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Sample records for spontaneous quantal release

  1. Temperature effect on carbachol-induced depression of spontaneous quantal transmitter release in frog neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Strunsky, E. G.; Borisover, M. D.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 26, 8-9 (2001), s. 891-897 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA MŠk OK 267 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 99-04-48286; EU(XX) Nesting Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : carbachol * temperature * acetylcholine release Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.638, year: 2001

  2. Early postdenervation depolarization develops faster at endplates of hibernating golden hamsters where spontaneous quantal and non-quantal acetylcholine release is very small

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, J.; Vyskočil, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 1 (2005), s. 25-29 ISSN 0168-0102 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011411; GA ČR GA305/02/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : motor nerve ending * non-quantal * acetylcholine Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.184, year: 2005

  3. Non-quantal acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, František; Malomouzh, A. I.; Nikolsky, E. E.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 6 (2009), s. 763-784 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : acetylcholine * non-quantal release * nitric oxide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  4. Calcium dependence of uni-quantal release latencies and quantal content at mouse neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samigullin, D.; Bukharaeva, E. A.; Vyskočil, František; Nikolsky, E. E.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 1 (2005), s. 129-132 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011411; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/02/1333 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 05-04-49723; Russian Science Support Foundation(RU) 1063.2003.4; GA-(RU) MK-2153.2003.04 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : quantal release * synaptic latency * calcium Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.806, year: 2005

  5. Ciguatoxin enhances quantal transmitter release from frog motor nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molgó, J.; Comella, J. X.; Legrand, A. M.

    1990-01-01

    1. Ciguatoxin (CTX), a marine toxin produced by the benthic dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus, is responsible for a complex endemic disease in man known as ciguatera fish poisoning. In the present study we have investigated the effects of purified CTX extracted for Gymnothorax javanicus moray-eel liver on frog isolated neuromuscular preparations with conventional electrophysiological techniques. 2. CTX (1-2.5 nM) applied to cutaneous pectoris nerve-muscle preparations induced, after a short delay, spontaneous fibrillations of the muscle fibres that could be suppressed with 1 microM tetrodotoxin (TTX) or by formamide to uncouple excitation-contraction. 3. In preparations treated with formamide, CTX (1-2.5 nM) caused either spontaneous or repetitive muscle action potentials (up to frequencies of 60-100 Hz) in response to a single nerve stimulus. Recordings performed at extrajunctional regions of the muscle membrane revealed that during the repetitive firing a prolongation of the repolarizing phase of the action potential occurred. At junctional sites the repetitive action potentials were triggered by repetitive endplate potentials (e.p.ps). 4. CTX (2.5 nM) caused a TTX-sensitive depolarization of the muscle membrane. 5. In junctions equilibrated in solutions containing high Mg2+ + low Ca2+, addition of CTX (1.5 nM) first induced an average increase of 239 +/- 36% in the mean quantal content of e.p.ps. Subsequently CTX reduced and finally blocked nerve-evoked transmitter release irreversibly. 6. CTX (1.5-2.5 nM) increased the frequency of miniature endplate potentials (m.e.p.ps) in junctions bathed either in normal Ringer, low Ca2(+)-high Mg2+ medium or in a nominally Ca2(+)-free solution containing EGTA.2+ Extensive washing with toxin-free solutions did not reverse the effect.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1972891

  6. Detection of Fractal Behavior in Temporal Series of Synaptic Quantal Release Events: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Lamanna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the pioneering work of Fatt and Katz at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ, spontaneous synaptic release (minis, that is, the quantal discharge of neurotransmitter molecules which occurs in the absence of action potentials, has been unanimously considered a memoryless random Poisson process where each quantum is discharged with a very low release probability independently from other quanta. When this model was thoroughly tested, for both population and single-synapse recordings, some clear evidence in favor of a more complex scenario emerged. This included short- and long-range correlation in mini occurrences and divergence from mono-exponential inter-mini-interval distributions, both unexpected for a homogeneous Poisson process, that is, with a rate parameter that does not change over time. Since we are interested in accurately quantifying the fractal exponent α of the spontaneous neurotransmitter release process at central synaptic sites, this work was aimed at evaluating the sensitivity of the most established methods available, such as the periodogram, the Allan, factor and the detrended fluctuation analysis. For this analysis we matched spontaneous release series recorded at individual hippocampal synapses (single-synapse recordings to generate large collections of simulated quantal events by means of a custom algorithm combining Monte Carlo sampling methods with spectral methods for the generation of 1/f series. These tests were performed by varying separately: (i the fractal exponent α of the rate driving the release process; (ii the distribution of intervals between successive releases, mimicking those encountered in single-synapse experimental series; (iii the number of samples. The aims were to provide a methodological framework for approaching the fractal analysis of single-unit spontaneous release series recorded at central synapses.

  7. Quantal release of ATP from clusters of PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbro, Alessandra; Skorinkin, Andrei; Grandolfo, Micaela; Nistri, Andrea; Giniatullin, Rashid

    2004-10-15

    Although ATP is important for intercellular communication, little is known about the mechanism of endogenous ATP release due to a dearth of suitable models. Using PC12 cells known to express the P2X2 subtype of ATP receptors and to store ATP with catecholamines inside dense-core vesicles, we found that clusters of PC12 cells cultured for 3-7 days generated small transient inward currents (STICs) after an inward current elicited by exogenous ATP. The amplitude of STICs in individual cells correlated with the peak amplitude of ATP-induced currents. STICs appeared as asynchronous responses (approximately 20 pA average amplitude) for 1-20 s and were investigated with a combination of patch clamping, Ca2+ imaging, biochemistry and electron microscopy. Comparable STICs were produced by focal KCl pulses and were dependent on extracellular Ca2+. STICs were abolished by the P2X antagonist PPADS and potentiated by Zn2+, suggesting they were mediated by P2X2 receptor activation. The highest probability of observing STICs was after the peak of intracellular Ca2+ increase caused by KCl. Biochemical measurements indicated that KCl application induced a significant release of ATP from PC12 cells. Electron microscopy studies showed narrow clefts without 'synaptic-like' densities between clustered cells. Our data suggest that STICs were caused by quantal release of endogenous ATP by depolarized PC12 cells in close juxtaposition to the recorded cell. Thus, STICs may be a new experimental model to characterize the physiology of vesicular release of ATP and to study the kinetics and pharmacology of P2X2 receptor-mediated quantal currents.

  8. Bayesian inference of synaptic quantal parameters from correlated vesicle release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander D Bird

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic transmission is both history-dependent and stochastic, resulting in varying responses to presentations of the same presynaptic stimulus. This complicates attempts to infer synaptic parameters and has led to the proposal of a number of different strategies for their quantification. Recently Bayesian approaches have been applied to make more efficient use of the data collected in paired intracellular recordings. Methods have been developed that either provide a complete model of the distribution of amplitudes for isolated responses or approximate the amplitude distributions of a train of post-synaptic potentials, with correct short-term synaptic dynamics but neglecting correlations. In both cases the methods provided significantly improved inference of model parameters as compared to existing mean-variance fitting approaches. However, for synapses with high release probability, low vesicle number or relatively low restock rate and for data in which only one or few repeats of the same pattern are available, correlations between serial events can allow for the extraction of significantly more information from experiment: a more complete Bayesian approach would take this into account also. This has not been possible previously because of the technical difficulty in calculating the likelihood of amplitudes seen in correlated post-synaptic potential trains; however, recent theoretical advances have now rendered the likelihood calculation tractable for a broad class of synaptic dynamics models. Here we present a compact mathematical form for the likelihood in terms of a matrix product and demonstrate how marginals of the posterior provide information on covariance of parameter distributions. The associated computer code for Bayesian parameter inference for a variety of models of synaptic dynamics is provided in the supplementary material allowing for quantal and dynamical parameters to be readily inferred from experimental data sets.

  9. Magnetron sputtered diamond-like carbon microelectrodes for on-chip measurement of quantal catecholamine release from cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yuanfang; Chen, Xiaohui; Gupta, Sanju; Gillis, Kevin D.; Gangopadhyay, Shubhra

    2008-01-01

    Carbon electrodes are widely used in electrochemistry due to their low cost, wide potential window, and low and stable background noise. Carbon-fiber electrodes (CFE) are commonly used to electrochemically measure “quantal” catecholamine release via exocytosis from individual cells, but it is difficult to integrate CFEs into lab-on-a-chip devices. Here we report the development of nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (DLC:N) microelectrodes on a chip to monitor quantal release of catecholamines...

  10. Alterations in Spontaneous Transmitter Release by Divalent Cations after Treatment of the Neuromuscular Junction with Alpha-Bungarotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    to change the spontaneous release rate of quantal acetylcholine . The simplest interpretation of these results is that toxin treatment increases the...Gage. 1973; Kita et al.. 1981), Mn increases spontaneous relese . The potentiations of transmitte- release by cobalt and nickel after toxin treatment...and Van der Kkw.. W. (1976). Effects of the ionophore X-537A on acetylcholine release at the frog neuromuscular junction. J. PuIwOl. Loand. 29 177-4

  11. Cholinergic regulation of the evoked quantal release at frog neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František; Bukharaeva, E. A.; Samigullin, D.; Magazanik, L. G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 560, č. 1 (2004), s. 77-88 ISSN 0022-3751 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5011411; GA ČR GA305/02/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : acetylcholine * quantal * synapse Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.346, year: 2004

  12. Paired-pulse facilitation and depression at unitary synapses in rat hippocampus: quantal fluctuation affects subsequent release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debanne, D; Guérineau, N C; Gähwiler, B H; Thompson, S M

    1996-01-01

    1. Excitatory synaptic transmission between pairs of monosynaptically coupled pyramidal cells was examined in rat hippocampal slice cultures. Action potentials were elicited in single CA3 pyramidal cells impaled with microelectrodes and unitary excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were recorded in whole-cell voltage-clamped CA1 or CA3 cells. 2. The amplitude of successive unitary EPSCs in response to single action potentials varied. The amplitude of EPSCs was altered by adenosine or changes in the [Mg2+]/[CA2+] ratio. We conclude that single action potentials triggered the release of multiple quanta of glutamate. 3. When two action potentials were elicited in the presynaptic cell, the amplitude of the second EPSC was inversely related to the amplitude of the first. Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) was observed when the first EPSC was small, i.e. the second EPSC was larger than the first, whereas paired-pulse depression (PPD) was observed when the first EPSC was large. 4. The number of trials displaying PPD was greater when release probability was increased, and smaller when release probability was decreased. 5. PPD was not postsynaptically mediated because it was unaffected by decreasing ionic flux with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) or receptor desensitization with aniracetam. 6. PPF was maximal at an interstimulus interval of 70 ms and recovered within 500 ms. Recovery from PPD occurred within 5 s. 7. We propose that multiple release sites are formed by the axon of a CA3 pyramidal cell and a single postsynaptic CA1 or CA3 cell. PPF is observed if the first action potential fails to release transmitter at most release sites. PPD is observed if the first action potential successfully triggers release at most release sites. 8. Our observations of PPF are consistent with the residual calcium hypothesis. We conclude that PPD results from a decrease in quantal content, perhaps due to short-term depletion of readily releasable vesicles. PMID:9011608

  13. Intestinal and peritoneal mast cells differ in kinetics of quantal release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balseiro-Gomez, Santiago, E-mail: sanbalgom@alum.us.es; Ramirez-Ponce, M. Pilar, E-mail: pponce@us.es; Acosta, Jorge, E-mail: jorgealo@us.es; Ales, Eva, E-mail: eales@us.es; Flores, Juan A., E-mail: jaflores@us.es

    2016-01-15

    5-hydroxytriptamine (5-HT, serotonin) storage and release in mast cell (MC) secretory granules (SG) are dependent on serglycin proteoglycans (PG). This notion is based on the studies of MC of the connective tissue subtype that predominantly contain PG of the heparin type, whereas intestinal mucosal MC, which contain predominantly chondroitin sulfate, have been poorly explored. In the present study, we addressed the possibility that PG contents may differently affect the storage and release of preformed mediators in these two MC subclasses and explain in part their different functional properties. Rat peritoneal (PMC) and intestinal mast cells (IMC) were isolated and purified using a percoll gradient, and the efflux of 5-HT from each SG was measured by amperometric detection. IMC exhibited a ∼34% reduction in the release of 5-HT compared with PMC because of a lower number of exocytotic events, rather than a lower secretion per single exocytotic event. Amperometric spikes from IMC exhibited a slower decay phase and increased half-width but a similar ascending phase and foot parameters, indicating that the fusion pore kinetics are comparable in both MC subclasses. We conclude that both PG subtypes are equally efficient systems, directly involved in serotonin accumulation, and play a crucial role in regulating the kinetics of exocytosis from SG, providing specific secretory properties for the two cellular subtypes. - Highlights: • We improved a method for isolating and purifying IMC. • There was a reduction in total serotonin release in IMC with respect to PMC. • This decrease was not due to less secretion per quantum but a lower number of exocytotic events. • There was also a deceleration of exocytosis in IMC with respect to PMC.

  14. Temperature effect on proximal to distal gradient of quantal release of acetylcholine at frog endplate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samigullin, D.; Bukharaeva, E.; Nikolsky, E.; Vyskočil, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, 3-4 (2003), s. 507-514 ISSN 0364-3190 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA ČR GA305/02/1333; GA ČR GA202/02/1213 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 02/04/48901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : neuromuscular junction * acetylcholine release * temperature Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.511, year: 2003

  15. Presynaptic molecular determinants of quantal size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeo eTakamori

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The quantal hypothesis for the release of neurotransmitters at the chemical synapse has gained wide acceptance since it was first worked out at the motor endplate in frog skeletal muscle in the 1950s. Considering the morphological identification of synaptic vesicles at the nerve terminals that appeared to be homogeneous in size, the hypothesis proposed that signal transduction at synapses is mediated by the release of neurotransmitters packed in synaptic vesicles that are individually uniform in size; the amount of transmitter in a synaptic vesicle is called a quantum. Although quantal size – the amplitude of the postsynaptic response elicited by the release of neurotransmitters from a single vesicle – clearly depends on the number and sensitivity of the postsynaptic receptors, accumulating evidence has also indicated that the amount of neurotransmitters stored in synaptic vesicles can be altered by various presynaptic factors. Here, I provide an overview of the concepts and underlying presynaptic molecular underpinnings that may regulate quantal size.

  16. Metabotropic GABAB receptors mediate GABA inhibition of acetylcholine release in the rat neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malomouzh, Artem I; Petrov, Konstantin A; Nurullin, Leniz F; Nikolsky, Evgeny E

    2015-12-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an amino acid which acts as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Here, we studied the effects of GABA on non-quantal, spontaneous, and evoked quantal acetylcholine (ACh) release from motor nerve endings. We found that while the application of 10 μM of GABA had no effect on spontaneous quantal ACh release, as detected by the frequency of miniature endplate potentials, GABA reduced the non-quantal ACh release by 57%, as determined by the H-effect value. Finally, the evoked quantal ACh release, estimated by calculating the quantal content of full-sized endplate potentials (EPPs), was reduced by 34%. GABA's inhibitory effect remained unchanged after pre-incubation with picrotoxin, an ionotropic GABAA receptor blocker, but was attenuated following application of the GABAB receptor blocker CGP 55845, which itself had no effect on ACh release. An inhibitor of phospholipase C, U73122, completely prevented the GABA-induced decrease in ACh release. Immunofluorescence demonstrated the presence of both subunits of the GABAB receptor (GABAB R1 and GABAB R2) in the neuromuscular junction. These findings suggest that metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse and their activation results in a phospholipase C-mediated reduction in the intensity of non-quantal and evoked quantal ACh release. We investigated the effect of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on neuromuscular transmission. GABA reduced the non-quantal and evoked quantal release of acetylcholine. These effects are mediated by GABAB receptors and are implemented via phospholipase C (PLC) activation. Our findings suggest that in the mammalian neuromuscular synapse, metabotropic GABAB receptors are expressed and their activation results in a reduction in the intensity of acetylcholine release. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  17. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  18. Norepinephrine release in arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zsoter, T.T.; Wolchinsky, C.; Lawrin, M.; Sirko, S.

    1982-01-01

    The role of the sympathetic nervous system in arterial hypertension cannot be properly evaluated until it is known about the activity in the vessels themselves. In this study researchers investigated the effect of transmural stimulation on the tail artery - labelled in vitro with 3 H-norepinephrine - of 7-9 week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto controls (WKR). Electrical stimulation using two frequencies (2 and 10 Hz) resulted in significantly more 3 H overflow in vessels from SHR than from WKR. With 10 Hz stimulation the fractional release was also greater. Column chromatographic analysis of 3 H overflow revealed that transmural stimulation in arteries of SHR enhanced mainly the release of norepinephrine and not of its metabolites. Significantly, an increased release of 3 H-norepinephrine on stimulation was observed in SHR before the full development of hypertension suggesting that it might be a cause rather than a consequence of high blood pressure

  19. Generalized quantal equation of motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, M.W.; Embaby, M.

    1986-07-01

    In the present paper, an attempt is made for establishing a generalized equation of motion for quantal objects, in which intrinsic self adjointness is naturally built in, independently of any prescribed representation. This is accomplished by adopting Hamilton's principle of least action, after incorporating, properly, the quantal features and employing the generalized calculus of variations, without being restricted to fixed end points representation. It turns out that our proposed equation of motion is an intrinsically self-adjoint Euler-Lagrange's differential equation that ensures extremization of the quantal action as required by Hamilton's principle. Time dependence is introduced and the corresponding equation of motion is derived, in which intrinsic self adjointness is also achieved. Reducibility of the proposed equation of motion to the conventional Schroedinger equation is examined. The corresponding continuity equation is established, and both of the probability density and the probability current density are identified. (author)

  20. The neuropeptide Gonadotropin-releasing hormone modifies the spontaneous muscular contraction in the earthworm: Eisenia foetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis Quintanar, J; Gutiérrez-García, Karina; Castillo-Hernández, Luis

    2011-12-01

    We investigated whether the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone affects the spontaneous muscular contraction in the earthworm Eisenia foetida. In addition, we investigated the presence of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in ventral nerve cord by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone induced a significant increase on both amplitude and muscular tone and decrease in the frequency of spontaneous muscular contraction. We found the presence of immunoreactive material to Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor in the ventral nerve cord, likewise the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor mRNA expression. In conclusion, the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone modifies the spontaneous muscular contraction in E. foetida and these effects can be due to the activation of the Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor.

  1. A quantal Tolman temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Yongwan, E-mail: yongwan89@sogang.ac.kr; Kim, Wontae, E-mail: wtkim@sogang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sogang University, 121-742, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-24

    The conventional Tolman temperature based on the assumption of the traceless condition of energy-momentum tensor for matter fields is infinite at the horizon if Hawking radiation is involved. However, we note that the temperature associated with Hawking radiation is of relevance to the trace anomaly, which means that the traceless condition should be released. So, a trace anomaly-induced Stefan-Boltzmann law is newly derived by employing the first law of thermodynamics and the property of the temperature independence of the trace anomaly. Then, the Tolman temperature is quantum-mechanically generalized according to the anomaly-induced Stefan-Boltzmann law. In an exactly soluble model, we show that the Tolman factor does not appear in the generalized Tolman temperature which is eventually finite everywhere, in particular, vanishing at the horizon. It turns out that the equivalence principle survives at the horizon with the help of the quantum principle, and some puzzles related to the Tolman temperature are also resolved.

  2. A quantal Tolman temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae [Sogang University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The conventional Tolman temperature based on the assumption of the traceless condition of energy-momentum tensor for matter fields is infinite at the horizon if Hawking radiation is involved. However, we note that the temperature associated with Hawking radiation is of relevance to the trace anomaly, which means that the traceless condition should be released. So, a trace anomaly-induced Stefan-Boltzmann law is newly derived by employing the first law of thermodynamics and the property of the temperature independence of the trace anomaly. Then, the Tolman temperature is quantum-mechanically generalized according to the anomaly-induced Stefan-Boltzmann law. In an exactly soluble model, we show that the Tolman factor does not appear in the generalized Tolman temperature which is eventually finite everywhere, in particular, vanishing at the horizon. It turns out that the equivalence principle survives at the horizon with the help of the quantum principle, and some puzzles related to the Tolman temperature are also resolved. (orig.)

  3. The quantal catecholamine release from mouse chromaffin cells challenged with repeated ACh pulses is regulated by the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gil, Angela; Nanclares, Carmen; Méndez-López, Iago; Martínez-Ramírez, Carmen; de Los Rios, Cristóbal; Padín-Nogueira, J Fernando; Montero, Mayte; Gandía, Luis; García, Antonio G

    2017-03-15

    Upon repeated application of short ACh pulses to C57BL6J mouse chromaffin cells, the amperometrically monitored secretory responses promptly decayed to a steady-state level of around 25% of the initial response. A subsequent K + pulse, however, overcame such decay. These data suggest that mouse chromaffin cells have a ready release-vesicle pool that is selectively recruited by the physiological neurotransmitter ACh. The ACh-sensitive vesicle pool is refilled and maintained by the rate of Ca 2+ delivery from mitochondria to the cytosol, through the mitochondrial Na + /Ca 2+ exchanger (mNCX). ITH12662, a novel blocker of the mNCX, prevented the decay of secretion elicited by ACh pulses and delayed the rate of [Ca 2+ ] c clearance. This regulatory pathway may be physiologically relevant in situations of prolonged stressful conflicts where a sustained catecholamine release is regulated by mitochondrial Ca 2+ circulation through the mNCX, which couples respiration and ATP synthesis to long-term stimulation of chromaffin cells by endogenously released ACh. Using caged-Ca 2+ photorelease or paired depolarising pulses in voltage-clamped chromaffin cells (CCs), various pools of secretory vesicles with different readiness to undergo exocytosis have been identified. Whether these pools are present in unclamped CCs challenged with ACh, the physiological neurotransmitter at the splanchnic nerve-CC synapse, is unknown. We have explored here whether an ACh-sensitive ready-release vesicle pool (ASP) is present in C57BL6J mouse chromaffin cells (MCCs). Single cells were fast perfused with a Tyrode solution at 37°C, and challenged with 12 sequential ACh pulses (100 μm, 2 s, every 30 s) plus a K + pulse given at the end (75 mm K + ). After the first 2-3 ACh pulses the amperometrically monitored secretory responses promptly decayed to a steady-state level of around 25% of the initial response. The last K + pulse, however, overcame such decay. Repeated ACh pulses to voltage

  4. Differential calcium dependence in basal and forskolin-potentiated spontaneous transmitter release in basolateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yuki; Naka, Masamitsu; Matsuki, Norio; Nomura, Hiroshi

    2012-10-31

    Action potential-independent transmitter release, or spontaneous release, is postulated to produce multiple postsynaptic effects (e.g., maintenance of dendritic spines and suppression of local dendritic protein synthesis). Potentiation of spontaneous release may contribute to the precise modulation of synaptic function. However, the expression mechanism underlying potentiated spontaneous release remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of extracellular and intracellular calcium in basal and potentiated spontaneous release. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) of the basolateral amygdala neurons in acute brain slices were recorded. Forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, increased mEPSC frequency, and the increase lasted at least 25 min after washout. Removal of the extracellular calcium decreased mEPSC frequency in both naïve and forskolin-treated slices. On the other hand, chelation of intracellular calcium by BAPTA-AM decreased mEPSC frequency in naïve, but not in forskolin-treated slices. A blockade of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) resulted in an increase in mEPSC frequency in forskolin-treated, but not in naïve slices. These findings indicate that forskolin-induced potentiation is accompanied by changes in the mechanisms underlying Ca(2+)-dependent spontaneous release. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Glutamate released spontaneously from astrocytes sets the threshold for synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonansco, Christian; Couve, Alejandro; Perea, Gertrudis; Ferradas, Carla Á; Roncagliolo, Manuel; Fuenzalida, Marco

    2011-04-01

    Astrocytes exhibit spontaneous calcium oscillations that could induce the release of glutamate as gliotransmitter in rat hippocampal slices. However, it is unknown whether this spontaneous release of astrocytic glutamate may contribute to determining the basal neurotransmitter release probability in central synapses. Using whole-cell recordings and Ca(2+) imaging, we investigated the effects of the spontaneous astrocytic activity on neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity at CA3-CA1 hippocampal synapses. We show here that the metabolic gliotoxin fluorocitrate (FC) reduces the amplitude of evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents and increases the paired-pulse facilitation, mainly due to the reduction of the neurotransmitter release probability and the synaptic potency. FC also decreased intracellular Ca(2+) signalling and Ca(2+) -dependent glutamate release from astrocytes. The addition of glutamine rescued the effects of FC over the synaptic potency; however, the probability of neurotransmitter release remained diminished. The blockage of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors mimicked the effects of FC on the frequency of miniature synaptic responses. In the presence of FC, the Ca(2+) chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N ',N '-tetra-acetate or group I metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonists, the excitatory postsynaptic current potentiation induced by the spike-timing-dependent plasticity protocol was blocked, and it was rescued by delivering a stronger spike-timing-dependent plasticity protocol. Taken together, these results suggest that spontaneous glutamate release from astrocytes contributes to setting the basal probability of neurotransmitter release via metabotropic glutamate receptor activation, which could be operating as a gain control mechanism that regulates the threshold of long-term potentiation. Therefore, endogenous astrocyte activity provides a novel non-neuronal mechanism that could be critical for transferring information in

  6. Generalized Lower and Upper Approximations in Quantales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimei Xiao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concepts of set-valued homomorphism and strong set-valued homomorphism of a quantale which are the extended notions of congruence and complete congruence, respectively. The properties of generalized lower and upper approximations, constructed by a set-valued mapping, are discussed.

  7. Quantal Response Of Freshwater Shrimp ( Desmocaris trispinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quantal-response of freshwater shrimp (Desmocaris trispinosa) to the toxicity of five azo dyes was studied. Generally, increase in percentage mortality of the organisms was obtained with increases in concentration of the toxicants and exposure time. The median lethal concentration50 (LC50) and median lethal ...

  8. Histamine release positive test associates with disease remission in chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berti, A; Yacoub, M R; Skov, Per Stahl

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Background. Histamine release (HR) test has previously been shown to predict the presence of endogenous histamine-releasing factors in chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Objectives and methods. Twenty CSU patients unresponsive to antihistamine treatment were enrolled in order to evaluate...... with a positive HR test had a significant reduction of disease activity (p = 0.003) whereas patients with a negative HR test did not (p > 0.05), leading to disease remission and antihistamine treatment withdrawal in 67% (6/9) of positive HR test patients versus 18% (2/11) of negative HR test patients (p = 0...

  9. Fully automated microchip system for the detection of quantal exocytosis from single and small ensembles of cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spégel, Christer; Heiskanen, Arto; Pedersen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    of cells immobilized on the electrode. Quantal characteristics, such as the number of released molecules per recorded event, are equivalent to data obtained using conventional carbon fiber microelectrodes. The detection sensitivity of the device allows for the detection of less than 10 000 dopamine...

  10. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W. (Department of Biology, Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication.

  11. Omega 3 fatty acids increase spontaneous release of cytosolic components from tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenski, L.J.; Sturdevant, L.K.; Ehringer, W.D.; Stillwell, W.

    1991-01-01

    Mice fed menhaden (fish) oil or coconut oil-rich diets were inoculated intraperitoneally with a rapidly growing leukemia, T27A. After one week, the tumor cells were harvested, and 51Cr was used to label intracellular molecules. Spontaneous release of 51Cr was used as a measure of plasma membrane permeability. Compared to cells from mice fed coconut oil (rich in saturated fatty acids), tumor cells from mice fed menhaden oil (rich in long chain polyunsaturated omega 3 fatty acids) showed an increased level of spontaneous 51Cr release, which was exacerbated by increased temperature and reduced by extracellular protein. At physiological salt concentrations, the released 51Cr was detected in particles of approximately 2700 daltons. Enhanced permeability correlated with the incorporation of dietary (fish oil) omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acid into the tumor cells. The results demonstrate that omega 3 fatty acids are incorporated into cellular constituents of tumor cells and change properties associated with the plasma membrane. This result suggests that dietary manipulation may be used to enhance tumor cell permeability and contribute to tumor eradication

  12. Slow spontaneous [Ca2+]i oscillations reflect nucleotide release from renal epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyti, Christine Stride; Odgaard, Elvin V. P.; Overgaard, Morten Thaarup

    2008-01-01

    Renal epithelia can be provoked mechanically to release nucleotides, which subsequently increases the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i) through activation of purinergic (P2) receptors. Cultured cells often show spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations, a feature suggested to involve...... period of 1 min, 10.9 +/- 6.7% (n = 23) of the cells showed spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) increases. Spontaneous adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release from MDCK cells was detected directly by luciferin/luciferase. Scavenging of ATP by apyrase or hexokinase markedly reduced the [Ca(2+)](i) oscillatory activity......, whereas inhibition of ecto-ATPases (ARL67156) enhanced the [Ca(2+)](i) oscillatory activity. The association between spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) increases and nucleotide signalling was further tested in 132-1N1 cells lacking P2 receptors. These cells hardly showed any spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) increases...

  13. Metabotropic and ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the modulation of acetylcholine release at the frog neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsentsevitsky, Andrei; Nurullin, Leniz; Nikolsky, Evgeny; Malomouzh, Artem

    2017-07-01

    There is some evidence that glutamate (Glu) acts as a signaling molecule at vertebrate neuromuscular junctions where acetylcholine (ACh) serves as a neurotransmitter. In this study, performed on the cutaneous pectoris muscle of the frog Rana ridibunda, Glu receptor mechanisms that modulate ACh release processes were analyzed. Electrophysiological experiments showed that Glu reduces both spontaneous and evoked quantal secretion of ACh and synchronizes its release in response to electrical stimulation. Quisqualate, an agonist of ionotropic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptors and metabotropic Group I mGlu receptors, also exerted Glu-like inhibitory effects on the secretion of ACh but had no effect on the kinetics of quantal release. Quisqualate's inhibitory effect did not occur when a blocker of Group I mGlu receptors (LY 367385) or an inhibitor of phospholipase C (U73122) was present. An increase in the degree of synchrony of ACh quantal release, such as that produced by Glu, was obtained after application of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA). The presence of Group I mGlu and NMDA receptors in the neuromuscular synapse was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. Thus, the data suggest that both metabotropic Group I mGlu receptors and ionotropic NMDA receptors are present at the neuromuscular synapse of amphibians, and that the activation of these receptors initiates different mechanisms for the regulation of ACh release from motor nerve terminals. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Topological representation and quantic separation axioms of semi-quantales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal El-Saady

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An adjunction between the category of semi-quantales and the category of lattice-valued quasi-topological spaces is established. Some characterizations of quantic separation axioms, for semi-quantales and lattice-valued quasi-topological spaces, are obtained and some relations among these axioms are established.

  15. Prophage spontaneous activation promotes DNA release enhancing biofilm formation in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Carrolo

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus is able to form biofilms in vivo and previous studies propose that pneumococcal biofilms play a relevant role both in colonization and infection. Additionally, pneumococci recovered from human infections are characterized by a high prevalence of lysogenic bacteriophages (phages residing quiescently in their host chromosome. We investigated a possible link between lysogeny and biofilm formation. Considering that extracellular DNA (eDNA is a key factor in the biofilm matrix, we reasoned that prophage spontaneous activation with the consequent bacterial host lysis could provide a source of eDNA, enhancing pneumococcal biofilm development. Monitoring biofilm growth of lysogenic and non-lysogenic pneumococcal strains indicated that phage-infected bacteria are more proficient at forming biofilms, that is their biofilms are characterized by a higher biomass and cell viability. The presence of phage particles throughout the lysogenic strains biofilm development implicated prophage spontaneous induction in this effect. Analysis of lysogens deficient for phage lysin and the bacterial major autolysin revealed that the absence of either lytic activity impaired biofilm development and the addition of DNA restored the ability of mutant strains to form robust biofilms. These findings establish that limited phage-mediated host lysis of a fraction of the bacterial population, due to spontaneous phage induction, constitutes an important source of eDNA for the S. pneumoniae biofilm matrix and that this localized release of eDNA favors biofilm formation by the remaining bacterial population.

  16. Non-local quantal Noether identities and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ziping

    2002-01-01

    Based on the phase-space generating functional for a system with a singular high-order Lagrangian, the quantal canonical Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in phase space for such system have been derived. For a gauge-invariant system with a higher-order Lagrangian, the quantal Noether identities under the local and non-local transformation in configuration space have also been derived. it has been pointed out that in certain cases the quantal Noether identities may be converted to the conservation laws at the quantum level. This algorithm to derive the quantal conservation laws is significantly different from the first quantal Noether theorem. The applications to the non-Abelian CS theories with higher-order derivatives are given. The conserved quantities at the quantum level for some local and non-local transformation are found respectively

  17. Assessment of chronic spontaneous urticaria by serum-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha and matrix metalloproteinase-9 release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkencrone, Sidsel; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten; Skov, Per Stahl

    BACKGROUND Previous studies from our group have demonstrated that IgE-mediated basophil activation leads to release of TNFα that in turn can induce matrix metallo-proteinase-9 (MMP-9) release from monocytes. We wished to investigate if serum from chronic spontaneous urticaria-patients with auto-a....... Release levels appeared to be positive correlated to ASST reaction in ASST+ patients but not to disease severity for CSU patients in general....

  18. The probability of quantal secretion within an array of calcium channels of an active zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M R; Farnell, L; Gibson, W G

    2000-05-01

    A Monte Carlo analysis has been made of calcium dynamics in submembranous domains of active zones in which the calcium contributed by the opening of many channels is pooled. The kinetics of calcium ions in these domains has been determined using simulations for channels arranged in different geometries, according to the active zone under consideration: rectangular grids for varicosities and boutons and lines for motor-nerve terminals. The effects of endogenous fixed and mobile buffers on the two-dimensional distribution of free calcium ions at these active zones are then given, together with the extent to which these are perturbed and can be detected with different affinity calcium indicators when the calcium channels open stochastically under an action potential. A Monte Carlo analysis of how the dynamics of calcium ions in the submembranous domains determines the probability of exocytosis from docked vesicles is also presented. The spatial distribution of exocytosis from rectangular arrays of secretory units is such that exocytosis is largely excluded from the edges of the array, due to the effects of endogenous buffers. There is a steeper than linear increase in quantal release with an increase in the number of secretory units in the array, indicating that there is not just a local interaction between secretory units. Conditioning action potentials promote an increase in quantal release by a subsequent action potential primarily by depleting the fixed and mobile buffers in the center of the array. In the case of two parallel lines of secretory units exocytosis is random, and diffusion, together with the endogenous calcium buffers, ensures that the secretory units only interact over relatively short distances. As a consequence of this and in contrast to the case of the rectangular array, there is a linear relationship between the extent of quantal secretion from these zones and their length, for lengths greater than a critical value. This Monte Carlo analysis

  19. Quantal bookkeeping of samples and locality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenewold, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    The skeptical pruned ensemble interpretation of quantal measurements is described in the conventional representation and in an equivalent hedge-hog representation. (A symmetric hedge-hog is displayed by a spiny array of Hilbert projectors.) A fundamental problem of any individual interpretation is the distinction in the formalism of individual samples and their mutual independence. In the formal hedge-hog bookkeeping an auxiliary hedge-hog hypothesis is proposed, which associates separate real samples of quantal ensembles with separate fictions hedge-hogs. In accordance with its private unobservable hedge-hog each sample has so to speak to every potential observable question its own definite potential answer in store. The statistical distribution of the answers of the various samples to all questions is represented by the ensemble operator, which can only be attributed to the entire ensemble as a whole. Observable answers can be obtained from an individual real sample only one at a time. In this fictitous finer grained model the hedge-hogs metaphorically represent a kind of individual memory of the corresponding samples. The principle of mutual kinematical and dynamical independence of samples as well as the principle of locality in retarded correlation is satisfied. This has to be paid for by indefinite statistics of the hedge-hog distribution in the ensemble. Even if the hedge-hog model is afterwards thrown away as an untestable fake, the logical compatibility of these two fundamental principles (whatever their significance may be) with standard quantum mechanics holds firm. The physical compatibility remains an open question. (orig.)

