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Sample records for spontaneous ovarian carcinogesis

  1. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  2. Spontaneous Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in a Normal Singleton Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Oztekin

    2006-09-01

    Conclusion: Although spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation is a rare entity, it is important to differentiate it from other causes of ovarian enlargement. Occasionally, life-threatening situations may occur, but it is usually a self-limiting process.

  3. Lycopene Protects Against Spontaneous Ovarian Cancer Formation in Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Kazim; Yenice, Engin; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Orhan, Cemal; Mizrak, Cengizhan; Ozercan, Ibrahim H; Sahin, Nurhan; Yilmaz, Bahiddin; Bilir, Birdal; Ozpolat, Bulent; Kucuk, Omer

    2018-03-01

    Dietary intake of lycopene has been associated with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer, suggesting its chemopreventive potential against ovarian carcinogenesis. Lycopene's molecular mechanisms of action in ovarian cancer have not been fully understood. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of lycopene on the ovarian cancer formation using the laying hen model, a biologically relevant animal model of spontaneous ovarian carcinogenesis due to high incidence rates similar to humans. In this study, a total of 150 laying hens at age of 102 weeks were randomized into groups of 50: a control group (0 mg of lycopene per kg of diet) and two treatment groups (200 mg or 400 mg of lycopene per kg of diet, or ~26 and 52 mg/d/hen, respectively). At the end of 12 months, blood, ovarian tissues and tumors were collected. We observed that lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the overall ovarian tumor incidence ( P Lycopene also significantly decreased the rate of adenocarcinoma, including serous and mucinous subtypes ( P lycopene-fed hens compared to control birds ( P lycopene reduced the expression of NF-κB while increasing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 and its major target protein, heme oxygenase 1. In addition, lycopene supplementation decreased the expression of STAT3 by inducing the protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 expression in the ovarian tissues. Taken together, our findings strongly support the potential of lycopene in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  4. Spontaneous Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome in a Term Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytekin Tokmak

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous OHSS in a term pregnancy is extremely rare. The aim of this study is to present a case of spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS in a term pregnancy. A 29-year-old primigravida woman conceived spontaneously and was observed up until 35 weeks of gestation. During this time the patient had a normal pregnancy with normal ovaries. She applied to the current clinic during the 37th week of gestation with complaints of rapid weight gain, abdominal disturbance, and pain. Ultrasound examination showed large bilateral ovaries with multiple follicles and mild ascites. At 39 weeks of gestation, the ovaries were the same as detected previously, and a caesarean section was performed due to fetal macrosomia. A healthy female foetus weighing 4060 gr was delivered. The enlarged bilateral ovaries containing multiple follicles were drilled with electrocautery. The ovaries returned to a near normal state for two weeks after the birth. There are no reported cases of spontaneous OHSS in late pregnancy in the literature. Ovarian drilling may be useful during caesarean section. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 623-626

  5. Women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovarian disease: predictors of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelghar, Wessam M; Bayoumy, Hassan A; Ellaithy, Mohamed I; Khalil, Marian S

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the role of different clinical, biochemical and sonographic factors as predictors of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovarian disease (CCR-PCOD). This prospective study recruited 251 infertile women with CCR-PCOD. Several clinical, biochemical and sonographic criteria were tested as possible predictors of spontaneous ovulation after LOD using multivariate analysis. Women with higher preoperative levels of LH, FSH and/or androstenedione had significantly higher rates of spontaneous ovulation within the first eight weeks after LOD, but only FSH and androstenedione were found to be independent predictors. Other factors including age, BMI, type of infertility, duration of infertility, menstrual pattern, testosterone level, ovarian volume and SHBG were insignificant predictors. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves derived from FSH, LH, androstenedione, and a logistic regression model showed that the best cut-off values were 4.1IU/l, 7.8IU/l, 1.2ng/ml, and 0.4897, respectively, with sensitivity of 91.18%, 100%, 73.53%, and 88.24% and specificity of 69.57%, 69.57%, 65.22%, and 73.91% for FSH, LH, androstenedione, and logistic regression model respectively. An extended follow up (9 months after LOD) was conducted for the anovulatory and the non-pregnant ovulatory women, who were treated individually according to their clinical situation. Of these women, 53.5% (69/129) got pregnant, resulting in a cumulative pregnancy rate of 48% (82/171). Of these pregnancies, 16/82 (19.5%) were spontaneous while 35.4% (29/82) and 45.1% (37/82) occurred after ovulation induction by CC and gonadotropins, respectively. This study supports the use of androstenedione, LH and FSH as a simple reliable tool in triaging patients with CCR-PCOD to select the ideal candidates for LOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Bomfim, Lucas Novais [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Maceio, AL, (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. (author)

  7. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous singleton pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabar, Fábio Roberto

    2016-05-24

    The ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is the combination of increased ovarian volume, due to the presence of multiple cysts and vascular hyperpermeability, with subsequent hypovolemia and hemoconcentration. We report a case of spontaneous syndrome in a singleton pregnancy. This was a spontaneous pregnancy with 12 weeks of gestational age. The pregnancy was uneventful until 11 weeks of gestational age. After that, the pregnant woman complained of progressive abdominal distention associated with abdominal discomfort. She did not report other symptoms. In the first trimester, a routine ultrasonography showed enlarged ovaries, multiples cysts and ascites. Upon admission, the patient was hemodynamically stable, her serum β-hCG was 24,487mIU/mL, thyroid-stimulating hormone was 2.2µUI/mL and free T4 was 1.8ng/dL. All results were within normal parameters. However, levels of estradiol were high (10,562pg/mL). During hospitalization, she received albumin, furosemide and prophylactic dose of enoxaparin. The patient was discharged on the sixth hospital day. RESUMO A síndrome de hiperestimulação ovariana é a combinação do aumento dos ovários, devido à presença de múltiplos cistos e de hiperpermeabilidade vascular, com subsequente hipovolemia e hemoconcentração. Relata-se um caso de síndrome espontânea em uma gestação única. Trata-se de gravidez espontânea com 12 semanas de idade gestacional. A gravidez ocorreu sem intercorrências até 11 semanas de idade gestacional. Após, a gestante passou a se queixar de distensão abdominal progressiva, associada com desconforto abdominal. A paciente não relatava outros sintomas. A ultrassonografia de rotina no primeiro trimestre mostrou ovários aumentados com múltiplos cistos e ascite. No momento da internação, a paciente apresentava-se hemodinamicamente estável, com β-hCG sérico de 24.487mUI/mL, hormônio estimulante da tireoide de 2,2µUI/m e T4 livre de 1,8ng/dL, ou seja, valores dentro dos par

  8. Spontaneous Ovarian Pregnancy and Over Protective Management: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Ender Soydinç

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to present a case of primary ovarian pregnancy in a 31-year-old patient who presented to the emergency room with symptoms and signs of acute abdomen and positive beta HCG test. A gestation sac of 6 weeks was detected in the right ovary by transvaginal sonography. Emergency laparotomy and extirpation of the ectopic tissue was performed.

  9. A case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome with spontaneous hemoperitoneum

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad R. Lele; Manoj Kumar Tangri

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of complicated severe OHSS that developed spontaneous hemoperitoneum. This was a potentially fatal complication of pharmacological stimulation of ovary in assisted reproduction. Here the life was saved, oophorectomy was prevented and fertility preserved by timely diagnosis and conservative surgery.

  10. Immune cells in the normal ovary and spontaneous ovarian tumors in the laying hen (Gallus domesticus) model of human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradaric, Michael J; Penumatsa, Krishna; Barua, Animesh; Edassery, Seby L; Yu, Yi; Abramowicz, Jacques S; Bahr, Janice M; Luborsky, Judith L

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian cancer in chickens resembles human tumors both histologically and biochemically. The goal was to determine if there are differences in lymphocyte content between normal ovaries and ovarian tumors in chickens as a basis for further studies to understand the role of immunity in human ovarian cancer progression. Hens were selected using grey scale and color Doppler ultrasound to determine if they had normal or tumor morphology. Cells were isolated from ovaries (n = 6 hens) and lymphocyte numbers were determined by flow cytometry using antibodies to avian CD4 and CD8 T and B (Bu1a) cells. Ovarian sections from another set of hens (n = 26) were assessed to verify tumor type and stage and to count CD4, CD8 and Bu1a immunostained cells by morphometric analysis. T and B cells were more numerous in ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. There were less CD4+ cells than CD8+ and Bu1a+ cells in normal ovaries or ovarian tumors. CD8+ cells were the dominant T cell sub-type in both ovarian stroma and in ovarian follicles compared to CD4+ cells. Bu1a+ cells were consistently found in the stroma of normal ovaries and ovarian tumors but were not associated with follicles. The number of immune cells was highest in late stage serous tumors compared to endometrioid and mucinous tumors. The results suggest that similar to human ovarian cancer there are comparatively more immune cells in chicken ovarian tumors than in normal ovaries, and the highest immune cell content occurs in serous tumors. Thus, this study establishes a foundation for further study of tumor immune responses in a spontaneous model of ovarian cancer which will facilitate studies of the role of immunity in early ovarian cancer progression and use of the hen in pre-clinical vaccine trials.

  11. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a young woman with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirra, Marco; Kola, Nertil; Mattiello, Giacomo; Morisco, Carmine; Spinelli, Letizia

    2017-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects 4% to 12% of women in reproductive age, representing a clinical condition that could predispose to cardiovascular diseases. We report a case of a 34-year-old woman with PCOS, presenting with chest pain, onset two days before, and ST segment-elevation myocardial infarction. She was not pregnant or in a postpartum state. Subsequent cardiac angiography revealed spontaneous left anterior descending coronary artery dissections, managed by conservative approach. The patient was discharged in medical therapy after 5days. This is the first observation of spontaneous coronary artery dissection occurring in a PCOS patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Risk factors for postpartum ovarian cysts and their spontaneous recovery or persistence in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gatius, F; Santolaria, P; Yániz, J; Fenech, M; López-Béjar, M

    2002-11-01

    Cystic ovarian disease is a major cause of reproductive failure and economic loss for the dairy industry. Many cysts that develop during the early postpartum period regress spontaneously. However, it is difficult to decide at what point it would be more cost effective to treat ovarian cysts than to wait for spontaneous recovery. The objective of this study was to analyze risk factors for the development of the ovarian cystic condition during early and late postpartum, and for its persistence or recovery during the pre-service period in lactating dairy cows. Using multiple logistic regression, we analyzed data derived from 873 lactating dairy cows from a single herd. An ovarian cyst was diagnosed if it was possible to observe a single follicular structure with an antrum diameter > or = 25 mm in the absence of a corpus luteum in three sonograms performed at 7-day intervals. The cystic condition was denoted as early if the cyst was diagnosed 43-49 days postpartum, and late if detected 57-63-day postpartum. Spontaneous cyst regression before 60-day postpartum was regarded as early cystic recovery. For the early cystic group, there were no significant effects of lactation number, body condition score on prepartum Day 60, at parturition or on postpartum Day 30, or of body condition loss from parturition to 30-day postpartum. Cows calving in summer were 2.6 times more likely to develop ovarian cysts than those giving birth in winter. The risk of having a cyst was 1.9 times higher in cows with an abnormal puerperium. A 1-kg increase in milk yield raised the risk of cysts by a factor of 1.05. A 1-unit increase in body condition score (scale from 1 to 5) from prepartum Day 60 to parturition increased the risk of cyst development 8.4 times. Milk production and lactation number were negatively correlated with spontaneous early cyst recovery. A 1-kg decrease in milk production increased the probability of cyst recovery by a factor of 1.06, and a 1-unit drop in lactation number

  13. Selected metabolic and hormonal profiles during maintenance of spontaneous ovarian cysts in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probo, M; Comin, A; Cairoli, F; Faustini, M; Kindahl, H; De Amicis, I; Veronesi, M C

    2011-06-01

    Information is lacking regarding the relationship between metabolic and hormonal profiles and the maintenance of spontaneous ovarian cyst disease in dairy cows. For this reason, the concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and cortisol (C) were investigated during the spontaneous course of ovarian cyst disease in dairy cows (n=6) between the 7th and 16th weeks post-partum (PP). The control group consisted of normally cycling cows (n=6). Blood samples were collected twice a day, and plasma was analysed using different techniques. Progesterone and 15-ketodihydro-PGF(2α) plasma profiles were investigated to confirm the ovulatory or anovulatory conditions of the cows. Cortisol plasma levels were not significantly different among sampling times within each group or between the two groups. NEFA plasma levels were significantly higher in cycling cows compared to cystic cows at the 16th week PP (pcows during the 8th, 10th, 11th (pdisease in cattle. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Sonographic diagnosis of neonatal ovarian cysts: Two cases of spontaneous resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaum, A.R.; Sanders, R.C.; Hartman, D.S.; Dudgeon, D.L.; Haller, J.A. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Sonography established the diagnosis of an ovarian cyst in 12 infants. In two, spontaneous resolution over a 2- to 4-month interval was documented. Six cysts were discovered prenatally and confirmed postnatally, and six were identified in neonates with a palpable abdominal mass or distention. Ten masses were intra-abdominal; two were pelvic in location. The cyst size ranged from 2 to 10 cm in diameter. The cyst was spherical and unilateral in 11 of 12 infants and dumbbell-shaped and bilateral in one infant. Four cysts were anechoic and eight hemorrhagic or torsed cysts were complex or echogenic. In two hemorrhagic cysts a fluid-debris level was detected, and three were septated

  15. Tumor necrosis factor alpha versus LH and androstendione as a reliable predictor of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling for women with clomiphene citrate resistance polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyam, Emaduldin; Hefzy, Enas

    2018-03-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) is still a controversial decision; due to the long term hazards; so short and long term predictors after the procedure should be taken in consideration. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of the serum level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and other polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) relevant clinical and biochemical factors as a predictor of spontaneous ovulation after laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in women with clomiphene citrate resistant polycystic ovarian disease (CCR-PCOD). It was a prospective research work, where 150 infertile women with CCR-PCOD had been recruited. TNF-α serum level, which is an inflammatory biomarker, was investigated in addition to other PCOD relevant clinical and biochemical parameters as possible predictors of successful spontaneous ovulation and subsequent pregnancy after LOD. Recruited women with higher preoperative levels of TNF-α, LH, and androstenedione had significantly higher rates of spontaneous ovulation within the first three months follow up after LOD, in contrast to obese women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, long duration of infertility ≥3 years, marked biochemical hyperandrogenism (testosterone levels ≥4.5 nmol/L, free androgen index ≥15), and high insulin resistance (IR). Ninty five (95 = 63.3%) women in between women regularly menstruated (105 = 70%) had spontaneous ovulation, and of those spontaneously ovulated, 35(36.8%) women got pregnant spontaneously during the first 3 months follow up. Extended follow up for 12 months period revealed that 61 women got pregnant, with cumulative pregnancy rate of 58%. Logistic regression showed that the best cut-off values for spontaneous ovulation after LOD were 65.1 pg/ml, 11.5 IU/l, and 3.1 ng/ml and with a sensitivity of 91%, 88%, 55%, and with a specificity of 85%, 79%, 78%, for TNF-α, LH, androstenedione serum level respectively. TNF-α, LH, and Androstenedione could be considered as reliable

  16. SPONTANEOUS RESOLUTION OF ANTENATALY DIAGNOSED COMPLEX OVARIAN CYST - A FOLLOW UP SONOGRAPHIC STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Satyabhuwan Singh; Vishnu; Vivek; Rajesh; Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    A congenital ovarian cyst in feto - neonatal stage is a rare condition. New advanced Ultrasonography technique increased the incidences. Though benign, large cyst and complex cysts may require surgical management. We fol lowed one case of complex feto - neonatal ovarian cyst till complete resolution.

  17. Tetraploid cells from cytokinesis failure induce aneuploidy and spontaneous transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Lei; Zhang, Tianwei; Yi, Qiyi; Huang, Yun; Wang, Zheng; Hou, Heli; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Wei; Hao, Qiaomei; Guo, Zongyou; Cooke, Howard J; Shi, Qinghua

    2012-08-01

    Most ovarian cancers originate from the ovarian surface epithelium and are characterized by aneuploid karyotypes. Aneuploidy, a consequence of chromosome instability, is an early event during the development of ovarian cancers. However, how aneuploid cells are evolved from normal diploid cells in ovarian cancers remains unknown. In the present study, cytogenetic analyses of a mouse syngeneic ovarian cancer model revealed that diploid mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells (MOSECs) experienced an intermediate tetraploid cell stage, before evolving to aneuploid (mainly near-tetraploid) cells. Using long-term live-cell imaging followed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we demonstrated that tetraploid cells originally arose from cytokinesis failure of bipolar mitosis in diploid cells, and gave rise to aneuploid cells through chromosome mis-segregation during both bipolar and multipolar mitoses. Injection of the late passage aneuploid MOSECs resulted in tumor formation in C57BL/6 mice. Therefore, we reveal a pathway for the evolution of diploid to aneuploid MOSECs and elucidate a mechanism for the development of near-tetraploid ovarian cancer cells.

  18. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2002-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  19. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2004-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  20. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo C

    2005-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  1. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriguez, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  2. Characterization of the Chicken Ovarian Cancer Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodriquez, Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    .... Unlike other ovarian cancer models, which require experimental induction of ovarian tumors, chickens develop ovarian adenocarcinoma spontaneously, with an incidence ranging from 13 to 40 percent...

  3. Dysregulation of mitotic machinery genes precedes genome instability during spontaneous pre-malignant transformation of mouse ovarian surface epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulises Urzúa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based in epidemiological evidence, repetitive ovulation has been proposed to play a role in the origin of ovarian cancer by inducing an aberrant wound rupture-repair process of the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE. Accordingly, long term cultures of isolated OSE cells undergo in vitro spontaneous transformation thus developing tumorigenic capacity upon extensive subcultivation. In this work, C57BL/6 mouse OSE (MOSE cells were cultured up to passage 28 and their RNA and DNA copy number profiles obtained at passages 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18, 23, 25 and 28 by means of DNA microarrays. Gene ontology, pathway and network analyses were focused in passages earlier than 20, which is a hallmark of malignancy in this model. Results At passage 14, 101 genes were up-regulated in absence of significant DNA copy number changes. Among these, the top-3 enriched functions (>30 fold, adj p < 0.05 comprised 7 genes coding for centralspindlin, chromosome passenger and minichromosome maintenance protein complexes. The genes Ccnb1 (Cyclin B1, Birc5 (Survivin, Nusap1 and Kif23 were the most recurrent in over a dozen GO terms related to the mitotic process. On the other hand, Pten plus the large non-coding RNAs Malat1 and Neat1 were among the 80 down-regulated genes with mRNA processing, nuclear bodies, ER-stress response and tumor suppression as relevant terms. Interestingly, the earliest discrete segmental aneuploidies arose by passage 18 in chromosomes 7, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17 and 19. By passage 23, when MOSE cells express the malignant phenotype, the dysregulated gene expression repertoire expanded, DNA imbalances enlarged in size and covered additional loci. Conclusion Prior to early aneuploidies, overexpression of genes coding for the mitotic apparatus in passage-14 pre-malignant MOSE cells indicate an increased proliferation rate suggestive of replicative stress. Concomitant down-regulation of nuclear bodies and RNA processing related genes

  4. Ovarian Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a pregnancy can occur. Ovaries also make the female hormones estrogen and progesterone. When a woman goes through menopause, her ovaries stop making those hormones and releasing eggs. Problems with the ovaries include Ovarian cancer Ovarian ...

  5. Ovarian size and response to laparoscopic ovarian electro-cauterization in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alborzi, S; Khodaee, R; Parsanejad, M E

    2001-09-01

    To evaluate endocrine and ovulatory changes in polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) in relation to patients' ovarian size. Three hundred and seventy-one women with clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOD underwent laparoscopic ovarian cauterization [type I or typical with ovarian volume >8 cm(3) or cross-sectional area >10 cm(2) (n=211), type II with normal size ovary (n=160)]. Serum levels of LH, FSH, DHEAS, PRL, and T before and 10 days after ovarian cautery, spontaneous and induced ovulation and pregnancy rates were compared. Both groups responded to therapy in a similar manner, with a marked decrease in LH, FSH, DHEAS and T levels, with ovulation rates in type I 90.99%, type II 88.75% and pregnancy rates, 73.45% and 71.25%, respectively, with no statistical differences. Hormonal changes, ovulation and pregnancy rates were similar in the two types of PCOD, therefore it can be concluded that ovarian size is not a prognostic factor for response of PCOD patients to laparoscopic ovarian electro-cauterization.

  6. Transient sexual precocity and ovarian cysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyon, A J; De Bruyn, R; Grant, D B

    1985-01-01

    Nine girls presenting under the age of 7 years with unsustained sexual precocity are described. Large ovarian cysts were detected by ultrasound in three and laparotomy in one. In two girls the symptoms resolved after surgical removal of the cyst; the other seven had spontaneous remission of symptoms, but in two of these transient breast development and bleeding recurred: further ovarian cyst formation was found in one of these patients. Endocrine studies performed before resolution of the cys...

  7. Ovarian lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonet Fonseca, Ivan; Diaz Anaya, Amnia; Francis, Tabu

    2012-01-01

    50 % of pediatric oncologic pathology corresponds to mass or solid tumors, reaching about 20 % of total abdomen. The tumors that most frequently occur in the abdomen are nephroblastoma or Wilms tumor, Burkitts lymphoma, neuroblastoma, and ovarian germ cell tumors

  8. Ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injected directly into the abdominal cavity (intraperitoneal, or IP). Radiation therapy is rarely used to treat ovarian ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow us Disclaimers Copyright ...

  9. Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I find more information about ovarian and other gynecologic cancers? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: 800-CDC-INFO or www. cdc. gov/ cancer/ gynecologic National Cancer Institute: 800-4-CANCER or www. ...

  10. PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY DUE TO OVARIAN CYST – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M Guimarães

    2017-01-01

    Discussion/Conclusion: Most autonomous ovarian cysts regress spontaneously with regression of pubertal signs, as in the present case. Therapy with a GnRH agonist may become necessary in the case of transformation from precocious pseudopuberty to central precocious puberty after recurrences of the ovarian cysts or when there is significant loss of height potential.

  11. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  12. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling by diathermy for ovulation induction in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, F.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of secondary infertility. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling has widely been used for induction of ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome patients resistant to clomiphene citrate. 80% patients ovulated after treatment and 60% patient conceived either spontaneously or after treatment with medication to which they are previously resistant. Purpose: The aim of the present study was to see the effectiveness of laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) with monopolar diathermy on pregnancy outcome in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Intervention: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling. Main Outcome Measures: Pregnancy, ovulation rate. Material and Methods: This study was carried out in the department of Gynae and Obstetrics in Sharif Medical City Hospital from January, 2007 to January, 2009. The inclusion criteria for laparoscopy ovarian drilling (LOD) were those infertile women between the age group of 25 - 38 years who meet the criteria for PCOS and who are resistant to clomiphene citrate and injectable gonadotrophins. A total of 30 women were booked for laparoscopic ovarian drilling after having informed consent for procedure. Response to therapy was assessed in term of pregnancy outcome and ovulation rate for 1 year after therapy. Results: A total of 30 patients were booked for laparoscopic ovarian drilling from January, 2007 to January, 2009. The mean age of study group was 30 years +- SD 4.7791. Cumulative ovulation rate was observed in 22 patients (73%), out of which spontaneous ovulation occurred in 18 patients (80%), and after ovulation induction therapy in 4 patients (18%). Eleven patients (37%) conceived in two year duration. Spontaneous conception without any treatment was observed in 7 patients (63%); however 4 patients (37%) require further assistance with combined therapy of clomiphene citrate and injectable gonadotrophins after failure

  13. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    by each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10...

  14. AMH as Predictor of Premature Ovarian Insufficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunding, Stine Aa; Aksglæde, Lise; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: The majority of Turner syndrome (TS) patients suffer from accelerated loss of primordial follicles. Low circulating levels of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) may predict the lack of spontaneous puberty in prepubertal girls and imminent premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) in TS women...

  15. Ovarian hyperstimulation, hyperprolactinaemia and LH gonadotroph adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; del Pino, Marta; Valladares, Esther

    2009-08-01

    This report considers a highly exceptional case of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome due to a gonadotroph adenoma secreting LH in a 31-year-old patient who presented with amenorrhoea and galactorrhoea syndrome and a complex bilateral ovarian mass. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a pituitary adenoma, and laboratory tests corroborated the hyperprolactinaemia without other hormonal pituitary abnormalities. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome due to a gonadotroph adenoma with normal gonadotrophins is extremely rare. Most of the described cases are caused by FSH adenomas. Due to the originality of the case, it was considered useful for understanding the management of this entity, and it is proposed that LH adenomas should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with spontaneous ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.

  16. Inhibin A and B in adolescents and young adults with Turner's syndrome and no sign of spontaneous puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravholt, C.H.; Næraa, R.W.; Andersson, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess levels of inhibin A and B, FSH and LH in Turner's syndrome (TS) without signs of spontaneous ovarian activity.......The aim of this study was to assess levels of inhibin A and B, FSH and LH in Turner's syndrome (TS) without signs of spontaneous ovarian activity....

  17. Ovarian Autoantibodies Predict Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Expression of thymidine 459 phosphorylase in epithelial ovarian cancer: correlation with angiogenesis, apoptosis , and 460 ultrasound-derived peak...trafficking, activation of S1P1 can promote or inhibit apoptosis of 41 immune cells depending on the balance of cytokines [7]. Knockout of S1P1 (LP(B1...EDG-1) in 42 mice is embryologically lethal [8]. S1P1 also has a role in inflammatory disease such as graft 43 versus host disease and multiple

  18. Fetal goiter and bilateral ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille; Sundberg, Karin; Juul, Anders

    2008-01-01

    by each injection and followed by a gradual reduction of fetal goiter as well as the left ovarian cyst. The right cyst ruptured spontaneously. At 36 weeks + 4 days, the patient underwent elective caesarean section and gave birth to a female, weighing 2,880 g with 1- and 5-min Apgar scores of 10....... The thyroid gland appeared normal in size, and cord blood TSH and free T 4 were both within normal limits. At ultrasound control 6 days later, the right ovarian cyst was not visible, while the left cyst was still present. Thus, our report supports previous findings that fetal goiter can be treated...

  19. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, Ursula; Nemec, Stefan F.; Bettelheim, Dieter; Brugger, Peter C.; Horcher, Ernst; Schöpf, Veronika; Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L.; Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23–37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  20. Ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Ursula [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nemec, Stefan F., E-mail: stefan.nemec@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Bettelheim, Dieter [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Prenatal Diagnosis and Therapy, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Brugger, Peter C. [Center of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Integrative Morphology Group, Medical University Vienna, Waehringerstrasse 13, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Horcher, Ernst [Department of Pediatric Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Schoepf, Veronika [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Graham, John M.; Rimoin, David L. [Medical Genetics Institute, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Boulevard, PACT Suite 400, Los Angeles, CA 90048 (United States); Weber, Michael; Prayer, Daniela [Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Ovarian cysts are the most frequently encountered intra-abdominal masses in females in utero. They may, at times, require perinatal intervention. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as an adjunct to ultrasonography (US) in prenatal diagnosis, we sought to demonstrate the ability to visualize ovarian cysts on prenatal MRI. Materials and methods: This retrospective study included 17 fetal MRI scans from 16 female fetuses (23-37 gestational weeks) with an MRI diagnosis of ovarian cysts after suspicious US findings. A multiplanar MRI protocol was applied to image and to characterize the cysts. The US and MRI findings were compared, and the prenatal findings were compared with postnatal imaging findings or histopathology. Results: Simple ovarian cysts were found in 10/16 cases and complex cysts in 7/16 cases, including one case with both. In 11/16 (69%) cases, US and MRI diagnoses were in agreement, and, in 5/16 (31%) cases, MRI specified or expanded the US diagnosis. In 6/16 cases, postnatal US showed that the cysts spontaneously resolved or decreased in size, and in 1/16 cases, postnatal imaging confirmed a hemorrhagic cyst. In 4/16 cases, the prenatal diagnoses were confirmed by surgery/histopathology, and for the rest, postnatal correlation was not available. Conclusion: Our results illustrate the MRI visualization of ovarian cysts in utero. In most cases, MRI will confirm the US diagnosis. In certain cases, MRI may provide further diagnostic information, additional to US, which is the standard technique for diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment planning.

  1. Ovarian maldescent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, Carmen; Tardaguila, Francisco; Fernandez, Gabriel C.; Martinez, Concepcion; Chavarri, Elena; Rivas, Isabel [Departments of Radiology and Gynecology, Povisa Medical Center, Salamanca St. 5, 36211, Vigo (Pontevedra) (Spain)

    2004-05-01

    Undescended ovary is a rare disorder that can be associated with muellerian malformations. There is an unclear association with infertility and malignant disease. When an ovary is not in its normal location, it is sought in other locations above the pelvic brim. This is important in cases of undetermined cyclical abdominal pain, follicle aspiration and surgical castration. MRI has proven to be the best imaging method for finding an ovary in an anomalous position and for disregarding associated malformations. We report two patients with unilateral ovarian maldescent, one of them with Rokitansky-Kuester-Hauser syndrome. A review of the literature is included. (orig.)

  2. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  3. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  4. Primary ovarian leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, Marian; Krolikowski, Anderzj; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Nirmala, Vadakkepat

    2005-01-01

    Ovarian leiomyoma is a rare and incidentally detected neoplasm, clinically indistinguishable from subserous leiomyomas and ovarian fibromas, until histopathological confirmation. We present a case of leiomyoma arising primarily from the ovary in a 35 year old woman. (author)

  5. Ovarian cancer and smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2012-01-01

    Smoking has been linked to mucinous ovarian cancer, but its effects on other ovarian cancer subtypes and on overall ovarian cancer risk are unclear, and the findings from most studies with relevant data are unpublished. To assess these associations, we review the published and unpublished evidence....

  6. Evaluation of the ovarian reserve in women transplanted with frozen and thawed ovarian cortical tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Tine; Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2012-01-01

    To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue.......To investigate ovarian reserve and ovarian function in women transplanted with frozen/thawed ovarian tissue....

  7. Gestações espontâneas após punção ovariana para maturação in vitro em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos Spontaneous pregnancies after ovarian puncture for in vitro maturation in women with the polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilo Frantz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: relatar três casos de gestações espontâneas em portadoras da síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP que ocorreram nos meses subsequentes à realização de punção ovariana transvaginal para captação oocitária para a maturação in vitro. MÉTODOS: foram incluídas no estudo três pacientes inférteis portadoras de SOP submetidas à maturação in vitro dos oócitos sem estimulação ovariana prévia. Durante o procedimento da coleta dos oócitos, cada ovário foi perfurado de quatro a oito vezes. RESULTADO: nenhuma paciente engravidou com a técnica da maturação in vitro. Avaliando o seguimento dos casos, em sete meses após o procedimento, as três pacientes engravidaram sem o auxílio de técnicas de reprodução assistida, resultando em três nascimentos. CONCLUSÕES: as múltiplas perfurações nos ovários destas pacientes portadoras da SOP, durante o procedimento de coleta dos oócitos, podem ter contribuído para a obtenção da gestação nos meses subsequentes ao procedimento.PURPOSE: to report three cases of spontaneous gestation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS, that occurred in the months subsequent to transvaginal oocyte retrieval for in vitro maturation (IVM. METHODS: three infertile patients with PCOS, submitted to oocytes' IVM without previous ovarian stimulation, were included in the study. During the procedure of oocytes' collection, each ovary was drilled from four to eight times. RESULTS: none of the patients got pregnant with the IVM technique. Evaluating the cases' follow-up, in seven months after the procedure, the three patients got pregnant without the help of techniques of assisted reproduction, which resulted in three births. CONCLUSIONS: the multiple drillings in the ovary of these patients with PCOS, during the process to collect oocytes, may have contributed to their pregnancy in the months following the procedure.

  8. Is There a Relationship between Ovarian Epithelial Dysplasia and Infertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautier Chene

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Ovarian epithelial dysplasia was initially described in material from prophylactic oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer. Similar histopathological abnormalities have been revealed after ovulation stimulation. Since infertility is also a risk factor for ovarian neoplasia, the aim of this study was to study the relationship between infertility and ovarian dysplasia. Methods. We blindly reviewed 127 histopathological slides of adnexectomies or ovarian cystectomies according to three groups—an exposed group to ovulation induction (n = 30, an infertile group without stimulation (n = 35, and a spontaneously fertile control group (n = 62—in order to design an eleven histopathological criteria scoring system. Results. The ovarian dysplasia score was significantly higher in exposed group whereas dysplasia score was low in infertile and control groups (resp., 8.21 in exposed group, 3.69 for infertile patients, and 3.62 for the controls. In the subgroup with refractory infertility there was a trend towards a more severe dysplasia score (8.53 in ovulation induction group and 5.1 in infertile group. Conclusion. These results raise questions as to the responsibility of drugs used to induce ovulation and/or infertility itself in the genesis of ovarian epithelial dysplasia.

  9. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  10. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persani Luca

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Premature ovarian failure (POF is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea. It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women e.g. Turner syndrome represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation.

