five finite difference methods include three front node dropping schemes, a back node dropping scheme, and a method in which the ablation problem is embedded in an inverse heat conduction problem and no nodes are dropped. Constancy of thermal properties and the semiinfinite and one-dimensional nature of the problem at hand are not necessary assumptions in applying the methods studied to more general problems. The best of the methods studied will be incorporated into APL's Standard Heat Transfer Program.

  2. Gingival recession, oral hygiene and associated factors among Tanzanian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumghamba, E G S; Honkala, S; Honkala, E; Manji, K P

    2009-03-01

    Females are generally more motivated with regard to oral hygiene practices and thus brush their teeth more frequently than males. To determine the prevalence of gingival recession, oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and associated factors in women attending a maternity ward in Tanzania. Cross-sectional descriptive study. Maternity ward of Muhimbili National Hospital, Tanzania. Four hundred and forty six women were interviewed on oral hygiene practices and maternal factors, and a full-mouth examination was done to determine the presence of plaque, calculus, gingival bleeding and gingival recession at six sites per tooth. The prevalence of gingival recession (GR) > or =1 mm was 33.6%, calculus 99.3%, plaque 100%, and gingival bleeding 100%. Oral hygiene practices included toothbrushing (98.9%), brushing frequency > or =2 times/day (61.2%), horizontal brushing method (98%), and using a plastic toothbrush (97.8%). Factors that were significantly associated with gingival recession were age (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-3.2), presence of calculus (OR(a) = 3.8, 95% CI=2.5-7.1), and gingival bleeding on probing (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.5-7.1). Tooth cleaning practices and maternal factors, especially the number of pregnancies or deliveries were not significantly associated with gingival recession. In this study population, oral hygiene was poor and gingival recession was associated with age, calculus and gingival inflammation rather than with tooth cleaning practices.

  3. Systematic review of recess interventions to increase physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Melinda J; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid increase in obesity rates among youth, efforts to increase physical activity (PA) have become a priority. School-based strategies for PA promotion must be cost-effective, unobtrusive, and linked to improved academic performance. Efforts to maximize recess PA are advocated because of both health and academic benefits. The purpose of this manuscript was to review recess interventions aimed to improve PA among youth, and make recommendations to develop related best practices. An extensive literature search was conducted to include all primary research articles evaluating any recess intervention with PA as an outcome. The included 13 interventions represented both settings within the U.S and internationally, among preschools and elementary/primary schools. A variety of strategies were used within the design and implementation of each of the interventions including: added equipment/materials, markings, zones, teacher involvement, active video games, activity of the week, and activity cards. Of the included studies, 95% demonstrated positive outcomes as a result of the recess intervention. A number of simple, low-cost strategies can be implemented to maximize the amount of recess time students are allotted. Long-term follow-up studies are warranted for each of the recess strategies identified to be effective.

  4. Development of the great recess framework - observational tool to measure contextual and behavioral components of elementary school recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, William V; Stellino, Megan B; Mullen, Sean P; Claassen, Jennette; Wilkison, Megan

    2018-03-22

    Physical activity (PA) remains the primary behavioral outcome associated with school recess, while many other potentially relevant indicators of recess remain unexamined. Few studies have assessed observations of teacher/student interactions, peer conflict, social interactions, or safety within the recess environment. Furthermore, a psychometrically-sound instrument does not exist to examine safety, resources, student engagement, adult engagement, pro-social/anti-social behavior, and student empowerment on the playground. The purpose of the current study was to develop a valid, and reliable, assessment tool intended for use in measurement of the contextual factors associated with recess. An iterative and multi-step process was used to develop a tool that measures safety and structure, adult engagement and supervision, student behaviors, and transitions at recess. Exploratory structural equation modeling (Mplus v. 7.4) was used to examine the underlying measurement model with observational data of the recess environment collected at 649 school-based recess periods that spanned across 22 urban/metropolitan areas in the USA. Data were also collected by two researchers at 162 recess sessions across 9 schools to examine reliability. A 17-item observation instrument, the Great Recess Framework - Observational Tool (GRF-OT), was created. Findings of exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) analyses supported factorial validity for a 4-factor solution and linear regressions established convergent validity where 'structure and safety', 'adult engagement and supervision', and 'student behaviors' were all significantly related to observed activity levels. Each sub-scale of the GRF-OT showed adequate levels of inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability analysis indicated a higher level of stability for the GRF-OT when using a three-day average across two time points as compared to a two-day average. Initial evidence for a valid, and reliable, assessment tool to

  5. Precarious Slopes? The Great Recession, Federal Stimulus, and New Jersey Schools. Working Paper #02-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Sutherland, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    While sparse literature exists investigating the impact of the Great Recession on various sectors of the economy, there is virtually no research that studies the effect of the Great Recession, or past recessions, on schools. This paper starts to fill the void. Studying school funding during the recession is of paramount importance because schools…

  6. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  7. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  8. Gingival recession in postmenopausal women with and without osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncea, Ioana; Pop, Dan; Georgescu, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The periodontal disease is a complex chronic progressive inflammatory and destructive process of the tooth attachment apparatus: gingiva, alveolar bone, desmodontium, cementum. Systemic osteoporosis has a potential influence on both the periodontal and gingival inflammation indices, on the gingival recession (GR) and teeth mobility. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between the menopause osteoporosis and gingival recession, by studying the correlations between osteoporosis and gingival recession, and between the bone mineral density (BMD) at the level of L1-L4, femur, hip, mandible and gum recession. The present study included a total of 97 postmenopausal patients. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made based on the WHO definition. The results were expressed as absolute BMD values in g/cm(2) and as T score form. We used dual x-ray absortiometry (DXA) measurements in assessing the lumbar column, proximal femur and mandible and we calculated the T scores. The gingival recession, which is an indicator of ligament tissue lysis and apical migration of the periodontal tissue, was measured as the distance between the anatomical tooth neck and the gumline. For the statistical analysis the Medcalc program version 12.3 was used. We found statistically significant differences between the two groups of women, with and without osteoporosis, in terms of the distribution of the cases of GR (p=0.003). The only parameter with statistical significance of the differences between the three categories of gingival recessions (absent, moderate, major), was p=0.034 for the femoral neck BMD. There were significant differences between the mean values of lumbar column L1-L4 BMD according to the presence or absence of recession signs. 1) The prevalence of moderate and major gingival recession was statistically significantly higher in the group of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. 2) In postmenopausal women, statistically significant differences were

  9. SPHENOID SINUS (SS ANTERIOR MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE ENCEPHALOCELE (AMTLE WITH SPONTANEOUS CSF RHINORRHOEA : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cranial encephaloceles are the herniation of intracranial meninges and brain tissue through a defect in the cranium or skull base. These are rare conditions with an incidence of approximately 1 in 35,000 people, and are more common in the anterior cranial fossa than those in the middle one . 1,2 Temporal lobe herniation through a mid dle fossa defect into the lateral recess of the Sphenoid Sinus is even rarer than its medial representation. Intrasphenoidal encephaloceles are extremely rare findings 3 . Spontaneous, or primary, CSF fistula is a separate entity with no underlying cause of the CSF leak. Spontaneous CSF leaks are usually associated with a co - existing encephalocele of variable size 4 . We present a case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea in a sphenoid sinus Anterior Medial Temporal lobe encephalocele herniating through a clinically silent lateral Craniopharyngeal canal.

  10. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  11. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  12. Effects of the Great Recession on the U.S. Agricultural Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Maoyong; Pena, Anita Alves; Perloff, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Recessions typically lead to excess supply in non agricultural labor markets. However, a major recession, like the Great Recession, has different effects in the seasonal agriculture labor market. During such recession, hourly earnings of workers, the probability that workers receive bonuses, and employed workers’ weekly hours rise. These results are consistent with a large reduction in immigrant labor supply during a major recession. Direct and indirect evidence on immigration supports this...

  13. Stream recession curves and storage variability in small watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Y. Krakauer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of streamflow recession after rain events offers clues about the relationship between watershed runoff (observable as river discharge and water storage (not directly observable and can help in water resource assessment and prediction. However, there have been few systematic assessments of how streamflow recession varies across flow rates and how it relates to independent assessments of terrestrial water storage. We characterized the streamflow recession pattern in 61 relatively undisturbed small watersheds (1–100 km2 across the coterminous United States with multiyear records of hourly streamflow from automated gauges. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis to help identify periods where precipitation, snowmelt, and evaporation were small compared to streamflow. The order of magnitude of the recession timescale increases from 1 day at high flow rates (~1 mm h−1 to 10 days at low flow rates (~0.01 mm h−1, leveling off at low flow rates. There is significant variability in the recession timescale at a given flow rate between basins, which correlates with climate and geomorphic variables such as the ratio of mean streamflow to precipitation and soil water infiltration capacity. Stepwise multiple regression was used to construct a six-variable predictive model that explained some 80 % of the variance in recession timescale at high flow rates and 30–50 % at low flow rates. Seasonal and interannual variability in inferred storage shows similar time evolution to regional-scale water storage variability estimated from GRACE satellite gravity data and from land surface modeling forced by observed meteorology, but is up to a factor of 10 smaller. Study of this discrepancy in the inferred storage amplitude may provide clues to the range of validity of the recession curve approach to relating runoff and storage.

  14. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  15. The Great Recession and risk for child abuse and neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health. PMID:28461713

  16. The Great Recession and risk for child abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and four measures of the risk for maternal child abuse and neglect: (1) maternal physical aggression; (2) maternal psychological aggression; (3) physical neglect by mothers; and (4) supervisory/exposure neglect by mothers. It draws on rich longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a longitudinal birth cohort study of families in 20 U.S. cities (N = 3,177; 50% African American, 25% Hispanic; 22% non-Hispanic white; 3% other). The study collected information for the 9-year follow-up survey before, during, and after the Great Recession (2007-2010). Interview dates were linked to two macroeconomic measures of the Great Recession: the national Consumer Sentiment Index and the local unemployment rate. Also included are a wide range of socio-demographic controls, as well as city fixed effects and controls for prior parenting. Results indicate that the Great Recession was associated with increased risk of child abuse but decreased risk of child neglect. Households with social fathers present may have been particularly adversely affected. Results also indicate that economic uncertainty during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index and the unemployment rate, had direct effects on the risk of abuse or neglect, which were not mediated by individual-level measures of economic hardship or poor mental health.

  17. Overburndened and Underfunded: California Public Schools Amidst the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhoda Freelon

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008, many nations, including the United States, have struggled with the effects of a global recession. The state of California has been particularly impacted by the Great Recession. Unemployment rates in California are among the highest in the United States, and a weak fiscal environment has forced deep cutbacks to a variety of state services. This study uses California as a case to explore the effects of economic crisis on public schools and the students they serve. The study draws on two years of survey and interview data with a representative sample of public school principals across California. The data show that, during the Great Recession, students have experienced growing social welfare needs that often shape their well-being and their performance in schools. We also find that the capacity of public schools to meet these needs and provide quality education has been eroded by budget cuts. This study finds that schools primarily serving low-income families have been hardest hit during the recession, in part because they cannot raise private dollars to fill the gap left by public sector cuts. The Great Recession thus has undermined educational quality while producing widening educational inequality in California.

  18. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  19. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  20. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  1. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  2. Marketing strategies and tactics in a period of recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Avlonitis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recession is an extremely difficult period for most companies. Especially when a recession has universal dimensions, many companies find themselves unprepared to face great challenges. While marketing in good times has a long-term focus, a broad scope, it is benefits- and opportunities-driven and proactive, in bad times it has a short-term focus, limited and narrow scope, it is cost-and sales-driven and reactive. Panic is not the right reaction. Such difficult times should be overcome through methodical and well planned actions. After all, research has shown that those companies that take a proactive stance and treat the recession as an opportunity are likely to come out of the crisis stronger than before. Specific marketing activities have been proved to be beneficial to companies during a downturn. Below we analyze, ten marketing survival strategies and tactics.

  3. The Indian Stock Market and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arindam MANDAL

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the impact of the outbreak of the Great Recession of 2007 on the behavior of the Indian stock market. The SENSEX index of the Bombay Stock Exchange is analyzed for the prerecession period of January 2002 – November 2007 and the postrecession outbreak period of December 2007 – July 2010. Substantial increase in SENSEX return volatility observed during the post-recession outbreak period, whereas no substantial difference in returns between two periods is found. Also strong co-movements in returns and volatility are observed between the SENSEX and other major stock indexes during the post-recession period. Our results establish the dominance of global factors in influencing Indian stock market behavior during periods of economic turmoil.

  4. The Great Recession and the risk for child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Schneider, William; Waldfogel, Jane

    2013-10-01

    This study draws on the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2,032), a birth cohort study of families with children from 20 U.S. cities. Interviews occurred between August 2007, and February 2010, when the children were approximately 9 years old. Macro-economic indicators of the Great Recession such as the Consumer Sentiment Index and unemployment and home foreclosure rates were matched to the data to estimate the links between different measures of the Great Recession and high frequency maternal spanking. We find that the large decline in consumer confidence during the Great Recession, as measured by the Consumer Sentiment Index, was associated with worse parenting behavior. In particular, lower levels of consumer confidence were associated with increased levels of high frequency spanking, a parenting behavior that is associated with greater likelihood of being contacted by child protective services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Global Recession and the National System of Innovation in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchie, Mammo; Baskaran, Angethvar

    2011-01-01

    Since the early 1990s China’s economy has emerged one of the leading economies in the world using judicial mix of policies of economic liberalisation and protection. China’s national system of innovation (NSI) has been evolving and has been adapting to the challenges posed the globalisation. China...... has benefitted significantly from the global economic boom driven by the globalisation and its economy has registered consistently GDP growth of over 10% for over 15 years before the onset of global recession in 2008. The recession has slowed down the economy in every country in the world including...... China, which was triggered by the global credit crunch and slow down of trade. Major economies across the world have introduced a series of measures in response to recession and to stem the tide of its negative impacts. These measures included: bank bailouts, rescue packages, fiscal stimuli, and, most...

  6. Treatment of Deficient Attached Gingiva and Recession: A Primer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquinelli, Kirk

    2018-01-01

    Gingival recession involves apical displacement of the soft-tissue margin and root exposure that can negatively affect smile esthetics, increase susceptibility to root caries, and lead to dentin hypersensitivity. Regardless of the predisposing conditions leading to its inflammatory etiology, gingival recession can be treated with tissue grafting (eg, free gingival grafts or connective tissue grafts) or acellular dermal matrix. Because each therapy is characterized by the type of grafting material used, the manner in which the grafting material is harvested, and the respective technique for placing the grafting material, understanding their differences will benefit dentists when determining the most appropriate treatment for patients who present with gingival recession and areas of deficient attached gingiva.

  7. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Antenatal Diagnosis and Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Kumar Rajanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

  8. Modified adjustable suture hang-back recession: Description of technique and comparison with conventional adjustable hang-back recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to describe and compare modified hang-back recession with the conventional hang-back recession in large angle comitant exotropia (XT. Methods: A prospective, interventional, double-blinded, randomized study on adult patients (>18 years undergoing single eye recession-resection for large angle (>30 prism diopters constant comitant XT was conducted between January 2011 and December 2015. Patients in Group A underwent modified hang-back lateral rectus recession with adjustable knot while in Group B underwent conventional hang-back recession with an adjustable knot. Outcome parameters studied were readjustment rate, change in deviation at 6 weeks, complications and need for resurgery at 6 months. Results: The groups were comparable in terms of age and preoperative deviation. The patients with the modified hang back (Group A fared significantly better (P < 0.05 than those with conventional hang back (Group B in terms of lesser need for adjustment, greater correction in deviation at 6 weeks and lesser need for resurgery at 6 months. Conclusion: This modification offers several advantages, significantly reduces resurgery requirement and has no added complications.

  9. Isolated gastrocnemius recession for achilles tendinopathy: strength and functional outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawoczenski, Deborah A; Barske, Heather; Tome, Joshua; Dawson, Laura K; Zlotnicki, Jason P; DiGiovanni, Benedict F

    2015-01-21

    Gastrocnemius recession has emerged as a viable intervention for patients with recalcitrant foot and ankle disorders associated with isolated gastrocnemius contracture. The purpose of this case-control study was to investigate the effects of an isolated gastrocnemius recession on pain, patient-reported function, and strength in patients with chronic Achilles tendinopathy and an isolated gastrocnemius contracture. Thirteen patients with unilateral Achilles tendinopathy (mean age [and standard deviation], fifty-two ± 7.7 years) who received a gastrocnemius recession and ten matched-control subjects participated. A visual analog scale was used to assess pain, and the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure was used to evaluate patient-reported function in activities of daily living and sports. Patients were asked about their satisfaction with the results of the gastrocnemius recession. Ankle plantar flexion peak torque was assessed at 60°/sec and 120°/sec. Appropriate t tests were used to assess limb symmetry and strength differences between the groups. The mean duration of follow-up was eighteen months (range, twelve to twenty-eight months). Gastrocnemius recession provided significant pain relief (mean preoperative visual analog scale score [and standard deviation], 6.8 ± 1.8; mean follow-up visual analog scale score, 1.4 ± 2.7; p recession provides significant and sustained pain relief for chronic Achilles tendinopathy. Good function can be expected for activities of daily living, but power and endurance activities were more problematic for the Achilles tendinopathy group. Isokinetic strength assessment may not effectively capture patient-reported functional deficits. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  10. Gingival recession is likely associated with tongue piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Mark A

    2012-09-01

    A convenience sample of 60 subjects (27 male; 33 female) with tongue piercings (case group) and 120 subjects (43 male; 77 female) without tongue piercings (control group), ranging in age from 13 to 28 years, were identified from a mix of races living in a geographic area of low socioeconomic status in Brazil. Subjects were recruited from school groups and university centers between January 2008 and March 2009. For each case, 2 controls were selected on a consecutive basis from the same school according to criteria that included age, gender, smoking, and previous orthodontic treatment. Exclusion criteria included individuals with systemic diseases that might compromise the immune system, as well as antibiotics within 3 months or other medications that could affect the gingival tissues. The key study factor was the use or nonuse of tongue piercings (jewelry). The analysis compared periodontal parameters, such as the occurrence, location, and severity of gingival recession, in subjects with and without tongue jewelry. Gingival recession in the anterior lingual mandibular region was assessed as the primary outcome measure. The study sample was divided according to the presence or absence of gingival recession as well as the severity (1-2, 3, and ≥ 4 mm) of gingival recession. The average age of subjects was similar in the case and control groups (18.9 versus 17.7 years, respectively). Fractures of the anterior teeth were present significantly more frequently in cases than controls (26.7% versus 11.7%, respectively; P piercings (OR = 11.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 5.02-24.09, P <.001). The severity of recession in this region was also significantly higher (calculated using an ordinal scale) in cases than in controls (P < .001). The final multivariate logistic regression model for occurrence of gingival recession included the variables tongue jewelry (yes/no), age, male gender, and the presence of bleeding on probing in the anterior region. Subjects with tongue

  11. A historical look at the labor market during recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Martínez-García; Janet Koech

    2010-01-01

    Turmoil in housing, credit and financial markets plunged the U.S. economy into a recession that has taken a heavy toll on the labor market. The weakness that began during the second half of 2007 gravely worsened during a period of extreme financial stress in 2008, and the labor market has yet to recover. To put the recession's labor-market impact into perspective, we compare the past two years to previous downturns, including the Great Depression. We also examine the data commonly used to ass...

  12. A Forest Fire Theory of Recessions and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Tebaldi; Matthew Jackson

    2014-01-01

    We develop a model of matching from firms' perspectives and draw resulting conclusions for the macro-dynamics of an economy. The key insight is that firms may wish to hire workers that are bad matches (having low productivity) in high-demand states, even if the worker must be hired to a long-run contract. This results an increasing fraction of bad worker-firm matches as an economy booms, making it increasingly likely that a recession will occur the longer it has been since the last recession,...

  13. A New Formula for Front Slope Recession of Berm Breakwaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Lykke; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2010-01-01

    The front slope stability of breakwaters with a homogeneous berm was studied in a large number of two dimensional model tests at Aalborg University, Denmark. The results are presented together with a new formula for prediction of the berm recession which is the most important parameter...... for describing the reshaping. The formula has also been calibrated and validated against model test data from other researchers. The significance of the new design formula is that it predicts berm recession much better than the existing methods, especially in case of more stable structures....

  14. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  15. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  16. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  17. Tooth cleaning devices, calculus, gingival recession and tooth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    %), both chewing stick and plastic toothbrush (17.4%), and other unspecified devices (5.0%). Prevalence of calculus was 99.5%, gingival recession > 3.5mm was 86.1% and TS was 50.2%. There was no significant difference between males ...

  18. Adjustable recessions in horizontal comitant strabismus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the surgical outcome of adjustable with the conventional recession in patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Patients and Methods: A prospective comparative nonrandomized interventional pilot study was performed on patients with horizontal comitant strabismus. Fifty-four patients (27 in each group were allocated into 2 groups to undergo either adjustable suture (AS recession or non-AS (NAS recession along with conventional resection. The patients were followed up for 6 months. A successful outcome was defined as deviation ±10 prism diopters at 6 months. The results were statistically analyzed by Chi-square test, Fisher′s exact test, and Student′s t-test. Results: A successful outcome was found in 24 (88.8% patients in AS and 17 (62.9% in NAS group (P = 0.02. The postoperative adjustment was done in 13 (48.1% patients in AS group. There was one complication (tenon′s cyst in AS group. Conclusion: AS recession may be considered in all cooperative patients undergoing strabismus surgery for comitant deviations.

  19. Precession and recession of the rock'n'roller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, Peter; Bustamante, Miguel D

    2009-01-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherical rigid body that rocks and rolls on a plane under the effect of gravity. The distribution of mass is non-uniform and the centre of mass does not coincide with the geometric centre. The symmetric case, with moments of inertia I 1 = I 2 3 , is integrable and the motion is completely regular. Three known conservation laws are the total energy E, Jellett's quantity Q J and Routh's quantity Q R . When the inertial symmetry I 1 = I 2 is broken, even slightly, the character of the solutions is profoundly changed and new types of motion become possible. We derive the equations governing the general motion and present analytical and numerical evidence of the recession, or reversal of precession, that has been observed in physical experiments. We present an analysis of recession in terms of critical lines dividing the (Q R , Q J ) plane into four dynamically disjoint zones. We prove that recession implies the lack of conservation of Jellett's and Routh's quantities, by identifying individual reversals as crossings of the orbit (Q R (t), Q J (t)) through the critical lines. Consequently, a method is found to produce a large number of initial conditions so that the system will exhibit recession.

  20. Applications to One Business School Skyrocketed Despite Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    In the past two years, the global financial crisis has wreaked havoc on businesses in America and abroad. But the gloom and doom seems to have had the opposite effect on business schools. The reason is that a recession often signals the perfect time for proactive students to sharpen their skill sets, shift their career goals (whether toward a…

  1. Africa and global recessions: Options for reducing vulnerability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Its specific objectives are: (i) to critically review theoretical perspectives which explain the causes of global recessions and how to prevent them; (ii) to examine the ... These should centre on reducing wealth and income inequality, rapid implementation of the continent's structural transformation and industrialisation agenda, ...

  2. College Costs, Prices and the Great Recession. Lumina Issue Papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Nate

    2014-01-01

    As states and families begin to recover from the effects of the Great Recession, some of the urgency about college affordability may start to ease. The most recent "Trends in College Pricing" report shows tuition rising more slowly than in recent years (Baum and Ma 2013). Growth in Pell grant applications is also expected to slow as…

  3. Physical activity during recess in elementary school: Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of physical activity during unstructured recess in the elementary school considering gender and weight status. There were 66 elementary school participants from southern Spain. Anthropometric parameters, such as body mass, body height and body mass index and physical ...

  4. Gingival recession, oral hygiene and associated factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Females are generally more motivated with regard to oral hygiene practices and thus brush their teeth more frequently than males. Objective: To determine the prevalence of gingival recession, oral hygiene status, oral hygiene practices and associated factors in women attending a maternity ward in Tanzania.

  5. The impact of economic recession on climate change: eight trends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obani, P.C.; Gupta, J.

    2016-01-01

    In the context of deadlocked climate change negotiations, and the expectation that legally binding targets may only set in as early as 2020, this paper addresses the question of whether the current economic recession in major economies in the North can help us buy time by reducing the emissions of

  6. No association between gingival labial recession and facial type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazurova, K.; Renkema, A.M.; Navratilova, Z.; Katsaros, C.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if facial type is a predictor of the development of gingival recession. METHODS: A cohort of 179 orthodontic patients (76 males, 101 females; age before treatment T S = 12.4 years, SD = 0.8) were followed until 5 years post-treatment (T 5 = 20.7 years, SD = 1.2). The presence

  7. Precession and recession of the rock'n'roller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Peter; Bustamante, Miguel D.