  20. Norepinephrine release and reuptake by hypothalamic synaptosomes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hano, T.; Jeng, Y.; Rho, J.

    1989-01-01

    We compared the overflow of endogenous norepinephrine during electrical field stimulation, the norepinephrine content, and the rate of initial neuronal uptake of [3H]norepinephrine in synaptosomes isolated from hypothalamus and brainstem of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats at 7 and 13 weeks of age. The synaptosomes of two rats, a SHR and a WKY rat control, were simultaneously processed and subjected to the same electrical field stimulation. The overflow of endogenous norepinephrine during electrical stimulation (2 Hz, 2 minutes) in the hypothalamic synaptosomes of 7-week-old SHR was significantly greater, whereas the overflow of 13-week-old SHR was equivalent to the age-matched WKY rat. The norepinephrine content of synaptosomes was about the same in SHR and age-matched controls. There was also significantly enhanced [3H]norepinephrine uptake in the hypothalamic synaptosomes of young SHR, but neither the hypothalamic nor the brainstem samples of 13-week-old SHR showed any significant difference in their rate of [3H]norepinephrine uptake. These data are similar to those we observed (unpublished observations) in perfused mesenteric artery system in which norepinephrine release was significantly elevated during periarterial nerve stimulation only in young SHR. Thus, these results suggest that a parallel enhancement of norepinephrine release in hypothalamus with that of peripheral nervous system may play an important role during development of hypertension in young SHR

  1. Stochastic spontaneous calcium release events and sodium channelopathies promote ventricular arrhythmias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernando O.; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Vigmond, Edward J.; Plank, Gernot

    2017-09-01

    Premature ventricular complexes (PVCs), the first initiating beats of a variety of cardiac arrhythmias, have been associated with spontaneous calcium release (SCR) events at the cell level. However, the mechanisms underlying the degeneration of such PVCs into arrhythmias are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the conditions under which SCR-mediated PVCs can lead to ventricular arrhythmias. In particular, we sought to determine whether sodium (Na+) current loss-of-function in the structurally normal ventricles provides a substrate for unidirectional conduction block and reentry initiated by SCR-mediated PVCs. To achieve this goal, a stochastic model of SCR was incorporated into an anatomically accurate compute model of the rabbit ventricles with the His-Purkinje system (HPS). Simulations with reduced Na+ current due to a negative-shift in the steady-state channel inactivation showed that SCR-mediated delayed afterdepolarizations led to PVC formation in the HPS, where the electrotonic load was lower, conduction block, and reentry in the 3D myocardium. Moreover, arrhythmia initiation was only possible when intrinsic electrophysiological heterogeneity in action potential within the ventricles was present. In conclusion, while benign in healthy individuals SCR-mediated PVCs can lead to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias when combined with Na+ channelopathies.

  2. Presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous acetylcholine release induced by adenosine at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, Silvana; Veggetti, Mariela; Muchnik, Salomón; Losavio, Adriana

    2004-05-01

    1. At the mouse neuromuscular junction, adenosine (AD) and the A(1) agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyl-adenosine (CCPA) induce presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous acetylcholine (ACh) release by activation of A(1) AD receptors through a mechanism that is still unknown. To evaluate whether the inhibition is mediated by modulation of the voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) associated with tonic secretion (L- and N-type VDCCs), we measured the miniature end-plate potential (mepp) frequency in mouse diaphragm muscles. 2. Blockade of VDCCs by Cd(2+) prevented the effect of the CCPA. Nitrendipine (an L-type VDCC antagonist) but not omega-conotoxin GVIA (an N-type VDCC antagonist) blocked the action of CCPA, suggesting that the decrease in spontaneous mepp frequency by CCPA is associated with an action on L-type VDCCs only. 3. As A(1) receptors are coupled to a G(i/o) protein, we investigated whether the inhibition of PKA or the activation of PKC is involved in the presynaptic inhibition mechanism. Neither N-(2[p-bromocinnamylamino]-ethyl)-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide (H-89, a PKA inhibitor), nor 1-(5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-2-methyl-piperazine (H-7, a PKC antagonist), nor phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PHA, a PKC activator) modified CCPA-induced presynaptic inhibition, suggesting that these second messenger pathways are not involved. 4. The effect of CCPA was eliminated by the calmodulin antagonist N-(6-aminohexil)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide hydrochloride (W-7) and by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester epsilon6TDelta-BM, which suggests that the action of CCPA to modulate L-type VDCCs may involve Ca(2+)-calmodulin. 5. To investigate the action of CCPA on diverse degrees of nerve terminal depolarization, we studied its effect at different external K(+) concentrations. The effect of CCPA on ACh secretion evoked by 10 mm K(+) was prevented by the P/Q-type VDCC antagonist omega-agatoxin IVA. 6. CCPA failed to

  3. A positive serum basophil histamine release assay is a marker for ciclosporin-responsiveness in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iqbal, Kamran; Bhargava, Kapil; Skov, Per Stahl

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The electronic records of 398 patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) who had had a serum basophil histamine release assay (BHRA) performed as a marker of functional autoantibodies were audited. The BHRA was positive in 105 patients (26.4%). Fifty eight were treated with ciclo...... with ciclosporin because they were H1 anti-histamine unresponsive. CSU patients with a positive BHRA were more likely to respond clinically (P...

  4. Nitric oxide and non-quantal acetylcholine release

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 3 (2003), s. 241-243 ISSN 1211-7579. [Celostátní konference biologické psychiatrie /11./. Luhačovice, 11.06.2003-14.06.2003] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : nitric oxide Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  5. Innervation by a GABAergic neuron depresses spontaneous release in glutamatergic neurons and unveils the clamping phenotype of synaptotagmin-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wierda, Keimpe D B; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev

    2014-01-01

    from mice cultured on astrocyte islands with "homotypic" glutamatergic or GABAergic pairs and autaptic neurons. We measured mEPSC and mIPSC frequencies simultaneously from both neurons. Neuronal pairs formed both interneuronal synaptic and autaptic connections indiscriminately. We find that whereas m......EPSC and mIPSC frequencies did not deviate between autaptic and synaptic connections, the frequency of mEPSCs in mixed pairs was strongly depressed compared with either autaptic neurons or glutamatergic pairs. Simultaneous imaging of synapses, or comparison to evoked release amplitudes, showed......EPSC frequencies were increased by a factor of four in the synaptotagmin-1-null neurons, which is in line with data obtained from mixed cultures. The effect persisted after incubation with BAPTA-AM. We conclude that spontaneous GABA release exerts control over mEPSC release, and GABAergic innervation...

  6. Quantal foundation of the nucleon exchange transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1985-07-01

    The central elements of the nucleon exchange transport theory are discussed within a fully quantal framework in order to elucidate the principal characteristics, validity and limitations of the theory. Special consideration is given to the mean rate of energy dissipation and the penetrability coefficient. (orig.)

  7. The Relevance of AgRP Neuron-Derived GABA Inputs to POMC Neurons Differs for Spontaneous and Evoked Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Andrew R; Hentges, Shane T

    2017-08-02

    Hypothalamic agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons potently stimulate food intake, whereas proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Whether AgRP neurons exert their orexigenic actions, at least in part, by inhibiting anorexigenic POMC neurons remains unclear. Here, the connectivity between GABA-releasing AgRP neurons and POMC neurons was examined in brain slices from male and female mice. GABA-mediated spontaneous IPSCs (sIPSCs) in POMC neurons were unaffected by disturbing GABA release from AgRP neurons either by cell type-specific deletion of the vesicular GABA transporter or by expression of botulinum toxin in AgRP neurons to prevent vesicle-associated membrane protein 2-dependent vesicle fusion. Additionally, there was no difference in the ability of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonists to inhibit sIPSCs in POMC neurons when MORs were deleted from AgRP neurons, and activation of the inhibitory designer receptor hM4Di on AgRP neurons did not affect sIPSCs recorded from POMC neurons. These approaches collectively indicate that AgRP neurons do not significantly contribute to the strong spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Despite these observations, optogenetic stimulation of AgRP neurons reliably produced evoked IPSCs in POMC neurons, leading to the inhibition of POMC neuron firing. Thus, AgRP neurons can potently affect POMC neuron function without contributing a significant source of spontaneous GABA input to POMC neurons. Together, these results indicate that the relevance of GABAergic inputs from AgRP to POMC neurons is state dependent and highlight the need to consider different types of transmitter release in circuit mapping and physiologic regulation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play an important role in driving food intake, while proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons inhibit feeding. Despite the importance of these two well characterized neuron types in maintaining metabolic homeostasis, communication between these

  8. BDNF-Induced Potentiation of Spontaneous Twitching in Innervated Myocytes Requires Calcium Release From Intracellular Stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    KLEIMAN, ROBIN J.; TIAN, NING; KRIZAJ, DAVID; HWANG, THOMAS N.; COPENHAGEN, DAVID R.; REICHARDT, LOUIS F.

    2009-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can potentiate synaptic release at newly developed frog neuromuscular junctions. Although this potentiation depends on extracellular Ca2+ and reflects changes in acetylcholine release, little is known about the intracellular transduction or calcium signaling pathways. We have developed a video assay for neurotrophin-induced potentiation of myocyte twitching as a measure of potentiation of synaptic activity. We use this assay to show that BDNF-induced synaptic potentiation is not blocked by cadmium, indicating that Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels is not required. TrkB autophosphorylation is not blocked in Ca2+-free conditions, indicating that TrkB activity is not Ca2+ dependent. Additionally, an inhibitor of phospholipase C interferes with BDNF-induced potentiation. These results suggest that activation of the TrkB receptor activates phospholipase C to initiate intracellular Ca2+ release from stores which subsequently potentiates transmitter release. PMID:10899220

  9. Partial dynamical symmetries in quantal many-body systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Isacker, P

    2001-07-01

    Partial dynamical symmetries are associated with Hamiltonians that are partially solvable. The determination of the properties of a quantal system of N interacting particles moving in an external potential requires the solution of the eigenvalue equation associated with a second-quantised Hamiltonian. In many situations of interest the Hamiltonian commutes with transformations that constitute a symmetry algebra G{sub sym}. This characteristic opens a way to find all analytically solvable Hamiltonians. The author gives a brief review of some recent developments.

  10. Partial dynamical symmetries in quantal many-body systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Isacker, P.

    2001-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetries are associated with Hamiltonians that are partially solvable. The determination of the properties of a quantal system of N interacting particles moving in an external potential requires the solution of the eigenvalue equation associated with a second-quantised Hamiltonian. In many situations of interest the Hamiltonian commutes with transformations that constitute a symmetry algebra G sym . This characteristic opens a way to find all analytically solvable Hamiltonians. The author gives a brief review of some recent developments

  11. Presynaptic inhibition of spontaneous acetylcholine release mediated by P2Y receptors at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lorenzo, S; Veggetti, M; Muchnik, S; Losavio, A

    2006-09-29

    At the neuromuscular junction, ATP is co-released with the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) and once in the synaptic space, it is degraded to the presynaptically active metabolite adenosine. Intracellular recordings were performed on diaphragm fibers of CF1 mice to determine the action of extracellular ATP (100 muM) and the slowly hydrolysable ATP analog 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate lithium (betagamma-imido ATP) (30 muM) on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency. We found that application of ATP and betagamma-imido ATP decreased spontaneous secretion by 45.3% and 55.9% respectively. 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX), a selective A(1) adenosine receptor antagonist and alpha,beta-methylene ADP sodium salt (alphabeta-MeADP), which is an inhibitor of ecto-5'-nucleotidase, did not prevent the inhibitory effect of ATP, demonstrating that the nucleotide is able to modulate spontaneous ACh release through a mechanism independent of the action of adenosine. Blockade of Ca(2+) channels by both, Cd(2+) or the combined application of nitrendipine and omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx) (L-type and N-type Ca(2+) channel antagonists, respectively) prevented the effect of betagamma-imido ATP, indicating that the nucleotide modulates Ca(2+) influx through the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels related to spontaneous secretion. betagamma-Imido ATP-induced modulation was antagonized by the non-specific P2 receptor antagonist suramin and the P2Y receptor antagonist 1-amino-4-[[4-[[4-chloro-6-[[3(or4)-sulfophenyl] amino]-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl]amino]-3-sulfophenyl] amino]-9,10-dihydro-9,10-dioxo-2-anthracenesulfonic acid (reactive blue-2), but not by pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo(benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid) tetrasodium salt (PPADS), which has a preferential antagonist effect on P2X receptors. Pertussis toxin and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which are blockers of G(i/o) proteins, prevented the action of the nucleotide, suggesting that the effect is mediated by P2Y receptors

  12. Effect of exercise training on Ca{sup 2+} release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular do Exercício, Escola de Educação Física e Esportes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, L.B. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Cruz, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Membranas Excitáveis e Biologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mill, J.G. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca{sup 2+} sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of

  13. α2-Adrenoreceptor Constraint of Catecholamine Release and Blood Pressure Is Enhanced in Female Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Torill

    2016-01-01

    α2-adrenoceptors (α2AR) lower central sympathetic output and peripheral catecholamine release, and may therefore prevent sympathetic hyperactivity and hypertension. The α2AR are dysfunctional in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Premenopausal females are less hypertensive than males. The purpose of this study was to test if this difference could be explained by functional α2AR in the female SHR. A 15-min tyramine-infusion was used to stimulate norepinephrine release through the re-uptake transporter, consequently preventing re-uptake. Presynaptic control of vesicular release will therefore be reflected as differences in overflow to plasma. The surgical trauma activates secretion of epinephrine, also subjected to α2AR auto-inhibition. Blood pressure was monitored through a femoral artery catheter and cardiac output by ascending aorta flow in 12-14 weeks-old (early hypertension) SHR and normotensive rats (WKY). Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR) was calculated. Female SHR, unlike male, were close to normotensive. Pre-treatment with none-selective (clonidine) or non-A-selective (ST-91) α2AR agonist reduced, and none-selective α2AR antagonist (L-659,066) increased tyramine-induced norepinephrine overflow in female WKY and SHR. L-659,066 also increased secretion of epinephrine. The L-659,066-induced increase in catecholamine release was further enhanced by additional pre-treatment with ST-91 or angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist (losartan) in SHR only. L-659,066 eliminated the tyramine-induced rise in TPR in both strains in female rats. α2AR-mediated control of catecholamine release and vascular tension was therefore functional in female SHR, unlike that previously observed in male SHR. Functional α2AR is likely to have a protective function and may explain the lack of hypertension in the young female SHR.

  14. α2-ADRENOCEPTOR CONSTRAINT OF CATECHOLAMINE RELEASE AND BLOOD PRESSURE IS ENHANCED IN FEMALE SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torill eBerg

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available α2-adrenoceptors (α2AR lower central sympathetic output and peripheral catecholamine release, and may therefore prevent sympathetic hyperactivity and hypertension. The α2AR are dysfunctional in male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. Premenopausal females are less hypertensive than males. The purpose of this study was to test if this difference could be explained by functional α2AR in the female SHR. A 15-min tyramine-infusion was used to stimulate norepinephrine release through the re-uptake transporter, consequently preventing re-uptake. Presynaptic control of vesicular release will therefore be reflected as differences in overflow to plasma. The surgical trauma activates secretion of epinephrine, also subjected to α2AR auto-inhibition. Blood pressure was monitored through a femoral artery catheter and cardiac output by ascending aorta flow in 12-14 weeks-old (early hypertension SHR and normotensive rats (WKY. Total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR was calculated. Female SHR, unlike male, were close to normotensive. Pre-treatment with none-selective (clonidine or non-A-selective (ST-91 α2AR agonist reduced, and none-selective α2AR antagonist (L-659,066 increased tyramine-induced norepinephrine overflow in female and WKY and SHR. L-659,066 also increased secretion of epinephrine. The L-659,066-induced increase in catecholamine release was further enhanced by additional pre-treatment with ST-91 or angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist (losartan in SHR only. L-659,066 eliminated the tyramine-induced rise in TPR in both strains in female rats. Conclusion: α2AR-mediated control of catecholamine release and vascular tension was therefore functional in female SHR, unlike that previously observed in male SHR. Functional α2AR is likely to have a protective function and may explain the lack of hypertension in the young female SHR.

  15. Blockade of Toll-like receptor 2 prevents spontaneous cytokine release from rheumatoid arthritis ex vivo synovial explant cultures

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nic An Ultaigh, Sinead

    2011-02-23

    Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the effect of blocking Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial cells. Methods RA synovial tissue biopsies, obtained under direct visualization at arthroscopy, were established as synovial explant cultures ex vivo or snap frozen for immunohistology. Mononuclear cell cultures were isolated from peripheral blood and synovial fluid of RA patients. Cultures were incubated with the TLR1\\/2 ligand, Pam3CSK4 (200 ng, 1 and 10 μg\\/ml), an anti-TLR2 antibody (OPN301, 1 μg\\/ml) or an immunoglobulin G (IgG) (1 μg\\/ml) matched control. The comparative effect of OPN301 and adalimumab (anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha) on spontaneous release of proinflammatory cytokines from RA synovial explants was determined using quantitative cytokine MSD multiplex assays or ELISA. OPN301 penetration into RA synovial tissue explants cultures was assessed by immunohistology. Results Pam3CSK4 significantly upregulated interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in RA peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), RA synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) and RA synovial explant cultures (P < 0.05). OPN301 significantly decreased Pam3CSK4-induced cytokine production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-8 compared to IgG control in RA PBMCs and SFMCs cultures (all P < 0.05). OPN301 penetration of RA synovial tissue cultures was detected in the lining layer and perivascular regions. OPN301 significantly decreased spontaneous cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-8 from RA synovial tissue explant cultures (all P < 0.05). Importantly, the inhibitory effect of OPN on spontaneous cytokine secretion was comparable to inhibition by anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody adalimumab. Conclusions These findings further support targeting TLR2 as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of RA.

  16. Computer algorithms for automated detection and analysis of local Ca2+ releases in spontaneously beating cardiac pacemaker cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Maltsev

    Full Text Available Local Ca2+ Releases (LCRs are crucial events involved in cardiac pacemaker cell function. However, specific algorithms for automatic LCR detection and analysis have not been developed in live, spontaneously beating pacemaker cells. In the present study we measured LCRs using a high-speed 2D-camera in spontaneously contracting sinoatrial (SA node cells isolated from rabbit and guinea pig and developed a new algorithm capable of detecting and analyzing the LCRs spatially in two-dimensions, and in time. Our algorithm tracks points along the midline of the contracting cell. It uses these points as a coordinate system for affine transform, producing a transformed image series where the cell does not contract. Action potential-induced Ca2+ transients and LCRs were thereafter isolated from recording noise by applying a series of spatial filters. The LCR birth and death events were detected by a differential (frame-to-frame sensitivity algorithm applied to each pixel (cell location. An LCR was detected when its signal changes sufficiently quickly within a sufficiently large area. The LCR is considered to have died when its amplitude decays substantially, or when it merges into the rising whole cell Ca2+ transient. Ultimately, our algorithm provides major LCR parameters such as period, signal mass, duration, and propagation path area. As the LCRs propagate within live cells, the algorithm identifies splitting and merging behaviors, indicating the importance of locally propagating Ca2+-induced-Ca2+-release for the fate of LCRs and for generating a powerful ensemble Ca2+ signal. Thus, our new computer algorithms eliminate motion artifacts and detect 2D local spatiotemporal events from recording noise and global signals. While the algorithms were developed to detect LCRs in sinoatrial nodal cells, they have the potential to be used in other applications in biophysics and cell physiology, for example, to detect Ca2+ wavelets (abortive waves, sparks and

  17. β- and α2-Adrenoceptor Control of Vascular Tension and Catecholamine Release in Female Normotensive and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Torill

    2017-01-01

    As in humans, young, female, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have a lower blood pressure than male SHR. In male, normotensive rats (WKY), α 2 - and β 1+2 -adrenoceptors (AR) reciprocally controlled catecholamine release and vascular smooth muscle tension. This interaction was malfunctioning in male SHR. The present study analyzed if a favorable shift in the α 2 /β 1+2 AR interaction may represent an antihypertensive protection in females. Female SHR (early hypertension, 12-14 weeks) and age-matched WKY were infused with tyramine (15 min) to stimulate norepinephrine (NE) release through the reuptake transporter, consequently preventing reuptake. Presynaptic control of vesicular release was therefore reflected as differences in overflow to plasma. The released NE increased total peripheral vascular resistance (TPR). The results showed that β 1>2 AR facilitated tyramine-stimulated NE release in both strains, also in the presence of α 2 AR-antagonist (L-659,066). βAR-antagonist (atenolol-β 1 , ICI-118551-β 2 , nadolol-β 1+2 ) had no effect on the increased secretion of epinephrine after L-659,066 in WKY, but β 1>2 AR-antagonist augmented the L-659,066-induced increase in the secretion of epinephrine in SHR. Nadolol increased the TPR response to tyramine with a greater effect in WKY than SHR, whereas β 1or2 -selective antagonists did not. One βAR-subtype may therefore substitute for the other. When both β 1+2 AR were blocked, α 2 AR-antagonist still reduced the TPR response in WKY but not SHR. Thus, α 2 /β 1+2 AR reciprocally controlled catecholamine release, with a particular negative β 1 AR-influence on α 2 AR-auto-inhibition of epinephrine secretion in SHR. Moreover, in these female rats, β 1/2 AR-independent α 2 AR-mediated vasoconstriction was seen in WKY but not SHR, but β 1/2 AR-mediated vasodilation downregulated adrenergic vasoconstriction, not only in WKY but also in SHR.

  18. Quantal analysis reveals a functional correlation between presynaptic and postsynaptic efficacy in excitatory connections from rat neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardingham, Neil R; Read, Jenny C A; Trevelyan, Andrew J; Nelson, J Charmaine; Jack, J Julian B; Bannister, Neil J

    2010-01-27

    At many central synapses, the presynaptic bouton and postsynaptic density are structurally correlated. However, it is unknown whether this correlation extends to the functional properties of the synapses. To investigate this, we made recordings from synaptically coupled pairs of pyramidal neurons in rat visual cortex. The mean peak amplitude of EPSPs recorded from pairs of L2/3 neurons ranged between 40 microV and 2.9 mV. EPSP rise times were consistent with the majority of the synapses being located on basal dendrites; this was confirmed by full anatomical reconstructions of a subset of connected pairs. Over a third of the connections could be described using a quantal model that assumed simple binomial statistics. Release probability (P(r)) and quantal size (Q), as measured at the somatic recording site, showed considerable heterogeneity between connections. However, across the population of connections, values of P(r) and Q for individual connections were positively correlated with one another. This correlation also held for inputs to layer 5 pyramidal neurons from both layer 2/3 and neighboring layer 5 pyramidal neurons, suggesting that during development of cortical connections presynaptic and postsynaptic strengths are dependently scaled. For 2/3 to 2/3 connections, mean EPSP amplitude was correlated with both Q and P(r) values but uncorrelated with N, the number of functional release sites mediating the connection. The efficacy of a cortical connection is thus set by coordinated presynaptic and postsynaptic strength.

  19. Chaotic motion at the nuclear Coulomb barrier; a quantal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasso, C.H.; Gallardo, M.; Saraceno, M.

    1995-01-01

    The coupling between relative motion and intrinsic surface vibrations in nuclear collisions introduces - at the classical level - a transition between ordered and disordered motion. Chaotic features set in near the Coulomb and centrifugal barriers in situations of weak absorption. We investigate here the solutions of the corresponding quantum scattering problem. The aim of this study is to identify possible manifestations of the underlying irregular structure in actual observables. To this end the correspondence between quantal wavefunctions and classical trajectories in phase space is explored. ((orig.))

  20. Quantal health effects for a combination of several toxic agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quantal health effects caused by the combined action of a number of toxic agents are modeled using the information available for each toxicant acting in isolation. Two basic models are used; one assumes no interaction, the other postulates a separable kind of interaction in which each agent contributes an enhancement factor independent of all other agents. These two models provide yardsticks by which to measure synergisms and antagonisms in the interaction between the effects of toxic agents. Equations are given in approximations for small and large values of the risk. (author)

  1. Quantal health effects of three toxic agents combined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seiler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    Quantal health effects such as cancer, correlated with the combined action of three toxic agents, are considered. Data on the combined effects of two agents are scarce and no such data exist for three toxicants, yet concerns have arisen about simultaneous exposure of radiation workers to three different agents. Using models developed from the analysis of health effects involving two toxicants, equations for the combined effects of three agents are derived from a more general formalism. An application of practical interest is the incidence of cancer of the esophagus and its correlation with concurrent exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and either low- or high-LET radiation. (author)

  2. Comparative effects of clindamycin and lincomycin on end-plate currents and quantal content at the neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiekers, J F; Henderson, F; Marshall, I G; Parsons, R L

    1983-11-01

    The pre- and postjunctional effects of the lincosamide antibiotics, clindamycin and lincomycin, were studied in voltage-clamped transected twitch fibers of costocutaneous muscles of garter snakes (species Thamnophis). Miniature end-plate currents and end-plate currents (EPCs) were recorded over a wide voltage range for each antibiotic. The amplitude and kinetics of these currents were studied and estimates of the quantal content of evoked transmitter release determined. High concentrations of clindamycin (2 X 10(-4) M) and lincomycin (2 X 10(-3) M) produced significant depression of EPC amplitude and a nonlinearity in the EPC-voltage relationships. The time constant of EPC decay was accelerated in clindamycin and the relationship between the time constant of EPC decay and membrane potential remained a single exponential function with a concentration-dependent loss of the voltage dependence. In contrast to clindamycin, lincomycin produced biphasic EPCs which consisted of two components, one faster and one slower than the control decay rate. The relative amplitude and decay rate of each component was both concentration and voltage dependent. Either increasing the concentration of lincomycin or membrane hyperpolarization decreased the amplitude ratio, iota slow/iota fast, and increased the ratio of the respective time constants, tau slow/tau fast. Clindamycin affected EPC decay amplitude and quantal content in the same concentration range, whereas lincomycin affected EPC decay at concentrations 20 times less than those required to reduce EPC amplitude and quantal content. These results suggest that the neuromuscular blocking effects of clindamycin involve both pre-and postjunctional sites, whereas the effects of lincomycin are primarily on the postjunctional receptor-channel complex.

  3. Presynaptic membrane receptors in acetylcholine release modulation in the neuromuscular synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs, Josep; Santafé, Manel M; Garcia, Neus; Lanuza, Maria A; Tomàs, Marta; Besalduch, Núria; Obis, Teresa; Priego, Mercedes; Hurtado, Erica

    2014-05-01

    Over the past few years, we have studied, in the mammalian neuromuscular junction (NMJ), the local involvement in transmitter release of the presynaptic muscarinic ACh autoreceptors (mAChRs), purinergic adenosine autoreceptors (P1Rs), and trophic factor receptors (TFRs; for neurotrophins and trophic cytokines) during development and in the adult. At any given moment, the way in which a synapse works is largely the logical outcome of the confluence of these (and other) metabotropic signalling pathways on intracellular kinases, which phosphorylate protein targets and materialize adaptive changes. We propose an integrated interpretation of the complementary function of these receptors in the adult NMJ. The activity of a given receptor group can modulate a given combination of spontaneous, evoked, and activity-dependent release characteristics. For instance, P1Rs can conserve resources by limiting spontaneous quantal leak of ACh (an A1 R action) and protect synapse function, because stimulation with adenosine reduces the magnitude of depression during repetitive activity. The overall outcome of the mAChRs seems to contribute to upkeep of spontaneous quantal output of ACh, save synapse function by decreasing the extent of evoked release (mainly an M2 action), and reduce depression. We have also identified several links among P1Rs, mAChRs, and TFRs. We found a close dependence between mAChR and some TFRs and observed that the muscarinic group has to operate correctly if the tropomyosin-related kinase B receptor (trkB) is also to operate correctly, and vice versa. Likewise, the functional integrity of mAChRs depends on P1Rs operating normally. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A Microscopic Quantal Model for Nuclear Collective Rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulshani, P.

    2007-01-01

    A microscopic, quantal model to describe nuclear collective rotation in two dimensions is derived from the many-nucleon Schrodinger equation. The Schrodinger equation is transformed to a body-fixed frame to decompose the Hamiltonian into a sum of intrinsic and rotational components plus a Coriolis-centrifugal coupling term. This Hamiltonian (H) is expressed in terms of space-fixed-frame particle coordinates and momenta by using commutator of H with a rotation angle. A unified-rotational-model type wavefunction is used to obtain an intrinsic Schrodinger equation in terms of angular momentum quantum number and two-body operators. A Hartree-Fock mean-field representation of this equation is then obtained and, by means of a unitary transformation, is reduced to a form resembling that of the conventional semi-classical cranking model when exchange terms and intrinsic spurious collective excitation are ignored

  5. Excitatory effect of the A2A adenosine receptor agonist CGS-21680 on spontaneous and K+-evoked acetylcholine release at the mouse neuromuscular junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, A G; Muchnik, S; Losavio, A S

    2011-01-13

    The mechanism of action of the A2A adenosine receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl) phenethylamino-5'-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680) in the facilitation of spontaneous (isotonic and hypertonic condition) and K+-evoked acetylcholine (ACh) release was investigated in the mouse diaphragm muscles. At isotonic condition, the CGS-21680-induced excitatory effect on miniature end-plate potential (MEPP) frequency was not modified in the presence of CdCl2 and in a medium free of Ca2+ (0Ca2+-EGTA), but it was abolished after buffering the rise of intracellular Ca2+ with 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetra(acetoxy-methyl) (BAPTA-AM) and when the Ca2+-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin was used to deplete intracellular Ca2+ stores. CGS-21680 did not have a direct effect on the Ca2+-independent neurotransmitter-releasing machinery, since the modulatory effect on the hypertonic response was also occluded by BAPTA-AM and thapsigargin. CGS-21680 facilitation on K+-evoked ACh release was not altered by the P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker ω-Agatoxin IVA, but it was completely prevented by both, the L-type VDCC blocker nitrendipine (which is known to immobilize their gating charges), or thapsigargin, suggesting that the effects of CGS-21680 on L-type VDCC and thapsigargin-sensitive internal stores are associated. We found that the VDCC pore blocker Cd2+ (2 mM Ca2+ or 0Ca2+-EGTA) failed to affect the CGS-21680 effect in high K+ whereas nitrendipine in 0Ca2+-EGTA+Cd2+ occluded its action. The blockade of Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum with ryanodine antagonized the facilitating effect of CGS-21680 in control and high K+ concentration. It is concluded that, at the mouse neuromuscular junction, activation of A2A receptors facilitates spontaneous and K+-evoked ACh release by an external Ca2+-independent mechanism but that involves mobilization of Ca2+ from internal stores: during spontaneous ACh release

  6. Modelling the influence of short term depression in vesicle release and stochastic calcium channel gating on auditory nerve spontaneous firing statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar eMoezzi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose several modifications to an existing computational model of stochastic vesicle release in inner hair cell ribbon synapses, with the aim of producing simulated auditory nerve fibre spiking data that more closely matches empirical data. Specifically, we studied the inter-spike-interval (ISI distribution, and long and short term ISI correlations in spontaneous spiking in post-synaptic auditory nerve fibres. We introduced short term plasticity to the pre-synaptic release probability, in a manner analogous to standard stochastic models of cortical short term synaptic depression. This modification resulted in a similar distribution of vesicle release intervals to that estimated from empirical data. We also introduced a biophysical stochastic model of calcium channel opening and closing, but showed that this model is insufficient for generating a match with empirically observed spike correlations. However, by combining a phenomenological model of channel noise and our short term depression model, we generated short and long term correlations in auditory nerve spontaneous activity that qualitatively match empirical data.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Flush of an Integrated Minimized Perfusion Circuit Prior to Priming Prevents Spontaneous Air Release Into the Arterial Line During Clinical Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehouwer, Marco C; de Vroege, Roel; Hoohenkerk, Gerard J F; Hofman, Frederik N; Kelder, Johannes C; Buchner, Bas; de Mol, Bastian A; Bruins, Peter

    2017-11-01

    Recently, an oxygenator with an integrated centrifugal blood pump (IP) was designed to minimize priming volume and to reduce blood foreign surface contact even further. The use of this oxygenator with or without integrated arterial filter was compared with a conventional oxygenator and nonintegrated centrifugal pump. To compare the air removal characteristics 60 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were alternately assigned into one of three groups to be perfused with a minimized extracorporeal circuit either with the conventional oxygenator, the oxygenator with IP, or the oxygenator with IP plus integrated arterial filter (IAF). Air entering and leaving the three devices was measured accurately with a bubble counter during cardiopulmonary bypass. No significant differences between all groups were detected, considering air entering the devices. Our major finding was that in both integrated devices groups incidental spontaneous release of air into the arterial line in approximately 40% of the patients was observed. Here, detectable bolus air (>500 µm) was shown in the arterial line, whereas in the minimal extracorporeal circulation circuit (MECC) group this phenomenon was not present. We decided to conduct an amendment of the initial design with METC-approval. Ten patients were assigned to be perfused with an oxygenator with IP and IAF. Importantly, the integrated perfusion systems used in these patients were flushed with carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) prior to priming of the systems. In the group with CO 2 flush no spontaneous air release was observed in all cases and this was significantly different from the initial study with the group with the integrated device and IAF. This suggests that air spilling may be caused by residual air in the integrated device. In conclusion, integration of a blood pump may cause spontaneous release of large air bubbles (>500 µm) into the arterial line, despite the presence of an integrated arterial filter. CO 2 flushing of

  8. Prediction of Peak Hydrogen Concentrations for Deep Sludge Retrieval in Tanks AN-101 and AN-106 from Historical Data of Spontaneous Gas Release Events

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Cooley, Scott K.; Meacham, Joseph E.

    2013-10-21

    Radioactive and chemical wastes from nuclear fuel processing are stored in large underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site. The Tank Operations Contractor is continuing a program of moving solid wastes from single-shell tanks (SSTs) to double-shell tanks (DSTs) and preparing for waste feed delivery (WFD). A new mechanism for a large spontaneous gas release event (GRE) in deep sludge sediments has been postulated. The creation of this potential new GRE hazard, deep sludge gas release events (DSGREs), is the retrieval of sludge waste into a single DST that results in a sediment depth greater than operating experience has demonstrated is safe. The Tank Operations Contractor program of moving solid wastes from SSTs to DSTs and preparing for WFD is being negatively impacted by this sediment depth limit.