  11. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 28-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department (ED with three days of intermittent, epigastric abdominal pain and non-bloody, non-bilious emesis with occasional diarrhea. She had a history of gastric cancer complicated by gastric outlet obstruction requiring gastric stent, and was receiving treatment with chemotherapy. She was originally diagnosed two months prior to this visit, after an emergent right salpingo-oophorectomy for possible ovarian torsion revealed an ovarian mass consistent with a Krukenberg tumor. Upon presentation to the ED, her only complaints were of vomiting and abdominal pain, with no additional symptoms. Based on the initial clinical presentation, abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography (CT scans, surgical and gastrointestinal (GI consultations, and general labs were ordered for the patient. The initial CT scan found pneumomediastinum, which prompted a thoracic CT scan with contrast to determine the etiology and extent of the condition in the patient. The results of the scan prompted the treating ED physicians to consider esophageal perforation. Following consultation, the surgical and GI physicians did not recommend engaging acute intervention. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated mild hypokalemia and hyponatremia, both of which were addressed by administering intravenous (IV fluids. The patient was hospitalized for chemotherapy-induced nausea and received prophylactic IV piperacillin-tazobactam. She remained afebrile, hemodynamically stable with negative blood cultures, and was discharged to complete an additional seven-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanic acidwith scheduled ondansetron. Significant findings: The initial CT scans showed extraluminal gas surrounding the distal esophagus as it traversed the posterior mediastinum, concerning for possible distal esophageal perforation that prompted surgery and GI consultations. There was no evidence of a drainable collection or

  12. Update on management of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Der Chen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is a relatively common complication of ovarian stimulation and can be life threatening. The pathophysiology of OHSS is characterized by increased capillary permeability, leading to leakage of fluid from the vascular compartment, with third-space fluid accumulation and intravascular dehydration. The increased intra-abdominal pressure indicated that OHSS may be considered a compartment syndrome. Vascular endothelial growth factor, also known as vascular permeability factor, has emerged as one of the mediators intrinsic to the development of OHSS. Conventional management is focused on supportive care until the spontaneous resolution of the condition. The standard of care for treatment—monitoring of appropriate clinical parameters, fluid balance management, thrombosis prophylaxis, and ascites treatment—should prevent severe morbidity in most cases. This review will cover inpatient and outpatient management. The potential therapeutic approach targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor system will be discussed.

  13. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.S.; Jatoi, N.; Memon, R.A.; Sachdev, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ectopic ovarian pregnancy is presented occurring in a 24 years old woman after natural conception. The clinical diagnosis was ruptured tubal pregnancy. Gross findings were suggestive of ruptured corpus luteum cyst on exploration. The histopathological examination of specimen brought forward the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. (author)

  14. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  15. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Komorowska

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF, also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system.

  16. Prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Louise; Adams, Malcolm

    2006-04-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancy. The incidence is high in the Western world. The incidence of ovarian cancer is reduced by pregnancy, lactation, the oral contraceptive pill and tubal ligation. Lifestyle factors are important in the aetiology of ovarian cancer and current evidence suggests the risk can be reduced by eating a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, taking regular exercise, avoiding smoking, avoiding being overweight and avoiding long-term use of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT). Familial ovarian cancer is responsible for about 10% of ovarian cancer cases. Strategies available to high-risk women include screening (covered elsewhere) and prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomy. The precise role of chemoprevention for high-risk women in the form of the oral contraceptive pill is unclear.

  17. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis......The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian...

  18. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Schoemaker (Joop); H.A. Drexhage (Hemmo); A. Hoek (Annemieke)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a

  19. Ovarian Cancer and Comorbidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Mette Calundann; Sperling, Cecilie Dyg; Ottesen, Bent

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Comorbidity influences survival in ovarian cancer, but the causal relations between prognosis and comorbidity are not well characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between comorbidity, system delay, the choice of primary treatment, and survival in Danish...... ovarian cancer patients. METHODS: This population-based study was conducted on data from 5317 ovarian cancer patients registered in the Danish Gynecological Cancer Database. Comorbidity was classified according to the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Ovarian Cancer Comorbidity Index. Pearson χ test...... and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the association between comorbidity and primary outcome measures: primary treatment ("primary debulking surgery" vs "no primary surgery") and system delay (more vs less than required by the National Cancer Patient Pathways [NCPPs]). Cox...

  20. Ovarian Cancer FAQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vein thrombosis (DVT) , heart attack, and stroke. Current theories suggest that some types of ovarian cancer may ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional Leadership Conference Advocacy Legislative Priorities GR & Outreach State Advocacy ...

  1. Management of ovarian cysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ulla Breth; Tabor, Ann; Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The treatment of an ovarian cyst relies on its nature, and accurate preoperative discrimination of benign and malignant cysts is therefore of crucial importance. This study was undertaken to review the literature concerning the preoperative diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cysts....... METHODS: Articles concerning ovarian cysts from a medline literature search during the period 1985-2003 were included in addition to articles found as references in the initial publications. RESULTS: Different methods for discriminating between benign and malignant ovarian cysts are discussed....... The diagnosis and the treatment are assessed in relation to age, menopausal status, pregnancy, and whether the cyst is presumed to be benign or malignant. In general, expectant management is the choice in premenopausal and pregnant women with non-suspicious cysts and normal levels of CA-125. In postmenopausal...

  2. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  3. Premature ovarian failure and ovarian autoimmunity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoemaker, Joop; Drexhage, Hemmo; Hoek, Annemieke

    1997-01-01

    textabstractPremature ovarian failure (POF) is defined as a syndrome characterized by menopause before the age of 40 yr. The patients suffer from anovulation and hypoestrogenism. Approximately 1% of women will experience menopause before the age of 40 yr. POF is a heterogeneous disorder with a multicausal pathogenesis involving chromosomal, genetic, enzymatic, infectious, and iatrogenic causes. There remains, however, a group of POF patients without a known etiology, the so-called "idiopathic...

  4. Multiple metastases from ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian cancer affects women in the age group >60 years much ... ovarian cancer presenting with liver and thoracic vertebral metastases 4 months after ... manifested by parenchymal liver or lung ... categorised as stage Ic as per International.

  5. Diagnosis and management of simple ovarian cysts: an audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simcock, B.

    2005-01-01

    Simple ovarian cysts are common. The aim of clinical management is to optimize the treatment of malignant and premalignant cysts while minimizing intervention for cysts likely to resolve spontaneously. In this retrospective study, ovarian cysts over 30 mm in diameter were detected in 90 women. Of this population, 75 were premenopausal, 13 postmenopausal, and two had undergone a hysterectomy. Thirteen women presented acutely. Family history of breast, ovary or colon cancer was not ascertained in any of the women. None had CA125 levels performed. In 22 cases, the cyst was aspirated; only 10 of these had follow-up ultrasound. Laparotomy was performed in 25 premenopausal women, the two perimenopausal women and eight postmenopausal women. Average cyst size was 71 mm (range 40-80 mm) in the laparoscopy group, and 72 mm (range 36-180 mm) in the laparotomy group. After initial diagnosis at ultrasound, a follow-up scan was performed 4-16 weeks later. The final diagnosis was ovarian neoplasm in 13 and hydrosalpinx in two. None had a malignancy. Documentation at ultrasound was often inadequate, and management of the women with an ovarian cyst was haphazard. Guidelines on management of simple ovarian cysts are likely to improve clinical practice. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Accidental ovarian autograft after a laparoscopic surgery: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, G; Quintana, R; Rueda-Leverone, N G; Vighi, S

    1997-08-01

    To report an autograft of ovarian tissue in the incision of the surgical trocar during laparoscopic surgery and to assess the potentiality of grafting of ovarian parenchyma in nonpelvic tissue in humans. A case report. Instituto de Fertilidad y Ginecología de Buenos Aires (IFER), Buenos Aires, Argentina. Infertile patient undergoing surgery due to an endometriotic cyst of the left ovary. Laparoscopic cystectomy. Accidental retention of a portion of the capsule and adjacent ovarian tissue of the endometrioma in SC cellular tissue. Months after surgery, a SC tumor was formed under the surgical incision. It was subsequently excised. Observation of tumor growth during menstrual cycles and ovulation induction; anatomopathologic study of the tissue after its extirpation. The tumor grew spontaneously in the periovulatory period and during treatments of ovulation induction. The anatomopathologic report of the tumor, removed 15 months after the first surgery, revealed functioning ovarian tissue with vessels of neoformation. This is the first description of autografted ovarian tissue in humans. We describe that the ovary can maintain its ovulatory function even in the absence of its pedicel. Also, we suggest that extirpation of surgical material through the incision of the trocar is not recommended, as the possibility of "sowing" or of autografts may occur.

  7. Does obesity compromise ovarian reserve markers? A clinician's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neena; Bahadur, Anupama; Singh, Neeta; Kalaivani, Mani; Mittal, Suneeta

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain if increasing body mass index (BMI) adversely affects ovarian reserve among infertile women of Asian origin undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). This prospective study on 183 women was carried out in the infertility clinic of All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Blood hormonal assay in all patients including follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and inhibin B was performed on day 2/3 of a spontaneous cycle. A transvaginal ultrasonographic examination on day 2-5 of the menstrual cycle was done for antral follicle count (AFC) and ovarian volume. A correlation between BMI and ovarian reserve parameters like FSH, LH, inhibin B, antral follicle count and ovarian volume was noted. Age was comparable in the three BMI groups. The mean duration of infertility was 8.38 years. Compared to the normal weight, the overweight and obese women had a statistically significantly low inhibin B (p women had a significantly low AFC (p right side. Incorporating anti-mullerian hormone, a newer marker for ovarian reserve, may benefit these obese infertile women. Further work is required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of obesity on inhibin B as a marker of ovarian reserve in infertile women. The best marker to check the ovarian reserve is perhaps the woman's performance during an IVF cycle. However, considering the psychological and financial stress of the procedure, it may seem wise to consider counseling of obese women on their expected performance in the first cycle of IVF through such studies.

  8. Ovarian Stem Cell Nests in Reproduction and Ovarian Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Haifeng; Zheng, Tuochen; Li, Wei; Li, Xiaoyan; Fu, Xinxin; Huang, Yaoqi; Hu, Chuan; Li, Jia; Huang, Jian; Liu, Zhengyv; Zheng, Liping; Zheng, Yuehui

    2017-01-01

    The fixed primordial follicles pool theory, which monopolized reproductive medicine for more than one hundred years, has been broken by the discovery, successful isolation and establishment of ovarian stem cells. It has brought more hope than ever of increasing the size of primordial follicle pool, improving ovarian function and delaying ovarian consenescence. Traditional view holds that stem cell aging contributes to the senility of body and organs. However, in the process of ovarian aging, the main factor leading to the decline of the reproductive function is the aging and degradation of ovarian stem cell nests, rather than the senescence of ovarian germ cells themselves. Recent studies have found that the immune system and circulatory system are involved in the formation of ovarian germline stem cell niches, as well as regulating the proliferation and differentiation of ovarian germline stem cells through cellular and hormonal signals. Therefore, we can improve ovarian function and delay ovarian aging by improving the immune system and circulatory system, which will provide an updated program for the treatment of premature ovarian failure (POF) and infertility. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Ovarian tubercular abscess mimicking ovarian carcinoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abinash Agarwala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although genito-urinary tuberculosis is common, reports of isolated ovarian tubercular abscess are rare. Ovarian tubercular abscess may mimics that of an ovarian tumor, leading to diagnostic difficulties. We reported a case report of 35 years woman presented with chronic pain abdomen, weight loss, low-grade fever and a right ovarian mass on ultrasound, with a significantly elevated CA-125 level. On clinical and radiological evidence, diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma was made, and laparotomy was performed with resection of the ovary. Postoperative specimen sent for histological examination that revealed classic epithelioid granuloma and acid-fast bacilli were present in Ziehl-Neelsen stain. Patient was put on antitubercular regimen from our Dots center. She is improving clinical after taking antitubercular drug and is on regular follow up at our chest outpatient department. Ovarian tubercular abscess is common in young women living in endemic zones, but case report of isolated tubercular abscess is rarely reported. CA-125 can be raised in both ovarian tubercular abscess and ovarian carcinoma, and only imaging is not always conclusive. Laparotomy followed by tissue diagnosis can be helpful in this situation. As the prognosis and treatment outcome of ovarian tubercular abscess and ovarian carcinoma is different, proper diagnosis by laparotomy should be done. Early diagnosis of ovarian tubercular abscess is vital as untreated disease can lead to infertility.

  10. Ovarian cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibaek, Lene; Blaakaer, Jan; Petersen, Lone Kjeld

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study objective was to survey general health and coping in women undergoing ovarian cancer surgery, and subsequently to develop and test a supportive care intervention. METHODS/MATERIALS: Women who underwent surgery on the suspicion of ovarian cancer participated in a follow...... standard levels. Concerning mental health, levels were below standard during the entire period, but did improve with time, also in women in whom the potential cancer diagnosis was refuted. The preoperative differences between these groups leveled out postoperatively in terms of physical health. At the end...

  11. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  12. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  13. Premature ovarian failure

    OpenAIRE

    Pacheco, José

    2011-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure is characterized by secondary amenorrhea affecting a woman before the age of 40, leading to hypoestrogenism, infertility, and consequences of premature menopause, such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease, neurovegetative alterations, and others. Follicular exhaustion is due to either follicles shortage or oocytes accelerated destruction. Main causes are genetic, autoimmune and iatrogenic. Among genetic causes Xq and Xp deletions, translocations, numeric aberratio...

  14. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan; Phulrenu Chauhan; Girish Parmar

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examinatio...

  15. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  16. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Tanaka, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kono, Michio.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  17. [Which ovarian stimulation to which women: The polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merviel, P; Bouée, S; Ménard, M; Le Martelot, M-T; Roche, S; Lelièvre, C; Chabaud, J-J; Jacq, C; Drapier, H; Beauvillard, D

    2017-11-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent pathology in the young woman, linking infertility to a metabolic disease. Initial support will include a plan (in the case of overweight or obesity) to lose at least 5 to 10% of the weight. Subsequently, clomiphene citrate is the first treatment for ovulation induction with pregnancy rates of 40 to 80% after 6 cycles. If there is resistance to clomiphene citrate, the choice will be between the ovarian drilling (50-60% of pregnancy in the year following, including the half spontaneous) or ovarian stimulation with gonadotropins. The risk of ovarian stimulation in these women is hyperstimulation and multiple pregnancies. We also discuss the place of the GnRH pulsatile administration, insulin-sensitizers, in vitro fertilization and in vitro maturation in these women. Once infertility support, these women should be long-term followed because of the neoplasic and cardiovascular risks they present. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A rare case of de novo gigantic ovarian abscess within an endometrioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Aisha; Mehta, Vaishali; Sinha, Prabha

    2010-06-01

    We are reporting a rare case of de novo ovarian abscess in an endometrioma. Ovarian abscess within an endometrioma is a rare gynecological problem, but de novo abscess in the endometrioma is even rarer. Most of the ovarian abscesses develop in the endometriomas following interventions, e.g., aspiration, pelvic surgery, and oocyte retrieval. We are presenting a case of a spontaneous giant abscess in a large ovarian cyst in a nulliparous woman who presented with acute abdomen. Patient was treated in a district general hospital with multidisciplinary approach. Thirteen liters of the pus were drained. She has had a sub total (supra cervical) hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) performed. Histology of the abscess wall confirmed endometriotic nature of the cyst. Patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged home on the 14th postoperative day. This case highlights that endometrioma and its complication can present as a surgical emergency and should be dealt as one.

  19. Towards prevention of ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death of all gynaecological cancers. To date, there is no reliable, specific screening procedure for detecting ovarian cancer. The risk factors of ovarian cancer include modifiable and non-modifiable factors. The main goal of the ovarian cancer prevention program is to significantly reduce the risk of development of ovarian cancer and other cancers such as breast and/or peritoneal cancer. The application of non-surgical preventive approaches such as oral contraceptives, parity and breastfeeding has been shown to be highly protective against ovarian cancer development. Targeting inflammation has been also reported to be associated with a protective trend against ovarian cancer and can be achieved through either non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin or lifestyle modifications or both. Lifestyle modification that includes regular exercise, healthy diet supplemented with anti-oxidants and anti-inflammatory elements reduces the risk of the disease even further. Surgical protective approaches include; tubal ligation, hysterectomy and prophylactic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and the former is the most effective approach to protect against ovarian cancer. A better understanding of the risk factors of ovarian cancer and the current approaches to prevent it may increase the awareness and help to decrease the incidence of ovarian cancer, increase the five-year survival rate and decrease the mortality rate significantly in the general population especially among those at high risk for ovarian cancer. This review is an attempt to outline a potential program of ovarian cancer prevention and the potential challenges. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Ovarian hormones and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeners, Brigitte; Geary, Nori; Tobler, Philippe N; Asarian, Lori

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is caused by an imbalance between energy intake, i.e. eating and energy expenditure (EE). Severe obesity is more prevalent in women than men worldwide, and obesity pathophysiology and the resultant obesity-related disease risks differ in women and men. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Pre-clinical and clinical research indicate that ovarian hormones may play a major role. We systematically reviewed the clinical and pre-clinical literature on the effects of ovarian hormones on the physiology of adipose tissue (AT) and the regulation of AT mass by energy intake and EE. Articles in English indexed in PubMed through January 2016 were searched using keywords related to: (i) reproductive hormones, (ii) weight regulation and (iii) central nervous system. We sought to identify emerging research foci with clinical translational potential rather than to provide a comprehensive review. We find that estrogens play a leading role in the causes and consequences of female obesity. With respect to adiposity, estrogens synergize with AT genes to increase gluteofemoral subcutaneous AT mass and decrease central AT mass in reproductive-age women, which leads to protective cardiometabolic effects. Loss of estrogens after menopause, independent of aging, increases total AT mass and decreases lean body mass, so that there is little net effect on body weight. Menopause also partially reverses women's protective AT distribution. These effects can be counteracted by estrogen treatment. With respect to eating, increasing estrogen levels progressively decrease eating during the follicular and peri-ovulatory phases of the menstrual cycle. Progestin levels are associated with eating during the luteal phase, but there does not appear to be a causal relationship. Progestins may increase binge eating and eating stimulated by negative emotional states during the luteal phase. Pre-clinical research indicates that one mechanism for the pre-ovulatory decrease in eating is a

  1. Tubo-ovarian actinomycosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shroff C

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Actinomycotic infection of the female genital tract is rare. Actinomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous infection that is characterized by formation of abscesses, multiple draining sinuses and appearance of tangled mycelial masses or granules in the discharges and tissue sections. 2 cases of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis are reported. The 1st case presented clinical with gastrointestinal symptoms and a ventral scar hernia following an operation for a non-healing abdominal wound 6 months earlier. The 2nd case sought medical attention for backache and leucorrhea of 4 years′ duration. Exploratory laparotomy in the 1st case revealed tubo-ovarian masses; the vermiform appendix was not traceable. The uterine cavity in the 2nd case harbored a wooden stick. Direct extension from established ileocacal actinomycosis was believed to involve the female genital adnexae in the past. Association of tubo-ovarian actinomycosis with the presence of a foreign body in the female genital tract has been reported sporadically in the literature, yet an increase in the incidence may be expected because of the frequent use of intrauterine contraceptive devices in recent times. It is suggested that in women presenting clinically with vague abdominal symptoms, backache and discharge, actinomycosis should be considered and ruled out with the help of cytologic and proper microbial culture methods. Once the diagnosis is established, the infection can be treated with good results with penicillin.

  2. Intravital Microscopy in Evaluating Patients With Primary Peritoneal, Fallopian Tube, or Stage IA-IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-06-04

    Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer

  3. Lead, selenium and nickel concentrations in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline ovarian tumor and healthy ovarian tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canaz, Emel; Kilinc, Metin; Sayar, Hamide; Kiran, Gurkan; Ozyurek, Eser

    2017-09-01

    Wide variation exists in ovarian cancer incidence rates suggesting the importance of environmental factors. Due to increasing environmental pollution, trace elements and heavy metals have drawn attention in studies defining the etiology of cancer, but scant data is available for ovarian cancer. Our aim was to compare the tissue concentrations of lead, selenium and nickel in epithelial ovarian cancer, borderline tumor and healthy ovarian tissues. The levels of lead, selenium and nickel were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Tests were carried out in 20 malignant epithelial ovarian cancer, 15 epithelial borderline tumor and 20 non-neoplastic healthy ovaries. Two samples were collected for borderline tumors, one from papillary projection and one from the smooth surface of cyst wall. Pb and Ni concentrations were found to be higher both in malignant and borderline tissues than those in healthy ovaries. Concentrations of Pb and Ni in malignant tissues, borderline papillary projections and capsular tissue samples were not different. Comparison of Se concentrations of malignant, borderline and healthy ovarian tissues did not reveal statistical difference. Studied metal levels were not found to be different in either papillary projection or in cyst wall of the borderline tumors. This study revealed the accumulation of lead and nickel in ovarian tissue is associated with borderline and malignant proliferation of the surface epithelium. Accumulation of these metals in epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumor has not been demonstrated before. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  5. Increased risk for ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours in subfertile women with endometriosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, C. C. M.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Mooij, T. M.; Burger, C. W.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Kortman, Marian; Laven, Joop S. E.; Jansen, Cees A. M.; Helmerhorst, Frans M.; Cohlen, Ben J.; Willemsen, Wim N. P.; Smeenk, Jesper M. J.; Simons, Arnold H. M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Evers, Johannes L. H.; van Dop, Peter A.; Macklon, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Is ovarian or extra-ovarian endometriosis associated with an increased risk of ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumours (BOT)? We found a 3- to 8-fold increased risk of ovarian tumours associated with endometriosis: the magnitude of the risk increase depended on the definition of endometriosis.

  6. Definition of spontaneous reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his view of driven versus spontaneous. There is a close link between ''spontaneous'' and ''instability.'' One of the prominent examples for instability is the thermal convection instability. Just to remind you, if you heat a fluid layer from below, it takes a certain Rayleigh number to make it unstable. Beyond the onset point you find qualitatively new features. That is called ''spontaneous,'' and this is a bit more than semantics. It's a new qualitative property that appears and it is spontaneous although we have an energy flux through the system. It's a misconception, to call this ''driven'' pointing at the energy flux through it. Of course, the convection would not exist without this energy flux. But what makes it ''spontaneous'' is that without any particular external signal, a new qualitative feature appears. And this is what is called an ''instability'' and ''spontaneous.'' From these considerations the author got a little reassured of what distinction should be made in the field of the magnetosphere. If we have a smooth energy transport into the magnetosphere and suddenly we have this qualitatively new feature (change of B-topology) coming up; then, using this terminology we don't have a choice other than calling this spontaneous or unstable, if you like. If we ''tell'' the system where it should make its neutral line and where it should make its plasmoids, then, it is driven. And this provides a very clear-cut observational distinction. The author emphasizes the difference he sees is a qualitative difference, not only a quantitative one

  7. Primary ovarian insufficiency: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox L

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Leticia Cox, James H LiuUH Case Medical Center, MacDonald Women's Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Department of Reproductive Biology, Cleveland, OH, USAAbstract: Primary ovarian insufficiency is a condition that represents impaired ovarian function on a continuum with intermittent ovulation. This condition commonly leads to premature menopause, defined as cessation of ovulation prior to the age of 40 years. Because there are potential immediate and long-term consequences of hypoestrogenism, a timely diagnosis is invaluable. This comprehensive review will discuss identifiable causes for primary ovarian insufficiency, including genetic disorders and metabolic abnormalities, as well as review current strategies for diagnosis, evaluation, and management of women with this condition.Keywords: premature ovarian failure, premature menopause, ovarian dysfunction

  8. Pediatric ovarian torsion: an uncommon clinical entity

    OpenAIRE

    Rajwani, Kapil M; Mahomed, Anies

    2014-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Pediatric ovarian torsion is an infrequent diagnosis and it often mimics acute appendicitis. Most cases are due to underlying ovarian pathology and if left untreated, ovarian torsion may eventually cause peritonitis. Emergency exploratory laparoscopy represents a valuable diagnostic and therapeutic tool in suspected ovarian torsion.

  9. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  10. Hyperprolactinemia after laparoscopic ovarian drilling: An unknown phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omrani Gholamhossein R

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ovarian drilling on the serum levels of gonadotropins and androgens have been studied previously. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of ovarian drilling on the serum prolactin levels and its relation to ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods This is a prospective controlled study. Thirty-six women with PCOS underwent ovarian electrocauterization in university hospitals. Control group consisted of 35 ovulatory women with unexplained infertility. Hormonal assessment performed in early follicular phase of spontaneous or induced cycle before operation in the two groups and repeated one week after operation. Hormonal assay was also performed in the early follicular phase of the first post-operative menstruation, folliculometry and progesterone assay were also performed in the same cycle. Data were analyzed by "repeated measurement design, discriminant analysis, correlation coefficient, and Fisher exact test". Results Six to ten weeks after operation the serum mean +/- SD prolactin levels increased from 284.41 +/- 114.32 mIU/ml to 354.06 +/- 204.42 mIU/ml (P = 0.011. The same values for the control group were 277.73 +/- 114.65 to 277.4 +/- 111.4 (P = 0.981 respectively. Approximately 45% of subjects in PCOS group remained anovulatory in spite of decreased level of LH and testosterone. Prolactin level remained elevated in 73.2% of women who did not ovulate 6–10 weeks after the procedure. Conclusion Hyperprolactinemia after ovarian cauterization may be considered as a possible cause of anovulation in women with polycystic ovaries and improved gonadotropin and androgen levels. The cause of hyperprolactinemia is unknown. Hormonal assay particularly PRL in anovulatory patients after ovarian cauterization is recommended.

  11. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masafumi Koshiyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  12. Subtypes of Ovarian Cancer and Ovarian Cancer Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiyama, Masafumi; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo

    2017-03-02

    Ovarian cancer is the foremost cause of gynecological cancer death in the developed world, as it is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage. In this paper we discuss current issues, the efficacy and problems associated with ovarian cancer screening, and compare the characteristics of ovarian cancer subtypes. There are two types of ovarian cancer: Type I carcinomas, which are slow-growing, indolent neoplasms thought to arise from a precursor lesion, which are relatively common in Asia; and Type II carcinomas, which are clinically aggressive neoplasms that can develop de novo from serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STIC) and/or ovarian surface epithelium and are common in Europe and the USA. One of the most famous studies on the subject reported that annual screening using CA125/transvaginal sonography (TVS) did not reduce the ovarian cancer mortality rate in the USA. In contrast, a recent study in the UK showed an overall average mortality reduction of 20% in the screening group. Another two studies further reported that the screening was associated with decreased stage at detection. Theoretically, annual screening using CA125/TVS could easily detect precursor lesions and could be more effective in Asia than in Europe and the USA. The detection of Type II ovarian carcinoma at an early stage remains an unresolved issue. The resolving power of CA125 or TVS screening alone is unlikely to be successful at resolving STICs. Biomarkers for the early detection of Type II carcinomas such as STICs need to be developed.

  13. Ultrasonography of ovarian hyperandrogenemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmina, Svetlana A.; Zharkin, Nikolay A.

    2001-05-01

    The method of ultrasonography is high informative and widely used in diagnostics of ovarian hyperandrogenaemia. The majority of authors consider that a hyperplasia of a stroma is the main pathognomonic marker of polycystic ovaries (PCO). Still recently swell of a stroma was valued visually, that had subjective nature. We offer for the first time a way of diagnostics of stromal hyperplasia grounded on measurement of a volume of a stroma and ovary with ultrasound method, calculation of the ratio of a volume of the ovary to a volume of a stroma for every patient.

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Kjaer, Susanne K; Albieri, Vanna

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to...

  15. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  16. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  17. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  18. Fertility drugs and ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2017-06-20

    The aetiology of ovarian cancer is multifactorial with both endogenous and exogenous risk factors playing an important role. The exact pathogenesis of ovarian cancer is still not well understood, despite the number of hypotheses published. Due to an increase in the number of women using fertility drugs, much attention has been focused on the long-term health effects of such drugs. Although fertility drugs facilitate the ovulation process, it is however associated with a significant increase in hormone concentrations, placing exposed women at increased risk of gynaecological cancer. Many clinical and epidemiological studies have examined the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer risk. Results from these studies have been contradictory, as some studies have reported an increased risk of ovarian cancer while others reported no increased risk. Nevertheless, recent studies have shown that women who used fertility drugs and did not conceive had a higher risk of developing ovarian cancer, compared to women who used fertility drugs and conceived and delivered successfully. This review discusses the effect of fertility drugs on the risk of developing ovarian cancer, providing details on four possible scenarios associated with fertility treatment. In addition, the limitations of previous studies and their impact on our understanding of the association between fertility drugs and ovarian cancer also have been highlighted. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Successful pregnancy after office microlaparoscopic correction of tubal herneation for a very rare congenital fimbrial-ovarian relationship, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Siam

    2011-09-01

    Here, a case is described in which a very rare congenital tubo-ovarian relationship had been observed and assessed during routine laparoscopy to discover the cause of delayed conception after previous spontaneous pregnancy. This very rare tubo-ovarian relationship had been observed directly using a newly advanced fiber optic 2 mm microlaparoscopic set, in an office procedure under augmented local anesthesia in stead of the conventional 10 mm laparoscopy.

  20. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  2. Successful pregnancy after mucinous cystic neoplasm with invasive carcinoma of the pancreas in a patient with polycystic ovarian syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Conisha; Carlan, S J; Sundharkrishnan, Lohini; Guzman, Angela; Madruga, Mario

    2017-07-11

    The incidence of invasive cancer within a mucinous cystic neoplasm of the pancreas varies between 6 and 36%. Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and anovulatory infertility. One surgical treatment that can restore endocrine balance and ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome is partial ovarian destruction. Successful pregnancies following preconception pancreaticoduodenectomies (Whipple procedures) and chemoradiation to treat pancreatic neoplasms have been reported rarely but none were diagnosed with pre-cancer polycystic ovarian syndrome-associated infertility. Gemcitabine is an antimetabolite drug used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer that can have profound detrimental effects on oogenesis and ovarian function. Whether the ovarian destructive property of gemcitabine could act as a method to restore ovulation potential in polycystic ovarian syndrome is unknown. A 40-year-old white American woman with a history of pancreatic cancer treatment with a Whipple procedure and chemoradiation with gemcitabine had a successful pregnancy after years of pre-cancerous anovulatory infertility and polycystic ovarian syndrome. She received no fertility agents and delivered full term via a spontaneous vaginal delivery with no pregnancy complications. Gemcitabine treatment for pancreatic cancer may result in resumption of ovulation in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome and these women should be counseled accordingly.

  3. Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 high ovarian cancer cells: Towards targeted stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrow, Allison C; Perkins, Brandy; Collector, Michael I; Yu, Wayne; Simons, Brian W; Jones, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The cancer stem cell (CSC) paradigm hypothesizes that successful clinical eradication of CSCs may lead to durable remission for patients with ovarian cancer. Despite mounting evidence in support of ovarian CSCs, their phenotype and clinical relevance remain unclear. We and others have found high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH(high)) expression in a variety of normal and malignant stem cells, and sought to better characterize ALDH(high) cells in ovarian cancer. We compared ALDH(high) to ALDH(low) cells in two ovarian cancer models representing distinct subtypes: FNAR-C1 cells, derived from a spontaneous rat endometrioid carcinoma, and the human SKOV3 cell line (described as both serous and clear cell subtypes). We assessed these populations for stem cell features then analyzed expression by microarray and qPCR. ALDH(high) cells displayed CSC properties, including: smaller size, quiescence, regenerating the phenotypic diversity of the cell lines in vitro, lack of contact inhibition, nonadherent growth, multi-drug resistance, and in vivo tumorigenicity. Microarray and qPCR analysis of the expression of markers reported by others to enrich for ovarian CSCs revealed that ALDH(high) cells of both models showed downregulation of CD24, but inconsistent expression of CD44, KIT and CD133. However, the following druggable targets were consistently expressed in the ALDH(high) cells from both models: mTOR signaling, her-2/neu, CD47 and FGF18/FGFR3. Based on functional characterization, ALDH(high) ovarian cancer cells represent an ovarian CSC population. Differential gene expression identified druggable targets that have the potential for therapeutic efficacy against ovarian CSCs from multiple subtypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG): clinical trial design for rare ovarian tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leary, A. F.; Quinn, M.; Fujiwara, K.; Coleman, R. L.; Kohn, E.; Sugiyama, T.; Glasspool, R.; Ray-Coquard, I.; Colombo, N.; Bacon, M.; Zeimet, A.; Westermann, A.; Gomez-Garcia, E.; Provencher, D.; Welch, S.; Small, W.; Millan, D.; Okamoto, A.; Stuart, G.; Ochiai, K.

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript reports the consensus statements on designing clinical trials in rare ovarian tumours reached at the fifth Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC) held in Tokyo, November 2015. Three important questions were identified concerning rare ovarian tumours (rare epithelial ovarian

  5. Epigenetic Characterization of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murphy, Susan K

    2005-01-01

    .... The approach is to use normal ovarian surface epithelium (NOSE) and malignant cells obtained directly from surgically removed specimens in order to most closely approximate the methylation status in vivo...