    2009-10-01

    We study the dynamics of a spherical rigid body that rocks and rolls on a plane under the effect of gravity. The distribution of mass is non-uniform and the centre of mass does not coincide with the geometric centre. The symmetric case, with moments of inertia I1 = I2 < I3, is integrable and the motion is completely regular. Three known conservation laws are the total energy E, Jellett's quantity QJ and Routh's quantity QR. When the inertial symmetry I1 = I2 is broken, even slightly, the character of the solutions is profoundly changed and new types of motion become possible. We derive the equations governing the general motion and present analytical and numerical evidence of the recession, or reversal of precession, that has been observed in physical experiments. We present an analysis of recession in terms of critical lines dividing the (QR, QJ) plane into four dynamically disjoint zones. We prove that recession implies the lack of conservation of Jellett's and Routh's quantities, by identifying individual reversals as crossings of the orbit (QR(t), QJ(t)) through the critical lines. Consequently, a method is found to produce a large number of initial conditions so that the system will exhibit recession.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal recessive hyper-IgE syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Health Topic: Pneumonia Health Topic: Skin Infections Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (1 link) Autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome Additional NIH Resources (2 links) National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases: DOCK8 Deficiency National Institute of Allergy and ...

  9. Oil-rush, great recession, and 'development' implications for Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oil peak and the 2007/2008 economic recession are the most recent major global events to destabilise the economies of African countries and to afflict the life chances and social (re) production of the subaltern classes. This paper critically analyses Ghana's oil and gas industry to illustrate these issues. The paper ...

  10. School recess, social connectedness and health: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Lauren; Colley, Paige; Franklin, Nicole

    2017-04-01

    Children need opportunities to establish positive social connections at school, yet many school playgrounds are challenged by social conflict that can undermine these connections. When children's social needs go unmet, the resultant feelings of loneliness, isolation and self-doubt can cumulatively lead to mental and physical illness. Because recess is typically the only time during the school day that children are free to socialize and play, we propose a more thoughtful way of thinking about it: from the lens of belongingness. Schools are, historically, designed for instruction. We argue, however, that we need to attend to children's social needs at school. We highlight current research from social neuroscience, belonging and social connectedness in order to delineate the pathways between daily school recess and developmental health trajectories. We then consolidate an array of research on play, social interaction and school change to suggest four areas that could benefit from consideration in research, practice and policy: (i) the culture of recess, (ii) the importance of healthy role models on the playground, (iii) the necessity of activities, options and variety during recess and (iv) the significance of space and spatial layout (indoor and outdoor). We bridge our discussion with the conception of health as described in the Ottawa Charter and emphasize the need to build alliances across sectors to assist schools in their efforts to support children's overall health needs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Formulating the spring discharge-function for the recession period ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion opportunity time, the rain-water got due to high rainfall-intensity than the infiltration rate of catchment-soil. Consequent to this fact, major component of rain water gets converted into over- land flow and escaped from the catchment. The slope values marked with '@' and '+' in table 2 are the two extremes of the recession ...

  12. Two novel mutations in ILDR1 gene cause autosomal recessive ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table 1. Autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss loci and related genes. STR-markers and primers used for screening the loci are listed. Repeated sequence. Locus. Gene STR marker. Position. Forward primer. Reverse primer. Length (bp). DFNB2 MYOTA D11s911 77448582-77448892 CA. D11S937. 77854318- ...

  13. Novel surveillance of psychological distress during the great recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, John W; Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Childers, Matthew A; Zafar, Waleed; Latkin, Carl; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brownstein, John S

    2012-12-15

    Economic stressors have been retrospectively associated with net population increases in nonspecific psychological distress (PD). However, no sentinels exist to evaluate contemporaneous associations. Aggregate Internet search query surveillance was used to monitor population changes in PD around the United States' Great Recession. Monthly PD query trends were compared with unemployment, underemployment, homes in delinquency and foreclosure, median home value or sale prices, and S&P 500 trends for 2004-2010. Time series analyses, where economic indicators predicted PD one to seven months into the future, were performed in 2011. PD queries surpassed 1,000,000 per month, of which 300,000 may be attributable to the Great Recession. A one percentage point increase in mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures was associated with a 16% (95%CI, 9-24) increase in PD queries one-month, and 11% (95%CI, 3-18) four months later, in reference to a pre-Great Recession mean. Unemployment and underemployment had similar associations half and one-quarter the intensity. "Anxiety disorder", "what is depression", "signs of depression", "depression symptoms", and "symptoms of depression" were the queries exhibiting the strongest associations with mortgage delinquencies and foreclosures, unemployment or underemployment. Housing prices and S&P 500 trends were not associated with PD queries. A non-traditional measure of PD was used. It is unclear if actual clinically significant depression or anxiety increased during the Great Recession. Alternative explanations for strong associations between the Great Recession and PD queries, such as media, were explored and rejected. Because the economy is constantly changing, this work not only provides a snapshot of recent associations between the economy and PD queries but also a framework and toolkit for real-time surveillance going forward. Health resources, clinician screening patterns, and policy debate may be informed by changes in PD query

  14. Job gains and losses at large and small firms during the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Juan M. Sánchez; Lowell R. Ricketts

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom says that employment at small firms declines more than employment at large firms during recessions. However, that doesn’t seem to have been the case during the Great Recession of 2007-09.

  15. Exome Sequencing and Directed Clinical Phenotyping Diagnose Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease Presenting as Autosomal Recessive Hypercholesterolemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stitziel, Nathan O.; Fouchier, Sigrid W.; Sjouke, Barbara; Peloso, Gina M.; Moscoso, Alessa M.; Auer, Paul L.; Goel, Anuj; Gigante, Bruna; Barnes, Timothy A.; Melander, Olle; Orho-Melander, Marju; Duga, Stefano; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Nikpay, Majid; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Kooperberg, Charles; Lange, Leslie A.; Ardissino, Diego; McPherson, Ruth; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Reilly, Muredach P.; Rader, Daniel J.; de Faire, Ulf; Schunkert, Heribert; Erdmann, Jeanette; Samani, Nilesh J.; Charnas, Lawrence; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Kastelein, John J. P.; Defesche, Joep C.; Nederveen, Aart J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hovingh, G. Kees

    2013-01-01

    Objective Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia is a rare inherited disorder, characterized by extremely high total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, that has been previously linked to mutations in LDLRAP1. We identified a family with autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia not

  16. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  17. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  18. Recession rate and variability with special emphasis upon the influence of evapotranspiration

    OpenAIRE

    Tallaksen, Lena M.

    1991-01-01

    The recession curve provides important information about the low flow behaviour of rivers, and tells in a general way about the natural water storages feeding the stream. This work has, however, found a high time variability in recessions. In order to derive recession characteristics which are representative for the storage properties of a catchment, it is important to have quantitative knowledge about the factors influencing the recession variability. Using a new, automatic method for calcul...

  19. Dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease in children: Classification by intravenous pyelography, ultrasound, and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaeaeriaeinen, H.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, J.; Kivisaari, L.; Koskimies, O.; Norio, R.

    1988-01-01

    Both dominant and recessive polycystic kidney disease appear in childhood. We have analyzed findings of intravenous pyelography, ultrasound and computed tomography in genetically classified cases of dominant (13 children) and recessive polycystic kidney disease (5 children) and thus defined criteria by which sporadic cases of childhood polycystic kidney disease can be classified to dominant or recessive polycystic kidney disease. (orig.)

  20. Giving Children a Voice: Exploring Qualitative Perspectives on Factors Influencing Recess Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Troelsen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Facilitators and barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. To date, research on recess physical activity has predominantly focused on quantitative measures typically focusing on a narrow set of predefined factors, often constructed by adults. To really understand the factors affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to…

  1. Recess and Reading Achievement of Early Childhood Students in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, schools have tended to eliminate recess period and to devote more time to instruction in order to increase academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample, this study examined reading scores of students who experienced different numbers of recess days in a week, and different number of times and length of recess in…

  2. Recessed insulator and barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT: A novel structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, a gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with recessed insulator and barrier is reported. In the proposed structure, insulator is recessed into the barrier at the drain side and barrier is recessed into the buffer layer at the source side. We study important device characteristics such as electric ...

  3. Did Cuts in State Aid during the Great Recession Lead to Changes in Local Property Taxes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Livingston, Max; Roy, Joydeep

    2014-01-01

    The Great Recession led to marked declines in state revenue. In this paper we investigate whether (and how) local school districts modified their funding and taxing decisions in response to state aid declines in the post-recession period. Our results reveal school districts responded to state aid cuts in the post-recession period by countering…

  4. Non-Overweight and Overweight Children's Physical Activity during School Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Little research has investigated children's physical activity levels during school recess and the contribution of recess to school day physical activity levels by weight status. The aims of this study were to examine non-overweight and overweight children's physical activity levels during school recess, and examine the contribution of…

  5. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  6. Neuromuscular blocking effects of cisatracurium and its antagonism with neostigmine in a canine model of autosomal-recessive centronuclear myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Flores, M; Paré, M D; Campoy, L; Gleed, R D

    2015-12-01

    Centronuclear myopathy (CNM) is a rare congenital condition associated with skeletal muscle weakness. Patients with CNM may have decreased acetylcholine receptor expression and a reduced number of releasable quanta. Such perturbations could affect the time-course of neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) and their antagonism with cholinesterase inhibitors. As a result of the rarity of CNM, prospective data regarding NMBA use in this subpopulation is scarce. We evaluated the neuromuscular blocking effects of cisatracurium and its antagonism with neostigmine in a canine model of CNM. Six dogs with congenital autosomal-recessive CNM and six controls received cisatracurium 0.15 mg kg(-1) i.v. under general anaesthesia and intermittent positive pressure ventilation. Neuromuscular function was monitored with acceleromyography.When the second response (T2) to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation returned, neostigmine 0.04 mg kg(-1) (with glycopyrrolate) were administered i.v. The onset time, time to spontaneous return of T2, and the time to reach a TOF ratio ≥0.9 after neostigmine administration were recorded. Onset time was no different between groups. Median (interquartile range) time to return of T2 was 27 (24-31) min for control dogs and 26 (22-31) min for CNM dogs (P=0.93).After neostigmine administration, a TOF ratio ≥0.9 was reached in 12 (10-15) min and 17 (16-19) min in control and CNM, respectively (P=0.005). The spontaneous return of T2 was not different between groups. However, neostigmine-facilitated recovery was significantly slower in dogs with CNM. Canine autosomal-recessive CNM does not preclude the use of cisatracurium or its antagonism with neostigmine. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  8. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  9. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen

    2016-01-01

    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  10. Oil Price Rise and the Great Recession of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Siamak MONADJEMI

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The financial crises of 2007-2008, caused wide-spread falling output and unemployment, in the affected countries and also globally. The severity of the recession was such that it was called the “Great Recession”. As a result of an increase in demand from China and India, at the same time, oil prices rose significantly. The empirical results from this study show that oil price changes negatively affected global growth rate in the 1970s but not in the 1990s and 2000s. These results suggest that the Great Recession in 2008 that initiated by the financial crises, was independent of a significant rise in oil prices.

  11. Autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy due to impaired ceramide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Striano, Pasquale; Italiano, Domenico; Calarese, Tiziana; Gasparini, Sara; Vanni, Nicola; Fruscione, Floriana; Genton, Pierre; Zara, Federico

    2016-09-01

    Autosomal recessive progressive myoclonus epilepsy due to impaired ceramide synthesis is an extremely rare condition, so far reported in a single family of Algerian origin presenting an unusual, severe form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy characterized by myoclonus, generalized tonic-clonic seizures and moderate to severe cognitive impairment, with probable autosomal recessive inheritance. Disease onset was between 6 and 16 years of age. Genetic study allowed to identify a homozygous nonsynonymous mutation in CERS1, the gene encoding ceramide synthase 1, a transmembrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), catalyzes the biosynthesis of C18-ceramides. The mutation decreased C18-ceramide levels. In addition, downregulation of CerS1 in neuroblastoma cell line showed activation of ER stress response and induction of proapoptotic pathways. This observation demonstrates that impairment of ceramide biosynthesis underlies neurodegeneration in humans.

  12. Early retiree and near-elderly health insurance in recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Elise; Hertel-Fernandez, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines recent trends in health insurance cost and coverage for the near-elderly population (aged 55 to 64), with particular attention directed toward the implications of the 2007 recession. We examine coverage by demographic and socioeconomic characteristics from the Current Population Survey and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. We also estimate the effects of projected increases in the unemployment rate for employer-sponsored insurance coverage of the near elderly in 2009 and 2010. Erosion in coverage is likely to be exacerbated in the short run by the 2007 recession, given rapidly rising unemployment among this age cohort, and in the long-run, given the inability of the labor market to support increased labor market participation of older Americans in jobs that would have traditionally provided health insurance coverage.

  13. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis with a unique imaging finding: multiple encephaloceles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saglam, Dilek; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Bekci, Tuemay; Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut

    2017-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a hereditary form of sclerosing bone dysplasia with various radiological and clinical presentations. The autosomal recessive type, also known as malignant osteopetrosis, is the most severe type, with the early onset of manifestations. A 5-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Chest X-ray and skeletal survey revealed the classic findings of osteopetrosis, including diffuse osteosclerosis and bone within a bone appearance. At follow-up, the patient presented with, thickened calvarium, multiple prominent encephaloceles, and dural calcifications leading to the intracranial clinical manifestations with bilateral hearing and sight loss. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is one of the causes of encephaloceles and this finding may become dramatic if untreated. (orig.)

  14. Serous retinal detachment after trabeculectomy in angle recession glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy, Avik Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old male with 360 degree angle recession after blunt trauma in his right eye developed uncontrolled intraocular pressure (IOP despite four antiglaucoma medications (AGM with advancing disc damage. He underwent trabeculectomy with intraoperative mitomycin-c (MMC application. There was an intraoperative vitreous prolapse which was managed accordingly. On post-surgery day 1, he had shallow choroidal detachment superiorly with non-recordable IOP. This was deteriorated 1 week postoperatively as choroidal detachment proceeded to serous retinal detachment. He was started with systemic steroid in addition to topical route. The serous effusions subsided within 2 weeks time. At the last follow up at 3 months, he was enjoying good visual acuity, deep anterior chamber, diffuse bleb, an IOP in low teens off any AGM and attached retina. This case highlights the rare occurrence of serous retinal detachment after surgical management of angle recession glaucoma.

  15. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis with a unique imaging finding: multiple encephaloceles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saglam, Dilek; Bilgici, Meltem Ceyhan; Bekci, Tuemay [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey); Albayrak, Canan; Albayrak, Davut [Ondokuz Mayis University, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Kurupelit, Samsun (Turkey)

    2017-05-15

    Osteopetrosis is a hereditary form of sclerosing bone dysplasia with various radiological and clinical presentations. The autosomal recessive type, also known as malignant osteopetrosis, is the most severe type, with the early onset of manifestations. A 5-month-old infant was admitted to our hospital with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Chest X-ray and skeletal survey revealed the classic findings of osteopetrosis, including diffuse osteosclerosis and bone within a bone appearance. At follow-up, the patient presented with, thickened calvarium, multiple prominent encephaloceles, and dural calcifications leading to the intracranial clinical manifestations with bilateral hearing and sight loss. Autosomal recessive osteopetrosis is one of the causes of encephaloceles and this finding may become dramatic if untreated. (orig.)

  16. Ghost Stories, Ghost Estates: Melancholia in Irish Recession Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Slavin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers representations of melancholia in post-Celtic Tiger Irish literature. By situating their post-recession fictions in “ghost estates,” or largely uninhabited housing developments, Donal Ryan and Tana French present neoliberally-inflected varieties of melancholia for their contemporary readers to contemplate. The settings of the ghost estates – and the accompanying supernatural elements to the texts – call to mind ghosts of Ireland’s past and legacies of recent economically unsound policies, spurring the reader to think about the imagined loss of futurity that accompanied the Irish economic crash. “Ghost stories for ghost estates,” then, represent an important contribution to the growing field of post-recession Irish literature.

  17. The Great Recession and health risks in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Population health concerns during the United States' Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althouse, Benjamin M; Allem, Jon-Patrick; Childers, Matthew A; Dredze, Mark; Ayers, John W

    2014-02-01

    Associations between economic conditions and health are usually derived from cost-intensive surveys that are intermittently collected with nonspecific measures (i.e., self-rated health). This study identified how precise health concerns changed during the U.S. Great Recession analyzing Google search queries to identify the concern by the query content and their prevalence by the query volume. Excess health concerns were estimated during the Great Recession (December 2008 through 2011) by comparing the cumulative difference between observed and expected (based on linear projections from pre-existing trends) query volume for hundreds of individual terms. As performed in 2013, the 100 queries with the greatest excess were ranked and then clustered into themes based on query content. The specific queries with the greatest relative excess were stomach ulcer symptoms and headache symptoms, respectively, 228% (95% CI=35, 363) and 193% (95% CI=60, 275) greater than expected. Queries typically involved symptomology (i.e., gas symptoms) and diagnostics (i.e., heart monitor) naturally coalescing into themes. Among top themes, headache queries were 41% (95% CI=3, 148); hernia 37% (95% CI=16, 142); chest pain 35% (95% CI=6, 313); and arrhythmia 32% (95% CI=3, 149) greater than expected. Pain was common with back, gastric, joint, and tooth foci, with the latter 19% (95% CI=4, 46) higher. Among just the top 100, there were roughly 205 million excess health concern queries during the Great Recession. Google queries indicate that the Great Recession coincided with substantial increases in health concerns, hinting at how population health specifically changed during that time. © 2013 Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  19. Do Economic Recessions ‘Squeeze the Middle-Class’?

    OpenAIRE

    Batinti, Alberto; Costa-i-Font, Joan

    2017-01-01

    Economic downturns give rise to unexpected employment shocks that can reshape the distribution of population income, and hence produce a “middle-class squeeze”. However, there is limited empirical evidence testing the latter. This paper aims at testing the ‘middle-class squeeze’ hypothesis drawing from unique data from the Luxembourg Income Study (LIS) for several years, including the period of the Great Recession, and the Integrated Values Study (IVS) obtained by merging data from the World ...

  20. The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S.; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers’ responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence o...

  1. Unemployment, labor costs, and recessions: implications for the inflation outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Fee, Kyle; Schweitzer, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Economists have been arguing about the connection between unemployment and infl ation for decades. Critics claim that the connection is unreliable and leads policymakers astray, while others argue that the relationship is useful for forecasting. We examine the more direct connections between elevated unemployment levels and the rate of increase in wage and labor costs, more generally. We fi nd that wage and labor cost growth has declined markedly following recent recessions. It has again decl...

  2. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  3. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  4. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  5. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  6. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  7. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  8. Youth prospects in a time of economic recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cottini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper gives an update to earlier analysis considering youth poverty and transition to adulthood, which is timely given the economic crisis engulfing many countries in Europe. Whereas the crisis is affecting young people in particular, there is also a certain degree of variation across Europe. Objective: We document the short-term consequences of the current recession on the transition to adulthood of young Europeans, focusing on two main cornerstones in the transition to adulthood: economic independence and residential autonomy. Methods: We use a combination of OECD Employment Statistics for 2012 and micro-level data from the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC for the period 2005-2011 for 24 countries. Results: We document an increase in economic hardship experienced by young adults in several European countries during the recession, which is starting to translate into higher rates of co-residence with parents, hence delaying the process of leaving home and gaining economic independence. Conclusions: The way countries are reacting to the recession is not yet clear-cut, but economic uncertainty and deprivation is on the rise in those countries hardest hit, which is likely to delay the key markers of transition to adulthood.

  9. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty. PMID:29401482

  10. Space, body, time and relationship experiences of recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increasing recess physical activity has been the aim of several interventions, as this setting can provide numerous physical activity opportunities. However, it is unclear if these interventions are equally effective for all children, or if they only appeal to children who are already...... the classroom as a space for physical activity, designing schoolyards with smaller secluded spaces and varied facilities, improving children's self-esteem and body image, e.g., during physical education, and creating teacher organised play activities during recess....... physically active. This study was conducted to explore the least physically active children's "lived experiences" within four existential lifeworlds linked to physical activity during recess: space, body, time, and relations. METHODS: The study builds on ethnographic fieldwork in a public school in Denmark...... to participate in the study. To avoid stigmatising and to make generalisations more reliable we further recruited eight children from the two highest activity quartiles (four girls) to participate. RESULTS: An analysis of the least physically active children's "lived experiences" of space, body, time...

  11. Assets among low-income families in the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, Valentina; Pilkauskas, Natasha V; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the association between the Great Recession and real assets among families with young children. Real assets such as homes and cars are key indicators of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to low-income families. Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), we investigate the association between the city unemployment rate and home and car ownership and how the relationship varies by family structure (married, cohabiting, and single parents) and by race/ethnicity (White, Black, and Hispanic mothers). Using mother fixed-effects models, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate is associated with a -0.5 percentage point decline in the probability of home ownership and a -0.7 percentage point decline in the probability of car ownership. We also find that the recession was associated with lower levels of home ownership for cohabiting families and for Hispanic families, as well as lower car ownership among single mothers and among Black mothers, whereas no change was observed among married families or White households. Considering that homes and cars are the most important assets among middle and low-income households in the U.S., these results suggest that the rise in the unemployment rate during the Great Recession may have increased household asset inequality across family structures and race/ethnicities, limiting economic mobility, and exacerbating the cycle of poverty.

  12. Recession and Divorce in the United States, 2008-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Recession may increase divorce through a stress mechanism, or reduce divorce by exacerbating cost barriers or strengthening family bonds. After establishing an individual-level model predicting U.S. women's divorce, the paper tests period effects, and whether unemployment and foreclosures are associated with the odds of divorce using the 2008-2011 American Community Survey. Results show a downward spike in the divorce rate after 2008, almost recovering to the expected level by 2011, which suggests a negative recession effect. On the other hand, state foreclosure rates are positively associated with the odds of divorce with individual controls, although this effect is not significant when state fixed effects are introduced. State unemployment rates show no effect on odds of divorce. Future research will have to determine why national divorce odds fell during the recession while state-level economic indicators were not strongly associated with divorce. Exploratory analysis which shows unemployment decreasing divorce odds for those with college degrees, while foreclosures have the opposite effect, provides one possible avenue for such research. PMID:26023246

  13. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  14. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  15. Spontaneous morphogenetic juvenilization observed in laboratory populations of vector species of Chagas disease (Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Perlowagora-Szumlewicz

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Reported are observations on spontaneous occurring morphogenetic juvenilization in laboratory populations of vector species of Chagas disease. Two general effects have been observed: arrested development and uncoordinated development. These are manifested by supernumerary nymphs (6th stage, intermediate nymphal-adult stages, badly deformed adults developed from 5th instar nymphs, uncoordinated development manifested by grotesque forms of adults, supernumerary adults unable to complete metamorphosis and complete supernumerary adults produced by 6th stage nymphs. The reoccurrence of insects with identical grades of juvenilization in the population is an indication that this is a genetic trait that might be inherited. The factors responsible for morphogenetic juvenilization cannot be transmitted through the juvenilized insects because they are sterile, than they were transmitted through normal insects probably as a recessive or a group recessive factors. The spontaneous morphogenetic juvenilization observed in laboratory populations has a striking similarity to juvenilizing effects induced by application of juvenile hormone analogues, described in the literature and also obtained in our laboratory in a study to be published. Thus it is suggested that both; the altered phenotypes occurring in wild populations and their "phenocopies" induced by the application of juvenile hormone analogues are products of gene controlled identical reactions.

  16. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  17. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  18. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  20. Performance Analysis of High-Speed Deep/Shallow Recessed Hybrid Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper proposes a theoretical analysis of the performance of deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing. It is intended that, on the basis of the numerical results drawn from this study, appropriate shallow recess depth and width can be determined for use in the bearing design process. By adopting bulk flow theory, the turbulent Reynolds equation and energy equation are modified and solved numerically including concentrated inertia effects at the recess edge with different depth and width of shallow recess. The results indicate that the load capacity, drag torque increases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio (half angle of deep recess versus half angle of shallow recess is smaller. In contrast, the flow rate decreases as the depth of shallow recess is shallower and the width ratio is smaller. Nevertheless, the appropriate design of the depth and width of shallow recess might well induce the performance of high-speed deep/shallow recessed hybrid bearing.

  1. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  2. Contemplation of the surgical normogram of lateral rectus recession for exotropia associated with superior oblique palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Yi, Sung-Tae; Lee, Tae-Eun; Cho, Yoonae A

    2012-06-01

    To suggest a surgical normogram for lateral rectus recession in exotropia associated with unilateral or bilateral superior oblique muscle palsy (SOP). We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 71 patients with exotropia who were successfully corrected over one year. Each patient had undergone unilateral or bilateral rectus recession associated with uni- or bilateral inferior oblique (IO) 14 mm recession, using a modified surgical normogram for lateral rectus (LR) recession, which resulted in 1 to 2 mm of reduction of LR recession. We divided all patients into 2 groups, the 34 patients who had undergone LR recession with unilateral IO (UIO) recession group and the remaining 37 patients who had undergone LR recession with bilateral IO (BIO) recession group. Lateral incomitancy was defined when the exoangle was reduced by more than 20% compared to the primary gaze angle. The surgical effects (prism diopters [PD]/mm) of LR recession were compared between the two groups using the previous surgical normogram as a reference (Parks' normogram). The mean preoperative exodeviation was 20.4 PD in the UIO group and 26.4 PD in the BIO group. The recession amount of the lateral rectus muscle ranged from 4 to 8.5 mm in the UIO group and 5 to 9 mm in the BIO group. Lateral incomitancy was noted as 36.4% and 70.3% in both groups, respectively (p = 0.02). The effect of LR recession was 3.23 ± 0.84 PD/mm in the UIO group and 2.98 ± 0.62 PD/mm in the BIO group and there was no statistically significant difference between two the groups (p = 0.15). Reduction of the LR recession by about 1 to 2 mm was successful and safe to prevent overcorrection when using on IO weakening procedure, irrespective of the laterality of SOP.