  9. The spontaneous release of prostaglandins into the cerebral ventricles of the dog and the effect of external factors on this release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, S. W.

    1970-01-01

    1. Prostaglandins E1, E2, F1α and F2α have been identified in perfusates of the cerebral ventricles of anaesthetized dogs. 2. Infusions of serotonin into the lateral ventricle caused a four-fold increase in the release of prostaglandins E into the ventricles and this increase was dissociated from the hyperthermic action. Intraventricular infusions of adrenaline and noradrenaline had no effect on the level of prostaglandin release. 3. Neither electrical stimulation of a hind foot pad nor the intraperitoneal administration of chlorpromazine, amphetamine, tranylcypromine or imipramine had any consistent effect on the amounts of prostaglandins released into the cerebrospinal fluid. 4. When prostaglandin E1 was added to the fluid perfusing the ventricular system, respiratory changes were observed but almost all the added prostaglandin was recovered from the perfusate leaving the cisterna. PMID:5441786

  10. Chronic cigarette smoking enhances spontaneous release of tumour necrosis factor-α from alveolar macrophages of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Pessina

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biological effects of chronic cigarette smoking (two cigarettes for 2 h, daily for 4 months in rats were evaluated. During the smoking period, body weight of smoker rats was always significantly lower than that of control rats. Immediately after the last smoking session the carboxyhaemoglobin concentration in the blood was about 8.5% and the polymorphonuclear cells in the bronchoalveolar fluid increased significantly. At the same time, enzymatic analyses on the supernatants of bronchoalveolar fluid revealed a significant increase of β-glucuronidase in the smoker group. Alveolar macrophages, collected 0, 8 and 24 h after the last smoking session, significantly increased the generation of superoxide anion and, after incubation for 24 h at 37° C in a humidified atmosphere, released significantly high amounts of TNF-α. When challenged with lipopolysaccharide, alveolar macrophages of smoker rats released much more TNF-α but, in such a case, TNF-α release was about one half of that observed in the control group. Peritoneal macrophages of both control and smoker rats were unable either to generate high levels of superoxide anion or to release significant amounts of TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated the activated state of alveolar macrophages and the resting state of peritoneal macrophages.

  11. Quantal Brownian Motion from RPA dynamics: The master and Fokker-Planck equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yannouleas, C.

    1984-05-01

    From the purely quantal RPA description of the damped harmonic oscillator and of the corresponding Brownian Motion within the full space (phonon subspace plus reservoir), a master equation (as well as a Fokker-Planck equation) for the reduced density matrix (for the reduced Wigner function, respectively) within the phonon subspace is extracted. The RPA master equation agrees with the master equation derived by the time-dependent perturbative approaches which utilize Tamm-Dancoff Hilbert spaces and invoke the rotating wave approximation. Since the RPA yields a full, as well as a contracted description, it can account for both the kinetic and the unperturbed oscillator momenta. The RPA description of the quantal Brownian Motion contrasts with the descriptions provided by the time perturbative approaches whether they invoke or not the rotating wave approximation. The RPA description also contrasts with the phenomenological phase space quantization. (orig.)

  12. Stability of Mixed-Strategy-Based Iterative Logit Quantal Response Dynamics in Game Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Qian; Di, Zengru; Wu, Jinshan

    2014-01-01

    Using the Logit quantal response form as the response function in each step, the original definition of static quantal response equilibrium (QRE) is extended into an iterative evolution process. QREs remain as the fixed points of the dynamic process. However, depending on whether such fixed points are the long-term solutions of the dynamic process, they can be classified into stable (SQREs) and unstable (USQREs) equilibriums. This extension resembles the extension from static Nash equilibriums (NEs) to evolutionary stable solutions in the framework of evolutionary game theory. The relation between SQREs and other solution concepts of games, including NEs and QREs, is discussed. Using experimental data from other published papers, we perform a preliminary comparison between SQREs, NEs, QREs and the observed behavioral outcomes of those experiments. For certain games, we determine that SQREs have better predictive power than QREs and NEs. PMID:25157502

  13. Modified method of perturbed stationary states. II. Semiclassical and low-velocity quantal approximations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, T.A.

    1978-10-01

    For one-electron heteropolar systems, the wave-theoretic Lagrangian of Paper I 2 is simplified in two distinct approximations. The first is semiclassical; the second is quantal, for velocities below those for which the semiclassical treatment is reliable. For each approximation, unitarity and detailed balancing are discussed. Then, the variational method as described by Demkov is used to determine the coupled equations for the radial functions and the Euler-Lagrange equations for the translational factors which are part of the theory. Specific semiclassical formulae for the translational factors are given in a many-state approximation. Low-velocity quantal formulae are obtained in a one-state approximation. The one-state results of both approximations agree with an earlier determination by Riley. 14 references

  14. Thermal and quantal isospin and spin fluctuations in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretto, L.G.

    1980-01-01

    The isobaric charge distributions are discussed in terms of quantal and classical isospin fluctuations. The roles of mass asymmetry and of the higher giant isovector modes are treated within the framework of a cylinder model that is worked out exactly. Spin fluctuations are considered first in terms of quantal fluctuations in a cylinder model and second in terms of thermal fluctuations in a two-sphere model. The results are applied to the calculation of in- and out-of-plane angular distributions for sequential fission, alpha and gamma decay. Analytical expressions are obtained for the angular distributions. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental results for sequential fission, alpha, and gamma angular distributions. 23 figures

  15. Geometry of quantal adiabatic evolution driven by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhaoyan; Yu Ting; Zhou Hongwei

    1994-01-01

    It is shown by using a counter example, which is exactly solvable, that the quantal adiabatic theorem does not generally hold for a non-Hermitian driving Hamiltonian, even if it varies extremely slowly. The condition for the quantal adiabatic theorem to hold for non-Hermitian driving Hamiltonians is given. The adiabatic evolutions driven by a non-Hermitian Hamiltonian provide examples of a new geometric structure, that is the vector bundle in which the inner product of two parallelly transported vectors generally changes. A new geometric concept, the attenuation tensor, is naturally introduced to describe the decay or flourish of the open quantum system. It is constructed in terms of the spectral projector of the Hamiltonian. (orig.)

  16. Stark broadening of the Hα line of hydrogen at low densities: quantal and semiclassical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehle, C.; Feautrier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Stark profiles of the Hα lines of hydrogen are computed at low densities in the 'impact' theory. By a comparison with quantal results, it is shown that a simple semiclassical perturbational approach with appropriate cutoffs is sufficient to give accurate profiles in the line centre. Neglecting the natural broadening and the fine-structure effects, the authors prove that the electronic broadening is negligible and that the profile has a Lorentzian shape. An analytical expression of the half width is given. (author)

  17. Comparative effects of pentobarbital on spontaneous and evoked transmitter release from inhibitory and excitatory nerve terminals in rat CA3 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Min-Chul; Wakita, Masahito; Iwata, Satomi; Nonaka, Kiku; Kotani, Naoki; Akaike, Norio

    2013-01-01

    Pentobarbital (PB) modulates GABA(A) receptor-mediated postsynaptic responses through various mechanisms, and can directly activate the channel at higher doses. These channels exist both pre- and postsynaptically, and on the soma outside the synapse. PB also inhibits voltage-dependent Na⁺ and Ca²⁺ channels to decrease excitatory synaptic transmission. Just how these different sites of action combine to contribute to the overall effects of PB on inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission is less clear. To compare these pre- and postsynaptic actions of PB, we used a 'synaptic bouton' preparation of isolated rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons where we could measure in single neurons the effects of PB on spontaneous and single bouton evoked GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs, sEPSCs, eIPSCs and eEPSCs), respectively. Low (sedative) concentrations (3-10 μM) of PB increased the frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs and sEPSCs, and also presynaptically increased the amplitude of both eIPSCs and eEPSCs. There was no change in current kinetics at this low concentration. At higher concentrations (30-300 μM), PB decreased the frequency, and increased the amplitude of sIPSCs, and presynaptically decreased the amplitude of eIPSCs. The current decay phase of sIPSCs and eIPSCs was increased. An increase in both frequency and amplitude was seen for sEPSCs, while the eIPSCs was also decreased by a bicuculline-sensitive presynaptic effect. The results confirm the multiple sites of action of PB on inhibitory and excitatory transmission and demonstrate that the most sensitive site of action is on transmitter release, via effects on presynaptic GABA(A) receptors. At low concentrations, however, both glutamate and GABA release is similarly enhanced, making the final effects on neuronal excitability difficult to predict and dependent on the particular systems involved and/or on subtle differences in susceptibility amongst

  18. The cAMP cascade modulates the neuroinformative impact of quantal release at cholinergic synapse

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, František; Bukcharaeva, E.; Samigullin, D. V.; Nikolsky, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2001), s. 317-323 ISSN 1539-2791 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902 Grant - others:EU(XX) Nesting; RFBR(RU) 99-04-48286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : frog neuromuscular synapse * noradrenaline Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  19. Protein kinase A cascade regulates quantal release dispersion at frog muscle endplate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bukharaeva, E. A.; Samigullin, D.; Nikolsky, E.; Vyskočil, František

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 538, č. 3 (2002), s. 837-848 ISSN 0022-3751 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902 Grant - others:EU(XC) EU Nesting; RFBR(RU) 99-04-48286 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : EPCs * latency dispersion * protein kinase A Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.650, year: 2002

  20. Modeling of quantal neurotransmitter release kinetics in the presence of fixed and mobile calcium buffers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gilmanov, I.R.; Samigullin, D. V.; Vyskočil, František; Nikolsky, E. E.; Bukharaeva, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2008), s. 296-307 ISSN 0929-5313 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011411; GA ČR GA305/02/1333 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : neuromuscular junction Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.750, year: 2008

  1. Glutamate regulation of non-quantal release of acetylcholine in the rat neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malomouzh, A. I.; Mukhtarov, M. R.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František; Lieberman, E. M.; Urazaev, A. K.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 1 (2003), s. 206-213 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA7011902; GA ČR GA305/02/1333; GA ČR GA202/02/1213 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : muscle endplate * nitric oxide * N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 4.825, year: 2003

  2. Interaction of glutamate- and adenosine-induced decrease of acetylcholine quantal release at frog neuromuscular junction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, S.; Shakirzyanova, V.; Malomouzh, A. I.; Naumenko, N. V.; Vyskočil, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 5 (2010), s. 803-810 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110905; GA ČR GA202/09/0806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : Endplate potentials * Guanylyl cyclase Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2010

  3. Beat-to-Beat Variation in Periodicity of Local Calcium Releases Contributes to Intrinsic Variations of Spontaneous Cycle Length in Isolated Single Sinoatrial Node Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Monfredi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous, submembrane local Ca(2+ releases (LCRs generated by the sarcoplasmic reticulum in sinoatrial nodal cells, the cells of the primary cardiac pacemaker, activate inward Na(+/Ca(2+-exchange current to accelerate the diastolic depolarization rate, and therefore to impact on cycle length. Since LCRs are generated by Ca(2+ release channel (i.e. ryanodine receptor openings, they exhibit a degree of stochastic behavior, manifested as notable cycle-to-cycle variations in the time of their occurrence.The present study tested whether variation in LCR periodicity contributes to intrinsic (beat-to-beat cycle length variability in single sinoatrial nodal cells.We imaged single rabbit sinoatrial nodal cells using a 2D-camera to capture LCRs over the entire cell, and, in selected cells, simultaneously measured action potentials by perforated patch clamp.LCRs begin to occur on the descending part of the action potential-induced whole-cell Ca(2+ transient, at about the time of the maximum diastolic potential. Shortly after the maximum diastolic potential (mean 54±7.7 ms, n = 14, the ensemble of waxing LCR activity converts the decay of the global Ca(2+ transient into a rise, resulting in a late, whole-cell diastolic Ca(2+ elevation, accompanied by a notable acceleration in diastolic depolarization rate. On average, cells (n = 9 generate 13.2±3.7 LCRs per cycle (mean±SEM, varying in size (7.1±4.2 µm and duration (44.2±27.1 ms, with both size and duration being greater for later-occurring LCRs. While the timing of each LCR occurrence also varies, the LCR period (i.e. the time from the preceding Ca(2+ transient peak to an LCR's subsequent occurrence averaged for all LCRs in a given cycle closely predicts the time of occurrence of the next action potential, i.e. the cycle length.Intrinsic cycle length variability in single sinoatrial nodal cells is linked to beat-to-beat variations in the average period of individual LCRs each cycle.

  4. A Bayesian approach to the analysis of quantal bioassay studies using nonparametric mixture models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronczyk, Kassandra; Kottas, Athanasios

    2014-03-01

    We develop a Bayesian nonparametric mixture modeling framework for quantal bioassay settings. The approach is built upon modeling dose-dependent response distributions. We adopt a structured nonparametric prior mixture model, which induces a monotonicity restriction for the dose-response curve. Particular emphasis is placed on the key risk assessment goal of calibration for the dose level that corresponds to a specified response. The proposed methodology yields flexible inference for the dose-response relationship as well as for other inferential objectives, as illustrated with two data sets from the literature. © 2013, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Characterization of spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents in salamander retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, W R; Chen, E; Copenhagen, D R

    1995-01-01

    1. Spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) were recorded under voltage-clamp conditions. Consistent with activation of non-NMDA-type glutamate receptors, the sEPSCs reversed at potentials above 0 mV, were blocked by 1 microM CNQX and prolonged by 2 mM aniracetam. 2. The peak conductance of the averaged sEPSCs (n = 70-400) was 130 +/- 60 pS (mean +/- S.D.; 17 cells, ranging from 70 to 290 pS). Amplitude distributions were skewed towards larger amplitudes. 3. The decay of individual and mean sEPSCs was exponential with a mean time constant (tau d) of 3.75 +/- 0.84 ms (n = 13), which was voltage independent. The 10-90% rise time of the sEPSCs was 1.30 +/- 0.44 ms (n = 13). There was no correlation between sEPSC rise time and tau d suggesting that dendritic filtering alone did not shape the time course of sEPSCs. 4. Light-evoked EPSCs in these retinal ganglion cells are mediated by concomitant activation of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors; however, no NMDA component was discerned in the sEPSCs, even when recording at -96 mV in Mg(2+)-free solutions. The decay time course was not altered by 20 microM AP7, an NMDA antagonist, nor was an NMDA component unmasked by adding glycine or D-serine. These results suggest that NMDA and non-NMDA receptors are not coactivated by a single vesicle of transmitter during spontaneous release, and thus are probably not colocalized in the postsynaptic membrane at the sites of spontaneous release. 5. The sEPSCs were an order of magnitude faster than the non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by light stimuli, and it is proposed that the EPSC time course is determined largely by the extended time course of release of synaptic vesicles from bipolar cells. The quantal content of a light-evoked non-NMDA receptor-mediated EPSC in an on-off cell is about 200 quanta. Images Figure 6 PMID:7562636

  6. Release properties of individual presynaptic boutons expressed during homosynaptic depression and heterosynaptic facilitation of the Aplysia sensorimotor synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy eMalkinson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Much of what we know about the mechanisms underlying Homosynaptic Depression (HSD and heterosynaptic facilitation is based on intracellular recordings of integrated postsynaptic potentials. This methodological approach views the presynaptic apparatus as a single compartment rather than taking a more realistic representation reflecting the fact that it is made up of tens to hundreds of individual and independent Presynaptic Release Boutons (PRBs. Using cultured Aplysia sensorimotor synapses, we reexamined HSD and its dishabituation by imaging the release properties of individual PRBs. We find that the PRB population is heterogeneous and can be clustered into three groups: approximately 25% of the PRBs consistently release neurotransmitter throughout the entire habituation paradigm (35 stimuli, 0.05Hz and have a relatively high quantal content, 36% of the PRBs display intermittent failures only after the tenth stimulation, and 39% are low quantal-content PRBs that exhibit intermittent release failures from the onset of the habituation paradigm. 5HT-induced synaptic dishabituation by a single 5HT application was generated by the enhanced recovery of the quantal content of the habituated PRBs and did not involve the recruitment of new release boutons. The characterization of the PRB population as heterogeneous in terms of its temporal pattern of release-probability and quantal content provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying HSD and its dishabituation.

  7. Differences in Adverse Event Reporting Rates of Therapeutic Failure Between Two Once-daily Extended-release Methylphenidate Medications in Canada: Analysis of Spontaneous Adverse Event Reporting Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Wyllie, Laura; van Stralen, Judy; Castillon, Genaro; Sherman, Stephen E; Almagor, Doron

    2017-10-01

    Our study evaluated adverse events of therapeutic failure (and specifically reduced duration of action) with the use of a branded product, Osmotic Release Oral System (OROS) methylphenidate, which is approved for the treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and a generic product (methylphenidate, methylphenidate ER-C), which was approved for marketing in Canada based on bioequivalence to OROS methylphenidate. This study was initiated following reports that some US-marketed generic methylphenidate ER products had substantially higher reporting rates of therapeutic failure than did the referenced brands. Through methodology similar to that used by the US Food and Drug Administration to investigate the issue with the US-marketed generic, reporting rates were calculated from cases of therapeutic failure identified in the Canadian Vigilance Adverse Reaction Online database for a 1-year period beginning 8 months after each product launch. Corresponding population exposure was estimated from the number of tablets dispensed. An in-depth analysis of narratives of individual case safety reports (ICSRs) with the use of the generic product was conducted in duplicate by 2 physicians to assess causality and to characterize the potential safety risk and clinical pattern of therapeutic failure. Similar secondary analyses were conducted on the US-marketed products. Reporting rates of therapeutic failure with the use of methylphenidate ER-C (generic) and OROS methylphenidate (brand name) were 411.5 and 37.5 cases per 100,000 patient-years, respectively (reporting rate ratio, 10.99; 95% CI, 5.93-22.21). In-depth analysis of narratives of 230 ICSRs of therapeutic failure with the Canadian-marketed generic determined that all ICSRs were either probably (60 [26%]) or possibly (170 [74%]) causally related to methylphenidate ER-C. Clinical symptoms suggestive of overdose were present in 31 reports of loss of efficacy (13.5%) and occurred primarily in the morning, and

  8. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  9. Long release latencies are increased by acetylcholine at frog endplate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Samigullin, D.; Bukharaeva, E. A.; Nikolsky, E.; Adámek, S.; Vyskočil, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 4 (2003), s. 475-480 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/02/1333; GA ČR GA202/02/1213 Grant - others:RFBR(RU) 02/04/48901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922; CEZ:MSM 113100003 Keywords : quantal release * acetylcholine * synaptic latency Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2003

  10. Quantal inversion of cross-section for the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.J.; Amos, K.; Dortmans, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fixed energy quantal inverse scattering theory has been used to analyse the differential cross-section from the elastic scattering of 200 MeV protons from 12 C. Ambiguities in obtaining the scattering function from the differential cross-section are discussed and by means of example it is illustrated that not all scattering functions lead to physically reasonable potentials. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Maturation of calcium-dependent GABA, glycine, and glutamate release in the glycinergic MNTB-LSO pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Alamilla

    Full Text Available The medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB is a key nucleus in high-fidelity temporal processing that underlies sound localization in the auditory brainstem. While the glycinergic principal cells of the MNTB project to all primary nuclei of the superior olive, during development the projection from MNTB to the lateral superior olive (LSO is of interest because this immature inhibitory projection is known to undergo tonotopic refinement during an early postnatal period, and because during this period individual MNTB terminals in the LSO transiently release glycine GABA and glutamate. Developmental changes in calcium-dependent release are understood to be required to allow various auditory nuclei to follow high frequency activity; however, little is known about maturation of calcium-dependent release in the MNTB-LSO pathway, which has been presumed to have less stringent requirements for high-fidelity temporal following. In acute brainstem slices of rats age postnatal day 1 to 15 we recorded whole-cell responses in LSO principal neurons to electrical stimulation in the MNTB in order to measure sensitivity to external calcium, the contribution of different voltage-gated calcium channel subtypes to vesicular release, and the maturation of these measures for both GABA/glycine and glutamate transmission. Our results establish that release of glutamate at MNTB-LSO synapses is calcium-dependent. Whereas no significant developmental changes were evident for glutamate release, GABA/glycine release underwent substantial changes over the first two postnatal weeks: soon after birth L-type, N-type, and P/Q-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs together mediated release, but after hearing onset P/Q-type VGCCs predominated. Blockade of P/Q-type VGCCs reduced the estimated quantal number for GABA/gly and glutamate transmission at P5-8 and the frequency of evoked miniature glycinergic events at P12-15, without apparent effects on spontaneous release of

  12. Topology-dependent rationality and quantal response equilibria in structured populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Sabin; Brede, Markus

    2017-05-01

    Given that the assumption of perfect rationality is rarely met in the real world, we explore a graded notion of rationality in socioecological systems of networked actors. We parametrize an actors' rationality via their place in a social network and quantify system rationality via the average Jensen-Shannon divergence between the games Nash and logit quantal response equilibria. Previous work has argued that scale-free topologies maximize a system's overall rationality in this setup. Here we show that while, for certain games, it is true that increasing degree heterogeneity of complex networks enhances rationality, rationality-optimal configurations are not scale-free. For the Prisoner's Dilemma and Stag Hunt games, we provide analytic arguments complemented by numerical optimization experiments to demonstrate that core-periphery networks composed of a few dominant hub nodes surrounded by a periphery of very low degree nodes give strikingly smaller overall deviations from rationality than scale-free networks. Similarly, for the Battle of the Sexes and the Matching Pennies games, we find that the optimal network structure is also a core-periphery graph but with a smaller difference in the average degrees of the core and the periphery. These results provide insight on the interplay between the topological structure of socioecological systems and their collective cognitive behavior, with potential applications to understanding wealth inequality and the structural features of the network of global corporate control.

  13. Quantal density-functional theory in the presence of a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Tao; Pan Xiaoyin; Sahni, Viraht

    2011-01-01

    We generalize the quantal density-functional theory (QDFT) of electrons in the presence of an external electrostatic field E(r)=-∇v(r) to include an external magnetostatic field B(r)=∇xA(r), where (v(r),A(r)) are the respective scalar and vector potentials. The generalized QDFT, valid for nondegenerate ground and excited states, is the mapping from the interacting system of electrons to a model of noninteracting fermions with the same density ρ(r) and physical current density j(r), and from which the total energy can be obtained. The properties (ρ(r),j(r)) constitute the basic quantum-mechanical variables because, as proved previously, for a nondegenerate ground state they uniquely determine the potentials (v(r),A(r)). The mapping to the noninteracting system is arbitrary in that the model fermions may be either in their ground or excited state. The theory is explicated by application to a ground state of the exactly solvable (two-dimensional) Hooke's atom in a magnetic field, with the mapping being to a model system also in its ground state. The majority of properties of the model are obtained in closed analytical or semianalytical form. A comparison with the corresponding mapping from a ground state of the (three-dimensional) Hooke's atom in the absence of a magnetic field is also made.

  14. Quantal Response Equilibrium-Based Strategies for Intrusion Detection in WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigen Shen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to solve the problem stating that applying Intrusion Detection System (IDS to guarantee security of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs is computationally costly for sensor nodes due to their limited resources. For this aim, we obtain optimal strategies to save IDS agents’ power, through Quantal Response Equilibrium (QRE that is more realistic than Nash Equilibrium. A stage Intrusion Detection Game (IDG is formulated to describe interactions between the Attacker and IDS agents. The preference structures of different strategy profiles are analyzed. Upon these structures, the payoff matrix is obtained. As the Attacker and IDS agents interact continually, the stage IDG is extended to a repeated IDG and its payoffs are correspondingly defined. The optimal strategies based on QRE are then obtained. These optimal strategies considering bounded rationality make IDS agents not always be in Defend. Sensor nodes’ power consumed in performing intrusion analyses can thus be saved. Experiment results show that the probabilities of the actions adopted by the Attacker can be predicted and thus the IDS can respond correspondingly to protect WSNs.

  15. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  16. Adenosine receptors and muscarinic receptors cooperate in acetylcholine release modulation in the neuromuscular synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santafe, M M; Priego, M; Obis, T; Garcia, N; Tomàs, M; Lanuza, M A; Tomàs, J

    2015-07-01

    Adenosine receptors (ARs) are present in the motor terminals at the mouse neuromuscular junction. ARs and the presynaptic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) share the functional control of the neuromuscular junction. We analysed their mutual interaction in transmitter release modulation. In electrophysiological experiments with unaltered synaptic transmission (muscles paralysed by blocking the voltage-dependent sodium channel of the muscle cells with μ-conotoxin GIIIB), we found that: (i) a collaborative action between different AR subtypes reduced synaptic depression at a moderate activity level (40 Hz); (ii) at high activity levels (100 Hz), endogenous adenosine production in the synaptic cleft was sufficient to reduce depression through A1 -type receptors (A1 Rs) and A2 A-type receptors (A2 A Rs); (iii) when the non-metabolizable 2-chloroadenosine (CADO) agonist was used, both the quantal content and depression were reduced; (iv) the protective effect of CADO on depression was mediated by A1 Rs, whereas A2 A Rs seemed to modulate A1 Rs; (v) ARs and mAChRs absolutely depended upon each other for the modulation of evoked and spontaneous acetylcholine release in basal conditions and in experimental conditions with CADO stimulation; (vi) the purinergic and muscarinic mechanisms cooperated in the control of depression by sharing a common pathway although the purinergic control was more powerful than the muscarinic control; and (vii) the imbalance of the ARs created by using subtype-selective and non-selective inhibitory and stimulatory agents uncoupled protein kinase C from evoked transmitter release. In summary, ARs (A1 Rs, A2 A Rs) and mAChRs (M1 , M2 ) cooperated in the control of activity-dependent synaptic depression and may share a common protein kinase C pathway. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Spontaneous release of epiretinal membrane in a young weight-lifting athlete by presumed central rupture and centrifugal pull

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour AM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad M Mansour,1,2 Hana A Mansour,3 J Fernando Arevalo4,5 1Department of Ophthalmology, Rafic Hariri University Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; 2Department of Ophthalmology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 3Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Retina Department, The King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Retina Department, Wilmer Eye Institute, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: This patient presented for surgery at the age of 32 years, 14 months after his initial complaint of metamorphopsia and visual loss in the right eye. Past tests demonstrated a whitish epiretinal membrane (ERM with translucent stress lines over a thickened macula. Visual acuity was found on last presentation to be normal with minimal alteration on Amsler grid testing. A torn ERM was found in the center with left-over ERM temporally and rolled-over ERM nasally at the site of the epicenter with no posterior vitreous detachment. Visual recovery occurred gradually over several days 2 months prior to presentation apparently following heavy weight-lifting with a sensation of severe eye pressure. Sequential funduscopy and optical coherence tomography scans demonstrated the peeling of an ERM accompanied by normalization of foveal thickness. Valsalva maneuver had put excessive tension on ERM which tore in its center at the weakest line with gradual contraction of the ERM away from the fovea towards the peripapillary area. This is a new mechanism of self-separation of ERM induced by Valsalva. ERM in young subjects is subject to rupture and subsequent separation by tangential traction. There are three mechanisms for spontaneous separation of ERM: 1 posterior vitreous detachment with pulling of ERM by detaching vitreous (most common in adults; 2 the contracting forces of the immature ERM become stronger than its adhesions to the retina resulting in slow tangential traction on the

  18. Spontaneous release of fluoride during the dioxygenolytic cleavage of 5-fluorosalicylate by the salicylate 1,2-dioxygenase from Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans BN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Erik; Bürger, Sibylle; Stolz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-Proteobacterium Pseudaminobacter salicylatoxidans BN12 forms a peculiar gentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (SDO) that oxidatively cleaves gentisate (2,5-dihydroxybenzoate) and additionally 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoate, salicylate and various amino-, chloro-, fluoro-, hydroxy- and methylsalicylates. In the present study, the conversion of 5-fluorosalicylate by this enzyme was analysed using various analytical techniques. Spectrophotometric assays showed that the conversion of 5-fluorosalicylate by the purified enzyme resulted in the formation of a new unstable intermediate showing an absorbance maximum at λmax = 292 nm. The analysis of the enzymatic reaction by HPLC showed that two main products with absorbance maxima at λmax = 292-296 nm were formed from 5-fluorosalicylate. The same two products (although in different relative proportions) were also formed when the SDO transformed 5-chlorosalicylate or when a purified 5-nitrosalicylate 1,2-dioxygenase from Bradyrhizobium sp. JS329 oxidized 5-nitrosalicylate. A whole cell system with recombinant Escherichia coli cells overexpressing the SDO activity was established in order to produce larger amounts of the reaction products. The reaction products were subsequently identified by (1)H-NMR and mass spectrometry as stereoisomers of 2-oxo-3-(5-oxofuran-2-ylidine)propanoic acid. The release of fluoride in the course of the dioxygenolytic cleavage reaction was confirmed by ion-chromatography and (19)F-NMR. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Selective-field-ionization dynamics of a lithium m=2 Rydberg state: Landau-Zener model versus quantal approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerre, M.; Hansen, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The selective-field-ionization (SFI) dynamics of a Rydberg state of lithium with magnetic quantum number m=2 is studied in detail based on two different theoretical models: (1) a close coupling integration of the Schroedinger equation and (2) the multichannel (incoherent) Landau-Zener (MLZ) model. The m=2 states are particularly interesting, since they define a border zone between fully adiabatic (m=0,1) and fully diabatic (m>2) ionization dynamics. Both sets of calculations are performed up to, and above, the classical ionization limit. It is found that the MLZ model is excellent in the description of the fully diabatic dynamics while certain discrepancies between the time dependent quantal amplitudes appear when the dynamics become involved. Thus, in this region, the analysis of experimental SFI spectra should be performed with care

  20. Facilitation, augmentation, and potentiation of transmitter release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magleby, K. L. [Univ. of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, FL (United States)

    2008-06-02

    This chapter discusses facilitation, augmentation, and potentiation of transmitter release. The effect of repetitive stimulation on transmitter release has been studied to look for and characterize the processes in the nerve terminal that affect the transmitter release. During repetitive stimulation of a neuromuscular junction under conditions of low quantal content, end-plate potentials progressively increase in amplitude. This increase is due to an increase in the number of quanta of transmitter released by each nerve impulse. A kinetic analysis of the changes in transmitter release during and following repetitive stimulation suggests that, there are four processes that act to increase transmitter release: first and second components of facilitation that decay with time constants of about 50 and 30 msec, augmentation that decays with a time constant of about 7s, and potentiation that decays with a time constant, which ranges from about 30s to min. These processes are separable on the basis of their kinetic and pharmacological properties. As a result, the mechanisms of these processes are not yet known, but some possibilities are briefly discussed in terms of structural, chemical, and statistical factors.

  1. Quantal Study of the Exchange Reaction for N + N2 using an ab initio Potential Energy Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dunyou; Stallcop, James R.; Huo, Winifred M.; Dateo, Christopher E.; Schwenke, David W.; Partridge, Harry; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The N + N2 exchange rate is calculated using a time-dependent quantum dynamics method on a newly determined ab initio potential energy surface (PES) for the ground A" state. This ab initio PES shows a double barrier feature in the interaction region with the barrier height at 47.2 kcal/mol, and a shallow well between these two barriers, with the minimum at 43.7 kcal/mol. A quantum dynamics wave packet calculation has been carried out using the fitted PES to compute the cumulative reaction probability for the exchange reaction of N + N2(J=O). The J - K shift method is then employed to obtain the rate constant for this reaction. The calculated rate constant is compared with experimental data and a recent quasi-classical calculation using a LEPS PES. Significant differences are found between the present and quasiclassical results. The present rate calculation is the first accurate 3D quantal dynamics study for N + N2 reaction system and the ab initio PES reported here is the first such surface for N3.

  2. α-Conotoxin M1 (CTx) blocks αδ binding sites of adult nicotinic receptors while ACh binding at αε sites elicits only small and short quantal synaptic currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudel, Josef

    2014-12-01

    In 'embryonic' nicotinic receptors, low CTx concentrations are known to block only the αδ binding site, whereas binding of ACh at the αγ-site elicits short single channel openings and short bursts. In adult muscles the αγ- is replaced by the αε-site. Quantal EPSCs (qEPSCs) were elicited in adult muscles by depolarization pulses and recorded through a perfused macropatch electrode. One to 200 nmol L(-1) CTx reduced amplitudes and decay time constants of qEPSCs, but increased their rise times. CTx block at the αδ binding sites was incomplete: The qEPSCs still contained long bursts from not yet blocked receptors, whereas their average decay time constants were reduced by a short burst component generated by ACh binding to the αε-site. Two nanomolar CTx applied for 3 h reduced the amplitudes of qEPSCs to less than half with a constant slope. The equilibrium concentration of the block is below 1 nmol L(-1) and lower than that of embryonic receptors. CTx-block increased in proportion to CTx concentrations (average rate 2 ×: 10(4) s(-1)·mol(-1) L). Thus, the reactions of 'embryonic' and of adult nicotinic receptors to block by CTx are qualitatively the same. - The study of the effects of higher CTx concentrations or of longer periods of application of CTx was limited by presynaptic effects of CTx. Even low CTx concentrations severely reduced the release of quanta by activating presynaptic M2 receptors at a maximal rate of 6 ×: 10(5) s(-1)·mol(-1) L. When this dominant inhibition was prevented by blocking the M2 receptors with methoctramine, activation of M1 receptors was unmasked and facilitated release. © 2014 The Author. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Depressed Synaptic Transmission and Reduced Vesicle Release Sites in Huntington's Disease Neuromuscular Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khedraki, Ahmad; Reed, Eric J; Romer, Shannon H; Wang, Qingbo; Romine, William; Rich, Mark M; Talmadge, Robert J; Voss, Andrew A

    2017-08-23

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal degenerative disorder that results in debilitating cognitive and motor dysfunction. Most HD studies have focused on degeneration of the CNS. We previously discovered that skeletal muscle from transgenic R6/2 HD mice is hyperexcitable due to decreased chloride and potassium conductances. The progressive and early onset of these defects suggest a primary myopathy in HD. In this study, we examined the relationship between neuromuscular transmission and skeletal muscle hyperexcitability. We used an ex vivo preparation of the levator auris longus muscle from male and female late-stage R6/2 mice and age-matched wild-type controls. Immunostaining of the synapses and molecular analyses revealed no evidence of denervation. Physiologically, we recorded spontaneous miniature endplate currents (mEPCs) and nerve-evoked EPCs (eEPCs) under voltage-clamp, which, unlike current-clamp records, were independent of the changes in muscle membrane properties. We found a reduction in the number of vesicles released per action potential (quantal content) in R6/2 muscle, which analysis of eEPC variance and morphology indicate is caused by a reduction in the number of vesicle release sites ( n ) rather than a change in the probability of release ( p rel ). Furthermore, analysis of high-frequency stimulation trains suggests an impairment in vesicle mobilization. The depressed neuromuscular transmission in R6/2 muscle may help compensate for the muscle hyperexcitability and contribute to motor impersistence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Recent evidence indicates that Huntington's disease (HD) is a multisystem disorder. Our examination of neuromuscular transmission in this study reveals defects in the motor nerve terminal that may compensate for the muscle hyperexcitability in HD. The technique we used eliminates the effects of the altered muscle membrane properties on synaptic currents and thus provides hitherto the most detailed analysis of

  4. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  5. A matched-filter algorithm to detect amperometric spikes resulting from quantal secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji Ramachandran, Supriya; Gillis, Kevin D

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical microelectrodes located immediately adjacent to the cell surface can detect spikes of amperometric current during exocytosis as the transmitter released from a single vesicle is oxidized on the electrode surface. Automated techniques to detect spikes are needed in order to quantify the spike rate as a measure of the rate of exocytosis. We have developed a Matched Filter (MF) detection algorithm that scans the data set with a library of prototype spike templates while performing a least-squares fit to determine the amplitude and standard error. The ratio of the fit amplitude to the standard error constitutes a criterion score that is assigned for each time point and for each template. A spike is detected when the criterion score exceeds a threshold and the highest-scoring template and the time of peak score is identified. The search for the next spike commences only after the score falls below a second, lower threshold to reduce false positives. The approach was extended to detect spikes with double-exponential decays with the sum of two templates. Receiver Operating Characteristic plots (ROCs) demonstrate that the algorithm detects >95% of manually identified spikes with a false-positive rate of ∼2%. ROCs demonstrate that the MF algorithm performs better than algorithms that detect spikes based on a derivative-threshold approach. The MF approach performs well and leads into approaches to identify spike parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  7. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  8. Quantal Response: Nonparametric Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    determines the response via y =   0, x < L 1, x > L . (1) If L is known and constant, then y is a step function of x with jump at x = L...therein as “Results of 69 Ballistic Shots on Phase II Al2O3/Kevlar Armor Plates”, although there are only 68 data points in the report. Chang and Bodt

  9. Renal epithelial cells can release ATP by vesicular fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi G Bjaelde

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Renal epithelial cells have the ability to release nucleotides as paracrine factors. In the intercalated cells of the collecting duct, ATP is released by connexin30 (cx30, which is selectively expressed in this cell type. However, ATP is released by virtually all renal epithelia and the aim of the present study was to identify possible alternative nucleotide release pathways in a renal epithelial cell model. We used MDCK (type1 cells to screen for various potential ATP release pathways. In these cells, inhibition of the vesicular H+-ATPases (bafilomycin reduced both the spontaneous and hypotonically (80%-induced nucleotide release. Interference with vesicular fusion using N-ethylamide markedly reduced the spontaneous nucleotide release, as did interference with trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus (brefeldin A1 and vesicular transport (nocodazole. These findings were substantiated using a siRNA directed against SNAP-23, which significantly reduced spontaneous ATP release. Inhibition of pannexin and connexins did not affect the spontaneous ATP release in this cell type, which consists of ∼90% principal cells. TIRF-microscopy of either fluorescently-labeled ATP (MANT-ATP or quinacrine-loaded vesicles, revealed that spontaneous release of single vesicles could be promoted by either hypoosmolality (50% or ionomycin. This vesicular release decreased the overall cellular fluorescence by 5.8% and 7.6% respectively. In summary, this study supports the notion that spontaneous and induced ATP release can occur via exocytosis in renal epithelial cells.