  6. Ovarian torsion: Echographic discoveries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triana R, Gustavo; Navas O, Claudia

    1994-01-01

    Patient of 31 years who consulted to the even service of urgencies to present of two hours of evolution intense pain in flank and region lumbar left, associated to vomit, present square similar 5 previous days to the entrance in the right side. Go Po, plans with DIU FUR, 8 previous days to the square. It is practiced Tran abdominal pelvic echography that shows left ovary of 6 x 5 x 3 cms, with multiple follicular images, of thick walls, with I liquidate free abdominal, highly suggestive of ovarian torsion although the patient didn't present square of sharp abdomen. It decides to suspend analgesic and to value it, presented sharp abdominal pain, reason why laparotomy was practiced, finding mass of 6 x 6 cms. of necrotic aspect, corresponding to the left ovary, which presented three turns on their axis. It is taken finish left salpingooferectomy

  7. Polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Madnani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  8. Polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madnani, Nina; Khan, Kaleem; Chauhan, Phulrenu; Parmar, Girish

    2013-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a "multispeciality" disorder suspected in patients with irregular menses and clinical signs of hyperandrogenism such as acne, seborrhoea, hirsutism, irregular menses, infertility, and alopecia. Recently, PCOS has been associated with the metabolic syndrome. Patients may develop obesity, insulin resistance, acanthosis nigricans, Type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemias, hypertension, non-alcoholic liver disease, and obstructive sleep apnoea. Good clinical examination with hematological and radiological investigations is required for clinical evaluation. Management is a combined effort involving a dermatologist, endocrinologist, gynecologist, and nutritionist. Morbidity in addition includes a low "self image" and poor quality of life. Long term medications and lifestyle changes are essential for a successful outcome. This article focuses on understanding the normal and abnormal endocrine functions involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. Proper diagnosis and management of the patient is discussed.

  9. [Association between obesity and ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Corsini, Gino; Romero, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for cancer. Epidemiological evidences associate ovarian cancer with obesity. Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the most common type of ovarian cancer and accounts for a high rate of mortality. The association between ovarian cancer and obesity could be explained by molecular factors secreted by adipose tissue such as leptin. In EOC, leptin increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis. Additionally, adipose tissue synthesizes endogenous estrogens, which increase cell proliferation of epithelial ovarian cells. Also, obesity associated hyperinsulinism could increase ovarian estrogen secretion.

  10. Management of ovarian cysts in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue-Qiang, Yan; Nan-Nan, Zheng; Lei, Yu; Wei, Lu; Hong-Qiang, Bian; Jun, Yang; Xu-Fei, Duan; Xin-Ke, Qin

    2015-12-01

    To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  11. Premature ovarian failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Premature ovarian failure (POF is the occurrence of hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic amenorrhea in women under the age of forty years. It is idiopathic in 74-90% patients. Known cases can be divided into primary and secondary POF. In primary POF genetic aberrations can involve the X chromosome (monosomy, trisomy, translocations, deletions or autosomes. Genetic mechanisms include reduced gene dosage and non-specific chromosome effects impairing meiosis, decreasing the pool of primordial follicles and increasing atresia due to apoptosis or failure of follicle maturation. Autoimmune ovarian damage is caused by alteration of T-cell subsets and T-cell mediated injury, increase of autoantibody producing B-cells, a low number of effector/cytotoxic lymphocyte, which decreases the number and activity of natural killer cells. Bilateral oophorectomy, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and infections cause the secondary POF. Symptoms of POF include irritability, nervousness, loss of libido, depression, lack of concentration, hot flushes, weight gaining, dry skin, vaginal dryness, frequent infections etc. The diagnosis is confirmed by the level of FSH of over 40 IU/L and estradiol below 50 pmol/L in women aged below 40 years. Biochemical and other hormonal analysis (free thyroxin, TSH, prolactin, testosterone, karyotype (<30 years of age, ultrasound of the breasts and pelvis are advisable. Optimal therapy is combined estrogen progestagen therapy given in a sequential rhythm, after excluding absolute contraindications. Testosterone can be added to adnexectomized women and those with a low libido. Sequential estrogen progestagen replacement therapy is the first line therapy for ovulation induction in those looking for pregnancy and after that oocyte donation will be advised. Appropriate estro-progestagen therapy improves the quality of life and prevents complications such as cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, stroke etc.

  12. Tamoxifen and ovarian function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Berliere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some studies suggest that the clinical parameter "amenorrhea" is insufficient to define the menopausal status of women treated with chemotherapy or tamoxifen. In this study, we investigated and compared the ovarian function defined either by clinical or biological parameters in pre-menopausal breast cancer patients treated with tamoxifen administered as adjuvant therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1999 and 2003, 138 premenopausal patients consecutively treated for early breast cancer were included. Sixty-eight received tamoxifen in monotherapy as the only adjuvant systemic treatment (Group I and 70 were treated with tamoxifen after adjuvant chemotherapy (Group II. All patients had a confirmed premenopausal status based on clinical parameters and hormonal values at study entry. They were followed prospectively every 3 months for 3 years: menses data, physical examination and blood tests (LH, FSH, 17-beta-estradiol. Vaginal ultrasonography was carried out every 6 months. After 3 years, prospective evaluation was completed and monitoring of ovarian function was performed as usual in our institution (1x/year. All data were retrospectively evaluated in 2011. RESULTS: Three patients were excluded from the study in group I and 2 were excluded in group II. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups according to clinical data, i.e. menses patterns. These patterns were assessed by questionnaires. a: Regular menses (>10 cycles/year b: Oligomenorrhea (5 to 9 cycles/year c: Severe oligomenorrhea (1 to 4 cycles/year d: Complete amenorrhea Estrogen levels did not appear to have any impact on disease-free survival rates after 3 or 8 years. FSH values were also documented and analyzed. They exhibited the same profile as estradiol values. CONCLUSIONS: Amenorrhea is an insufficient parameter to define menopausal status in patients receiving tamoxifen. Low estradiol levels must be coupled with other biological parameters to characterize endocrine status

  13. Hormone therapy and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal and postmenopau......CONTEXT: Studies have suggested an increased risk of ovarian cancer among women taking postmenopausal hormone therapy. Data are sparse on the differential effects of formulations, regimens, and routes of administration. OBJECTIVE: To assess risk of ovarian cancer in perimenopausal...... and postmenopausal women receiving different hormone therapies. DESIGN AND SETTING: Nationwide prospective cohort study including all Danish women aged 50 through 79 years from 1995 through 2005 through individual linkage to Danish national registers. Redeemed prescription data from the National Register...... bands included hormone exposures as time-dependent covariates. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 909,946 women without hormone-sensitive cancer or bilateral oophorectomy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Ovarian cancer. RESULTS: In an average of 8.0 years of follow-up (7.3 million women-years), 3068 incident ovarian...

  14. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  15. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  16. Four cases of spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Toshiyasu; Miwa, Sotaro; Takashima, Hiroshi; Takemae, Katsuro

    2002-01-01

    Between November 1997 and March 2001, 4 female patients from 44 to 65 years of age with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder were analyzed. They complained of abdominal pain and had undergone an intra-pelvic gynecological operation (3 for uterine cancer, 1 for an ovarian cyst) several years before. The three with uterine cancer had also received radiation therapy. For their present condition, spontaneous urinary bladder rupture, their treatment was indwelling a urethral catheter. Two of them have had no recurrence of urinary bladder rupture after one month since having the urethral catheter indwelt. One, however, had to have the catheter re-indwelt due to unsuccessful suturing of the urinary bladder wall. The fourth patient had bilateral nephrostomy tubes due to severe radiation cystitis. Thus, one can infer that intra-pelvic gynecological operations and radiation therapy are major factors causing spontaneous urinary bladder rupture. While indwelling a urethral catheter may be effective for some patients with a spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder, it may be very difficult to treat more complicated cases. (author)

  17. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  18. Effect of endometrial biopsy on intrauterine insemination outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Wadhwa, Leena; Pritam, Amrita; Gupta, Taru; Gupta, Sangeeta; Arora, Sarika; Chandoke, Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective was to evaluate the effect of endometrial biopsy (EB) on intrauterine insemination (IUI) outcome in controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) cycle. DESIGN: Prospective randomized control study. SETTING: Tertiary care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 251 subjects were enrolled in the study. Subjects undergoing COS with IUI were randomly allocated into three groups. Group A: EB was taken between D19 and 24 of the spontaneous menstrual cycles that precedes the ferti...

  19. [Peripubertal ovarian cyst torsion as an early complication of undiagnosed polycystic ovarian syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ságodi, László; Schmidt, Ildikó; Vámosi, Ildikó; Barkai, László

    2013-01-20

    The aim of the authors is to present two cases which raise the possibility of an association between polycystic ovarian syndrome/hyperandrogenism and ovarian cyst torsion in peripubertal girls. Androgen excess may cause more frequently ovarian cyst formation in premenarcheal or young adolescents with undiagnosed polycystic ovarian syndrome than in adults. The authors recommend that polycystic ovarian syndrome as well as late onset congenital adrenal hyperplasia should be considered in peripubertal adolescents with ovarian cyst torsion. In case polycystic ovarian syndrome is confirmed, adequate management according to age and pubertal development of the patients should be commenced.

  20. Stage at diagnosis and ovarian cancer survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maringe, Camille; Walters, Sarah; Butler, John

    2012-01-01

    We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival.......We investigate what role stage at diagnosis bears in international differences in ovarian cancer survival....

  1. Recovery of ovarian function after postradiation menopause. Do FSH levels have a definitive prognostic value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letur-Konirsch, H.; Guis, F.

    1996-01-01

    Menopause, conventionally defined as the permanent cessation as a result of loss of ovarian follicular activity, is biologically expressed by the collapse of plasma levels and increased plasma levels of the gonadotrophins FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). At present, estimation of the ovarian follicle reserve is based on endocrine capacity tests of the ovaries, with increased FSH representing the first sign of exocrine ovarian failure. We report the case of one of our amenorrhoeic patients after chemotherapy, total body radiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute immuno-blastic leukaemia. This patient was included in an in vitro fertilization with oocyte donation (IVF-OD) programme for iatrogenic premature ovarian failure with increased FSH levels. Instead of high levels of gonadotrophins, this young woman recovered spontaneous follicular developments, benefited from standard IVF with her own oocytes and brought a twin pregnancy to term. This observation shows that a high FSH level is not a definitive prediction of ovarian exocrine capacity. In young women of child-bearing age such as these wanting a child and showing signs of endogenous estrogen impregnation, evaluation of the existence and quality of follicular development is an important factor. (author)

  2. An Update on Ovarian Aging and Ovarian Reserve Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migraci Tosun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ovaries are the female organs that age more quickly than other tissues such as the uterus, the pituitary gland or pancreas. Different from males, an interesting question is why and how the females lose fertility so rapidly. During the aging process, both the number and quality of the oocytes in the ovaries decrease and reach to a point beyond that no more viable offspring may be produced and the associated cyclic endocrinological activities cease, entering the menopause in females at an average age of 50 years. Females who delayed childbearing with or without their willing until their 30 years or 40 years constitute the largest portion of the total infertility population. Ovarian reserve tests (ORTs provide an indirect estimate of a female�s diminishing ovarian reserve or remaining follicular pool. This article briefly reviews recent progresses in relation to ovarian aging and ORTs.

  3. Anti-Mullerian hormone and ovarian dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, Frank J.; Visser, Jenny A.; Laven, Joop S. E.; Broer, Simone L.; Themmen, Axel P. N.; Fauser, Bart C.

    2008-01-01

    Anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) has important roles in postnatal ovarian function. Produced by ovarian granulosa cells, AMH is involved in initial follicle development. In fact, serum AMH level correlates with ovarian follicle number. In patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), AMH levels are

  4. Mevalonate Pathway Antagonist Suppresses Formation of Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Ovarian Carcinoma in Mouse Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kashima, Hiroyasu; Wu, Ren-Chin; Jung, Jin-Gyoung; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Gu, Jinghua; Xuan, Jianhua; Sokoll, Lori; Visvanathan, Kala; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2015-10-15

    Statins are among the most frequently prescribed drugs because of their efficacy and low toxicity in treating hypercholesterolemia. Recently, statins have been reported to inhibit the proliferative activity of cancer cells, especially those with TP53 mutations. Because TP53 mutations occur in almost all ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), we determined whether statins suppressed tumor growth in animal models of ovarian cancer. Two ovarian cancer mouse models were used. The first one was a genetically engineered model, mogp-TAg, in which the promoter of oviduct glycoprotein-1 was used to drive the expression of SV40 T-antigen in gynecologic tissues. These mice spontaneously developed serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), which are known as ovarian cancer precursor lesions. The second model was a xenograft tumor model in which human ovarian cancer cells were inoculated into immunocompromised mice. Mice in both models were treated with lovastatin, and effects on tumor growth were monitored. The molecular mechanisms underlying the antitumor effects of lovastatin were also investigated. Lovastatin significantly reduced the development of STICs in mogp-TAg mice and inhibited ovarian tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. Knockdown of prenylation enzymes in the mevalonate pathway recapitulated the lovastatin-induced antiproliferative phenotype. Transcriptome analysis indicated that lovastatin affected the expression of genes associated with DNA replication, Rho/PLC signaling, glycolysis, and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways, suggesting that statins have pleiotropic effects on tumor cells. The above results suggest that repurposing statin drugs for ovarian cancer may provide a promising strategy to prevent and manage this devastating disease. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Mevalonate Pathway Antagonist Inhibits Proliferation of Serous Tubal Intraepithelial Carcinoma and Ovarian Carcinoma in Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yusuke; Kashima, Hiroyasu; Wu, Ren-Chin; Jung, Jin- Gyoung; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Gu, Jinghua; Xuan, Jianhua; Sokoll, Lori; Visvanathan, Kala; Shih, Ie-Ming; Wang, Tian-Li

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Statins are among the most frequently prescribed drugs because of their efficacy and low toxicity in treating hypercholesterolemia. Recently, statins have been reported to inhibit the proliferative activity of cancer cells, especially those with TP53 mutations. Since TP53 mutations occur in almost all of the ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma, we determined if statins suppressed tumor growth in animal models of ovarian cancer. Experimental Design Two ovarian cancer mouse models were employed. The first one was a genetically engineered model, mogp-TAg, in which the promoter of oviduct glycoprotein-1 was used to drive the expression of SV40 T-antigen in gynecologic tissues. These mice spontaneously develop serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), which are known as ovarian cancer precursor lesions. The second model was a xenograft tumor model in which human ovarian cancer cells were inoculated into immunocompromised mice. Mice in both models were treated with lovastatin, and effects on tumor growth were monitored. The molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-tumor effects of lovastatin were also investigated. Results Lovastatin significantly reduced the development of STICs in mogp-TAg mice and inhibited ovarian tumor growth in the mouse xenograft model. Knockdown of prenylation enzymes in the mevalonate pathway recapitulated the lovastatin-induced anti-proliferative phenotype. Transcriptome analysis indicated that lovastatin affected the expression of genes associated with DNA replication, Rho/PLC signaling, glycolysis, and cholesterol biosynthesis pathways, suggesting that statins have pleiotropic effects on tumor cells. Conclusion The above results suggest that repurposing statin drugs for ovarian cancer may provide a promising strategy to prevent and manage this devastating disease. PMID:26109099

  6. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  7. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  8. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, C.; Cox, I.; Baldey, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  9. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, C; Cox, I; Baldey, A [St. F.X. Cabrini Hospital, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2002-07-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  10. Cryobanking of human ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik; Andersen, Anders Nyboe; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2014-01-01

    Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is one way of preserving fertility in young women with a malignant disease or other disorders that require gonadotoxic treatment. The purpose of the study was to explore how many women remained interested in continued cryostorage of their ovarian tissue beyond...... an initial 5-year period. Between 1999 and 2006, a total of 201 girls and young women had one ovary cryopreserved for fertility preservation in Denmark. One hundred of these met our inclusion criteria, which included a follow-up period of at least 5 years, and were mailed a questionnaire. The response rate...... women with ovarian tissue cryobanked requested continued cryostorage after an initial period of at least 5 years. The main reason for requesting disposal was successful completion of a family....

  11. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  12. Oophoropexy for Recurrent Ovarian Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hartley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old nulliparous patient presents with a three-day history of right sided colicky abdominal pain and associated nausea. This patient has previously presented twice with right sided ovarian torsion with the background of polycystic ovaries in the last two consecutive years. Blood tests were normal. Due to previous history, there was a high index of clinical suspicion that this may be a further torsion. Therefore, the patient was taken to theatre for a diagnostic laparoscopy and a further right sided ovarian torsion was noted. At this time, oophoropexy was performed to the uterosacral ligament to prevent further torsion in order to preserve the patients’ fertility. In this article, we detail this case and also provide a discussion of ovarian torsion including risk factors, presentation, and current thoughts on management.

  13. Ovarian metastases: Computed tomographic appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megibow, A.J.; Hulnick, D.H.; Bosniak, M.A.; Balthazar, E.J.

    1985-01-01

    Computed tomographic scans of 34 patients with ovarian metastases were reviewed to assess the radiographic appearances and to correlate these with the primary neoplasms. Primary neoplasms were located in the colon (20 patients), breast (six), stomach (five), small bowel (one), bladder (one), and Wilms tumor of the kidney (one). The radiographic appearance of the metastatic lesions could be described as predominantly cystic (14 lesions), mixed (12 lesions), or solid (seven lesions). The cystic and mixed lesions tended to be larger in overall diameter than the solid. The metastases from gastric carcinoma appeared solid in four of five cases. The metastases from the other neoplasms had variable appearances simulating primary ovarian carcinoma

  14. Thrombosis of right ovarian vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forner, J.; Talens, A.; Flores, M.; Mendez, M.

    2001-01-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis is a rare postpartum complication (0.1%). It can be fatal, since it can lead to sepsis, pulmonary thromboembolisms and inferior vena cava or renal vein thrombosis. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are the techniques of choice for its diagnosis, while the value of ultrasound is limited due to its low sensitivity and specificity. We report the case of a woman who, during puerperium, developed thrombosis of right ovarian vein that presented clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic features of appendicitis. We describe the radiological sings and stress the fact that this diagnosis should be suspected in puerperal women. (Author) 9 refs

  15. Polycystic ovarian syndrome management options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, G Wright; Propst, Anthony M

    2012-12-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder of androgen excess and ovarian dysfunction. Hirsutism and elevated free testosterone levels are the most consistent signs of the androgen excess. Irregular, infrequent, or absent menses and infertility are symptoms of ovulatory dysfunction. Obesity is also a feature of this syndrome and contributes to associated metabolic abnormalities. Lifestyle modification should be the first treatment and is effective in reducing the signs and symptoms. The ovulatory infertility associated with PCOS can be overcome in most cases with oral (clomiphene citrate or letrozole) or injectable (gonadotropins) agents. Surgical intervention is reserved for cases resistant to medical management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, S G; Talbert, L M

    1984-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) was first described as a single disease by Stein and Leventhal in 1935, but now has been separated into several distinct entities, comprising a symptom complex. The most frequent presenting symptoms associated with PCOD are obesity, hirsutism, amenorrhea or anovulation, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, irregular menses, and infertility. The common finding of hirsutism in PCOD patients is a reflection of the hyperandrogenism resulting from elevation of all the androgens, including testosterone, androstenediol, dehydroepiandrostrone sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione. Some patients with all the clinical features of PCOD can be shown, through appropriate testing, to have an attenuated form of classic congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are usually low or in the normal range, and serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are usually elevated in patients with PCOD, resulting in an altered LH/FSH ratio. Treatment for PCOD must be based on the needs and desires of the individual patient, and on the pathophysiology of the patient's particular abnormalities. When pregnancy is desired, ovulation induction with clomiphene is indicated. Clomiphene is a weak estrogen that induces a transient rise in serum LH and FSH, followed by a gonadotropic pattern similar to normal cycles. A 72% ovulation rate and a 41.8% conception rate have been reported after treatment with clomiphene. In patients who do not respond to clomiphene, or clomiphene with added human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) can be used to induce ovulation, but the patient should be closely monitored for multiple ovulation, multiple pregnancy, or hyperstimulation syndrome. For patients not interested in conception, regular menstrual cyclicity can be restored and hyperandrogenism reduced with oral contraceptives (OCs).

  17. Immunological comparison of ovarian and colonic CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burtin, P.; Gendron, M.C.; Maunoury, M.T.; Lamerz, R.; Schnabel, G.

    1982-01-01

    Ovarian and colonic CEA were compared immunologically by means of antisera prepared against each of them. CEAs of both origins were found identical by immunodiffusion methods. In radioimmunological experiments, slight differences were observed between some but not all ovarian CEAs and colonic CEAs and also between different preparations of colonic CEA: no organ specificity of ovarian CEA could be demonstrated. Finally, CEA level was measured in 41 sera of patients with ovarian carcinoma by two radioimmunoassays, one using colonic CEA as tracer and standard and anti-colonic CEA serum, the other using ovarian CEA and anti-ovarian CEA serum: the values given by the two assays were highly correlated (rsub(s) = 0.8107), meaning that an organ specific assay for ovarian CEA is not needed. (Auth.)

  18. Palliative Care in Improving Quality of Life and Symptoms in Patients With Stage III-IV Pancreatic or Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-18

    Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Recurrent Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage III Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  19. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  20. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  2. Ovarian stimulation and embryo quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, Esther; Macklon, Nick S.; Fauser, Bart J. C. M.

    To Study the effects of different ovarian stimulation approaches on oocyte and embryo quality, it is imperative to assess embryo quality with a reliable and objective method. Embryos rated as high quality by standardized morphological assessment are associated with higher implantation and pregnancy

  3. CA125 in ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, M J; Bonfrer, J M; Kulpa, J

    2005-01-01

    women, however, may aid the differentiation of benign and malignant pelvic masses. Serial levels during chemotherapy for ovarian cancer are useful for assessing response to treatment. Although serial monitoring following initial chemotherapy can lead to the early detection of recurrent disease...

  4. Ovarian Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing ovarian cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Ovarian cancer and body size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Berit Jul

    2012-01-01

    Only about half the studies that have collected information on the relevance of women's height and body mass index to their risk of developing ovarian cancer have published their results, and findings are inconsistent. Here, we bring together the worldwide evidence, published and unpublished...

  6. Ultrasound in evaluating ovarian reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Ahmaed Shawky Sabek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS, as a less invasive technique instead of hormonal assay to evaluate the ovarian reserve. This study included fifty-five females with breast cancer and we compared the ovarian reserve for these patients by hormonal assay through measuring the serum AntiMullerian Hormone (AMH level and follicular stimulating hormone (FSH level before and after chemotherapy, and by transvaginal ultrasound through the ovarian volume (OV calculation and counting the Antral follicles (AFC before and after chemotherapy treatment. There was decline in the AntiMullerian Hormone level after chemotherapy by 27 ± 11.19% and decrease in the Antral follicle counts by 21 ± 13.43%. In conclusion there was strong relation between AMH level and AFC which makes the use of transvaginal ultrasound is a reliable alternative method to the hormonal assay to detect the ovarian reserve.

  7. Ovarian irradiation in recurrent endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochbati, L.; Chaari, N.; Besbes, M.; Maalej, M.; Neji, K.; Ben Amara, F.; Ben Romdhane, N.K.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a case of a young woman with a history of an aplastic anaemia in which pelvic radiotherapy was used successfully in the management of a recurrent and inoperable endometriosis. The use of therapeutic pelvic or ovarian irradiation in endometriosis may be considered, when surgical and medical treatments have been exhausted and have failed. (authors)

  8. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  9. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  10. Changes in ovarian reserve and ovarian blood flow in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome following laparoscopic ovarian drilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Nasser; Sanad, Zakaria; Elkelani, Osama; Rezk, Mohamed; Shawky, Mohamed; Sharaf, Abd-Elbar

    2018-04-10

    This prospective cohort study was conducted on 80 patients with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD). Pre- and post-LOD ovarian reserve parameters (anti-Mullerian hormone: AMH, ovarian volume: OV, and antral follicle count: AFC) and ovarian stromal blood flow indices (Vascularization index: VI, flow index: FI, and vascularization flow index: VFI) were measured to explore the effect of LOD and to find out the correlation between serum AMH and different clinical, hormonal, and ultrasonic variables. There was a highly significant reduction of the serum AMH (p ovarian reserve parameters (AMH, OV and AFC) and ovarian stromal blood flow indices (VI, FI and VFI) with no observed correlation between AMH levels and Doppler indices.

  11. Risk of borderline ovarian tumors among women with benign ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guleria, Sonia; Jensen, Allan; Kjær, Susanne K

    2018-01-01

    tumors among women with a benign ovarian tumor. METHODS: This nationwide cohort study included all Danish women diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor (n=139,466) during 1978-2012. The cohort was linked to the Danish Pathology Data Bank and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals...... (CI) were calculated. RESULTS: Women with benign ovarian tumors had increased risks for subsequent borderline ovarian tumors (SIR 1.62, 95% CI 1.43-1.82), and this applied to both serous (SIR 1.69, 95% CI 1.39-2.03) and mucinous (SIR 1.75, 95% CI 1.45-2.10) histotypes of borderline ovarian tumors....... The risk for borderline ovarian tumors was primarily increased for women diagnosed with a benign ovarian tumor before 40years of age. The risk remained increased up to 9years after a benign ovarian tumor diagnosis. Finally, the associations did not change markedly when analyzed for the different histotypes...

  12. Ovarian Cysts and Fertility: Is There a Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is there a link between ovarian cysts and fertility? Answers from Charles Coddington, M.D. Some ovarian cysts can be associated with decreased fertility. However, it depends on the type of ovarian ...

  13. Bilateral synchronous benign ovarian neoplasm: A rare occurrence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    right ovarian mass, which revealed a left ovarian benign cystic teratoma and a right ovarian ... Women's reproductive health rights need to be encouraged and possibly legislated in our setting. ..... Med J Armed Forces India 2011;67(3):272-.

  14. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black women. Different factors increase or decrease the risk of getting ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal ... decrease the number of deaths from ovarian cancer. Risks of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer ...

  15. Treatment Results of Ovarian Dysqerminoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Eun Ji; Suh, Chang Ok; Seong, Jin Sil; Keum, Ki Chang; Kim, Gwi Eon

    1996-01-01

    Purpose : We tried to evaluate the clinical characteristics, the treatment methods, the results of treatments, and the patterns of failure in ovarian dysgerminoma retrospectively. According to the results we would like to suggest the proper management guideline of stage la ovarian dysgerminoma patients who want to maintain fertility. Methods and Materials : Between 1975 and 1990, 34 patients with ovarian dysgerminoma were treated at the Yonsei University Hospital. The case records of these patients have been reviewed for presenting symptoms, treatment methods, local control, and survival following treatment. Excluded from analysis were five patients with mixed ovarian germ cell tumors and gonadoblastomas (46,XY). Treatment results of the twenty nine patients were analysed by each treatment modality. Twenty one patients were treated with surgery and postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy(group 1). The other eight patients were treated with operation alone (group 2). The median age of twenty-nine patients was 23 years with a range of 8 to 39 years. Presenting symptoms were abdominal mass(20), pelvic discomfort or pain(5) et al. Radiotherapy was performed by 10MV LINAC or Co-60 teletherapy unit. The total radiation dose of the whole abdomen was 20-25 Gy/3 weeks, 1-1.5 Gy/fraction with a boost to the whole pelvis 10-15 Gy / 1-2 weeks1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction. Advanced stage disease (stage II or stage III) patients received prophylactic mediastinal and supraclavicular irradiation to a dose of 16-26 Gy. Median duration of follow-up of living patients was 80 months (range : 13-201 months). Results : All of the twenty one patients of group 1 were alive without disease (100%). Among the eight patients who were not treated with radiotherapy (group 2), six patients developed local recurrence. Four patients referred with recurrent disease were treated with salvage radiotherapy. Three of four patients were salvaged and one patient who had recurrent intra-abdominal disease died of

  16. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  17. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  18. Laparoscopic Plication of Partially Twisted Ovary with Massive Ovarian Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Huei Cheng

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Massive ovarian edema (MOE is a rare entity characterized by an accumulation of stromal edema fluid and occurs primarily in young women. The etiology is not clear, but is suspected to be the result of partial torsion of the ovary. After the establishment of a correct diagnosis, organ-sparing surgical treatment is the standard treatment. With the assistance of laparoscopy, we diagnosed and managed MOE in a 26-year-old woman who had a 4-year history of primary infertility and intermittent lower abdominal pain that had lasted for more than 6 months. With de-torsion, wedge resection, and plication of the ovary, the patient was successfully relieved of the abdominal pain and experienced no recurrence in the follow-up period. A later spontaneous pregnancy demonstrated the practicality of this conservative treatment.

  19. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal accumulation of air in the ...

  20. Ovarian Drilling Efficacy, Estradiol Levels and Pregnancy Rate in Females With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moramezi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is the most common cause of oligoovulation and anovulation in general population and in females with infertility. Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of ovarian laparoscopic drilling procedure (LOD in females with PCOS, resistant to treatment with estradiol (E2 level less than 40 pg/mL versus more than 40 pg/mL. Materials and Methods Females with PCOS, resistant to drug for ovary stimulation, were grouped based on the Estradiol levels of ≤ 40 pg/mL (n = 13 and > 40 pg/mL (n = 15. To survey the ovulation, continuing spontaneous ovulation and cumulative pregnancy rate, ovarian laparoscopic drilling was carried out after the analysis of serum E2. Results There was significant difference in the average starting time of ovulation and continuing spontaneous ovulation of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL, compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.029, P = 0.05, respectively. Significant differences were also found in pregnancy rates of cases with PCOS with E2 levels > 40 pg/mL compared with ones with E2 ≤ 40 pg/mL (P = 0.05. Conclusions This study revealed that LOD in females with PCOS with a serum E2 > 40 pg/mL was sufficient and safe to trigger development of ovarian follicles followed by clinical pregnancy.

  1. Serum inhibin B in polycystic ovary syndrome as a potential marker of ovarian dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćetković Aleksandar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of anovulation, infertility and hyperandrogenism, and the prevalence of this condition in women of reproductive is 5-10%. The growth of early ovarian antral follicles is arrested and dominant follicle selection is disturbed in this syndrome. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study is to investigate whether inhibin B serum concentrations represent the extent of ovarian abnormalities in patients with PCOS. METHOD Inhibin B serum concentrations on the third day of spontaneous menstrual cycle and other endocrine characteristics were compared between 20 patients with PCOS and 19 healthy women in the control group. RESULTS Inhibin B concentrations were not significantly different between women with PCOS and women in the control group. In patients with PCOS there was statistically significant correlation between serum inhibin B and LH (r=0.514; p=0.021. There were no positive correlations between inhibin B and others endocrine parameters in patients with PCOS (FSH, E2, T, androstenedione. CONCLUSION Inhibin B serum concentrations on the third day of spontaneous menstrual cycle in women with PCOS are not different from the concentrations in healthy women. Serum Inhibin B levels in patients with PCOS are only slightly correlated with the endocrine markers of the disease so it could not represent the magnitude of ovarian dysfunction in this syndrome.

  2. Management of ovarian cysts in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xue-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To discuss the experience of diagnosis and treatment of ovarian cyst in infants. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was conducted on 20 infants who suffered from ovarian cyst. Results: There were no dysplasia ovarian was found in children which were preoperatively diagnosed simplex cyst. Within thirteen children preoperatively detected mixed cystic-solid lesion, six cases ovarian cysts disappeared and two cases underwent poor blood supply in the following time. Conclusion: Adverse effects for ovarian cyst in infants can be prevented by agressive surgical intervention. Harmful effects of ovarian cyst can be prevented by positive surgical intervention despite the diagnostic difficulties in children with clinical symptoms of this condition.

  3. Ovarian cancer immunotherapy: opportunities, progresses and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Richard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Due to the low survival rates from invasive ovarian cancer, new effective treatment modalities are urgently needed. Compelling evidence indicates that the immune response against ovarian cancer may play an important role in controlling this disease. We herein summarize multiple immune-based strategies that have been proposed and tested for potential therapeutic benefit against advanced stage ovarian cancer. We will examine the evidence for the premise that an effective therapeutic vaccine against ovarian cancer is useful not only for inducing remission of the disease but also for preventing disease relapse. We will also highlight the questions and challenges in the development of ovarian cancer vaccines, and critically discuss the limitations of some of the existing immunotherapeutic strategies. Finally, we will summarize our own experience on the use of patient-specific tumor-derived heat shock protein-peptide complex for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer.

  4. Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome Presenting with Polyserositis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Şengül Samancı

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS is an iatrogenic complication of ovulation induction with exogenous gonadotropins. Pleural effusion and abdominal ascites frequently accompany this syndrome. In this paper, we present the case of a 22-year-old female patient who was admitted to our clinic with the complaints of sudden chest pain and dyspnea and was treated with ovulation induction. Exudative pleural effusion and ascites were determined in the patient. Pelvic ultrasonography revealed enlarged ovaries with numerous follicular cysts compatible with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Her estradiol level was >5054 pg/ml. The diagnosis of OHSS was established after elimination of other causative factors of polyserositis (pleural effusion and ascites. The disappearance of pleural effusion and ascites spontaneously in a week supported our diagnosis. Herein, we aimed to emphasize that OHSS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of polyserositis in young female patients with a history of ovulation induction history. (The Me­di­cal Bul­le­tin of Ha­se­ki 2014; 52: 56-9

  5. Influence of ovarian manipulation on reproductive endocrinology in polycystic ovarian syndrome and regularly cycling women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, M.L.; König, T.E.; Soleman, R.S.; Korsen, T.; Schats, R.; Hompes, P.G.A.; Homburg, R.R.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the function of the ovarian neuronal network in humans. In many species, copulation influences endocrinology through this network. As a first step, the possible influence of ovarian mechanical manipulation on pituitary and ovarian hormones was evaluated in polycystic

  6. Incipient ovarian failure and premature ovarian failure show the same immunological profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kasteren, YM; von Blomberg, M; Hoek, A; de Koning, C; Lambalk, N; van Montfrans, J; Kuik, J

    PROBLEM: Incipient ovarian failure (IOF) is characterized by regular menstrual cycles, infertility and a raised early-follicular FSH in women under 40. IOF might be a precursor or a mitigated form of premature ovarian failure (POF). Disturbances in the immune system may play a role in ovarian

  7. Screening of the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinomas in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G H; Wang, S T; Yao, M Z; Cai, J H; Chen, C Y; Yang, Z X; Hong, L; Yang, S Y

    2014-04-16

    The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility and methods of screening the residual normal ovarian tissue adjacent to orthotopic ovarian carcinomas in nude mice. Human epithelial ovarian cancer cells (OVCAR3) were subcutaneously implanted for a tumor source and ovarian orthotopic transplantation. The cancer tissue, proximal paraneoplastic tissue, middle paraneoplastic tissue, remote paraneoplastic tissue, and normal ovarian tissue were removed. CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. We obtained 35 paraneoplastic residual ovarian tissues with normal biopsies from 40 cases of an orthotopic epithelial ovarian carcinoma model (87.5%). CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 expression was lower in proximal paraneoplastic tissue than in cancer tissue (P tissue (P tissue as well as among residual normal ovarian tissues with different severity (P > 0.05). In ovarian tissues of 20 normal nude mice, the expression of CK- 7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 was negative. Overall, the expression levels of CK-7, CA125, p53, survivin, MMP-2, TIMP-2, and other molecular markers showed a decreasing trend in the non-cancer tissue direction. The expression levels can be used as standards to screen residual normal ovarian tissue. We can obtain relatively safe normal ovarian tissues adjacent to epithelial ovarian cancer.