  3. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  4. Cosmetic surgery in times of recession: macroeconomics for plastic surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Lloyd M

    2002-10-01

    Periods of economic downturn place special demands on the plastic surgeon whose practice involves a large amount of cosmetic surgery. When determining strategy during difficult economic times, it is useful to understand the macroeconomic background of these downturns and to draw lessons from businesses in other service industries. Business cycles and monetary policy determine the overall environment in which plastic surgery is practiced. Plastic surgeons can take both defensive and proactive steps to maintain their profits during recessions and to prepare for the inevitable upturn. Care should also be taken when selecting pricing strategy during economic slowdowns.

  5. The Great Recession and Mother’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Duque, Valentina; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2016-01-01

    We use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Well-being Study to investigate the impacts of the Great Recession on the health of mothers. We focus on a wide range of physical and mental health outcomes, as well as health behaviors. We find that increases in the unemployment rate decrease self-reported health status and increase smoking and drug use. We also find evidence of heterogeneous impacts. Disadvantaged mothers—African-American, Hispanic, less educated, and unmarried–experience greater deterioration in their health than advantaged mothers—those who are white, married, and college educated. PMID:27212714

  6. Mutations of the tyrosinase gene produce autosomal recessive ocular albinism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.A.; Summers, C.G.; Oetting, W.S. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Albinism has historically been divided into ocular (OA) and oculocutaneous (OCA) types based on the presence or absence of clinically apparent skin and hair involvement in an individual with the ocular features of albinism. The major genes for OCA include the tyrosinase gene in OCA1 and the P gene in OCA2. X-linked and autosomal recessive OA have been described and the responsible genes have not been identified. We now present six Caucasian individuals who have the phenotype of autosomal recessive OA but who have OCA1 as shown by the presence of mutations of the tyrosinase. They had white or very light hair and white skin at birth, and cutaneous pigment developed in the first decade of life. At ages ranging from 1.5-23 years, hair color was dark blond to light brown. The skin had generalized pigment and well developed tan was present on the exposed arm and face skin of four. Iris pigment was present and iris translucency varied. Molecular analysis of the tyrosinase gene, using PCR amplification and direct di-deoxy sequencing showed the following mutations: E398Z/E398Q, P406S/g346a, R402E/T373K, ?/D383N, and H211N/T373K. The homozygous individual was not from a known consanguineous mating. T373K is the most common tyrosinase gene mutation in our laboratory. Three of these mutations are associated with a total loss of tyrosinase activity (g346a splice-site, T373K, and D383N), while four are associated with residual enzyme activity (H211N, R402E, E398Q, and P406S). These studies show that mutations of the tyrosinase gene can produce the phenotype of autosomal recessive OA in an individual who has normal amounts of cutaneous pigment and the ability to tan after birth. This extends the phenotypic range of OCA1 to normal cutaneous pigment after early childhood, and suggest that mutations of the tyrosinase gene account for a significant number of individuals with autosomal recessive OA.

  7. The Great Recession, genetic sensitivity, and maternal harsh parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohoon; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara S; Notterman, Daniel; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2013-08-20

    Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined the effects of the Great Recession on maternal harsh parenting. We found that changes in macroeconomic conditions, rather than current conditions, affected harsh parenting, that declines in macroeconomic conditions had a stronger impact on harsh parenting than improvements in conditions, and that mothers' responses to adverse economic conditions were moderated by the DRD2 Taq1A genotype. We found no evidence of a moderating effect for two other, less well-studied SNPs from the DRD4 and DAT1 genes.

  8. X-Linked and Autosomal Recessive Alport Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savige, Judith; Storey, Helen; Il Cheong, Hae

    2016-01-01

    Alport syndrome results from mutations in the COL4A5 (X-linked) or COL4A3/COL4A4 (recessive) genes. This study examined 754 previously- unpublished variants in these genes from individuals referred for genetic testing in 12 accredited diagnostic laboratories worldwide, in addition to all published...... COL4A5, COL4A3 and COL4A4 variants in the LOVD databases. It also determined genotype-phenotype correlations for variants where clinical data were available. Individuals were referred for genetic testing where Alport syndrome was suspected clinically or on biopsy (renal failure, hearing loss...

  9. Anatomy of the pleura: reflection lines and recesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertin, François; Deslauriers, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the lines of pleural reflection, triangular ligaments, and pleural recesses is important to thoracic surgeons because their anatomic areas are used daily for radiographic interpretation as well as for the performance of procedures such as chest tube insertion, thoracentesis, and pericardiocentesis. Their knowledge is also important for thoracic surgeons doing surgical procedures such as parietal pleurectomies, extrapleural mobilization and resection of the lungs, and pleuroneumonectomies for destroyed lungs or malignant pleural neoplasms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Unusual Association Between Spontaneous Lateral Sphenoid Encephalocele and Chiari Malformation Type I: Endoscopic Repair Through a Transpterygoid Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnoni, Daniele; Daniel, Roy Thomas; George, Mercy; Messerer, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous meningoencephaloceles of the lateral sphenoid sinus are rare entities, and their peculiar location represents a surgical challenge due to the importance of a wide exposure and skull base reconstruction. They are thought to arise from the congenital base defect of the lateral sphenoid or in some cases have been postulated to represent a rare manifestation of altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. We report the first case in the literature of a Chiari malformation type I (CMI) and a lateral sphenoid encephalocele, revising the theoretic etiology and surgical technique of endoscopic repair. A 50-year-old woman with a surgical history of symptomatic CMI presented with episodes of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea. Radiologic investigations revealed a left mesial temporal encephalocele herniating into the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus and radiologic features of altered CSF dynamics, which may have played an etiologic role. An endoscopic transpterygoid excision of the encephalocele and multilayer skull base repair were performed. The association of spontaneous lateral sphenoid encephaloceles with CMI is distinctly unusual. Predisposing factors and disruption of CSF dynamics may play a major role in the development of these rare complications in patients with CMI. Because of their distinct location, transethmoid or transpterygoid endoscopic approaches represent an excellent surgical technique to treat these lesions thanks to their wide and direct visualization of the entire skull base defect following the encephalocele excision, allowing an adequate multilayer repair and lateral sphenoid recess occlusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhanced light extraction of organic light-emitting diodes using recessed anodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.M.; Zeng, Y.X.; Lin, B.T.; Lin, W.M.; Wu, W.T.

    2014-01-01

    Recessed indium tin oxide films were prepared to serve as anodes for enhancing light extraction efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The power efficiency of OLEDs with the proposed films was enhanced by up to 28%. This improvement can be attributed to enhanced light extraction due to the wall effect and the bottom scattering effect of the recesses. The power efficiency increased with recess depth but was limited by the accompanying high electrical resistivity and large optical loss.

  12. The dynamics of business investment following banking crises and normal recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Jannsen, Nils

    2015-01-01

    I empirically analyze the dynamics of business investment following normal recessions (declines in business investment that are not associated with banking crises) and banking crises. Using a panel of 16 advanced economies, I find evidence for significant non-linear trend reversion or bounce-back effects on the level of business investment following normal recessions, i.e., the deeper the previous recession was, the higher the growth rate of business investment will be. The trend reversion ef...

  13. US Infl ation and infl ation uncertainty in a historical perspective: The impact of recessions

    OpenAIRE

    Don Bredin; Stilianos Fountas

    2011-01-01

    We use over two hundred years of US inflation data to examine the impact of inflation uncertainty on inflation. An analysis of the full period without allowing for various regimes shows no impact of uncertainty on inflation. However, once we distinguish between recessions and non recessions, we find that inflation uncertainty has a negative effect on inflation only in recession times, thus providing support to the Holland hypothesis.

  14. Recessive omodysplasia: five new cases and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elcioglu, Nursel H.; Gustavson, Karl H.; Wilkie, Andrew O.M.; Yueksel-Apak, Memune; Spranger, Juergen W.

    2004-01-01

    Autosomal recessive omodysplasia (MIM 258315) is a rare skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe congenital micromelia with shortening and distal tapering of the humeri and femora to give a club-like appearance. Fewer than 20 cases have been reported in the literature so far. The purpose of this study was to more clearly describe the clinical and radiographic phenotypes and their changes with age. Five new patients, including two sibs, with autosomal recessive omodysplasia are presented. Clinical features are rhizomelic dwarfism with limited extension of elbows and knees and a distinct face with a short nose, depressed nasal bridge, long philtrum, midline haemangiomas in infants and cryptorchidism in males. Radiological findings are distal hypoplasia of the short humerus and femur with characteristic radial dislocation and radioulnar diastasis. Based on a review of these and 16 previously reported patients, the regressive nature of the humerofemoral changes and the obvious male predominance are stressed. Phenotypic similarities with the atelosteogenesis group of disorders and with diastrophic dysplasia suggest common pathogenetic mechanisms. (orig.)

  15. GNE missense mutation in recessive familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köroğlu, Çiğdem; Yılmaz, Rezzak; Sorgun, Mine Hayriye; Solakoğlu, Seyhun; Şener, Özden

    2017-12-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease eventually leading to death from respiratory failure. Recessive inheritance is very rare. Here, we describe the clinical findings in a consanguineous family with five men afflicted with recessive ALS and the identification of the homozygous mutation responsible for the disorder. The onset of the disease ranged from 12 to 35 years of age, with variable disease progressions. We performed clinical investigations including metabolic and paraneoplastic screening, cranial and cervical imaging, and electrophysiology. We mapped the disease gene to 9p21.1-p12 with a LOD score of 5.2 via linkage mapping using genotype data for single-nucleotide polymorphism markers and performed exome sequence analysis to identify the disease-causing gene variant. We also Sanger sequenced all coding sequences of SIGMAR1, a gene reported as responsible for juvenile ALS in a family. We did not find any mutation in SIGMAR1. Instead, we identified a novel homozygous missense mutation p.(His705Arg) in GNE which was predicted as damaging by online tools. GNE has been associated with inclusion body myopathy and is expressed in many tissues. We propose that the GNE mutation underlies the pathology in the family.

  16. The impact of economic recession on infection prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Riordan, M; Fitzpatrick, F

    2015-04-01

    The economic recession that began in 2007 led to austerity measures and public sector cutbacks in many European countries. Reduced resource allocation to infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes is impeding prevention and control of tuberculosis, HIV and vaccine-preventable infections. In addition, higher rates of infectious disease in the community have a significant impact on hospital services, although the extent of this has not been studied. With a focus on quick deficit reduction, preventive services such IPC may be regarded as non-essential. Where a prevention programme succeeds in reducing disease burden to a low level, its very success can undermine the perceived need for the programme. To mitigate the negative effects of recession, we need to: educate our political leaders about the economic benefits of IPC; better quantify the costs of healthcare-associated infection; and evaluate the effects of budget cuts on healthcare outcomes and IPC activities. Copyright © 2015 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. European health inequality through the 'Great Recession': Social policy matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wel, Kjetil A; Saltkjel, Therese; Chen, Wen-Hao; Dahl, Espen; Halvorsen, Knut

    2018-03-02

    This paper investigates the association between the Great Recession and educational inequalities in self-rated general health in 25 European countries. We investigate four different indicators related to economic recession: GDP; unemployment; austerity and a 'crisis' indicator signifying severe simultaneous drops in GDP and welfare generosity. We also assess the extent to which health inequality changes can be attributed to changes in the economic conditions and social capital in the European populations. The paper uses data from the European Social Survey (2002-2014). The analyses include both cross-sectional and lagged associations using multilevel linear regression models with country fixed effects. This approach allows us to identify health inequality changes net of all time-invariant differences between countries. GDP drops and increasing unemployment were associated with decreasing health inequalities. Austerity, however, was related to increasing health inequalities, an association that grew stronger with time. The strongest increase in health inequality was found for the more robust 'crisis' indicator. Changes in trust, social relationships and in the experience of economic hardship of the populations accounted for much of the increase in health inequality. The paper concludes that social policy has an important role in the development of health inequalities, particularly during times of economic crisis. © 2018 The Authors. Sociology of Health & Illness published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Foundation for SHIL.

  18. Climatic and geomorphic controls on low flow hydrograph recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, D. G.; Daley, M.; Kasaee Roodsari, B.; Shaw, S. B.; McNamara, J.

    2017-12-01

    Large scale operational hydrologic models should be capable of predicting seasonally low flow and stream intermittency as well as peak flow and inundation. We contrast examples of controls on low flow exerted by geomorphic and climatic setting at small catchment study sites in the Northeast and Northwest of the USA to indicate differences in hydrologic processes. Both regions accumulate winter snowpack and have an extended spring freshet, but the Reynolds Creek CZO and Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (both in Idaho mountains) experience a protracted summer drought, with occasional storms whereas precipitation free periods greater than five days are uncommon in the hilly Sleepers River (Vermont), and Yellow Barn State Forest (New York) and at Ley Creek, on a glacial plain (New York). At both Dry Creek and Reynolds Creek, headwater stream flow direction was transverse to groundwater, and below field capacity discharge was well related to either the ground water surface or corresponded to inversion of the hydraulic gradient over the depth of the soil. At all sites except Ley Creek, the headwaters became intermittent as the main tributary discharge declined, often disconnecting the surface source springs and seeps from the valley bottom stream. At the Idaho sites recession analysis for main stem was further complicated by consumptive use for irrigation and domestic wells. Modeling the recession characteristics of these various settings and across stream orders results in a variety of exponent values for power law scaling approaches that indicate the importance of site context for modeling low flow.

  19. Young entrepreneurs’ trust during the recession: Evidence from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Vojislav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the influence of positive trust on business activities, entrepreneurship development, and economic growth. During the global recession, institutions make numerous decisions to find answers to the crisis that influence the behaviour of entrepreneurs. In such situations, significant stocks of trust are of great importance for economy stability and the motivation of future entrepreneurs. In the first section the terms, functions, and types of trust are defined. The second section presents the results of measuring the interpersonal and institutional trust of young entrepreneurs, representatives of future entrepreneurship and business and bearers of networking ideas in Serbia. The results show that young entrepreneurs have a serious trust deficit, which is worrying in people who are potential future business leaders. Only one fifth of the respondents intends to start their own firm when they have finished studying. The reasons most often given are that government economic policy and monopolies hamper starting a business. Most of the respondents thought that the government should be more involved in providing a better environment for medium and small business. Most respondents believed that the Serbian recession was caused foremost by wrong governmental economic policy, followed by corruption.

  20. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Kirsch

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275. Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  1. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults ( N  = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships.

  2. Gender Differences in Mental Health Outcomes before, during, and after the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagher, Rada K; Chen, Jie; Thomas, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    We examined gender differences in mental health outcomes during and post-recession versus pre-recession. We utilized 2005-2006, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. Females had lower odds of depression diagnoses during and post-recession and better mental health during the recession, but higher odds of anxiety diagnoses post-recession. Males had lower odds of depression diagnoses and better mental health during and post-recession and lower Kessler 6 scores post-recession. We conducted stratified analyses, which confirmed that the aforementioned findings were consistent across the four different regions of the U.S., by employment status, income and health care utilization. Importantly, we found that the higher odds of anxiety diagnoses among females after the recession were mainly prominent among specific subgroups of females: those who lived in the Northeast or the Midwest, the unemployed, and those with low household income. Gender differences in mental health in association with the economic recession highlight the importance of policymakers taking these differences into consideration when designing economic and social policies to address economic downturns. Future research should examine the reasons behind the decreased depression diagnoses among both genders, and whether they signify decreased mental healthcare utilization or increased social support and more time for exercise and leisure activities.

  3. Hardships of the Great Recession and health: Understanding varieties of vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Julie A; Ryff, Carol D

    2016-01-01

    The Great Recession of 2007–2009 is regarded as the most severe economic downturn since World War II. This study examined relationships between reported recession hardships and physical health in a national survey of American adults (N = 1275). Furthermore, education and psychological resources (perceived control, purpose in life, and conscientiousness) were tested as moderators of the health impacts of the recession. A greater number of hardships predicted poorer health, especially among the less educated. Psychological resources interacted with education and hardships to predict health outcomes. Although typically viewed as protective factors, such resources became vulnerabilities among educationally disadvantaged adults experiencing greater recession hardships. PMID:28070407

  4. Gingival Recession in a Child-Patient; Easily Missed Etiologies: Case Report with Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwhator, SO

    2014-01-01

    Gingival recession is commonly associated with plaque-induced inflammation and calculus. A high frenal attachment is more important in gingival recession in the child-patient. A healthy child-patient with impeccable oral hygiene presented with localized gingival recession without plaque-induced inflammation which led to the exploration of other possible etiologies. Multiple factors appeared to be acting in consonance (Concomitant multiple etiologies [CME]). The factors were a high frenal attachment, traumatic overbite and bruxism induced by premature tooth contacts. Pedodontists and periodontists should rule out CME in cases of gingival recession in the child-patient. PMID:25031899

  5. Mutations in PCDH21 cause autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Elsebet; Batbayli, M; Dunø, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Cone-rod dystrophy is a retinal dystrophy with early loss of cone photoreceptors and a parallel or subsequent loss of rod photoreceptors. It may be syndromic, but most forms are non-syndromic with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive inheritance.......Cone-rod dystrophy is a retinal dystrophy with early loss of cone photoreceptors and a parallel or subsequent loss of rod photoreceptors. It may be syndromic, but most forms are non-syndromic with autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive inheritance....

  6. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  7. General features of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    The classical version of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in details. It is shown that the relation between the time derivative of the (pseudo)goldstone field and the baryonic chemical potential essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks). The kinetic equation, used for the calculations of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, is generalized to the case of non-stationary background. The effects of the finite interval of the integration over time are also included into consideration.

  8. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail: skattapuram@partners.org

    2008-07-15

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  9. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  10. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  11. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  12. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkanuparph S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, spontaneous peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is uncommon. Delayed diagnosis of cryptococcal peritonitis often results in death. We describe three cases of spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One case had associated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical awareness of this entity may lead to the early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  13. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  14. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  15. Measurement of the lateral recess angle as a possible alternative for evaluation of the lateral recess stenosis on a CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strojnik, T.

    2001-01-01

    Stenosis of the lateral recess in the lumbar spinal canal is a clinical problem, especially in terms of surgical management. Criteria for the diagnosis and surgical treatment of lateral recess stenosis (LRS) are not clearly defined. Several authors have suggested measurement of the lateral recess height (LRH) on computed tomography (CT) scans as a helpful tool for making decisions in regard of management. The present study is based an the assumption that measurement of the lateral recess angle (LRA) may be useful in the clinical management of lateral recess stenosis. The reliability and significance of the results have been analyzed. In 35 patients, the stenosis was confirmed by intraoperative measurement of the lateral recess height. Fifty-three affected lateral recesses were analyzed. Before surgery, the heights on CT scans were measured. The mean value was 3.3 mm (SD = 0.9 mm), while 41 of them were 3.6 mm or less. Furthermore, the angles on CT scans were evaluated. The mean value was 25.9 degrees (SD = 4.9 degrees), 48 of them were 30 degrees or less and only 5 of them achieved more than 30 degrees. Results reveal that the best quantitative determination of a lateral recess stenosis is a CT scan angle measurement with a critical value of 30 degrees. A CT scan height of 3.6 mm or less is also indicative of stenosis. Statistical evaluation of the data by multiple regression analysis revealed agreement between intraoperative findings and measured heights (p = 0.02), while even better results were noted for angles (p < 0.01). Interfacet distance (IF) was found to be least predictive (p = 0.04). (author)

  16. Performance analysis of SOI MOSFET with rectangular recessed channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M; Mishra, G P; Mishra, S; Mohanty, S S

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a two dimensional (2D) rectangular recessed channel–silicon on insulator metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (RRC-SOI MOSFET), using the concept of groove between source and drain regions, which is one of the channel engineering technique to suppress the short channel effect (SCE). This suppression is mainly due to corner potential barrier of the groove and the simulation is carried out by using ATLAS 2D device simulator. To have further improvement of SCE in RRC-SOI MOSFET, three more devices are designed by using dual material gate (DMG) and gate dielectric technique, which results in formation of devices i.e. DMRRC-SOI,MLSMRRC-SOI, MLDMRRC-SOI MOSFET. The effect of different structures of RRC-SOI on AC and RF parameters are investigated and the importance of these devices over RRC MOSFET regarding short channel effect is analyzed. (paper)

  17. Crossover suppressors and balanced recessive lethals in Caenorhabditis elegans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    Two dominant suppressors of crossing over have been identified following x-ray treatment of the small nematode C. elegans. They suppress crossing over in linkage group II (LGII) about 100-fold and 50-fold and are both tightly linked to LGII markers. One, called C1, segregates independently of all other linkage groups and is homozygous fertile. The other is a translocation involving LGII and X. The translocation also suppresses crossing over along the right half of X and is homozygous lethal. C1 has been used as a balancer of LGII recessive lethal and sterile mutations induced by EMS. The frequencies of occurrence of lethals and steriles were approximately equal. Fourteen mutations were assigned to complementation groups and mapped. They tended to map in the same region where LGII visibles are clustered

  18. Private Financial Transfers, Family Income, and the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Aaron; Pilkauskas, Natasha; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,701; 1998–2010), the authors studied whether the unemployment rate was associated with private financial transfers (PFTs) among urban families with young children and whether family income moderated these associations. They found that an increase in the unemployment rate was associated with greater PFT receipt and that family income moderated the association. Poor and near-poor mothers experienced increases in PFT receipt when unemployment rates were high, whereas mothers with incomes between 2 and 3 times the poverty threshold experienced decreases. Simulations estimating the impact of the Great Recession suggest that moving from 5% to 10% unemployment is associated with a 9-percentage-point increase in the predicted probability of receiving a PFT for the sample as a whole, with greater increases in predicted probabilities among poor and near poor mothers. PMID:25505802

  19. The Great Recession and the Social Safety Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    The social safety net responded in significant and favorable ways during the Great Recession. Aggregate per capita expenditures grew significantly, with particularly strong growth in the SNAP, EITC, UI, and Medicaid programs. Distributionally, the increase in transfers was widely shared across demographic groups, including families with and without children, single-parent and two-parent families. Transfers grew as well among families with more employed members and with fewer employed members. However, the increase in transfer amounts was not strongly progressive across income classes within the low-income population, increasingly slightly more for those just below the poverty line and those just above it, compared to those at the bottom of the income distribution. This is mainly the result of the EITC program, which provides greater benefits to those with higher family earnings. The expansions of SNAP and UI benefitted those at the bottom of the income distribution to a greater extent. PMID:27065356

  20. Entering adulthood in a recession tempers later narcissism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Emily C

    2014-07-01

    Despite widespread interest in narcissism, relatively little is known about the conditions that encourage or dampen it. Drawing on research showing that macroenvironmental conditions in emerging adulthood can leave a lasting imprint on attitudes and behaviors, I argue that people who enter adulthood during recessions are less likely to be narcissistic later in life than those who come of age in more prosperous times. Using large samples of American adults, Studies 1 and 2 showed that people who entered adulthood during worse economic times endorsed fewer narcissistic items as older adults. Study 3 extended these findings to a behavioral manifestation of narcissism: the relative pay of CEOs. CEOs who came of age in worse economic times paid themselves less relative to other top executives in their firms. These findings suggest that macroenvironmental experiences at a critical life stage can have lasting implications for how unique, special, and deserving people believe themselves to be. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. The 2007-09 recession and health insurance coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, John

    2011-01-01

    Loss of employment and declining incomes meant that five million Americans lost employment-based health insurance during the recent economic recession (2007-09). All groups of Americans were affected, but the growth in the number of uninsured people was particularly noticeable for whites, native-born citizens, and residents of the Midwest and South. Adults did not benefit nearly as much as children from public programs designed to offset the decline in employer-sponsored insurance and thus bore all of the burden of rising uninsurance. Throughout the past decade, even in good economic times, the number of Americans with employer-sponsored insurance has fallen, and the number of uninsured Americans has increased. This finding underscores the importance of planned coverage expansions under the Affordable Care Act.

  2. A Recessive Mutation in the Insulin Gene in Neonatal Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulmoein Eid Al-Agha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal diabetes mellitus (DM is a persistent hyperglycemia occurring in the first 4-6 weeks of life that lasts more than two weeks and requires insulin for management. We report a case of a 23-day-old boy with neonatal diabetes due to recessive inheritance INS promoter C-331 C>A mutation accompanied by diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA. The hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis resolved by the 48th hour of treatment consisting of IV insulin and rehydration. Subsequently, insulin treatment was continued with neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH insulin. Neonatal DM due to genetic mutation may mimic sepsis and should be kept in mind for all newborns who present with shortness of breath, vomiting, and dehydration.