  10. Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors regulate the non-quantal release of acetylcholine in the rat neuromuscular junction via NO-dependent mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malomouzh, A. I.; Mukhtarov, M. R.; Nikolsky, E. E.; Vyskočil, František

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 6 (2007), s. 2110-2117 ISSN 0022-3042 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011411; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:-(RU) 112.0/001/481 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : muscarinic receptors * NO synthese Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 4.451, year: 2007

  11. Muscarinic M1 acetylcholine receptors regulate the non-quantal release of acetylcholine the rat neuromuscular junction via no-dependent mechanism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vyskočil, František; Malomouzh, A. I.; Mukhtarov, M. R.; Nikolsky, E. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 12, Suppl.1 (2008), s. 34-34 ISSN 1211-7579. [Česko-slovenská psychofarmakologická konference /50./. 09.01.2008-13.01.2008, Lázně Jeseník] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA5011411 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : cpr1 * muscaricin * receptor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  12. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  13. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  14. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  15. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  16. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  17. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  18. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  19. Tryptophan availability modulates serotonin release from rat hypothalamic slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaechter, Judith D.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the tryptophan availability and serononin release from rat hypothalamus was investigated using a new in vitro technique for estimating rates at which endogenous serotonin is released spontaneously or upon electrical depolarization from hypothalamic slices superfused with a solution containing various amounts of tryptophan. It was found that the spontaneous, as well as electrically induced, release of serotonin from the brain slices exhibited a dose-dependent relationship with the tryptophan concentration of the superfusion medium.

  20. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  1. Spontaneous Tumour Lysis Syndrome in a Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Huzmeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a collection of metabolic abnormalities that occur in consequence of the release of intracellular contents following lysis of tumor cells. TLS occurs spontaneously or after chemotherapy. Spontaneous TLS is uncommon occurrence in multiple myeloma (MM. We define a case of a 70-year-old woman patient who was found to have MM with spontaneous TLS, following a compression fracture of the T-12 vertebrae. While serum uric acid and phosphorous levels were high, low calcium levels were identified. There were also acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis. Upon the diagnosis of TLS, she was treated with hydration, allopurinol, sodium bicarbonate, and calcium gluconate. The improvement of her laboratory data was observed. We submitted this case in order to draw attention to the presentation of MM with spontaneous TLS.

  2. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  3. A Quantal Response Statistical Equilibrium Model of Induced Technical Change in an Interactive Factor Market: Firm-Level Evidence in the EU Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangho Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the pattern of technical change at the firm level by applying and extending the Quantal Response Statistical Equilibrium model (QRSE. The model assumes that a large number of cost minimizing firms decide whether to adopt a new technology based on the potential rate of cost reduction. The firm in the model is assumed to have a limited capacity to process market signals so there is a positive degree of uncertainty in adopting a new technology. The adoption decision by the firm, in turn, makes an impact on the whole market through changes in the factor-price ratio. The equilibrium distribution of the model is a unimodal probability distribution with four parameters, which is qualitatively different from the Walrasian notion of equilibrium in so far as the state of equilibrium is not a single state but a probability distribution of multiple states. This paper applies Bayesian inference to estimate the unknown parameters of the model using the firm-level data of seven advanced OECD countries over eight years and shows that the mentioned equilibrium distribution from the model can satisfactorily recover the observed pattern of technical change.

  4. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  5. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  6. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  7. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  8. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  9. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  10. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  11. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  12. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  13. Relationship between presynaptic membrane potential and acetylcholine release in synaptosomes from Torpedo electric organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, F M

    1984-01-01

    The membrane potential of purely cholinergic synaptosomes isolated from Torpedo electric organ was monitored with fluorescent carbocyanine dyes. An increased fluorescence was associated with depolarization and a quenching with hyperpolarization. Fluorescence data provided evidence that Torpedo synaptosomes have a membrane potential mainly driven by a K+ diffusion potential and a membrane potential of about -50 mV could be estimated after calibration of fluorescence signals with ionophore antibiotics. The release of acetylcholine (ACh) from Torpedo synaptosomes was monitored continuously by measuring the light emitted by a chemiluminescent method (Israël & Lesbats, 1981 a). Using fluorescence data, the release of ACh was expressed as a function of membrane potential. The relationship between presynaptic potential and transmitter release as determined by biochemical methods at cholinergic nerve endings showed striking similarities to that observed at the squid giant synapse. Several substances were also tested with regard to their depolarizing and releasing properties and it was found that the toxin isolated from the venom of the annelid Glycera convoluta, which induced a large increase in quantal release of transmitter (Manaranche, Thieffry, & Israël, 1980) promoted a depolarization of Torpedo synaptosomes in addition to ACh release. PMID:6207289

  14. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD...

  15. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  16. Spontaneous Vesicle Fusion Is Differentially Regulated at Cholinergic and GABAergic Synapses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowen Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The locomotion of C. elegans is balanced by excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitter release at neuromuscular junctions. However, the molecular mechanisms that maintain the balance of synaptic transmission remain enigmatic. Here, we investigated the function of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in triggering spontaneous release at cholinergic and GABAergic synapses. Recordings of the miniature excitatory/inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs and mIPSCs, respectively showed that UNC-2/CaV2 and EGL-19/CaV1 channels are the two major triggers for spontaneous release. Notably, however, Ca2+-independent spontaneous release was observed at GABAergic but not cholinergic synapses. Functional screening led to the identification of hypomorphic unc-64/Syntaxin-1A and snb-1/VAMP2 mutants in which mEPSCs are severely impaired, whereas mIPSCs remain unaltered, indicating differential regulation of these currents at cholinergic and GABAergic synapses. Moreover, Ca2+-independent spontaneous GABA release was nearly abolished in the hypomorphic unc-64 and snb-1 mutants, suggesting distinct mechanisms for Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent spontaneous release.

  17. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  18. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  19. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  20. DYSFUNCTIONAL PRESYNAPTIC ALPHA-2-ADRENOCEPTORS EXPOSE FACILITATORY BETA-2-ADRENOCEPTORS IN THE VASCULATURE OF SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    REMIE, R; VANROSSUM, JXM; COPPES, RP; ZAAGSMA, J

    1992-01-01

    Previous studies on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have yielded inconsistent information about functional aberrations of the presynaptic alpha(2)- and beta(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated modulation of sympathetic neurotransmitter release. In the present investigation we studied the capacity of

  1. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  2. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  3. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  4. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  5. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  6. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen

    2016-01-01

    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  7. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  8. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  9. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  10. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  11. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  12. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  13. Stereoselectivity of presynaptic autoreceptors modulating dopamine release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbilla, S.; Langer, S.Z.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of the (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol were studied on the spontaneous and field stimulation-evoked release of total radioactivity from slices of rabbit caudate nucleus prelabelled with [ 3 H]dopamine. (S)-Sulpiride in concentrations ranging from 0.01-1μM enhanced the electrically evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine while (R)-sulpiride was 10 times less potent than (S)-sulpiride. Exposure to (S)-butaclamol (0.1-1 μM) but not to (R)-butaclamol (0.1-10μM) enhanced the field-stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. The facilitatory effects of (S)- and (R)-sulpiride and (S)-butaclamol on the stimulated release of the labelled neurotransmitter were observed under conditions in which these drugs did not modify the spontaneous outflow of radioactivity. Only the active enantiomers of sulpiride and butaclamol antagonized the inhibition by apomorphine (1μM) of the stimulated release of [ 3 H]dopamine. Our results indicate that the presynaptic inhibitory dopamine autoreceptors modulating the stimulation-evoked release of [ 3 H]dopamine in the caudate nucleus are, like the classical postsynaptic dopamine receptors, chemically stereoselective. (Auth.)

  14. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  15. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  16. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  17. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  18. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  20. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  1. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  2. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x10 9 n/cm 2 s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x10 3 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  3. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti Freire

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.

  4. Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda e; Genre, Julieta; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability. PMID:28773009

  5. The pathogenesis of radiation leukaemia and its significance for the pathogenesis of spontaneous leukaemias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    There is no radiation leukaemia per se, there is just a spontaneous disposition to this disease owing to irradiation. Weakened immunity is one component of the preleukaemic condition. Changes in organs with tumour-virus-sensitive cells should not be disregarded. Preleukaemic condition involves the release of tumour viruses and the increased occurrence of cells which can react with tumour viruses. (DG) [de

  6. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  7. General features of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuzova, Elena

    2017-04-01

    The classical version of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in details. It is shown that the relation between the time derivative of the (pseudo)goldstone field and the baryonic chemical potential essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks). The kinetic equation, used for the calculations of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, is generalized to the case of non-stationary background. The effects of the finite interval of the integration over time are also included into consideration.

  8. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail: skattapuram@partners.org

    2008-07-15

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  9. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  10. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  11. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark

    2008-04-01

    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  12. Prolonged Paroxysmal Sympathetic Storming Associated with Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli.

  13. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkanuparph S

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, spontaneous peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is uncommon. Delayed diagnosis of cryptococcal peritonitis often results in death. We describe three cases of spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One case had associated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical awareness of this entity may lead to the early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  14. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  15. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  16. An N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor mediated large, low-frequency, spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current in neonatal rat spinal dorsal horn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, L M; Zeng, J; Terman, G W

    2006-09-01

    Examples of spontaneous oscillating neural activity contributing to both pathological and physiological states are abundant throughout the CNS. Here we report a spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current located in lamina I of the neonatal rat spinal cord dorsal horn. The spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current is characterized by its large amplitude, slow decay time, and low-frequency. We demonstrate that post-synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current, as it is inhibited by magnesium, bath-applied d-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV), or intracellular MK-801. The NR2B subunit of the NMDAR appears important to this phenomenon, as the NR2B subunit selective NMDAR antagonist, alpha-(4-hydroxphenyl)-beta-methyl-4-benzyl-1-piperidineethanol tartrate (ifenprodil), also partially inhibited the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current. Inhibition of spontaneous glutamate release by the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) or the mu-opioid receptor agonist [D-Ala2, N-Me-Phe4, Gly5] enkephalin-ol (DAMGO) inhibited the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency. Marked inhibition of spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency by tetrodotoxin (TTX), but not post-synaptic N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl)triethylammonium bromide (QX-314), suggests that the glutamate release important to the spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current is dependent on active neural processes. Conversely, increasing dorsal horn synaptic glutamate release by GABAA or glycine inhibition increased spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency. Moreover, inhibiting glutamate transporters with threo-beta-benzyloxyaspartic acid (DL-TBOA) increased spontaneous oscillating intermittent synaptic current frequency and decay time. A possible functional role of this spontaneous NMDAR

  17. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian

    2017-01-01

    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  18. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  19. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  20. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. News/Press Releases

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — A press release, news release, media release, press statement is written communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing programs...

  2. Effect of galantamine on the human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and spontaneous cholinergic synaptic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texidó, Laura; Ros, Esteve; Martín-Satué, Mireia; López, Susana; Aleu, Jordi; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2005-01-01

    Various types of anticholinesterasic agents have been used to improve the daily activities of Alzheimer's disease patients. It was recently demonstrated that Galantamine, described as a molecule with anticholinesterasic properties, is also an allosteric enhancer of human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic receptor activity. We explored its effect on the human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Galantamine, at a concentration of 0.1 μM, increased the amplitude of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced ion currents in the human α7 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes, but caused inhibition at higher concentrations. The maximum effect of galantamine, an increase of 22% in the amplitude of ACh-induced currents, was observed at a concentration of 250 μM Ach. The same enhancing effect was obtained in oocytes transplanted with Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) isolated from the electric organ, but in this case the optimal concentration of galantamine was 1 μM. In this case, the maximum effect of galantamine, an increase of 35% in the amplitude of ACh-induced currents, occurred at a concentration of 50 μM ACh. Galantamine affects not only the activity of post-synaptic receptors but also the activity of nerve terminals. At a concentration of 1 μM, quantal spontaneous events, recorded in a cholinergic synapse, increased their amplitude, an effect which was independent of the anticholinesterasic activity associated with this compound. The anticholinesterasic effect was recorded in preparations treated with a galantamine concentration of 10 μM. In conclusion, our results show that galantamine enhances human α7 neuronal nicotinic ACh receptor activity. It also enhances muscular AChRs and the size of spontaneous cholinergic synaptic events. However, only a very narrow range of galantamine concentrations can be used for enhancing effects. PMID:15834443

  3. Fully quantal calculation of H{sub 2} translation-rotation states in the (p-H{sub 2}){sub 2}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate hydrate inclusion compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felker, Peter M., E-mail: felker@chem.ucla.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1569 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    The quantal translation-rotation (TR) states of the (p-H{sub 2}){sub 2}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate hydrate inclusion compound have been computed. The ten-dimensional problem (in the rigid-cage and rigid-H{sub 2} approximation) is solved by first approximating the H{sub 2} moieties as spherically symmetric and solving for their 6D translational eigenstates. These are then combined with H{sub 2} free rotational states in a product basis that is used to diagonalize the full TR hamiltonian. The computed low-energy eigenstates have translational components that are essentially identical to the 6D translational eigenstates and rotational components that are 99.9% composed of rotationally unexcited H{sub 2} moieties. In other words, TR coupling is minimal for the low-energy states of the species. The low-energy level structure is found to be substantially more congested than that of the more tightly packed (p-H{sub 2}){sub 4}@5{sup 12}6{sup 4} clathrate species. The level structure is also shown to be understandable in terms of a model of (H{sub 2}){sub 2} as a semirigid diatomic species consisting of two spherically symmetric H{sub 2} pseudo-atoms.

  4. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2014-01-01

    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  5. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  6. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  7. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  8. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  9. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  10. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I

    2014-08-01

    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  14. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  15. Potential gas releases from the bottom sludge layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.

    1994-04-01

    A layer of sludge about 50 inches deep may exist at the bottom of the tank that has not been mixed by the pump. This bottom sludge layer may be accumulating gas at a rate of 23 SCF/day, resulting in a basal level rise of 0.025 inches/day. At some point sufficient gas may accumulate to release spontaneously. Using reasonable assumptions about gas generation, waste properties and the mechanics of the release process, this may result in gas releases on the order of 1, 000 SCF

  16. Clock frequency estimation under spontaneous emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xi-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Hao; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Lee, Chaohong

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a driven two-level system under spontaneous emission and its application in clock frequency estimation. By using the Lindblad equation to describe the system, we analytically obtain its exact solutions, which show three different regimes: Rabi oscillation, damped oscillation, and overdamped decay. From the analytical solutions, we explore how the spontaneous emission affects the clock frequency estimation. We find that under a moderate spontaneous emission rate, the transition frequency can still be inferred from the Rabi oscillation. Our results enable potential practical applications in frequency measurement and quantum control under decoherence.

  17. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  18. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko

    2009-05-01

    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  19. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  20. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  2. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant gastroenteritis: report of a rare case. Duvuru Ram, Vilvapathy S. Karthikeyan, Sarath C. Sistla, Sheik M. Ali, Parnandi Sridhar, Nagarajan Rajkumar ...

  3. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  4. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  5. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A

    2016-04-12

    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  6. Postmenopausal spontaneous uterine perforation: Case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    İşlek Seçen, Elçin; Ağış, Hilal; Altunkaya, Canan; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis caused by pyometra occurs rarely with high morbidity and mortality. A correct and definite diagnosis can be made with laparotomy or laparoscopy. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and gynecologic symptoms are less frequent, which makes preoperative diagnosis difficult. We report a case of a patient aged 82 years who underwent surgery for spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis as a result of pyometra. PMID:28913055

  7. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  8. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  9. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  10. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jerônimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo

    2016-11-01

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xareltor. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban.

  11. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  12. Intracellular sphingosine releases calcium from lysosomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglinger, Doris; Haberkant, Per; Aguilera-Romero, Auxiliadora; Riezman, Howard; Porter, Forbes D; Platt, Frances M; Galione, Antony; Schultz, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate new functions of sphingosine (Sph), we demonstrate that the spontaneous elevation of intracellular Sph levels via caged Sph leads to a significant and transient calcium release from acidic stores that is independent of sphingosine 1-phosphate, extracellular and ER calcium levels. This photo-induced Sph-driven calcium release requires the two-pore channel 1 (TPC1) residing on endosomes and lysosomes. Further, uncaging of Sph leads to the translocation of the autophagy-relevant transcription factor EB (TFEB) to the nucleus specifically after lysosomal calcium release. We confirm that Sph accumulates in late endosomes and lysosomes of cells derived from Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) patients and demonstrate a greatly reduced calcium release upon Sph uncaging. We conclude that sphingosine is a positive regulator of calcium release from acidic stores and that understanding the interplay between Sph homeostasis, calcium signaling and autophagy will be crucial in developing new therapies for lipid storage disorders such as NPC. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.10616.001 PMID:26613410

  13. The correlation between increased reactivity of the bronchi and of mediator releasing cells in asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Neijenst, H.; Degenhart, Herman; Raatgeep, Rolien; Kerrebijn, K.F.

    1980-01-01

    textabstractThe hypothesis that increased reactivity in asthma is not always limited to the bronchi but also exists in the mediator releasing system was investigated in forty‐five asthmatic children, approximately half of whom had exercise‐induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). The bronchial threshold to histamine was measured as an indicator of the reactivity of the bronchi and the histamine release from leucocytes without adding allergen (spontaneous histamine release) was considered as an indi...

  14. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  15. Role of membrane cholesterol in spontaneous exocytosis at frog neuromuscular synapses: reactive oxygen species-calcium interplay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Alexey M; Yakovleva, Anastasiya A; Zefirov, Andrey L

    2014-11-15

    Using electrophysiological and optical techniques, we studied the mechanisms by which cholesterol depletion stimulates spontaneous transmitter release by exocytosis at the frog neuromuscular junction. We found that methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD, 10 mM)-mediated exhaustion of cholesterol resulted in the enhancement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin. An increase in ROS levels occurred both extra- and intracellularly, and it was associated with lipid peroxidation in synaptic regions. Cholesterol depletion provoked a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which was diminished by NAC and transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channel blockers (ruthenium red and capsazepine). By contrast, the MCD-induced rise in [Ca(2+)]i remained unaffected if Ca(2+) release from endoplasmic stores was blocked by TMB8 (8-(diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate hydrochloride). The effects of cholesterol depletion on spontaneous release and exocytosis were significantly reduced by the antioxidant, intracellular Ca(2+) chelation with BAPTA-AM and blockers of TRPV channels. Bath application of the calcineurin antagonist cyclosporine A blocked MCD-induced enhancement of spontaneous release/exocytosis, whereas okadaic acid, an inhibitor of phosphatases PP1 and PP2A, had no effect. Thus, our findings indicate that enhancement of spontaneous exocytosis induced by cholesterol depletion may depend on ROS generation, leading to an influx of Ca(2+) via TRPV channels and, subsequently, activation of calcineurin.

  16. Spontaneous ovulation or male effect in alpacas and llamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumar JB

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New discoveries in ovulation induced mammals, researchers considered the question of whether spontaneous and induced ovulations are distinct entities or individual parts of a single continuum of a “malefacilitated oestrus and ovulation”. This rigid classification should be taken with precaution, because is possible that the various mechanisms involved in the spontaneous ovulation can, under specific conditions coexist in some determined species. It is possible that male hormones can provoke the ovulation by masculine pheromones. The “Ram Effect” can be used to synchronize ewes naturally, for artificial insemination. Pheromones are specialized hormones released by the ram and smelled by the ewes; they are found in the wool and wax, in such a way that synchronized the heat and the advancement of the breeding season Also, using artificial vaginal-cervical stimulation (AVS with a glass rod, ovulation has been induced in the mink, shrews and felids. This form of tactile stimulation (AVS has found no ability for induction of ovulation in SAC. Additional stimuli/cues are often necessary to facilitate the ovulatory response. They include olfactory, visual, auditory or posture, more of them very common in SAC. Few research studies in alpacas and llamas showed a variable number of females ovulating by the sole proximity of the male to the female, by adopting the copulatory position (posture (sitting or prone position, female to female mounting (tactile, males mounting females covered with aprons to avoid penis intromission (tactile and auditory, interrupted matings, sitting close to a male copulating to a female (visual, olfactory?, the guttural sound (orgling made by the copulating male (auditory, and probably other non-identified cues. The rate of spontaneous ovulation in alpacas and llamas, increase up to 50% during the breeding season. These spontaneous ovulation has been diagnosed by sexual behavior (female rejection to the male, by

  17. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  18. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.

    2002-01-01

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  19. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  20. Cursed lamp: the problem of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simkulet, William

    2017-08-09

    Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Spontaneous preterm birth: advances toward the discovery of genetic predisposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Jerome F; Romero, Roberto; Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Haymond-Thornburg, Hannah; Modi, Bhavi P; Teves, Maria E; Pearson, Laurel N; York, Timothy P; Schenkein, Harvey A

    2018-03-01

    innate immune response (eg, CARD6, CARD8, NLRP10, NLRP12, NOD2, TLR10) and antimicrobial peptide/proteins (eg, DEFB1, MBL2). These findings support the concept that preterm labor, at least in part, has an inflammatory etiology, which can be induced by pathogens (ie, intraamniotic infection) or "danger signals" (alarmins) released during cellular stress or necrosis (ie, sterile intraamniotic inflammation). These findings support the notion that preterm birth has a polygenic basis that involves rare mutations or damaging variants in multiple genes involved in innate immunity and host defense mechanisms against microbes and their noxious products. An overlap among the whole exome sequencing-identified genes and other inflammatory conditions associated with preterm birth, such as periodontal disease and inflammatory bowel disease, was observed, which suggests a shared genetic substrate for these conditions. We propose that whole exome sequencing, as well as whole genome sequencing, is the most promising approach for the identification of functionally significant genetic variants responsible for spontaneous preterm birth, at least in the context of pathologic inflammation. The identification of genes that contribute to preterm birth by whole exome sequencing, or whole genome sequencing, promises to yield valuable population-specific biomarkers to identify the risk for spontaneous preterm birth and potential strategies to mitigate such a risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Spontaneous Regression of Lumbar Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Chang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation of the lumbar spine is a common disease presenting with low back pain and involving nerve root radiculopathy. Some neurological symptoms in the majority of patients frequently improve after a period of conservative treatment. This has been regarded as the result of a decrease of pressure exerted from the herniated disc on neighboring neurostructures and a gradual regression of inflammation. Recently, with advances in magnetic resonance imaging, many reports have demonstrated that the herniated disc has the potential for spontaneous regression. Regression coincided with the improvement of associated symptoms. However, the exact regression mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present 2 cases of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with spontaneous regression. We review the literature and discuss the possible mechanisms, the precipitating factors of spontaneous disc regression and the proper timing of surgical intervention.

  3. Spontaneous hemothorax: primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Panjwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition seen in coagulation and vascular disorders. Uncommonly, malignant neoplasms may cause spontaneous hemothorax. Primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas (excluding the cases with pleuropulmonary or chest wall involvement are extremely rare pleural tumors, which may be mistaken for mesothelioma or adenocarcinoma, and only 19 cases (one of them from India have been reported in the English literature, to date. It commonly occurs in older men, has a nonspecific clinicoradiological presentation, and carries a poor prognosis with no survivors beyond a year of establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma presenting as a life-threatening spontaneous hemothorax. We also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  4. Computed tomographic findings of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Young Chul [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) was a reliable technique to evaluate the exact size and location of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and to predict it's prognosis. Fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and reviewed by CT scan. The following results were obtained. 1. The sex ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4, The highest incidence was in 6th and 7th decades. 2. The most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage was hypertension (74.6%), followed by the aneurysm (13.5%), arteriovenous malformation (5.1%), occlusive vascular disease (3.4%), and blood dyscrasia (3.4%). 3. The most common location was basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage (37.3%), followed by lobar hemorrhage (27.1%), cerebellar hemorrhage (13.5%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11.9%). 4. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage carried the highest mortality. 5. The larger volume of hematoma, the higher the mortality rate.

  5. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  6. Passivation of dental amalgams and mercury release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, Ludĕk; Marek, Miroslav

    2004-01-01

    In this study the rate of dissolution of mercury from two dental amalgams with different compositions and structures was determined in vitro under different oxidation and abrasion conditions, and the results were correlated with the electrochemical characteristics. A spherical high copper and a lathe-cut very high-copper amalgam were tested in aerated and deaerated artificial saliva. The electrochemical characteristics were determined by potential-time, anodic polarization, polarization resistance and cathodic stripping measurements. Mercury release tests were performed after either stabilization in the solution, or abrasion using SiC papers or rotary toothbrush, with or without toothpaste. Dissolved mercury was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Both amalgams exhibited passivation, the amalgam with the higher copper content passivating spontaneously even when the oxygen content in the solution was minimized. At a higher oxygen content in the solution the rate of mercury release from the amalgams was lower than when the oxygen content was minimized, and decreased further after a pre-exposure. Brushing generally increased the release. The results show the importance of the oxidation conditions and passivation characteristics of dental amalgams for mercury release, especially in the transient state after abrasion by chewing or tooth brushing.

  7. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD......-I (IGF-I), IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1), IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), insulin, pro-insulin, and blood glucose were measured during habitual energy intake as well as during the hypocaloric diet. Twenty-four-hour GH release profiles and IGFBP-1 were decreased, and insulin as well as proinsulin....... This suggests a reversible defect in GH release, rather than a persistent preexisting disorder. It is hypothesized that enhanced bioavailability of IGF-I, acting in concert with elevated proinsulin and insulin levels, may account for the lack of stimulation of 24-hr GH release by the hypocaloric diet in obese...

  8. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  9. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-12-01

    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  11. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  12. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  13. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  14. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon

    2014-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  15. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.

  16. Gas retention and release behavior in Hanford single-shell waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Brewster, M.E.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Meyer, P.A.; Recknagle, K.P.; Reid, H.C.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the current understanding of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford single-shell waste tanks based on theory, experimental results, and observations of tank behavior. The single-shell tanks likely to pose a flammable gas hazard are listed and described, and photographs of core extrusions and the waste surface are included. The credible mechanisms for significant flammable gas releases are described, and release volumes and rates are quantified as much as possible. The only mechanism demonstrably capable of producing large ({approximately}100 m{sup 3}) spontaneous gas releases is the buoyant displacement, which occurs only in tanks with a relatively deep layer of supernatant liquid. Only the double-shell tanks currently satisfy this condition. All release mechanisms believed plausible in single-shell tanks have been investigated, and none have the potential for large spontaneous gas releases. Only small spontaneous gas releases of several cubic meters are likely by these mechanisms. The reasons several other postulated gas release mechanisms are implausible or incredible are also given.

  17. Gas retention and release behavior in Hanford single-shell waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, C.W.; Brewster, M.E.; Gauglitz, P.A.; Mahoney, L.A.; Meyer, P.A.; Recknagle, K.P.; Reid, H.C.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the current understanding of flammable gas retention and release in Hanford single-shell waste tanks based on theory, experimental results, and observations of tank behavior. The single-shell tanks likely to pose a flammable gas hazard are listed and described, and photographs of core extrusions and the waste surface are included. The credible mechanisms for significant flammable gas releases are described, and release volumes and rates are quantified as much as possible. The only mechanism demonstrably capable of producing large (∼100 m 3 ) spontaneous gas releases is the buoyant displacement, which occurs only in tanks with a relatively deep layer of supernatant liquid. Only the double-shell tanks currently satisfy this condition. All release mechanisms believed plausible in single-shell tanks have been investigated, and none have the potential for large spontaneous gas releases. Only small spontaneous gas releases of several cubic meters are likely by these mechanisms. The reasons several other postulated gas release mechanisms are implausible or incredible are also given

  18. A Role for the Inflammasome in Spontaneous Labor at Term with Acute Histologic Chorioamnionitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Romero, Roberto; Xu, Yi; Plazyo, Olesya; Unkel, Ronald; Than, Nandor Gabor; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Dong, Zhong; Tarca, Adi L; Abrahams, Vikki M; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S

    2017-06-01

    Inflammasomes are cytosolic signaling platforms that regulate the activation of caspase (CASP)-1, which induces the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Herein, we determined whether the chorioamniotic membranes from women in spontaneous labor at term with acute histologic chorioamnionitis express major inflammasome components and whether these changes are associated with the activation of CASP-1 and CASP-4 and the release of mature IL-1β and IL-18. When comparing the chorioamniotic membranes from women in spontaneous labor at term with acute histologic chorioamnionitis to those without this placental lesion, we found that (1) the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 ( NLRP3), NLR family CARD domain containing 4 ( NLRC4), absent in melanoma 2 ( AIM2), and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 ( NOD2) was higher; (2) the NLRP3 and NLRC4 protein quantities were increased; (3) the mRNA and protein expressions of CASP-1 and its active forms were greater; (4) CASP-4 was increased at the mRNA level only; (5) the mRNA and protein expressions of IL-1β and its mature form were higher; and (6) a modest increase in the total protein concentration and abundance of the mature form of IL-18 was observed. In vitro incubation of the chorioamniotic membranes with the CASP-1 inhibitor, VX765, decreased the release of endotoxin-induced IL-1β and IL-18 (2-fold) but not IL-6 or tumor necrosis factor α. In conclusion, spontaneous labor at term with acute histologic chorioamnionitis is characterized by an upregulation of inflammasome components which, in turn, may participate in the activation of CASP-1 and lead to the release of mature IL-1β by the chorioamniotic membranes. These results support a role for the inflammasome in the mechanisms responsible for spontaneous labor at term with acute histologic chorioamnionitis.

  19. Fluoroelastomer Fouling Release Coating

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malik, Aslam

    1998-01-01

    Our goal is to develop novel fluoroelastomers that exhibit fouling release capabilities and to understand the polymer characteristics that influence the adhesion of biofouling organisms to polymeric substrates...

  20. Compassionate release in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspan, J

    1997-01-01

    Several States have instituted compassionate release programs to allow terminally ill inmates to be released early. The programs are politically sensitive, and the California program is highlighted. Early release, called recall of sentence under the State penal code, is a lengthy and cumbersome process that has resulted in early release of nearly 100 prisoners in the past 5 years. Guidelines for community activists who are trying to establish similar programs are provided. The guidelines include contact and discussion with prisoners, outside support through influential organizations, support of State legislators and policy makers, and media involvement in building support for the initiative.

  1. Release the Body, Release the Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoner, Martha Goff

    1998-01-01

    A college English teacher describes the anxiety and resentment of students during in-class writing assignments and the successful classroom use of meditation and body movement. Movement seemed to relax the students, change their attitudes, and release their creative impulses to write. Implications related to the body-mind connection are pondered.…

  2. Nanoscale Coloristic Pigments: Upper Limits on Releases from Pigmented Plastic during Environmental Aging, In Food Contact, and by Leaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubauer, Nicole; Scifo, Lorette; Navratilova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    The life cycle of nanoscale pigments in plastics may cause environmental or human exposure by various release scenarios. We investigated spontaneous and induced release with mechanical stress during/after simulated sunlight and rain degradation of polyethylene (PE) with organic and inorganic pigm...

  3. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  4. Original article Spontaneous Pregnancy Outcome after Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... Table 2: Spontaneous pregnancy in relation to postoperative semen parameters. (no statistically significant difference), comparable to the mean ages of 22, 28.4 and. 34.9 years, respectively, reported by Bach et al9, Abdel- Meguid et al10 and Baazeem et al11. The mean age of the wives who did or did.

  5. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  6. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  7. SPONTANEOUS CP VIOLATION AND QUARK MASS AMBIGUITIES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CREUTZ,M.

    2004-09-21

    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.

  8. 1 INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION ON SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  9. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  10. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  11. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, W.; Toelly, E.; Ebner, F.; Kullnig, P.

    1986-07-01

    Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of renal cysts is a rare occurrence. The contents of the cyst can perforate into the renal calyx system or into the perirenal space. Perforation into the peritoneal cavity has also been described (1, 2, 4, 5).

  12. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  13. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  14. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  15. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Lule | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 81, No 3 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. GN Lule. Abstract. No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  16. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  17. Spontaneous dimensional reduction in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S.

    2016-07-01

    Hints from a number of different approaches to quantum gravity point to a phenomenon of “spontaneous dimensional reduction” to two spacetime dimensions near the Planck scale. I examine the physical meaning of the term “dimension” in this context, summarize the evidence for dimensional reduction, and discuss possible physical explanations.

  18. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  19. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Allium sativum extract on the medial prefrontal cortex and neurobehaviour of adult Wistar rats. ... altered spontaneous alternation, while cellular pathologic changes were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex of these test groups in a dose dependent sequence.