  8. Ziprasidone-induced spontaneous orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boora, K; Chiappone, K; Dubovsky, S; Xu, J

    2010-06-01

    Neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been associated with sexual dysfunction, including impotence and decreased libido. Spontaneous ejaculation without sexual arousal during typical antipsychotic treatment is a rare condition that has been described with zuclopentixol, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. Here, we are reporting a case of spontaneous orgasm with ziprasidone in a bipolar patient. This patient began to repeatedly experience spontaneous sexual arousal and orgasm, which she had never experienced in the past. Ziprasidone might be causing an increase in sexual orgasm by 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, which preclinical evidence suggests that it facilitates dopamine release in the cortex.

  9. Clinicoroentgenological diagnosis of chronic venous ovarian insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grakova, L.S.; Galkin, E.V.; Naumova, E.B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper is devoted to clinicoroentgenological correlations of venous renogonadal hemodynamics in 168 women of reproductive age (151 women with infertility, habitual abortion, disordered menstrual function and 17 patients without disorders of the reproductive tract). Clinicolaboratory investigation was followed by visceral and parietal flebography for the detection of a pathological venous reflux into the ovarian pampiniform plexus. Clinicoroentgenological semiotics of chronic venous ovarian insufficiency was analyzed. Infertility was shown to be the main clinical manifestation of ovarian varicocele

  10. Impaired insulin signaling pathway in ovarian follicles of cows with cystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, G J; Panzani, C G; Rodríguez, F M; Salvetti, N R; Díaz, P U; Gareis, N C; Benítez, G A; Ortega, H H; Rey, F

    2015-05-01

    Cystic ovarian disease (COD) is an important cause of infertility in dairy cattle. Follicular cell steroidogenesis and proliferation in ovulatory follicles is stimulated by hormones such as insulin and its necessary post-receptor response. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate-1 (IRS1) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), key intermediates in the insulin pathway, in control cows and cows with spontaneous COD and ACTH-induced COD. IR and IRS1 mRNA levels were greater in granulosa cells and lower in follicular cysts than in control tertiary follicles. PI3K mRNA levels were similar in all follicles evaluated, whereas the expression of IR, IRS1 and PI3K was similar in theca cells. Protein expression of IR was higher in control tertiary follicles than in the same structures in animals with COD and with cysts. IRS1 and PI3K protein expression showed the same pattern in tertiary and cystic follicles. However, the protein expression of subunit alpha p85 of PI3K was greater in theca cells from tertiary follicles than in cystic follicles. These results provide new insights into the insulin response in cows with COD. The lower gene and protein expressions of some insulin downstream effectors at an early stage of the signaling pathway could negatively influence the functionality of ovaries and contribute to follicle persistence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelini, Marta; Barillari, Giovanni; Londero, Ambrogio P; Bertozzi, Serena; Bernardi, Sergio; Petri, Roberto; Driul, Lorenza; Marchesoni, Diego

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian vein thrombosis (OVT) is an uncommon but potentially serious complication in the early postpartum. Two case studies seem to prove the point: Case 1 A 24-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital with the chief complaint of abdominal pain radiating to the right thigh, vomit, diarrhea, and a slight pyrexia (37.6 °C rectal). Five days earlier, she had a spontaneous vaginal delivery after labor induction. The woman appeared slightly distressed because of pain; vital signs were found to be normal and the CRP elevated (129.9 mg/L). Abdominal examination was remarkable for tenderness by palpation in the right lower quadrant with no rebound tenderness or guarding. Pelvic examination was remarkable for mild right adnexal tenderness. Abdominal-pelvic computer tomography with contrast medium revealed a 2.5-cm OVT having extended into the inferior vena cava for 14 cm with a slight peripheral edema. The patient was treated with nadroparin 0.6 cc (5700 IU) bid and warfarin 5 mg since the attainment of the therapeutic INR range. Case 2 A 31-year-old twin-pregnant woman had an emergency cesarean section at 35 gestational weeks because of hypertension complicated by increased liver enzymes, diuresis contraction, and continuous lower back pain bilaterally radiating to the groins. One day after delivery, CT scan that was performed because of onward anemia showed a pelvic, perihepatic, and perisplenic blood effusion, and a 1-cm right OVT extended to the inferior vena cava below renal veins for 28 mm. She underwent exploratory laparotomy and blood transfusion, and because of respiratory insufficiency she was transferred to a second level center with ICU facility, where she was placed under a suprarenal inferior vena cava filter, and AngioJet Rheolytic Thrombectomy for acute pulmonary embolism was performed.

  12. Mechanisms and Chemoprevention of Ovarian Carcinogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cvetkovic, Dusica

    2008-01-01

    .... We have demonstrated that DMBAinduced mutagenesis in the rat ovary, combined with gonadotropin hormone-mediated enhanced mitogenesis of the ovarian surface epithelium, produces lesions ranging...

  13. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the condition of the patient significantly. This case report highlights the rare and often missed association between hypothyroidism and ovarian cysts. Although very rare, profound hypothyroidism that can cause ovarian cysts in an adult should always be kept in the differential diagnosis to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery. Hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adult females presenting with multicystic ovarian tumours.Adequate thyroid hormone replacement therapy can prevent these patients from undergoing unnecessary and catastrophic ovarian resection.Surgical excision should be considered only when adequate thyroid replacement therapy fails to resolve ovarian enlargement.In younger women with ovarian cysts, it is also desirable to avoid unnecessary surgery so as to not compromise fertility in the future.

  14. Unilateral sectioning of the superior ovarian nerve of rats with polycystic ovarian syndrome restores ovulation in the innervated ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study tested the hypothesis that if polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS results from activating the noradrenergic outflow to the ovary, unilaterally sectioning the superior ovarian nerve (SON will result in ovulation by the denervated ovary, and the restoration of progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 normal serum level. A single 2 mg dose of estradiol valerate (EV to adult rats results in the development of a syndrome similar to the human PCOS. Ten-day old rats were injected with EV or vehicle solution (Vh and were submitted to sham surgery, unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON at 24-days of age. The animals were sacrificed at 90 to 92 days of age, when they presented vaginal estrus preceded by a pro-estrus smear. In EV-treated animals, unilateral sectioning of the SON restored ovulation by the innervated ovary and unilateral or bilateral sectioning of the SON normalized testosterone and estradiol levels. These results suggest that aside from an increase in ovarian noradrenergic tone in the ovaries, in the pathogenesis of the PCOS participate other neural influences arriving to the ovaries via the SON, regulating spontaneous ovulation. Changes in P4, T and E2 serum levels induced by EV treatment seem to be controlled by neural signals arising from the abdominal wall and other signals arriving to the ovaries through the SON, and presents asymmetry.

  15. PARP Inhibitors in Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittica, Gloria; Ghisoni, Eleonora; Giannone, Gaia; Genta, Sofia; Aglietta, Massimo; Sapino, Anna; Valabrega, Giorgio

    2018-03-05

    Treatment of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC), historically based on surgery and platinum doublet chemotherapy, is associated with high risk of relapse and poor prognosis for recurrent disease. In this landscape, the innovative treatment with PARP inhibitors (PARPis) demonstrated an outstanding activity in EOC, and is currently changing clinical practice in BRCA mutant patients. To highlight the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, clinical activity, indications and current strategies of development of Olaparib, Niraparib, Rucaparib, Talazoparib and Veliparib, the 5 most relevant PARPis. We performed a review on Pubmed using 'ovarian cancer' and the name of each PARPi (PARP inhibitor) discussed in the review as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords. The same search was performed on "clinicaltrial.gov" to identify ongoing clinical trials and on "google.com/patents" and "uspto.gov" for recent patents exploring PARPIs in ovarian cancer. Olaparib, Niraparib and Rucaparib are already approved for treatment of recurrent EOC and their indications are partially overlapping. Talazoparib and Veliparib are promising PARPis, but currently under investigation in early phase trials. Several studies are evaluating PARPis in monotherapy or in associations, in a wide range of settings (i.e. first line, neoadjuvant, platinum-sensitive and resistant disease). PARPis are valuable options in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer with promising activity in different stages of this disease. Further studies are required to better define optimal clinical settings, predictors of response beyond BRCA mutations and strategies to overcome secondary resistance of PARPis therapy in EOC. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Hansen, Thomas van Overeem; Sørensen, Claus Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    Genetic abnormalities in the DNA repair genes BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, only approximately 25% of cases of HBOC can be ascribed to BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. Recently, exome sequencing has uncovered substantial locus heterogeneity among...... of putative causal variants and the clinical application of new HBOC genes in cancer risk management and treatment decision-making....

  17. Acetyl-L-Carnitine Hydrochloride in Preventing Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients With Recurrent Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Fatigue; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neuropathy; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Pain; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma

  18. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  19. Hematome Extra - Dural Rachidien Spontane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl. Gros

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Four personal cases of Spontaneous Spinal Epidurdl Hemerrhage are Reported. And 29 additional cases have been analysed by reviewing the literature. The clinical radiologcal and surgical aspects were discussed.

  20. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  1. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  2. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  3. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  4. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  5. Validating genetic risk associations for ovarian cancer through the international Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pearce, C L; Near, A M; Van Den Berg, D J

    2009-01-01

    The search for genetic variants associated with ovarian cancer risk has focused on pathways including sex steroid hormones, DNA repair, and cell cycle control. The Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (OCAC) identified 10 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes in these pathways, which had...... been genotyped by Consortium members and a pooled analysis of these data was conducted. Three of the 10 SNPs showed evidence of an association with ovarian cancer at P... and risk of ovarian cancer suggests that this pathway may be involved in ovarian carcinogenesis. Additional follow-up is warranted....

  6. Towards an animal model of ovarian cancer: cataloging chicken blood proteins using combinatorial peptide ligand libraries coupled with shotgun proteomic analysis for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yingying; Sun, Zeyu; de Matos, Ricardo; Zhang, Jing; Odunsi, Kunle; Lin, Biaoyang

    2014-05-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is the most deadly gynecological cancer around the world, with high morbidity in industrialized countries. Early diagnosis is key in reducing its morbidity rate. Yet, robust biomarkers, diagnostics, and animal models are still limited for ovarian cancer. This calls for broader omics and systems science oriented diagnostics strategies. In this vein, the domestic chicken has been used as an ovarian cancer animal model, owing to its high rate of developing spontaneous epithelial ovarian tumors. Chicken blood has thus been considered a surrogate reservoir from which cancer biomarkers can be identified. However, the presence of highly abundant proteins in chicken blood has compromised the applicability of proteomics tools to study chicken blood owing to a lack of immunodepletion methods. Here, we demonstrate that a combinatorial peptide ligand library (CPLL) can efficiently remove highly abundant proteins from chicken blood samples, consequently doubling the number of identified proteins. Using an integrated CPLL-1DGE-LC-MSMS workflow, we identified a catalog of 264 unique proteins. Functional analyses further suggested that most proteins were coagulation and complement factors, blood transport and binding proteins, immune- and defense-related proteins, proteases, protease inhibitors, cellular enzymes, or cell structure and adhesion proteins. Semiquantitative spectral counting analysis identified 10 potential biomarkers from the present chicken ovarian cancer model. Additionally, many human homologs of chicken blood proteins we have identified have been independently suggested as diagnostic biomarkers for ovarian cancer, further triangulating our novel observations reported here. In conclusion, the CPLL-assisted proteomic workflow using the chicken ovarian cancer model provides a feasible platform for translational research to identify ovarian cancer biomarkers and understand ovarian cancer biology. To the best of our knowledge, we report here

  7. MV-NIS or Investigator's Choice Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Ovarian, Fallopian, or Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-27

    Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Clear Cell Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Endometrioid Tumor; Malignant Ovarian Serous Tumor; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  8. Obesity and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Nagle, Christina M; Whiteman, David C

    2013-01-01

    Whilst previous studies have reported that higher BMI increases a woman's risk of developing ovarian cancer, associations for the different histological subtypes have not been well defined. As the prevalence of obesity has increased dramatically, and classification of ovarian histology has improv...

  9. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997–2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. - Highlights: • We studied excess mortality due to ovarian cancer near Spanish industries. • Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. • We found excess ovarian cancer mortality near all industrial groups as a whole. • Risk also was found in towns near industries releasing carcinogens and metals. • Risk was associated with plants releasing polycyclic aromatic chemicals and POPs. - Our results support that residing in the vicinity of pollutant industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality

  10. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  11. Ovarian damage due to cyst removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perlman, Signe; Kjer, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Surgical treatment of endometriomas and potential damage to the ovary have been debated. Studies have described the inconsistent risk of unintended removal of ovarian tissue when a cystectomy of an endometrioma is performed. We evaluated the risk of inadvertently removed ovarian tis...

  12. Pathogenesis of ovarian cancer: current perspectives | Chesang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a review of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and its clinical implications. Data Source: Extensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies in the English language about or related to pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were selected.

  13. Hormone therapy and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk.......Little is known about the influence of postmenopausal hormone therapy on the risk of ovarian borderline tumors. We aimed at assessing the influence of different hormone therapies on this risk....

  14. Statin use and risk for ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Dehlendorff, C; Friis, Søren

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Limited data suggest that statin use reduces the risk for ovarian cancer. METHODS: Using Danish nationwide registries, we identified 4103 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer during 2000-2011 and age-matched them to 58,706 risk-set sampled controls. Conditional logistic regression....... The inverse association between statin use and mucinous tumours merits further investigation....

  15. Studies on the ovarian motility of small laboratory rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, M F; Gimeno, A L

    1975-01-01

    Guinea pig ovaries were isolated and immersed in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution, gassed with carbogen and added with glucose as the substrate. The experiments were carried out at 37 degrees C and the preparations were subjected to a basal tension of 500 mg. The spontaneous motility (contractile tension and frequency) of guinea pig ovaries obtained in late proestrus was significantly greater than that of the estrus or early proestrus. The influence of oxytocin on ovarian motility was significantly more marked in late proestrus than in estrus or early proestrus. Both the spontaneous and induced mortility of guinea pig ovaries are augmented in the immediate prevoulatory moment. In isolated rat ovaries, the isometric contractile tension and the frequency of contractions increased as the estral cycle progressed. During late proestrus, left ovaries had a contractile activity of greater intensity and frequency than the right ones, whereas during early proestrus the magnitudes were comparable. Oxytocin elicited greater responses in left than right ovaries of the late proestrus, the effect becoming similar in estrus and early proestrus. Rat ovaries obtained immediately before ovulation are specifically sensitized to the influence of oxytocin and not to other smooth muscle stimulants.

  16. Ovarian cancer mortality and industrial pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Pérez, Javier; Lope, Virginia; López-Abente, Gonzalo; González-Sánchez, Mario; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether there might be excess ovarian cancer mortality among women residing near Spanish industries, according to different categories of industrial groups and toxic substances. An ecologic study was designed to examine ovarian cancer mortality at a municipal level (period 1997-2006). Population exposure to pollution was estimated by means of distance from town to facility. Using Poisson regression models, we assessed the relative risk of dying from ovarian cancer in zones around installations, and analyzed the effect of industrial groups and pollutant substances. Excess ovarian cancer mortality was detected in the vicinity of all sectors combined, and, principally, near refineries, fertilizers plants, glass production, paper production, food/beverage sector, waste treatment plants, pharmaceutical industry and ceramic. Insofar as substances were concerned, statistically significant associations were observed for installations releasing metals and polycyclic aromatic chemicals. These results support that residing near industries could be a risk factor for ovarian cancer mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Etiology and Pathogenesis of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel C. Mok

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian cancer is complex disease composed of different histological grades and types. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the development of different phenotypes remain largely unknown. Epidemiological studies identified multiple exogenous and endogenous risk factors for ovarian cancer development. Among them, an inflammatory stromal microenvironment seems to play a critical role in the initiation of the disease. The interaction between such a microenvironment, genetic polymorphisms, and different epithelial components such as endosalpingiosis, endometriosis, and ovarian inclusion cyst in the ovarian cortex may induce different genetic changes identified in the epithelial component of different histological types of ovarian tumors. Genetic studies on different histological grades and types provide insight into the pathogenetic pathways for the development of different disease phenotypes. However, the link between all these genetic changes and the etiological factors remains to be established.

  18. Massive ovarian edema, due to adjacent appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callen, Andrew L; Illangasekare, Tushani; Poder, Liina

    2017-04-01

    Massive ovarian edema is a benign clinical entity, the imaging findings of which can mimic an adnexal mass or ovarian torsion. In the setting of acute abdominal pain, identifying massive ovarian edema is a key in avoiding potential fertility-threatening surgery in young women. In addition, it is important to consider other contributing pathology when ovarian edema is secondary to another process. We present a case of a young woman presenting with subacute abdominal pain, whose initial workup revealed marked enlarged right ovary. Further imaging, diagnostic tests, and eventually diagnostic laparoscopy revealed that the ovarian enlargement was secondary to subacute appendicitis, rather than a primary adnexal process. We review the classic ultrasound and MRI imaging findings and pitfalls that relate to this diagnosis.

  19. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurjees Hasan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  20. Targeted Therapies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, Emma; El-Helw, Loaie; Hasan, Jurjees, E-mail: jurjees.hasan@christie.nhs.uk [Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust / Wilmslow Road, Manchester, M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2010-02-23

    Molecularly targeted therapy is relatively new to ovarian cancer despite the unquestionable success with these agents in other solid tumours such as breast and colorectal cancer. Advanced ovarian cancer is chemosensitive and patients can survive several years on treatment. However chemotherapy diminishes in efficacy over time whilst toxicities persist. Newer biological agents that target explicit molecular pathways and lack specific chemotherapy toxicities such as myelosuppression offer the advantage of long-term therapy with a manageable toxicity profile enabling patients to enjoy a good quality of life. In this review we appraise the emerging data on novel targeted therapies in ovarian cancer. We discuss the role of these compounds in the front-line treatment of ovarian cancer and in relapsed disease; and describe how the development of predictive clinical, molecular and imaging biomarkers will define the role of biological agents in the treatment of ovarian cancer.

  1. Ovarian and tubal cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschau, Mathilde; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Hannibal, Charlotte G

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Nordic countries are areas with a high-incidence of ovarian cancer; however, differences between the countries exist. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We used the Danish Cancer Registry to identify 11 264 cases of ovarian cancer and 363 cases of tubal cancer during 1993-2013. We calculated...... age-standardized (world standard population) incidence rates for overall and subtype-specific ovarian cancer, and for tubal cancer. We compared age-standardized incidence rates, and 1- and 5-year age-standardized relative survival rates, respectively, for ovarian and tubal cancer combined in four...... Nordic countries using the NORDCAN database. RESULTS: The incidence rate of ovarian cancer overall in Denmark decreased statistically significantly by approximately 2.3% per year among women aged

  2. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  3. Effect of ovarian endometrioma on uterine and ovarian blood flow in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mazny A

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Akmal El-Mazny, Ahmed Kamel, Wafaa Ramadan, Sherine Gad-Allah, Suzy Abdelaziz, Ahmed M Hussein Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Background: Angiogenesis has been found to be among the most important factors in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The formation of new blood vessels is critical for the survival of newly implanted endometriotic foci. The use of 3-D power Doppler allows for the demonstration of the dynamic vascular changes that occur during the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF. We aimed to evaluate the effect of ovarian endometrioma on uterine and ovarian blood flow in infertile women. Materials and methods: In a case–control study at a university teaching hospital, 138 women with unilateral ovarian endometrioma scheduled for IVF were compared to 138 women with male-factor or unexplained infertility. In the mid-luteal (peri-implantation phase of the cycle, endometrial thickness, uterine and ovarian artery pulsatility index and resistance index, endometrial and ovarian volume, 3-D power Doppler vascularization index (VI, flow index (FI, and vascularization FI (VFI values were measured in both groups. Results: There were no significant differences (P>0.05 in endometrial thickness, uterine ovarian artery pulsatility index and resistance index, endometrial and ovarian volume, or VI, FI, and VFI between the two groups. Furthermore, the endometrial and ovarian Doppler indices were not influenced by endometrioma size. No significant differences were observed in the ovarian Doppler indices between endometrioma-containing ovaries and contralateral ovaries. Conclusion: Ovarian endometrioma is not associated with impaired endometrial and ovarian blood flows in infertile women scheduled for IVF, and it is not likely to affect endometrial receptivity or ovarian function through a vascular mechanism. Keywords: 3-D power Doppler, endometrioma, IVF, uterine and ovarian blood flow

  4. Autotransplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in 12 women with chemotherapy-induced premature ovarian failure: the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten Tryde; Rosendahl, Mikkel; Ernst, Erik

    2011-01-01

    To describe a cohort of 12 Danish women who received autotransplantation of frozen-thawed cryopreserved ovarian tissue because of premature ovarian failure after cancer treatment.......To describe a cohort of 12 Danish women who received autotransplantation of frozen-thawed cryopreserved ovarian tissue because of premature ovarian failure after cancer treatment....

  5. Polycystic ovarian disease: animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, D K

    1988-12-01

    The reproductive systems of human beings and other vertebrates are grossly similar. In the ovary particularly, the biochemical and physiologic processes are identical not only in the formation of germ cells, the development of primordial follicles and their subsequent growth to Graafian follicles, and eventual ovulation but also in anatomic structure. In a noncarcinogenic human ovary, hypersecretion of androgen causes PCOD. Such hypersecretion may result from a nonpulsatile, constant elevated level of circulating LH or a disturbance in the action of neurotransmitters in the hypothalamus. In studying the pathophysiology of PCOD in humans, one must be aware of the limitations for manipulating the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Although the rat is a polytocous rodent, the female has a regular ovarian cyclicity of 4 or 5 days, with distinct proestrus, estrus, and diestrus phases. Inasmuch as PCOD can be experimentally produced in the rat, that species is a good model for studying the pathophysiology of human PCOD. These PCOD models and their validity have been described: (1) estradiol-valerate, (2) DHA, (3) constant-light (LL), and (4) neonatally androgenized. Among these, the LL model is noninvasive and seems superior to the others for study of the pathophysiology of PCOD. The production of the polycystic ovarian condition in the rat by the injection of estrogens or androgens in neonate animals, or estradiol or DHA in adult rats, or the administration of antigonadotropins to these animals all cause a sudden appearance of the persistent estrus state by disturbing the metabolic and physiologic processes, whereas exposure of the adult rat to LL causes polycystic ovaries gradually, similar to what is seen in human idiopathic PCOD. After about 50 days of LL, the rat becomes anovulatory and the ovaries contain thickened tunica albuginea and many atretic follicles, and the tertiary follicles are considerably distended and cystic. The granulosa and theca cells appear normal

  6. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  7. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  8. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  9. Ovarian transposition in young women and fertility sparing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossa, B; Schimberni, M; Di Benedetto, L; Mossa, S

    2015-09-01

    Ovarian transposition is a highly effective surgical procedure used to preserve ovarian function in premenopausal patients with cancers requiring postoperative or primary pelvic radiotherapy. Pelvic irradiation determines severe damage of ovarian DNA and iatrogenic ovarian failure with premature menopause, necessity of long-term hormone replacement therapy and infertility. We conducted an extensive research of the literature in Medline between January 2000 and April 2015 using the key-words "ovarian transposition radiotherapy", "radiotherapy gonadal function", radiotherapy fertility sparing". The population included young women with normal ovarian function affected by cancers that required pelvic radiotherapy. We have examined 32 articles reporting on 1189 women undergoing ovarian transposition. Median age was 32.5 years, follow up was median 48 months. The procedure has been performed in patients less than 40 years of age. Surgery has been achieved by laparotomy or laparoscoy. We have analyzed effects of radiotherapy on ovarian function. The proportion of women treated by ovarian transposition preserved ovarian function was 70%. About 86% of patients did not develop ovarian cysts and in 98-99% of cases did not occur any metastatic disease. Ovarian transposition is associated with significant preservation of ovarian function and a low frequency of complications as cysts and metastasis. In 31% of cases the procedure can fail. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of ovarian transposition and the follow up. Ovarian transposition should be discussed at the time of cancer diagnosis in every premenopausal woman requiring pelvic radiotherapy.

  10. Persistent ovarian masses and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, William A; Rincon, Monica; Bohrer, Justin; Tolosa, Jorge E; Sohaey, Roya; Riaño, Rene; Davis, James; Zalud, Ivica

    2013-07-01

    To determine if persistent ovarian masses in pregnancy are associated with increased adverse outcomes. This is a retrospective cohort of 126 pregnant women with a persistent ovarian mass measuring 5 cm or greater who delivered at two university hospitals between 2001 and 2009. Maternal outcomes included gestational age (GA) at diagnosis, delivery and surgery as well as miscarriage, preterm birth (PTB), ovarian torsion and hospital admission for pain. Neonatal outcomes included birth weight, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), intra-ventricular hemorrhage (IVH), death and sepsis. A total of 1225 ovarian masses were identified (4.9%) in 24,868 patients. A persistent ovarian mass was found in 0.7%. Average GA at diagnosis was 17.8 weeks. Miscarriage rate was 3.3%. Average GA at delivery was 37.9 weeks. Of the patients, 8.5% had ovarian torsion, 10.3% had admission for pain and 9.3% had PTBs. The mean cesarean delivery rate was 46.3%. The average neonatal weight was 3273 g. There was one neonatal death in this cohort. The rate of RDS was 2.8%, IVH 0.9% and neonatal sepsis 1.9%. The most common surgical pathologic diagnosis was dermoids (37.6%). No overt malignancies were seen. A persistent ovarian mass in pregnancy does not confer an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Diminished ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Tuğrul Ayanoğlu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Psoriasis is a multi-systemic chronic inflammatory skin disease. Previous data suggests that women with some chronic inflammatory diseases have diminished ovarian reserve. This study explores ovarian reserve in patients with psoriasis. Materials and methods: We prospectively analyzed 14 female patients with psoriasis and 35 healthy age and body mass index matched controls. An interview explored demographic characteristics, obstetrical history and menstrual characteristics. Psoriatic area severity index (PASI in patients was assessed. Estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, thyroid stimulating hormone and with gynecologic ultrasonography, ovarian volume and antral follicular count (AFC were measured in both study and control groups. These values were analyzed with changes of the PASI in the patient group. Results: Patients with psoriasis had significantly higher levels of FSH and FSH/LH ratio than healthy controls (p = 0.039, p = 0.005 respectively. AFC of psoriasis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (p = 0.002.There were no significant difference among other hormone levels and ovarian volumes (p > 0.05. The hormone levels, ovarian volume and AFC were not correlated with PASI of the patients. Conclusion: The results of the study suggest that patients with psoriasis may have diminished ovarian reserve. Keywords: Psoriasis, Ovarian reserve, Psoriatic area severity index, Antral follicular count, Follicle-stimulating hormone

  12. An incidental ovarian mass: A case of ovarian hemangioma with prominent stromal luteinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Shirazi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of female genital tract. Stromal luteinization in ovarian hemangioma is an uncommon process and the pathogenesis is controversial. In this regard, two hypotheses have been suggested whether luteinization is a reactive process or it is the stimulator for development of ovarian hemangioma. Here, we report a case of a 55-year-old woman who referred to our center due to incidental finding of left ovarian mass in pelvic sonography. Microscopically, the mass showed a mixed cavernous and capillary hemangioma and the peripheral stroma contained several small and large clusters of stromal cells, which were luteinized. It should be noted that an ovarian hemangioma could be associated with stromal luteinization although its pathogenesis is not clearly known. Yet, we believe the stromal luteinization around ovarian hemangioma could be a reactive phenomenon.

  13. Tubal ligation and salpingectomy and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, C; Baandrup, Louise; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN: Nationw......OBJECTIVE: According to the recent theories on the ovarian cancer origin, any protective effect of tubal ligation may vary with histologic subtype of ovarian cancer. Furthermore, bilateral salpingectomy may represent an opportunity for surgical prevention of serous ovarian cancer. DESIGN...... sampling. We required that cases and controls have no previous cancer and that controls have no previous bilateral oophorectomy. METHODS: Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Epithelial...

  14. Genetics of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratantonio, Enza; Vicari, Enzo; Pafumi, Carlo; Calogero, Aldo E

    2005-06-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a reproductive system disorder characterized by irregular menses, anovulation, clinical and/or biochemical signs of hyperandrogenism (hirsutism and/or acne), ovarian micropolycystic appearance and metabolic abnormalities, such as hyperinsulinaemia and obesity. The aetiopathogenesis of this syndrome is not well known. Several pathogenetic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the full array of symptoms and signs, but with elusive results. A genetic abnormality causing PCOS is supported by the observation that different members of the same family are often affected, and about half of the sisters of PCOS women have elevated serum testosterone concentrations. Therefore, the presence of gene abnormalities in women with PCOS has been widely explored in the attempt to establish whether their mutations or polymorphisms may cause PCOS. The main genes evaluated are those involved in steroidogenesis, steroid hormone effects, gonadotrophin release regulation and action, insulin secretion and action, and adipose tissue metabolism. Despite the vast body of literature produced, none of the genes evaluated seems to play a key role in PCOS pathogenesis. It is likely that PCOS may represent the final outcome of different, deeply inter-related genetic abnormalities that influence each other and perpetuate the syndrome.

  15. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  16. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  17. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  18. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  19. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  20. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  1. Ovarian failure following abdominal irradiation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shalet, S.M.; Beardwell, C.G.; Jones, P.H.M.; Pearson, D.; Orrell, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    Ovarian function was studied in 18 female patients treated for abdominal tumours during childhood. All received abdominal radiotherapy as part of their treatment and were studied between 1 and 26 years after irradiation. The serum gonadotrophins and oestradiol levels were consistent with ovarian failure in each case and there was a disproportionate elevation in serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) when compared to serum luteinizing hormone (LH) in 16. In 2 patients, the radiotherapeutic field extended downwards only as far as the sacral promontory. However, these 2 girls show similar evidence of ovarian failure to that in the other 16. (author)

  2. Elevated progesterone during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Azemi, M; Kyrou, D; Kolibianakis, E M

    2012-01-01

    of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of the follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials should document the cause and origin...... phase in ovarian stimulation. The databases of Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant publications. Good-quality evidence supports the negative impact on endometrial receptivity of elevated progesterone concentrations at the end of follicular phase in ovarian stimulation. Future trials...

  3. Paradigm Shift in the Management Strategy for Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; McAlpine, Jessica N; Lheureux, Stephanie; Matsumura, Noriomi; Oza, Amit M

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis on the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer continues to evolve. Although epithelial ovarian cancer had been assumed to arise from the coelomic epithelium of the ovarian surface, it is now becoming clearer that the majority of serous carcinomas arise from epithelium of the distal fallopian tube, whereas clear cell and endometrioid cancers arise from endometriosis. Molecular and genomic characteristics of epithelial ovarian cancer have been extensively investigated. Our understanding of pathogenesis of the various histologic types of ovarian cancer have begun to inform changes to the strategies for management of epithelial ovarian cancer, which represent a paradigm shift not only for treatment but also for prevention, which previously had not been considered achievable. In this article, we will discuss novel attempts at the prevention of high-grade serous ovarian cancer and treatment strategies for two distinct entities in epithelial ovarian cancer: low-grade serous and clear cell ovarian carcinomas, which are relatively rare and resistant to conventional chemotherapy.

  4. A Case of Spontaneously Resolved Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kahraman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A condition of intrapleural air-space accumulation in individuals without any history of trauma or lung disease is called as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP. Sixteen-years-old male patient admitted with complains of chest pain and dyspnea beginning 3 day ago. On physical examination, severity of breath sounds decreased on right side. Chest radiograph was taken and right-sided pneumothorax was detected and tube thoracostomy was inserted. Two months ago the patient referred to a doctor with similar complaints and physical examination and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The radiograph was retrospectively examined and bilateral PSP was detected. We presented the case duo to spontaneous recovery of bilateral PSP is seen very rarely and so contributes data to the literature. In patients admitted to the clinic with chest pain and shortness of breath, pneumothorax should be considered at differential diagnosis.

  5. Ovarian function after uterine artery embolisation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-08-05

    Aug 5, 2009 ... Objective. To evaluate ovarian function in 29 patients who underwent uterine artery embolisation ... of FSH levels, kidney function, blood count and clotting time. .... Funding: Departmental funds and routine services in hospital;.