  3. Axial Lengths in Children with Recessive Cornea Plana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hazimi, Amro; Khan, Arif O

    2015-06-01

    While flat keratometry contributes to the hyperopia and associated refractive accommodative esotropia that is part of recessive cornea plana, whether or not axial lengths are abnormally short in the disease is unclear. In this study we assess this possibility. Prospective (2010-2012) axial length measurement (IOLmaster; Carl Zeiss, Oberkochen, Germany) of affected right eyes and comparison to right eyes with refractive accommodative esotropia only. Keratometry and refraction were also performed. For eight affected right eyes (age 10-12 years; seven families) axial length ranged from 21.46-24.80 mm (mean 23.34). Best corrected visual acuity ranged from 20/25 to 20/50, keratometry from 25.33-39.80 diopters (D) [mean 31.80], and refraction from +2.00 to +14.00 D (mean +7.22). For 50 control right eyes (age 4-12 years), axial length ranged from 19.87-23.66 mm (mean 21.6). Best-corrected visual acuity was 20/25 or better, keratometry ranged from 39.81-46.25 D (mean 42.42), and refraction from +2.25 to +8.00 D (mean 4.71). Axial lengths were longer in the affected group (2-tailed unpaired t-test p value 0.000005) despite greater hyperopia (2-tailed unpaired t-test p value 0.001). Despite greater hyperopia, axial lengths were longer in eyes with recessive cornea plana, evidence that axial lengths are not shortened by the disease. Keratometry in children with cornea plana was below the range of controls and was the major factor underlying the phenotype's hyperopia.

  4. Information cascades and the distribution of economic recessions in capitalist economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormerod, Paul

    2004-10-01

    We consider in this paper the distribution of the cumulative size of recessions in 17 capitalist countries over the period 1871-1994, using data on annual percentage changes in real GDP. A recession is defined as a year in which GDP growth is negative, and the cumulative change is the change from peak to trough during a recession period. We examine both the whole sample and different partitions of the data. The null hypothesis that the size distribution of recessions follows an exponential distribution is never rejected at the conventional level of statistical significance, p=0.05. However, there are always a small number of large recessions, no matter how the data is partitioned, which are not well fitted by a least-squares regression of the log of size on the rank of size. In other words, in a qualitative sense we see a bimodal distribution of recessions, with an exponential fit to the bulk of the data, and a second peak describing a small number of very large recessions. A previously published agent-based economic theory model of the business cycle, calibrated purely on US data, is able with no change in its parameters to generate an exponential distribution of the size of recessions very close to that which is actually observed. In this model, information flows between agents on a completely connected network.

  5. A Case Study of Teachers' Recess Practices Related to Students with Exceptional Learning Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Andrea E.

    2012-01-01

    Appropriate recess time for young students is an agent for healthy growth, development, and academic performance. Recess time for young students is dissipating due to increased pressure for higher test scores, problematic behaviors on the playground, and its inclusion within classroom discipline policies. Researchers have reported the majority…

  6. The Recess Debate: A Disjuncture between Educational Policy and Scientific Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Anthony D.

    2008-01-01

    Some devalue recess because they assume it to be a waste of time. There is no theory or empirical evidence to support this point of view. There is, however, abundant and clear evidence that recess has beneficial effects on children's social competence and academic performance. The author tells how his interest in standardized tests led him to…

  7. The Effects of Four Decades of Recession on Higher Education Enrollments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Dianne A.; Ramdin, Gianna; Vásquez-Colina, María D.

    2013-01-01

    The United States experienced six economic recessions between 1970 and 2009. The impact of economic recession on higher education enrollment was examined using seasonally adjusted data from the U.S. Census and the U.S. Department of Labor Bureau of Labor Statistics, Unemployment Level-Civilian Labor Force. One-way analysis of variance, factorial…

  8. Museums and Other Nonprofits in the Current Recession: A Story of Resilience, Innovation, and Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Stephanie Lessans; Salamon, Lester M.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a nationwide survey conducted in the spring of 2009 that examined the impacts of the current recession on nonprofit organizations, including museums. The survey identified a host of negative effects that nonprofits have been experiencing as a result of the recession, including reduced organizational revenues,…

  9. Bond Market Asymmetries across Recessions and Expansions: New Evidence on Risk Premia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller; Engsted, Tom; Møller, Stig Vinther

    and positive regression slopes. We reproduce these coefficients in a term structure model with business cycle dependent loadings in the market price of risk. This model also predicts excess returns in the right direction during expansions and recessions, whereas the Gaussian affine term structure model...... predicts excess returns for medium- and long-term bonds with the wrong sign during recessions....

  10. How the Economy Influences Pedagogy: The Great Recession's Influence on Elementary Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Amanda G.

    2017-01-01

    From 2007 to 2009, the United States experienced one of the greatest economic declines reported in the previous decades, known as the Great Recession (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2012). While a great deal of media attention focused on the immediate financial effects of the recession, little discussion was made about the influence of this crisis…

  11. National Postsecondary Enrollment Trends: Before, during, and after the Great Recession. Signature[TM] Report 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Afet; Hossler, Don; Shapiro, Doug; Chen, Jin; Martin, Sarah; Torres, Vasti; Zerquera, Desiree; Ziskin, Mary

    2011-01-01

    This report, "National Postsecondary Enrollment Trends: Before, During, and After the Great Recession," brings to light emerging national and regional patterns among traditional-age, first-time students enrolling in colleges and universities during the fall term each year from 2006 through 2010--before, during, and after the recession.…

  12. Impact of the Great Recession on industry unemployment: a 1976-2011 comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takhtamanova, Yelena; Sierminska, Eva

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the mechanisms driving the persistently high unemployment rate during the last recession and mild recovery. Previous studies have examined the demographic aspect of the recession. We focus on specific industries. Consequently, we propose a methodology to decompose changes in the

  13. The Ecology of Student Retention: Undergraduate Students and the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Pilar; Malcolm, Zaria; Parish, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated qualitatively how undergraduate students experienced the Great Recession at a flagship university in the South Eastern of United States and how this experience relates to their retention. Results indicate that the Great Recession has significantly impacted students' engagement and commitments. We argue that student…

  14. The Impact of the Recession on Public Library Use in Colorado: A Closer Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Hofschire, Linda; Daisey, Jamie

    2011-01-01

    This report shares the statistical trends for public library use in Colorado before and since the onset of the latest recession. It also includes the voices of librarians from around the state, offering their observations and stories of how public libraries are helping in these difficult times. To determine the impact of the Great Recession on use…

  15. The Recession's Ongoing Impact on America's Children: Indicators of Children's Economic Well-Being through 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2011-01-01

    Children throughout the United States continue to be negatively impacted by the lingering effects of the Great Recession, with children in some states more hard hit than others. The impact of the recession on children can be hard to see. Some economic statistics ignore children, while others come out with a long time delay. This updated issue…

  16. Understanding Factors Associated with Children's Motivation to Engage in Recess-Time Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrat, Merav W.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is linked with health and academic benefits. While recess provides the greatest opportunity for children to accumulate physical activity, most children are not motivated to engage in sufficient amounts of physical activity during recess. Research demonstrates a strong relationship between self-efficacy and children's motivation…

  17. How economic recessions and unemployment affect illegal drug use: A systematic realist literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Hummel, Karin; de Goeij, Moniek C. M.; de Vries, Hein; Kaner, Eileen; Lemmens, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Economic recessions may influence illegal drug use via different mechanisms, for example increased use due to more psychological distress or decreased use due to lower incomes and purchasing power. This paper reviews the literature on how economic recessions and unemployment affect the

  18. 41 CFR 302-8.300 - Under what authority am I provided storage during school recess?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Overseas Dependents School (DoDDS) Teachers § 302-8.300 Under what authority am I provided storage during school recess? (a) Description. The Department of Defense Overseas Teachers Pay and Personnel... I provided storage during school recess? 302-8.300 Section 302-8.300 Public Contracts and Property...

  19. Autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of a Coffin-Siris like syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonioli, E; Palmieri, A; Bertola, A; Bellini, C

    1995-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of a Coffin-Siris like syndrome: Coffin-Siris syndrome is a rare mental retardation/multiple congenital anomalies syndrome; so far its pattern of inheritance is under debate. We report a child affected by this syndrome, the pedigree of which is consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance.

  20. Surgical treatment of gingival recessions using Emdogain gel : Clinical procedure and case reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, F; Wennstrom, J; Van der Weijden, F; Schneiders, T; Van der Velden, U

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the clinical procedure and outcome of surgical treatment of gingival recessions with the adjunctive use of Emdogain gel, an enamel matrix derivative bioactive material for periodontal reconstructive surgery. Six cases with gingival recession on maxillary canines are presented

  1. Did the Recession Impact Student Success? Relationships of Finances, Staffing and Institutional Type on Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansemer-Topf, Ann M.; Downey, Jillian; Thompson, Katherine; Genschel, Ulrike

    2018-01-01

    Economic recessions impact higher education institutions in complex ways. Several analyses have examined the influence of the 2007-2009 recession on tuition, enrollments, revenues, and expenditures, but the connection of these resource allocation patterns to a student success outcome--namely, retention--is limited. This study examined…

  2. A dairy calf DNA biobank for the discovery of new recessive genetic disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    This abstract describes the establishment of a new DNA biobank to support the discovery of new recessive genetic disorders in the U.S. dairy cattle population. High-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes have recently been used to identify a number of novel recessive mutations that adverse...

  3. Effects of combined gate and ohmic recess on GaN HEMTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AlGaN/GaN, because of their superior material properties, are most suitable semiconductor material for High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs. In this work we investigated the hidden physics behind these materials and studied the effect of recess technology in AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. The device under investigation is simulated for different recess depth using Silvaco-Atlas TCAD. Recess technology improves the performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. We considered three kinds of recess technology gate, ohmic and combination of gate and ohmic. Gate recess improves transconductance gm but it reduces the drain current Id of the device under investigation. Ohmic recess improves the transconductance gm but it introduces leakage current Ig in the device. In order to use AlGaN/GaN for high voltage operation, both the transconductance and the drain current should be reasonably high which is obtained by combining both gate and ohmic recess technologies. A good balance in transconductance and drain current is achieved by combining both gate and ohmic recess technologies without any leakage current.

  4. Gingival labial recessions in orthodontically treated and untreated individuals : a case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne Marie; Fudalej, Piotr S.; Renkema, Alianne A. P.; Abbas, Frank; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    Objectives To evaluate the long-term development of labial gingival recessions during orthodontic treatment and retention phase. Material and Methods In this retrospective casecontrol study, the presence of gingival recession was scored (Yes or No) on plaster models of 100 orthodontic patients

  5. Lymphocytes from wasted mice express enhanced spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloschak, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States); Chang-Liu, Chin-Mei [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Chung, Jen; Libertin, C.R. [Loyola Univ. Medical Center, Maywood, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive mutation wasted (wst/wst) display a disease pattern including faulty repair of DNA damage in lymphocytes after radiation exposure, neurologic abnormalities, and immunodeficiency. Many of the features of this mouse model have suggested a premature or increased spontaneous frequency of apoptosis in thymocytes; past work has shown an inability to establish cultured T cell lines, an abnormally high death rate of stimulated T cells in culture, and an increased sensitivity of T cells to the killing effects of ionizing radiations in wst/wst mice relative to controls. The experiments reported here were designed to examine splenic and thymic lymphocytes from wasted and control mice for signs of early apoptosis. Our results revealed enhanced expression of Rp-8 mRNA (associated with apoptosis) in thymic lymphocytes and reduced expression in splenic lymphocytes of wst/wst mice relative to controls; expression of Rp-2 and Td-30 mRNA (induced during apoptosis) were not detectable in spleen or thymus. Higher spontaneous DNA fragmentation was observed in wasted mice than in controls; however, {gamma}-ray-induced DNA fragmentation peaked at a lower dose and occurred to a greater extent in wasted mice relative to controls. These results provide evidence for high spontaneous and {gamma}-ray-induced apoptosis in T cells of wasted mice as a mechanism underlying the observed lymphocyte and DNA repair abnormalities.

  6. Playing fair: the contribution of high-functioning recess to overall school climate in low-income elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2015-01-01

    Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy, and inclusive play to study how improving recess functioning can affect school climate. Data from teacher, principal, and recess coach interviews; student focus groups; recess observations; and a teacher survey are triangulated to understand the ways that recess changed during implementation. Comparing schools that achieved higher- and lower-functioning recesses, we link recess functioning with school climate. Recess improved in all schools, but 4 of the 6 achieved a higher-functioning recess. In these schools, teachers and principals agreed that by the end of the year, recess offered opportunities for student engagement, conflict resolution, pro-social skill development, and emotional and physical safety. Respondents in these four schools linked these changes to improved overall school climate. Recess is an important part of the school day for contributing to school climate. Creating a positive recess climate helps students to be engaged in meaningful play and return to class ready to learn. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  7. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-01-01

    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  8. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  9. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  10. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Breast and cervical screening by race/ethnicity: comparative analyses before and during the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher J; Chen, Jie; Garza, Mary A; Thomas, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    Traditionally, economic recessions have resulted in decreased utilization of preventive health services. To explore racial and ethnic differences in breast and cervical cancer screening rates before and during the Great Recession. The Medical Expenditure Panel was the source for identifying 10,894 women, ages 50-74 for breast screening and 19,957 women, ages 21-65 for cervical screening. Survey years included 2004-2005 and 2009-2010. Dependent variables were as follows: 1) receipt of mammogram within the past 2 years; and 2) receipt of a Pap smear within the past 3 years. The interaction of the recession and the likelihood of screening between whites and minorities was analyzed. Multivariate regressions were applied to estimate the likelihood of screening for the two time periods while controlling for a recession variable. Nationally, breast and cervical cancer screening rates dropped during the recession period; white women contributed most to the decline. However, there were significant improvements in timely screening for both cancers among Hispanics during the recession period. After controlling for the recession, African American women were more likely to have timely screenings compared to white women. Screening rates during the recession were lowest in the South, Midwest and West. There was a national reduction in the percentages of women who obtained timely breast and cervical screenings during the Great Recession. Outreach efforts are needed to ensure that women who were not screened during the recession are screened. Widespread education about the Affordable Care Act may be helpful. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Variables associated with children's physical activity levels during recess: the A-CLASS project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairclough Stuart J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background School recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in physically active behaviours. However, few studies have investigated what factors may influence children's physical activity levels in this context. Such information may be important in the development and implementation of recess interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between a range of recess variables and children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity in this context. Methods One hundred and twenty-eight children (39% boys aged 9-10 years old from 8 elementary schools had their physical activity levels observed during school recess using the System for Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP. Playground variables data were also collected at this time. Multilevel prediction models identified variables that were significantly associated with children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Results Girls engaged in 13.8% more sedentary activity and 8.2% less vigorous activity than boys during recess. Children with no equipment provision during recess engaged in more sedentary activity and less moderate activity than children provided with equipment. In addition, as play space per child increased, sedentary activity decreased and vigorous activity increased. Temperature was a significant negatively associated with vigorous activity. Conclusions Modifiable and unmodifiable factors were associated with children's sedentary, moderate and vigorous physical activity during recess. Providing portable equipment and specifying areas for activities that dominate the elementary school playground during recess may be two approaches to increase recess physical activity levels, though further research is needed to evaluate the short and long-term impact of such strategies.

  13. Long-term postoperative outcomes of bilateral lateral rectus recession vs unilateral recession-resection for intermittent exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To discuss the long-term postoperative results of bilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR and unilateral lateral rectus recession-medial rectus resection (RR in therapy of intermittent exotropia.METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 213 cases of intermittent exotropia who underwent surgery between 2008 and 2010. The patients were grouped into BLR group and RR group. Motor outcomes were divided into three groups on the basis of the angle of deviation after surgery:overcorrection (esotropia/phoria >5△, orthophoria (esotropia/phoria ≤5△to exotropia/phoria ≤10△, and undercorrection/recurrence (exotropia/phoria>10△. Titmus test was used to evaluate stereoacuity, the stereoacuity <800s of arc meaned the patients had stereopsis. Surgical outcome including motor criteria and sensory status were compared at postoperative 6, 12, 24mo and at 36mo examination between groups.RESULTS:At 12, 24mo after surgery, the motor outcomes had no difference (P>0.05 between groups. However, the motor outcomes at 6, 36mo were signally different in each group, indicating the success rate in RR group at 6mo was higher than that in BLR group (83.02% vs 82.24%, P<0.05 but the result was contrary at the 3y examination (60.75% vs 43.40%, P<0.05. No statistical significance were found in the sensory outcomes between the groups at mean of 3.7y follow-up.CONCLUSION:Themotor outcomes in RR group were better than in BLR group at 6mo after surgery, while the 3y outcomes were better in BLR group. This may be due to the recurrence rate of the BLR was lower than the RR group’s.

  14. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2014-01-01

    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  15. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  16. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  17. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  18. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  19. Effects on selective epitaxial growth of strained-SiGe p-MOSFETs on various (001) Si recess structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Min-Hao; Perng, Dung-Ching

    2017-12-01

    Influences of source and drain recess structures on SiGe epitaxy growth, SiGe step height, facet formation, I D,sat and resistance performance are investigated. Growth rate of SiGe height increases with decreased recess width at a fixed depth of 62 nm. Under a fixed recess width of 96.3 nm, the deeper the recess, the higher the growth rate of SiGe height. An increase in the depth/width ratio of the recessed Si geometry may promote SiGe {001} growth. Upon the recess, SiGe step height is influenced by the initial SiGe orientation. A longer {001} facet of SiGe initial orientation causes a higher growth rate of SiGe step height. Higher IDsat and lower resistance can be achieved by increasing SiGe volume with wider recess width, deeper recess depth, and higher SiGe step height.

  20. CASE REPORT Spontaneous lateral sphenoid cerebrospinal fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An open approach via a craniotomy may be required in large defects or in well pneumatised sphenoid sinuses where the defect is located in the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus. Pure obliteration of the sphenoid sinus would rarely be successful in large defects, and a vascularised flap is often needed in these instances.

  1. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  2. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of the Great Recession on School District Finances: Evidence from New York. Working Paper #03-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri; Setren, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    There is a slowly emerging literature that seeks to understand how the Great Recession affected other parts of the economy; however, there is no research that examines the effect of Great Recession (or any other recession) on schools. Given the fundamental role of education in human capital formation and growth, it is essential to understand the…

  4. Hospital financial performance in the recent recession and implications for institutions that remain financially weak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzoli, Gloria J; Fareed, Naleef; Waters, Teresa M

    2014-05-01

    The recent recession had a profound effect on all sectors of the US economy, including health care. We examined how private hospitals fared through the recession and considered how changes in their financial health may affect their ability to respond to future industry challenges. We categorized 2,971 private short-term general medical or surgical hospitals (both nonprofit and for-profit) according to their pre-recession financial health and safety-net status, and we examined their operational status changes and operating and total financial margins during 2006-11. We found that hospitals that were financially weak before the recession remained so during and after the recession. The total margins of nonprofit hospitals (both safety-net and other institutions) declined in 2008 but returned to their pre-recession levels by 2011. The recession did not create additional fiscal pressure on hospitals that were previously financially weak or in safety-net roles. However, both groups continue to have notable financial deficiencies that could limit their abilities to meet the growing demands on the industry.

  5. Using quantile regression to examine health care expenditures during the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Vargas-Bustamante, Arturo; Mortensen, Karoline; Thomas, Stephen B

    2014-04-01

    To examine the association between the Great Recession of 2007-2009 and health care expenditures along the health care spending distribution, with a focus on racial/ethnic disparities. Secondary data analyses of the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2005-2006 and 2008-2009). Quantile multivariate regressions are employed to measure the different associations between the economic recession of 2007-2009 and health care spending. Race/ethnicity and interaction terms between race/ethnicity and a recession indicator are controlled to examine whether minorities encountered disproportionately lower health spending during the economic recession. The Great Recession was significantly associated with reductions in health care expenditures at the 10th-50th percentiles of the distribution, but not at the 75th-90th percentiles. Racial and ethnic disparities were more substantial at the lower end of the health expenditure distribution; however, on average the reduction in expenditures was similar for all race/ethnic groups. The Great Recession was also positively associated with spending on emergency department visits. This study shows that the relationship between the Great Recession and health care spending varied along the health expenditure distribution. More variability was observed in the lower end of the health spending distribution compared to the higher end. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  6. Pericardial sinuses and recesses effusion of 16-slice helical CT imaging and anatomic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chunyan; Yang Zhigang; Zhou Xiangping; Yu Jianqun; Zhu Jie; Yang Kaiqing

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT features and implications of the pericardial sinuses and recesses effusion by combining the sectional cadavers and 16 multi-slice CT (MSCT) reformation. Methods: The anatomy and communication of the pericardial sinuses and recesses on the axial, coronal and saggital sectional cadavers (respectively 1 case), and the morphologic features on MSCT reformatted images in 104 patients were observed. The detection rate of effusion was analyzed. Results: The sectional cadavers and CT images showed that the pericardial sinuses and recesses were formed by the reflections of the pericardium on the root of the great vessels. The detection rate of the sinuses and recesses was lower in small effusion than in moderate and large effusion (P<0.05). The superior aortic recess was the most common recess for pericardial effusion. Conclusion: The MSCT reformatted images can show the morphologic features of pericardial sinuses and recesses effusion and communications with the pericardial cavity, help differentiate pericardial effusion from other mediastinal or pericardial lesions. (authors)

  7. The tourism and travel industry and its effect on the Great Recession: A multilevel survival analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Šergo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Does a country with a heavy dependence on a tourism economy have a tendency to succumb to more risk in a recession? With the shift from manufacturing-based economies in the developing world toward service-based industries, including tourism, a reliance on the tourism industry may erode economic stability in tourism-based countries, making them more prone to fall into a recession due to higher risks. In this paper, we wish to emphasise the positive impact of tourism specialisation indices in the international economy on the probability occurrence of a so-called Great Recession. This article uses a multilevel survival analysis and a generalised linear mixed-effect (GLMM structure modelling to investigate the impact of tourism development on the probability of recession frequency (risk in terms of months of duration and severity, by using data collected from 2007 to 2013 from 71 countries around the world, to see if recession frequency is positively correlated with the various indicators of tourism development. Two GLMMs were fitted to this data: logistic regression and count regression with a Poisson distribution. Results for both regressions show considerable evidence that the ratio between the number of overnight stays and the resident population and travel services as a percentage of commercial service exports positively impacts the probability for a country (from our sample to experience a recession event and can make recession worse in terms of severity, measured in months.

  8. A Study on the Surface and Subsurface Water Interaction Based on the Groundwater Recession Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. T.; Chen, Y. W.; Chang, L. C.; Chiang, C. J.; Wang, Y. S.

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of surface to subsurface water is an important issue for groundwater resources assessment and management. The influences of surface water to groundwater are mainly through the rainfall recharge, river recharge and discharge and other boundary sources. During a drought period, the interaction of river and groundwater may be one of the main sources of groundwater level recession. Therefore, this study explores the interaction of surface water to groundwater via the groundwater recession. During drought periods, the pumping and river interaction together are the main mechanisms causing the recession of groundwater level. In principle, larger gradient of the recession curve indicates more groundwater discharge and it is an important characteristic of the groundwater system. In this study, to avoid time-consuming manual analysis, the Python programming language is used to develop a statistical analysis model for exploring the groundwater recession information. First, the slopes of the groundwater level hydrograph at every time step were computed for each well. Then, for each well, the represented slope to each groundwater level was defined as the slope with 90% exceedance probability. The relationship between the recession slope and the groundwater level can then be obtained. The developed model is applied to Choushui River Alluvial Fan. In most wells, the results show strong positive correlations between the groundwater levels and the absolute values of the recession slopes.

  9. Recessive Resistance to Plant Viruses: Potential Resistance Genes Beyond Translation Initiation Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayoshi Hashimoto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of plant viruses to propagate their genomes in host cells depends on many host factors. In the absence of an agrochemical that specifically targets plant viral infection cycles, one of the most effective methods for controlling viral diseases in plants is taking advantage of the host plant’s resistance machinery. Recessive resistance is conferred by a recessive gene mutation that encodes a host factor critical for viral infection. It is a branch of the resistance machinery and, as an inherited characteristic, is very durable. Moreover, recessive resistance may be acquired by a deficiency in a negative regulator of plant defense responses, possibly due to the autoactivation of defense signaling. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF 4E and eIF4G and their isoforms are the most widely exploited recessive resistance genes in several crop species, and they are effective against a subset of viral species. However, the establishment of efficient, recessive resistance-type antiviral control strategies against a wider range of plant viral diseases requires genetic resources other than eIF4Es. In this review, we focus on recent advances related to antiviral recessive resistance genes evaluated in model plants and several crop species. We also address the roles of next-generation sequencing and genome editing technologies in improving plant genetic resources for recessive resistance-based antiviral breeding in various crop species.