  20. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  1. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  2. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  3. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptug Tokatli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a very rare clinical condition. Physiopathology of SCAD is still mostly unclear. Clinical presentation of SCAD ranges from atypical symptoms to sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of dissection is generally made by using conventional coronary angiography. Invasive or conservative treatment is reasonable.

  4. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.

    2008-01-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  5. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  6. Spontaneous Sourcing among Students Reading Multiple Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromso, Helge I.; Braten, Ivar; Britt, M. Anne; Ferguson, Leila E.

    2013-01-01

    This study used think-aloud methodology to explore undergraduates' spontaneous attention to and use of source information while reading six documents that presented conflicting views on a controversial social scientific issue in a Google-like environment. Results showed that students explicitly and implicitly paid attention to sources of documents…

  7. Massive Spontaneous Hemothorax, Giant Intrathoracic Meningocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haemothorax associated with von Recklinghausen's disease: Review of occurrence in Japan. Thorax 1997;52:575‑8. 3. Fedoruk LM, English J, Fradet GJ. Spontaneous hemothorax and neurofibromatosis: A review of a lethal combination. Asian Cardiovasc. Thorac Ann 2007;15:342‑4. 4. Conlon NP, Redmond KC, Celi LA.

  8. A Fatal Complication of Dermatomyositis: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Demirdöğen Çetinoğlu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a negative prognostic factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of DM and it can be fatal. We present a 48-year-old woman with DM and ILD complicated by pneumomediastinum without pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema.

  9. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  10. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short ...

  11. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm

    2017-05-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  12. Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    When dipolar gases are condensed at sufficiently low temperature onto a solid surface, they form films that may spontaneously exhibit electric fields in excess of 108V/m. This effect, called the ‘spontelectric effect’, was recently revealed using an instrument designed to measure scattering...

  13. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  14. Individual differences in spontaneous analogical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-05-01

    Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. In two experiments, we systematically compared the effect of augmenting verbal descriptions of the source with animations or static diagrams. Solution rates to Duncker's radiation problem were measured across varying source presentation conditions, and participants' understanding of the relevant source material was assessed. The pattern of transfer was best fit by a moderated mediation model: the positive impact of fluid intelligence on spontaneous transfer was mediated by its influence on source comprehension; however, this path was in turn modulated by provision of a supplemental animation via its influence on comprehension of the source. Animated source depictions were most beneficial in facilitating spontaneous transfer for those participants with low scores on the fluid intelligence measure.

  15. Spontaneous regression of a mandibular arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B. Raymond, MD, PhD

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rare lesions that may initially present as catastrophic bleeding during dental surgical procedures. Owing to the significant risk of bleeding, most mandibular AVMs are treated definitively by resection or embolization. In this report, we describe a mandibular AVM that spontaneously regressed after biopsy.

  16. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  17. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico- chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  18. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  19. PERIODIC-SOLUTIONS IN SPONTANEOUSLY BROKEN THEORIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRIHAYE, Y; KUNZ, J

    A class of spontaneously broken field theories is proposed, and the occurrence of their periodic, classical solutions is investigated in detail. The emergence of multiple solutions is observed, their normal modes of oscillation are studied, and the bifurcations of the classical energy functional are

  20. Spontaneous sensorimotor coupling with multipart music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Brian K; Martens, Peter A; Janata, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Music often evokes spontaneous movements in listeners that are synchronized with the music, a phenomenon that has been characterized as being in "the groove." However, the musical factors that contribute to listeners' initiation of stimulus-coupled action remain unclear. Evidence suggests that newly appearing objects in auditory scenes orient listeners' attention, and that in multipart music, newly appearing instrument or voice parts can engage listeners' attention and elicit arousal. We posit that attentional engagement with music can influence listeners' spontaneous stimulus-coupled movement. Here, 2 experiments-involving participants with and without musical training-tested the effect of staggering instrument entrances across time and varying the number of concurrent instrument parts within novel multipart music on listeners' engagement with the music, as assessed by spontaneous sensorimotor behavior and self-reports. Experiment 1 assessed listeners' moment-to-moment ratings of perceived groove, and Experiment 2 examined their spontaneous tapping and head movements. We found that, for both musically trained and untrained participants, music with more instruments led to higher ratings of perceived groove, and that music with staggered instrument entrances elicited both increased sensorimotor coupling and increased reports of perceived groove. Although untrained participants were more likely to rate music as higher in groove, trained participants showed greater propensity for tapping along, and they did so more accurately. The quality of synchronization of head movements with the music, however, did not differ as a function of training. Our results shed new light on the relationship between complex musical scenes, attention, and spontaneous sensorimotor behavior.

  1. Large scientific releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    The motivation for active experiments in space is considered, taking into account the use of active techniques to obtain a better understanding of the natural space environment, the utilization of the advantages of space as a laboratory to study fundamental plasma physics, and the employment of active techniques to determine the magnitude, degree, and consequences of artificial modification of the space environment. It is pointed out that mass-injection experiments in space plasmas began about twenty years ago with the Project Firefly releases. Attention is given to mass-release techniques and diagnostics, operational aspects of mass release active experiments, the active observation of mass release experiments, active perturbation mass release experiments, simulating an artificial modification of the space environment, and active experiments to study fundamental plasma physics

  2. Co-Occurrence of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria with Immunoglobulin A Deficiency and Autoimmune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frossi, Barbara; De Carli, Stefano; Bossi, Fleur; Pucillo, Carlo; De Carli, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) A deficiency is a primary immunodeficiency in which autoimmunity is frequently observed. Thirty to fifty percent of patients with spontaneous chronic urticaria have autoantibodies that are able to cross-link FcεRI on mast cells and basophils. We investigated whether spontaneous chronic urticaria in patients with IgA deficiency meets the criteria for autoimmunity. Four patients were screened for positivity to a skin prick test and an autologous serum skin test and for the presence of other autoimmune diseases. Patient sera were tested for the ability to activate basophils and mast cells in vitro by measuring surface CD63 expression and β-hexosaminidase release, respectively. The autologous serum test was positive in all patients, and patient sera were found to induce CD63 upregulation on basophils and degranulation of an LAD2 mast cell line. Moreover, all patients were affected by other autoimmune disorders. For the first time, these data point out chronic autoimmune urticaria in subjects with an IgA deficiency and confirm that different autoimmune disorders are common among patients with an IgA deficiency. Patients with chronic autoimmune spontaneous urticaria should be screened for IgA deficiency, especially if they are affected by other autoimmune disorders. Thus, spontaneous urticaria could mirror more complex systemic diseases, such as immune deficiency. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  4. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low

  5. F. VON HAYEK’S THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Nesterenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and the genesis of spontaneous order are disclosed in the context of critical analysis of constructivism. The author’s approach to the definition of the characteristic features of the spontaneous order is proposed. The dichotomy of the order is revealed towards the economic sphere in form of spontaneous order and organization.

  6. [Spontaneous renal artery dissection: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehana, Takeshi; Nishida, Sachiyo; Shindo, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Muranaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Yanase, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    A 65-year-old female was admitted to our hospital complaining of left upper abdominal pain. Although the symptom improved with observation, serum creatinine rose to 2.0 mg/dl. Slight atrophy of the left kidney was seen on abdominal plain computed tomography. In order to examine the possibility of renal infarction from thrombosis with angiography, we consulted the department of cardiovascular medicine. Even though we did not detect thrombosis with left renal angiography or intravascular ultrasound, there was a dissection finding localized at the left renal artery. Based on this finding, we made a diagnosis of spontaneous renal artery dissection and performed stent placement. Spontaneous renal artery dissection is extremely rare and the frequency of occurrence is reported to be less than 0.05%. Recently, however the frequency of detection has risen with the development of clinical imaging. We must keep in mind that the condition has the possibility of leading to renal blood circulation disorders.

  7. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  8. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... time periods are the relevant measure. We followed a cohort of first pregnancy planners from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses include 181 pregnancies, of which 32 were subclinical pregnancies detected by hCG analysis only. During early...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  9. Spontaneous Enterocutaneous Fistula Resulting from Richter's Hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajong, Ranendra; Khongwar, Donkupar; Komut, Ojing; Naku, Narang; Baru, Kappa

    2017-08-01

    Richter's hernia is due to the entrapment of a part of circumference of the bowel wall. As the bowel continuity is maintained, the patients usually do not have intestinal obstruction. Some patients with Richter's hernia may present with enterocutaneous fistula either spontaneous or due to surgical intervention mistaking the obstructed hernia to be inguinal abscess. This is more so in developing countries due to lack of awareness among the masses or due to the delay in seeking medical attention. Presenting here is a case of a 53-year-old male patient with enterocutaneous fistula which occurred spontaneously and sought medical attention only after about three years of repeated discharge of yellowish fluid from the left inguinal region. Magnetic resonance fistulogram confirmed the diagnosis of enterocutaneous fistula. Laparotomy with resection and primary anastomosis of the fistulous bowel was done. Patient recovered uneventfully without any complications or recurrence.

  10. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar

    2017-09-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-traumatic cause of coronary artery dissection. SCAD is the most common cause of myocardial infarction in pregnancy or the postpartum period and results in significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the pregnant population. It is important to consider pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (PASCAD) high on the differential for a pregnant woman who presents with symptoms consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Management of these patients requires a thoughtful, multidisciplinary approach, with consideration of conservative management if possible. Counseling regarding future pregnancies is also critical and requires compassionate care. Given our limited understanding of SCAD, including PASCAD, more data and research are needed to help guide diagnosis, management, and determination of prognosis.

  11. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  12. Motivational Projections of Russian Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Shipitsina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the semantic, pragmatic and structural features of words, phrases, dialogues motivation, in the contemporary Russian popular speech. These structural features are characterized by originality and unconventional use. Language material is the result of authors` direct observation of spontaneous verbal communication between people of different social and age groups. The words and remarks were analyzed in compliance with the communication system of national Russian language and cultural background of popular speech. Studies have discovered that in spoken discourse there are some other ways to increase the expression statement. It is important to note that spontaneous speech identifies lacunae in the nominative language and its vocabulary system. It is proved, prefixation is also effective and regular way of the same action presenting. The most typical forms, ways and means to update language resources as a result of the linguistic creativity of native speakers were identified.

  13. PERMETHRIN BUT NOT DELTAMETHRIN INCREASES SPONTANEOUS GLUTAMATE RELEASE FROM HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONS IN CULTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript provides important information relevant to the cumulative risk assessment of pyrethroid insecticides. Others have proposed that pyrethroid effects on voltage-gated calcium channels contribute the neurotoxicity and must be considered in cumulative risk assessments ...

  14. ACTIONS OF PYRETHROID INSECTICIDES ON THE SPONTANEOUS RELEASE OF GLUTAMATE FROM CULTURED HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrethroid insecticides increase the excitability of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Modulation of voltage-gated sodium channels is likely to play a primary role in this effect, but recent studies have suggested that pyrethroid effects on other ion channels may contri...

  15. Dependence of spontaneous electrical activity and basal prolactin release on nonselective cation channels in pituitary lactotrophs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučka, M.; Kretschmannová, K.; Stojilkovic, S. S.; Zemková, Hana; Tomic, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, č. 3 (2012), s. 267-275 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/07/0681; GA ČR(CZ) GBP304/12/G069 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : TRPC channels * pituitary * GH3 cells * calcium influx * action potentials * resting membrane potential Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.531, year: 2012

  16. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  17. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  18. Self energy QED: Multipole spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamin, Y.I.

    1990-08-01

    Within the context of Barut's self-field approach, we write the exact expression of the spontaneous atomic decay rate (Phys. Rev. A37, 2284 (1988)), in the long wavelength approximation, in terms of electric- and magnetic-like multipole contributions which are related to the matrix elements of the transition charge and current distributions of the relativistic electron. A number of features of these expressions are discussed and their generalization to interacting composite systems is also pointed out. (author). 8 refs

  19. Quantum mechanics with spontaneous localization and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Grassi, R.

    1994-05-01

    We examine from an experimental point of view the recently proposed models of spontaneous reduction. We compare their implications about decoherence with those of environmental effects. We discuss the treatment, within the considered models, of the so called quantum telegraph phenomenon and we show that, contrary to what has been recently stated, no problems are met. Finally, we review recent interesting work investigating the implications of dynamical reduction for the proton decay. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation associated with tonsillitis

    OpenAIRE

    Shunmugam, Meenalochani; Poonnoose, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Atlantoaxial subluxation is a rare condition and requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose and treat in order to avoid long-term sequelae. Here, we present a case of late presentation of a nontraumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint or atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. A 17-year-old girl presented 3 months after the onset of nonspecific upper limb sensory symptoms which eventually settled spontaneously. Initial conservative management by the general practitioner had no e...

  1. Miniature Release Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective is to design, build and functionally test a miniature release mechanism for CubeSats and other small satellites. The WFF 6U satellite structure will be...

  2. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This report is a compliation of news releases from the Energy Information Administration. The september-october report includes articles on energy conservation, energy consumption in commercial buildings, and a short term energy model for a personal computer

  3. On the structure of quantal proposition systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bub, Jeffrey

    1994-09-01

    I define sublaltices of quantum propositions that can be taken as having determinate (but perhaps unknown) truth values for a given quantum state, in the sense that sufficiently many two-valued maps satisfying a Boolean homomorphism condition exist on each determinate sublattice to generate a Kolmogorov probability space for the probabilities defined by the slate. I show that these sublattices are maximal, subject to certain constraints, from which it follows easily that they are unique. I discuss the relevance of this result for the measurement problem, relating it to an early proposal by Jauch and Piron for defining a new notion of state for quantum systems, to a recent uniqueness proof by Clifton for the sublattice of propositions specified as determinate by modal interpretations of quantum mechanics that exploit the polar decompostion theorem, and to my own previous suggestions for interpreting quantum mechanics without the projection postulate.

  4. Spontaneous Regression of a Cervical Disk Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Delen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 54 years old female patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a two months history of muscle spasms of her neck and pain radiating to the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging had shown a large left-sided paracentral disk herniation at the C6-C7 disk space (Figure 1. Neurological examination showed no obvious neurological deficit. She received conservative treatment including bed rest, rehabilitation, and analgesic drugs. After 13 months, requested by the patient, a second magnetic resonance imaging study showed resolution of the disc herniation.(Figure 2 Although the literature contains several reports about spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar disc without surgical intervention, that of phenomenon reported for herniated cervical level is rare, and such reports are few[1]. In conclusion, herniated intervertebral disc have the potential to spontaneously regress independently from the spine level. With further studies, determining the predictive signs for prognostic evaluation for spontaneous regression which would yield to conservative treatment would be beneficial.

  5. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos

    2003-10-01

    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  6. Spontaneous prediction error generation in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Yamashita

    Full Text Available Goal-directed human behavior is enabled by hierarchically-organized neural systems that process executive commands associated with higher brain areas in response to sensory and motor signals from lower brain areas. Psychiatric diseases and psychotic conditions are postulated to involve disturbances in these hierarchical network interactions, but the mechanism for how aberrant disease signals are generated in networks, and a systems-level framework linking disease signals to specific psychiatric symptoms remains undetermined. In this study, we show that neural networks containing schizophrenia-like deficits can spontaneously generate uncompensated error signals with properties that explain psychiatric disease symptoms, including fictive perception, altered sense of self, and unpredictable behavior. To distinguish dysfunction at the behavioral versus network level, we monitored the interactive behavior of a humanoid robot driven by the network. Mild perturbations in network connectivity resulted in the spontaneous appearance of uncompensated prediction errors and altered interactions within the network without external changes in behavior, correlating to the fictive sensations and agency experienced by episodic disease patients. In contrast, more severe deficits resulted in unstable network dynamics resulting in overt changes in behavior similar to those observed in chronic disease patients. These findings demonstrate that prediction error disequilibrium may represent an intrinsic property of schizophrenic brain networks reporting the severity and variability of disease symptoms. Moreover, these results support a systems-level model for psychiatric disease that features the spontaneous generation of maladaptive signals in hierarchical neural networks.

  7. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  8. Spontaneous fission of the heaviest elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1989-04-01

    Although spontaneous fission was discovered in /sup 238/U in 1940, detailed studies of the process were first made possible in the 1960's with the availability of milligram quantities of /sup 252/Cf. The advent of solid-state detectors made it possible to perform measurements of coincident fission fragments from even very short-lived spontaneous fission activities or those available in only very small quantities. Until 1971 it was believed that the main features of the mass and kinetic-energy distributions were essentially the same as those for thermal neutron-induced fission and that all low-energy fission proceeded via asymmetric mass division with total kinetic energies which could be derived by linear extrapolation from those of lighter elements. In 1971, measurements of /sup 257/Fm showed an increase in symmetric mass division with anomalously high TKE's. Subsequent experiments showed that in /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, the most probable mass split was symmetric with very high total kinetic energy. Measurements for the heavier elements have shown symmetric mass distributions with both high and low total kinetic energies. Recent results for spontaneous fission properties of the heaviest elements are reviewed and compared with theory. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. A Responsive Battery with Controlled Energy Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Gao, Jian; Cheng, Zhihua; Chen, Nan; Qu, Liangti

    2016-11-14

    A new type of responsive battery with the fascinating feature of pressure perceptibility has been developed, which can spontaneously, timely and reliably control the power outputs (e.g., current and voltage) in response to pressure changes. The device design is based on the structure of the Zn-air battery, in which graphene-coated sponge serves as pressure-sensitive air cathode that endows the whole system with the capability of self-controlled energy release. The responsive batteries exhibit superior battery performance with high open-circuit voltage (1.3 V), and competitive areal capacity of 1.25 mAh cm -2 . This work presents an important move towards next-generation intelligent energy storage devices with energy management function. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Peptide secreted by human alveolar macrophages releases neutrophil granule contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, C.K.; Miller, E.J.; Cohen, A.B.

    1987-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody was developed against an 8000-kDa enzyme-releasing peptide (ERP) released from human alveolar macrophages. ERP was isolated on an immunoaffinity column containing the antibody bound to staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose, and by autoradiography. Release of ERP from the macrophages is not changed by plastic adherence, phagocytosis, calcium ionophore, or phorbol esters. The peptide was not antigenically similar to interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor, or interleukin lα or 1β. The release of constituents from azurophilic and specific granules was the main identified biologic function of ERP. ERP was a more effective secretagogue in the untreated neutrophils and f-met-leu-phe was more effective in the cytochalasin B-treated neutrophils. Absorption of ERP from macrophage-conditioned medium removed a small amount of the chemotactic activity; however, the immunopurified peptide was not chemotactic or chemokinetic for neutrophils, and at high concentrations, it suppressed base line chemokinesis. Treatment of washed macrophages with trypsin released active ERP of approximately the same m.w. of spontaneously secreted ERP. These studies showed that human alveolar macrophages release a peptide which is a secretagogue for human neutrophils under conditions which may be encountered in the lungs during certain disease states. Proteolytic enzymes which are free in the lungs may release the peptide and lead to the secretion of neutrophil enzymes

  11. Putative role of border cells in generating spontaneous morphological activity within Kölliker's organ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayaratne, M W Nishani; Vlajkovic, Srdjan M; Lipski, Janusz; Thorne, Peter R

    2015-12-01

    Kölliker's organ is a transient epithelial structure, comprising a major part of the organ of Corti during pre-hearing stages of development. The auditory system is spontaneously active during development, which serves to retain and refine neural connections. Kölliker's organ is considered a key candidate for generating such spontaneous activity, most likely through purinergic (P2 receptor) signalling and inner hair cell (IHC) activation. Associated with the spontaneous neural activity, ATP released locally by epithelial cells induces rhythmic morphological changes within Kölliker's organ, the purpose of which is not understood. These changes are accompanied by a shift in cellular refractive index, allowing optical detection of this activity in real-time. Using this principle, we investigated the origin of spontaneous morphological activity within Kölliker's organ. Apical turns of Wistar rat cochleae (P9-11) were dissected, and the purinergic involvement was studied following acute tissue exposure to a P2 receptor agonist (ATPγS) and antagonist (suramin). ATPγS induced a sustained darkening throughout Kölliker's organ, reversed by suramin. This effect was most pronounced in the region closest to the inner hair cells, which also displayed the highest frequency of intrinsic morphological events. Additionally, suramin alone induced swelling of this region, suggesting a tight regulation of cell volume by ATP-mediated mechanisms. Histological analysis of cochlear tissues demonstrates the most profound volume changes in the border cell region immediately adjacent to the IHCs. Together, these results underline the role of purinergic signalling in initiating morphological events within Kölliker's organ, and suggest a key involvement of border cells surrounding IHCs in regulating this spontaneous activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Associated With Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Hayes, Sharonne N; Codsi, Elisabeth; Gulati, Rajiv; Rose, Carl H; Best, Patricia J M

    2017-07-25

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is the most common cause of pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction and remains poorly characterized. This study sought to assess presentation, clinical factors, and outcomes of pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (P-SCAD) compared with spontaneous coronary artery dissection not associated with pregnancy (NP-SCAD). A Mayo Clinic registry was established in 2010 to include comprehensive retrospective and prospective SCAD data. Records were reviewed to identify women who were pregnant or ≤12 weeks postpartum at time of SCAD. Complete records were available for 323 women; 54 women met criteria for P-SCAD (4 during pregnancy) and they were compared with 269 women with NP-SCAD. Most events occurred within the first month postpartum (35 of 50). Compared with NP-SCAD, P-SCAD patients more frequently presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (57% vs. 36%; p = 0.009), left main or multivessel SCAD (24% vs. 5%; p vs. 14%; p = 0.0027, respectively), and left ventricular function ≤35% (26% vs. 10%; p = 0.0071). Among women with imaging of other vascular territories, P-SCAD was less likely with a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia and extracoronary vascular abnormalities (42% vs. 64%; p = 0.047; and 46% vs. 77%; p = 0.0032, respectively). Compared with U.S. birth data, women with P-SCAD were more often multiparous (p = 0.0167), had a history of infertility therapies (p = 0.0004), and had pre-eclampsia (p = 0.001). On long-term follow-up (median 2.3 years) recurrent SCAD occurred in 51 patients, with no difference in the Kaplan Meier 5-year recurrence rates (10% vs. 23%; p = 0.18). P-SCAD patients had more acute presentations and high-risk features than women with NP-SCAD did. The highest frequency of P-SCAD occurred during the first postpartum month and P-SCAD patients less often had extracoronary vascular abnormalities. Hormonal, hemodynamic variations, and yet

  13. Why do cells release vesicles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, Rienk; Sturk, Augueste

    2010-01-01

    Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells release vesicles into their environment. To answer the question why eukaryotic cells release vesicles, we may learn from prokaryotes. Bacteria release outer membrane vesicles, resembling microparticles, which act as "multi-purpose carriers". They contain signalling

  14. Effect of in vitro inorganic lead on dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minnema, D.J.; Greenland, R.D.; Michaelson, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of inorganic lead in vitro in several aspects of [ 3 H]dopamine release from superfused rat striatal synaptosomes was examined. Under conditions of spontaneous release, lead (1-30 microM) induced dopamine release in a concentration-dependent manner. The onset of the lead-induced release was delayed by approximately 15-30 sec. The magnitude of dopamine release induced by lead was increased when calcium was removed from the superfusing buffer. Lead-induced release was unaffected in the presence of putative calcium, sodium, and/or potassium channel blockers (nickel, tetrodotoxin, tetraethylammonium, respectively). Depolarization-evoked dopamine release, produced by a 1-sec exposure to 61 mM potassium, was diminished at calcium concentrations below 0.254 mM. The onset of depolarization-evoked release was essentially immediate following exposure of the synaptosomes to high potassium. The combination of lead (3 or 10 microM) with high potassium reduced the magnitude of depolarization-evoked dopamine release. This depression of depolarization-evoked release by lead was greater in the presence of 0.25 mM than 2.54 mM calcium in the superfusing buffer. These findings demonstrate multiple actions of lead on synaptosomal dopamine release. Lead can induce dopamine release by yet unidentified neuronal mechanisms independent of external calcium. Lead can also reduce depolarization-evoked dopamine release by apparent competition with calcium influx at the neuronal membrane calcium channel

  15. Intraocular and extraocular hemorrhage associated with ligature release of non-valved glaucoma drainage implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Go

    2017-04-01

    Conclusions and importance: This is the first report of a rare occurrence of intraocular and extraocular hemorrhage associated following spontaneous release of ligature of a non-valved glaucoma drainage implant. The presumed mechanism was sudden shallowing of the anterior chamber resulting in the tube irritating uveal vasculature. We do not have an explanation for the extraocular blood.

  16. Understanding dynamic friction through spontaneously evolving laboratory earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, V; Rosakis, A J; Lapusta, N

    2017-06-29

    Friction plays a key role in how ruptures unzip faults in the Earth's crust and release waves that cause destructive shaking. Yet dynamic friction evolution is one of the biggest uncertainties in earthquake science. Here we report on novel measurements of evolving local friction during spontaneously developing mini-earthquakes in the laboratory, enabled by our ultrahigh speed full-field imaging technique. The technique captures the evolution of displacements, velocities and stresses of dynamic ruptures, whose rupture speed range from sub-Rayleigh to supershear. The observed friction has complex evolution, featuring initial velocity strengthening followed by substantial velocity weakening. Our measurements are consistent with rate-and-state friction formulations supplemented with flash heating but not with widely used slip-weakening friction laws. This study develops a new approach for measuring local evolution of dynamic friction and has important implications for understanding earthquake hazard since laws governing frictional resistance of faults are vital ingredients in physically-based predictive models of the earthquake source.

  17. RAVEN Beta Release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Alfonsi, Andrea; Cogliati, Joshua Joseph; Mandelli, Diego; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Wang, Congjian; Maljovec, Daniel Patrick; Talbot, Paul William

    2016-01-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  18. RAVEN Beta Release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiti, Cristian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Alfonsi, Andrea [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cogliati, Joshua Joseph [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kinoshita, Robert Arthur [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Wang, Congjian [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Maljovec, Daniel Patrick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Talbot, Paul William [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This documents the release of the Risk Analysis Virtual Environment (RAVEN) code. A description of the RAVEN code is provided, and discussion of the release process for the M2LW-16IN0704045 milestone. The RAVEN code is a generic software framework to perform parametric and probabilistic analysis based on the response of complex system codes. RAVEN is capable of investigating the system response as well as the input space using Monte Carlo, Grid, or Latin Hyper Cube sampling schemes, but its strength is focused toward system feature discovery, such as limit surfaces, separating regions of the input space leading to system failure, using dynamic supervised learning techniques. RAVEN has now increased in maturity enough for the Beta 1.0 release.

  19. Multiple genetic switches spontaneously modulating bacterial mutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Randal N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All life forms need both high genetic stability to survive as species and a degree of mutability to evolve for adaptation, but little is known about how the organisms balance the two seemingly conflicting aspects of life: genetic stability and mutability. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR system is essential for maintaining genetic stability and defects in MMR lead to high mutability. Evolution is driven by genetic novelty, such as point mutation and lateral gene transfer, both of which require genetic mutability. However, normally a functional MMR system would strongly inhibit such genomic changes. Our previous work indicated that MMR gene allele conversion between functional and non-functional states through copy number changes of small tandem repeats could occur spontaneously via slipped-strand mis-pairing during DNA replication and therefore may play a role of genetic switches to modulate the bacterial mutability at the population level. The open question was: when the conversion from functional to defective MMR is prohibited, will bacteria still be able to evolve by accepting laterally transferred DNA or accumulating mutations? Results To prohibit allele conversion, we "locked" the MMR genes through nucleotide replacements. We then scored changes in bacterial mutability and found that Salmonella strains with MMR locked at the functional state had significantly decreased mutability. To determine the generalizability of this kind of mutability 'switching' among a wider range of bacteria, we examined the distribution of tandem repeats within MMR genes in over 100 bacterial species and found that multiple genetic switches might exist in these bacteria and may spontaneously modulate bacterial mutability during evolution. Conclusions MMR allele conversion through repeats-mediated slipped-strand mis-pairing may function as a spontaneous mechanism to switch between high genetic stability and mutability during bacterial evolution.

  20. Being Spontaneous: The Future of Telehealth Implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E

    2017-09-01

    The smartphone simplifies interprofessional communication, and smartphone applications can facilitate telemedicine activity. Much has been written about the steps that need to be followed to implement and establish a successful telemedicine service that is integrated into everyday clinical practice. A traditional and systematic approach has evolved incorporating activities such as strategy development, needs assessment, business cases and plans, readiness assessment, implementation plans, change management interventions, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. This "best practice" has been promoted in the telehealth literature for many years. In contrast, several recent initiatives have arisen without any such formal undertakings. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of two "spontaneous" telemedicine services in dermatology and burn management that have evolved in South Africa. Two spontaneous services were identified and reviewed. In one unsolicited service, doctors at rural referring hospitals have been taking photographs of skin lesions and sending them with a brief text message history to dermatologists using the instant messaging smartphone app, WhatsApp. In the other, burns service, admissions to the burns unit or the clinic were triaged by telephonic description of the case and completion of a preadmission questionnaire. More recently, management and referral decisions are made only after completion of the questionnaire and subsequent submission of photographs of the burn sent by WhatsApp, with the decision transmitted by text message. Although efficient and effective, potential legal and ethical shortcomings have been identified. These "spontaneous" telehealth services challenge traditional best practice, yet appear to lead to truly integrated practice and, therefore, are successful and warrant further study.

  1. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  2. Cerebrovascular gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Frederiksen, Simona Denise; Edvinsson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    in the middle cerebral arteries from hypertensive compared to normotensive rats. The gene expression of 72 genes was decreased and the gene expression of 97 genes was increased. The following genes with a fold difference ≥1.40 were verified by quantitative PCR; Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1, Serpine1......, Mmp11, Cd34, Ptgs1 and Ptgs2. The gene expression of Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1 and Serpine1 and the protein expression of LOX1 (also known as OLR1) were significantly increased in the middle cerebral arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar-Kyoto rats. In conclusion...

  3. Spontaneous light emission from fibers in MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avvakumov, S.; Barrett, W.L.; Belias, T.; Bower, C.; Erwin, A.; Kordosky, M.; Lang, K.; Lee, R.; Liu, J.; Miller, W.; Mualem, L.; Nichol, R.; Nelson, J.; Pearce, G.; Proga, M.; Rebel, B.; Ruddick, K.; Smith, C.; Thomas, J.; Vahle, P.; Webb, R.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the observation and measurements of unexpected background rates in the MINOS Far Detector. The noise level at the Far Detector is significantly greater than that expected from natural radioactivity and intrinsic photomultiplier dark current. We have conducted a series of additional tests which demonstrate that the excess rate is caused by spontaneous light emission in the wavelength-shifting fibers, which are used to read out signals from scintillator strips. This noise due to fibers exhibits an exponential fall off with time with a decay time constant of the order of 100 days

  4. Fracture of maternal sternum during spontaneous delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubert, J; Gerber, B

    2009-12-01

    We report of a maternal sternal fracture during a spontaneous delivery in a 31-year-old primipara without a suitable trauma. The putative mechanism of fracture was strong hyperflexion of the thoracic spine and additional cervical flexion with pushing the chin to the thorax due to active management of labour. The history of the healthy woman was free of related risk factors. A possible promoting factor might be pregnancy-induced bone loss. Although there were clear symptoms, the diagnosis of the fracture was delayed by a week because nobody took account of such a possibility.

  5. Hydraulic release oil tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mims, M.G.; Mueller, M.D.; Ehlinger, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a hydraulic release tool. It comprises a setting assembly; a coupling member for coupling to drill string or petroleum production components, the coupling member being a plurality of sockets for receiving the dogs in the extended position and attaching the coupling member the setting assembly; whereby the setting assembly couples to the coupling member by engagement of the dogs in the sockets of releases from and disengages the coupling member in movement of the piston from its setting to its reposition in response to a pressure in the body in exceeding the predetermined pressure; and a relief port from outside the body into its bore and means to prevent communication between the relief port and the bore of the body axially of the piston when the piston is in the setting position and to establish such communication upon movement of the piston from the setting position to the release position and reduce the pressure in the body bore axially of the piston, whereby the reduction of the pressure signals that the tool has released the coupling member

  6. NASTRAN: April 1982 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugh, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    Latest public release of NASTRAN, April 1982 most efficient and versatile to date. Intended range of applications of NASTRAN includes almost every kind of structure and construction. Users may develop their own analysis capabilities by using Direct Matrix Abstraction Programming (DMAP) language to direct NASTRAN in solution of general matrix problems.

  7. Release the Prisoners Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hecke, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the mathematical approach of the optimal strategy to win the "Release the prisoners" game and the integration of this analysis in a math class. Outline lesson plans at three different levels are given, where simulations are suggested as well as theoretical findings about the probability distribution function and its mean…

  8. Spontaneous cooperation for prosocials, but not for proselfs: Social value orientation moderates spontaneous cooperation behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dorothee; Glöckner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the success of societies and there is an ongoing debate whether individuals have therefore developed a general spontaneous tendency to cooperate or not. Findings that cooperative behavior is related to shorter decision times provide support for the spontaneous cooperation effect, although contrary results have also been reported. We show that cooperative behavior is better described as person × situation interaction, in that there is a spontaneous cooperation effect for prosocial but not for proself persons. In three studies, one involving population representative samples from the US and Germany, we found that cooperation in a public good game is dependent on an interaction between individuals’ social value orientation and decision time. Increasing deliberation about the dilemma situation does not affect persons that are selfish to begin with, but it is related to decreasing cooperation for prosocial persons that gain positive utility from outcomes of others and score high on the related general personality trait honesty/humility. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous cooperation hypothesis has to be qualified in that it is limited to persons with a specific personality and social values. Furthermore, they allow reconciling conflicting previous findings by identifying an important moderator for the effect. PMID:26876773

  9. Effects of mercuric chloride on [3H]dopamine release from rat brain striatal synaptosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hare, M.F.; Minnema, D.J.; Cooper, G.P.; Michaelson, I.A.

    1989-01-01

    Electrophysiological studies employing amphibian neuromuscular preparations have shown that mercuric chloride (HgCl2) in vitro increases both spontaneous and evoked neurotransmitter release. The present study examines the effect of HgCl2 on the release of [ 3 H]dopamine from synaptosomes prepared from mammalian brain tissue. Mercuric chloride (3-10 microM) produces a concentration-dependent increase in spontaneous [ 3 H]dopamine release from ''purified'' rat striatal synaptosomes, in both the presence and absence of extra-synaptosomal calcium. The effects of HgCl2 on transmitter release from amphibian neuromuscular junction preparations resemble those produced by the Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain. Experiments were performed to determine whether the HgCl2 effects on mammalian synaptosomal dopamine release are a consequence of Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition. Na+, K+-ATPase activity in lysed synaptosomal membranes is inhibited by HgCl2 (IC50 = 160 nM). However, mercuric chloride in the presence of 1 mM ouabain still increased [3H]dopamine release. The specific inhibitor of Na+-dependent, high-affinity dopamine transport, RMI81,182 inhibited ouabain-induced [3H]dopamine release whereas it had no effect on HgCl2-induced [ 3 H]dopamine release. These data suggest that augmentation of spontaneous [ 3 H]dopamine release by HgCl2 probably is not mediated by an inhibition of Na+, K+-ATPase and HgCl2 does not act directly on the dopamine transporter

  10. Spontaneous regression of intracranial malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Tokutomi, Takashi; Eguchi, Gihachirou; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Tomie; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.