  6. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berchuck, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    To achieve a better understanding of the etiology of ovarian cancer we have initiated a case-control study that considers genetic susceptibility epidemiologic risk factors and acquired genetic alterations...

  7. Evaluating the ovarian cancer gonadotropin hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Alice W; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Doherty, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is a hormone-related disease with a strong genetic basis. However, none of its high-penetrance susceptibility genes and GWAS-identified variants to date are known to be involved in hormonal pathways. Given the hypothesized etiologic role of gonadotropins, an assessment...... of how variability in genes involved in the gonadotropin signaling pathway impacts disease risk is warranted. METHODS: Genetic data from 41 ovarian cancer study sites were pooled and unconditional logistic regression was used to evaluate whether any of the 2185 SNPs from 11 gonadotropin signaling pathway...... genes was associated with ovarian cancer risk. A burden test using the admixture likelihood (AML) method was also used to evaluate gene-level associations. RESULTS: We did not find any genome-wide significant associations between individual SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. However, there was some...

  8. Molecular Imaging of Ovarian Carcinoma Angiogenesis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2007-01-01

    .... Ovarian cancer is angiogenesis dependent. Integrin , a key player in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis, has been identified as a target for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions for several highly proliferative and metastatic tumor types...

  9. Predictive and therapeutic markers in ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Joe W.; Guan, Yinghui; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Fridlyand, Jane; Mills, Gordon B.

    2013-03-26

    Cancer markers may be developed to detect diseases characterized by increased expression of apoptosis-suppressing genes, such as aggressive cancers. Genes in the human chromosomal regions, 8q24, 11q13, 20q11-q13, were found to be amplified indicating in vivo drug resistance in diseases such as ovarian cancer. Diagnosis and assessment of amplification levels certain genes shown to be amplified, including PVT1, can be useful in prediction of poor outcome of patient's response and drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates. Certain genes were found to be high priority therapeutic targets by the identification of recurrent aberrations involving genome sequence, copy number and/or gene expression are associated with reduced survival duration in certain diseases and cancers, specifically ovarian cancer. Therapeutics to inhibit amplification and inhibitors of one of these genes, PVT1, target drug resistance in ovarian cancer patients with low survival rates is described.

  10. Hormone therapy and different ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Løkkegaard, Ellen; Andreasen, Anne Helms

    2012-01-01

    Postmenopausal hormone therapy use increases the risk of ovarian cancer. In the present study, the authors examined the risks of different histologic types of ovarian cancer associated with hormone therapy. Using Danish national registers, the authors identified 909,946 women who were followed from...... 1995-2005. The women were 50-79 years of age and had no prior hormone-sensitive cancers or bilateral oophorectomy. Hormone therapy prescription data were obtained from the National Register of Medicinal Product Statistics. The National Cancer and Pathology Register provided data on ovarian cancers......, including information about tumor histology. The authors performed Poisson regression analyses that included hormone exposures and confounders as time-dependent covariates. In an average of 8.0 years of follow up, 2,681 cases of epithelial ovarian cancer were detected. Compared with never users, women...

  11. Novel Treatment Shrinks Ovarian Tumors in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have developed a new approach for treating tumors that express mutant versions of the p53 protein, which are present in more than half of all cancers, including an aggressive and common subtype of ovarian cancer.

  12. IP Chemo for Ovarian Cancer is Underused

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of intraperitoneal chemotherapy, along with intravenous chemotherapy, improves survival in some women with advanced ovarian cancer, but its use in clinical practice has been limited, according to a new study.

  13. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  14. Evaluation of unilateral versus bilateral ovarian drilling in clomiphene citrate resistant cases of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, K K; Baruah, Jinee; Moda, Nidhi; Kumar, Sunesh

    2009-10-01

    Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) has been put forward as the treatment of choice in women with clomiphene citrate (CC)-resistant polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), with tubo-ovarian adhesion formation as the major disadvantage. Our study proposed to compare the efficacy of laparoscopic unilateral ovarian drilling with bilateral ovarian drilling in terms of ovulation and pregnancy rate with the expected advantage of decreasing postoperative adhesion rate and change in fimbiro ovarian relationship with unilateral drilling. This prospective randomized study included 44 patients with anovulatory infertility due to PCOS. Twenty-two patients underwent unilateral ovarian drilling in group-I and 22 patients underwent bilateral ovarian drilling in group-II between June 2005 and June 2007. The number of drilling site in each ovary was limited to five. The clinical and biochemical response, ovulation and pregnancy rates over a follow-up period of 1 year were compared. Tubo-ovarian adhesion rate was compared during cesarean section or during repeat laparoscopy. There was no statistical difference between the two groups in terms of clinical and biochemical response, ovulation rate and pregnancy rate. Postoperatively, tubo-ovarian adhesions could be assessed in 36.3% of the patients and no adhesions were found in a single case in either group. Unilateral drilling cauterization of ovary is equally efficacious as bilateral drilling in inducing ovulation and achieving pregnancy. Unilateral ovarian drilling may be a suitable option in clomiphene citrate resistant infertility patient of PCOS which can replace bilateral ovarian drilling with the potential advantage of decreasing the chances of adhesion formation.

  15. The use of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) for controlled ovarian stimulation in assisted reproductive technology and for fertility assessment and -counselling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilsgaard, Fie; Grynnerup, Anna Garcia-Alix; Loessl, Kristine

    2018-01-01

    stimulation protocol and gonadotrophin dose can be chosen specifically for each woman enabling the so called 'individualized treatment' in line with the personalized treatment concept. Many benefits come with using AMH as a biomarker for ovarian reserve; the hormone is considered fairly cycle independent....... Currently, no international standardised assays exist. AMH is a valid predictor of the ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation and to some extent the chance of pregnancy in relation to assisted reproductive technology, but AMH is less optimal in prediction of spontaneous pregnancy and live birth...... after assisted reproductive technology. Accordingly, AMH can be used to optimize gonadotrophin stimulation in fertility treatment, but is not recommended as a screening tool in the general population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  16. Biological Basis for Chemoprevention of Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Concealing Clothing” Sukru Hatun, Omer Islam, Filiz Cizmecioglu, Bulent Kara, Kadir Babaoglu, Fatma Berk,and Ayse Sevim Go¨ kalp J. Nutr. 135: 218–222...to studies in ovarian caner , analyses of the relationship between the short AR CAG repeat length polymorphism and prostate cancer risk also have...pregnant, months of OC use, BMI, tubal ligation, family history of breast or ovarian caner in a first degree relative, waist-to-hip ratio 23 Table 6

  17. Ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji

    1986-01-01

    A recent pathological and epidemiological study on females with ovarian neoplasms among the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Life Span Study (LSS) Extended Sample ascertained 194 malignant and 106 benign ovarian tumor cases which had occurred during the period 1950 - 80. Of the 194 cases of ovarian cancer, 128 (66 %) were reviewed microscopically and the age-adjusted incidence of ovarian cancer revealed a statistically significant linear increase with increasing exposure dose, both in microscopically reviewed and in all cases. The radiation-related excess of ovarian cancer appeared to be highest in women less than 20 years of age when exposed, with these women having the longest latent period for tumor development, compared to the older age groups. The histological distribution of cancer types among exposed individuals appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The analysis of 106 autopsy subjects with benign ovarian tumors, of which 89 were reviewed microscopically, depicted a trend of increasing radiation-related tumor excess with increasing exposure dose among exposed cases, though the trend is not statistically significant when observation was limited to microscopically reviewed subjects. The histological distribution of benign tumor types among exposed cases appeared not very different from that seen in the general population. The findings are consistent with a hypothesis that radiation-injured ovaries in association with secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones are important causative factors in the development of ovarian tumors, which has been suggested by experimental findings concerning the induction of ovarian tumors by ionizing radiation and by a recent analysis of breast carcinogenesis in exposed females of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (author)

  18. Vanishing large ovarian cyst with thyroxine therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmshaktu, Pramila; Kutiyal, Aditya; Dhanwal, Dinesh

    2013-01-01

    Summary A 21-year-old female patient recently diagnosed with severe hypothyroidism was found to have a large ovarian cyst. In view of the large ovarian cyst, she was advised to undergo elective laparotomy in the gynaecology department. She was further evaluated in our medical out-patient department (OPD), and elective surgery was withheld. She was started on thyroxine replacement therapy, and within a period of 4 months, the size of the cyst regressed significantly, thereby improving the cond...

  19. [The molecular biology of epithelial ovarian cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Alexandra; Pautier, Patricia; Tazi, Youssef; Morice, Philippe; Duvillard, Pierre; Gouy, Sébastien; Uzan, Catherine; Gauthier, Hélène; Balleyguier, Corinne; Lhommé, Catherine

    2012-12-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer frequently presents at an advanced stage where the cornerstone of management remains surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. Unfortunately, despite sometimes dramatic initial responses, advanced ovarian cancer almost invariably relapses. Little progress has been made in the identification of effective targeted-therapies for ovarian cancer. The majority of clinical trials investigating novel agents have been negative and the only approved targeted-therapy is bevacizumab, for which reliable predictive biomarkers still elude us. Ovarian cancer is treated as a uniform disease. Yet, biological studies have highlighted the heterogeneity of this malignancy with marked differences in histology, oncogenesis, prognosis, chemo-responsiveness, and molecular profile. Recent high throughput molecular analyses have identified a huge number of genomic/phenotypic alterations. Broadly speaking, high grade serous carcinomas (type II) display significant genomic instability and numerous amplifications and losses; low grade (type I) tumors are genomically stable but display frequent mutations. Importantly, many of these genomic alterations relate to known oncogenes for which targeted-therapies are available or in development. There is today a real potential for personalized medicine in ovarian cancer. We will review the current literature regarding the molecular characterization of epithelial ovarian cancer and discuss the biological rationale for a number of targeted strategies. In order to translate these biological advances into meaningful clinical improvements for our patients, it is imperative to incorporate translational research in ovarian cancer trials, a number of strategies will be proposed such as the acquisition of quality tumor samples, including sequential pre- and post-treatment biopsies, the potential of liquid biopsies, and novel trial designs more adapted to the molecular era of ovarian cancer research.

  20. Reproductive outcome re-evaluation for women with primary ovarian insufficiency using office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed T. Gad Al Rab

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective & Aim: The objective of this study was to analyze the usefulness of office microlaparoscopy in the re-assessment of ovarian morphological picture, relevant clinical types and future fertility prognosis of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI. Methods: Forty-five patients with POI diagnosed in a private fertility care center between October 2009 and December 2014, who gave informed consent and underwent office microlaparoscopy were studied. Pelvic ultrasound had failed to visualize and morphologically assess both ovaries in the women included. The cases were divided into four groups based on the microlaparoscopic ovarian morphology: Group N (near to normal, Group G (Gyrus shaped, Group A (atrophied, and Group S (streak shaped. These groups were analyzed with respect to patient background, blood hormone levels, the level of antinuclear antibodies measured, and their individual fertility prognosis. Result: No significant differences in patient background and serum hormone levels were observed between groups. There was complete absence of both ovaries in 5 patients included. Groups N and G had shown some improvement, such as regular spontaneous menstruation, and forthcoming pregnancy, which happened once in Group N. Many other internal genital anomalies could be diagnosed during the same office procedure. Conclusion: Office microlaparoscopy under augmented local anesthesia is a useful procedure in the definite demarcation, and the differentiation between the types of POI, regarding their menstrual regularity and future fertility prognosis.

  1. Experimental induction of ovarian Sertoli cell tumors in rats by N-nitrosoureas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, A; Onodera, H; Tanigawa, H; Furuta, K; Kanno, J; Ogiu, T; Hayashi, Y

    1987-01-01

    Spontaneous ovarian tumors are very rare in ACI, Wistar, F344 and Donryu rats; the few neoplasms found are of the granulosa/theca cell type. Ovarian tumors were also rare in these strains of rats when given high doses of N-alkyl-N-nitrosoureas continuously in the drinking water for their life-span; however, relatively high incidences of Sertoli cell tumors or Sertoli cell tumors mixed with granulosa cell tumors were induced in Donryu rats after administration of either a 400 ppm N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea solution in the drinking water for 4 weeks or as a single dose of 200 mg N-propyl-N-nitrosourea per kg body weight by stomach tube. Typical Sertoli cell tumors consisted of solid areas showing tubular formation. The tubules were lined by tall, columnar cells, with abundant, faintly eosinophilic, often vacuolated cytoplasm, and basally oriented, round nuclei, resembling seminiferous tubules in the testes. In some cases, Sertoli cell tumor elements were found mixed with areas of granulosa cells. The induction of ovarian Sertoli cell tumors in Donryu rats by low doses of nitrosoureas may provide a useful model for these tumors in man. Images PLATE 1. PLATE 2. PLATE 3. PLATE 4. PLATE 5. PLATE 6. PLATE 7. PLATE 8. PLATE 9. PLATE 10. PLATE 11. PLATE 12. PLATE 13. PLATE 14. PLATE 15. PLATE 16. PMID:3665856

  2. Ovarian and Uterine Functions in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, Ozgur; Kim, Samuel S; Selek, Ugur; Schatmann, Glenn; Urman, Bulent

    2018-02-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby causing a greater magnitude of adverse effects on the female reproductive function. These include infertility, premature ovarian failure, miscarriage, fetal growth restrictions, perinatal deaths, preterm births, delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants, preeclampsia, and abnormal placentation. Regrettably, the majority of these adverse outcomes arise from radiation-induced uterine injury and are reported at higher incidence in the adult survivors of childhood cancers who were exposed to uterine radiation during childhood in the form of pelvic, spinal, or total-body irradiation. Recent findings of long-term follow-up studies evaluating reproductive performance of female survivors provided some reassurance to female cancer survivors by documenting that pregnancy and live birth rates were not significantly compromised in survivors, including those who had been treated with alkylating agents and had not received pelvic, cranial, and total-body irradiation. We aimed in this narrative review article to provide an update on the impact of chemotherapy and radiation on the ovarian and uterine function in female survivors of childhood cancer. Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing a number of poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation

  3. [Bilateral ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma. A case presentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briseño-Hernández, Andrés Alejandro; Quezada-López, Deissy Roxana; Castañeda-Chávez, Agar; Dassaejv Macías-Amezcua, Michel; Pintor-Belmontes, Julio Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Burkitt lymphoma, is described as an aggressive form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma of B cells which occurs most often in children and young adults, ovarian lymphoma can appear as a primary lesion or more commonly referred to as a metastasis. Primary ovarian lesions are rare manifestations corresponding to 0.5% of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and 1.5% of ovarian tumors. Clinic case: 31 years old female with general weakness, march incapacity, dyspnea, hyporexia, fever, diaphoresis, weight loss of 20 kg, flat abs with abdominal pain; Ca125 610 U/ml. Abdominal computed tomography shows a solid aspect tumor which affects the right pelvic cavity. Bilateral ovarian tumors were removed. Microscopically, both lesions show a "starry sky" pattern composed by a monotonous infiltration of lymphocytes mixed with large and clear macrophages, several atypical mitoses, and necrosis and hemorrhage areas. Immunohistochemistry was positive for CD10, CD20, and negative for CD3 and high Ki67 proliferation index. Bilateral ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma was diagnosed. Bilateral ovarian Burkitt's lymphoma is a rare entity, with a variability of presentations, the abdominal pain and abdominal tumors are the most frequent. The patient's prognosis at short term is poor, therefore it's necessary to know this entity and make an early diagnosis.

  4. Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 (APS-3) among patients with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlendak-Sauer, Katarzyna; Jakubik, Daniel; Kunicki, Michał; Skórska, Jolanta; Smolarczyk, Roman

    2016-08-01

    Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3 - (APS-3), is defined as the coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with other non-ovarian autoimmune diseases without primary adrenal insufficiency. Additionally the definition of APS-3 also includes primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) coexistence with autoimmune thyroiditis. The main goal of that study is to assess the prevalence of APS-3 defined as coexistence of autoimmune thyroiditis with POI in population of 46 XX karyotype women with primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). The second goal is to investigate hormonal profile and insulin sensitivity in women with POI and subgroups of women with APS-3 - POI/APS-3(+) and without APS 3 - POI/APS-3(-). Anthropometric measurements, coexistence of autoimmune diseases, androgens, fasting glucose and insulin, glucose and insulin at 60' and 120' of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and homeostasis model for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), were determine in 98 patients aged between 18 and 39 with spontaneous 46 XX primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), in 33 POI/APS-3(+), 65 POI/APS-3(-), and 75 healthy controls. Continuous data were summarized by the mean±standard deviation (SD), and categorical data by number (percentages). Data were checked for normality using Shapiro-Wilk test, the comparison between groups were performed using non-parametric Mann-Whitney or Kruskall-Wallis test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the relationships between parameters. Statistical significance was defined as p values APS-3(+) and POI/APS-3(-) showed significantly lower serum androgens in comparison to controls. Additionally women with POI/APS-3(+) showed hyperinsulinemia after 1h of OGTT; No significant differences in serum fasting glucose, insulin and during 2h OGTT between groups were observed. The prevalence of APS-3 is 33.7% in patients with spontaneous 46 XX primary ovarian insufficiency. Women with POI, POI/APS-3(+) and POI/APS-3(-) feature lower testosterone, androstendione

  5. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  6. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  7. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  8. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  9. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  10. Environmental and developmental origins of ovarian reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M C; Guo, M; Fauser, B C J M; Macklon, N S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Oocyte number is established early in life before a gradual loss of this ovarian reserve during reproductive life until oocyte availability becomes limiting at the menopause. Although there is a large genetic component to the ovarian reserve achieved before birth, other influences including the maternal endocrine and nutritional milieu, and environmental factors may represent important developmental determinants. Environmental and nutritional factors may also modify the downward trajectory of ovarian reserve in adult life. The combination of these early and later life influences has the potential to lead to diminished ovarian reserve, compromising fertility in later reproductive years and altering age at natural menopause. METHODS Literature searches of the ISI Web of Knowledge database were carried out using the main terms 'ovarian reserve' and 'menopause AND age' in conjunction with a range of other terms encompassing a variety of factors with potential effects on ovarian reserve. The various searches were inspected manually and the relevant papers selected for critical analysis and interpretation. RESULTS Evidence was identified supporting the view that elevated prenatal androgens have an adverse effect on the early establishment of ovarian reserve, although the implications for ovarian reserve in the polycystic ovary syndrome (which may also be programmed through prenatal androgen exposure) remain uncertain. Recent evidence is cited suggesting that effects of maternal nutrient restriction on ovarian reserve may also involve changes in prenatal androgen exposure. A general rationale is developed through examination of evidence which emphasizes the roles of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the estrogen receptor (ER) systems in ovarian reserve modulation. Because of their similarity to the natural ligands, many environmental compounds have the ability to bind to these receptors (albeit at lower affinities) and thereby have the potential to

  11. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  12. Reference values in ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation throughout the reproductive period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Milani, Silvano; Plebani, Maddalena; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The age-related decline in ovarian response to gonadotropins has been well known since the beginning of ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles and has been considered secondary to the age-related decline in ovarian reserve. The objective of this study was to establish reference values and to construct nomograms of ovarian response for any specific age to gonadotropins in IVF/ICSI cycles. We analyzed our database containing information on IVF cycles. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 703 patients were selected. Among inclusion criteria, there were regular menstrual cycle, treatment with a long GnRH agonist protocol and starting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose of at least 200 IU per day. To estimate the reference values of ovarian response, the CG-LMS method was used. A linear decline in the parameters of ovarian response with age was observed: the median number of oocytes decreases approximately by one every three years, and the median number of follicles >16 mm by one every eight years. The number of oocytes and growing follicles corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th centiles has been calculated. This study confirmed the well known negative relationship between ovarian response to FSH and female ageing and permitted the construction of nomograms of ovarian response.

  13. Individualization of controlled ovarian stimulation in vitro fertilization using ovarian reserve markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Valentina; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    In assisted reproduction technologies (ART) the controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) therapy is the starting point from which a good oocytes retrieval depends. Treatment individualization is based on ovarian response prediction, which largely depends on a woman's ovarian reserve. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) are considered the most accurate and reliable markers of ovarian reserve. A literature search was carried out for studies that addressed the ability of AMH and AFC to predict poor and/or excessive ovarian response in IVF cycles. According to the predicted response to ovarian stimulation (poor- normal- or high-response) is today possible not only to personalize pre-treatment counseling with the couple, but also to individualize the ovarian stimulation protocol, choosing among GnRH-agonists or antagonists for endogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) suppression and formulating the FSH starting dose most adequate for the single patients. In this review we discuss how to choose the best COS therapy for the single patient, on the basis of the markers-guided ovarian response prediction.

  14. Genetics of ovarian ageing : genetic association studies on natural menopause and primary ovarian insufficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorhuis, M.

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is the endpoint of a process referred to as ovarian ageing. The mean age at menopause is approximately 51 years, but varies widely between 40 to 60 years of age. Approximately 1% of all women experience menopause before the age of 40, which is a condition known as primary ovarian

  15. Premature ovarian failure/dysfunction following surgical treatment of polycystic ovarian syndrome: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K. Al-Hussaini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common causes of infertility in women. Surgical treatment of PCOS, either by the antiquated wedge resection or ovarian drilling, is one of the commonly used lines in developing countries due to its low-cost. Premature ovarian failure and diminished ovarian reserve are serious complications of the surgical treatment but no published reports sufficiently highlighted these hazards. In this case series, we report on twenty one women aged between 19–39 years, presented to Infertility Clinic, Assiut Women Health Hospital with ovarian dysfunction, diagnosed within 6–36 months after surgical management of PCOS. Nineteen of them had laparoscopic bilateral ovarian drilling using electrocauterization, and the last two had bilateral wedge resection of the ovaries through minilaparotomy. Accurate and documented diagnosis of PCOS, appropriate surgical training, adjusted thermal injury and adjusted number of punctures are essential for the avoidance of excessive damage to the ovaries. Under treatment (failure of drilling is much better than premature ovarian failure or diminishing ovarian reserve.

  16. Hereditary association between testicular cancer and familial ovarian cancer: A Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, John Lewis; Eng, Kevin; Cannioto, Rikki; Kaur, Jasmine; Almohanna, Hani; Alqassim, Emad; Szender, J Brian; Joseph, Janine M; Lele, Shashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Moysich, Kirsten B

    2018-04-01

    Although family history of testicular cancer is well-established as a risk factor for testicular cancer, it is unknown whether family history of ovarian cancer is associated with risk of testicular cancer. Using data from the Familial Ovarian Cancer Registry on 2636 families with multiple cases of ovarian cancer, we systematically compared relative frequencies of ovarian cancer among relatives of men with testicular and non-testicular cancers. Thirty-one families with cases of both ovarian and testicular cancer were identified. We observed that, among men with cancer, those with testicular cancer were more likely to have a mother with ovarian cancer than those with non-testicular cancers (OR = 3.32, p = 0.004). Zero paternal grandmothers of men with testicular cancer had ovarian cancer. These observations provide compelling preliminary evidence for a familial association between ovarian and testicular cancers Future studies should be designed to further investigate this association and evaluate X-linkage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  18. Spontaneous Scalarization: Dead or Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis; Gerosa, Davide; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Macedo, Caio; Okada da Silva, Hector; Pani, Paolo; Sotani, Hajime; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In 1993, Damour and Esposito-Farese showed that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass weak-field gravitational tests and exhibit nonperturbative strong-field deviations away from General Relativity in systems involving neutron stars. These deviations are possible in the presence of ``spontaneous scalarization,'' a phase transition similar in nature to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. More than twenty years after the original proposal, binary pulsar experiments have severely constrained the possibility of spontaneous scalarization occurring in nature. I will show that these experimental constraints have important implications for the torsional oscillation frequencies of neutron stars and for the so-called ``I-Love-Q'' relations in scalar-tensor theories. I will also argue that there is still hope to observe strong scalarization effects, despite the strong experimental bounds on the original mechanism. In particular, I will discuss two mechanisms that could produce strong scalarization in neutron stars: anisotropy and multiscalarization. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award PHY-1055103.

  19. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  20. ELF5 in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongchao; Qiu, Linglin; Xie, Xiaolei; Yang, He; Liu, Yongli; Lin, Xiaoman; Huang, Hongxiang

    2017-03-01

    The expression of E74-like factor 5 (ELF5) in epithelial ovarian carcinoma tissues and its effects on biological behavior in ovarian carcinoma cells were assessed in search for a new approach for gene treatment of epithelial ovarian carcinoma. RT-PCR technology was applied to detect the expression of ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (n=49), borderline ovarian epithelial tumor (n=19), benign ovarian epithelial tumor (n=31) and normal ovarian tissues (n=40). Then, we transfected recombinant plasmid pcDNA3.1‑ELF5+EGFP into human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells (recombinant plasmid group) in vitro and screened out stably transfected cells to conduct multiplication culture. Western blot analysis was performed to detect the expression of ELF5 protein in the different groups. Flow cytometry was employed to detect cell apoptosis and cycles. ELF5 mRNA in epithelial ovarian carcinoma and borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues were significantly lower (Pepithelial tumor and normal ovarian tissues. ELF5 protein expression in the cells of recombinant plasmid group was significantly higher compared with empty plasmid and blank control groups. The capacity of cell reproductive recombinant plasmid group at each time point decreased (P<0.05). Flow cytometry detection showed that 67.03% of cells in recombinant plasmid group was blocked in G0/G1 phase (P<0.05), compared with empty plasmid group (37.17%) and blank control group (38.24%). Apoptotic rate of recombinant plasmid group was significantly lower (31.4±1.9%; P<0.05), compared with that of empty plasmid group (9.1±2.2%) and blank control group (8.7±1.5%), and the differences were statistically significant. In conclusion, ELF5 interfered with cell cycle of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells and promoted apoptosis of human ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cells inhibiting their growth and invasive capacity; and thus providing a new approach to gene treatment of ovarian carcinoma.

  1. Features of ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Kanako; Banno, Kouji; Yanokura, Megumi; Iida, Miho; Adachi, Masataka; Masuda, Kenta; Ueki, Arisa; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Nomura, Hiroyuki; Hirasawa, Akira; Tominaga, Eiichiro; Aoki, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    Lynch syndrome is a hereditary ovarian cancer with a prevalence of 0.9-2.7%. Lynch syndrome accounts for 10-15% of hereditary ovarian cancers, while hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome accounts for 65-75% of these cancers. The lifetime risk for ovarian cancer in families with Lynch syndrome is ~8%, which is lower than colorectal and endometrial cancers, and ovarian cancer is not listed in the Amsterdam Criteria II. More than half of sporadic ovarian cancers are diagnosed in stage III or IV, but ≥80% of ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome are diagnosed in stage I or II. Ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome mostly have non-serous histology and different properties from those of sporadic ovarian cancers. A screening method for ovarian cancers in Lynch syndrome has yet to be established and clinical studies of prophylactic administration of oral contraceptives are not available. However, molecular profiles at the genetic level indicate that ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome has a more favorable prognosis than sporadic ovarian cancer. Inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of the rapamycin pathway and anti-epidermal growth factor antibodies may have efficacy for the disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first review focusing on ovarian cancer in Lynch syndrome.

  2. Coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer and borderline ovarian tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gosvig, Camilla F; Kjaer, Susanne K; Blaakær, Jan

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between coffee, tea and caffeine consumption and ovarian cancer risk have produced conflicting results. Furthermore, only few studies have examined the role of coffee and tea consumption separately for borderline ovarian...... tumors. By use of data from a large Danish population-based case-control study, we examined the risk of ovarian tumors associated with coffee, tea, and caffeine consumption with a particular focus on characterizing risks by tumor behavior and histology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From 1995 through 1999, we....... RESULTS: Both coffee (OR = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84-0.97 per cup/day) and total caffeine consumption from coffee and tea combined (OR = 0.93; 95% CI 0.88-0.98 per 100 mg/day) decreased the risk of ovarian cancer. These associations were significant only for the serous and "other" subtypes of ovarian cancer...

  3. History of Comorbidities and Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients, Results from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Eng, Kevin H

    2017-01-01

    carcinoma who participated in 23 studies included in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium, we explored associations between histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, and neurological diseases and overall and progression-free survival...... with ovarian cancer outcome in the overall sample nor in strata defined by histologic subtype, weight status, age at diagnosis, or stage of disease (local/regional vs. advanced).Conclusions: Histories of endometriosis; asthma; depression; osteoporosis; and autoimmune, gallbladder, kidney, liver, or neurologic......Background: Comorbidities can affect survival of ovarian cancer patients by influencing treatment efficacy. However, little evidence exists on the association between individual concurrent comorbidities and prognosis in ovarian cancer patients.Methods: Among patients diagnosed with invasive ovarian...

  4. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  5. Comparison of Expression Profiles in Ovarian Epithelium In Vivo and Ovarian Cancer Identifies Novel Candidate Genes Involved in Disease Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, Catherine; Gava, Natalie; Kennedy, Catherine; Balleine, Rosemary L.; Sharma, Raghwa; Wain, Gerard; Brand, Alison; Hogg, Russell; Etemadmoghadam, Dariush; George, Joshy; Birrer, Michael J.; Clarke, Christine L.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Bowtell, David D. L.; Harnett, Paul R.; deFazio, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Molecular events leading to epithelial ovarian cancer are poorly understood but ovulatory hormones and a high number of life-time ovulations with concomitant proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation, increases risk. We identified genes that are regulated during the estrous cycle in murine ovarian surface epithelium and analysed these profiles to identify genes dysregulated in human ovarian cancer, using publically available datasets. We identified 338 genes that are regulated in murine ovarian surface epithelium during the estrous cycle and dysregulated in ovarian cancer. Six of seven candidates selected for immunohistochemical validation were expressed in serous ovarian cancer, inclusion cysts, ovarian surface epithelium and in fallopian tube epithelium. Most were overexpressed in ovarian cancer compared with ovarian surface epithelium and/or inclusion cysts (EpCAM, EZH2, BIRC5) although BIRC5 and EZH2 were expressed as highly in fallopian tube epithelium as in ovarian cancer. We prioritised the 338 genes for those likely to be important for ovarian cancer development by in silico analyses of copy number aberration and mutation using publically available datasets and identified genes with established roles in ovarian cancer as well as novel genes for which we have evidence for involvement in ovarian cancer. Chromosome segregation emerged as an important process in which genes from our list of 338 were over-represented including two (BUB1, NCAPD2) for which there is evidence of amplification and mutation. NUAK2, upregulated in ovarian surface epithelium in proestrus and predicted to have a driver mutation in ovarian cancer, was examined in a larger cohort of serous ovarian cancer where patients with lower NUAK2 expression had shorter overall survival. In conclusion, defining genes that are activated in normal epithelium in the course of ovulation that are also dysregulated in cancer has identified a number of pathways and novel candidate genes that may contribute

  6. Changes in gene expression and cellular architecture in an ovarian cancer progression model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Creekmore

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths among women. Early stage disease often remains undetected due the lack of symptoms and reliable biomarkers. The identification of early genetic changes could provide insights into novel signaling pathways that may be exploited for early detection and treatment. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mouse ovarian surface epithelial (MOSE cells were used to identify stage-dependent changes in gene expression levels and signal transduction pathways by mouse whole genome microarray analyses and gene ontology. These cells have undergone spontaneous transformation in cell culture and transitioned from non-tumorigenic to intermediate and aggressive, malignant phenotypes. Significantly changed genes were overrepresented in a number of pathways, most notably the cytoskeleton functional category. Concurrent with gene expression changes, the cytoskeletal architecture became progressively disorganized, resulting in aberrant expression or subcellular distribution of key cytoskeletal regulatory proteins (focal adhesion kinase, α-actinin, and vinculin. The cytoskeletal disorganization was accompanied by altered patterns of serine and tyrosine phosphorylation as well as changed expression and subcellular localization of integral signaling intermediates APC and PKCβII. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our studies have identified genes that are aberrantly expressed during MOSE cell neoplastic progression. We show that early stage dysregulation of actin microfilaments is followed by progressive disorganization of microtubules and intermediate filaments at later stages. These stage-specific, step-wise changes provide further insights into the time and spatial sequence of events that lead to the fully transformed state since these changes are also observed in aggressive human ovarian cancer cell lines independent of their histological type. Moreover, our studies support a link between aberrant cytoskeleton

  7. The relation between endometriosis and ovarian cancer - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhøj Heidemann, Lene; Hartwell, Dorthe; Heidemann, Christian Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer.......Endometriosis is known to harbor characteristics substantiating that it is a possible precursor of ovarian cancer....

  8. Levels of Distress in Women at Risk for Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn M

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to determine the levels of distress in women with a family history of ovarian cancer and to identify the mediating factors between risk of developing ovarian cancer and distress...

  9. Use of analgesic drugs and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammundsen, Henriette B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan

    2012-01-01

    The role of analgesic drug use in development of ovarian cancer is not fully understood. We examined the association between analgesic use and risk of ovarian cancer. In addition, we examined whether the association differed according to histological types....

  10. Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Does Breast or Ovarian Cancer Run in Your Family? Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If you ... get ovarian cancer by age 70. Does Your Family Health History Put You At Risk? Collect your ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share: Email Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions FXPOI Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency Printable PDF Open All ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Fragile X-associated primary ovarian insufficiency ( FXPOI ) is a condition ...

  12. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-06-16

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  13. Molecular biomarker set for early detection of ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Bajic, Vladimir B.; Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present invention concern methods and compositions related to detection of ovarian cancer, including detection of the stage of ovarian cancer, in some cases. In particular, the invention encompasses use of expression of TFAP2A and in some embodiments CA125 and/or E2F5 to identify ovarian cancer, including detecting mRNA and/or protein levels of the respective gene products. Kits for detection of ovarian cancer are also described.