  10. The estimation of risks from the induction of recessive mutations after exposure to ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, A.G.; Edwards, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Induced recessive mutations can cause harm by (1) partnership with a defective allele already established in the population; (2) partnership with another recessive mutation induced at the same locus; (3) the formation of homozygous descendants, that is, identify by descent; and (4) heterozygous effects. Calculations based on a combination of data from observations on human populations and from mouse experiments suggest that an extra genetically significant dose of 1 cGy X or γ irradiation received by each parent in a stable population with a million liveborn offspring would induce up to 1200 extra recessive mutations. From partnership effects, about one extra case of recessive disease would be expected in the following 10 generations. Homozygosity resulting from identity by descent could not normally occur until the fourth generation after exposure but, on certain assumptions, about ten extra cases of recessive disease would be expected from this cause by the tenth generation. In the same period, about 250 recessive alleles would be eliminated in heterozygotes given 2.5% heterozygous disadvantage. These deleterious heterozygous effects should not be combined with those of dominants, as has been done in some previous risk estimates. It is considered unlikely that many radiation induced recessives would show heterozygous advantage. Certain dominants should be excluded from calculations of mutational risk because they are unlikely to be maintained by mutation. (author)

  11. Mild recessive epidermolytic hyperkeratosis associated with a novel keratin 10 donor splice-site mutation in a family of Norfolk terrier dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credille, K M; Barnhart, K F; Minor, J S; Dunstan, R W

    2005-07-01

    Epidermolytic hyperkeratosis in humans is caused by dominant-negative mutations in suprabasal epidermal keratins 1 and 10. However, spontaneous keratin mutations have not been confirmed in a species other than human. To describe an autosomal recessive, mild, nonpalmar/plantar epidermolytic ichthyosis segregating in an extended pedigree of Norfolk terrier dogs due to a splice-site mutation in the gene encoding keratin 10 (KRT10). Dogs were evaluated clinically, and skin samples were examined by light and electron microscopy. Genomic DNA samples and cDNA from skin RNA were sequenced and defined a mutation in KRT10. Consequences of the mutation were evaluated by assessing protein expression with immunohistochemistry and Western blotting and gene expression with real-time RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction). Adult dogs with the disease had generalized, pigmented hyperkeratosis with epidermal fragility. Light microscopic examination defined epidermolysis with hyperkeratosis; ultrastructural changes included a decrease in tonofilaments and abnormal filament aggregation in upper spinous and granular layer keratinocytes. Affected dogs were homozygous for a single base GT-->TT change in the consensus donor splice site of intron 5 in KRT10. Keratin 10 protein was not detected with immunoblotting in affected dogs. Heterozygous dogs were normal based on clinical and histological appearance and keratin 10 protein expression. The mutation caused activation of at least three cryptic or alternative splice sites. Use of the cryptic sites resulted in transcripts containing premature termination codons. One transcript could result in shortening of the proximal portion of the 2B domain before the stutter region. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated a significant decrease in KRT10 mRNA levels in affected dogs compared with wild-type dogs. This disease is the first confirmed spontaneous keratin mutation in a nonhuman species and is the first reported recessive form

  12. The Great Recession and employee alcohol use: a U.S. population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frone, Michael R

    2016-03-01

    This is the first study to examine broadly the overall net change in U.S. population estimates of alcohol use related to a recession--The Great Recession--among individuals who remain employed. The alcohol variables included drinker status, usual frequency and quantity of alcohol use, frequency of heavy drinking and intoxication, as well as contextual assessments of the frequency and quantity of alcohol use during the workday and after work. The moderating influence of gender, race, and age also was explored. Data for this repeated cross-sectional study were obtained from 2 national telephone surveys of U.S. workers. The first survey occurred prior to the Great Recession (2002-2003; N = 2,501), whereas the second survey occurred during and after the official end of the Great Recession (2008-2011; N = 2,581). The results revealed that the recession was related to a higher proportion of drinkers among middle-aged employees, but not among young employees. Gender and race did not moderate the relation of the recession to drinker status. Among drinkers, the recession was not related to usual alcohol use (frequency and quantity), but was positively related to the frequency of heavy drinking and intoxication. Further, the recession had a differential relation to the contextual alcohol measures. It was negatively related to the frequency and quantity of workday alcohol use, but was positively related to the frequency and quantity of afterwork alcohol use. Among drinkers, gender, race, and age did not moderate the relation of the recession to alcohol use. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Aetiology and severity of gingival recession in an adult population sample in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Andreas Chrysanthakopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gingival recession is the most common and undesirable condition of the gingiva. The aim of study was to investigate the aetiology and severity of gingival recession in a Greek adult population sample. Methods : The study was performed on 165 males and 179 females, 18-68 years old who sought dental treatment in a private dental practice and showed gingival recession. All subjects were clinically examined and answered questions regarding their oral hygiene habits such as the type of toothbrush, frequency of brushing and method of brushing. The association between gingival recession and the following parameters was assessed: plaque score, gingival score and tooth position. Statistical analysis of the results was accomplished using chi-square test (α = 0.05. Results: The majority (79.4% of the patients showed grade I gingival recession and 15.3% showed grade II gingival recession. The maxillary 1 st and 2 nd molars (35.3% and the mandibular 1 st and 2 nd molars (28.7% were the teeth most frequently affected by root surface exposure. Patients with sub-gingival calculus, bacterial plaque and gingival inflammation (P < 0.05, malpositioned teeth (P < 0.001, horizontal brushing method, medium type of toothbrush (P < 0.001 and brushing once daily (P < 0.001 appeared to be the most common precipitating aetiological factor for gingival recession. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, gingival recession was the result of more than one factor acting together. Horizontal brushing method, usage of medium type toothbrush and tooth brushing once daily were found to be more associated with gingival recession.

  14. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  17. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  18. A guinea pig strain with recessive heredity of deafness, producing normal-hearing heterozygotes with resistance to noise trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjönsberg, Asa; Herrlin, Petra; Duan, Maoli; Johnson, Ann-Christin; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2005-01-01

    A new strain of waltzing guinea pigs arose spontaneously in a guinea pig breeding facility in Germany in 1996. In addition to obvious vestibular dysfunction, the waltzing animals appear deaf already at birth. Histological analysis revealed that the waltzers lack an open scala media due to the collapse of Reissner's membrane onto the surface of the hearing organ. Subsequent breeding has shown that this strain has a recessive mode of inheritance. The homozygotes are deaf and display a waltzing behaviour throughout their lives while the heterozygotes show no significant signs of inner ear injury despite being carriers of this specific mutated gene of hearing impairment. However, the heterozygous animals offer the opportunity to study how hereditary factors interact with auditory stress. In the present study, the susceptibility of the carriers to noise was investigated. Auditory brainstem responses were obtained prior to and after noise exposure (4 kHz, 110 dB, 6 h). The carriers were significantly less affected by the noise as compared to control animals. This difference was still significant at 4 weeks following noise exposure. It is suggested that the heterozygous animals have an endogenous resistance to auditory stress. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Economic suicides in the Great Recession in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Aaron; McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2014-09-01

    There has been a substantial rise in 'economic suicides' in the Great Recessions afflicting Europe and North America. We estimate that the Great Recession is associated with at least 10 000 additional economic suicides between 2008 and 2010. A critical question for policy and psychiatric practice is whether these suicide rises are inevitable. Marked cross-national variations in suicides in the recession offer one clue that they are potentially avoidable. Job loss, debt and foreclosure increase risks of suicidal thinking. A range of interventions, from upstream return-to-work programmes through to antidepressant prescriptions may help mitigate suicide risk during economic downturn. Royal College of Psychiatrists.

  20. Time use of parents in the United States: What difference did the Great Recession make?

    OpenAIRE

    Kongar, Ebru; Berik, Günseli

    2014-01-01

    Feminist and institutionalist literature has challenged the "Mancession" narrative of the 2007-09 recession and produced nuanced and gender-aware analyses of the labor market and well-being outcomes of the recession. Using American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data for 2003-12, this paper examines the recession's impact on gendered patterns of time use over the course of the 2003-12 business cycle. We find that the gender disparity in paid and unpaid work hours followed a U-shaped pattern, narrowin...

  1. STATISTICAL STUDY ON THE PREVALENCE OF GINGIVAL RECESSION IN YOUNG ADULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana POTÂRNICHIE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession represents a serious problem, for both patient and physician, especially when exposure of the radicular surface is related to the deterioration of the aesthetic aspect and to a more pronounced dental hyper‐ sensitivity. Scope of the study: to determine the preva‐ lence and severity of recessions in young adults, correlated with the local dental, as well as socio‐economic and cultu‐ ral conditions. Materials and method: A number of 85 persons, having addressed the Department of Perio‐ dontology, Faculty of Dental Medicine of Iasi, between February‐May 2011, were examined. The following para‐ meters were recorded: sex, education level, total number of gingival recessions at the level of the oral cavity, type of brush employed, frequency of dental brushing, amount of attached gingiva, existence of labial phrenum, type of occlusion, presence of certain complications induced by the manifestation of recessions, such as hypersensitivity. Results and discussion: Analysis and correlation of data showed that the most important role in the occurrence of recessions was played by the local factors, which intensi‐ fied the action of the determining element, the bacterial plaque. Thus, the nature of periodontal recessions is of inflammatory type, those with traumatic causes being sta‐ tistically non‐significant. The type of periodontium influ‐ enced the development of recessions, so that, for a delicate periodontium, 10.4 recessions/patient have been discove‐ red, while, in a thick periodontium, only 7 recessions/ patient. In cases of phrenectomies with insertion in the vicinity of the gingival margin, recessions of various sizes have been always present. In cases of dental occlusion, the obtained data suggest that the occurrence of recessions is not considerably influenced by the type of occlusion, the values being quite close. As to their sizes, most of the reces‐ sions were situated at a level of 2‐3 mm, a

  2. The Permanent Effects of Recessions on Child Health: Evidence from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge M. Agüero; Martín Valdivia

    2010-01-01

    We explore the permanent effects that recessions have on health-related outcomes of mothers and children in Peru. To account for possible self-selection in giving birth during recessions, we compare the infant mortality rates of siblings born in different phases of the economic cycle. A 1 percent decline in GDP per capita is associated with an increase in infant mortality rates between 0.30 and 0.39 percent. We find evidence that recessions also have a negative effect on long-term health meas...

  3. Linkage of autosomal recessive lamellar ichthyosis to chromosome 14q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, L.J.; Compton, J.G.; Bale, S.J. [National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, Bethesda, MD (United States); DiGiovanna, J.J. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Hashem, N. [Ains-Shams Univ. Medical Genetics Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    1994-12-01

    The authors have mapped the locus for lamellar ichthyosis (LI), an autosomal recessive skin disease characterized by abnormal cornification of the epidermis. Analysis using both inbred and outbred families manifesting severe LI showed complete linkage to several markers within a 9.3-cM region on chromosome 14q11. Affected individuals in inbred families were also found to have striking homozygosity for markers in this region. Linkage-based genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis is now available for informative at-risk families. Several transcribed genes have been mapped to the chromosome 14 region containing the LI gene. The transglutaminase 1 gene (TGM1), which encodes one of the enzymes responsible for cross-linking epidermal proteins during formation of the stratum corneum, maps to this interval. The TGM1 locus was completely linked to LI (Z = 9.11), suggesting that TGM1 is a good candidate for further investigation of this disorder. The genes for four serine proteases also map to this region but are expressed only in hematopoietic or mast cells, making them less likely candidates.

  4. Otologic Manifestations of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Santiago, A; Rodríguez-Pascual, M; Knöpfel, N; Hernández-Martín, Á

    2015-11-01

    Few studies have investigated ear involvement in nonsyndromic autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI). To assess the type and frequency of otologic manifestations of ARCI in patients under follow-up at the pediatric dermatology department of our hospital. We prospectively studied the presence of ear pain, ear itching, tinnitus, otitis, cerumen impaction, accumulation of epithelial debris, and hearing loss. Daily hygiene measures, topical treatments, medical-surgical interventions, and frequency of visits to an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) specialist were noted in the patients' medical records. Ear examination and hearing tests were performed in all cases. Ten patients were studied: 2 had a self-healing collodion baby phenotype and 8 had ichthyosis. There was mention of otologic manifestations in the records of all 8 patients with ichthyosis (100%); 6 of these patients (75%) had abnormalities in the external auditory canal examination and 2 (25%) had conductive hearing loss. Our findings are limited by the small number of patients studied, all of whom were younger than 19 years. The involvement of both dermatologists and ENT specialists in the management of patients with ichthyosis is crucial to ensure the application of the best therapeutic and preventive measures. More studies are needed to assess the prevalence and impact on quality of life of ear involvement in patients with ichthyosis and to determine the optimal interval between ENT visits for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Spectrum of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström Pigg, Maritta; Bygum, Anette; Gånemo, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) represents a heterogeneous group of rare disorders of cornification with 3 major subtypes: harlequin ichthyosis (HI), lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). A 4th subtype has also been proposed: pleomorphic...... ichthyosis (PI), characterized by marked skin changes at birth and subsequently mild symptoms. In nationwide screenings of suspected cases of ARCI in Denmark and Sweden, we identified 132 patients (age range 0.1-86 years) classified as HI (n = 7), LI (n = 70), CIE (n = 17) and PI (n = 38). At birth......-100%). A scoring (0-4) of ichthyosis/ery-thema past infancy showed widely different mean values in the subgroups: HI (3.2/3.1), LI (2.4/0.6), CIE (1.8/1.6), PI (1.1/0.3). Novel or recurrent mutations were found in 113 patients: TGM1 (n = 56), NIPAL4 (n = 15), ALOX12B (n = 15), ABCA12 (n = 8), ALOXE3 (n = 9), SLC27...

  6. The Great Recession in Portugal: impact on hospital care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perelman, Julian; Felix, Sónia; Santana, Rui

    2015-03-01

    The Great Recession started in Portugal in 2009, coupled with severe austerity. This study examines its impact on hospital care utilization, interpreted as caused by demand-side effects (related to variations in population income and health) and supply-side effects (related to hospitals' tighter budgets and reduced capacity). The database included all in-patient stays at all Portuguese NHS hospitals over the 2001-2012 period (n=17.7 millions). We analyzed changes in discharge rates, casemix index, and length of stay (LOS), using a before-after methodology. We additionally measured the association of health care indicators to unemployment. A 3.2% higher rate of discharges was observed after 2009. Urgent stays increased by 2.5%, while elective in-patient stays decreased by 1.4% after 2011. The LOS was 2.8% shorter after the crisis onset, essentially driven by the 4.5% decrease among non-elective stays. A one percentage point increase in unemployment rate was associated to a 0.4% increase in total volume, a 2.3% decrease in day cases, and a 0.1% decrease in LOS. The increase in total and urgent cases may reflect delayed out-patient care and health deterioration; the reduced volume of elective stays possibly signal a reduced capacity; finally, the shorter stays may indicate either efficiency-enhancing measures or reduced quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of the great recession on drugs consumption in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Bassols, Nicolau; Vall Castelló, Judit

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents evidence on how the consumption of legal and illegal drugs has changed in response to the Great Recession in Spain. We use a large scale survey from 2005 to 2011 to analyze the association between changes in local economic conditions and drug consumption among individuals aged 15-64. Although Spain was one of the countries hardest hit by the economic downturn, the crisis was unevenly felt across the country. Therefore, we exploit this difference in unemployment rates across provinces to identify the effects of business cycle variations on the consumption of legal and illegal drugs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to find a relation between the deterioration of local economic conditions and a strong increase in the consumption of marihuana and cocaine. We also report a decrease in alcohol consumption but a significant escalation in abusive smoking behavior (smoking every day). We believe that these findings are important not only for the potential negative implications at the individual level but also for the costs to society as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Immigrants Equilibrate Local Labor Markets: Evidence from the Great Recession*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Brian C.; Kovak, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that low-skilled Mexican-born immigrants’ location choices in the U.S. respond strongly to changes in local labor demand, and that this geographic elasticity helps equalize spatial differences in labor market outcomes for low-skilled native workers, who are much less responsive. We leverage the substantial geographic variation in employment losses that occurred during Great Recession, and our results confirm the standard finding that high-skilled populations are quite geographically responsive to employment opportunities while low-skilled populations are much less so. However, low-skilled immigrants, especially those from Mexico, respond even more strongly than high-skilled native-born workers. Moreover, we show that natives living in metro areas with a substantial Mexican-born population are insulated from the effects of local labor demand shocks compared to those in places with few Mexicans. The reallocation of the Mexican-born workforce reduced the incidence of local demand shocks on low-skilled natives’ employment outcomes by more than 50 percent. PMID:27551329

  9. Has the great recession and its aftermath reduced traffic fatalities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Robert B; Zhou, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities. Other factors include a proxy for medical technology, and access to emergency medical services (based on the percent of vehicle miles traveled in rural areas); reductions in the latter accounted for a substantial reduction in fatalities and is likely another indicator of reduced economic activity. Changes in the road network, mainly increases in the percent of collector roads has increased fatalities. Population growth is associated with increased traffic fatalities and changes in age cohorts has a small negative effect. Overall, results suggest that there has been a beneficial impact on traffic fatalities from reduced economic activity, but various policies adopted by the states have also reduced traffic fatalities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MR cholangiography in children with autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, G.; Benz-Bohm, G.; Kugel, H.; Keller, K.M.; Querfeld, U.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) is a relatively new, non-invasive imaging technique of the biliary tree that has shown good correlation with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The liver manifestation of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is congenital hepatic fibrosis (CHF). CHF may be accompanied by Caroli's disease, which is characterised by a non-obstructive dilation of the intrahepatic bile ducts. Objective. A prospective study was conducted to determine the presence and extent of Caroli's disease in children with ARPKD. Materials and methods. Seven children with ARPKD aged from 3.0 to 10.1 years were examined. CHF was confirmed in all biopsied cases (5 of 7). All children had been followed by repeated abdominal US examinations for many years. The MR examination included a morphological imaging study using a T2-weighted turbo spin-echo sequence and a heavily T2-weighted inversion-recovery turbo spin-echo sequence with three-dimensional maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstructions for MRC. Results. The diagnosis of Caroli's disease could be made in one case by US; in two other children Caroli's disease was suspected, but the differentiation from hepatic cysts was not possible. By MRC, Caroli's disease could be diagnosed in three of seven children. Furthermore, MRC with MIP reconstructions demonstrated the extent of the disease by showing the entire biliary tree from different angles. Conclusions. MRC is a valuable method to establish the diagnosis and demonstrate the extent of Caroli's disease. (orig.)

  11. Unemployment and household food hardship in the economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Birkenmaier, Julie

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the association between unemployment and household food insecurity during the 2007-2009 economic recession in the USA. Longitudinal survey of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 2008-2011). Food insecurity was measured by five questions excerpted from an eighteen-item Food Security Scale. Unemployment was measured by a dichotomous indicator, the number of job losses and the total duration of all episodes in the observation period. As nationally representative data, the SIPP interviewed respondents in multiple waves with a time interval of four months. The study created two analytic samples including working-age household heads employed at the beginning of the observation period. The size of the two samples was 14,417 and 13,080. Unemployment was positively associated with food insecurity (OR=1.55; 95% CI 1.32, 1.83; Punemployment (OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.27, 1.88; Punemployment, one more episode of unemployment increased the odds of food insecurity by 8% (OR=1.08; 95% CI 1.00, 1.18; Punemployment and food insecurity is useful to better identify and serve the at-risk population. Connecting unemployment assistance closely to nutrition assistance could lower the prevalence of food insecurity among unemployed households. Public policy should better account for both episodes and duration of unemployment to reduce food insecurity.

  12. Pathomechanisms of Altered Wound Healing in Recessive Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianfarani, Francesca; Zambruno, Giovanna; Castiglia, Daniele; Odorisio, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Individuals with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB), a rare genetic skin disease, carry mutations in the COL7A1 gene that codes for type VII collagen, an extracellular matrix component of the basement membrane zone forming the anchoring fibrils. As a consequence, RDEB individuals manifest unremitting skin blistering that evolves into chronic wounds, inflammation, and fibrosis. These features play a central role in the development of more severe disease complications, such as mitten deformities of hands and feet and aggressive epithelial cancers. Despite being recognized as a central clinical issue for RDEB, wound healing impairment has been only marginally investigated. Recently, studies with disease mouse models started to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the altered healing response of RDEB. In turn, alterations found in RDEB skin cell behavior fostered the understanding of mechanisms that may be responsible for defective skin repair. This review summarizes findings related to healing impairment in RDEB, and highlights therapeutic strategies for ameliorating healing. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Impulsive Stock Market of Bangladesh and the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Hossain

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether the stock market of Bangladesh can be related with the last world recession. The Pearson’s correlation analysis model was used to find the correlation between the Dhaka Stock Exchange General index and real GDP growth rate of the world. The findings show that no statistically significant correlation exists between the two variables inferring that the stock market of Bangladesh was not significantly affected by ‘the great recession’ (2007-2009. The findings of this study are inconsistent with the results of previous studies which claimed that the Bangladesh stock market shares a common stochastic trend with the capital market of USA. The results of this study may be explained mainly by domestic factors such as low market capitalization, market inefficiency, strict monitoring and control by the Security and Exchange Commission and low international participation in the stock market of Bangladesh. All these factors, along with the inconsistency with past results, instigate further investigation.

  14. Induction of recessive mutations in potato using tissue culture techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enckevort, L.J.G. van; Hoogkamp, T.J.H.; Bergervoet, J.E.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Jacobsen, E.; Stiekma, W.J.; Pereira, A.

    2001-01-01

    In potato, two different in vitro approaches were used to generate recessive mutants. In the first method, monoploid plant material was irradiated to isolate and identify amylose-free (amf) mutants in potato. For isolating secondary mutants in the amf background new monoploids of the amf type were developed. A few selected amf monoploids showed excellent vigour in vitro, large leave; and microtuber formation. A diploid and a monoploid were tested for in vitro mutation induction and irradiated with 0 to 16 Gy X rays. The optimal dose for survival and mutation induction was between 4 and 8 Gy and plants were regenerated from irradiated leaf explants. In the second approach, mutants were induced by insertion of transposable elements in the diploids. This method was used to mutate R genes for resistance to Phytophthora infestans. Diploid heterozygous Rr plants with the immobilised Ds element, closely linked to one of the R genes, were selected. Mobilisation of Ds using Ac element transposase resulted in the selection of plants with active somatic Ds excision frequency of about 10%. In vitro protoplast isolation and plant regeneration from such plants enabled the selection of regenerants with new independent Ds insertions. Hygromycin selection (Ds excision marker on the T-DNA) during protoplast regeneration increased the frequency of Ds excision regenerants to 56%. A total of 582 hygromycin resistant plants were regenerated and selected in vitro. Preliminary analysis of the regenerants showed re-insertions of Ds in the predicted coding sequences of genes. (author)

  15. Clock frequency estimation under spontaneous emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xi-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Hao; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Lee, Chaohong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a driven two-level system under spontaneous emission and its application in clock frequency estimation. By using the Lindblad equation to describe the system, we analytically obtain its exact solutions, which show three different regimes: Rabi oscillation, damped oscillation, and overdamped decay. From the analytical solutions, we explore how the spontaneous emission affects the clock frequency estimation. We find that under a moderate spontaneous emission rate, the transition frequency can still be inferred from the Rabi oscillation. Our results enable potential practical applications in frequency measurement and quantum control under decoherence.

  16. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  17. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  18. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  19. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  1. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant gastroenteritis: report of a rare case. Duvuru Ram, Vilvapathy S. Karthikeyan, Sarath C. Sistla, Sheik M. Ali, Parnandi Sridhar, Nagarajan Rajkumar ...

  2. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  3. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  4. The Sky Is Falling...Can You Survive the Coming Recession?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Experts on child care discuss the effects of a recession on centers. Effects may depend on the strength of local economies and industries and the availability of public subsidies. Fund raising may become more difficult and insurance rates problematical. (SH)

  5. Regulatory Changes and the Recession: How Did They Affect Ticket to Work Participants' Employment Efforts?

    OpenAIRE

    Jody Schimmel

    2013-01-01

    This brief explores changes in Ticket to Work (TTW) participants’ work activity and benefit receipt in recent years, focusing on the role of regulatory changes in 2008 and effects of the economic recession.

  6. Measuring macro-level effects of the global economic recession on university-industry research cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azagra-Caro, J.M.; Tijssen, R.J.W.; Yegros-Yegros, A.

    2016-07-01

    The 2007/2008 financial crisis, and ensuing economic recession, had a direct negative effect on university-industry research cooperation in the OECD countries and other economies – it diminished the number of university-industry co-authored research publications (UICs) during the period 2008-13 by 7%. It also changed the relationship between national business expenditure on R&D and UIC output levels. Before the recession the relationship was negative, but became positive during the years 2008-2013. The few countries where business expenditure on R&D increased during recession saw UIC numbers rise. This moderating effect of the recession applies only to ‘domestic UICs’, where universities cooperated with business companies located in the same country. Micro-level research is needed to assess the contributing effects on large university-industry R&D consortia on both domestic and international collaboration patterns. (Author)

  7. THE FLIP SIDE OF THE U.S. ECONOMIC RECESSION 2007-09

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Tabrizi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to translate economic figures and indices into the living conditions of people who are behind the statistics of the U.S. economic recession, which officially began in December 2007 and ended in June 2009. The pathology of the Great Recession began with the financial shock, which resulted from the buildup of financial mischief since the 1980s, and the burst of its real estate bubble by 2007. A recession is a man-made tragedy with a large human cost. This paper addresses this flip side of the current economic crisis by examining its human consequences on different social classes and groups. A breakdown of various data proves that the working class, the majority in U.S. society, suffers most from the recession, and yet, some amongst them even more than others, depending upon their social status with regard to education, race, and age.