    1988-01-01

    In a 46-year-old female with a 1-month history of gait and speech disturbances, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated mass lesions of slightly high density in the left basal ganglia and left frontal lobe. The lesions were markedly enhanced by contrast medium. The patient received no specific treatment, but her clinical manifestations gradually abated and the lesions decreased in size. Five months after her initial examination, the lesions were absent on CT scans; only a small area of low density remained. Residual clinical symptoms included mild right hemiparesis and aphasia. After 14 months the patient again deteriorated, and a CT scan revealed mass lesions in the right frontal lobe and the pons. However, no enhancement was observed in the previously affected regions. A biopsy revealed malignant lymphoma. Despite treatment with steroids and radiation, the patient's clinical status progressively worsened and she died 27 months after initial presentation. Seven other cases of spontaneous regression of primary malignant lymphoma have been reported. In this case, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression was not clear, but changes in immunologic status may have been involved. (author)

  11. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  12. Surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Menon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of advances in imaging and surgical techniques, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH has defied attempts to find a scientifically proven effective therapy. The pathophysiology of SICH suggests that early removal of the clot with minimal additional surgical trauma should prove beneficial. Trials in this direction have been few, and for some unknown reason, surgery has not proved to be superior to best medical management in most of these trials. This has led to substantial variability in the management of ICH throughout the world, and the treatment of SICH remains a controversy. SICH encompasses spectra of possible clot locations with varying volumes. Surgery so far has been reserved only for patients with large hematomas and impending brain herniation. Critical analysis of the earlier studies has now shown that surgery does help in clots in certain locations and of particular volume and when done at an optimal time. Poor grade patients with large hematomas, earlier considered poor surgical candidates are being taken up for aggressive decompressive craniectomies with fair results. In addition, minimally invasive surgical techniques complemented by thrombolytic techniques seem to providing surprisingly good results. Overall surgery seems to be going through a period of renaissance with respect to primary spontaneous ICHs.

  13. Spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forell, B.; Myers, L.S. Jr.; Norman, A.

    1979-01-01

    The rate of spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes was estimated from measurements of tritiated thymidine incorporation into double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) during incubation of cells in vitro. The contribution of scheduled DNA synthesis to the observed incorporation was reduced by inhibiting replication with hydroxyurea and by separating freshly replicated single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) from repaired ds-DNA by column chromatography. The residual contribution of scheduled DNA synthesis was estimated by observing effects on thymidine incorporation of: (a) increasing the rate of production of apurinic sites, and alternatively, (b) increasing the number of cells in S-phase. Corrections based on estimates of endogenous pool size were also made. The rate of spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis is estimated to be 490 +- 120 thymidine molecules incorporated per cell per hour. These results compare favorably with estimates made from rates of depurination and depyrimidination of DNA, measured in molecular systems if we assume thymidine is incorporated by a short patch mechanism which incorporates an average of four bases per lesion

  14. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  15. Spontaneous and stimulated emission from quasifree electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, A.; Gover, A.; Kurizki, G.; Ruschin, S.; Yariv, A.

    1988-04-01

    This article presents a unified formulation and review of an extensive class of radiation effects and devices based on free or quasifree electrons. The effects and devices reviewed include slow-wave radiators [such as Čerenkov, Smith-Purcell, and TWT (traveling-wave tube) effects and devices], periodic bremsstrahlung radiators [such as undulator radiation, magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL's (free-electron lasers), and coherent bremsstrahlung in the crystal lattice], and transverse-binding radiators [such as the CRM (cyclotron resonance maser) and channeling radiation]. Starting from a general quantum-electrodynamic model, both quantum and classical effects and operating regimes of these radiation devices are described. The article provides a unified physical description of the interaction kinematics, and presents equations for the characterization of spontaneous and stimulated radiative emission in these various effects and devices. Universal relations between the spontaneous and stimulated emission parameters are revealed and shown to be related (in the quantum limit) to Einstein relations for atomic radiators and (in the classical limit) to the relations derived by Madey for magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL for on-axis radiative emission. Examples for the application of the formulation are given, estimating the feasibility of channeling radiation x-ray laser and optical regime Smith-Purcell FEL, and deriving the gain equations of magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL and CRM for arbitrary electron propagation direction, structure (wiggler) axis, and radiative emission angle.

  16. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  17. Microchimerism after induced or spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Tomoko; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Akira; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2008-09-01

    To investigate fetomaternal microchimerism in women with induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 76 healthy women who underwent dilation and curettage in the first trimester but had never had an abortion or male delivery before. Samples were collected at three time points: just before, 7 days after, and 30 days after abortion. Y chromosome-specific, nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) was used to test DNA extracted from buffy coat cells. DNA was also extracted from the chorion to determine sex. The sensitivity of our assay allowed detection of approximately one male cell in 100,000 female cells. Thirty-six male and 40 female chorions were obtained. Male DNA was found in 52.8% of women who had a male chorion before abortion, decreasing to 5.6% at 7 days after abortion. At 30 days after abortion, no male DNA was detected. Male DNA was never detected at any point from women with a female chorion. Fetal cells in the maternal circulation are undetectable 30 days after induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Fetal cells may be harbored in maternal organs.

  18. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  19. Brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Kyu; Byun, Woo Mok; Cho, Jae Ho; Cho Kil Ho; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Yang Gu [Keimyoung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jin [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    To evaluate brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. A retrospective review of MRI findings was conducted on six patients with clinically proven spontaneous intracranial hypotension; no patient had a history of previous spinal puncture. Follow-up MRI was available in two patients, and to detect CSF leakage, radio-nuclide cisternography(n=3D5), myelography(n=3D1), and MR myelography(n=3D1) were performed. On contrast-enhanced T1WI, diffuse dural enhancement was seen in all cases, subdural hematoma or hygroma was seen in four cases, pituitary gland prominence in four, dural sinus dilatation in four, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil in two, downward displacement of the iter in one, and suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement in two. In no patient was abnormal CSF leakage found. Although dural enhancement, as seen on MRI, is not specific, diffuse enhancement of the dura mater accompanied by subdural hematoma, hygroma, pituitary gland prominence, dural sinus dilatation, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil, or suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement can strongly suggest intracranial hypotension.=20.

  20. Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobieski, Courtney; Jiang, Xiaoping; Crawford, Devon C; Mennerick, Steven

    2015-08-05

    Neuron-astrocyte interactions are critical for proper CNS development and function. Astrocytes secrete factors that are pivotal for synaptic development and function, neuronal metabolism, and neuronal survival. Our understanding of this relationship, however, remains incomplete due to technical hurdles that have prevented the removal of astrocytes from neuronal circuits without changing other important conditions. Here we overcame this obstacle by growing solitary rat hippocampal neurons on microcultures that were comprised of either an astrocyte bed (+astrocyte) or a collagen bed (-astrocyte) within the same culture dish. -Astrocyte autaptic evoked EPSCs, but not IPSCs, displayed an altered temporal profile, which included increased synaptic delay, increased time to peak, and severe glutamate release asynchrony, distinct from previously described quantal asynchrony. Although we observed minimal alteration of the somatically recorded action potential waveform, action potential propagation was altered. We observed a longer latency between somatic initiation and arrival at distal locations, which likely explains asynchronous EPSC peaks, and we observed broadening of the axonal spike, which likely underlies changes to evoked EPSC onset. No apparent changes in axon structure were observed, suggesting altered axonal excitability. In conclusion, we propose that local astrocyte support has an unappreciated role in maintaining glutamate release synchrony by disturbing axonal signal propagation. Certain glial cell types (oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells) facilitate the propagation of neuronal electrical signals, but a role for astrocytes has not been identified despite many other functions of astrocytes in supporting and modulating neuronal signaling. Under identical global conditions, we cultured neurons with or without local astrocyte support. Without local astrocytes, glutamate transmission was desynchronized by an alteration of the waveform and arrival time of axonal

  1. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  2. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  3. Aniracetam enhances glutamatergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Hiroko; Nakamura, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Machiko; Ueno, Ken-ichi; Ohashi, Satoshi; Saito, Hideya; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2002-03-08

    The effects of aniracetam, a cognition enhancer, on extracellular levels of glutamate (Glu), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) were examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the basolateral amygdala (AMG) in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) using in vivo microdialysis. Basal release of Glu, was lower in the AMG of SHRSP than in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, whereas no difference in GABA and NOx was noted. Aniracetam (100 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly increased the area under the curve of Glu levels in the PFC, but not in the AMG, of SHRSP. Aniracetam failed to exert any remarkable effects on GABA or NOx levels in either brain region. Our findings suggest that aniracetam enhances cortical glutamatergic release, which may be the mechanism involved in the ameliorating effects of aniracetam on various neuronal dysfunctions.

  4. Spontaneous resolution of a herniated fragment cervical disc

    OpenAIRE

    METE, Mesut; SAVRAN, Mehmet; DEMİRÇİVİ ÖZER, Füsun; DURANSOY, Yusuf Kurtuluş

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the spontaneous resolution of herniated nucleus pulposus is a well known phe¬nomenon in lumbar disc herniations, it is rarely encountered in the cervical region. The spontaneous resolution of a herniated cervical disc in a woman is reported to describe a rare occurrence of spontaneous regression of a cervical herniated nucleus pulposus and to discuss its mechanism. A woman with a large and fragment herniated cervical disc refused to undergo operation and was followed-up ...

  5. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous globe luxation is a rarely reported condition which can lead to complications like optic neuropathy. Common causes are thyroid eye disease, shallow orbit and floppy eyelid syndrome. We report a case of spontaneous globe luxation with the onset and severity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous globe luxation associated with COPD.

  6. Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    inflammation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS traumatic spinal cord injury, spinal cord , spontaneous recovery, functional recovery, inflammation, biomarkers, trauma 16...Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0614 TITLE: Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ona Bloom...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0614 W81XWH-15-1-0614 Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  7. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    ) in 6 obese subjects, 5 obese subjects after weight loss, and 5 normal, age- and sex-matched control subjects. Integrated 20-min samples were obtained over 24-h on two occasions in each subject using a constant blood withdrawal technique. In addition, basal levels of serum insulin-like growth factor......Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD...... levels were elevated in obese subjects compared to those in normal age- and sex-matched controls. No differences between obese subjects and normal controls were present regarding IGF-I, IGFBP-3, or IGF-I/IGFBP-3 molar ratio. In the last 24 h during the 96-h VLCD, an increase in 24-h GH release and basal...

  8. Lack of stimulation of 24-hour growth hormone release by hypocaloric diet in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M H; Juul, A; Kjems, L L

    1995-01-01

    IGFBP-1 levels and a decrease in basal insulin levels occurred in the normal controls, whereas no such changes were observed in the obese subjects. After caloric restriction 24-hr GH release, IGFBP-1 levels and insulin levels were similar in control subjects and obese subjects after weight loss......) in 6 obese subjects, 5 obese subjects after weight loss, and 5 normal, age- and sex-matched control subjects. Integrated 20-min samples were obtained over 24-h on two occasions in each subject using a constant blood withdrawal technique. In addition, basal levels of serum insulin-like growth factor......Obesity is associated with a marked reduction in the spontaneous secretion of GH. To investigate the effect of acute alterations in calorie intake on GH release, 24-hr spontaneous GH release was measured during habitual calorie intake as well as during a short term, very low calorie diet (VLCD...

  9. Spontaneous regression of a lumbar disc herniation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostarchid Brahim El

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation is a common disease that induces back pain and radicular pain. Some cases require conservative treatment or at times relived spontaneously. Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is an atypical clinical presentation, and it has been recognized with the advancement of recent advances in imaging techniques. We present a 35-year-old woman presented a spontaneous regression of a lumbar disc herniation with good outcome after intensive physical therapy program. Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is thought to occur via an inflammatory reaction with molecular mechanisms of phagocytic processes.

  10. Spontaneous closure of an ileostomy: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saxena

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Further research is warranted to understand the mechanism behind spontaneous regression of a stoma. Relationship between this event and intestinal tuberculosis or ATT needs to be analysed.

  11. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...

  12. Dorsomedial prefontal cortex supports spontaneous thinking per se.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raij, T T; Riekki, T J J

    2017-06-01

    Spontaneous thinking, an action to produce, consider, integrate, and reason through mental representations, is central to our daily experience and has been suggested to serve crucial adaptive purposes. Such thinking occurs among other experiences during mind wandering that is associated with activation of the default mode network among other brain circuitries. Whether and how such brain activation is linked to the experience of spontaneous thinking per se remains poorly known. We studied 51 healthy subjects using a comprehensive experience-sampling paradigm during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging. In comparison with fixation, the experiences of spontaneous thinking and spontaneous perception were related to activation of wide-spread brain circuitries, including the cortical midline structures, the anterior cingulate cortex and the visual cortex. In direct comparison of the spontaneous thinking versus spontaneous perception, activation was observed in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Modality congruence of spontaneous-experience-related brain activation was suggested by several findings, including association of the lingual gyrus with visual in comparison with non-verbal-non-visual thinking. In the context of current literature, these findings suggest that the cortical midline structures are involved in the integrative core substrate of spontaneous thinking that is coupled with other brain systems depending on the characteristics of thinking. Furthermore, involvement of the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex suggests the control of high-order abstract functions to characterize spontaneous thinking per se. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3277-3288, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studničková, M; Holusková, I; Durdová, V; Kratochvílová, T; Strašilová, P; Marková, I; Lubušký, M

    2015-12-01

    Assess the incidence of spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization in RhD negative pregnant women with an RhD positive fetus. Clinical study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School and University Hospital Olomouc. A total of 906 RhD negative women with an RhD positive fetus and without the presence of anti-Dalloantibodies at the beginning of pregnancy were examined. Always it was a singleton pregnancy, RhD blood group of the pregnant women was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, RhD status of the fetus was determined after delivery. Screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies was performed in all women in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, at 28-32 weeks gestation and immediately prior to delivery at 38-42 weeks gestation. Screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies was performed also at 6 months following delivery in all cases of positive antibodies before delivery. Antibody screening was performed using the indirect antiglobulin (LISS/NAT) and enzyme (papain) test with their subsequent identification using a panel of reference erythrocytes by column agglutination method Dia-Med. After delivery, the volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage was assesed in all RhD negative women and RhD alloimmunization prophylaxis was performed by administering the necessary IgG anti-D dose; none of the women were administered IgG anti-D antepartally. During screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies at 28-32 weeks gestation, anti-D alloantibodies were diagnosed in 0.2% of the women (2/906); immediately prior to the delivery at 38-42 weeks gestation, anti-D alloantibodies were diagnosed in 2.3% of the women (21/906) and repeatedly even at 6 months following delivery (21/157). In 82.7% of the women (749/906), examination at 6 months following delivery was not performed, therefore in these women spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization cannot reliably be ruled out. Alloimmunization may not be diagnosed yet at term of delivery. If anti

  14. Energy released in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, M.F.

    1969-05-01

    The effective energy released in and following the fission of U-235, Pu-239 and Pu-241 by thermal neutrons, and of U-238 by fission spectrum neutrons, is discussed. The recommended values are: U-235 ... 192.9 ± 0.5 MeV/fission; U-238 ... 193.9 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-239 ... 198.5 ± 0.8 MeV/fission; Pu-241 ... 200.3 ± 0.8 MeV/fission. These values include all contributions except from antineutrinos and very long-lived fission products. The detailed contributions are discussed, and inconsistencies in the experimental data are pointed out. In Appendix A, the contribution to the total useful energy release in a reactor from reactions other than fission are discussed briefly, and in Appendix B there is a discussion of the variations in effective energy from fission with incident neutron energy. (author)

  15. Border cell release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mravec, Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present...... in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release. Integration of observations from different...... species leads to the hypothesis that this process most likely does not involve degradation of cell wall material but rather employs unique cell wall structural and compositional means enabling both the rigidity of the root cap as well as detachability of given cells on its surface....

  16. Carpal tunnel release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Bo; Sørensen, A I; Crone, K L

    2013-01-01

    A single-blind, randomized, controlled trial was done to compare the results of carpal tunnel release using classic incision, short incision, or endoscopic technique. In total, 90 consecutive cases were included. Follow-up was 24 weeks. We found a significantly shorter sick leave in the endoscopi...... incision could be found. There were no serious complications in either group. The results indicate that the endoscopic procedure is safe and has the benefit of faster rehabilitation and return to work....

  17. Hydra Code Release

    OpenAIRE

    Couchman, H. M. P.; Pearce, F. R.; Thomas, P. A.

    1996-01-01

    Comment: A new version of the AP3M-SPH code, Hydra, is now available as a tar file from the following sites; http://coho.astro.uwo.ca/pub/hydra/hydra.html , http://star-www.maps.susx.ac.uk/~pat/hydra/hydra.html . The release now also contains a cosmological initial conditions generator, documentation, an installation guide and installation tests. A LaTex version of the documentation is included here

  18. EIA new releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration. It contains news releases on items of interest to the petroleum, coal, nuclear, electric and alternate fuels industries ranging from economic outlooks to environmental concerns. There is also a listing of reports by industry and an energy education resource listing containing sources for free or low-cost energy-related educational materials for educators and primary and secondary students

  19. Sudden releases of gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaloupecká Hana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Conurbations all over the world have enlarged for numberless years. The accidental or intentional releases of gases become more frequent. Therefore, these crises situations have to be studied. The aim of this paper is to describe experiments examining these processes that were carried out in the laboratory of Environmental Aerodynamics of the Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR in Nový Knín. Results show huge puff variability from replica to replica.

  20. Slow-release fertilizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Inventor); Golden, Dadigamuwage C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A synthetic apatite containing agronutrients and a method for making the apatite are disclosed. The apatite comprises crystalline calcium phosphate having agronutrients dispersed in the crystalline structure. The agronutrients can comprise potassium, magnesium, sulfur, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chlorine, boron, copper and zinc in amounts suited for plant growth. The apatite can optionally comprise a carbonate and/or silicon solubility control agent. The agronutrients are released slowly as the apatite dissolves.

  1. The clinical effect of tendon repair for tendon spontaneous rupture after corticosteroid injection in hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hui; Yang, Hu; Shen, Hui; Ye, Ganmin; Lin, Xiang-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Corticosteroid injections for hand tendinitis can lead to a rare significant complication of tendon spontaneous rupture. However, only sporadic cases were reported in the literature before. This study was designed to gauge the clinical effect of tendon repair in patients of tendon spontaneous rupture after corticosteroid injection and analyze our experience. This was a retrospective observational study of 13 patients (8 women and 5 men) operated between July 2011 and December 2015 for tendon spontaneous rupture after corticosteroid injection. Demographic data, clinical features, imaging data, and surgical treatments were carefully reviewed. The average age was 52.308 ± 15.381 years (range 29–71). The average injection times were 2.538 ± 1.664 times (range 1–6). The average rupture time (after last injection) was 10.923 ± 9.500 weeks (range 3–32). Nine patients were treated by tendon suture (69% of cases), and 4 patients were treated by tendon grafting (31% of cases). All patients received follow-up in our outpatient clinic. The sites of the tendon rupture (15 tendons of 13 patients had involved) include extensor pollicis longus (6 tendons, 40% of cases), extensor digiti quinti and extensor digiti minimi (4 tendons, 27% of cases), ring finger of extensor digitorum communis (3 tendons, 20% of cases), and middle finger of extensor digitorum communis (2 tendons, 13% of cases). Two patients who had tendon adhesion (15% of cases) were treated by tendon release. One patient who had tendon rerupture (8% of cases) was treated by tendon grafting. No patient had complications of infections, vascular, or nerve injury. Tendon spontaneous rupture is a serious complication after corticosteroid injection for tendinitis. Rigid standard of corticosteroid injection is very important. Magnetic resonance imaging was contributory to preoperative assess tendon defect and can be used to monitor healing quality of tendons during the follow-up. PMID:27741145

  2. Contact: Releasing the news

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinotti, Roberto

    The problem of mass behavior after man's future contacts with other intelligences in the universe is not only a challenge for social scientists and political leaders all over the world, but also a cultural time bomb as well. In fact, since the impact of CETI (Contact with Extraterrestrial Intelligence) on human civilization, with its different cultures, might cause a serious socio-anthropological shock, a common and predetermined worldwide strategy is necessary in releasing the news after the contact, in order to keep possible manifestations of fear, panic and hysteria under control. An analysis of past studies in this field and of parallel historical situations as analogs suggests a definite "authority crisis" in the public as a direct consequence of an unexpected release of the news, involving a devastating "chain reaction" process (from both the psychological and sociological viewpoints) of anomie and maybe the collapse of today's society. The only way to prevent all this is to prepare the world's public opinion concerning contact before releasing the news, and to develop a long-term strategy through the combined efforts of scientists, political leaders, intelligence agencies and the mass media, in order to create the cultural conditions in which a confrontation with ETI won't affect mankind in a traumatic way. Definite roles and tasks in this multi-level model are suggested.

  3. Traceability of biopharmaceuticals in spontaneous reporting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Straus, Sabine M J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K

    2013-01-01

    , including spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs), in which reports of ADRs are collected. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the current status of traceability of biopharmaceuticals in the US and the EU up to patient level in SRSs. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted over......BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of biopharmaceuticals can be batch or product specific, resulting from small differences in the manufacturing process. Detailed exposure information should be readily available in systems for postmarketing safety surveillance of biopharmaceuticals...... the period 2004-2010, including ADR reports from two major SRSs: the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) in the US and EudraVigilance (EV) in the EU. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The availability of batch numbers was determined for biopharmaceuticals, and compared with small molecule drugs...

  4. Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Marko V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

  5. Spontaneous galactosylation of agalactoglycoproteins in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubihi, M; Kitajima, K; Aoki, N; Matsuda, T

    2000-05-12

    We have found that spontaneous galactosylation of GlcNAc residues occurs in bovine colostrum, but not in dialyzed colostrum, without adding UDP-Gal as a donor substrate. UDP-Gal was shown to be present in bovine colostrum at a level ranging from 200 to 600 microM. When a tracer UDP-[(14)C]Gal was added to the dialyzed colostrum together with a Gal beta1,4-specific beta-galactosidase, remarkable incorporation of radioactivity into 24-28 kDa and 33 kDa RCA1-positive glycoproteins was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE/autoradiography. Some 100-140 kDa agalactoglycoproteins of a CHO mutant cell line were also galactosylated on a blotted membrane by the incubation in the colostrum.

  6. Pneumomediastin spontané chez un asthmatique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmoqaddem, Amine; Serghini, Issam; Janah, Hicham; Chouikh, Chakib; Alaoui, Amine; Bensghir, Mustapha

    2016-01-01

    Le pneumomédiastin spontané est une pathologie rare. Il se voit surtout chez l’adulte jeune. Sa survenue brutale est caractéristique, associant une douleur thoracique, un emphysème sous-cutané et une dyspnée. Nous rapportons l’observation d’un pneumomédiastin, chez un patient de 24 ans asthmatique déclenché suite à un effort de toux. Le patient s’est présenté dans un tableau d’insuffisance respiratoire aigue avec une douleur thoracique retrosternale. La radiographie pulmonaire a confirmé le diagnostic de pneumomédiastin. L’évolution a été favorable en 4 jours après exsufflation, oxygénothérapie et traitement médical conventionnel. PMID:28292057

  7. Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...

  8. Spontaneous unilamellar polymer vesicles in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Song, Chaeyeon; Han, Young-Soo; Jang, Jong-Dae; Choi, Myung Chul

    2014-01-21

    A unilamellar polymeric vesicle is a self-assembled structure of a block copolymer that forms a spherical single bilayer structure with a hydrophobic interlayer and a hydrophilic surface. Due to their enhanced colloidal stability and mechanical property, controllable surface functionality, or tunable membrane thickness, polymeric vesicles are useful in nano and bio-science, providing potential applications as nanosized carriers for catalysts, drugs, and enzymes. For fabrication of a unilamellar vesicle, however, preparative procedures with a few steps are inherently required. Herein, without complicated preparative procedures, we report spontaneous unilamellar polymeric vesicles with nanometer sizes (small angle neutron scattering and cryo-TEM, resulting in a phase diagram drawn as a function of temperature and the 5mS concentration. Interestingly the critical temperature for the micelle-to-vesicle phase transition was easily controlled by varying the 5mS concentration, i.e. it was decreased with increasing the 5mS concentration.

  9. Spontaneous jamming in one-dimensional systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Loan, O. J.; Evans, M. R.; Cates, M. E.

    1998-04-01

    We study the phenomenon of jamming in driven diffusive systems. We introduce a simple microscopic model in which jamming of a conserved driven species is mediated by the presence of a non-conserved quantity, causing an effective long-range interaction of the driven species. We study the model analytically and numerically, providing strong evidence that jamming occurs; however, this proceeds via a strict phase transition (with spontaneous symmetry breaking) only in a prescribed limit. Outside this limit, the nearby transition (characterised by an essential singularity) induces sharp crossovers and transient coarsening phenomena. We discuss the relevance of the model to two physical situations: the clustering of buses, and the clogging of a suspension forced along a pipe.

  10. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William

    2005-09-01

    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation.

  11. A Young Man with Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Lieve Willemien Verhaert

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Case. A 33-year-old male nonsmoker presented with sudden onset of dyspnoea and thoracic pain. Chest radiograph showed a left-sided pneumothorax. Few days later he developed a right-sided pneumothorax. He had a positive family history of pneumothorax. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed multiple pulmonary cysts predominantly located in the lower lung regions. We suspected Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD. Conclusion. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited genodermatosis and characterised by clinical manifestations including hamartomas of the skin, renal tumors, and pulmonary cysts with spontaneous pneumothorax. BHD is probably underdiagnosed because of the wide variability in its clinical expression. It is important to recognize these patients because of the possibility of developing renal cancer.

  12. Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical Lorentz violation due to the simultaneously generated gauge invariance. Udgivelsesdato: June 11...

  13. Spontaneous Esophageal Injury: Esophageal Intramural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Chiu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute chest pain can indicate a life-threatening condition and it is important for physicians to diagnose and treat it as a matter of urgency. We report 1 rare case of esophageal intramural hematoma (IMH that presented with chest pain at the emergency department and which was initially clinically suspected to be due to aortic dissection. The case was diagnosed preoperatively by multidetector computed tomography. Esophageal IMH may represent an intermediate stage between Mallory-Weiss tear (mucosal and Boerhaave's syndrome (transmural. Multidetector computed tomography is a useful noninvasive imaging modality for accurate diagnosis of these spontaneous intramural and transmural ruptures of the esophagus, and aids in the differential diagnosis of aortic and other mediastinal diseases with acute chest pain.

  14. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveshnikov, Konstantin; Tolokonnikov, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The most novel and nontrivial result, which has not been reported previously, is that such an effect takes place not only for attractive, but also for repulsive interactions of atomic electrons with the cavity environment. Moreover, in the limit of a large box size R ≫ aB the regime of an atom, soaring over a plane with boundary condition of "not going out", is reproduced, rather than a spherically symmetric configuration, which would be expected on the basis of the initial SO(3) symmetry of the problem.

  15. Spontaneous Heterotopic Triplet Pregnancy With Tubal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Arsala MBBS, BBMedSci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent increase in heterotopic pregnancies has been largely attributed to the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies. We report the rare case of a multiparous woman with a spontaneous conception resulting in a triplet heterotopic pregnancy: a twin intrauterine pregnancy and a single right tubal ectopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in which simultaneous gestations occur at 2 or more implantation sites. It is infrequent in natural conception cycles, occurring in 1:30 000 pregnancies. However, the prevalence is rising with the increased use of assisted reproduction techniques to that of 1:100 to 1:500 in these patient subgroups, highlighting the need to incorporate it into a clinician’s diagnostic algorithm.

  16. Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greyson, N.D.; Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using 99 /sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase

  17. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koora Kiran

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  18. Glioblastoma Multiforme Presenting as Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Ozdol

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumors with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage are rarely encountered. Hemorrhage as the initial presentation of a brain tumour may pose some diagnostic problems, especially if the tumour is small or the hemorrhage is abundant. We present a 47-year-old man who admitted to the emergency department with sudden onset headache, right blurred vision and gait disturbance. A non-contrast cranial computerized tomography scan performed immediately after his admission revealed a well circumscribed right occipitoparietal haematoma with intense peripheral edema causing compression of the ipsilateral ventricles. On 6th hour of his admission the patient%u2019s neurological status deteriorated and he subsequently underwent emergent craniotomy and microsurgical evacuation of the haematoma. The histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with a glioblastoma multiforme. Neoplasms may be hidden behind each case of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Histological sampling and investigation is mandatory in the presence of preoperative radiological features suggesting a neoplasm.

  19. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises

    1994-07-01

    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  20. Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo

    2015-08-05

    Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle.

  1. Signaling transduction pathways involved in basophil adhesion and histamine release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sha, Quan; Poulsen, Lars K.; Gerwien, Jens

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about basophil with respect to the different signaling transduction pathways involved in spontaneous, cytokine or anti-IgE induced adhesion and how this compares to IgE-dependent and IgE-independent mediator secretion. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the roles ...... of beta1 and beta2 integrins in basophil adhesion as well as hosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), src-kinases and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in basophil adhesion and histamine release (HR)....

  2. Deep brain stimulation results in local glutamate and adenosine release: investigation into the role of astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Vivianne L; Chang, Su-Youne; Hitti, Frederick L; Roberts, David W; Leiter, James C; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Lee, Kendall H

    2010-08-01

    Several neurological disorders are treated with deep brain stimulation; however, the mechanism underlying its ability to abolish oscillatory phenomena associated with diseases as diverse as Parkinson's disease and epilepsy remain largely unknown. To investigate the role of specific neurotransmitters in deep brain stimulation and determine the role of non-neuronal cells in its mechanism of action. We used the ferret thalamic slice preparation in vitro, which exhibits spontaneous spindle oscillations, to determine the effect of high-frequency stimulation on neurotransmitter release. We then performed experiments using an in vitro astrocyte culture to investigate the role of glial transmitter release in high-frequency stimulation-mediated abolishment of spindle oscillations. In this series of experiments, we demonstrated that glutamate and adenosine release in ferret slices was able to abolish spontaneous spindle oscillations. The glutamate release was still evoked in the presence of the Na channel blocker tetrodotoxin, but was eliminated with the vesicular H-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the calcium chelator 2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester. Furthermore, electrical stimulation of purified primary astrocytic cultures was able to evoke intracellular calcium transients and glutamate release, and bath application of 2-bis (2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester inhibited glutamate release in this setting. Vesicular astrocytic neurotransmitter release may be an important mechanism by which deep brain stimulation is able to achieve clinical benefits.

  3. Spontaneous activity in peripheral diaphragmatic lymphatic loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela

    2013-10-01

    The spontaneous contractility of FITC-dextran-filled lymphatics at the periphery of the pleural diaphragm was documented for the first time "in vivo" in anesthetized Wistar rats. We found that lymphatic segments could be divided into four phenotypes: 1) active, displaying rhythmic spontaneous contractions (51.8% of 197 analyzed sites); 2) stretch-activated, whose contraction was triggered by passive distension of the vessel lumen (4.1%); 3) passive, which displayed a completely passive distension (4.5%); and 4) inert, whose diameter never changed over time (39.6%). Smooth muscle actin was detected by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in the vessel walls of active but also of inert sites, albeit with a very different structure within the vessel wall. Indeed, while in active segments, actin was arranged in a dense mesh completely surrounding the lumen, in inert segments actin decorated the vessels wall in sparse longitudinal strips. When located nearby along the same lymphatic loop, active, stretch-activated, and passive sites were always recruited in temporal sequence starting from the active contraction. The time delay was ∼0.35 s between active and stretch-activated and 0.54 s between stretch-activated and passive segments, promoting a uniform lymph flux of ∼150/200 pl/min. We conclude that, unlike more central diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels, loops located at the extreme diaphragmatic periphery do require an intrinsic pumping mechanism to propel lymph centripetally, and that such an active lymph propulsion is attained by means of a complex interplay among sites whose properties differ but are indeed able to organize lymph flux in an ordered fashion.

  4. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H

    2014-12-01

    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Protecting privacy in data release

    CERN Document Server

    Livraga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive approach to protecting sensitive information when large data collections are released by their owners. It addresses three key requirements of data privacy: the protection of data explicitly released, the protection of information not explicitly released but potentially vulnerable due to a release of other data, and the enforcement of owner-defined access restrictions to the released data. It is also the first book with a complete examination of how to enforce dynamic read and write access authorizations on released data, applicable to the emerging data outsou

  6. Triggered Release from Polymer Capsules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Odom, Susan A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry; Sottos, Nancy R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; White, Scott R. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Aerospace Engineering; Moore, Jeffrey S. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology and Dept. of Chemistry

    2011-07-06

    Stimuli-responsive capsules are of interest in drug delivery, fragrance release, food preservation, and self-healing materials. Many methods are used to trigger the release of encapsulated contents. Here we highlight mechanisms for the controlled release of encapsulated cargo that utilize chemical reactions occurring in solid polymeric shell walls. Triggering mechanisms responsible for covalent bond cleavage that result in the release of capsule contents include chemical, biological, light, thermal, magnetic, and electrical stimuli. We present methods for encapsulation and release, triggering methods, and mechanisms and conclude with our opinions on interesting obstacles for chemically induced activation with relevance for controlled release.

  7. Spontaneous trait inference and spontaneous trait transference are both unaffected by prior evaluations of informants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zengel, Bettina; Ambler, James K; McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J

    2017-01-01

    This article reports results from a study in which participants encountered either (a) previously known informants who were positive (e.g. Abraham Lincoln), neutral (e.g., Jay Leno), or negative (e.g., Adolf Hitler), or (b) previously unknown informants. The informants ostensibly described either a trait-implicative positive behavior, a trait-implicative negative behavior, or a neutral behavior. These descriptions were framed as either the behavior of the informant or the behavior of another person. Results yielded evidence of informant-trait linkages for both self-informants and for informants who described another person. These effects were not moderated by informant type, behavior valence, or the congruency or incongruency between the prior knowledge of the informant and the behavior valence. Results are discussed in terms of theories of Spontaneous Trait Inference and Spontaneous Trait Transference.

  8. [A respiratory microvalve for spontaneously breathing anesthetized small animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnikol, W K; Hiller, B; Guth, S

    1994-03-01

    For the accurate functional analysis of the gas exchange in the lungs or evaluation of artificial oxygen carriers in spontaneously breathing anaesthetized small animals, we developed a new respiratory micro-valve. The body of the valve is made of aluminium, and the flaps are made of silicone rubber. The maximum flow rate in a rat measured with a pneumotachograph and the micro-valve was an average of 19.9 ml/s during inspiration, and 17.8 ml/s during expiration. The pressure measured in the tracheal tube was -0.85 during inspiration, and +0.39 cm H2O during expiration; the end-expiratory pressure in the tube was zero. In two experiments with anaesthetised rats lasting 4-5 hours, ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide release and the respiratory exchange ratio were 638 ml/min/kg, 21.7 ml O2(STPD)/min/kg, 16.6 ml CO2(STPD)/min/kg, and 0.77, respectively. There was no significant change in any parameter during the experiment. The micro-valve increases the dead space by approximately 35%, but this is well tolerated by the rats, which compensate by increasing their tidal volume by about 10 to 15%. The major advantage of using the micro-valve in comparison with other methods is the fact that the true difference between inspiratory and mean mixed expiratory gas can be measured with great accuracy. The micro-valve can readily be adjusted for optimal use with a range of animals.