  14. Recent alcohol consumption and risk of incident ovarian carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Bandera, Elisa V; Terry, Kathryn L

    2013-01-01

    Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations.......Studies evaluating the association between alcohol intake and ovarian carcinoma (OC) are inconsistent. Because OC and ovarian borderline tumor histologic types differ genetically, molecularly and clinically, large numbers are needed to estimate risk associations....

  15. Ovarian reaction and estrus manifestation in delayed puberty gilts after treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stančić Ivan B

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolonged pre-insemination anestrus (i.e. delayed puberty is a major contributing factor for culling up to 30% of the replacement gilts at large breeding farm units in Vojvodina. It is imperative to determine if these gilts are acyclic (prepubertal or cyclic, but just fail to exhibit behavioural estrus. Recent investigations demonstrate that treatment with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG can increase the diestrous phase duration in sexually mature gilts. Based on these finding, the aim of the present studies was to determine the reproductive status of delayed puberty gilts following injection with eCG. Methods Two experiments were conducted on a swine breeding farm in Vojvodina. In Exp. 1, 20 prepubertal (acyclic gilts, and 120 sexually mature (cyclic gilts were injected with a single injection of 400 IU eCG + 200 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG or with 1000 IU eCG (cyclic gilts, at d5, d11 or d17 after spontaneous estrus detection, to determine their ovarian reaction and induced estrus manifestation. In Exp. 2, sixty delayed puberty gilts (estrus not detected until 8 month of age, av. 258 days were culled from breeding herd and slaughtered to determine their reproductive status based on ovarian anatomical features. The second group of gilts (n = 60 was treated with a single 1000 IU eCG injection to determine their reproductive status, based on the interval between eCG injection to estrus detection and duration. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, analysis of variance and Duncan’s test in the software package Statistics 10th. Results Ovulations were induced in 90% of acyclic (sexually immature and, on average, 93.3% of cyclic (sexually mature gilts after the eCG injection. On average, 4 days after the eCG injection, estrus was detected in 85% of the treated acyclic (sexually immature gilts and in 95% (19/20 of the cyclic (sexually mature gilts, treated with eCG on day 17

  16. Effect of ovarian dermoid cyst excision on ovarian reserve and response: Insights from in vitro fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yan

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: Our results suggest that ovarian dermoid cyst excision could significantly reduce ovarian reserve to a similar extent as the cyst itself. The presence or resection of dermoid cysts will not affect the main IVF outcomes.

  17. Increased COX-2 expression in patients with ovarian cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... 10%) subtypes (Kristensen et al., 2003; Green et al.,. 1999). The disease ... history of ovarian and/or breast cancer, and nulliparity, whereas the oral ... and molecular mechanisms of ovarian cancer remain unclear. It is most ..... chemotherapy on the prognosis in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer. N. Engl.

  18. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovarian epithelial cancer is the most common type of ovarian cancer. Cancer can also form at the end of the fallopian tube near the ovary or the peritoneum and spread to the ovary. Start here to find information on ovarian cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  19. 78 FR 54741 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... of women will die of this disease. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we lend our... of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 2013 as National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month. I...

  20. 77 FR 55095 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A... leave in our hearts will be deeply felt forever. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we... campaign, we are working to raise awareness about the signs and symptoms of ovarian cancer. The Affordable...

  1. 75 FR 54451 - National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A... claim more lives than any other gynecologic cancer. During National Ovarian Cancer Awareness Month, we... and other cancers. Across the Federal Government, we are working to promote awareness of ovarian...

  2. Ovarian Cancer: The Interplay of Lifestyle and Genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braem, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a highly lethal disease that is mostly diagnosed at an advanced stage. In Europe, only 36% of women with ovarian cancer can expect to survive 5 years. While our knowledge of ovarian cancer has changed substantially throughout the years, our understanding of its etiology still lacks

  3. The comparison between presenting symptoms of ovarian cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sensation of abdominal mass was more common in women with ovarian cancer than other abdominalpelvic cancers (P=0.00l). Constipation was documented in the patients with colon cancer more than women with ovarian cancer (P=0.012), whereas urinary symptoms were more common in patients with ovarian ...

  4. Incidence, Pattern and Management of Ovarian Cancer at a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the commonest type of ovarian cancer and is known to be a disease of postmenopausal women.[12]. A global ... received surgery and chemotherapy, as well as the estimated case‑fatality rate for ovarian cancer. Ethical ... The mean ages (SD) at presentation of the different types of ovarian cancer were epithelial 50.3 (13.2).

  5. A Huge Ovarian Dermoid Cyst: Successful Laparoscopic Total Excision

    OpenAIRE

    Uyanikoglu, Hacer; Dusak, Abdurrahim

    2017-01-01

    Giant ovarian cysts, ≥15 cm in diameter, are quite rare in women of reproductive age. Here, we present a case of ovarian cyst with unusual presentation treated by laparoscopic surgery. On histology, mass was found to be mature cystic teratoma. The diagnostic and management challenges posed by this huge ovarian cyst were discussed in the light of the literature.

  6. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  7. Spontaneous coronary dissection: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Gustavo J. Ventura; Deslandes, Alexandre de O.; Santos, Paulo César de Souza; Cruz, Alexandre de Araújo; Saraiva, Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar o caso de um homem de 62 anos, com quadro de dissecção coronariana espontânea, localizada em 1/3 inicial de coronária circunflexa esquerda, tratado cirurgicamente com revascularização miocárdica. A operação realizada com sucesso demonstra, nesse caso, ser o único meio possível de cura.The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the case of a 62-year-old man, with spontaneous coronary dissection of the left circumflex artery, treated surgically by myocardial ...

  8. Bilateral ovarian fibroma associated with Gorlin syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Aram

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • Gorlin syndrome (GS, also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, is a rare inherited multisystem disorder. This paper presents a 22-years-old Iranian woman with this syndrome whose past history was multiple keratocysts of maxillary bone. She was referred to gynecology clinic with the chief complaint of irregular menses and vaginal spotting. On examination, frontal bossing and hypertelorism were detected. Physical examination of genitalia disclosed bilateral adnexal masses. Pelvic ultrasound showed two solid, echogenous and calcified masses measuring 100*50*10 & 60*50*45 mm in the left and right ovaries, respectively. The patient underwent right oophorectomy and ovarian mass resection with preservation of intact ovarian tissue on the left side. On frozen and permanent histological sections, bilateral and calcified ovarian fibromas were diagnosed. Surprisingly, during the last follow-up one year after the surgery, we found that our patient was expecting a baby. It can be concluded that in the presence of bilateral and calcified ovarian fibromas, the possibility of GS should be considered. Accurate diagnosis is only possible with close attention to the familial and past medical history and physical examination. In these patients, careful follow up for detecting malignancies and other complications is highly recommended.
    • KEY WORDS: Gorlin syndrome, ovarian fibroma, multiple keratocysts.

  9. The role of ovarian fossa evaluation in patients with ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cicco Nardone, Carlo; Terranova, Corrado; Plotti, Francesco; Ricciardi, Roberto; Capriglione, Stella; Luvero, Daniela; Caserta, Donatella; Moscarini, Massimo; Benedetti Panici, Pierluigi; Angioli, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate prospectively the presence of endometriosis in the peritoneum of the ovarian fossa of patients affected by endometriomas and its correlation with the adhesion between this peritoneum and endometrioma. Patients presenting ovarian endometriomas and candidate to laparoscopy were considered for inclusion in the study. Patients underwent laparoscopic excision of endometriomas. The presence of adherence of the ovarian fossa to endometrioma was investigated. In all patients, the removal of a peritoneum fragment from the ovarian fossa of the affected ovary was carried out. 68 patients were enrolled in the study. 48 patients presented adhesions to the ovarian fossa. Histopathologic examination of the peritoneum of the ovarian fossa revealed the presence of endometriosis in 87 % of patients presenting adhesions of the endometriomas with ovarian fossa; surprisingly it was present only in 15 % of patients not presenting this condition (p endometriosis on the peritoneal surface of the fossa. This condition significantly correlates with pain symptoms and may predict endometrioma recurrence. The removal of this peritoneum in case of adherent endometrioma may potentially reduce the incidence of recurrence.

  10. Does methotrexate administration for ectopic pregnancy after in vitro fertilization impact ovarian reserve or ovarian responsiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Christina E; Gustofson, Robert L; Feinberg, Eve C

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of methotrexate (MTX) on the future fertility of women undergoing IVF by comparing ovarian reserve and ovarian responsiveness in the IVF cycle before and after an ectopic pregnancy (EP) treated with MTX. Retrospective cohort study. Private reproductive endocrinology and infertility practice. Sixty-six women undergoing IVF before and after receiving MTX for an EP. Methotrexate administration and ovarian stimulation. Markers of ovarian reserve (day 3 FSH, antral follicle count), measures of ovarian responsiveness (duration of stimulation, peak E2 level, total dose of gonadotropins, number of oocytes retrieved, fertilization rate), and time from MTX administration to subsequent IVF cycle. There were no differences after MTX administration in body mass index (BMI), FSH, or antral follicle count. A greater dose of gonadotropins was used in the cycle after MTX, but there were no differences in numbers of oocytes retrieved or high quality embryos transferred. As expected, there was a slight increase in age in the subsequent IVF cycle. The pregnancy rates (PR) were comparable to the average PRs within the practice when combining all age groups. Methotrexate remains the first line of therapy for medical management of asymptomatic EP and does not compromise ovarian reserve, ovarian responsiveness, or IVF success in subsequent cycles. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Pelvic inflammatory disease and risk of invasive ovarian cancer and ovarian borderline tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christina B; Faber, Mette T; Jensen, Allan

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to examine the potential association between a history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer or ovarian borderline tumors. METHODS: In a population-based case-control study in Denmark, we included 554 women with invasive ovarian...... cancer, 202 with ovarian borderline tumors, and 1,564 controls aged 35-79 years. The analyses were performed in multiple logistic regression models. RESULTS: We found a significantly increased risk of ovarian borderline tumors among women with a history of PID (OR = 1.50; 95% CI 1.......08-2.08) but no apparent association between PID and risk of invasive ovarian cancer (OR = 0.83; 95% CI 0.65-1.05). We found no effect of age at time of first PID or time since first PID on the risk for either condition. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that a history of PID is associated with an increased risk of ovarian...

  12. Effect of ovarian dermoid cyst excision on ovarian reserve and response: Insights from in vitro fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Yan; Miao Li; Bing-Qian Zhang; Xin-Xin Xu; Zhen Xu; Ting Han; Zi-Jiang Chen

    2016-01-01

    Study objective: To investigate the impact of an ovarian dermoid cyst or dermoid cyst surgery on ovarian reserve in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). Design: We performed a retrospective cohort study by using the records of patients with a history of ovarian dermoid cyst who underwent IVF/ICSI between 2009 and 2013. The antral follicle count (AFC) obtained by transvaginal ultrasound during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation of IVF/ICSI...

  13. Acupuncture for polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Junyoung; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Hyangsook

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This systematic review aimed at summarizing and evaluating the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) using acupuncture to treat polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), specifically focusing on ovulation rate, menstrual rate, and related hormones. Methods: Fifteen databases were searched electronically through February 2016. Our review included RCTs of women with PCOS; these RCTs compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, medication, or no treatment. Two reviewers independently extracted data. Data were pooled and expressed as mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios for dichotomous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model. Results: We found a low level of evidence that acupuncture is more likely to improve ovulation rate (MD 0.35, 95% CI: 0.14–0.56) and menstruation rate (MD 0.50, 95% CI: 0.32–0.68) compared with no acupuncture. We found statistically significant pooled benefits of acupuncture treatment as an adjunct to medication in luteinizing hormone (LH), LH/follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) ratio, testosterone, fasting insulin, and pregnancy rates, but the level of evidence was low/very low. Conclusion: There is limited evidence to judge the efficacy and safety of acupuncture on key reproductive outcomes in women with PCOS. Large-scale, long-term RCTs with rigorous methodological input are needed. PMID:28591042

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease and the Risk of Ovarian Cancer and Borderline Ovarian Tumors: A Pooled Analysis of 13 Case-Control Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, C.B.; Kjaer, S.K.; Albieri, V.; Bandera, E.V.; Doherty, J.A.; Hogdall, E.; Webb, P.M.; Jordan, S.J.; Rossing, M.A.; Wicklund, K.G.; Goodman, M.T.; Modugno, F.; Moysich, K.B.; Ness, R.B.; Edwards, R.P.; Schildkraut, J.M.; Berchuck, A.; Olson, S.H.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Narod, S.A.; Phelan, C.M.; Anton-Culver, H.; Ziogas, A.; Wu, A.H.; Pearce, C.L.; Risch, H.A.; Jensen, A.

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation has been implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, studies investigating the association between pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and ovarian cancer risk are few and inconsistent. We investigated the association between PID and the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer according to

  15. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  16. Ovarian morphology in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, Malin; Frøssing, Signe; Bjerre, Anne H.

    2017-01-01

    in estimates of ovarian volume and antral follicle count (AFC) from two-dimensional (2D) and 3D transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Material and Methods A cross-sectional study on 66 overweight women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) according to Rotterdam criteria. Ovarian...... between AMH and AFC from 2D TVUS, 3D TVUS, and MRI were 0.67, 0.78, and 0.70, respectively (P PCOS population, 2D TVUS underestimated ovarian volume and AFC as compared with 3D TVUS and MRI. Serum AMH correlated best with AFC from 3D TVUS, followed by MRI...... and 2D TVUS. The advantage of 3D TVUS might be of minor clinical importance when diagnosing PCOS, but useful when the actual AFC are of interest, e.g. in fertility counseling and research....

  17. Ovarian mass mimicking malignancy: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Il; Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Tae Sung

    2010-01-01

    A 32-year-old female who suffered from abdominal pain underwent 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the diagnostic workup of pelvic mass lesions. Cystic mass lesions in the bilateral ovaries showed wall thickening and intense hypermetabolism along the rim. In addition, multifocal intense hypermetabolic lymphadenopathies were seen in the left paraaortic lymph node (LN), aortocaval LN, and both common iliac LNs. We interpreted these findings as bilateral ovarian cancer with retroperitoneal metastatic lymphadenopathies rather than endometriosis with reactive lymphadenopathies rather than endometriosis with reactive lymphadenopathies. However, Histopathological examination confirmed the ovarian mass lesions as tubo-ovarian abscesses. We report a case that even if simultaneous hypermetabolic retroperitoneal LNs are seen, intense hypermetabolic lesions in both ovaries can be in consequence of inflammatory change

  18. Unusual presentation of twisted ovarian cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet V Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian torsion (also termed as adnexal torsion refers to partial or complete rotation of the ovary and a portion of fallopian tube along its supplying vascular pedicle. It occurs commonly in reproductive age group; more on the right side (60% and often presents with acute lower abdominal pain lasting for few hours and up to 24 h, accounting for 2.7% of acute gynecological conditions. It is one of the devastating conditions, hampering blood supply of ovary which may lead to total necrosis of ovarian tissue and complications, if not diagnosed and managed in time. Hence, we present a case on a twisted ovarian cyst in postmenopausal woman with unusual symptomatology leading to delayed diagnosis and loss of an ovary.

  19. Menopausal hormone use and ovarian cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beral, V; Gaitskell, K; Hermon, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Half the epidemiological studies with information about menopausal hormone therapy and ovarian cancer risk remain unpublished, and some retrospective studies could have been biased by selective participation or recall. We aimed to assess with minimal bias the effects of hormone therapy...... on ovarian cancer risk. METHODS: Individual participant datasets from 52 epidemiological studies were analysed centrally. The principal analyses involved the prospective studies (with last hormone therapy use extrapolated forwards for up to 4 years). Sensitivity analyses included the retrospective studies....... Adjusted Poisson regressions yielded relative risks (RRs) versus never-use. FINDINGS: During prospective follow-up, 12 110 postmenopausal women, 55% (6601) of whom had used hormone therapy, developed ovarian cancer. Among women last recorded as current users, risk was increased even with

  20. Ovarian mass mimicking malignancy: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Il; Kim, Seok Ki; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Sang Mi; Kim, Tae Sung [National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A 32-year-old female who suffered from abdominal pain underwent {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the diagnostic workup of pelvic mass lesions. Cystic mass lesions in the bilateral ovaries showed wall thickening and intense hypermetabolism along the rim. In addition, multifocal intense hypermetabolic lymphadenopathies were seen in the left paraaortic lymph node (LN), aortocaval LN, and both common iliac LNs. We interpreted these findings as bilateral ovarian cancer with retroperitoneal metastatic lymphadenopathies rather than endometriosis with reactive lymphadenopathies rather than endometriosis with reactive lymphadenopathies. However, Histopathological examination confirmed the ovarian mass lesions as tubo-ovarian abscesses. We report a case that even if simultaneous hypermetabolic retroperitoneal LNs are seen, intense hypermetabolic lesions in both ovaries can be in consequence of inflammatory change

  1. Granisetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone in Preventing Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Chemotherapy for Stage II, III, or IV Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-24

    Nausea and Vomiting; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  2. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  3. MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bent, C.L. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)], E-mail: clare.bent@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk; Sahdev, A.; Rockall, A.G. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Singh, N. [Department of Pathology, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom); Sohaib, S.A. [Department of Radiology, Royal Marsden Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Reznek, R.H. [Cancer Imaging, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, West Smithfield, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-15

    This review was performed to describe the range of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearances of borderline ovarian tumours. The MRI findings in 26 patients with 31 borderline ovarian tumours (mean age: 40.1 years, range: 14-85 years) were retrospectively reviewed. For each tumour, site, size, MRI characteristics, and enhancement following gadolinium administration were recorded. There were 20 serous and 11 mucinous borderline ovarian subtypes. Nine of 26 patients demonstrated bilateral disease on MRI; synchronous contralateral ovarian disease included three benign, five serous borderline, and one serous invasive tumour. A history of a metachronous mucinous borderline tumour was identified in one patient. MRI appearances were classified into four morphological categories: group 1 (6/31, 19%), unilocular cysts; group 2 (6/31, 19%), minimally septate cysts with papillary projections; group 3 (14/31, 45%), markedly septate lesions with plaque-like excrescences; and group 4 (5/31, 16%), predominantly solid with exophytic papillary projections, all of serous subtype. There was a significant difference in mean volume between serous (841.5 cm{sup 3}) and mucinous (6358.2 cm{sup 3}) subtypes (p = 0.009). All tumours demonstrated at least one MRI feature suggestive of malignancy. The present review demonstrates the variable MRI appearances of borderline ovarian tumours along with imaging features suggestive of tumour subtype. In patients in whom the clinical features are suggestive of a borderline ovarian tumour (young age and normal or minimally elevated CA125), the ability to predict a borderline disease using morphological features observed on MRI would be extremely helpful in surgical planning, with the potential to offer fertility or ovary-preserving surgery. Future studies are required to further this aim.

  4. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax in silicotuberculosis of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Vajo, J.; Krchnavy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the case of 62 years old man with the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom the basic pulmonary disease was silicotuberculosis of the lung. At clinic of occupational diseases in Kosice have been evidence 965 cases of silicosis and silicotuberculosis. From 1971 they have now the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax. The authors make discussion about possible mechanical and biochemical factors, which cause relatively low incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis of the lung. (authors)

  6. Phosphoramide mustard exposure induces DNA adduct formation and the DNA damage repair response in rat ovarian granulosa cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesan, Shanthi, E-mail: shanthig@iastate.edu; Keating, Aileen F., E-mail: akeating@iastate.edu

    2015-02-01

    Phosphoramide mustard (PM), the ovotoxic metabolite of the anti-cancer agent cyclophosphamide (CPA), destroys rapidly dividing cells by forming NOR-G-OH, NOR-G and G-NOR-G adducts with DNA, potentially leading to DNA damage. A previous study demonstrated that PM induces ovarian DNA damage in rat ovaries. To investigate whether PM induces DNA adduct formation, DNA damage and induction of the DNA repair response, rat spontaneously immortalized granulosa cells (SIGCs) were treated with vehicle control (1% DMSO) or PM (3 or 6 μM) for 24 or 48 h. Cell viability was reduced (P < 0.05) after 48 h of exposure to 3 or 6 μM PM. The NOR-G-OH DNA adduct was detected after 24 h of 6 μM PM exposure, while the more cytotoxic G-NOR-G DNA adduct was formed after 48 h by exposure to both PM concentrations. Phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX), a marker of DNA double stranded break occurrence, was also increased by PM exposure, coincident with DNA adduct formation. Additionally, induction of genes (Atm, Parp1, Prkdc, Xrcc6, and Brca1) and proteins (ATM, γH2AX, PARP-1, PRKDC, XRCC6, and BRCA1) involved in DNA repair were observed in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. These data support that PM induces DNA adduct formation in ovarian granulosa cells, induces DNA damage and elicits the ovarian DNA repair response. - Highlights: • PM forms ovarian DNA adducts. • DNA damage marker γH2AX increased by PM exposure. • PM induces ovarian DNA double strand break repair.

  7. Identification of BRCA1-deficient ovarian cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Anne-Bine; Waldstrøm, Marianne; Rasmussen, Anders Aamann

    2011-01-01

    of offering genetic counseling and due to beneficial effects of PARP inhibitor treatment in this group. Since DNA sequencing is expensive and time-consuming efforts have been devoted to develop more indirect methods for BRCA screening that can improve the selection of patients for sequence-based BRCA testing....... Design. BRCA1-immunohistochemistry (IHC), fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) and methylation analyses were performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ovarian cancer tissue. Sample: 54 ovarian cancers; 15 BRCA1 cancers, 4 BRCA2 cancers, 10 cancers from patients with a family history...

  8. CT diagnosis of cystic ovarian lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iio, Kazuto; Shinmura, Ryoji; Arima, Naomi; Yamada, Eiichiro; Ohkubo, Koichi; Nagata, Yukihiro

    1985-01-01

    CT was undertaken and CT numbers were measured in 47 patients with cystic ovarian lesions. CT features particularly for chocolate cyst revealed the uniform thickness of the whole cystic wall, findings suggesting adhesion to the surrounding organs, circular or oval shape, and higher CT numbers within the cyst than those in the other cystic ovarian lesions. However, because these features are not always observed in cases of chocolate cyst, one should not rely solely on CT findings in the diagnosis of chocolate cyst. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. [Screening of ovarian cancer : not for tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuilleumier, Aurélie; Labidi-Galy, Intidhar

    2017-05-17

    As the worldwide incidence of cancer continuously rises, one of the measures to reduce mortality is early diagnosis while the disease is still curable. Colonoscopy screening and PAP-smears are worthwhile examples illustrating the impact of early diagnosis on mortality. Ovarian cancer is the first cause of mortality by gynecological cancers in Switzerland (incidence of 600 new cases / year), mostly diagnosed at advanced stages with a poor prognosis. Could surveillance measures improve survival ? Three large-scale randomized control trials failed to show mortality reduction from ovarian cancer with the methods currently available. A better comprehension of pathogenesis can allow the development of new strategies of screening.

  10. Regulatory T Cells in Human Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Jun Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple layers of suppressive components including regulatory T (TReg cells, suppressive antigen-presenting cells, and inhibitory cytokines form suppressive networks in the ovarian cancer microenvironment. It has been demonstrated that as a major suppressive element, TReg cells infiltrate tumor, interact with several types of immune cells, and mediate immune suppression through different molecular and cellular mechanisms. In this paper, we focus on human ovarian cancer and will discuss the nature of TReg cells including their subsets, trafficking, expansion, and function. We will briefly review the development of manipulation of TReg cells in preclinical and clinical settings.

  11. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Yoon, Kwon Ha [Wonkwang University Hospital, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Hoon [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  12. Ovarian Mature Cystic Teratoma Containing Multiple Mobile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Lee, Young Hwan; Kim, Hye Won; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Park, Seong Hoon

    2006-01-01

    A 48-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a palpable mass in her lower abdomen. A left ovarian, cystic mass containing multiple mobile globules was seen on CT and MR images. The outer portion of the globules showed fat components on CT and fat-saturated T1-weighted MR images. Ultrasonography showed multiple echogenic, mobile globules with some sound attenuation and hyper echoic lines and dots within the cystic mass, which corresponded with the presence of lipid globules and hair shafts of ovarian mature cystic teratoma, respectively

  13. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  14. OVARIAN AGING AND INFERTILITY TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Meden Vrtovec

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Due to changes in the socio-economic environment the first pregnancy is being more often postponed to advanced age; an increasing number of women seek medical help for infertility in their late thirties. Degenerative processes in the ovary start as early as after 35 years of age. When the woman is over 38, the signs of hormonal changes occur (FSH, inhibin, the menstrual cycle changes, and fertility is being increasingly reduced. Infertility treatment by assisted reproduction technology (ART has proved less efficient in older than in younger women.Material and methods. In a retrospective analysis we evaluated the success rates achieved with homologous intrauterine insemination (IUI, in vitro fertilization and embryo-transfer (IVF-ET, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI, and compared them in regard to the women > 38 years vs. < 38 years.Results. After IUI the pregnancy rate in the women over 38 was 3.7% per patient (1.5% per cycle and 28.0% (9.9% in the women younger than 38 years. After IVF-ET the pregnancy rate in the over 38-year group was 16% per patient (14% per cycle, and 28% per patient (25% per cycle in the less than 38-year group. After ICSI, the pregnancy rate in the group over 38 years was 11% per patient (9% per cycle, and 25% per patient (22% per cycle in the less than 38-year group. In the analysed population, the spontaneous abortion rate was 26.0% in the group of women aged over 38 years, and 14.0% in the group of women aged less than 38 years.Conclusions. Before introduction of an ART procedure the woman with advanced age should be properly counselled and well informed about poor success of their infertility treatment and high spontaneous abortion rate.

  15. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  16. High grade serous ovarian carcinomas originate in the fallopian tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labidi-Galy, S Intidhar; Papp, Eniko; Hallberg, Dorothy; Niknafs, Noushin; Adleff, Vilmos; Noe, Michael; Bhattacharya, Rohit; Novak, Marian; Jones, Siân; Phallen, Jillian; Hruban, Carolyn A; Hirsch, Michelle S; Lin, Douglas I; Schwartz, Lauren; Maire, Cecile L; Tille, Jean-Christophe; Bowden, Michaela; Ayhan, Ayse; Wood, Laura D; Scharpf, Robert B; Kurman, Robert; Wang, Tian-Li; Shih, Ie-Ming; Karchin, Rachel; Drapkin, Ronny; Velculescu, Victor E

    2017-10-23

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC) is the most frequent type of ovarian cancer and has a poor outcome. It has been proposed that fallopian tube cancers may be precursors of HGSOC but evolutionary evidence for this hypothesis has been limited. Here, we perform whole-exome sequence and copy number analyses of laser capture microdissected fallopian tube lesions (p53 signatures, serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas (STICs), and fallopian tube carcinomas), ovarian cancers, and metastases from nine patients. The majority of tumor-specific alterations in ovarian cancers were present in STICs, including those affecting TP53, BRCA1, BRCA2 or PTEN. Evolutionary analyses reveal that p53 signatures and STICs are precursors of ovarian carcinoma and identify a window of 7 years between development of a STIC and initiation of ovarian carcinoma, with metastases following rapidly thereafter. Our results provide insights into the etiology of ovarian cancer and have implications for prevention, early detection and therapeutic intervention of this disease.

  17. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  18. Spontaneous baryogenesis in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Cottingham, W.N.; Whittingham, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we extent the results of previous work on spontaneous baryogenesis to general models involving charge-parity (CP) violation in the Higgs sector. We show how to deal with Chern-Simons terms appearing in the effective potential arising from phase changes in the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields. In particular, this enables us to apply this mechanism to general supersymmetric models including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the extended model with a gauge singlet. A comparison is made between this approach, and that in which one solves the equations of motion for Higgs winding modes. As anticipated in earlier work, the effect of the latter approach is found to be small. (Author)

  19. Restoring Ovarian Endocrine Function with Encapsulated Ovarian Allograft in Immune Competent Mice

    OpenAIRE

    David, Anu; Day, James Ronald; Cichon, Alexa Leigh; Lefferts, Adam; Cascalho, Marilia; Shikanov, Ariella

    2016-01-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major complication of cytotoxic treatments due to extreme ovarian sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. In pediatric cancer patients modern therapy has improved the long-term survival to over 80% in the United States. However, these cancer survivors face long-term health problems related to treatment toxicity. In female cancer survivors POI leads to sterility, along with the consequences of estrogen deficiency such as premature osteopenia, muscl...

  20. Restoring Ovarian Endocrine Function with Encapsulated Ovarian Allograft in Immune Competent Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Anu; Day, James Ronald; Cichon, Alexa Leigh; Lefferts, Adam; Cascalho, Marilia; Shikanov, Ariella

    2017-07-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a major complication of cytotoxic treatments due to extreme ovarian sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiation. In pediatric cancer patients modern therapy has improved the long-term survival to over 80% in the United States. However, these cancer survivors face long-term health problems related to treatment toxicity. In female cancer survivors POI leads to sterility, along with the consequences of estrogen deficiency such as premature osteopenia, muscle wasting, accelerated cardiovascular diseases and a vast array of other health and developmental problems. These long-lasting effects are particularly significant for young girls reaching puberty. As such, restoring ovarian endocrine function is paramount in this population. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility of restoring ovarian endocrine function in ovariectomized mice by transplanting syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in alginate capsules or TheraCyte ® . Histological analysis of the implants retrieved after 7 and 30 days' post implantation showed follicular development up to the secondary and antral stages in both syngeneic and allogeneic implants. Implantation of syngeneic and allogeneic ovarian grafts encapsulated in TheraCyte devices restored ovarian endocrine function, which was confirmed by decreased serum FSH levels from 60 to 70 ng/mL in ovariectomized mice to 30-40 ng/mL 30 days after implantation. Absence of allo-MHC-specific IgG and IgM antibodies in the sera of implanted mice with allogeneic ovarian tissue encapsulated in TheraCyte indicate that the implants did not evoke an allo-immune response, while the allogeneic controls were rejected 21 days after implantation. Our results show that TheraCyte effectively isolates the graft from immune recognition but also supports follicular growth.

  1. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  3. Investigate the Role of Obesity in Ovarian Cancer Initiation and Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    cells and in transformed ovarian cells affected by obesity that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Obesity, Ovarian...5 7. Participants & Other Collaborating Organizations...that lead to ovarian cancer initiation and progression. We also aim to identify secreted factors from adipose tissue that promote ovarian cancer

  4. Natural history of autoimmune primary ovarian insufficiency in patients with Addison's disease: from normal ovarian function to overt ovarian dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bellis, Annamaria; Bellastella, Giuseppe; Falorni, Alberto; Aitella, Ernesto; Barrasso, Mariluce; Maiorino, Maria Ida; Bizzarro, Elio; Bellastella, Antonio; Giugliano, Dario; Esposito, Katherine

    2017-10-01

    Women with autoimmune Addison's disease with normal ovulatory cycles but positive for steroid cell antibodies (StCA) have been considered at risk of premature ovarian insufficiency (POI). Thirty-three women younger than 40 years, with subclinical-clinical autoimmune Addison's disease but with normally ovulatory menses, were followed up for 10 years to evaluate the long-term time-related variations of StCA, ovarian function and follicular reserve. All patients and 27 control women were investigated at the start and every year for the presence and titre of StCA (by indirect immunofluorescence), serum concentrations of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and ovarian function at four consecutive menses every year. At the start of the study StCA were present in 16 women (group 1), at low/middle titres (≤1:32) in seven of them (43.8%, group 1A), at high titres (>1:32) in the remaining nine patients (group 1B, 56.2%), while they were absent from 17 patients (group 2). During the follow-up period, all women in group 1A remained StCA-positive at low/middle titres with normal ovulatory menses and normal gonadotrophin and AMH levels, while all patients in group 1B showed a further increase of StCA titres (1:128-1:256) and progressed through three stages of ovarian function. None of the patients in group 2 and controls showed the appearance of StCA or ovarian dysfunction during the follow-up. The presence of StCA at high titres can be considered a good predictive marker of subsequent development of autoimmune POI. To single out the stages of autoimmune POI may allow a timely therapeutic choice in the subclinical and early clinical stages. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  5. The effect of bipolar electrocoagulation during ovarian cystectomy on ovarian reserve: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Prodromidou, Anastasia; Frountzas, Maximos; Bitos, Konstantinos; Perrea, Despina; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present systematic review was to study the effect of bipolar electrocoagulation during ovarian cystectomy on ovarian reserve. We searched Medline (1966-2015), Scopus (2004-2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2015), and Cochrane Central Register (CENTRAL) databases along with reference lists of electronically retrieved studies. The levels of antimullerian hormone (AMH) and antral follicle count (AFC) at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following the excision of the benign ovarian cyst were defined as primary outcomes. Eight studies were finally included in our systematic review, which recruited 545 women. A metaanalysis was precluded because of significant heterogeneity in the methodological characteristics of the included studies. Data from the included studies suggest that the use of bipolar coagulation compared with ovarian sutures seems to result in significantly lower AMH and AFC during the first 3 months following the excision of the ovarian cyst. Two studies reported that this effect seems to persist at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Bipolar electrodiathermy seems to be accompanied by increased damage to ovarian reserve, which is indicated by the lower levels of AMH and AFC. However, definitive results are precluded because of the significant heterogeneity of included studies and the potential bias. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electron microscopic study of spontaneous and experimentally induced leukemia in IRC mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraki, S.; Ranadive, K.J.; Dmochowski, L.