  8. Recessive mutations in EPG5 cause Vici syndrome, a multisystem disorder with defective autophagy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cullup, Thomas; Kho, Ay Lin; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Brandmeier, Birgit; Smith, Frances; Urry, Zoe; Simpson, Michael A.; Yau, Shu; Bertini, Enrico; McClelland, Verity; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Koelker, Stefan; Koerner, Christian; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Wijburg, Frits A.; ten Hoedt, Amber E.; Rogers, R. Curtis; Manchester, David; Miyata, Rie; Hayashi, Masaharu; Said, Elizabeth; Soler, Doriette; Kroisel, Peter M.; Windpassinger, Christian; Filloux, Francis M.; Al-Kaabi, Salwa; Hertecant, Jozef; del Campo, Miguel; Buk, Stefan; Bodi, Istvan; Goebel, Hans-Hilmar; Sewry, Caroline A.; Abbs, Stephen; Mohammed, Shehla; Josifova, Dragana; Gautel, Mathias; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Vici syndrome is a recessively inherited multisystem disorder characterized by callosal agenesis, cataracts, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency and hypopigmentation. To investigate the molecular basis of Vici syndrome, we carried out exome and Sanger sequence analysis in a cohort of 18

  9. The Impact of Inflation and Recession on Urban Leisure in New Orleans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Frederick W.; Donohue, Thomas R.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of inflation and recession on the leisure behavior of different economic and cultural groups resulted in a change of free time activities in all groups to some extent with the exception of the highest income level. (JD)

  10. Role of high-resolution CT in cholesteatoma involving the supratubal recess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funai, Hiroaki; Yabe, Toshie; Kase, Yasuhiro; Kitahara, Nobuo; Horiuchi, Koji; Yano, Jun; Ushijima, Tatsujiro; Iinuma, Toshitaka

    1987-11-01

    Operative findings of the supratubal recess were examined in the 30 patients with acquired cholesteatoma. They were compared with findings of high-resolution CTs (HRCTs) obtained preoperatively. Thus the role of HRCT in cholesteatoma involving the supratubal recess were evaluated. HRCTs of 172 ears without otitis media and 65 ears with tubotympanic type otitis media were analyzed as control. The HRCT has proved to provide excellent informations regarding the presence of cholesteatoma in the supratubal recess. Diagnostic points were as follows. (1) Destruction of the ''cog''. (2) Erosion or destruction of surrounding bony structures, for example, facial canal, tympanic tegmen. (3) Soft tissue density in the supratubal recess.

  11. Autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia: a novel non-sense mutation in CD79a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Abbas; Plebani, Alessandro; Vitali, Massimiliano; Abolhassani, Hassan; Lougaris, Vassilios; Mirminachi, Babak; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the fifth case worldwide of autosomal recessive agammaglobulinemia due to a novel non-sense mutation in CD79a gene with a severe unusual onset due to an invasive central nervous system infection.

  12. Recessed insulator and barrier AlGaN/GaN HEMT: A novel structure ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-03-08

    drain capacitance, short channel effects and DC ... (Tr) of the recessed region of the barrier at the source side are the same as those of the insulator at the drain side. ..... produces a vertical electric field on the carriers moving.

  13. Pamplin dean to lead international workshop on recession's impact on business schools

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Sookhan

    2008-01-01

    Richard E. Sorensen, dean of Virginia Tech's Pamplin College of Business, will help lead a workshop for business school deans at an upcoming international conference to address the possible financial impacts of the global recession on business schools.

  14. Evaluation of resorbable membrane in treatment of human gingival isolated buccal recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: Resorbable membrane is a versatile treatment modality for coverage of isolated buccal gingival recession. Although membrane exposure occurred in four patients, it did not interfere with post operative healing.

  15. Recession-Tolerant Heat Flux Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I project will develop a suite of diagnostic sensors using Direct Write technology to measure temperature, surface recession depth, and heat flux of an...

  16. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A

    2016-04-12

    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  17. Postmenopausal spontaneous uterine perforation: Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşlek Seçen, Elçin; Ağış, Hilal; Altunkaya, Canan; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis caused by pyometra occurs rarely with high morbidity and mortality. A correct and definite diagnosis can be made with laparotomy or laparoscopy. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and gynecologic symptoms are less frequent, which makes preoperative diagnosis difficult. We report a case of a patient aged 82 years who underwent surgery for spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis as a result of pyometra. PMID:28913055

  18. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  19. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  20. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  1. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jerônimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xareltor. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban.

  2. Blepharophimosis-mental retardation (BMR) syndromes: A proposed clinical classification of the so-called Ohdo syndrome, and delineation of two new BMR syndromes, one X-linked and one autosomal recessive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verloes, Alain; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Isidor, Bertrand; David, Albert; Baumann, Clarisse; Leroy, Marie-Anne; Stevens, René; Gillerot, Yves; Héron, Delphine; Héron, Bénédicte; Benzacken, Brigitte; Lacombe, Didier; Brunner, Han; Bitoun, Pierre

    2006-06-15

    We report on 11 patients from 8 families with a blepharophimosis and mental retardation syndrome (BMRS) phenotype. Using current nosology, five sporadic patients have Ohdo syndrome, associated with congenital hypothyroidism in two of them (thus also compatible with a diagnosis of Young-Simpson syndrome). In two affected sibs with milder phenotype, compensated hypothyroidism was demonstrated. In another family, an affected boy was born to the unaffected sister of a previously reported patient. Finally, in the last sibship, two affected boys in addition had severe microcephaly and neurological anomalies. A definitive clinical and etiologic classification of BMRS is lacking, but closer phenotypic analysis should lead to a more useful appraisal of the BMRS phenotype. We suggest discontinuing the systematic use of the term "Ohdo syndrome" when referring to patients with BMRS. We propose a classification of BMRS into five groups: (1) del(3p) syndrome, (possibly overlooked in older reports); (2) BMRS, Ohdo type, limited to the original patients of Ohdo; (3) BMRS SBBYS (Say-Barber/Biesecker/Young-Simpson) type, with distinctive dysmorphic features and inconstant anomalies including heart defect, optic atrophy, deafness, hypoplastic teeth, cleft palate, joint limitations, and hypothyroidism. BMRS type SBBYS is probably an etiologically heterogeneous phenotype, as AD and apparently AR forms exist; (4) BMRS, MKB (Maat-Kievit-Brunner) type, with coarse, triangular face, which is probably sex-linked; (5) BMRS V (Verloes) type, a probable new type with severe microcephaly, hypsarrhythmia, adducted thumbs, cleft palate, and abnormal genitalia, which is likely autosomal recessive. Types MKB and V are newly described here. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Healing of gingival recession following orthodontic treatment: a 30-year case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini-Prato, Giovan Paolo; Cozzani, Giuseppe; Magnani, Cristina; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2012-02-01

    This case report describes the healing of gingival recessions on mandibular incisors resulting from orthodontic treatment of a deep bite malocclusion at a 30-year follow-up observation. The marked improvement in the severe recessions was a consequence of the elimination of the direct trauma, orthodontic intrusion of the affected teeth, and subsequent creeping attachment over time. No periodontal treatment was performed before or after orthodontic treatment.

  4. Do Economic Recessions During Early and Mid-Adulthood Influence Cognitive Function in Older Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leist, Anja K.; Hessel, Philipp; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Background Fluctuations in the national economy shape labour market opportunities and outcomes, which in turn may influence the accumulation of cognitive reserve. This study examines whether economic recessions experienced in early and mid-adulthood are associated with later-life cognitive function. Method Data came from 12,020 respondents in 11 countries participating in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Cognitive assessments in 2004/5 and 2006/7 were linked to complete work histories retrospectively collected in 2008/9, and to historical annual data on fluctuations in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita for each country. Controlling for confounders, we assessed whether recessions experienced at ages 25-34, 35-44 and 45-49 were associated with cognitive function at ages 50-74. Results Among men, each additional recession at ages 45-49 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b = -0.06, Confidence Interval [CI] -0.11, -0.01). Among women, each additional recession at ages 25-44 was associated with worse cognitive function at ages 50-74 (b25-34 = -0.03, CI -0.04, -0.01; b35-44= -0.02, CI -0.04, -0.00). Among men, recessions at ages 45-49 influenced risk of being laid-off, whereas among women, recessions at ages 25-44 led to working part-time and higher likelihood of downward occupational mobility, which were all predictors of worse later-life cognitive function. Conclusions Recessions at ages 45-49 among men and 25-44 among women are associated with later-life cognitive function, possibly via more unfavourable labour market trajectories. If replicated in future studies, findings may indicate that policies that ameliorate the impact of recessions on labour market outcomes may promote later-life cognitive function. PMID:24258197

  5. Bilateral lateral rectus recession considering the tendon width in intermittent exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H; Kim, S-H

    2009-09-01

    The tendon width of the lateral rectus muscle can be a useful indicator of the effect of unilateral lateral rectus recession in intermittent exotropia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the tendon width of lateral rectus would be useful for predicting the effect of bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) recession. We studied a total of 45 patients between 3 and 15 years of age who had undergone bilateral rectus recession for the basic type of intermittent exotropia. The actual effect of lateral recession was calculated by adding the absolute value of the angle of preoperative deviation and the postoperative deviation on the second day and dividing the figure by the total amount of recession. We then calculated the hypothetical effect of lateral rectus recession, considering the tendon width of each eye, and added the effects of both eyes. The hypothetical effects were defined as 3 PD when the tendon width was 8-8.5 mm; 3.5 PD when it was 7-7.5 mm; and 2.5 PD when it was 9-9.5 mm, based upon earlier statistical analysis. We compared both effects using a paired t-test. The mean difference between the actual and the hypothetical effects of BLR recession in all patients was 2.88 PD (P=0.001, range: 0-5.50 PD). However, when the amount of preoperative exodeviation was below 25 PD, the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.086). The tendon width may also be useful indicator in BLR recession if the preoperative exodeviation is below 25 PD.

  6. This Time It's Different? Youth Labour Markets During 'The Great Recession'

    OpenAIRE

    O'Higgins, Niall

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the effects of the 'Great Recession' on young people's labour market experiences in the European Union. The paper documents some of the key characteristics of young people's labour market experiences during the current recession and then seeks to provide some explanations of these applying both cross-section and time series rolling regression models in order, in particular, to better understand the role of labour market institutions as a determining factor of differing exp...

  7. Treatment of multiple gingival recessions adopting modified tunnel subepithelial connective tissue graft technique

    OpenAIRE

    Jagmohan Singh; Vipin Bharti

    2014-01-01

    Gingival recession related to periodontal disease or developmental problems can result in root sensitivity, root caries, and esthetically unacceptable root exposures. In the past, multiple surgical procedures have been proposed to obtain root coverage on exposed buccal root surfaces. There has been great interest in the treatment of gingival recession defects, especially with subepithelial connective-tissue grafting (SCTG). Recent advances have focused on SCTG by the tunnel technique. This ar...

  8. Recessive mutations in EPG5 cause Vici syndrome, a multisystem disorder with defective autophagy

    OpenAIRE

    Cullup, Thomas; Kho, Ay L.; Dionisi-Vici, Carlo; Brandmeier, Birgit; Smith, Frances; Urry, Zoe; Simpson, Michael A.; Yau, Shu; Bertini, Enrico; McClelland, Verity; Al-Owain, Mohammed; Koelker, Stefan; Koerner, Christian; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Wijburg, Frits A.

    2012-01-01

    Vici syndrome is a recessively inherited multisystem disorder characterized by callosal agenesis, cataracts, cardiomyopathy, combined immunodeficiency and hypopigmentation. To investigate the molecular basis of Vici syndrome, we carried out exome and Sanger sequence analysis in a cohort of 18 patients. We identified recessive mutations in EPG5 (previously KIAA1632), indicating a causative role in Vici syndrome. EPG5 is the human homologue of the metazoan-specific autophagy gene epg-5, encodin...

  9. What causes Irish recessions: fluctuations in aggregate demand or aggregate supply?

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Karen; Roche, Maurice

    1994-01-01

    The new classical view of the market economy is used to impose restrictions on a vector autoregression of output, interest rates, prices and money, to identify aggregate demand and supply structural disturbances. We use the estimated structural vector autoregression to decompose Irish GDP growth into components associated with major macroeconomic disturbances in order to identify the likely causes of Irish recessions. The results suggest that recessions in the 1970s were mainly due to aggr...

  10. A quick method for testing recessive lethal damage with a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, G.; Puppo, S.; Gualandi, G.; Conti, L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple method capable of detecting recessive lethal damage in a diploid strain of Aspergillus nidulans is described. The method scores the recessive lethals on the 1st, the 3rd and the 5th chromosomes, which represent about 40% of the total map of A. nidulans. Two examples of induced lethals, with ultraviolet irradiation and methyl methanesulfonate are shown. The frequency of lethals may reach 36% of the total population with UV irradiation. (Auth.)

  11. Business Cycle Synchronization During US Recessions Since the Beginning of the 1870's

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaos Antonakakis

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the synchronization of business cycles across the G7 countries during US recessions since the 1870's. Using a dynamic measure of business cycle synchronization, results depend on the globalisation period under consideration. On average, US recessions have significantly positive effects on business cycle co-movements only in the period following the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system of fixed exchange rates, while strongly decoupling effects among the G7 econ...

  12. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  13. US anatomy of the great peritoneal cavity and its recesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turco, G.; Chiesa, G.M.; De Manzoni, G.

    1988-01-01

    The peritoneum of the great abdominal cavity and its recesses are a blind radiographical area which can however be easily outlined by US when it contains fluid. The anatomical study of these usually virtual cavities represent the purpose of this paper. The natural contrast of the peritoneal fluid as amplified by the mechanical effect produced by an adequate amount of fluid, allows a clear visualization of the anatomy of various peritoneal structures in either upper (subphrenic, subhepatic, lesser sac, etc.) or lower (pelvic) areas. The sovramesocolic and the infracolic compartments are in comunication through the two external paracolic gutters which are the main passageways for the fluids between upper and lower compartments. In fact, peritoneal fluids are in constant movement due to different factors, such as gravity, statics, which causes the peritoneal fluids to flow into the lowest part of the peritoneal cavity, and hydrostatic pressure. Pressure differences are thought to convey fluids from various sites of the abdomen into different areas. In the lower abdomen, pressure is 3 times as much as in the upper abdomen, which causes the fluids to move into the subhepatic and subphrenic regions. The redistribution of fluids can be influenced by particular anatomical causes. The phrenicocolic ligament, e.g., is a barrier to the advancing of fluds along the left paracolic gutter, which makes the right paracolic gutter the main passageway for the fluids. This pattern explains why abscesses are more frequent in the right than in the upper left abdominal regions. Another example in the tiny Winslow opening, which does not allow inflammatory material to pass into the lesser sac in case of inflammatory processes of the great peritoneal cavity and viceversa. Moreover, pointing out fluid collections and abscesses is important, since an early diagnosis and a topografic map are essential order to plan treatment

  14. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease and Epidemiologic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsa Yousefichaijan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is a heterogeneous inherited disorder most commonly seen in childhood. The presentation is usually a palpable large mass in the flank or abdomen appearing at infancy or birth, leading to electrolyte abnormalities, pulmonary hypoplasia, oligohydramnious and the Potter’s syndrome. The survival rate of this disease is 70%. Multiple mutations of the polycystic kidney and hepatic disease 1 (PKHD1 are known that can cause ARPKD. On the other hand, mutations in PKHD1 have also been identified in about 30% of children with congenital hepatic fibrosis (the Caroli’s syndrome without any evidence of kidney involvement. Based on this evidence, not everyone with PKHD1 mutations will present with ARPKD. Recent studies have shown that nongenetic factors, including environmental exposures had a significant effect on manifestations of ARPKD. The present study aimed at investigating the possible link between ARPKD and its epidemiologic factors, hypothesizing that these epidemiologic conditions would influence the incidence of ARPKD. Objectives The present study aimed at evaluating a possible link between the ARPKD and its epidemiologic factors. Methods In this case-control study, children with ARPKD referred to Amirkabir hospital in Arak city, Iran, were compared with noninfected children. Examinations, interviews, and questionnaires were performed to collect data and the disease was diagnosed by a physician. Results The results of this study showed no significant relationship between epidemiological factors such as age, place of residence for families, sex, family education/occupation/ income, body mass index, stunted growth, slow growth, good growth, milk intake, water intake, failure to thrive and ARPKD. Conclusions Based on our findings, epidemiological factors did not have a significant effect on the occurrence of ARPKD.

  15. The oral cavity hygiene as the basic element of the gingival recession prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, M; Wawrzyn-Sobczak, K; Karczewski, J K; Stokowska, W

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the evaluation of the dental plaque and the influence of determined hygienic factors on gingival recession occurrence in 455 students of The Medical University of Bialystok. All the subjects were examined in artificial light, with the use of the probe, mirror, and parodontometer. The distribution of stained dental deposits were estimated with the use of the plaque index according to Quigley and Hein. Moreover, the students were to fill a survey of their own project concerning hygienic habits. The results underwent statistical analysis. The dental plaque was not present in 71 people. Gingival recession was revealed in 134 out of 455 subjects. The majority of medical students brushed their teeth twice a day, using medium hard toothbrush or electric toothbrush with appropriate movements and medium strength while brushing. The frequency of brushing the teeth, hardness of the toothbrush, the use of electric toothbrush, the movements during brushing the teeth, the strength of brushing, the frequency of toothbrush change, the age, and sex have significant influence on the number of recession. The increase in the gingival recession in students is connected with: large pressure on the brush while toothbrushing, too frequent brushing and toothbrush change, the use of hard toothbrush and additional hygienic items, movements while brushing, the age (the number of recession elevates with the age), and sex (women showed more recession than men).

  16. Financial Strain and Mental Health Among Older Adults During the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R

    2016-07-01

    The economic recession has garnered the interest of many scholars, with much attention being drawn to how the recession has affected labor force participation, household wealth, and even retirement decisions. Certainly, the Great Recession has influenced the financial well-being of older adults, but has it had discernible effects on mental health? This study draws on 5,366 respondents from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2010) to examine objective and subjective measures of financial well-being in the period surrounding the Great Recession. Guided by cumulative inequality theory, this research investigates whether the economic downturn contributed to worsening anxiety and depressive symptoms over a 4-year period. Results from linear fixed effects models reveal that decreases in objective financial resources were associated with increased financial strain during the Great Recession. Unlike the objective indicators, however, financial strain was a strong and robust predictor of worsening mental health between 2006 and 2010. Building on prior research, this study elucidates the factors that shape financial strain and provides evidence that the Great Recession not only affected the financial well-being of older adults but also had adverse effects on mental health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Clinical and periodontal predictive factors of severity in gingival recession (GR)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rubio, Antonio; Bujaldón Daza, Antonio Luis; Rodríguez Archilla, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Gingival recession is an unsightly condition due to root exposure. It can lead to dental hypersensitivity, root caries, and tooth loss. To determine the influence of different clinical and periodontal parameters on the severity of gingival recession evaluated at four periods: initial, 6, 12, and 18 months of follow-up. Forty patients with gingival recession were included in the study. Sociodemographic data, systemic diseases, harmful habits, dental hygiene habits, parafunctional habits, and orthodontic treatment were collected. Periodontal status (plaque index, gingival bleeding index, attached gingiva loss, pocket probing depth, and attachment loss) was also measured. None of the clinical parameters studied influenced the number of teeth with gingival recession. Smokers showed a higher number of teeth with attached gingiva loss (p=0.03). A direct relationship between the severity of gingival recession and plaque index (p=0.02) or 4-6 mm attachment loss (p=0.04) was observed. At six months of follow-up, gingival index was the only parameter that influenced the severity of gingival recession (p=0.01).

  18. Utilization of two different surgical techniques in gingival recession treatment: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Miljan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Gingival recession is a displacement of gingival margin apically to cementenamel junction. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the results achieved with two different surgical procedures used in gingival recession treatment. Methods. Ten patients with bilateral buccal recession on maxillary canines or premolars were included in the study. Professional teeth cleaning was performed before surgery. Recession on the experimental side was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with coronally advanced, split thickness flap (tunnel technique. Control side recession was treated with connective tissue graft in combination with trapezoidal coronally advanced, full thickness flap. Coin toss was used for side decision. The following parameters were evaluated before surgery and 6 months post-op: Vertical Recession Dimension, Clinical Attachment Level, Apico-coronal width of the keratinized tissue, Healing index (Laundry, RES index, and Patient evaluation of esthetic results. Student’s t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results. Six months after surgery, mean root coverage was 91.5±14.1% and 90.1±14.6% on the experimental and on the control side, respectively. RES index, Healing index (Laundry and Patient Subjective evaluation of esthetic results showed significantly better results (p≤0.05. Conclusion. Both surgical procedures produce highly successful clinical results based on evaluated parameters, but this tunnel technique provides significantly better esthetic results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 41008: Interakcija etiopatogenetskih mehanizama parodontopatije i periimplantitisa sa sistemskim bolestima današnjice

  19. Spontaneous 8bp Deletion in Nbeal2 Recapitulates the Gray Platelet Syndrome in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomberg, Kärt; Khoriaty, Rami; Westrick, Randal J.; Fairfield, Heather E.; Reinholdt, Laura G.; Brodsky, Gary L.; Davizon-Castillo, Pavel; Ginsburg, David; Di Paola, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    During the analysis of a whole genome ENU mutagenesis screen for thrombosis modifiers, a spontaneous 8 base pair (bp) deletion causing a frameshift in exon 27 of the Nbeal2 gene was identified. Though initially considered as a plausible thrombosis modifier, this Nbeal2 mutation failed to suppress the synthetic lethal thrombosis on which the original ENU screen was based. Mutations in NBEAL2 cause Gray Platelet Syndrome (GPS), an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and gray-appearing platelets due to lack of platelet alpha granules. Mice homozygous for the Nbeal2 8 bp deletion (Nbeal2gps/gps) exhibit a phenotype similar to human GPS, with significantly reduced platelet counts compared to littermate controls (p = 1.63 x 10−7). Nbeal2gps/gps mice also have markedly reduced numbers of platelet alpha granules and an increased level of emperipolesis, consistent with previously characterized mice carrying targeted Nbeal2 null alleles. These findings confirm previous reports, provide an additional mouse model for GPS, and highlight the potentially confounding effect of background spontaneous mutation events in well-characterized mouse strains. PMID:26950939

  20. Spontaneous 8bp Deletion in Nbeal2 Recapitulates the Gray Platelet Syndrome in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt Tomberg

    Full Text Available During the analysis of a whole genome ENU mutagenesis screen for thrombosis modifiers, a spontaneous 8 base pair (bp deletion causing a frameshift in exon 27 of the Nbeal2 gene was identified. Though initially considered as a plausible thrombosis modifier, this Nbeal2 mutation failed to suppress the synthetic lethal thrombosis on which the original ENU screen was based. Mutations in NBEAL2 cause Gray Platelet Syndrome (GPS, an autosomal recessive bleeding disorder characterized by macrothrombocytopenia and gray-appearing platelets due to lack of platelet alpha granules. Mice homozygous for the Nbeal2 8 bp deletion (Nbeal2gps/gps exhibit a phenotype similar to human GPS, with significantly reduced platelet counts compared to littermate controls (p = 1.63 x 10-7. Nbeal2gps/gps mice also have markedly reduced numbers of platelet alpha granules and an increased level of emperipolesis, consistent with previously characterized mice carrying targeted Nbeal2 null alleles. These findings confirm previous reports, provide an additional mouse model for GPS, and highlight the potentially confounding effect of background spontaneous mutation events in well-characterized mouse strains.

  1. Race/Ethnicity, Educational Attainment, and Foregone Health Care in the United States in the 2007–2009 Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jaclynn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed possible associations between recessions and changes in the magnitude of social disparities in foregone health care, building on previous studies that have linked recessions to lowered health care use. Methods. Data from the 2006 to 2010 waves of the National Health Interview Study were used to examine levels of foregone medical, dental and mental health care and prescribed medications. Differences by race/ethnicity and education were compared before the Great Recession of 2007 to 2009, during the early recession, and later in the recession and in its immediate wake. Results. Foregone care rose for working-aged adults overall in the 2 recessionary periods compared with the pre-recession. For multiple types of pre-recession care, foregoing care was more common for African Americans and Hispanics and less common for Asian Americans than for Whites. Less-educated individuals were more likely to forego all types of care pre-recession. Most disparities in foregone care were stable during the recession, though the African American–White gap in foregone medical care increased, as did the Hispanic–White gap and education gap in foregone dental care. Conclusions. Our findings support the fundamental cause hypothesis, as even during a recession in which more advantaged groups may have had unusually high risk of losing financial assets and employer-provided health insurance, they maintained their relative advantage in access to health care. Attention to the macroeconomic context of social disparities in health care use is warranted. PMID:24328647

  2. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  3. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.

    2002-01-01

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  4. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  5. Cursed lamp: the problem of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkulet, William

    2017-08-09

    Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Spontaneous Regression of Lumbar Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Chang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation of the lumbar spine is a common disease presenting with low back pain and involving nerve root radiculopathy. Some neurological symptoms in the majority of patients frequently improve after a period of conservative treatment. This has been regarded as the result of a decrease of pressure exerted from the herniated disc on neighboring neurostructures and a gradual regression of inflammation. Recently, with advances in magnetic resonance imaging, many reports have demonstrated that the herniated disc has the potential for spontaneous regression. Regression coincided with the improvement of associated symptoms. However, the exact regression mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present 2 cases of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with spontaneous regression. We review the literature and discuss the possible mechanisms, the precipitating factors of spontaneous disc regression and the proper timing of surgical intervention.