  9. Serum Clusterin as a Prognostic Marker of Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Hyung-Young; Ban, Ga-Young; Shin, Yoo-Seob; Park, Hae-Sim; Ye, Young-Min

    2016-05-01

    A substantial proportion of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) are refractory to antihistamines. However, identifying the subpopulation whose urticaria is not completely controlled by antihistamines remains difficult. The response of autologous serum skin test (ASST), a clinical test for the detection of basophil histamine-releasing activity upon autoantibodies or autoreactive stimulation, has been suggested as a potential predictor in the control of urticaria. We sought to identify proteins that were differentially expressed in the sera of patients with positive and negative ASST results and to investigate their association with urticaria control.Proteomics analysis was performed using sera from 3 CSU patients with positive ASST results compared with those showing negative ASST results. Seven upregulated and 5 downregulated proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry in the ASST-positive group compared with the ASST-negative group.Proteins that were differentially expressed according to the ASST results in CSU patients were classified into 6 groups: apolipoproteins, glycoproteins, modified albumin, haptoglobulin, plectin, and others. Among these, apolipoprotein J or clusterin was validated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Clusterin levels in 69 ASST-positive patients were significantly higher than those in 69 ASST-negative patients and in 86 healthy controls (231.2 ± 44.0 vs 210.2 ± 36.1 vs 118.7 ± 71.9 μg/mL, P urticaria would be refractory to antihistamines. Serum clusterin can be a prognostic marker to determine the responsiveness to antihistamine treatment in patients with CSU.

  10. Spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry in the complex Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry; Coulomb potential; complex en- ergy eigenvalues. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 03.65.Nk; 11.30.Er. 1. Introduction. One of the most intriguing features of PT -symmetric quantum mechanics is the spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry. This phenomenon was noted in the first.

  11. Safety of Oral Clemastine – Analysis of Data from Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    event reporting system. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on ... existing spontaneous monitoring system for adverse effects in Poland may not be sensitive enough and therefore, needs improvement. ... which is based on current EU legislation. As part.

  12. Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy: a case report | Makwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy is a rare condition, associated with very high maternal mortality rate and fetal wastage. It is frequently misdiagnosed at presentation. We report a case of a 33-year-old, gravida 2, para 1 lady at 29 weeks' gestation with spontaneous splenic rupture, which was initially diagnosed as ...

  13. Spontaneous massive vulva swelling in pregnancy: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous massive vulva edema is not common during pregnancy, but its presence possesses management challenges with significant patient anxiety and discomfort. We report a case of spontaneous vulva edema in a 24-year old primigravida at 28 weeks gestational age havingtwin gestation, with one anaecephalyand ...

  14. Safety of Oral Clemastine – Analysis of Data from Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyse the safety of oral clemastine marketed in Poland based on spontaneous adverse event reporting system. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on the adverse effects of Clemastinum Hasco tablets (1.0 mg) and Clemastinum Hasco syrup (0.1 ...

  15. Spontaneous vortex phase (SVP) of ruthenocuprate high Tc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RuSr2(RE1.5Ce0.5)Cu2O10, has given rise to the concept of spontaneous vortex phase (SVP). In these compounds, the magnetic ordering temperature (Tmag >. 100 K) is higher than the superconducting transition temperature (Tc ~ 30 K). Hence, due to internal magnetic fields, these compounds remain in a spontaneous.

  16. Spontaneous infected biloma: case report | Kimani | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biloma is defined as any collection of bile outside the biliary tree. It mainly results from surgical complications and abdominal trauma. Spontaneous biloma is extremely rare and is occasionally associated with choledocholithiasis. This report describes a case of spontaneous biloma diagnosed radiologically and confirmed at ...

  17. Spontaneous rupture: An uncommon complication of ventral hernia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Literature is scarce about spontaneous rupture of hernia because spontaneous rupture of here is uncommon (1). Reported cases are complications of incisional hernias, recurrent inguinal hernia, and umbilical hernias. It is potentially life threatening (1) because the ensuing entrapment and tension on ...

  18. A comparison of spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal according to the rank. To estimate the spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal, both crossing-point temperature (CPT) measurement and gas analysis by using gas chromatography (GC) were performed. For the experiment, Ihuoma coal, Orlu ...

  19. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases; thi...

  20. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amany Talaat Kamal

    2012-02-29

    Feb 29, 2012 ... [13] Terg R, Fassio E, Guevara M. Ciprofloxacin in primary prophy- laxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomized, placebo controlled study. J Hepatol 2008;48(5):774–9. [14] Akriviadis EA, Runyon BA. Utility of an algorithm in differen- tiating spontaneous from secondary bacterial peritonitis. Gastro ...

  1. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca

    2015-01-01

    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous...

  2. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point...

  3. Spontaneous herniation of the thoracic spinal cord : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sung Chan; Lee, Seong Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous herniation of the spinal cord is a rare disease entity in which spinal cord substance is herniated through a previously uninjured and/or untouched dural. It is a cause of myelopathy that is treatable but difficult to diagnose. We report the CT and MR findings of a case of spontaneous thoracic spinal cord through a dural defect

  4. Spontaneous perforation by pyometra — an acute emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous perforation by pyometra — an acute emergency. B Gupta, R Agarwal, G Radhakrishnan. Abstract. Accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity is termed pyometra and has an incidence of 0.1 - 0.5%.1 We report a case of spontaneous pyometra rupture with subsequent peritonitis. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  5. A Rare Case of Peritonitis Following Spontaneous Rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chan LY, Yu VS, HO LC, Lok YH, Hui SK. Spontaneous uterine perforation of pyometra. A report of three cases. J Reprod Med 2000;45:857-60. 5. Bostofte E, Legarth J. Spontaneous perforation of pyometra with diffuse peritonitis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1981;60:511-2. 6. Nakao A, Mimura H, Fujisawa K. Generalized ...

  6. Computed Tomography Features of Spontaneously Perforated Pyometra: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Tan, C.K.; Mak, C.W.; Chia, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Yu, W.L. [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Depts. of Intensive Care Medicine, Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Surgery

    2006-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

  7. Spontaneous resolution of post-traumatic chronic subdural hematoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we present a case of spontaneously resolved post-traumatic bilateral chronic subdural hematoma within a period of one month in a 55-year-old male and we discuss the probable mechanisms of pathophysiology in the spontaneous resolution of chronic subdural hematoma. Keywords: Antiaggregation therapy, chronic ...

  8. Spontaneity and Equilibrium III: A History of Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient criteria for reaction spontaneity in a given direction and for spontaneity of finite transformations in single-reaction, closed systems are developed. The criteria are general in that they hold for reactions conducted under either conditions of constant T and p or constant T and V. These results are illustrated using a…

  9. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-02-03

    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  10. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...

  11. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  12. Two Cases of Subdural Hematoma in Spontaneous CSF Hypovolemia

    OpenAIRE

    島谷, 佳光; 井戸川, 美帆; 阿部, 剛典; 仁平, 敦子; 溝渕, 雅広; 佐光, 一也; 田中, 千春

    2007-01-01

    Two cases of subdural hematoma in spontaneous CSF hypovolemia. The typical orthostatic features were replaced by continuous, nonpositional headache. MEI showed subdural hematoma. These cases emphasize that spontaneous CSF hypovolemia is not an entirely benign condition and that subudural hematoma may accompany persistent intracranial hypotension.

  13. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture during Pregnancy: Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient. The case was managed at the University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde (Cameroon). She had past history of ...

  14. Spontaneous Activity Drives Local Synaptic Plasticity In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Johan; Cheyne, Juliette E; Niculescu, Dragos; Lohmann, C.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous activity fine-tunes neuronal connections in the developing brain. To explore the underlying synaptic plasticity mechanisms, we monitored naturally occurring changes in spontaneous activity at individual synapses with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous calcium imaging in

  15. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva

    2012-01-01

    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  16. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A

    2011-05-01

    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  17. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...... of therapy, which is considered inadequate to exert a significant influence on neoplastic disease. The incidence of spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma is approximately one per 400 patients, and possible mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and tumour nutritional...

  18. Riola release report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, E.C.

    1983-08-04

    Eleven hours after execution of the Riola Event (at 0826 PDT on 25 September 1980) in hole U2eq of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), a release of radioactivity began. When the seepage stopped at about noon the following day, up to some 3200 Ci of activity had been dispersed by light variable winds. On 26 September, examination of the geophone records showed six hours of low-level, but fairly continuous, activity before the release. Electrical measurements indicated that most cables were still intact to a depth below the stemming platform. A survey of the ground zero area showed that the seepage came through cracks between the surface conductor and the pad, through cracks in the pad, and through a crack adjacent to the pad around the mousehole (a small hole adjacent to the emplacement hole). To preclude undue radiation exposure or injury from a surprise subsidence, safety measures were instituted. Tritium seepage was suffucient to postpone site activities until a box and pipeline were emplaced to contain and remove the gas. Radiation release modeling and calculations were generally consistent with observations. Plug-hole interaction calculations showed that the alluvium near the bottom of the plug may have been overstressed and that improvements in the design of the plug-medium interface can be made. Experimental studies verified that the surface appearance of the plug core was caused by erosion, but, assuming a normal strength for the plug material, that erosion alone could not account for the disappearance of such a large portion of the stemming platform. Samples from downhole plug experiments show that the plug may have been considerably weaker than had been indicted by quality assurance (QA) samples. 19 references, 32 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  20. Stapes Release in Tympanosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedri, Es-Hak; Teferi, Nebiat; Redleaf, Miriam

    2018-02-01

    : Tympanosclerosis in the middle ear space is common in Ethiopia and often involves the ossicles and particularly the stapes. Ear operations in Ethiopia are relatively expensive in this country of limited medical resources and a low average living wage. In this setting, 2-stage operations using prostheses become prohibitively expensive. Therefore, the recommended 2-stage approach for tympanic membrane perforation with tympanosclerosis and stapes fixation is impractical for Ethiopia.We present a series of 67 patients who had a single stage tympanoplasty, removal of tympanosclerosis from the stapes suprastructure, and ossicular chain reconstruction using ossicular interposition. Crucial is the surgical technique employed for peeling the mound of tympanosclerotic plaque off of the stapes, which we term the stapes release. Controls were 67 patients with similar perforations and air-bone gap, but no tympanosclerosis. Most controls had ossciular discontinuity and were reconstructed with type III tympanoplasty.Air-bone gap improved in both groups: 18 dB (11 dB standard deviation) in the stapes release group, and 23 dB (11 dB standard deviation) in the control group. Paired t test found these improvements in each group significant at p < 0.001. Among the preoperative subjects there were 40 with air-bone gap greater than 45 dB, and none less than 20 dB. Among the postoperative subjects, none had air-bone gap worse than 45 dB, while 25/67 (37%) stapes release and 44/67 (66%) controls had air-bone gap better than 20 dB. Three patients in each group failed to close their perforations completely (96% closure rate).The only complications were two early cases of transient facial nerve weakness, which was avoided in subsequent cases by an alteration in technique. There was no deterioration of sensorineural hearing levels in either group's subjects postoperatively.In conclusion, stapes release with ossicular interposition can be performed at the same time as

  1. Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sams, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Long Abstract. Full Text. The purpose of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Analytical Evaluation (DSGRE-AE) is to evaluate the postulated hypothesis that a hydrogen GRE may occur in Hanford tanks containing waste sludges at levels greater than previously experienced. There is a need to understand gas retention and release hazards in sludge beds which are 200 -300 inches deep. These sludge beds are deeper than historical Hanford sludge waste beds, and are created when waste is retrieved from older single-shell tanks (SST) and transferred to newer double-shell tanks (DST).Retrieval of waste from SSTs reduces the risk to the environment from leakage or potential leakage of waste into the ground from these tanks. However, the possibility of an energetic event (flammable gas accident) in the retrieval receiver DST is worse than slow leakage. Lines of inquiry, therefore, are (1) can sludge waste be stored safely in deep beds; (2) can gas release events (GRE) be prevented by periodically degassing the sludge (e.g., mixer pump); or (3) does the retrieval strategy need to be altered to limit sludge bed height by retrieving into additional DSTs? The scope of this effort is to provide expert advice on whether or not to move forward with the generation of deep beds of sludge through retrieval of C-Farm tanks. Evaluation of possible mitigation methods (e.g., using mixer pumps to release gas, retrieving into an additional DST) are being evaluated by a second team and are not discussed in this report. While available data and engineering judgment indicate that increased gas retention (retained gas fraction) in DST sludge at depths resulting from the completion of SST 241-C Tank Farm retrievals is not expected and, even if gas releases were to occur, they would be small and local, a positive USQ was declared (Occurrence Report EM-RP--WRPS-TANKFARM-2012-0014, 'Potential Exists for a Large Spontaneous Gas Release Event in Deep Settled Waste Sludge'). The purpose of this technical

  2. Spontaneous mutation rates and the rate-doubling dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Borstel, R.C.; Moustaccki, E.; Latarjet, R.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of radiation required to double the frequency of mutations or tumours over the rate of those that occur spontaneously is called the rate-doubling dose. An equivalent concept has been proposed for exposure to other environmental mutagens. The doubling dose concept is predicated on the assumption that all human populations have the same spontaneous mutation rate, and that this spontaneous mutation rate is known. It is now established for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that numerous genes control the spontaneous mutation rate, and it is likely that the same is true for human cells as well. Given that the accepted mode of evolution of human populatons is from small, isolated groups of individuals, it seems likely that each population would have a different spontaneous mutation rate. Given that a minimum of twenty genes control or affect the spontaneous mutation rate, and that each of these in turn is susceptible to spontaneously arising or environmentally induced mutations, it seems likely that every individual within a population (except for siblings from identical multiple births) will have a unique spontaneous mutation rate. If each individual in a population does have a different spontaneous mutation rate, the doubling dose concept, in rigorous terms, is fallacious. Therefore, as with other concepts of risk evaluation, the doubling dose concept is subject to criticism. Nevertheless, until we know individual spontaneous mutation rates with precision, and can evaluate risks based on this information, the doubling dose concept has a heuristic value and is needed for practical assessment of risks for defined populations. (author)

  3. Distinct presynaptic control of dopamine release in striosomal and matrix areas of the cat caudate nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemel, M.L.; Desban, M.; Glowinski, J.; Gauchy, C.

    1989-01-01

    By use of a sensitive in vitro microsuperfusion method, the cholinergic presynaptic control of dopamine release was investigated in a prominent striosome (areas poor in acetylcholinesterase activity) located within the core of cat caudate nucleus and also in adjacent matrix area. The spontaneous release of [ 3 H]dopamine continuously synthesized from [ 3 H]tyrosine in the matrix area was found to be twice that in the striosomal area; the spontaneous and potassium-evoked releases of [ 3 H]dopamine were calcium-dependent in both compartments. With 10 -6 M tetrodotoxin, 5 x 10 -5 M acetylcholine stimulated [ 3 H]dopamine release in both striosomal and matrix areas, effects completely antagonized by atropine, thus showing the involvement of muscarinic receptors located on dopaminergic nerve terminals. Experiments without tetrodotoxin revealed a more complex regulation of dopamine release in the matrix: (i) in contrast to results seen in the striosome, acetylcholine induced only a transient stimulatory effect on matrix dopamine release. (ii) Although 10 -6 M atropine completely abolished the cholinergic stimulatory effect on [ 3 H]dopamine release in striosomal area, delayed and prolonged stimulation of [ 3 H] dopamine release was seen with atropine in the matrix. The latter effect was completely abolished by the nicotinic antagonist pempidine. Therefore, in the matrix, in addition to its direct (tetrodotoxin-insensitive) facilitatory action on [ 3 H]dopamine release, acetylcholine exerts two indirect (tetrodotoxin-sensitive) opposing effects: an inhibition and a stimulation of [ 3 H]dopamine release mediated by muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, respectively

  4. Spontaneous breakdown and the scalar nonet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    In the context of the QCD quark model and on the basis of dynamical Bethe-Salpeter ladder graphs, we suggest that (i) the existence of the scalar q-barq hadron multiplet, like the pseudoscalar q-barq multiplet, is a direct consequence of dynamical spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry with a chiral-limiting nonstrange mass scale of m/sub sigmaNS//sup CL/ = 2m/sub dyn/ roughly-equal630 MeV, (ii) the lifting of the nonstrange sigma-delta degeneracy is expected from the s-wave quark-gluon annihilation diagram, and (iii) the observed sigma-S* mixing follows from the existence of the p-wave scalar quark-annihilation diagram. The resulting predicted 0q-barq nonet is then sigma(750 MeV), kappa(800), S*(980), and delta(985), in agreement with data for the resonant masses, the mixing angle, and also decay widths except for the kappa(800).

  5. Enhancement of Pleasure during Spontaneous Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò F. Bernardi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Dancing emphasizes the motor expression of emotional experiences. The bodily expression of emotions can modulate the subjective experience of emotions, as when adopting emotion-specific postures and faces. Thus, dancing potentially offers a ground for emotional coping through emotional enhancement and regulation. Here we investigated the emotional responses to music in individuals without any prior dance training while they either freely danced or refrained from movement. Participants were also tested while imitating their own dance movements but in the absence of music as a control condition. Emotional ratings and cardio-respiratory measures were collected following each condition. Dance movements were recorded using motion capture. We found that emotional valence was increased specifically during spontaneous dance of groovy excerpts, compared to both still listening and motor imitation. Furthermore, parasympathetic-related heart rate variability (HRV increased during dance compared to motor imitation. Nevertheless, subjective and physiological arousal increased during movement production, regardless of whether participants were dancing or imitating. Significant correlations were found between inter-individual differences in the emotions experienced during dance and whole-body acceleration profiles. The combination of movement and music during dance results in a distinct state characterized by acutely heightened pleasure, which is of potential interest for the use of dance in therapeutic settings.

  6. Sync the emerging science of spontaneous order

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat, the sound of cycles in sync. Along the tidal rivers of Malaysia, thousands of fireflies congregate and flash in unison; the moon spins in perfect resonance with its orbit around the earth; our hearts depend on the synchronous firing of ten thousand pacemaker cells. While the forces that synchronize the flashing of fireflies may seem to have nothing to do with our heart cells, there is in fact a deep connection. Synchrony is a science in its infancy, and Strogatz is a pioneer in this new frontier in which mathematicians and physicists attempt to pinpoint just how spontaneous order emerges from chaos. From underground caves in Texas where a French scientist spent six months alone tracking his sleep-wake cycle, to the home of a Dutch physicist who in 1665 discovered two of his pendulum clocks swinging in perfect time, this fascinating book spans disciplines, continents, and centuries. Engagingly written for readers of books such as Chaos and The Elegant ...

  7. Spontaneous Assembly of Exopolymers from Phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xue Ding

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exopolymeric substances (EPS contribute significantly to the dissolved organic car bon (DOC pool in the ocean, playing crucial roles in the surface ocean car bon cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that ~10% of marine DOC can self-assemble as microgels through electro static Ca bonds providing hotspots of enriched microbial substrate. How ever, the question whether EPS can self-assemble and the formation mechanisms for EPS microgels have not been examined. Here were port that EPS from three representative phytoplankton species, Synechococcus, Emiliania huxleyi, and Skeletonema costatum can spontaneously self assemble in artificial sea water (ASW, forming microscopic gels of ~ 3 - 4 __m in diameter. Different from the marine DOC polymers assembly, these EPS samples can self-assemble in Ca2+-free ASW. Further experiments from fluorescence enhancement and chemical composition analysis confirmed the existence of fair amounts of hydrophobic domains in these EPS samples. These results suggest that hydrophobic interactions play a key role in the assembly of EPS from these three species of marine phytoplankton.

  8. Spontaneously settled refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, P J; Kalumba, K

    1986-01-01

    The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa.

  9. Self-completeness and spontaneous dimensional reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureika, Jonas; Nicolini, Piero

    2013-07-01

    A viable quantum theory of gravity is one of the biggest challenges physicists are facing. We discuss the confluence of two highly expected features which might be instrumental in the quest of a finite and renormalizable quantum gravity —spontaneous dimensional reduction and self-completeness. The former suggests the spacetime background at the Planck scale may be effectively two-dimensional, while the latter implies a condition of maximal compression of matter by the formation of an event horizon for Planckian scattering. We generalize such a result to an arbitrary number of dimensions, and show that gravity in higher than four dimensions remains self-complete, but in lower dimensions it does not. In such a way we established an "exclusive disjunction" or "exclusive or" (XOR) between the occurrence of self-completeness and dimensional reduction, with the goal of actually reducing the unknowns for the scenario of the physics at the Planck scale. Potential phenomenological implications of this result are considered by studying the case of a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model resulting from dimensional reduction of the Einstein gravity.

  10. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Ilhwan; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Kim, Luke K

    2018-03-17

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-iatrogenic and non-traumatic separation of the coronary arterial wall. While SCAD represents an important cause of myocardial infarction, optimal diagnostic and therapeutic options remain challenging. We sought to review recent studies and provide an update on diagnosis and management of SCAD. Coronary angiography is the first-line diagnostic modality for SCAD, with three angiographic features commonly observed in SCAD: type 1 (pathognomonic angiographic appearance with contrast staining of the arterial wall), type 2 (long coronary stenosis), and type 3 (focal tubular stenosis). In addition, adjunctive intracoronary imaging can aid in identifying coronary dissections. Conservative management with beta-blockers and aspirin remains the mainstay of therapy. However, patients with high-risk features and recurrent symptoms may require revascularization. Several techniques have been reported, such as long stents to seal the entire length of the dissection, stepwise stenting starting at the distal edge followed by proximal edge stenting, use of bioabsorbable stents, and cutting balloon angioplasty. Furthermore, cardiac rehabilitation appears to be safe and offers significant benefits for patients with SCAD. Coronary angiographic classification contributed to the increased recognition of SCAD in recent years. Selecting the most suitable and appropriate therapy based on accurate diagnosis is the cornerstone of management in SCAD. Further studies are needed to establish optimal treatment of SCAD depending on anatomical and/or clinical features.

  11. Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissection: The Borgess Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eAl-Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground and Purpose: The pathogenesis of spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD and its best medical treatment are debated. This may be due to a lack of clear classification of sCAD. We propose the new Borgess classification of sCAD, based on the presence or absence of intimal tear as depicted on imaging studies and effect on blood flow. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center investigator-initiated registry on consecutive patients treated for sCAD. In the Borgess classification, type I dissections have intact intima and type II dissections have an intimal tear. Results: Forty-four patients and 52 dissected arteries were found. Forty-nine of 52 dissections (93% were treated with dual anti-platelet therapy. Twenty-one of 52 dissections were type I; 31 were type II. Type I dissections were more likely to present with ischemic symptoms (stroke, TIA (p=0.001. More type I dissections occurred in the vertebral artery, while more type II dissections occurred in the internal carotid artery (p

  12. Current management of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastante, Teresa; Cuesta, Javier; García-Guimaraes, Marcos; Rivero, Fernando; Maruri, Ramon; Adlan, David; Alfonso, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) remains an infrequent and elusive clinical entity of unknown etiology. However, our knowledge of SCAD has been significantly enriched in recent years. Large and prospective contemporary series have increased the interest in this disease with fewer patients misdiagnosed and a growing number of cases recognized in daily clinical practice. Classically, SCAD was thought to present mainly in young women without traditional atherosclerotic risk factors but, actually, most patients are middle-aged and are not free from coronary risk factors. A high number of associated conditions have been reported. Of these, fibromuscular dysplasia emerges as a major association with intriguing pathophysiological implications. Areas covered: This review aims to present a contemporary update on SCAD. We concentrate on the clinical scenario, related conditions, practical management and treatment strategies. Expert commentary: Recognition of SCAD is currently much more frequent and accurate as a result of increased clinical awareness and the widespread use of intravascular imaging techniques. Hopefully, in the near future an improvement in the management of SCAD patients will come not only from empirical evidence but also from dedicated clinical trials.

  13. Clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MICH. Methods Conservative therapy, puncture and drainage, hematoma removal and/or decompressive craniectomy were used in the treatment of 630 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH patients, who were divided into 2 groups: 30 cases with MICH and another 600 cases with solitary intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH. Three months after onset, modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis of all cases. Results Compared with patients in SICH group, the occurrence rate of hypertension > 5 years (P = 0.008, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.024, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.050 and previous ischemic stroke (P = 0.026 were all significantly higher in MICH group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP level (P = 0.002 and the incidence of limb movement disorder (P = 0.000 were significantly higher in patients with MICH than those with SICH. Basal ganglia and thalamus were the predilection sites of hematoma (P = 0.001. Patients with MICH had worse prognosis compared to those with SICH 3 months after onset (P = 0.006. Conclusions Hypertension > 5 years, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke were identified to be the pathophysiological basis of MICH in this study. All patients with MICH had more serious clinical manifestations after onset and worse prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.008

  14. Spontaneous canine hydrocephalus: cerebrospinal fluid dynamics1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahar, A.; Hochwald, G. M.; Kay, W. J.; Ransohoff, J.

    1971-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics were studied in 14 dogs with spontaneous hydrocephalus. In nine of the dogs aqueductal obstruction was observed and the remainder had a `communicating type' hydrocephalus. The major histological findings consisted of severe ependymal destruction, spongy changes in the periventricular white matter, increased density of capillaries in this area, and varying degrees of thickening, fibrosis, and fusion of the choroid villi. The formation and absorption of CSF were studied by perfusion of the cerebral ventricles. The rate of formation of CSF was found to decrease with perfusion pressure by Vf = 0·02595−0·00022 P ml./min (P = pressure in cm H2O). The absorption of spinal fluid was found to increase linearly with pressure by Va = 0·0165 + 0·00050 P. The various factors influencing the formation and absorption of the spinal fluid are discussed. The meaning and attainment of `arrest' of the hydrocephalic process in terms of the measured rates of CSF formation and absorption in these animals are considered. Images PMID:5571319

  15. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum with a Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bolvardi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an unusual and benign condition in which air is present in mediastinum. A 20-year-old male patient presented to ED with complaint of hoarseness and odynophagia from the day before, after weightlifting. The patient was nonsmoker and denied history of other diseases. On physical examination he had no dyspnea with normal vital signs. Throat examination and pulmonary auscultation were normal and no crepitation was palpable. We could not find subcutaneous emphysema in neck and chest examination. In neck and chest X-ray we found that air is present around the trachea. There was no apparent pneumothorax in CXR. In cervical and chest CT free air was present around trachea and in mediastinum. Subcutaneous emphysema was also evident. But there was no pneumothorax. The patient was admitted and went under close observation, oxygen therapy, and analgesic. The pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema gradually resolved within a week by conservative therapy and he was discharged without any complication. Many different conditions could be trigged because of pneumomediastinum but it is rarely seen in intense physical exertion such as weightlifting and bodybuilding. Two most common symptoms are retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. But the patient here complained of hoarseness and odynophagia.

  16. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil

    2012-02-01

    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  17. Spontaneous Blinking from a Tribological Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pult, Heiko; Tosatti, Samuele G P; Spencer, Nicholas D; Asfour, Jean-Michel; Ebenhoch, Michael; Murphy, Paul J

    2015-07-01

    The mechanical forces between the lid wiper and the ocular surface, and between a contact lens and the lid wiper, are reported to be related to dry eye symptoms. Furthermore, the mechanical forces between these sliding partners are assumed to be related to the ocular signs of lid-wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) and lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF). Recent literature provides some evidence that a contact lens with a low coefficient of friction (CoF) improves wearing comfort by reducing the mechanical forces between the contact lens surface and the lid wiper. This review discusses the mechanical forces during spontaneous blinks from a tribological perspective, at both low and high sliding velocities, in a healthy subject. It concludes that the coefficient of friction of the ocular surfaces appears to be strongly comparable to that of hydrophilic polymer brushes at low sliding velocity, and that, with increased sliding velocity, there is no wear at the sliding partners' surfaces thanks to the presence of a fluid film between the two sliding partners. In contrast, in the case of dry eye, the failure to maintain a full fluid film lubrication regime at high blinking speeds may lead to increased shear rates, resulting in deformation and wear of the sliding pairs. These shear rates are most likely related to tear film viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancement of Pleasure during Spontaneous Dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Bellemare-Pepin, Antoine; Peretz, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Dancing emphasizes the motor expression of emotional experiences. The bodily expression of emotions can modulate the subjective experience of emotions, as when adopting emotion-specific postures and faces. Thus, dancing potentially offers a ground for emotional coping through emotional enhancement and regulation. Here we investigated the emotional responses to music in individuals without any prior dance training while they either freely danced or refrained from movement. Participants were also tested while imitating their own dance movements but in the absence of music as a control condition. Emotional ratings and cardio-respiratory measures were collected following each condition. Dance movements were recorded using motion capture. We found that emotional valence was increased specifically during spontaneous dance of groovy excerpts, compared to both still listening and motor imitation. Furthermore, parasympathetic-related heart rate variability (HRV) increased during dance compared to motor imitation. Nevertheless, subjective and physiological arousal increased during movement production, regardless of whether participants were dancing or imitating. Significant correlations were found between inter-individual differences in the emotions experienced during dance and whole-body acceleration profiles. The combination of movement and music during dance results in a distinct state characterized by acutely heightened pleasure, which is of potential interest for the use of dance in therapeutic settings. PMID:29238298

  19. Timing of spontaneous sleep-paralysis episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Cheyne, J Allan

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this prospective naturalistic field study was to determine the distribution of naturally occurring sleep-paralysis (SP) episodes over the course of nocturnal sleep and their relation to bedtimes. Regular SP experiencers (N = 348) who had previously filled out a screening assessment for SP as well as a general sleep survey were recruited. Participants reported, online over the World Wide Web, using a standard reporting form, bedtimes and subsequent latencies of spontaneous episodes of SP occurring in their homes shortly after their occurrence. The distribution of SP episodes over nights was skewed to the first 2 h following bedtime. Just over one quarter of SP episodes occurred within 1 h of bedtime, although episodes were reported throughout the night with a minor mode around the time of normal waking. SP latencies following bedtimes were moderately consistent across episodes and independent of bedtimes. Additionally, profiles of SP latencies validated self-reported hypnagogic, hypnomesic, and hypnopompic SP categories, as occurring near the beginning, middle, and end of the night/sleep period respectively. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that SP timing is controlled by mechanisms initiated at or following sleep onset. These results also suggest that SP, rather than uniquely reflecting anomalous sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, may result from failure to maintain sleep during REM periods at any point during the sleep period. On this view, SP may sometimes reflect the maintenance of REM consciousness when waking and SP hallucinations the continuation of dream experiences into waking life.

  20. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33.......0-485.0) nmol/l at day 35 in whole blood, from 18.8 (range 8.2-38.5) to 328.5 (range 224.0-1137.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, and from 0.5 (range 0.5-1.5) to 2.2 (range 1.4-6.9) nmol/l in SAGM blood. These results show spontaneous histamine release during storage of human blood products which contain...

  1. Do positive spontaneous thoughts function as incentive salience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Elise L; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2017-08-01

    The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting. In Study 1, 103 adults recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk reported on key aspects of 10 everyday activities. As predicted, positive spontaneous thoughts mediated the relationship between liking an activity in the past and wanting to engage in it in the future. In Study 2, 99 undergraduate students viewed amusing and humorless cartoons and completed a thought-listing task, providing experimental evidence for the causal effect of liking on positive spontaneous thoughts. In Study 3, we tested whether positive spontaneous thoughts play an active role in energizing wanting rather than merely co-occurring with (inferred) incentive salience. In that experiment involving 80 undergraduates, participants who were led to believe that their spontaneous thoughts about a target activity were especially positive planned to devote more time to that activity over the coming week than participants who received no such information about their spontaneous thoughts. Collectively, these findings suggest that positive spontaneous thoughts may play an important role in shaping approach motivation. Broader implications and future directions in the study of positive spontaneous thoughts are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Spontaneous bacterial empyema in cirrhotic patients: analysis of eleven cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiol, X; Castellote, J; Baliellas, C; Ariza, J; Gimenez Roca, A; Guardiola, J; Casais, L

    1990-03-01

    Eleven episodes of spontaneous bacterial empyema were identified in eight cirrhotic patients with ascites. Criteria for spontaneous bacterial empyema included positive pleural fluid culture or polymorphonuclear cell concentration greater than 500 cells/mm3, evidence of pleural effusion before an infectious episode and transudate characteristics during infection. In five cases, spontaneous bacterial empyema was culture-negative and was associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Ascitic fluid was culture-negative in two of these cases and culture-positive in three. Blood cultures were negative in all five of these cases. In six cases spontaneous bacterial empyema was culture-positive (Escherichia coli in four, Klebsiella pneumoniae in one and Clostridium perfringens in one). Four of these patients had the same organism in ascites; one had culture-negative spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and one had no infection of ascites. Blood cultures were positive in four of these patients; three died. Death was more frequent in patients with positive cultures than in those with negative ones (p less than 0.05). Patients with hydrothorax are prone to spontaneous bacterial empyema. This infection probably occurs through hematogenous seeding, but transfer of infected ascites from the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm cannot be excluded. Patients with spontaneous bacterial empyema may be asymptomatic or may be seen with fever, chills and dyspnea. Spontaneous bacterial empyema must be differentiated from parapneumonic empyemas. The presence of pleural effusion before the infectious episode, fluid characteristics and the organisms isolated are the clues for differential diagnosis. Treatment includes antibiotics; chest tube insertion probably is not necessary.

  3. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Ковальова

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  4. Acupuncture and Spontaneous Regression of a Radiculopathic Cervical Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Ha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous regression of herniated cervical discs is not a well-established phenomenon. However, we encountered a case of a spontaneous regression of a severe radiculopathic herniated cervical disc that was treated with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herb medicine. The symptoms were improved within 12 months of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI conducted at that time revealed marked regression of the herniated disc. This case provides an additional example of spontaneous regression of a herniated cervical disc documented by MRI following non-surgical treatment.

  5. Acupuncture and spontaneous regression of a radiculopathic cervical herniated disc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ha; Park, Man-Young; Lee, Sang-Mi; Jung, Ho-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Kyoun; Lee, Jong-Deok; Kim, Dong-Woung; Yeom, Seung-Ryong; Lim, Jin-Young; Park, Min-Jung; Park, Se-Woon; Kim, Sung-Chul

    2012-06-01

    The spontaneous regression of herniated cervical discs is not a well-established phenomenon. However, we encountered a case of a spontaneous regression of a severe radiculopathic herniated cervical disc that was treated with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herb medicine. The symptoms were improved within 12 months of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted at that time revealed marked regression of the herniated disc. This case provides an additional example of spontaneous regression of a herniated cervical disc documented by MRI following non-surgical treatment.