    1974-01-01

    Spontaneous, serially transplanted, and experimentally induced leukemias of ICRC mice were studied by electron microscopy in an attempt to detect the presence of virus particles, if any, and to observe the influence of chemical and hormonal treatment on the presence of these virus particles. The first series of experiments included spontaneous, serially transplanted, and radiation-induced leukemia. The paucity of type C virus particles was quite conspicuous in spontaneous leukemia. Serially transplanted and radiation-accelerated leukemic lesions showed the presence of some type C and intracisternal type A particles. Found in two of these leukemic lesions (thymus and lymphosarcoma), in addition to type C virus particles, were budding and some mature type B virus particles, and numerous intracytoplasmic type A particles. ''Viropexis'' of type B virus particles has been observed in the lymphosarcoma and in a leukemic thymus gland. The second series of experiments included leukemia induced in ovariectomized ICRC mice with 20-methylcholanthrene (MCA), pituitary transplants, and ovarian hormones (estradiol and estradiol-progesterone). In ovariectomized ICRC mice, leukemic lesions induced by MCA or pituitary transplants, or by MCA and pituitary transplants, showed type C virus particles and, in most cases, intracisternal type A particles. In leukemia induced in ovariectomized ICRC mice by MCA and estradiol, numerous intracytoplasmic type A particles were observed but no type C virus particles

  7. [Laparoscopic management of ovarian borderline tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés Algara, A; Charles, L; González Ramírez, P; Río de la Loza, F; Aranda Flores, C E

    2001-09-01

    The objective of this communication is to present a patient case with ovarian borderline tumor. The conservative management for laparoscopy, and we performed an analysis of the mundial literature in which respect to the conservative and laparoscopy management, in spite of the laparoscopy management are of controversy.

  8. Energy status and ovarian follicular development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Female reproduction is tightly linked to body energy status and it has become increasingly clear that disturbed energy metabolism can negatively affect reproductive performance. Nevertheless, the way how a disturbed energy status affects ovarian follicular reserve as well as follicular

  9. Ovarian Aging : Mechanisms and Clinical Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, F. J.; Soules, M. R.; Fauser, B. C.

    Menopause is the final step in the process referred to as ovarian ageing. The age related decrease in follicle numbers dictates the onset of cycle irregularity and the final cessation of menses. The parallel decay in oocyte quality contributes to the gradual decline in fertility and the final

  10. VALPROATE, BIPOLAR DISORDER AND POLYCYSTIC OVARIAN SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okanović, Milana; Zivanović, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome is a syndrome of ovarian dysfunction with the principal features of hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary morphology. A large number of studies conducted on this topic have suggested a possible role of anticonvulsants, particularly valproate, in the pathogenesis or risk factors associated with polycystic ovarian syndrome. Bipolar treatment guidelines from Canada and the United States of America recommend valproate as the first line strategy in the acute treatment of bipolar disorder. Most persons with bipolar disorder require maintenance treatment. Long-term administration of valproate in women with bipolar disorder or epilepsy is believed to result in the increased risk of hyperandrogenism, menstrual abnormalities and polycystic ovaries. Valproate may also increase the risk of infertility and other associated symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome. Therefore, particular caution is indicated in the use of valproate in women of reproductive age. The treatment of the female patients with bipolar disorder presents various challenges for the clinician. Every woman of reproductive age needs to know the risk and benefits of her pharmacologic treatment options. Bipolar disorder should be considered chronic disorder, whose development is largely affected by hormonal changes and reproductive cycle in women. These issues should be researched more thoroughly in order to opt for the most appropriate treatment in women with bipolar disorder.

  11. Premature ovarian insufficiency: Pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna J Fenton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The term premature ovarian insufficiency (POI describes a continuum of declining ovarian function in a young woman, resulting in an earlier than average menopause. It is a term that reflects the variable nature of the condition and is substantially less emotive than the formerly used "premature ovarian failure" which signaled a single event in time. Contrary to the decline in the age of menarche seen over the last 3-4 decades there has been no similar change in the age of menopause. In developed nations, the average age for cessation of menstrual cycles is 50-52 years. The age is younger among women from developing nations. Much has been written about POI despite a lack of good data on the incidence of this condition. It is believed that 1% of women under the age of 40 years and 0.1% under the age of 30 years will develop POI. Research is increasingly providing information about the pathogenesis and treatments are being developed to better preserve ovarian function during cancer treatment and to improve fertility options. This narrative review summarizes the current literature to provide an approach to best practice management of POI.

  12. Puerperal ovarian vein thrombosis: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Won Sik; Jeon, Woo Ki; Han, Chang Yul [Inje College Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    Puerperal ovarian vein thrombophlebitis(POVT) is a postpartum complication that requires prompt medical treatment to avoid extension of thrombus with potentially life-threatening complications. The prompt noninvasive diagnosing method is CT that defines the location and the extent about the thrombus. There findings will supply future case to be definitely diagnosed and treated without invasive procedures.

  13. Conservative management of epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexeus, S; Labastida, R; Dexeus, D

    2005-01-01

    We are currently faced with a progressive delay in the age at which women conceive for the first time. This raises the possibility of the appearance of gynecologic disorders that may affect fertility, including neoplasms of the ovary. Fertility-sparing surgery is defined as the preservation of ovarian tissue in one or both adnexa and/or the uterus. Borderline ovarian tumor should be treated with conservative surgery. Salpingo-oophorectomy, or even ovarian cystectomy, are the procedures of choice, with recurrence rates of 2-3% and up to 20% if a simple cystectomy is performed. Cystectomy is indicated in patients with bilateral borderline tumors or in patients with a residual ovary. Borderline tumors with invasive peritoneal implants behave as an invasive cancer in 10-30% of cases with a survival rate of 10-66% compared with 100% in borderline tumors without invasive implants. Prophylactic oophorectomy is recommended when desire of conception has been accomplished. Conservative surgery in invasive epithelial ovarian cancer is limited to Stage IA, grade 1 tumor, and in some highly selected grade 2 tumors of serous, mucinous or endometrioid type, well-encapsulated and free of adhesions. The standard oncological surgical procedure with preservation of the uterus and normal appearing ovary is recommended. This includes salpingo-oophorectomy, excision of any suspicious peritoneal lesion, multiple peritoneal biopsies, appendectomy (particularly in mucinous tumors), and pelvic and paraaortic lymphadenectomy.

  14. Ultrasonic findings in polycystic ovarian disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsini, L F; Venturoli, S; Lorusso, R; Pluchinotta, V; Paradisi, R; Bovicelli, L

    1985-05-01

    The uterus and ovaries of 50 patients with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) and 30 eumenorrheic women were studied with a real-time ultrasound mechanical sector scanner. Uterine and ovarian volumes (UV and OV) and the OV/UV ratio were calculated, and ovarian morphology was classified as prevalently solid and cystic. Both ovaries were displayed in 44 of the PCOD and in 25 of the normal patients and appeared bilaterally solid, cystic, or with different morphology, respectively, in 43.2%, 47.7%, and 9.1% of cases in the former group and in 76%, 20%, and 4% in the latter group. Statistically significant differences between normal and PCOD patients were found in OV, UV, and OV/UV ratio. Bilaterally enlarged ovaries with multiple tiny cysts, the classic ultrasonographic picture of the polycystic ovary, were found in only 16 (36.3%) of the PCOD cases, while 34 (77.3%) had an OV/UV ratio greater than 1 standard deviation above the mean. Four ultrasonographic ovarian patterns were observed in the PCOD patients: enlarged cystic; enlarged solid; normal-sized cystic; and normal-sized solid. These findings emphasize the need for a reconsideration of the ultrasonographic criteria of PCOD.

  15. Approaches to the detection of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid

    2016-01-01

    (ROCA), or Copenhagen Index (CPH-I).  Aim: To describe biomarkers that potentially improve the detection/risk estimation of OC.  Results: The ability to differentiate OC from benign and borderline ovarian tumors was analyzed using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves resulting in Area Under...

  16. MR imaging of malignant ovarian tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Ho; Kang, Heoung Keun; Moon, Woong Jae; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kim, Jae Kyu; Choi, Ho Sun

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate MRI findings of malignant ovarian tumors. MRI findings were retrospectively reviewed in 25 patients with surgically confirmed 30 malignant ovarian tumors(common epithelial tumor; 23, sex cord stromal tumor; 2, endo dermal sinus tumor; 1, metastatic tumor; 4). The findings evaluated were the lesion size, solid and/or cystic component, wall thickness, septal thickness, necrosis, invasion of adjacent organ, ascites, and adenopathy. MRI findings of the malignant ovarian tumors were as follow: Size of lesion was 5-35cm(mean 14cm); solid component was present in 80%(24/30); wall thickness was more than 3mm in 90%(27/30); septal thickness was more than 3mm in 70%(21/30); tumor necrosis was present in 40%(12/30%); invasion of adjacent organ was present in 76%(19/25); ascites was present in 56%(14/25); lymphadenopathy was present in 24% (6/25). MRI findings of absence of solid component(6/6), even wall and septal thickness(7/7, 19/19) were found only in epithelial tumors. Uneven septal thickness more than 3mm(7/11) was a predominant MRI findings of non-epithelial tumors. Well-defined cystic lesion within solid component was seen in Krukenberg tumors. Evaluation of the lesion size, internal architecture, invasion of adjacent organ, ascites, and lymphadenopathy in MRI would enable diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumors and could lead to possible differential diagnosis of epithelial tumors from non-epithelial tumors

  17. Radiologic findings of ovarian granulosa cell tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chul [Chungnam National Univ. College of Medicine, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To determine, through an analysis of radiologic findings, whether the findings of granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary are specific. The radiologic findings (ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) of 16 pathologically proven ovarian GCTs in 15 patients were retrospectively analysed for the site of origin, staging, largest diameter, margin, solid and/or cystic components, degree of enhancement, and associated endometrial hyperplasia, ascites, and local and/or distant metastasis. Unilateral ovarian GCTs were found in 14 patients, and bilateral tumors in one. Of a total of 16 tumors, 13 were of the adult type, and three were juvenile; their largest diameter ranged from 1 to 26(mean, 15.6)cm. Eleven tumors were well-defined, two were cystic, and one small tumor was solid. Of 13 mixed tumors, three had hemorrhagic portions, and five had multilocular cystic portions. Metastases to the uterus, tubes, rectum, lymph nodes, or liver were found in six patients, and associated endometrial hyperplasia in two. Radiologically, ovarian GCTs showed well-defined or encapsulated soft tissue masses with some hemorrhagic, multilocular or focal cystic components, as well as associated endometrial thickening and local or distant metastasis. These and clinical findings may be useful in the diagnosis of ovarian GCTs.

  18. Immature ovarian teratoma in a postmenopausal woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ornvold, K; Detlefsen, G U; Horn, T

    1987-01-01

    We report the first case of immature ovarian teratoma occurring after menopause in a 57-year-old, 3 years postmenopausal woman. Within one year after resection of the teratoma she developed peritoneal botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma, which probably originated from initially unrecognized rhabdomyoblasts...

  19. Progesterone signaling mediated through progesterone receptor membrane component-1 in ovarian cells with special emphasis on ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peluso, John J

    2011-08-01

    Various ovarian cell types including granulosa cells and ovarian surface epithelial cells express the progesterone (P4) binding protein, progesterone receptor membrane component-1 (PGRMC1). PGRMC1 is also expressed in ovarian tumors. PGRMC1 plays an essential role in promoting the survival of both normal and cancerous ovarian cell in vitro. Given the clinical significance of factors that regulate the viability of ovarian cancer, this review will focus on the role of PGRMC1 in ovarian cancer, while drawing insights into the mechanism of PGRMC1's action from cell lines derived from healthy ovaries as well as ovarian tumors. Studies using PGRMC1siRNA demonstrated that P4's ability to inhibit ovarian cells from undergoing apoptosis in vitro is dependent on PGRMC1. To confirm the importance of PGRMC1, the ability of PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cell lines to form tumors in intact nude mice was assessed. Compared to PGRMC1-expressing ovarian cancer cells, PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells formed tumors in fewer mice (80% compared to 100% for controls). Moreover, the number of tumors derived from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells was 50% of that observed in controls. Finally, the tumors that formed from PGRMC1-deplete ovarian cancer cells were about a fourth the size of tumors derived from ovarian cancer cells with normal levels of PGRMC1. One reason for PGRMC1-deplete tumors being smaller is that they had a poorly developed microvasculature system. How PGRMC1 regulates cell viability and in turn tumor growth is not known but part of the mechanism likely involves the regulation of genes that promote cell survival and inhibit apoptosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  1. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  2. Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, A.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Huygen, F.J.; van Eijs, F.; van Kleef, M.; Bauer, M.C.R.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) usually develops after a noxious event, but spontaneous onsets have been described in 3-11% of the cases. The existence of spontaneous-onset CRPS is highly debated and the aim of the present study was therefore to compare the phenotypic characteristics of CRPS

  3. Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.

  4. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued

  5. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  6. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  7. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  8. Children's Spontaneous Vocalisations during Play: Aesthetic Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June; Gabriel, Martha; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of spontaneous vocalisations in the self-chosen, unstructured outdoor play of children aged 3-12. Spontaneous vocalisations encompass the whole range of children's unprompted, natural, expressive vocal soundings beyond spoken language. Non-participant observations at childcare centres and on elementary school…

  9. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  10. Primary pelvic hydatic cyst mimicking ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Abike

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydatic cyst is an illness that appears in consequence of the cystic form of small strap-shaped worm Echinococcus granulosis. Frequently, cysts exist in the lungs and liver. Peritoneal involvement is rare, and generally occurs as a result of second inoculation from rupture of a liver-located hydatic cyst. Primary ovarian hydatic cyst is very rare. A 56-year-old female patient was admitted to Emergency Service with the complaint of stomachache and swollen abdomen. From ultrasonographic examination, a right ovarian 52 × 45-mm heterogeneous semi-solid cystic mass and right hydronephrosis were detected. As a result of the tomographic examination, the right ovarian growth was judged to be a 60 × 45-mm lobule contoured, septal, heterogeneously cystic mass (ovarian carcinoma. Depending on these indicators and with the diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma, laparotomy was planned. During the observation, a mass that compressed on the right ureter and dilatation in the right ureter were determined. The mass was approximately 6 cm long and smoothly contoured, including widespread adhesions, and also obliteration of the pouch of Douglas. The mass was excised and total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy performed. After a pathological examination, hydatid cyst was diagnosed. Although pointing at the issue of the distinctive diagnosis of pelvic and peritoneal mass, it should be realized that the existence of primary peritoneal and pelvic involvement of the hydatic cyst is generally a result of the second inoculation, and is also more common in regions in which Echinococcus granulosa is endemic and livestock production is prevalent.

  11. Three-photon imaging of ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Amirsolaimani, Babak; Rice, Photini; Hatch, Kenneth; Kieu, Khanh

    2016-02-01

    Optical imaging methods have the potential to detect ovarian cancer at an early, curable stage. Optical imaging has the disadvantage that high resolution techniques require access to the tissue of interest, but miniature endoscopes that traverse the natural orifice of the reproductive tract, or access the ovaries and fallopian tubes through a small incision in the vagina wall, can provide a minimally-invasive solution. We have imaged both rodent and human ovaries and fallopian tubes with a variety of endoscope-compatible modalities. The recent development of fiber-coupled femtosecond lasers will enable endoscopic multiphoton microscopy (MPM). We demonstrated two- and three-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF, 3PEF), and second- and third-harmonic generation microscopy (SHG, THG) in human ovarian and fallopian tube tissue. A study was undertaken to understand the mechanisms of contrast in these images. Six patients (normal, cystadenoma, and ovarian adenocarcinoma) provided ovarian and fallopian tube biopsies. The tissue was imaged with three-dimensional optical coherence tomography, multiphoton microscopy, and frozen for histological sectioning. Tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, and Sudan black. Approximately 1 μm resolution images were obtained with an excitation source at 1550 nm. 2PEF signal was absent. SHG signal was mainly from collagen. 3PEF and THG signal came from a variety of sources, including a strong signal from fatty connective tissue and red blood cells. Adenocarcinoma was characterized by loss of SHG signal, whereas cystic abnormalities showed strong SHG. There was limited overlap of two- and three- photon signals, suggesting that three-photon imaging can provide additional information for early diagnosis of ovarian cancer.

  12. Acute respiratory failure following ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Nicolini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is a serious and potentially life-threatening physiological complication that may be encountered in patients who undergo controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles. The syndrome is typically associated with regimes of exogenous gonadotropins, but it can be seen, albeit rarely, when clomiphene is administered during the induction phase. Although this syndrome is widely described in scientific literature and is well known by obstetricians, the knowledge of this pathological and potentially life-threatening condition is generally less than satisfactory among physicians. The dramatic increase in therapeutic strategies to treat infertility has pushed this condition into the realm of acute care therapy. The potential complications of this syndrome, including pulmonary involvement, should be considered and identified so as to allow a more appropriate diagnosis and management. We describe a case of a woman with an extremely severe (Stage 6 ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome who presented ascites, bilateral pleural effusion and severe respiratory failure treated with non-invasive ventilation. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit because of severe respiratory failure, ascites, and bilateral pleural effusion due to ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Treatment included non-invasive ventilation and three thoracentesis procedures, plus the administration of albumin, colloid solutions and high-dose furosemid. Severe form of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome is observed in 0.5-5% of the women treated, and intensive care may be required for management of thromboembolic complications, renal failure and severe respiratory failure. Pulmonary intensive care may involve thoracentesis, oxygen supplementation and, in more severe cases, assisted ventilation. To our knowledge, there have been only two studies in English language medical literature that describe severe respiratory failure treated with non

  13. How to personalize ovarian stimulation in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sighinolfi, Giovanna; Grisendi, Valentina; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-09-01

    Controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles is the starting point from which couple's prognosis depends. Individualization in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) starting dose and protocol used is based on ovarian response prediction, which depends on ovarian reserve. Anti-Müllerian hormone levels and the antral follicle count are considered the most accurate and reliable markers of ovarian reserve. A literature search was performed for studies that addressed the ability of ovarian reserve markers to predict poor and high ovarian response in assisted reproductive technology cycles. According to the predicted response to ovarian stimulation (poor- normal- or high- response), it is possible to counsel couples before treatment about the prognosis, and also to individualize ovarian stimulation protocols, choosing among GnRH-agonists or antagonists for endogenous FSH suppression, and the FSH starting dose in order to decrease the risk of cycle cancellation and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. In this review we discuss how to choose the best COS therapy, based on ovarian reserve markers, in order to enhance chances in IVF.

  14. Imaging features of ovarian metastases from colonic adenocarcinoma in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, W.M.; Jenkins, J.J. III; Helton, K.; Rao, B.N.; Winer-Muram, H.T.; Pratt, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the imaging features of ovarian metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon in adolescent females. We reviewed retrospectively abdominal and pelvic computed tomographic and pelvic ultrasound examinations, histologic slices, and clinical charts of six adolescent females with ovarian metastases secondary to adenocarcinoma of the colon. One patient had ovarian metastasis at presentation and was presumed to have a primary ovarian tumor. The ovarian metastases were either solid (n = 3), complex with both solid and cystic components (n = 2), or multilocular cysts (n = 1). The ovarian lesions were large, ranging from 6 cm to 18 cm in diameter. Colorectal carcinoma in adolescent females is frequently associated with ovarian metastases. One imaging characteristic differs in adult and adolescent ovarian metastases, although they do have features in common: in adolescents, a smaller proportion of colorectal ovarian metastases are multicystic (17%) compared with the adult series (45%). These lesions are frequently large and may be complex, multicystic, or solid. Although it is a rare disease, the differential dignosis of adnexal masses in adolescent females should include ovarian metastases from adenocarcinoma of the colon. (orig.)

  15. IL-12 Expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus promotes anti-tumor activity and immunologic control of metastatic ovarian cancer in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eric D; Meza-Perez, Selene; Bevis, Kerri S; Randall, Troy D; Gillespie, G Yancey; Langford, Catherine; Alvarez, Ronald D

    2016-10-27

    Despite advances in surgical aggressiveness and conventional chemotherapy, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal cause of gynecologic cancer mortality; consequently there is a need for new therapeutic agents and innovative treatment paradigms for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Several studies have demonstrated that ovarian cancer is an immunogenic disease and immunotherapy represents a promising and novel approach that has not been completely evaluated in ovarian cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus "armed" with murine interleukin-12 and its ability to elicit tumor-specific immune responses. We evaluated the ability of interleukin-12-expressing and control oncolytic herpes simplex virus to kill murine and human ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. We also administered interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus to the peritoneal cavity of mice that had developed spontaneous, metastatic ovarian cancer and determined overall survival and tumor burden at 95 days. We used flow cytometry to quantify the tumor antigen-specific CD8 + T cell response in the omentum and peritoneal cavity. All ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated susceptibility to oncolytic herpes simplex virus in vitro. Compared to controls, mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus demonstrated a more robust tumor antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell immune response in the omentum (471.6 cells vs 33.1 cells; p = 0.02) and peritoneal cavity (962.3 cells vs 179.5 cells; p = 0.05). Compared to controls, mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus were more likely to control ovarian cancer metastases (81.2 % vs 18.2 %; p = 0.008) and had a significantly longer overall survival (p = 0.02). Finally, five of 6 mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oHSV had no evidence of metastatic tumor when euthanized at 6 months, compared to two of 4 mice treated with

  16. Ethnicity as a determinant of ovarian reserve: differences in ovarian aging between Spanish and Indian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Carlos; Banker, Manish; Mahajan, Nalini; Herrero, Leyre; Meseguer, Marcos; Garcia-Velasco, Juan A

    2014-07-01

    To investigate differences in ovarian reserve markers (antimüllerian hormone [AMH] and antral follicle count [AFC]) in Indian and Spanish women. Cross-sectional study. In vitro fertilization (IVF) clinics. Infertile Spanish (n=229) and Indian (n=236) women who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF from January to October 2012. None. Data on ovarian reserve markers and results after ovarian stimulation were collected. The mean age of women undergoing their first or second IVF cycle was significantly higher in Spanish than in Indian women (37.5±3.3 years vs. 31.5±3.8 years). Despite this 6-year age gap, AFCs were similar (9.5±4.7 vs. 9.9±4.6), as were day 3 FSH levels (7.5±4.5 IU/L vs. 6.9±2.3 IU/L). AMH levels were slightly lower in Spanish women (1.6±1.7 ng/mL vs. 2.5±1.6 ng/mL). Multivariate regression analysis showed that being Indian decreased AFC by 2.3, such that AFC in Indian women was similar to that in Spanish women 6.3 years older (95% confidence interval 3.39-1.10). Similar ovarian reserve markers and ovarian response were observed in women with a 6-year age difference in favor of the Spanish, suggesting ethnic differences in ovarian aging. Further research is needed to understand whether these differences are genetically induced or are caused by other variables, such as nutrition. Our results may help clinicians to counsel infertile women when discussing assisted reproductive technology outcomes according to age and ethnic background. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  18. MR Imaging Findings of Ovarian Cystadenofibroma: Clues for Making the Differential Diagnosis from Ovarian Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Jae Young

    2006-01-01

    Ovarian cystadenofibromas are uncommon epithelial ovarian tumors in which fibrous stroma is the dominant component of the neoplasm, in addition to the epithelial lining of the cystic tumor. These tumors are classified, according to the epithelial cell types, into the serous, endometrioid, mucinous, clear cell and mixed categories. Outwater et al. have reported that ovarian cystadenofibromas were multilocular cystic masses with a solid component and they had a specific MR signal intensity for the solid portion, which consisted of fibrous tissue that had very low signal intensity on the T2-weighted sequences. Takeuchi et al. reported that small or tiny cystic locules within the solid component are the characteristic findings of cystadenofibroma, corresponding to a black sponge-like appearance on T2-weignted image. Cho et al. found that about half of ovarian cystadenofibromas are purely cystic and the other half are complex cystic masses with one or more solid components on CT or MR imaging. The imaging findings of purely cystic ovarian cystadenofibromas were identical to those of ovarian cystadenomas on CT or MR imaging. Upon reviewing of the pathology of these tumors, they had small foci of fibrous stromas that were detected only on microscopic examination. The cystadenofibromas with a complex cystic nature demonstrated variable amounts of solid components in the cystic tumor on the CT or MR imaging. Familiarity with the above mentioned MR imaging features of ovarian cystadenofibromas may allow a specific diagnosis and help distinguish this benign tumor from malignant tumors, and this can be a big help during surgical planning to avoid inappropriate management or excessive surgical intervention

  19. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  20. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  3. Spontaneous pneumothorax in diffuse cystic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Joseph; Lee, Yun Chor Gary; Gupta, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are characterized by the presence of air-filled lung cysts. These cysts are prone to rupture, leading to the development of recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, and management DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. DCLDs are responsible for approximately 10% of apparent primary spontaneous pneumothoraces. Computed tomography screening for DCLDs (Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) following the first spontaneous pneumothorax has recently been shown to be cost-effective and can help facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying disorders. Patients with DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax have a very high rate of recurrence, and thus pleurodesis should be considered following the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients, rather than waiting for a recurrent episode. Prior pleurodesis is not a contraindication to future lung transplant. Although DCLDs are uncommon, spontaneous pneumothorax is often the sentinel event that provides an opportunity for diagnosis. By understanding the burden and implications of pneumothoraces in DCLDs, clinicians can facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of the underlying disorders.

  4. Incidental ovarian 18F-FDG accumulation on PET: correlation with the menstrual cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seok-Ki; Kang, Keon Wook; Roh, Ju Won; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nature of incidental ovarian 18 F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation on positron emission tomography (PET) and the correlation with the menstrual cycle and menopause. We identified 19 incidental FDG accumulations in the ovary (FAOs). FDG PET images were compared with other anatomical imaging methods [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US)]. Pathological findings, FDG PET scan during the next menstrual cycle and follow-up images (PET, CT and MRI) were reviewed. To establish the relation of FAOs to the menstrual cycle, we reviewed whole-body FDG PET acquired from 207 consecutive women and the pre-examination questionnaires, including data regarding the menstrual cycle. All spherical or discoid FAOs were attributed to normally developing ovarian follicles and corpora lutea on the basis of concurrent MRI, US or the follow-up PET scan. Three of the FAOs were proved pathologically to be either normal ovaries or a haemorrhagic corpus luteum. Fifteen FAOs spontaneously disappeared on the short-term follow-up PET scans. Of 207 women, 61 had active menstrual cycles. FAOs were found in 12 out of 61 premenopausal women (20%), appearing between the 10th and 25th days of the menstrual cycle. No FAOs were found in the women who did not have a menstrual cycle. Physiological ovarian FDG accumulation could be found around the time of ovulation and during the early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal woman. Since FAO is dependent on the menstrual cycle, it can be avoided by scheduling PET just after menstruation. (orig.)

  5. Incidental ovarian {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation on PET: correlation with the menstrual cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seok-Ki; Kang, Keon Wook; Roh, Ju Won; Sim, Jung Suk; Lee, Eun Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon [Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Gyeonggi (Korea)

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the nature of incidental ovarian {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation on positron emission tomography (PET) and the correlation with the menstrual cycle and menopause. We identified 19 incidental FDG accumulations in the ovary (FAOs). FDG PET images were compared with other anatomical imaging methods [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or ultrasonography (US)]. Pathological findings, FDG PET scan during the next menstrual cycle and follow-up images (PET, CT and MRI) were reviewed. To establish the relation of FAOs to the menstrual cycle, we reviewed whole-body FDG PET acquired from 207 consecutive women and the pre-examination questionnaires, including data regarding the menstrual cycle. All spherical or discoid FAOs were attributed to normally developing ovarian follicles and corpora lutea on the basis of concurrent MRI, US or the follow-up PET scan. Three of the FAOs were proved pathologically to be either normal ovaries or a haemorrhagic corpus luteum. Fifteen FAOs spontaneously disappeared on the short-term follow-up PET scans. Of 207 women, 61 had active menstrual cycles. FAOs were found in 12 out of 61 premenopausal women (20%), appearing between the 10th and 25th days of the menstrual cycle. No FAOs were found in the women who did not have a menstrual cycle. Physiological ovarian FDG accumulation could be found around the time of ovulation and during the early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal woman. Since FAO is dependent on the menstrual cycle, it can be avoided by scheduling PET just after menstruation. (orig.)

  6. Dynamics and mechanisms of chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion in women of fertile age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mikkel; Andersen, Claus Yding; la Cour Freiesleben, Nina

    2010-01-01

    To study ovarian follicular dynamics during chemotherapy to understand the mechanisms behind chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion and to evaluate whether pretreatment levels of ovarian reserve markers were predictive of the posttreatment levels.......To study ovarian follicular dynamics during chemotherapy to understand the mechanisms behind chemotherapy-induced ovarian follicular depletion and to evaluate whether pretreatment levels of ovarian reserve markers were predictive of the posttreatment levels....

  7. Acute onset of ovarian dysfunction in young females after start of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mörse, Helena; Elfving, Maria; Lindgren, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Female childhood cancer survivors are at risk of ovarian failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. We hereby present an interim analysis of a prospective observational study of ovarian function during cancer treatment of young females in relation to clinical factors.......Female childhood cancer survivors are at risk of ovarian failure and premature ovarian insufficiency. We hereby present an interim analysis of a prospective observational study of ovarian function during cancer treatment of young females in relation to clinical factors....

  8. Krukenberg Tumor: A Rare Cause of Ovarian Torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Sandhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian torsion is the fifth most common gynecological surgical emergency. Ovarian torsion is usually associated with a cyst or a tumor, which is typically benign. The most common is mature cystic teratoma. We report the case of a 43-year-old woman who came to the Emergency Department with rare acute presentation of bilateral Krukenberg tumors, due to unilateral ovarian torsion. In this case report, we highlight the specific computed tomography (CT features of ovarian torsion and demonstrate the unique radiological findings on CT imaging. Metastasis to the ovary is not rare and 5 to 10% of all ovarian malignancies are metastatic. The stomach is the common primary site in most Krukenberg tumors (70%; an acute presentation of metastatic Krukenberg tumors with ovarian torsion is rare and not previously reported in radiology literature.

  9. Sex Steroid Hormone Receptor Expression Affects Ovarian Cancer Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jenny-Maria; Skovbjerg Arildsen, Nicolai; Malander, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although most ovarian cancers express estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and androgen (AR) receptors, they are currently not applied in clinical decision making. We explored the prognostic impact of sex steroid hormone receptor protein and mRNA expression on survival...... in epithelial ovarian cancer. METHODS: Immunohistochemical stainings for ERα, ERβ, PR, and AR were assessed in relation to survival in 118 serous and endometrioid ovarian cancers. Expression of the genes encoding the four receptors was studied in relation to prognosis in the molecular subtypes of ovarian cancer...... in ovarian cancer and support that tumors should be stratified based on molecular as well as histological subtypes in future studies investigating the role of endocrine treatment in ovarian cancer....

  10. Individualization of controlled ovarian stimulation in IVF using ovarian reserve markers: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Marca, Antonio; Sunkara, Sesh Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of individualization of treatment in IVF is to offer every single woman the best treatment tailored to her own unique characteristics, thus maximizing the chances of pregnancy and eliminating the iatrogenic and avoidable risks resulting from ovarian stimulation. Personalization of treatment in IVF should be based on the prediction of ovarian response for every individual. The starting point is to identify if a woman is likely to have a normal, poor or a hyper response and choose the ideal treatment protocol tailored to this prediction. The objective of this review is to summarize the predictive ability of ovarian reserve markers, such as antral follicle count (AFC) and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), and the therapeutic strategies that have been proposed in IVF after this prediction. A systematic review of the existing literature was performed by searching Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane library and Web of Science for publications in the English language related to AFC, AMH and their incorporation into controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols in IVF. Literature available to May 2013 was included. The search generated 305 citations of which 41 and 25 studies, respectively, reporting the ability of AMH and AFC to predict response to COS were included in this review. The literature review demonstrated that AFC and AMH, the most sensitive markers of ovarian reserve identified to date, are ideal in planning personalized COS protocols. These sensitive markers permit prediction of the whole spectrum of ovarian response with reliable accuracy and clinicians may use either of the two markers as they can be considered interchangeable. Following the categorization of expected ovarian response to stimulation clinicians can adopt tailored therapeutic strategies for each patient. Current scientific trend suggests the elective use of the GnRH antagonist based regimen for hyper-responders, and probably also poor responders, as likely to be beneficial. The

  11. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  12. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  13. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  14. Anti-Mullerian Hormone: A Marker of Ovarian Reserve and its Association with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anil Kumar; Rajbhar, Sarita; Mishra, Jyoti; Gupta, Mayank; Sharma, Mratunjai; Deshmukh, Geeta; Ali, Wahid

    2016-12-01

    Anti-Mullerian Hormone (AMH) is a useful endocrine marker for assessing the ovarian reserve. AMH serum level reflects the number of follicles that have made the transition from the primordial pool into the growing follicle pool, and it is not controlled by gonadotropins. The present study was conducted to correlate serum AMH levels with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and type of treatment protocol. Serum AMH levels were performed in the early follicular phase (on 2 nd day of menstrual cycle) both in infertile females including PCOS and control women. The results were analyzed in relation to age, Body Mass Index (BMI), ovarian volume, serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) levels, Antral Follicle Count (AFC), type of treatment protocols and also in association with PCOS patients. The serum levels of AMH were measured in all the participants on 2 nd day of menstrual cycle using ultra sensitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The plasma AMH levels were significantly higher in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. The significant association was seen between FSH and AFC with AMH. However, no significant association was observed between AMH levels with age, BMI, ovarian volume and type of treatment protocols. The serum AMH measurement was significantly higher in PCOS patients. No association with type of treatment protocol was obtained.