  7. Spontaneous hemothorax: primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Panjwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition seen in coagulation and vascular disorders. Uncommonly, malignant neoplasms may cause spontaneous hemothorax. Primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas (excluding the cases with pleuropulmonary or chest wall involvement are extremely rare pleural tumors, which may be mistaken for mesothelioma or adenocarcinoma, and only 19 cases (one of them from India have been reported in the English literature, to date. It commonly occurs in older men, has a nonspecific clinicoradiological presentation, and carries a poor prognosis with no survivors beyond a year of establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma presenting as a life-threatening spontaneous hemothorax. We also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  8. Computed tomographic findings of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Young Chul [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) was a reliable technique to evaluate the exact size and location of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and to predict it's prognosis. Fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and reviewed by CT scan. The following results were obtained. 1. The sex ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4, The highest incidence was in 6th and 7th decades. 2. The most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage was hypertension (74.6%), followed by the aneurysm (13.5%), arteriovenous malformation (5.1%), occlusive vascular disease (3.4%), and blood dyscrasia (3.4%). 3. The most common location was basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage (37.3%), followed by lobar hemorrhage (27.1%), cerebellar hemorrhage (13.5%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11.9%). 4. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage carried the highest mortality. 5. The larger volume of hematoma, the higher the mortality rate.

  9. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  10. Giving children a voice – exploring what quantitative studies can´t tell us about recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    to influence the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability, gender, gendered school culture, peer influence, conflicts and exclusion, space and place experiences, lack of play facilities, outdoor play policy, use of electronic devices, recess duration, organised activities...... affecting recess physical activity it is crucial to observe and listen to children to know how they engage in and perceive recess physical activity. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge on children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess......, and weather. These factors were located within different layers of the socio-ecological model, but were interdependent. The participatory approaches were valuable to capture knowledge on the children’s perceptions and experiences of factors influencing their physical activity behaviour during recess...

  11. Factors Associated with School Lunch Consumption: Reverse Recess and School "Brunch".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Leah Elizabeth; Cohen, Juliana; Canterberry, Melanie; Carton, Thomas W

    2017-09-01

    While school foods have become healthier under the Healthy, Hunger Free Kids Act, research suggests there is still substantial food waste in cafeterias. It is therefore necessary to study factors that can impact food consumption, including holding recess before lunch ("reverse recess") and starting lunch periods very early or very late. This study examined the association between the timing of recess (pre-lunch vs post-lunch recess), the timing of the lunch period, and food consumed by students at lunch. We conducted a secondary data analysis from a repeated cross-sectional design. An 8-week plate waste study examining 20,183 trays of food was conducted in New Orleans, LA, in 2014. The study involved 1,036 fourth- and fifth-grade students from eight public schools. We measured percent of entrées, fruit, vegetables, and milk consumed by students at lunch. We used mixed-model analyses, controlling for student sex, grade, and the timing of the lunch period, and examined the association between reverse recess and student lunch consumption. Mixed-model analyses controlling for student sex, grade, and recess status examined whether the timing of the lunch period was associated with student lunch consumption. On average, students with reverse recess consumed 5.1% more of their fruit than students with post-lunch recess (P=0.009), but there were no significant differences in entrées, vegetables, or milk intake. Compared to students with "midday" lunch periods, on average students with "early" lunch periods consumed 5.8% less of their entrées (P<0.001) and 4.5% less of their milk (P=0.047). Students with "late" lunch periods consumed 13.8% less of their entrées (P<0.001) and 15.9% less of their fruit (P<0.001). Reverse recess was associated with increased fruit consumption. "Early" lunch periods were associated with decreased entrée and milk consumption, and "late" lunch periods were associated with decreased entrée and fruit consumption. Additional research is

  12. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  13. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-12-01

    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  15. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  16. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  18. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon

    2014-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  19. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.

  20. Lunch, recess and nutrition: responding to time incentives in the cafeteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Joseph; Just, David R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we evaluate if moving recess before lunch has an effect on the amount of fruits and vegetables elementary school students eat as part of their school-provided lunch. Participants were 1st-6th grade students from three schools that switched recess from after to before lunch and four similar schools that continued to hold recess after lunch. We collected data for an average of 14 days at each school (4 days during spring 2011, May 3 through June 1, 2011 and 9 days during fall 2011, September 19 through November 11, 2011). All of the schools were in Orem, UT. Data was collected for all students receiving a school lunch and was based on observational plate waste data. We find that moving recess before lunch increased consumption of fruits and vegetables by 0.16 servings per child (a 54% increase) and increased the fraction of children eating at least one serving of fruits or vegetables by 10 percentage points (a 45% increase). In contrast, the schools in our control group actually experienced a small reduction in fruit and vegetable consumption during the same time period. Our results show the benefits of holding recess before lunch and suggest that if more schools implement this policy, there would be significant increases in fruit and vegetable consumption among students who eat school lunch as part of the National School Lunch Program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Management of gingival recession with acellular dermal matrix graft: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Obtaining root coverage has become an important part of periodontal therapy. The aims of this studyare to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular dermal matrix graft in the coverage of denuded roots and also to examine the change in the width of keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 sites with more than or equal to 2 mm of recession depth were taken into the study, for treatment with acellular dermal matrix graft. The clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth (PD, and clinical attachment level (CAL were measured at the baseline, 8th week, and at the end of the study (16th week. The defects were treated with a coronally positioned pedicle graft combined with acellular dermal matrix graft. Results: Out of 20 sites treated with acellular dermal matrix graft, seven sites showed complete root coverage (100%, and the mean root coverage obtained was 73.39%. There was a statistically significant reduction in recession depth, recession width, and probing PD. There was also a statistically significant increase in width of keratinized gingiva and also gain in CAL. The postoperative results were both clinically and statistically significant (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: The results of this study were esthetically acceptable to the patients and clinically acceptable in all cases. From this study, it may be concluded that acellular dermal matrix graft is an excellent substitute for autogenous graft in coverage of denuded roots.

  2. Management of gingival recession with acellular dermal matrix graft: A clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, V. R.; Ramakrishnan, T.; Manikandan, D.; Lambodharan, R.; Karthikeyan, B.; Niazi, Thanvir Mohammed; Ulaganathan, G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Obtaining root coverage has become an important part of periodontal therapy. The aims of this studyare to evaluate the clinical efficacy of acellular dermal matrix graft in the coverage of denuded roots and also to examine the change in the width of keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 sites with more than or equal to 2 mm of recession depth were taken into the study, for treatment with acellular dermal matrix graft. The clinical parameters such as recession depth, recession width, width of keratinized gingiva, probing pocket depth (PD), and clinical attachment level (CAL) were measured at the baseline, 8th week, and at the end of the study (16th week). The defects were treated with a coronally positioned pedicle graft combined with acellular dermal matrix graft. Results: Out of 20 sites treated with acellular dermal matrix graft, seven sites showed complete root coverage (100%), and the mean root coverage obtained was 73.39%. There was a statistically significant reduction in recession depth, recession width, and probing PD. There was also a statistically significant increase in width of keratinized gingiva and also gain in CAL. The postoperative results were both clinically and statistically significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: The results of this study were esthetically acceptable to the patients and clinically acceptable in all cases. From this study, it may be concluded that acellular dermal matrix graft is an excellent substitute for autogenous graft in coverage of denuded roots. PMID:27829749

  3. Understanding High Recession Rates of Carbon Ablators Seen in Shear Tests in an Arc Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, David M.; Olson, Michael W.; Barnhardt, Michael D.; MacLean, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    High rates of recession in arc jet shear tests of Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) inspired a series of tests and analysis on FiberForm (a carbon preform used in the fabrication of PICA). Arc jet tests were performed on FiberForm in both air and pure nitrogen for stagnation and shear configurations. The nitrogen tests showed little or no recession, while the air tests of FiberForm showed recession rates similar to that of PICA (when adjusted for the difference in density). While mechanical erosion can not be ruled out, this is the first step in doing so. Analysis using a carbon oxidation boundary condition within DPLR was used to predict the recession rate of FiberForm. The analysis indicates that much of the anomalous recession behavior seen in shear tests may simply be an artifact of the non-flight like test configuration (copper upstream of the test article) a result of dissimilar enthalpy and oxygen concentration profiles on the copper. Shape change effects were also investigated and shown to be relatively small.

  4. The 2008-2009 Great Recession and employment outcomes among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrad, Hila; Sabbath, Erika L; Hawkins, Summer Sherburne

    2018-03-01

    This study examined whether economic changes related to the 2008-2009 Recession were associated with employment status and job quality indicators among older workers in Europe and Israel. Data were derived from 4917 respondents (16,090 observations both before and after the recession) from 13 countries who participated in the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. Annual data on gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, life expectancy, and quarterly unemployment rates were assigned to employment assessments from 2004 to 2013. Using difference-in-differences models, we assessed the recession's implications on individual employment outcomes, while isolating cyclical variation within countries and individual changes over time. Among older workers, decreases in GDP were associated with an increase in the likelihood of being unemployed and a decrease in the likelihood of being retired. An increasing country-level unemployment rate had a significant effect on aspects of job quality: lower prospects for job advancement, lower job security, and higher job satisfaction. Economic recessions are thus negatively associated with employment outcomes for older workers. However, malleable policy-related factors such as longer tenure and improved general health can limit the negative employment and job quality outcomes following a recession.

  5. Multiple Marginal Tissue Recession Treated with a Simplified Lateral Sliding Flap Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Fernando Salimon; de Morais-Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Fernandes, José Marcos Alves; Pires, Juliana Rico; Zuza, Elizangela Partata; Pontes, Ana Emília Farias

    2014-01-01

    Marginal tissue recession is a common esthetic problem that is usually accompanied by dentin sensitivity, and patients frequently report a fear of dental loss. Lateral sliding flaps have been used for localized recession, but they are rarely used for multiple recessions. The aim of this paper was to report a case of coverage of multiple marginal tissue recessions by means of a lateral sliding flap associated with a connective tissue graft. This was a modification of Nelson's technique, which was originally described as the combination of the double papilla technique, lateral sliding flap, and connective tissue graft. In the present case, double papilla was not performed, rendering the maneuver less complicated. After surgery on teeth #23 to #25, total root coverage, decreased dentin sensitivity, and increased keratinized tissue band and gingival thickness were achieved. In the present case, modified Nelson technique proved to be a more simple procedure for the treatment of multiple recessions in one session, resulting in adequate healing, predictable root coverage, and, more importantly, esthetic and functional success. PMID:25400955

  6. Autosomal recessive transmission of MYBPC3 mutation results in malignant phenotype of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilu Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM due to mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins is most commonly inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. Since nearly 50% of HCM cases occur in the absence of a family history, a recessive inheritance pattern may be involved. METHODS: A pedigree was identified with suspected autosomal recessive transmission of HCM. Twenty-six HCM-related genes were comprehensively screened for mutations in the proband with targeted second generation sequencing, and the identified mutation was confirmed with bi-directional Sanger sequencing in all family members and 376 healthy controls. RESULTS: A novel missense mutation (c.1469G>T, p.Gly490Val in exon 17 of MYBPC3 was identified. Two siblings with HCM were homozygous for this mutation, whereas other family members were either heterozygous or wild type. Clinical evaluation showed that both homozygotes manifested a typical HCM presentation, but none of others, including 5 adult heterozygous mutation carriers up to 71 years of age, had any clinical evidence of HCM. CONCLUSIONS: Our data identified a MYBPC3 mutation in HCM, which appeared autosomal recessively inherited in this family. The absence of a family history of clinical HCM may be due to not only a de novo mutation, but also recessive mutations that failed to produce a clinical phenotype in heterozygous family members. Therefore, consideration of recessive mutations leading to HCM is essential for risk stratification and genetic counseling.

  7. A Multicomponent Schoolyard Intervention Targeting Children's Recess Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Effects After 1 Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, Sanne I; Schipperijn, Jasper; de Vries, Nanne K; Jansen, Maria W J; Kremers, Stef P J

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to test the 12-month effects of a multicomponent physical activity (PA) intervention at schoolyards on morning recess PA levels of sixth- and seventh-grade children in primary schools, using accelerometry and additional global positioning system data. A quasi-experimental study design was used with 20 paired intervention and control schools. Global positioning system confirmatory analyses were applied to validate attendance at schoolyards during recess. Accelerometer data from 376 children from 7 pairs of schools were included in the final analyses. Pooled intervention effectiveness was tested by multilevel linear regression analyses, whereas effectiveness of intervention components was tested by multivariate linear regression analyses. Children exposed to the multicomponent intervention increased their time spent in light PA (+5.9%) during recess. No pooled effects on moderate to vigorous PA were found. In-depth analyses of intervention components showed that physical schoolyard interventions particularly predicted a decrease in time spent in sedentary behavior during recess at follow-up. Intervention intensity and the school's commitment to the project strengthened this effect. The multicomponent schoolyard PA intervention was effective in making children spend a larger proportion of recess time in light PA, which was most likely the result of a shift from sedentary behavior to light PA.

  8. A Multicomponent Schoolyard Intervention Targeting Children's Recess Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Effects After One Year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, S I; Schipperijn, J; de Vries, N K; Jansen, M W J; Kremers, S P J

    2016-10-24

    Background Aim of the study was to test the 12-month effects of a multicomponent physical activity (PA) intervention at schoolyards on recess PA levels of 6th and 7th grade children in primary schools, combining Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometry data. Methods A quasi-experimental study design was used with 20 paired intervention and control schools. GPS confirmatory analyses were applied to validate attendance at schoolyards during recess. Data from 376 children from 7 pairs of schools were included in the final analyses. Pooled intervention effectiveness was tested by multilevel linear regression analyses, whereas effectiveness of intervention components was tested by multivariate linear regression analyses. Results Children exposed to the multicomponent intervention increased their time spent in light PA (+5.9%) during recess. No pooled effects on Moderate-to-Vigorous PA were found. In depth-analyses on intervention components showed that physical schoolyard interventions particularly predicted a decrease in time spent in sedentary behavior during recess at follow-up. Intervention intensity and school's commitment to the project strengthened this effect. Conclusions The multicomponent schoolyard PA intervention was effective in making children spend a larger proportion of recess time in light PA, which was most likely the result of a shift from sedentary behavior to light PA.

  9. Lateral rectus recession with/without transposition in V-pattern exotropia without inferior oblique overaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadein, Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    To compare bilateral lateral rectus (BLR) recession with BLR recession combined with half-tendon upward transposition in the management of patients with V-pattern exotropia (XT; 15-20 prism diopters [PD] greater XT in upgaze than downgaze) with no or minimal inferior oblique overaction. Retrospective, observational, cohort study. Twenty-nine patients had BLR recession (Group A). Twenty-one patients had BLR recession combined with half-tendon upward transposition (Group B). A retrospective study was performed on patients with V-pattern XT with no or minimal inferior oblique overaction. Ductions, versions, pattern strabismus, stereoacuity, and degree of fundus torsion were analyzed in all patients before and after surgery. Patients were included in the study only if they achieved a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Normalization of V pattern (extorsion occurred in 8 patients (44%) in Group B. Orthophoria within 8Δ in the primary position was achieved in 79% in Group A and 82% in Group B (p = 1.00). There was no statistically significant difference in the postoperative stereoacuity in both groups (p = 0.67). BLR with half-tendon upward transposition is much more effective than BLR recession alone in correcting V pattern. Copyright © 2013 Canadian Ophthalmological Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Autozygosity reveals recessive mutations and novel mechanisms in dominant genes: implications in variant interpretation

    KAUST Repository

    Monies, Dorota

    2017-04-06

    The purpose of this study is to describe recessive alleles in strictly dominant genes. Identifying recessive mutations in genes for which only dominant disease or risk alleles have been reported can expand our understanding of the medical relevance of these genes both phenotypically and mechanistically. The Saudi population is enriched for autozygosity, which enhances the homozygous occurrence of alleles, including pathogenic alleles in genes that have been associated only with a dominant inheritance pattern.Exome sequencing of patients from consanguineous families with likely recessive phenotypes was performed. In one family, the genotype of the deceased children was inferred from their parents due to lack of available samples.We describe the identification of 11 recessive variants (5 of which are reported here for the first time) in 11 genes for which only dominant disease or risk alleles have been reported. The observed phenotypes for these recessive variants were novel (e.g., FBN2-related myopathy and CSF1R-related brain malformation and osteopetrosis), typical (e.g., ACTG2-related visceral myopathy), or an apparently healthy state (e.g., PDE11A), consistent with the corresponding mouse knockout phenotypes.Our results show that, in the era of genomic sequencing and

  11. The Great American Recession and forgone healthcare: Do widened disparities between African-Americans and Whites remain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jasmine L; Cohen, Catherine C; Dick, Andrew W; Stone, Patricia W

    2017-01-01

    During the Great Recession in America, African-Americans opted to forgo healthcare more than other racial/ethnic groups. It is not understood whether disparities in forgone care returned to pre-recession levels. Understanding healthcare utilization patterns is important for informing subsequent efforts to decrease healthcare disparities. Therefore, we examined changes in racial disparities in forgone care before, during, and after the Great Recession. Data were pooled from the 2006-2013 National Health Interview Survey. Forgone medical, mental, and prescription care due to affordability were assessed among African-Americans and Whites. Time periods were classified as: pre-recession (May 2006-November 2007), early recession (December 2007-November 2008), late recession (December 2008-May 2010) and post-recession (June 2010-December 2013). Multivariable logistic regressions of race, interacted with time periods, were used to identify disparities in forgone care controlling for other demographics, health insurance coverage, and having a usual place for medical care across time periods. Adjusted Wald tests were performed to identify significant changes in disparities across time periods. The sample consisted of 110,746 adults. African-Americans were more likely to forgo medical care during the post- recession compared to Whites (OR = 1.16, CI = 1.06, 1.26); changes in foregone medical care disparities were significant in that they increased in the post-recession period compared to the pre-recession (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.08, 1.28 and OR = 0.89, CI = 0.77, 1.04, respectively, adjusted Wald Test p-value Great Recession and may be a result of outstanding issues related to healthcare access, cost, and quality. While health insurance is an important component of access to care, it alone should not be expected to remove these disparities due to other financial constraints. Additional strategies are necessary to close remaining gaps in care widened by the Great Recession.

  12. Canine disorder mirrors human disease: exonic deletion in HES7 causes autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis in miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cali E Willet

    Full Text Available Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder of the axial skeleton documented in human families from diverse racial backgrounds. The condition is characterised by truncal shortening, extensive hemivertebrae and rib anomalies including malalignment, fusion and reduction in number. Mutations in the Notch signalling pathway genes DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6 have been associated with this defect. In this study, spondylocostal dysostosis in an outbred family of miniature schnauzer dogs is described. Computed tomography demonstrated that the condition mirrors the skeletal defects observed in human cases, but unlike most human cases, the affected dogs were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Through gene mapping and whole genome sequencing, we identified a single-base deletion in the coding region of HES7. The frameshift mutation causes loss of functional domains essential for the oscillatory transcriptional autorepression of HES7 during somitogenesis. A restriction fragment length polymorphism test was applied within the immediate family and supported a highly penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The mutation was not observed in wider testing of 117 randomly sampled adult miniature schnauzer and six adult standard schnauzer dogs; providing a significance of association of Praw = 4.759e-36 (genome-wide significant. Despite this apparently low frequency in the Australian population, the allele may be globally distributed based on its presence in two unrelated sires from geographically distant locations. While isolated hemivertebrae have been observed in a small number of other dog breeds, this is the first clinical and genetic diagnosis of spontaneously occurring spondylocostal dysostosis in a non-human mammal and offers an excellent model in which to study this devastating human disorder. The genetic test can be utilized by dog breeders to select away from the disease and avoid unnecessary neonatal losses.

  13. Canine disorder mirrors human disease: exonic deletion in HES7 causes autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis in miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willet, Cali E; Makara, Mariano; Reppas, George; Tsoukalas, George; Malik, Richard; Haase, Bianca; Wade, Claire M

    2015-01-01

    Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder of the axial skeleton documented in human families from diverse racial backgrounds. The condition is characterised by truncal shortening, extensive hemivertebrae and rib anomalies including malalignment, fusion and reduction in number. Mutations in the Notch signalling pathway genes DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6 have been associated with this defect. In this study, spondylocostal dysostosis in an outbred family of miniature schnauzer dogs is described. Computed tomography demonstrated that the condition mirrors the skeletal defects observed in human cases, but unlike most human cases, the affected dogs were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Through gene mapping and whole genome sequencing, we identified a single-base deletion in the coding region of HES7. The frameshift mutation causes loss of functional domains essential for the oscillatory transcriptional autorepression of HES7 during somitogenesis. A restriction fragment length polymorphism test was applied within the immediate family and supported a highly penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The mutation was not observed in wider testing of 117 randomly sampled adult miniature schnauzer and six adult standard schnauzer dogs; providing a significance of association of Praw = 4.759e-36 (genome-wide significant). Despite this apparently low frequency in the Australian population, the allele may be globally distributed based on its presence in two unrelated sires from geographically distant locations. While isolated hemivertebrae have been observed in a small number of other dog breeds, this is the first clinical and genetic diagnosis of spontaneously occurring spondylocostal dysostosis in a non-human mammal and offers an excellent model in which to study this devastating human disorder. The genetic test can be utilized by dog breeders to select away from the disease and avoid unnecessary neonatal losses.

  14. Operation and scalability of dopant-segregated Schottky barrier MOSFETs with recessed channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Chun-Hsing; Hsia, Jui-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Recessed channels were used in scaled dopant-segregated Schottky barrier MOSFETs (DS-SBMOS) to control the severe short-channel effect. The physical operation and device scalability of the DS-SBMOS resulting from the presence of recessed channels and associated gate-corners are elucidated. The coupling of Schottky and gate-corner barriers has a key function in determining the on–off switching and drain current. The gate-corner barriers divide the channel into three regions for protection from the drain penetration field. To prevent resistive degradations in the drive current, an alternative asymmetric recessed channel (ARC) without a source-side gate-corner is proposed to simultaneously optimize both the short-channel effect and drive current in the scaled DS-SBMOS. By employing the proposed ARC architecture, the DS-SBMOS devices can be successfully scaled down, making them promising candidates for next-generation CMOS devices. (paper)

  15. Treatment of multiple gingival recessions adopting modified tunnel subepithelial connective tissue graft technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagmohan Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession related to periodontal disease or developmental problems can result in root sensitivity, root caries, and esthetically unacceptable root exposures. In the past, multiple surgical procedures have been proposed to obtain root coverage on exposed buccal root surfaces. There has been great interest in the treatment of gingival recession defects, especially with subepithelial connective-tissue grafting (SCTG. Recent advances have focused on SCTG by the tunnel technique. This article highlights the esthetic results obtained by adopting a modification of the tunnel technique using a single vertical incision along with autologous SCTG in the management of multiple adjacent Miller Class-II gingival recessions. A single vertical incision was used along with tunnel preparation for the facile placement of SCTG into the prepared tunnel. After 6 months of follow-up, the clinical condition was stable with satisfactory root coverage outcome. An excellent esthetical outcome was achieved and the patient was satisfied with the result.

  16. The impact of the macroeconomy on health insurance coverage: evidence from the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John; Moriya, Asako S; Simon, Kosali

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the impact of the macroeconomy on the health insurance coverage of Americans using panel data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation for 2004-2010, a period that includes the Great Recession of 2007-2009. We find that a one percentage point increase in the state unemployment rate is associated with a 1.67 percentage point (2.12%) reduction in the probability that men have health insurance; this effect is strongest among college-educated, white, and older (50-64 years old) men. For women and children, health insurance coverage is not significantly correlated with the unemployment rate, which may be the result of public health insurance acting as a social safety net. Compared with the previous recession, the health insurance coverage of men is more sensitive to the unemployment rate, which may be due to the nature of the Great Recession. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Bilateral superior rectus transposition and medial rectus recession for bilateral sixth nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Shuan; Bhambhwani, Vishaal; Raoof, Naz

    2018-03-01

    To present the results of bilateral superior rectus transposition with medial rectus recession in a case of chronic bilateral sixth nerve palsy. Bilateral superior rectus transposition with medial rectus recession resulted in full correction of esotropia with resolution of horizontal diplopia, improvement in abduction, and regain of stereoacuity in our case. There was minimal limitation of adduction, with no abnormal vertical or torsional changes. Bilateral superior rectus transposition with medial rectus recession appears to be a useful procedure for surgical treatment of bilateral sixth nerve palsy with minimal side effects. Given its potential for reduced risk of anterior segment ischemia (ASI), it may have especially good value in the select group of patients at risk for ASI. Studies with larger sample size and longer follow up are needed to further evaluate this procedure and elucidate the variables in surgical technique for superior rectus transposition.