  6. Geometry of spontaneously broken local N=1 supersymmetry in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    The authers reveal the model-independent geometric content of spontaneous breakdown of local supersymmetry in N=1 supergravities (conformal and minimal Einstien ones) via constructing nonlinear realizations of their underlying superspace gauge group. A general method of implementing such realizations consistently with the intrinsic superspace geometry of supergravity theories is proposed and its relevance to description of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the theories of similar nature (strings, membranes) is pointed out. Superspace adequate to the nonlinear realizations constructed and find the explicit relation between them and conventional curved N=1 superspaces are defined. The implications of this relationship for the N = 1 supergravity actions with spontaneously broken supersymmetry are discussed. 29 refs

  7. Teaching spontaneous responses to a young child with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily

    2008-10-01

    Children with Down syndrome experience significant communication impairments, particularly in expressive language. Although receiving little attention in the literature, deficiencies in expressive language are likely to affect spontaneous communicative responses in children with Down syndrome. In this study, using a multiple baseline design across responses, we demonstrated the effectiveness of discrete trial instruction in establishing spontaneous responses in a preschooler with Down syndrome. Spontaneous responses generalised to a novel setting involving a novel person and novel materials. Implications for the use of behaviourally based interventions to address the social-communicative needs of children with Down syndrome are discussed.

  8. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...... by the histamine content of the adhering basophils. The spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin was higher than to laminin and collagen type I. Both spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA...

  9. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...... the first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....

  10. [Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD): about 2 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkasimi, Abdelouahab; Elouazzani, Ghizlane; Hbali, Anas; Ismaili, Nabila; Elouafi, Nouha

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); its prevalence is estimated to be less than 3%. It is defined as a separation within the coronary arterial wall secondary to intramural bleeding with or without intimal tear, creating a false channel. It mainly affects young subjects, mainly women, without coronary atherosclerosis or risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, the occurrence of spontaneous dissection due to atheromatous disease is possible. We here report 2 cases of spontaneous coronary dissection, in order to discuss its pathogenesis, factors favoring its occurrence, its clinical presentation and its therapeutic management.

  11. Strong evidence for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in (quenched) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, I.M.; Gibbs, P.; Schierholz, G.; Teper, M.; Gilchrist, J.P.; Schneider, H.

    1983-09-01

    We calculate the chiral condensate for all quark masses using Kogut-Susskind fermions in lattice-regularized quenched QCD. The large volume behaviour of at small quark masses demonstrates that the explicit U(1) chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. We perform the calculation for β = 5.1 to 5.9 and find very good continuum renormalization group behaviour. We infer that the spontaneous breaking we observe belongs to continuum QCD. This constitutes the first unambiguous demonstration of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in continuum quenched QCD. (orig.)

  12. Spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in IPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Torrubia, S.; Sabate, J.M.; Rodriguez-Arias, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are at risk for a variety of acute pulmonary complications, including pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Our aim was to describe the radiographic and CT findings and to determine the frequency of complicating spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in patients with IPF. A retrospective study was performed including 78 consecutive patients who underwent CT scanning of the chest and who had confirmed IPF. The chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed by two chest radiologists and classified as showing features of extra-alveolar air collections. The CT scans showed extra-alveolar air in 9 (11.2 %) of 78 patients (six females and three males; age range 26-90 years, mean age 65 years). Pneumothorax was demonstrated in 5 patients and mediastinal air collections in 4 patients. All patients had dyspnea for 1-48 months (mean 14 months). Of the five cases with pneumothorax, four developed acute onset of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain, whereas 1 patient had a relatively stable functional status. Of the 4 patients with pneumomediastinum, three presented with nonpleuritic chest pain and acute dyspnea. Chest radiographs showed extra-alveolar air in 6 patients. Three cases were predicted to be negative by chest radiographs. Follow-up CT showed that air collections had resolved completely in 5 patients. Two patients died of respiratory failure within 4 months after CT. Extra-alveolar air should be recognized as a relatively common IPF-related complication. Chest CT is a useful imaging method in determining air collections in patients with IPF that become acutely breathless and their chest radiograph fails to reveal the presence of extra-alveolar air. (orig.)

  13. Probiotics and refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettis, E; Di Leo, E; Pastore, A; Distaso, M; Zaza, I; Vacca, M; Macchia, L; Vacca, A

    2016-09-01

    Background. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) first-line therapy with an antihistamine-based regimen may not achieve satisfactory control in patients. Thus, a continuing need exists for effective and safe treatments for refractory CSU. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of an intake of a combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03) in patients with CSU who remain symptomatic despite concomitant H1-antihistamine therapy. Methods. This report analyzes the effects of therapy with two probiotic strains on the clinical progress of 52 unselected patients with difficulty to treat CSU underwent to medical examination in two Italian specialist urticaria Clinics between September 2013 and September 2014. A mixture of Lactobacillus LS01 and Bifidobacterium BR03 were administered in each patient twice daily for 8 weeks. To evaluate patients' improvement with probiotics, urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) was used at baseline and at week 8 in addition to a 5-question urticaria quality of life questionnaire. Results. Fifty-two patients with CSU were included in this study (10 male and 42 female, age range 19-72 years). Mean disease duration was 1.5 years. Fourteen patients discontinued treatment, so evaluable population consisted of 38 patients. Nine of the 38 patients experienced mild clinical improvement during probiotic treatment (23.7%); one patient reported significant clinical improvement (2.6%) and one patient had complete remission of urticaria (2.6%). Twenty-seven patients did not have improvement in symptoms (71.1%). No side effects during the course of therapy were reported. Conclusions. A combination of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 administered twice daily for 8 weeks might reduce the symptoms scores and improve quality of life scores in a part of patients with CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with H1 antihistamine mostly in subjects with allergic

  14. In vivo neurochemical characterization of clothianidin induced striatal dopamine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faro, L R F; Oliveira, I M; Durán, R; Alfonso, M

    2012-12-16

    Clothianidin (CLO) is a neonicotinoid insecticide with selective action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The aim of this study was to determine the neurochemical basis for CLO-induced striatal dopamine release using the microdialysis technique in freely moving and conscious rats. Intrastriatal administration of CLO (3.5mM), produced an increase in both spontaneous (2462 ± 627% with respect to basal values) and KCl-evoked (4672 ± 706% with respect to basal values) dopamine release. This effect was attenuated in Ca(2+)-free medium, and was prevented in reserpine pre-treated animals or in presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). To investigate the involvement of dopamine transporter (DAT), the effect of CLO was observed in presence of nomifensine. The coadministration of CLO and nomifensine produced an additive effect on striatal dopamine release. The results suggest that the effect of CLO on striatal dopamine release is predominantly mediated by an exocytotic mechanism, Ca(2+), vesicular and TTX-dependent and not by a mechanism mediated by dopamine transporter. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Norepinephrine storage, distribution, and release in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, P.K.; Beamish, R.E.; Dhalla, K.S.; Innes, J.R.; Dhalla, N.S.

    1987-01-01

    The ability of hearts to store, distribute, and release norepinephrine (NE) was investigated in rats 8 wk after the induction of diabetes by an injection of streptozotocin. Chronic diabetes was associated with increased content and concentration of NE in heart and in other tissues such as kidney, brain, and spleen. Reserpine or tyramine treatment resulted in depletion of endogenous cardiac NE in control and diabetic rats. The depletion of NE stores at different times after a dose of reserpine was greater in diabetic hearts. On the other hand, NE stores in diabetic hearts were less sensitive than control hearts to low doses of tyramine but were more sensitive to high doses. The uptake of [ 3 H]NE was greater in diabetic hearts in isolated perfused preparations. In comparison with the control values, diabetic hearts showed a decrease in [ 3 H]NE in the granular fraction and an increase in the supernatant fraction. Diabetic hearts also showed an accelerated spontaneous release of [ 3 H]NE. The increased cardiac NE and the uptake and release of NE in diabetic animals were reversible upon treatment with insulin. These results are consistent with the view that sympathetic activity is increased in diabetic cardiomyopathy and indicate that cardiac NE in diabetic rats is maintained at a higher level partly due to an increased uptake of released NE by adrenergic nerve terminals

  16. EQCM verification of the concept of drug immobilization and release from conducting polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Bednarczyk-Cwynar, Barbara; Turczyn, Roman; Zak, Jerzy K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Disuccinyl derivative of anti-cancer drug, betulin, was immobilized in PEDOT matrix. • EQCM was used to monitor the processes of drug immobilization and release. • SEM, EDS and IR confirmed the presence of drug in polymer matrix. • The release of drug was performed with and without application of external potential. • Potentiodynamic stimulation was more efficient that potentiostatic release. - Abstract: Local drug delivery based on conducting polymer carriers is an innovative approach of medical treatment joining the concept of regional release of biomolecules with ion-exchange properties of conjugated polymers. In this study, we have applied electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) to monitor the process of three-step immobilization and release of anti-cancer drug, disuccinyl derivative of betulin, in PEDOT matrix. Each step of this process has been carefully investigated, i.e. electrochemical polymerization of monomer in the absence of drug, removal of primary dopant during the process of matrix reduction and drug incorporation during the process of matrix oxidation. The release of drug from PEDOT matrix has been performed via three paths, i.e. spontaneous release with no application of external potential, active release under potentiostatic conditions and active release under potentiodynamic conditions. EDS elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, IR and Raman spectroscopies, have been used to analyze structural and surface properties of drug-loaded PEDOT matrices.

  17. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  18. Spontaneous choledochal cyst rupture in pregnancy with concomitant chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; Simon, Ebby George; Koshy, Anoop K; Ramakrishna, B S; Raju, Ravish S; Vyas, Fredrick L; Joseph, Philip; Sitaram, V; Eapen, Anu

    2013-03-01

    Choledochal cysts are rare cystic transformations of the biliary tree that are increasingly diagnosed in adult patients. We report here a case of spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst in a pregnant young lady with chronic pancreatitis.

  19. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    given birth twice or more previously had increased odds ratio (OR), 1.78 (1.27-2.49), whereas women who were students had decreased OR, 0.55 (0.34-0.91) for having spontaneous abortions. Regarding lifestyle factors, the adjusted ORs among women who consumed 5 units or more alcohol per week or 375 mg......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  20. Treatment of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis - Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Grønbæk, Henning; Hansen, Jesper Bach

    2012-01-01

    National guidelines for treatment of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hyponatremia have been approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Ascites develops in approximately 60% of patients with cirrhosis during a 10 year period...

  1. Renormalization of extended QED with spontaneously broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibold, K.

    1980-01-01

    Using the BPHZ subtraction scheme in the version of Lowenstein and Zimmermann gauge and supersymmetry Ward identities are proved to all orders of perturbation theory for the super QED where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken. (orig.)

  2. Fetal megacystis : prediction of spontaneous resolution and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanella, F.; Duin, L.; Adama van Scheltema, P. N.; Cohen-Overbeek, T. E.; Pajkrt, E.; Bekker, M.; Willekes, C.; Bax, C. J.; Bilardo, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the natural history of fetal megacystis from diagnosis in utero to postnatal outcome, and to identify prognostic indicators of spontaneous resolution and postnatal outcome after resolution. Methods: This was a national retrospective cohort study. Fetal megacystis was

  3. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? SUMMARY ANSWER: We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced...... abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk...... and spontaneous abortion over time. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995...

  4. Spontaneous ignition due to intentional acute aluminum phosphide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz

    2011-02-01

    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common cause of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Spontaneous ignition is a rare finding in AlP poisoning. To present two cases of fatal AlP poisoning that involved spontaneous ignition. Two patients presented with suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage. During insertion of a nasogastric tube, both patients experienced spontaneous ignition, and flames were witnessed by the medical personnel. Unfortunately, both patients died due to systemic effects of AlP poisoning. Patients who present with acute aluminum phosphide poisoning may experience spontaneous ignition in the ED. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Immunoglobulin G antisperm antibodies and prediction of spontaneous pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leushuis, Esther; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Repping, Sjoerd; Schöls, Willem; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hompes, Peter G. A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the predictive capacity of immunoglobulin G ASA (direct MAR test) for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Nine fertility centers in The Netherlands. Patient(s): Consecutive ovulatory subfertile couples.

  6. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    , and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  7. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  8. Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified...... broken, but phase squeezing prevents spin-symmetry breaking. If, however, nondegenerate spin modes contribute to the amplification, quantum interferences lead to spin-dependent density profiles and hence spontaneously formed patterns in the longitudinal magnetization....... clouds. Our experiments permit a precise analysis of the amplification in specific spatial Bessel-like modes, allowing for the detailed understanding of the double symmetry breaking. On resonances that create vortex-antivortex superpositions, we show that the cylindrical spatial symmetry is spontaneously...

  9. Spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, ZhiRui; Zhang, ZhenWei; Xu, DaZhi; Zhao, Nan; Sun, ChangPu

    2018-04-01

    We study the spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the gauge couplings between the center-of-mass and the relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originate from the symmetries of the ring geometry and the corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. In particular, such spontaneous decoherence does not occur at all at the thermodynamic limit because the nontrivial boundary conditions become the trivial Born-von Karman boundary conditions when the perimeter of the ring container tends to infinity. Our investigation shows that a thermal macroscopic object with certain symmetries has a chance for its quantum properties to degrade even without applying an external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment.

  10. Spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Eun Young; Nam, Sang Yu; Choi, Hye Young; Hong, Min Ji [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Spontaneous breast infarction is a very rare complication of fibroadenoma of the breast. We present an interesting case of a 33-year-old woman with spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue related to pregnancy and lactation. Mammography showed an oval, circumscribed, fat-containing mass with microcalcifications. Ultrasonography revealed an oval, circumscribed mass with echogenic dots. Color Doppler imaging revealed presence of minimal vascularity at the periphery of the mass.

  11. Teaching Spontaneous Responses to Young Children With Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Emily A; Feeley, Kathleen M; Takacs, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Using a multiple probe design across responses, we demonstrated the effectiveness of intensive intervention in establishing spontaneous verbal responses to 2 3-year-old children with autism with generalization to novel settings involving novel persons. Intervention involved discrete-trial instruction (i.e., repeated instructional opportunities presented in close proximity to high rates of reinforcement), specific prompts, and error correction. Spontaneous responses were defined as specific ve...

  12. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage caused by decompensated liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnagopal Srikanth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage can be surgical or spontaneous. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SESCH is a rare entity. Most of the reported cases of SESCH were caused by a combination of corneal pathology and glaucoma. We are reporting a rare presentation of SESCH with no pre-existing glaucoma or corneal pathology and caused by massive intra- and peri-ocular hemorrhage due to decompensated liver disease.

  13. Spontaneous emission of semiconductors in the Wigner approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filinov, V. S.; Hoyer, W.; Bonitz, M.; Kira, M.; Fortov, V. E.; Koch, S. W.

    2003-06-01

    This paper presents a first step towards combining two well-established methods used in semiconductor physicsmdashsemiconductor Bloch equations and the Wigner approach to quantum transport. This combination provides the possibility of including spontaneous emission, i.e., the spontaneous recombination of excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors, into the Wigner approach, which so far has been used only for systems with fixed particle number. The theory is presented and first numerical results for a three-dimensional system are shown.

  14. Learning sculpts the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Christopher M.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Committeri, Giorgia; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio

    2009-01-01

    The brain is not a passive sensory-motor analyzer driven by environmental stimuli, but actively maintains ongoing representations that may be involved in the coding of expected sensory stimuli, prospective motor responses, and prior experience. Spontaneous cortical activity has been proposed to play an important part in maintaining these ongoing, internal representations, although its functional role is not well understood. One spontaneous signal being intensely investigated in the human brai...

  15. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2006-01-01

    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  16. Idiopathic Spontaneous Adrenal Hemorrhage in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narin Nasiroglu Imga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage (SAH is seen in the absence of trauma or adrenal tumor in adrenal glands. The incidence of SAH has been reported from 0.14% to 1.1% and it usually involves the right gland. During pregnancy, idiopathic unilateral SAH has been reported rarely. We present a case which comes to emergency department with an acute abdominal pain and the test results showed spontaneous left SAH.

  17. [Atypical etiology of rhinorrhea: spontaneous bilateral temporal encephalocele].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente Muñoz, Asís; Lisbona Alquézar, María Pilar; González Martínez, Luis; Sevil Navarro, Jorge; Llorente Arenas, Eva María

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous herniation of brain parenchyma through a dural and osseous defect in the temporal bone is a rare entity and a bilateral form is even more infrequent. It usually presents as an intermittent but persistent otorrhea. Manifestation as nose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is very uncommon. Our objective is presenting this unusual case report of a spontaneous bilateral encephalocele with a bilateral tegmen tympani defect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma in a patient with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ahad Wani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in a patient of multiple myeloma receiving chemotherapy is an unknown event, needing an urgent neurosurgical management. We report this patient who presented with progressive neurological deterioration and a low platelet count. She was successfully managed by craniotomy and evacuation of subdural hematoma with intraoperative transfusion of platelets. The acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in her was probably related to the bleeding diathesis due to thrombocytopenia associated with chemotherapy.

  19. Spontaneous Rupture of the Stomach; Report of Case,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-30

    massively distended and she experienced dyspnea. She developed tachycardia (110) and became hypotensive (90 systolic). Portable x-rays of the chest and...pointed out by Matikainen 17 in 1979. Spontaneous gastric rupture in the newborn appears to be more common than in the adult. 18 DISCUSSION The cause of...138:(451-452), 1979. 18. Bayatpour, M., Bernard, L., McCune, F., and bariel, W.: Spontaneous gastric rupture in the newborn , Am. J. Surg., 137:(267-269), 1979.

  20. Spontaneous Tricuspid Valve Chordal Rupture in Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Clara Tude; Afonso, José E; Cordovil, Adriana; Monaco, Claudia; Piveta, Rafael; Cordovil, Rodrigo; Fischer, Claudio H; Vieira, Marcelo; Lira-Filho, Edgar; Morhy, Samira S

    2016-03-01

    Rupture of tricuspid valve is unusual, occurring mainly in the setting of blunt trauma or endomyocardial biopsy. Spontaneous tricuspid valve chordal rupture is particularly rare. We report herein a case of a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension, on the lung transplantation waiting list, who presented with spontaneous chordal rupture, exacerbation of tricuspid insufficiency and worsening of clinical status. Diagnosis and treatment, along with possible mechanisms for this complication, are discussed. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Spontaneous remission of a diffuse brainstem lesion in a neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Leena; Kahn, Thomas [University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Merkenschlager, Andreas [University of Leipzig, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Hirsch, Wolfgang [University of Leipzig, Pediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany)

    2007-04-15

    We describe here the spontaneous remission of a diffuse brainstem lesion found in an infant at the age of 7 weeks. Clinical and MRI characteristics strongly suggested a diffuse pontine glioma. Repeated MRI studies showed a continuous decrease in the size of the lesion, which was no longer visible by the age of 27 months. Spontaneous remission of diffuse pontine glioma is extremely rare; to our knowledge there are reports of only three similar cases. (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous Regression of Intervertebral Disc Herniation – Case Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Rapan, Saša; Gulan, Gordan; Lovrić, Ivan; Jovanović, Savo

    2011-01-01

    Lumbar disc hernia (LDH) is a common cause of low back pain and radicular leg pain. It is well known that the majority of LDH patients recover spontaneously. Since the advent of MRI, a spontaneous regression of fragment size of disc hernia occurs, as well as mitigation of subjective difficulties and neurological disorders. Therefore, surgical treatment is not always method of choice in this disease. Two cases of conservatively treated large disc extrusion which result in significant ...

  3. Trisomy 13 ascertained in a survey of spontaneous abortions.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, P A; Hassold, T J; Henry, A; Pettay, D; Takaesu, N

    1987-01-01

    In a series of 2922 karyotyped spontaneous abortions, 62 were found to be trisomic for chromosome 13, 46 having a simple trisomy and 16 a translocation trisomy. The epidemiology of this series of trisomy 13 conceptuses is presented and compared to that of trisomy 13 ascertained from other populations. In most compared parameters the trisomy 13 spontaneous abortions are very similar. However, there is no evidence in our material for the fall in proportion of trisomy 13 conceptuses at very adva...

  4. COMMERCIAL SNF ACCIDENT RELEASE FRACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.O. Bader

    1999-10-18

    The purpose of this design analysis is to specify and document the total and respirable fractions for radioactive materials that are released from an accident event at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) involving commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) in a dry environment. The total and respirable release fractions will be used to support the preclosure licensing basis for the MGR. The total release fraction is defined as the fraction of total CSNF assembly inventory, typically expressed as an activity inventory (e.g., curies), of a given radionuclide that is released to the environment from a waste form. The radionuclides are released from the inside of breached fuel rods (or pins) and from the detachment of radioactive material (crud) from the outside surfaces of fuel rods and other components of fuel assemblies. The total release fraction accounts for several mechanisms that tend to retain, retard, or diminish the amount of radionuclides that are available for transport to dose receptors or otherwise can be shown to reduce exposure of receptors to radiological releases. The total release fraction includes a fraction of airborne material that is respirable and could result in inhalation doses. This subset of the total release fraction is referred to as the respirable release fraction. Potential accidents may involve waste forms that are characterized as either bare (unconfined) fuel assemblies or confined fuel assemblies. The confined CSNF assemblies at the MGR are contained in shipping casks, canisters, or disposal containers (waste packages). In contrast to the bare fuel assemblies, the container that confines the fuel assemblies has the potential of providing an additional barrier for diminishing the total release fraction should the fuel rod cladding breach during an accident. However, this analysis will not take credit for this additional bamer and will establish only the total release fractions for bare unconfined CSNF assemblies, which may however be

  5. Underground water stress release models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Dang, Shenjun; Lü, Shaochuan

    2011-08-01

    The accumulation of tectonic stress may cause earthquakes at some epochs. However, in most cases, it leads to crustal deformations. Underground water level is a sensitive indication of the crustal deformations. We incorporate the information of the underground water level into the stress release models (SRM), and obtain the underground water stress release model (USRM). We apply USRM to the earthquakes occurred at Tangshan region. The analysis shows that the underground water stress release model outperforms both Poisson model and stress release model. Monte Carlo simulation shows that the simulated seismicity by USRM is very close to the real seismicity.

  6. Cobalt release from inexpensive jewellery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Menné, Torkil

    2010-01-01

    . Conclusions: This study showed that only a minority of inexpensive jewellery purchased in Denmark released cobalt when analysed with the cobalt spot test. As fashion trends fluctuate and we found cobalt release from dark appearing jewellery, cobalt release from consumer items should be monitored in the future....... Microstructural characterization was made using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Results: Cobalt release was found in 4 (1.1%) of 354 items. All these had a dark appearance. SEM/EDS was performed on the four dark appearing items which showed tin-cobalt plating on these...

  7. Spontaneous rotation of a melting ice disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorbolo, Stephane; Vandewalle, Nicolas; Darbois-Texier, Baptiste; Grasp Team

    Ice disks were released at the surface of a thermalised aluminium plate. The fusion of the ice creates a lubrication film between the ice disk and the plate. The situation is similar to the Leidenfrost effect reported for liquid droplet evaporating at the surface of a plate which temperature is above the boiling temperature of the liquid. An analogy is depicted between the Leidenfrost phenomenon and the rapid fusion of a solid at the contact of a hot plate. Similarly to Leidenfrost droplet, we observe that, while the ice disks were melting, the disks were very mobile: translation and rotation. SD acknowledges support from FNRS as Senior Research Associate. This research has been funded by the Interuniversity Attraction Pole Programme (IAP 7/38 MicroMAST) initiated by the Belgian Science Policy Office.

  8. Modelling spontaneous combustion in wet lignite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Rose; Burnell, John G.; Wake, Graeme C.

    1999-06-01

    A model of self-heating of wet coal is presented. This involves coupled heat and mass transport within a coal pile, together with an exothermic reaction and phase changes of water. There are four state variables: temperature, oxygen, water vapour and liquid water concentrations. Heat and mass are conducted or diffused through the pile, while simultaneously undergoing chemical reaction. As demonstrated by experiment, the heat release rate depends in a quadratic fashion on the liquid water content and this feature is a distinctive aspect of the model. After development of the model, an illustrative spatially uniform model of just three state variables (temperature, oxygen and liquid water concentrations) is analysed for its bifurcational structure of steady states, periodic solutions and their stability. By this means, thresholds for the onset of ignition can be determined as a function of the physical and chemical parameters.

  9. Spontaneous indices are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Ruth D; Salisbury, Julie K; Taylor, J Andrew

    2003-10-01

    Spontaneously occurring, parallel fluctuations in arterial pressure and heart period are frequently used as indices of baroreflex function. Despite the convenience of spontaneous indices, their relation to the arterial baroreflex remains unclear. Therefore, in 97 volunteers, we derived 5 proposed indices (sequence method, alpha-index, transfer function, low-frequency transfer function, and impulse response function), compared them with arterial baroreflex gain (by the modified Oxford pharmacologic technique), and examined their relation to carotid distensibility and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The subjects comprised men and women (n=41) aged 25 to 86 years, 30% of whom had established coronary artery disease. Generally, the indices were correlated with each other (except alpha-index and low-frequency transfer function) and with baroreflex gain. However, the Bland-Altman method demonstrated that the spontaneous indices had limits of agreement as large as the baroreflex gain itself. Even in individuals within the lowest tertile of baroreflex gain for whom baroreflex gain appears to be the most clinically relevant, spontaneous indices failed to relate to baroreflex gain. In fact, for these individuals, there was no correlation between any index and baroreflex gain. Forward stepwise linear regression showed that all spontaneous indices and baroreflex gain were related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia, but only baroreflex gain was related to carotid distensibility. Therefore, these data suggest that spontaneous indices are inadequate estimates of gain and are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex function.

  10. Group-theoretic condition for spontaneous CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Howard E.; Surujon, Ze'ev

    2012-10-01

    We formulate the necessary conditions for a scalar potential to exhibit spontaneous CP violation. Associated with each complex scalar field is a U(1) symmetry that may be explicitly broken by terms in the scalar potential (called spurions). In order for CP-odd phases in the vacuum to be physical, these phases must be related to spontaneously broken U(1) generators that are also explicitly broken by a sufficient number of inequivalent spurions. In the case where the vacuum is characterized by a single complex phase, our result implies that the phase must be associated with a U(1) generator that is broken explicitly by at least two inequivalent spurions. A suitable generalization of this result to the case of multiple complex phases has also been obtained. These conditions may be used both to distinguish models capable of spontaneous CP violation and as a model building technique for obtaining spontaneously CP-violating deformations of CP-conserving models. As an example, we analyze the generic two Higgs doublet model, where we also carry out a complete spurion analysis. We also comment on other models with spontaneous CP violation, including the chiral Lagrangian, a minimal version of the Nelson-Barr model, and little Higgs models with spontaneous CP violation.

  11. Observation time and spontaneous resolution of primary phimosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda Lourenção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate spontaneous resolution rate of a series of patients with physiologic phimosis in relation to observation time and presence of symptoms. Methods: retrospective and longitudinal follow-up study of patients with physiologic phimosis, that did not apply topic treatment. These patients were invited for a new visit for reevaluation, or recent data were obtained by chart analysis. Spontaneous resolution rate was determined and statistically compared to age, presence of symptoms at first medical visit and time until reevaluation. Results: seventy one patients were included. Medium time of observation from first visit to reevaluation was 37.4 months. There was spontaneous resolution of phimosis in 32 (45% patients. Children with spontaneous resolution were younger at initial diagnosis and were observed during a longer period of time. Most asymptomatic patients at first visit presented spontaneous resolution. However, it was not possible to stablish a significant relationship between presence of symptoms and evolution of physiologic phimosis. Conclusions: time of observation was the main determinant of spontaneous resolution of patients with physiologic phimosis, reinforcing the current more conservative approach regarding circumcision of those patients.

  12. Sustained mild hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Ueda, Kaname; Aoki, Ken; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi

    2014-10-01

    Head-to-foot gravitational force >1G (+Gz hypergravity) augments venous pooling in the lower body and reduces central blood volume during exposure, compared with 1Gz. Central hypovolemia has been reported to reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. However, no investigations have examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exposure to sustained mild +Gz hypergravity. We therefore hypothesized that mild +Gz hypergravity would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, compared with 1Gz. To test this hypothesis, we examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in 16 healthy men during exposure to mild +Gz hypergravity using a short-arm centrifuge. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (tonometry) and R-R interval (electrocardiography) were obtained during 1Gz and 1.5Gz exposures. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by sequence slope and transfer function gain. Stroke volume was calculated from the arterial pressure waveform using a three-element model. All indices of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity decreased significantly (up slope: 18.6±2.3→12.7±1.6ms/mmHg, Pbaroreflex sensitivity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disturbance during the exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Flash release - an alternative for releasing complex mems devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Svetovoy, Vitaly; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  14. Flash release an alternative for releasing complex MEMS devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deladi, S.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2004-01-01

    A novel time-saving and cost-effective release technique has been developed and is described. The physical nature of the process is explained in combination with experimental observations. The results of the flash release process are compared with those of freeze-drying and supercritical CO2

  15. Immunoglobulins from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients enhance the frequency of glycine-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in rat hypoglossal motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđus P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, still incurable neurological disorder affecting upper and lower motoneurons. Passive transfer of the disease occurs when immunoglobulins from ALS patients are injected into experimental animals. It is suggested that ALS IgGs cause excitotoxicity by acting on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. We reported previously that ALS IgGs increase spontaneous release of glutamate in hippocampal neurons. Since these cells are not normally affected in ALS, we here studied the effect of ALS IgGs on hypoglossal motoneurons in rat brain-stem slices. The frequency of spontaneous glycine-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs was augmented, but not that of miniature ones (mIPSCs, thus pointing to an indirect effect on release.

  16. Antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk on spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohammed A; Alhaj, Omar A; Al-Khalifah, Abdullrahman S

    2017-03-30

    Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in worldwide, thus prevention of hypertension is important in reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease. Milk contains bioactive peptides released during milk fermentation which lead to exhibit angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on rats and compared with unfermented skim camel milk as control. The antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on thirty six male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was carried out for (short-term) and (long-term) using different doses (80, 240 and 1200 mg/kg body weight). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also measured using ACE Kit. The blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in short term administration (24 hours) of 1200 mg/kg body weight fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk for long-term (20 days) decreased and affected the heart rate (beats/min). The lowest record of systolic (41 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (19 mmHg) were at dose of 1200 mg/kg body weight of fermented skim camel milk at 15 days of administration. Likewise, ACE activity in plasma of SHR administered fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk by L. helveticus and S. thermophillus in SHR rats depends on the high dose of fermented skim camel milk in short and long-term. The ACE activity inhibitory was clear with fermented skim camel milk.

  17. Amaranth Protein Hydrolysates Efficiently Reduce Systolic Blood Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ramírez-Torres

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alcalase is the enzyme of choice to release antihypertensive peptides from amaranth proteins, but the hydrolysis conditions have not been optimized yet. Furthermore, in vivo assays are needed to confirm such a hypotensive effect. Our aim was to optimize the hydrolysis of amaranth protein with alcalase and to test in vivo the hypotensive effect of the hydrolysates. A response surface analysis was carried out to optimize the hydrolysis reaction. The response variable was the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE-I inhibition. The hydrolysis degree was determined (free alpha-amino groups measurement. The optimized hydrolysate bioavailability was assessed in the sera of mice and the hypotensive effect was assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Control groups were administered captopril or water. The optimized hydrolysis conditions were: pH = 7.01, temperature = 52 °C, enzyme concentration 0.04 mU/mg, and time = 6.16 h. The optimized hydrolysate showed a 93.5% of ACE-I inhibition and a hydrolysis degree of 74.77%. After supplementation, the hydrolysate was bioavailable in mice from 5 to 60 min, and the hypotensive effect started at 4 h in spontaneously hypertensive rats (p < 0.05 vs. water group. This effect was similar to the captopril hypotensive effect for the next 3 h (p > 0.05. The use of amaranth-optimized hydrolysates as hypotensive supplements or ingredient for functional foods seems feasible.

  18. Prenatal depression and stress - risk factors for placental pathology and spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Ileana P; Foarfă, Maria Camelia; Pîrlog, Mihail Cristian; Turculeanu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal stress and depression affects 10-25% of pregnant women and is associated with disruption of fetal neurodevelopment, higher rates of placental abnormalities, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, or preterm birth. Markers of genetic vulnerability are catechol-O-methyltransferase, monoamine oxidase-A, variation of serotonin transporters, low levels of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met (BDNF), while hyperactivity of HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis and massive release of endogenous cortisol, regulated by metalloproteinase-1, -2, -3 and -9, and are involved both in depressive symptoms and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in fetus. In women with prenatal stress and depression which suffered spontaneous abortion were observed placental abnormalities as regular shape and necrotic villi, decidua with large areas of necrosis, acute inflammation and effusion areas correlated with increase in proinflammatory factors, immune deficit and infections, hyaline type fibrosis, intervilos and deciduous intense hemorrhage, associated with increase of vascular endothelial growth factor. Taking into account the important societal and economic costs becomes important for an interdisciplinary approach, in which pregnancy and its risks are a central point for women mental health.

  19. Pathogenesis of hypercalciuria in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, C H; Chen, P S; Smith, D E; Yang, C S

    1986-01-01

    The etiology of hypercalciuria remains unknown in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In order to differentiate absorptive versus renal hypercalciuria, serial measurements of urinary calcium (UCaV) excretion were made weekly under fasting (3-hour urine collection) and after oral administration of CaCl2 (50 mg/100 g; 4-hour urine collection) from age 8 to 14 weeks in SHR (n = 14) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 14). Fasting UCaV was significantly greater in WKY than in SHR throughout the periods of observation. In contrast, after oral Ca loading UCaV was greater in SHR after 13 weeks of age (13 weeks: SHR UCaV = 954 micrograms/mg creatinine, WKY UCaV = 541 p less than 0.01; 14 weeks: SHR UCaV = 988 micrograms/mg creatinine, WKY UCaV = 534, p less than 0.01). Fasting urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) excretion was not different between WKY and SHR. However, cyclic AMP excretion of SHR, but not WKY, was decreased after calcium loading when compared to the fasting values. The cyclic AMP was also significantly lower in SHR than in WKY rats after calcium loading. Calcium handling by the kidney was not different between SHR and WKY with or without parathyroidectomy. Calcium disposition kinetic studies were performed on these animals at age 15 and 16 weeks. No significant difference of intravenous 45Ca was observed between WKY (n = 6) and SHR (n = 6) in total plasma clearance, nonrenal clearance, biologic half-life, and elimination rate constant from the central compartment. However, the WKY had a significantly greater renal clearance of 45Ca than the SHR (0.48 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.02 ml/n, p less than 0.001). Since tissue disposition of intravenous 45Ca was not different between WKY and SHR, the increased renal excretion of calcium after oral administration in SHR, therefore, reflects increased intestinal absorption of calcium. Correction of established hypertension did not abolish the hypercalciuria. We believe that increased

  20. Gamma ray transitions in de-excitation of 252Cf spontaneous fission fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Rashid, K.; Ahmad, M.; Qureshi, I.E.; Alam, G.D.; Ali, A.; Bhatti, N.; Horsch, F.

    1983-11-01

    Gamma rays in the range from 60 keV to 730 keV have been observed following the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf, with high resolution Ge(Li) detector, full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 700 eV at 122 keV, in coincidence with the two fission fragments observed with surface barrier detectors. A total number of 18, 636, 549 events were recorded over a run period of about 150 hours stretching over three weeks. The events were sorted to generate gamma ray spectra belonging to 2 amu intervals gamma of the fragment masses and 6 MeV intervals of the total kinetic energy released. Some of the prominent gamma lines belonging to various masses of the fission fragments have been identified. For some gamma lines, the intensities have been evaluated as a function of the total kinetic energy of the fission fragments. (authors)