  18. Infantile variant of Bartter syndrome and sensorineural deafness: A new autosomal recessive disorder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landau, D.; Shalev, H.; Carmi, Rivka; Ohaly, M. [Univ. of the Negev, Ashkelon (Israel)

    1995-12-04

    The infantile variant of Bartter syndrome (IBS) is usually associated with maternal polyhydramnios, premature birth, postnatal polyuria and hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and a typical appearance. IBS is thought to be an autosomal recessive trait. Several congenital tubular defects are associated with sensorineural deafness (SND). However, an association between the IBS and SND has not been reported so far. Here we describe 5 children of an extended consanguineous Bedouin family with IBS and SND. In 3 of the cases, the typical electrolyte imbalance and facial appearance were detected neonatally. SND was detected as early as age 1 month, suggesting either coincidental homozygotization of 2 recessive genes or a pleiotropic effect of one autosomal recessive gene. This association suggests that evaluation of SND is warranted in every case of IBS. 35 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    by a thematic analysis of data from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results: The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identifying the same......Background: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment Methods: Data were collected through 17 focus groups consisting of 111 children...

  20. Tropical New World Glacier Recession from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayback, D. A.; Tucker, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    We report on the systematic retreat of all glaciers in the tropics of the New World from the mid-1980s to the mid-2000s. These glaciers comprise 99% of the world’s tropical glaciers and occur in Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and Mexico. It was necessary to use a large quantity of Landsat satellite data (124 images), selecting multiple images for every glacier for both epochs, to minimize confusion of glacier area with snow. Change in glacier extent was combined with a digital elevation model (DEM) to provide information on the elevation and aspect of areas of glacier recession. Overall, we found glacier recession of approximately 30% over twenty years, declining from ~2500 km2 from the mid-1980s to ~1800 km2 in the mid-2000s. In addition, there was a strong association of glacier recession with elevation and aspect. We discuss these trends in relation to hypothesized climatic influences.

  1. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  2. Original article Spontaneous Pregnancy Outcome after Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Table 2: Spontaneous pregnancy in relation to postoperative semen parameters. (no statistically significant difference), comparable to the mean ages of 22, 28.4 and. 34.9 years, respectively, reported by Bach et al9, Abdel- Meguid et al10 and Baazeem et al11. The mean age of the wives who did or did.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  4. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  5. SPONTANEOUS CP VIOLATION AND QUARK MASS AMBIGUITIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-09-21

    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.

  6. 1 INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION ON SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  7. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  8. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  9. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, W.; Toelly, E.; Ebner, F.; Kullnig, P.

    1986-07-01

    Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of renal cysts is a rare occurrence. The contents of the cyst can perforate into the renal calyx system or into the perirenal space. Perforation into the peritoneal cavity has also been described (1, 2, 4, 5).

  10. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  11. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  12. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  13. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Lule | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 81, No 3 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. GN Lule. Abstract. No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  14. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  15. Spontaneous dimensional reduction in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S.

    2016-07-01

    Hints from a number of different approaches to quantum gravity point to a phenomenon of “spontaneous dimensional reduction” to two spacetime dimensions near the Planck scale. I examine the physical meaning of the term “dimension” in this context, summarize the evidence for dimensional reduction, and discuss possible physical explanations.

  16. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  17. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Allium sativum extract on the medial prefrontal cortex and neurobehaviour of adult Wistar rats. ... altered spontaneous alternation, while cellular pathologic changes were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex of these test groups in a dose dependent sequence.

  18. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  19. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  20. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  1. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptug Tokatli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a very rare clinical condition. Physiopathology of SCAD is still mostly unclear. Clinical presentation of SCAD ranges from atypical symptoms to sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of dissection is generally made by using conventional coronary angiography. Invasive or conservative treatment is reasonable.

  2. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.

    2008-01-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  3. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  4. Spontaneous Sourcing among Students Reading Multiple Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromso, Helge I.; Braten, Ivar; Britt, M. Anne; Ferguson, Leila E.

    2013-01-01

    This study used think-aloud methodology to explore undergraduates' spontaneous attention to and use of source information while reading six documents that presented conflicting views on a controversial social scientific issue in a Google-like environment. Results showed that students explicitly and implicitly paid attention to sources of documents…

  5. Massive Spontaneous Hemothorax, Giant Intrathoracic Meningocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haemothorax associated with von Recklinghausen's disease: Review of occurrence in Japan. Thorax 1997;52:575‑8. 3. Fedoruk LM, English J, Fradet GJ. Spontaneous hemothorax and neurofibromatosis: A review of a lethal combination. Asian Cardiovasc. Thorac Ann 2007;15:342‑4. 4. Conlon NP, Redmond KC, Celi LA.

  6. A Fatal Complication of Dermatomyositis: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Demirdöğen Çetinoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a negative prognostic factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of DM and it can be fatal. We present a 48-year-old woman with DM and ILD complicated by pneumomediastinum without pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema.

  7. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  8. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short ...

  9. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm

    2017-05-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  10. Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    When dipolar gases are condensed at sufficiently low temperature onto a solid surface, they form films that may spontaneously exhibit electric fields in excess of 108V/m. This effect, called the ‘spontelectric effect’, was recently revealed using an instrument designed to measure scattering...

  11. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  12. Individual differences in spontaneous analogical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-05-01

    Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. In two experiments, we systematically compared the effect of augmenting verbal descriptions of the source with animations or static diagrams. Solution rates to Duncker's radiation problem were measured across varying source presentation conditions, and participants' understanding of the relevant source material was assessed. The pattern of transfer was best fit by a moderated mediation model: the positive impact of fluid intelligence on spontaneous transfer was mediated by its influence on source comprehension; however, this path was in turn modulated by provision of a supplemental animation via its influence on comprehension of the source. Animated source depictions were most beneficial in facilitating spontaneous transfer for those participants with low scores on the fluid intelligence measure.

  13. Spontaneous regression of a mandibular arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B. Raymond, MD, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rare lesions that may initially present as catastrophic bleeding during dental surgical procedures. Owing to the significant risk of bleeding, most mandibular AVMs are treated definitively by resection or embolization. In this report, we describe a mandibular AVM that spontaneously regressed after biopsy.

  14. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  15. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico- chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  16. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  17. PERIODIC-SOLUTIONS IN SPONTANEOUSLY BROKEN THEORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRIHAYE, Y; KUNZ, J

    A class of spontaneously broken field theories is proposed, and the occurrence of their periodic, classical solutions is investigated in detail. The emergence of multiple solutions is observed, their normal modes of oscillation are studied, and the bifurcations of the classical energy functional are

  18. Metabolic Syndrome Risks Following the Great Recession in Rural Black Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2017-09-06

    Some of the country's highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease are found in lower-income black communities in the rural Southeast. Research suggests these disparities originate in the early decades of life, and partly reflect the influence of broader socioeconomic forces acting on behavioral and biological processes that accelerate cardiovascular disease progression. However, this hypothesis has not been tested explicitly. Here, we examine metabolic syndrome (MetS) in rural black young adults as a function of their family's economic conditions before and after the Great Recession. In an ongoing prospective study, we followed 328 black youth from rural Georgia, who were 16 to 17 years old when the Great Recession began. When youth were 25, we assessed MetS prevalence using the International Diabetes Federation's guidelines. The sample's overall MetS prevalence was 18.6%, but rates varied depending on family economic trajectory from before to after the Great Recession. MetS prevalence was lowest (10.4%) among youth whose families maintained stable low-income conditions across the Recession. It was intermediate (21.8%) among downwardly mobile youth (ie, those whose families were lower income before the Recession, but slipped into poverty). The highest MetS rates (27.5%) were among youth whose families began the Recession in poverty, and sank into more meager conditions afterwards. The same patterns were observed with 3 alternative MetS definitions. These patterns suggest that broader economic forces shape cardiometabolic risk in young blacks, and may exacerbate disparities already present in this community. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  19. How economic recessions and unemployment affect illegal drug use: A systematic realist literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagelhout, Gera E; Hummel, Karin; de Goeij, Moniek C M; de Vries, Hein; Kaner, Eileen; Lemmens, Paul

    2017-06-01

    Economic recessions may influence illegal drug use via different mechanisms, for example increased use due to more psychological distress or decreased use due to lower incomes and purchasing power. This paper reviews the literature on how economic recessions and unemployment affect the use of illegal drugs among adults. We conducted a systematic realist literature review, which is an explanatory method that aims to understand underlying mechanisms that connect an event to an outcome in a specific context. A systematic search was performed in EconLit, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, SocIndex, and Web of Science for studies examining mechanisms explaining how recessions or unemployment affect illegal drug use. We synthesized 28 studies published between 1990 and 2015. Most evidence (17 studies) was found for the counter-cyclical mechanism that recessions and unemployment increase psychological distress, which increases drug use. Mainly supportive evidence for this mechanism was found in several high quality studies, in different contexts, and in a diverse number of countries and samples. In contrast, decreased income did not seem to decrease drug use (10 studies). Little evidence was available on the non-working time mechanism (4 studies) and the social exclusion mechanism (5 studies). Most of the studies that did examine these latter mechanisms confirmed the hypothesized counter-cyclical associations. The current evidence is in line with the hypothesis that drug use increases in times of recession because unemployment increases psychological distress which increases drug use. During times of recession, psychological support for those who lost their job and are vulnerable to drug use (relapse) is likely to be important. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nonabsorbable versus absorbable sutures in large, hang-back medial rectus muscle recessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awadein, Ahmed; Marsh, Justin D; Guyton, David L

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the value of nonabsorbable sutures in reducing the incidence of consecutive exotropia after large, "hang-back" medial rectus recessions. The medical records of patients who underwent medial rectus recession of ≥6.5 mm in individuals ≤2 years of age, or ≥7.0 mm in those >2 years were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on suture material used: absorbable, polyglactin 910 sutures (44 patients); nonabsorbable, polyester sutures (50 patients). Preoperative measurements, ductions, strabismus surgery, and postoperative results were analyzed. Inadequate anchoring of the medial rectus muscle was suspected when consecutive exotropia developed 4-7 weeks after surgery after initial satisfactory alignment and was confirmed if during reoperation the medial rectus muscle appeared recessed >2 mm beyond the originally intended recession. Consecutive exotropia due to inadequate anchoring of the medial rectus muscle occurred in 11 of 66 muscles (17%) in the absorbable suture group. The muscle was found 6-10 mm posterior to the intended recession. Limited duction in the field of action of the involved medial rectus muscle occurred in 9 of the 11 muscles (82%). None of the eyes with nonabsorbable sutures showed inadequate anchoring. The incidence of consecutive exotropia was higher in the absorbable suture group (30%) than in the nonabsorbable suture group (6%) (P < 0.005). Using nonabsorbable suture for large, hang-back medial rectus recessions greatly reduces the incidence of consecutive exotropia that can occur when absorbable suture dissolves. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Multi-decadal marine- and land-terminating glacier recession in the Ammassalik region, southeast Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mernild

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Landsat imagery was applied to elucidate glacier fluctuations of land- and marine-terminating outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS and local land-terminating glaciers and ice caps (GIC peripheral to the GrIS in the Ammassalik region, Southeast Greenland, during the period 1972–2011. Data from 21 marine-terminating glaciers (including the glaciers Helheim, Midgaard, and Fenris, the GrIS land-terminating margin, and 35 GIC were examined and compared to observed atmospheric air temperatures, precipitation, and reconstructed ocean water temperatures (at 400 m depth in the Irminger Sea. Here, we document that net glacier recession has occurred since 1972 in the Ammassalik region for all glacier types and sizes, except for three GIC. The land-terminating GrIS and GIC reflect lower marginal and areal changes than the marine-terminating outlet glaciers. The mean annual land-terminating GrIS and GIC margin recessions were about three to five times lower than the GrIS marine-terminating recession. The marine-terminating outlet glaciers had an average net frontal retreat for 1999–2011 of 0.098 km yr−1, which was significantly higher than in previous sub-periods 1972–1986 and 1986–1999. For the marine-terminating GrIS, the annual areal recession rate has been decreasing since 1972, while increasing for the land-terminating GrIS since 1986. On average for all the observed GIC, a mean net frontal retreat for 1986–2011 of 0.010 ± 0.006 km yr−1 and a mean areal recession of around 1% per year occurred; overall for all observed GIC, a mean recession rate of 27 ± 24% occurred based on the 1986 GIC area. Since 1986, five GIC melted away in the Ammassalik area.

  2. Method and Excel VBA Algorithm for Modeling Master Recession Curve Using Trigonometry Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Kristijan; Giacopetti, Marco; Materazzi, Marco; Birk, Steffen

    2017-11-01

    A new method was developed and implemented into an Excel Visual Basic for Applications (VBAs) algorithm utilizing trigonometry laws in an innovative way to overlap recession segments of time series and create master recession curves (MRCs). Based on a trigonometry approach, the algorithm horizontally translates succeeding recession segments of time series, placing their vertex, that is, the highest recorded value of each recession segment, directly onto the appropriate connection line defined by measurement points of a preceding recession segment. The new method and algorithm continues the development of methods and algorithms for the generation of MRC, where the first published method was based on a multiple linear/nonlinear regression model approach (Posavec et al. 2006). The newly developed trigonometry-based method was tested on real case study examples and compared with the previously published multiple linear/nonlinear regression model-based method. The results show that in some cases, that is, for some time series, the trigonometry-based method creates narrower overlaps of the recession segments, resulting in higher coefficients of determination R 2 , while in other cases the multiple linear/nonlinear regression model-based method remains superior. The Excel VBA algorithm for modeling MRC using the trigonometry approach is implemented into a spreadsheet tool (MRCTools v3.0 written by and available from Kristijan Posavec, Zagreb, Croatia) containing the previously published VBA algorithms for MRC generation and separation. All algorithms within the MRCTools v3.0 are open access and available free of charge, supporting the idea of running science on available, open, and free of charge software. © 2017, National Ground Water Association.

  3. Soil thaw effects on river discharge recessions of a subarctic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploum, Stefan; Lyon, Steve; Teuling, Ryan; van der Velde, Ype

    2017-04-01

    Thawing permafrost in circumpolar regions is likely to change subsurface hydrology. In high latitude areas continuous permafrost is expected to partially thaw leading to sporadic permafrost with deeper groundwater flow paths. Moreover, freeze-thaw cycles of the shallow subsurface are likely to increase. River discharge recession analysis can be particularly useful to understand the hydrological effects of a thawing Arctic. Here we examine river discharge recessions of the Abiskojokka, a 560 km2 watershed with sporadic permafrost, using a river discharge record of 30 years (1985 - 2015). Snow observation records were used to separate river recessions in snowmelt and snowfree periods. We found significant differences between recessions during the snowmelt and snowfree seasons. During the snowmelt, recessions were close to linear (b=1.11), while during the snowfree period, recessions were more non-linear (b=1.54). Typically, non-linearity has been found to increase with discharge magnitude, while we observed the opposite (snowfree periods tend to have lower discharges than the snowmelt periods). We explain these contrasting results by hypothesizing that increased connectivity (increasing magnitude and number of water flow paths) between groundwater and stream leads to higher non-linearity. In temperate catchments without frozen soils, connectivity tends to increase with increasing discharge. In contrast, in Arctic systems, where soils are frozen, connectivity between groundwater and stream is limited. Therefore, thawing of frozen soils is expected to increase connectivity and thus non-linearity of river discharges. We tested this hypothesis with a detailed analysis of all spring flood recessions. Years with cold soil temperatures (b=1.08) and years with a below median snowpack depth were found to have progressively linear slopes (b=1.08 and 1.01 respectively). On the other hand, years with warm soil conditions show increasingly non-linear recessions (b=1.67). Although

  4. Dominant cataract and recessive specific locus mutations in offspring of X-irradiated male mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graw, J.; Favor, J.; Neuhaeuser-Klaus, A.; Ehling, U.H.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic comparison of mutation rates to dominant and recessive alleles after fractionated paternal radiation exposure. The obtained mutation rates to recessive specific locus and to dominant cataract mutations are compared to earlier results with different radiation doses (fractionated and unfractionated). It was to be determined whether these two classes of mutations are equally affected by dose fractionation effects at two different dose levels. Additionally, dominant cataract mutations will be characterized with respect to litter size and penetrance of the phenotype in the confirmation crosses. (Auth.)

  5. Population health and the economy: Mortality and the Great Recession in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia Granados, José A; Ionides, Edward L

    2017-12-01

    We analyze the evolution of mortality-based health indicators in 27 European countries before and after the start of the Great Recession. We find that in the countries where the crisis has been particularly severe, mortality reductions in 2007-2010 were considerably bigger than in 2004-2007. Panel models adjusted for space-invariant and time-invariant factors show that an increase of 1 percentage point in the national unemployment rate is associated with a reduction of 0.5% (p recessions, on average, have beneficial short-term effects on mortality of the adult population. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Latvia’s Recession: The Cost of Adjustment With An “Internal Devaluation”

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Weisbrot; Rebecca Ray

    2010-01-01

    The Latvian recession, which is now more than two years old, has seen a world-historical drop in GDP of more than 25 percent. The IMF projects another 4 percent drop this year, and predicts that the total loss of output from peak to bottom will reach 30 percent. This would make Latvia’s loss more than that of the U.S. Great Depression downturn of 1929-1933. This paper argues that the depth of the recession and the difficulty of recovery are attributable in large part to the decision to mainta...

  7. Impact of Recession on the Parameters of Quality of Regional Centres and their Attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Drobne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the findings regarding the impact of recession that began in 2008 in Slovenia to the chosen parameters of quality of regional centres, which are reflected in their attractiveness. We wanted to test the assumption of the impact of recession to the attractiveness of regional centres to both internal migration and commuting flows. To this end, an adjusted gravity spatial interaction model was developed by evaluating regression coefficients. We analysedthe impacts of population size, distance, employment, gross personal income, municipality revenue per capita, average price per square metre of apartments and houses, and age structure in the municipality pertaining to the decision to potentially migrate or commute related to the migration and choice of workplace in the regional centre. The impact of the recession was analysed by comparing the estimations of regression coefficients before the recession (2007 and duringthe recession (2011. It is shown that during the recession, internal migrations to regional centres increased considerably, while commuting to regional centres did not change significantly. We alsoshowed that during the recession, the impact of the distance to the decision to migrate to regional centres slightly increased, while the impact of the distance to the decision to commute did not changesignificantly. Notably, during the crisis the impact of municipality revenue per capita in the regional centre to the analysed flows changed the most: during the recession, the decision to migrate and/orcommute to 'more prosperous' regional centres is made more easily.In the future, it is to be expected that local self-governments will make more effort to consider how to attract taxpayers to their local community and hence enrich the community, while the analysis of theseparameters will become more significant for the individual levels of the local self-government. Gravity models, such as the one used here, include different

  8. Periodontal Plastic Microsurgery in the Treatment of Deep Gingival Recession after Orthodontic Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Kahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gingival recession is a condition that affects a large portion of the young and adult population and negatively affects the aesthetic aspects of the smile. Many factors are related to its development, including orthodontic movement beyond the osseous limits. Many treatment options have been proposed to cover the exposed root surface. The aim of this article was to describe three cases where a subepithelial connective tissue graft was performed, using a microsurgical technique, in the treatment of deep gingival recession after orthodontic treatment. This technique resulted in successful root coverage and keratinized tissue gain, improving the gingival esthetic pattern.

  9. Spontaneous sensorimotor coupling with multipart music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Brian K; Martens, Peter A; Janata, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Music often evokes spontaneous movements in listeners that are synchronized with the music, a phenomenon that has been characterized as being in "the groove." However, the musical factors that contribute to listeners' initiation of stimulus-coupled action remain unclear. Evidence suggests that newly appearing objects in auditory scenes orient listeners' attention, and that in multipart music, newly appearing instrument or voice parts can engage listeners' attention and elicit arousal. We posit that attentional engagement with music can influence listeners' spontaneous stimulus-coupled movement. Here, 2 experiments-involving participants with and without musical training-tested the effect of staggering instrument entrances across time and varying the number of concurrent instrument parts within novel multipart music on listeners' engagement with the music, as assessed by spontaneous sensorimotor behavior and self-reports. Experiment 1 assessed listeners' moment-to-moment ratings of perceived groove, and Experiment 2 examined their spontaneous tapping and head movements. We found that, for both musically trained and untrained participants, music with more instruments led to higher ratings of perceived groove, and that music with staggered instrument entrances elicited both increased sensorimotor coupling and increased reports of perceived groove. Although untrained participants were more likely to rate music as higher in groove, trained participants showed greater propensity for tapping along, and they did so more accurately. The quality of synchronization of head movements with the music, however, did not differ as a function of training. Our results shed new light on the relationship between complex musical scenes, attention, and spontaneous sensorimotor behavior.

  10. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  11. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low

  12. Playing Fair: The Contribution of High-Functioning Recess to Overall School Climate in Low-Income Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A.; Westrich, Lisa; Stokes-Guinan, Katie; McLaughlin, Milbrey

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recess is a part of the elementary school day with strong implications for school climate. Positive school climate has been linked to a host of favorable student outcomes, from attendance to achievement. We examine 6 low-income elementary schools' experiences implementing a recess-based program designed to provide safe, healthy,…

  13. Did the Great Recession increase suicides in the USA? Evidence from an interrupted time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that the Great Recession of 2007-2009 led to nearly 5000 excess suicides in the United States. However, prior work has not accounted for seasonal patterning and unique suicide trends by age and gender. We calculated monthly suicide rates from 1999 to 2013 for men and women aged 15 and above. Suicide rates before the Great Recession were used to predict the rate during and after the Great Recession. Death rates for each age-gender group were modeled using Poisson regression with robust variance, accounting for seasonal and nonlinear suicide trajectories. There were 56,658 suicide deaths during the Great Recession. Age- and gender-specific suicide trends before the recession demonstrated clear seasonal and nonlinear trajectories. Our models predicted 57,140 expected suicide deaths, leading to 482 fewer observed than expected suicides (95% confidence interval -2079, 943). We found little evidence to suggest that the Great Recession interrupted existing trajectories of suicide rates. Suicide rates were already increasing before the Great Recession for middle-aged men and women. Future studies estimating the impact of recessions on suicide should account for the diverse and unique suicide trajectories of different social groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. On the Brink: How the Recession of 2009 Will Affect Post-Secondary Education. Canadian Higher Education Report Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, Alex; Dunn, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    With the global recession in full effect, post-secondary education in Canada is about to face some very significant challenges. The purpose of this report is to outline the likely main effects of this global recession on the Canadian post-secondary education (PSE) sector, as well as suggest a series of measures that governments can take to help…

  15. The Impact of the Great Recession on Student Achievement: Evidence from Population Data. CEPA Working Paper No. 17-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shores, Kenneth; Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2017-01-01

    The Great Recession was the most severe economic downturn in the United States since the Great Depression. Using newly available population-level achievement data from the Stanford Education Data Archive (SEDA), we estimate the impact of the Great Recession on the math and English language arts (ELA) achievement of all grade 3-8 students in the…

  16. Child Poverty During the Years of the Great Recession: An Analysis of Racial Differences Among Immigrants and US Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin J A; Tucker, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Although the consequences of the Great Recession are extensively discussed in previous research, three critical issue need to be addressed in order to develop a full portrait of the economic experiences of children during this period. First, given the changing immigrant composition of the US child population, new studies are needed for examining the implications of immigrant status for exposure to child poverty during the recession. Second, it is important to understand how traditional patterns of racial inequality among were transformed during the years of the recession. Finally, it is not clear whether recession-related changes in socioeconomic inequalities continued to have implications for child well-being in the post-recession period. Results from this analysis indicate that the adverse effects of the recession were most intense in states with significant changes in their populations of Black and Latino immigrant children. The results further show that declines in parental work opportunities were more consequential for poverty among Whites and Asians. The analysis also finds differential implications of family contexts for child poverty among Black immigrant and natives during the recession. Finally, the results indicate that increases in racial child poverty disparities during the recession did not disappear in the years following the downturn.

  17. Surviving and Thriving: The Adaptive Responses of U.S. Four-Year Colleges and Universities during the Great Recession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brint, Steven; Yoshikawa, Sarah R. K.; Rotondi, Matthew B.; Viggiano, Tiffany; Maldonado, John

    2016-01-01

    Press reports and industry statistics both give incomplete pictures of the outcomes of the Great Recession for U.S. four-year colleges and universities. To address these gaps, we conducted a statistical analysis of all articles that appeared in Lexis-Nexis on a sample of more than 300 U.S. colleges and universities during the Recession years. We…

  18. Recess, Playground Games, and the Aims of School: An Investigation into the Semiotic Affordances of Four Square

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marple, Stacy Ann

    2011-01-01

    In recent times, recess has become threatened by the press for more academic instruction time and by fears of violent behavior. A dramatic indicator of this trend is seen in the increasing number of schools and school districts which have done away with or significantly reduced recess time (BBC news, 2007; Coughlan, 2007; Jarrett, 2002; Pressler,…

  19. Giving children a voice – exploring what quantitative studies can´t tell us about recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Schipperijn, Jasper; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine

    to influence the children’s recess physical activity: bodily self-esteem and ability, gender, gendered school culture, peer influence, conflicts and exclusion, space and place experiences, lack of play facilities, outdoor play policy, use of electronic devices, recess duration, organised activities...

  20. A Dutch family with autosomal recessively inherited lower motor neuron predominant motor neuron disease due to optineurin mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeldman, Emma; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne; van Maarle, Merel C.; van Ruissen, Fred; Baas, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of motor neuron disease (MND) patients report a familial predisposition for MND. Autosomal recessively inherited MND is less common and is most often caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. In 2010, autosomal recessively inherited mutations in the optineurin