  15. Development of A Mouse Model of Menopausal Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R. Smith

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant understanding of the genetic mutations involved in ovarian epithelial cancer and advances in genomic approaches for expression and mutation profiling of tumor tissues, several key questions in ovarian cancer biology remain enigmatic: the mechanism for the well-established impact of reproductive factors on ovarian cancer risk remains obscure; questions of the cell of origin of ovarian cancer continue to be debated; and the precursor lesion, sequence, or events in progression remain to be defined. Suitable mouse models should complement the analysis of human tumor tissues and may provide clues to these questions currently perplexing ovarian cancer biology.A potentially useful model is the germ cell-deficient Wv (white spotting variant mutant mouse line, which may be used to study the impact of menopausal physiology on the increased risk of ovarian cancer. The Wv mice harbor a point mutation in c-Kit that reduces the receptor tyrosine kinase activity to about 1-5% (it is not a null mutation. Homozygous Wv mutant females have a reduced ovarian germ cell reservoir at birth and the follicles are rapidly depleted upon reaching reproductive maturity, but other biological phenotypes are minimal and the mice have a normal life span. The loss of ovarian function precipitates changes in hormonal and metabolic activity that model features of menopause in humans. As a consequence of follicle depletion, the Wv ovaries develop ovarian tubular adenomas, a benign epithelial tumor corresponding to surface epithelial invaginations and papillomatosis that mark human ovarian aging. Ongoing work will test the possibility of converting the benign epithelial tubular adenomas into neoplastic tumors by addition of an oncogenic mutation, such as of Tp53, to model the genotype and biology of serous ovarian cancer.Model based on the Wv mice may have the potential to gain biological and etiological insights into ovarian cancer development and prevention.

  16. Statin use and mortality among ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdoodt, Freija; Hansen, Merete Kjaer; Kjaer, Susanne K.

    2017-01-01

    -cause or ovarian cancer-specific mortality. Among 4,419 patients with epithelial ovarian cancer, post-diagnostic statin use was not statistically significantly associated with all-cause (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.78–1.04) or ovarian cancer-specific mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.76–1.08). There was little evidence...

  17. Termination of Pregnancy in a Patient with Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Suna Özdemir; Çetin Çelik; Kazım Gezginç; Hasan Esen

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian cancer during pregnancy is a rare entity and the management of the disease can be challenging for the patient and the clinician. In this case, we report a case of advanced ovarian carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy, which was managed with termination of pregnancy and chemotheraphy. The patient was underwent exploratory laparatomy including the right ovarian cystectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy after frozen section of borderline serous cystade...

  18. Long-term function of ovarian tissue transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman J. Silber

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The long term duration of function of ovarian cortical tissue grafts is reviewed in this paper by describing cases of restoration of fertility by transplant of ovarian cortical tissue from matching donors where the recipient was in need of the transplant due to sterilizing effects of leukemia, premature ovarian failure (POF, and to reflect that it may be possible to postpone the normal time of menopause or to alleviate its symptoms.

  19. [Early detection of ovarian cancer: tomorrow? A review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chene, G; Penault-Llorca, F; Robin, N; Cayre, A; Provencher, D M; Dauplat, J

    2013-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal of the gynaecological malignancies because this «silent killer» is almost always diagnosed at an advanced stage. Precursor lesions have at least been discovered. This review will describe in details specific features of tubal and ovarian preinvasive lesions and the old and novel techniques that could be used for early detection of ovarian cancer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of liraglutide on ovarian dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nylander, Malin; Frøssing, Signe; Clausen, Helle V.

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) encompasses an ovarian and a metabolic dysfunction. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues facilitate weight loss and ameliorate metabolic dysfunction in overweight women with PCOS, but their effect on ovarian dysfunction is scarcely reported. In a double......-blind, randomized trial, 72 women with PCOS were allocated to intervention with the GLP-1 analogue liraglutide or placebo (1.8 mg/day), in a 2:1 ratio. At baseline and 26-week follow-up, bleeding pattern, levels of AMH, sex hormones and gonadotrophins were assessed and ovarian morphology evaluated. Liraglutide...... of ovarian function in overweight women with PCOS, and might be a possible intervention....

  2. Immunology of Addison's disease and premature ovarian failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebye, Eystein S; Løvås, Kristian

    2009-06-01

    Autoimmune Addison's disease and autoimmune ovarian insufficiency are caused by selective targeting by T and B lymphocytes to the steroidogenic apparatus in these organs. Autoantibodies toward 21-hydroxylase are a clinically useful marker for autoimmune Addison's disease. Autoantibodies to 21-hydroxylase are found in premature ovarian insufficiency, but others also can be present, notably antibodies against side-chain cleavage enzyme. The autoimmune response primarily targets the theca cells, yielding elevated concentrations of inhibin, which is emerging as a useful diagnostic marker for autoimmune etiology of ovarian insufficiency. Little is known about its immunogenetics, but in contrast to Addison's disease, several experimental models of autoimmune premature ovarian insufficiency are available for study.

  3. Development and Novel Uses of Antibodies in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Curtin, John P

    2003-01-01

    .... Further understanding of the host response to epithelial cancers and the potential capability of innovative immunologic technologies to ovarian cancer may play a key role in therapeutic advances...

  4. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuya, Mitsuko

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers

  5. Intestinal Necrosis due to Giant Ovarian Cyst: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Duran, Ali; Duran, Fulay Yilmaz; Cengiz, Fevzi; Duran, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal pathologies due to ovarian cyst are observed rarely. Although a limited number of cases in neonatal and adolescent periods have been observed, no adult case has been reported in the literature. Two mechanisms are involved in intestinal complications due to ovarian cysts: torsion due to adhesion or compression of giant ovarian mass with a diameter of 9-10 cm. We report here a terminal ileum necrosis case due to compression by an ovarian cyst with 11 × 10 × 7 cm size in an 81-year-ol...

  6. Ovarian Cancer Stroma: Pathophysiology and the Roles in Cancer Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Mitsuko [Department of Pathology, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama 236-0004 (Japan)

    2012-07-18

    Ovarian cancer represents one of the cancers with the worst prognostic in adult women. More than half of the patients who present with clinical signs such as abdominal bloating and a feeling of fullness already show advanced stages. The majority of ovarian cancers grow as cystic masses, and cancer cells easily spread into the pelvic cavity once the cysts rupture or leak. When the ovarian cancer cells disseminate into the peritoneal cavity, metastatic nests may grow in the cul-de-sac, and in more advanced stages, the peritoneal surfaces of the upper abdomen become the next largest soil for cancer progression. Ascites is also produced frequently in ovarian cancers, which facilitates distant metastasis. Clinicopathologic, epidemiologic and molecular studies on ovarian cancers have improved our understanding and therapeutic approaches, but still further efforts are required to reduce the risks in the patients who are predisposed to this lethal disease and the mortality of the patients in advanced stages. Among various molecules involved in ovarian carcinogenesis, special genes such as TP53, BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been well investigated. These genes are widely accepted as the predisposing factors that trigger malignant transformation of the epithelial cells of the ovary. In addition, adnexal inflammatory conditions such as chronic salpingitis and ovarian endometriosis have been great research interests in the context of carcinogenic background of ovarian cancers. In this review, I discuss the roles of stromal cells and inflammatory factors in the carcinogenesis and progression of ovarian cancers.

  7. Papillary ovarian cystadenocarcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotov, S; Simeonov, R; Dimitrov, F; Vassilev, N; Dimitrov, M; Georgiev, P

    2005-03-01

    An 11-year-old female German Shepherd dog was presented for investigation of progressive enlargement of the abdomen, periodic bloody discharge from the vulva and rapid exhaustion. Transabdominal ultrasonography and lateral abdominal radiography demonstrated an echogenic formation with anechogenic cavities located cranial to the urinary bladder and a homogeneous shadow with an elliptical shape was located caudal to the rib arc. Both showed indistinct borders. Exploratory laparotomy identified bilateral ovarian masses and ovariohysterectomy was performed. Histopathology confirmed ovarian cystadenocarcinoma. The dog remained clinically normal without evidence of metastatic disease 4 months after surgery. Papillary cystadenocarcinoma in the bitch could affect both ovaries and manifests with a rapid growth rate and clinical signs such as rapid exhaustion, abdominal enlargement and vulval discharge. Ovariohysterectomy is the treatment option.

  8. Gorlin syndrome and bilateral ovarian fibroma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirschner, Fernanda; Bastos, Pollyana Marçal; Contarato, George Luiz; Bimbato, Anna Carolina Bon Lima; Filho, Antônio Chambô

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gorlin syndrome (GS), also known as nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), is a rare hereditary, autosomal dominant disease that affects various systems. Its prevalence is estimated at 1/57,000 to 1/256,000 of the population. It is characterized by basal cell carcinomas, multiple odontogenic keratocysts, skeletal abnormalities and ovarian fibroma, among other disorders. PRESENTATION OF CASE To report the case of a young patient with Gorlin syndrome and bilateral ovarian fibroma. DISCUSSION A 20-year old patient with Gorlin syndrome presented with facial asymmetry, broad nasal root, dental abnormalities, micrognathism, convergent strabismus, multiple pigmented lesions on the trunk and face, pectus excavatum, kyphoscoliosis and a palpable mass in the abdomen occupying the entire pelvic region. CONCLUSION Gorlin–Goltz syndrome is a hereditary pathology that includes numerous clinical manifestations. Diagnosis is clinical and genetic confirmation is unnecessary. PMID:22771908

  9. [Genetic aspects of premature ovarian failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warenik-Szymankiewicz, Alina; Słopień, Radosław

    2005-01-01

    Among the causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) two groups of factors are reported: factors which lead to decrease of follicular number and factors which stimulate follicular atresia. In the first group genetic factors are the most important whereas in the second: enzymatic autoimmunological, iatrogenic, toxins and infections are reported. In 1986 familiar POF on the background of long arm of chromosome X deletion was reported. Other chromosomes which are important for normal ovarian function are: chromosome 21 (AIRE gene), chromosome 11 (gene of beta FSH, ATM gene), chromosome 3 (gene responsible for BEPS syndrome) and chromosome 2 (genes of FSH and LH receptors). In this review the role of these genes and results of several epidemiological studies are reported.

  10. Ovarian Ectopic Pregnancy: a Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lotfian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Ovarian pregnancy is an uncommon form of ectopic pregnancy which usually diagnosed so late. The aim of this study is to report a case of ovarian ectopic pregnancy Case presentation: A 19 years old woman, with a history of polycystic ovary, first pregnancy, gestation age 9 weeks and 4 days, visited the doctor. She was complaining of severe abdomen pain and vaginal spotting and she was bedridden because of threatened miscarriage. She had discharged from hospital with progesterone suppository prescription. Requesting a transvaginal ultrasound and heterogeneous echogenic mass (size18×8/5 was shown near the left ovary. It was shown as ectopic pregnancy. The patient was hospitalized by ectopic pregnancy in ovary diagnosis and she was treated by methotrexate. Conclusion: In pregnant women that complain of bleeding and spotting in early pregnancy, in addition to threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy should exist even in the absence of clinical symptoms, should be considered.

  11. Transplantation of frozen-thawed ovarian tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gellert, S E; Pors, S E; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2018-01-01

    . CONCLUSION: This study found no indications of sufficient numbers of malignant cells present in the ovarian tissue to cause recurrence of cancer after OTT. Further, it is unlikely that OTC affects the well-being of children born. OTC is now an established method of fertility preservation in Denmark......PURPOSE: The purpose of the study is to review all peer-reviewed published reports of women receiving ovarian tissue transplantation (OTT) with frozen/thawed tissue (OTC) with respect to age, diagnosis, transplantation site, fertility outcome, and potential side effects, including data from all...... women in the Danish program. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed combined with results from all patients who had received OTT in Denmark up to December 2017. RESULTS: OTT has been reported from 21 different countries comprising a total of 360 OTT procedures in 318...

  12. Thoracic manifestations of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, M.F.; Hutton, L.C.; Kaplan, B.R. [University of Western Ontario, London, ON (Canada)

    1995-02-01

    In order to determine the thoracic manifestations of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, the medical records and available images of 771 patients who had received gonadotropins to induce superovulation, were reviewed. In 22 patients (3%) severe hyperstimulation syndrome was diagnosed clinically and confirmed with ultrasonography (US). Pleural effusion occurred in five of these (23%), one of whom required thoracentesis. Atelectasis and internal jugular vein thrombosis developed in one patient, and ventilation-perfusion mismatch occurred in another. The study concluded that respiratory distress in patients with ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome was most likely due to lung restriction. Pulmonary manifestations formed an important part of this syndrome, and radiologic input were considered necessary for assessment, monitoring and management. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied

  14. Radiologic findings of acute spontaneous subdural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Bae, Won Kyong; Gyu, Cha Jang; Kim, Gun Woo; Cho, Won Su; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Kyung Suk [Soonchunhyang University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of). Chonan Hospital

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the characteristic CT and cerebral angiographic findings in patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematomas and correlate these imaging findings with causes of bleeding and clinical outcome. Twenty-one patients with nontraumatic acute spontaneous subdural hematoma presenting during the last five years underwent CT scanning and cerebral angiography was performed in twelve. To determine the cause of bleedings, CT and angiographic findings were retrospectively analysed. Clinical history, laboratory and operative findings, and final clinical outcome were reviewed. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma is a rare condition, and the mortality rate is high. In patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematoma, as seen on CT, associated subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage is strongly indicative of intracerebral vascular abnormalities such as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral angiography is necessary. To ensure proper treatment and thus markedly reduce mortality, the causes of bleedings should be prompty determined by means of cerebral angiography. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  15. Spontaneous neonatal gastrointestinal perforation: surgical or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cases of spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in neonates at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The perinatal stress factors were caesarian delivery, prematurity and fetal distress due to prolonged obstructed labour.

  16. Rapid and spontaneous recovery in autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Pargaonkar, Amol

    2009-01-01

    Recovery in autistic disorder is rare. There are few reports of recovery from autistic disorder after a few years of therapeutic intervention. We report here a case of autistic disorder who recovered spontaneously without any intervention in 13 days.

  17. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  18. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  19. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  20. Cystic struma ovarii: a rare ovarian teratoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, B.A.; Ali, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Struma ovarii is a unique variant of the monodermal teratomas of the ovary, which is entirely composed of thyroid tissue. It is a rare tumor which comprises 1-4% of all benign ovarian tumors. The age of presentation ranges between 6 to 74 years. It is a benign tumor and is usually unilateral. Clinical symptoms such as pelvic mass, abdominal pain and ascities occur in one third of patients, whereas rarely patients may present with pseudo-meig syndrome. Ultrasonography and computed tomography show a solid cystic mass. Histologically benign struma ovarii contain thyroid follicles of variable sizes filled with colloid. A 53 years old female presented with one month history of lower abdominal pain. The clinical and radiological findings suggested a left ovarian mass measuring 7 x 5 x 3 cm. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the left ovarian mass was resected. The specimen was sent to AFIP for anatomical diagnosis. On gross examination, the specimen consisted of left ovary measuring 14 x 12 x 6.5 cm and weighing 527 grams. External surface of the ovary showed many multinodular areas with few cystic areas. Largest of the cyst measured 8 x 7 x 4 cm. On opening all the cysts contained yellowish watery fluid. Maximum thickness of the largest cyst wall was 0.5 cm. The solid area in the ovary measured 5 x 4 x 3 cm. On serial slicing the solid areas had whitish variegated appearance and areas of gritty hard consistency. No fallopian tube was found. Representative sections from different areas of the specimen were prepared. Histologically, the sections revealed effacement of the normal ovarian architecture by mature thyroid follicles containing colloid (Fig. 2). Some areas showed degenerated thyroid tissue with hyalinization and areas of calcification. More than 50% of the material examined contained thyroid tissue. No evidence of atypia was seen in the material examined. (author)

  1. Ovarian cancer in an interdisciplinary context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seibæk, Lene; Søgaard, Charlotte

    quality of treatment.   Patients/ Methods We developed an interdisciplinary programme including patient data from the records of doctors, nurses, anaesthetists and observations. This programme was applied on a population of 65 women with ovarian malignancies. Subsequently analyses were performed.......   Results This study has had implications concerning organisation, quality of treatment and psychosocial support. The study identified correlations not previously discovered between the different elements of the programme. Correlations e.g. between patient information, pain, nausea and mobilisation were...

  2. [Ovarian cancer. II. Procedures, histology, and complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpakowski, M; Nowak, M; Malinowski, A; Romanowicz, H; Wieczorek, A; Szpakowski, A; Raczkowska, Z; Władziński, J; Wilczyński, J R; Kamiński, T; Maciołek-Blewniewska, G

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to analyse the operative procedures and complications in patients operated for the first time for ovarian cancer. A retrospective review of patients' charts with ovarian cancer operated at the Department of Gynaecological Surgery of Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital-Research Institute in 1990-1999 was conducted. We analysed the data of women operated for the first time for this disease. In every case we tried to perform radical operation consisted of hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, omentectomy, appendectomy (if needed), and additionally optimal debulking in advanced cancer. Between January 1990 and December 1999, 107 patients were operated for the first time for ovarian cancer. FIGO staging was as follows: I--13.1%, II--14.95%, III--59.8%, IV--12.15%. The most frequent findings on histology were serous (39.3%), endometrioid (26.2%), undifferentiated (11.2%) and clear cell cancers (10.7%). In 60.7% of cases we performed hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy, in 15.0% bilateral adnexectomy, in 4.7% of patients cytoreductive tumorectomy, and in 19.6% of cases only excisions for histology were taken. 69.0% of patients underwent also omentectomy and 42.6% appendectomy. In 58.9% of patients we performed radical operation; its incidence significantly decreased with the increase of FIGO staging: I--100%, II--87.5%, III--51.6%, IV--15.4% (p serous and endometrioid ovarian cancer. The great majority of patients was diagnosed to late and operated in III and IV stage of the disease, but in almost 60% of cases radical operation was performed.

  3. PRIMARY OVARIAN PREGNANCY: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amulya

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian pregnancy is a rare entity and usually occurs in young women using intra uterine device. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and is a challenge to the clinicians. A diagnostic delay may lead to rupture, secondary implantation or operative difficulties. Here w e present a case of a 30 year old primiparous woman who presented with lower abdominal pain and was diagnosed as ectopic pregnanc y and was managed with right ovariectomy.

  4. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    grown these cells in culture and have generated stable cell clones which express Tomato Red so that these cells can be followed through fluorescent...occurring in ovarian cell lines, we examined the effect of IL6 and IL6Ra expression on cell migration in vitro . Migration through uncoated cell culture ...or IL6R were plated on tissue culture plates and scratch wounds were made. Over the course of the experiment, photographs of the cultures were

  5. Primary pelvic hydatic cyst mimicking ovarian carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Faruk Abike; Ilkkan Dunder; Omer Lutfi Tapisiz; Osman Temizkan; Banu Bingol; Ahmet Payasli; Lale Kutluay

    2011-01-01

    Hydatic cyst is an illness that appears in consequence of the cystic form of small strap-shaped worm Echinococcus granulosis. Frequently, cysts exist in the lungs and liver. Peritoneal involvement is rare, and generally occurs as a result of second inoculation from rupture of a liver-located hydatic cyst. Primary ovarian hydatic cyst is very rare. A 56-year-old female patient was admitted to Emergency Service with the complaint of stomachache and swollen abdomen. From ultrasonographic examina...

  6. Large complex ovarian cyst managed by laparoscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Dipak J. Limbachiya; Ankit Chaudhari; Grishma P. Agrawal

    2017-01-01

    Complex ovarian cyst with secondary infection is a rare disease that hardly responds to the usual antibiotic treatment. Most of the times, it hampers day to day activities of women. It is commonly known to cause pain and fever. To our surprise, in our case the cyst was large enough to compress the ureter and it was adherent to the surrounding structures. Laparoscopic removal of the cyst was done and specimen was sent for histopathological examination.

  7. Imaging of ovarian clear cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Toshihiko; Sawano, Seishi; Yamada, Keiko [Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research, Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the appearance of ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (OCCA) on MR, CT, US. In 39 cases with OCCA, the imaging characteristics of OCCA were evaluated morphologically and classified into three groups, that was, monomural nodule type, multi-mural nodule type and predominantly solid type. Forty-three percent of the patients had endometriosis. Contrast material-enhanced MRI was the most useful method for diagnosis of OCCA. (author)

  8. Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Diagnosis and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sheehan, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects 4% to 12% of women of reproductive age. The lack of well-defined diagnostic criteria makes identification of this common disease confusing to many clinicians. Also, with the varied manifestations of the disorder a patient may present to any one of several providers: an internist, family practitioner, nurse practitioner, pediatrician, gynecologist, dermatologist, or endocrinologist. Furthermore, the most distressing aspect of PCOS for any given patien...

  9. Persistence of insulin resistance in polycystic ovarian disease after inhibition of ovarian steroid secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geffner, M E; Kaplan, S A; Bersch, N; Golde, D W; Landaw, E M; Chang, R J

    1986-03-01

    Six nonobese women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD) showed significant hyperinsulinemia, compared with controls after oral glucose (P less than 0.05). As an indicator of insulin sensitivity, in vitro proliferation of erythrocyte progenitor cells of PCOD subjects exposed to physiologic concentrations of insulin was significantly blunted (P less than 0.001). Monocyte insulin receptor binding was not impaired in the PCOD subjects. Three of the PCOD patients were treated with a long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist for 6 months, which resulted in marked suppression of ovarian androgen secretion but no demonstrable changes in in vivo or in vitro indicators of insulin resistance. Thus insulin resistance in PCOD subjects appears to be unrelated to ovarian hyperandrogenism (or acanthosis or obesity). Although certain tissues are insulin-resistant in PCOD patients, the ovary may remain sensitive and overproduce androgens in response to high circulating insulin levels.

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  11. Spontaneously broken global symmetries and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.; Vilenkin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Phase transitions associated with spontaneously broken global symmetries, in case these occur in nature, can have important cosmological implications. This is illustrated through two examples. The first one shows how the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry, present, for instance, in the minimal SU(5) model, can lead to an inflationary phase. The second example illustrates how topologically stable strings associated with the breaking of U(1) symmetry make an appearance at (or near) the end of the inflationary era

  12. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Manoranjan Dash; Thitta Mohanty; Jyoti Patnaik; Narayan Mishra; Saswat Subhankar; Priyadarsini Parida

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a ra...

  13. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  14. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  15. Symmetry restoration in spontaneously broken induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Russo, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the recuperation of expected invariant behaviours in a non-metric gravity theory in which the full general relativistic invariance is broken spontaneously. We show how dangerous increasing energy behaviours of physical amplitudes cancel in a highly non-trivial way. This evidences the expected loss of the vacuum generated scale in the UV regime and gives support for the consistency of spontaneously broken gravity theories. (orig.)

  16. Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking

  17. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avendano Juan; Buitrago, Giancarlo; Ramos, Pedro; Suescun Oscar

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the experience at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy as primary treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer among patients in stages IIIC and IV. Methods: We conducted a descriptive retrospective study (case series type) of patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer in stages IIIC and IV, treated at the NCI from January 1, 2003 to December 31,2006, who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy as primary treatment. Demographic characteristics and clinical outcomes are described. Results: Seventeen patients who fulfilled the above mentioned criteria were selected. Once neoadjuvant chemotherapy ended, 5 patients (29.4%) achieved complete or partial clinical response; 4 (23.8%) remained in stable condition, and 8 (47.6%) showed signs of progressive illness. Interval debulking surgery was performed on objective response patients. Maximum cytoreduction was achieved in 5 patients (100%); first relapse was reported at month 18 of follow-up; 2 disease-free survivors were identified in December, 2007; 8 (49%) reported some degree of non-severe chemotherapy-related toxicity. No mortality was related to chemotherapy, no post surgical complications were observed and no patient required advanced support management. Conclusions: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy, followed by optimal interval debulking surgery among selected patients, can be an alternative treatment for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer among women with irresecability or the critically ill. Further studies with improved design are required to confirm these findings.

  18. Mathematical Models of Breast and Ovarian Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botesteanu, Dana-Adriana; Lipkowitz, Stanley; Lee, Jung-Min; Levy, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Women constitute the majority of the aging United States (US) population, and this has substantial implications on cancer population patterns and management practices. Breast cancer is the most common women's malignancy, while ovarian cancer is the most fatal gynecological malignancy in the US. In this review we focus on these subsets of women's cancers, seen more commonly in postmenopausal and elderly women. In order to systematically investigate the complexity of cancer progression and response to treatment in breast and ovarian malignancies, we assert that integrated mathematical modeling frameworks viewed from a systems biology perspective are needed. Such integrated frameworks could offer innovative contributions to the clinical women's cancers community, since answers to clinical questions cannot always be reached with contemporary clinical and experimental tools. Here, we recapitulate clinically known data regarding the progression and treatment of the breast and ovarian cancers. We compare and contrast the two malignancies whenever possible, in order to emphasize areas where substantial contributions could be made by clinically inspired and validated mathematical modeling. We show how current paradigms in the mathematical oncology community focusing on the two malignancies do not make comprehensive use of, nor substantially reflect existing clinical data, and we highlight the modeling areas in most critical need of clinical data integration. We emphasize that the primary goal of any mathematical study of women's cancers should be to address clinically relevant questions. PMID:27259061

  19. Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banco, B; Ferrari, R; Stefanello, D; Groppetti, D; Pecile, A; Faverzani, S; Longo, M; Zani, D D; Ravasio, G; Caniatti, M; Grieco, V

    2017-11-01

    A 17-month-old female doberman pinscher was referred for an abdominal mass and ascites. Exploratory laparotomy revealed the presence of a large neoplastic mass replacing the right ovary and associated with multiple mesovarian, mesometrial and peritoneal nodules. An ovariohysterectomy was performed. Grossly, the tumour was soft and multilocular with large areas of haemorrhage and necrosis. Microscopically, it was infiltrative and composed of round and polygonal cells arranged respectively in solid sheets or forming distorted tubular structures separated by thick fibrovascular septae. Tubules contained necrotic debris, proteinaceous fluid or small endoluminal papillary structures. Marked cellular atypia, multiple neoplastic emboli and high mitotic count were observed. Immunohistochemically, the round cells uniformly expressed placental alkaline phosphatase, while the polygonal cells arranged in tubules and papillae expressed cytokeratin (CK) AE1/AE3 and CK7. A final diagnosis of metastasizing ovarian embryonal carcinoma (EC), a primitive germ cell tumour characterized by rudimentary epithelial differentiation was made. Canine ovarian EC should be considered as a differential diagnosis for undifferentiated aggressive ovarian tumours in young dogs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polycystic ovarian syndrome: clinical and biological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelot, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovarian disorder associated with androgen excess in women, which justifies the growing interest of endocrinologists. This syndrome leads to clinical hyperandrogenism and/or a biological dysovulation and infertility. Its diagnosis is based on consensual diagnostic criteria, but which are likely to change in the near future with the rise of the interest of new markers such as AMH. Diagnostic tools of PCOS are also discussed, with emphasis on the laboratory evaluation of androgens and other potential biomarkers of ovarian and metabolic dysfunctions. The exact etiology of PCOS is unknown and is likely multifactorial. Many studies indicate that PCOS results from originally ovarian abnormalities. In some patients, secondary hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance plays a role in the pathophysiology. In addition, the relevant impact of metabolic issues, specifically insulin resistance and obesity, on the pathogenesis of PCOS, and the susceptibility to develop earlier than expected glucose intolerance states, including type 2 diabetes, has supported the notion that these aspects should be considered when defining the PCOS phenotype and planning potential therapeutic strategies in an affected subject.

  1. Cryopreservation of canine ovarian and testicular fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Il-Jeoung; Leibo, S P; Songsasen, Nucharin; Dresser, Betsy L; Kim, In-Shik

    2009-01-01

    To derive a practical procedure to store canine somatic cells, fibroblasts isolated from testicular or ovarian tissues were cryopreserved in 1.2 M ethylene glycol or in 1.2 M dimethylsulfoxide prepared in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium as cryoprotectants, and were frozen either in plastic straws or vials. Thawed cells were cultured for 24 hr at 38.5 degree C in a humidified atmosphere of 5 percent CO2 95 percent air, and then their membrane integrity was assayed with a double fluorescent stain, Fertilight. In addition, frozen-thawed fibroblasts were cultured for 4 days, and then their functional survival was measured after staining small colonies with trypan blue. After freezing and thawing, membrane integrity of testicular fibroblasts was 55-70 percent and functional survival ranged from 20-40 percent. With frozen-thawed ovarian cells, the average membrane integrity was 55-75 percent and the average functional survival was 35-40 percent. When frozen in ethylene glycol, functional survival of ovarian fibroblasts was significantly higher than that of testicular cells (P less than 0.05). These methods should prove useful to preserve cells collected from canids in the wild.

  2. Staging and treatment of ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Palo, G.; Istituto Nazionale per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Milan

    1989-01-01

    The staging and treatment of ovarian cancer is reviewed with special attention to developments during the last decade. Pathways of spread, presurgical and surgical staging are described and discussed, as are the biologic characters of the different histologic subtypes. Principles of surgery, endoperitoneal and external radiotherapy, single-drug and multiple-drug systemic chemotherapy (therapeutic and adjuvant), intraperitoneal chemotherapy, second-line chemotherapy, hormone therapy and the use of biologic response modifiers are reported and discussed with background of recent clinical trials. It is concluded that considerable progress has been made concerning diagnosis, staging and treatment of ovarian cancer. The proportion of cases in advanced stages has thus decreased and the survival rate increased. However, it is also obvious that the long-term prognosis for patients with advanced disease has not significantly improved over the last 10 years, despite introduction of multiple-drug regimens with high initial response rates. Ovarian cancer remains the most important gynecologic cause of death in the Western countries. (orig.)

  3. Vitrification and xenografting of human ovarian tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Christiani Andrade; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; David, Anu; Jaeger, Jonathan; Vanacker, Julie; Camboni, Alessandra; Donnez, Jacques; Van Langendonckt, Anne

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficiency of two vitrification protocols to cryopreserve human preantral follicles with the use of a xenografting model. Pilot study. Gynecology research unit in a university hospital. Ovarian biopsies were obtained from seven women aged 30-41 years. Ovarian tissue fragments were subjected to one of three cryopreservation protocols (slow freezing, vitrification protocol 1, and vitrification protocol 2) and xenografted for 1 week to nude mice. The number of morphologically normal follicles after cryopreservation and grafting and fibrotic surface area were determined by histologic analysis. Apoptosis was assessed by the TUNEL method. Morphometric analysis of TUNEL-positive surface area also was performed. Follicle proliferation was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. After xenografting, a difference was observed between the cryopreservation procedures applied. According to TUNEL analysis, both vitrification protocols showed better preservation of preantral follicles than the conventional freezing method. Moreover, histologic evaluation showed a significantly higher proportion of primordial follicles in vitrified (protocol 2)-warmed ovarian tissue than in frozen-thawed tissue. The proportion of growing follicles and fibrotic surface area was similar in all groups. Vitrification procedures appeared to preserve not only the morphology and survival of preantral follicles after 1 week of xenografting, but also their ability to resume folliculogenesis. In addition, vitrification protocol 2 had a positive impact on the quiescent state of primordial follicles after xenografting. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Estrogen, Progesterone and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Shuk-Mei

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ovarian carcinoma (OCa continues to be the leading cause of death due to gynecologic malignancies and the vast majority of OCa is derived from the ovarian surface epithelium (OSE and its cystic derivatives. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that steroid hormones, primarily estrogens and progesterone, are implicated in ovarian carcinogenesis. However, it has proved difficult to fully understand their mechanisms of action on the tumorigenic process. New convincing data have indicated that estrogens favor neoplastic transformation of the OSE while progesterone offers protection against OCa development. Specifically, estrogens, particularly those present in ovulatory follicles, are both genotoxic and mitogenic to OSE cells. In contrast, pregnancy-equivalent levels progesterone are highly effective as apoptosis inducers for OSE and OCa cells. In this regard, high-dose progestin may exert an exfoliation effect and rid an aged OSE of pre-malignant cells. A limited number of clinical studies has demonstrated efficacies of antiestrogens, aromatase inhibitors, and progestins alone or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of OCa. As a result of increased life expectancy in most countries, the number of women taking hormone replacement therapies (HRT continues to grow. Thus, knowledge of the mechanism of action of steroid hormones on the OSE and OCa is of paramount significance to HRT risk assessment and to the development of novel therapies for the prevention and treatment of OCa.

  5. Development of the ovarian follicular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, R J; Lavranos, T C; van Wezel, I L; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    1999-05-25

    A lot is known about the endocrine control of the development of ovarian follicles, but a key question now facing researchers is which molecular and cellular processes take part in control of follicular growth and development. The growth and development of ovarian follicles occurs postnatally and throughout adult life. In this review, we focus on the follicular epithelium (membrana granulosa) and its basal lamina. We discuss a model of how granulosa cells arise from a population of stem cells and then enter different lineages before differentiation. The structure of the epithelium at the antral stage of development is presented, and the effects that follicle growth has on the behavior of the granulosa cells are discussed. Finally, we discuss the evidence that during follicle development the follicular basal lamina changes in composition. This would be expected if the behavior of the granulosa cells changes, or if the permeability of the basal lamina changes. It will be evident that the follicular epithelium has similarities to other epithelia in the body, but that it is more dynamic, as gross changes occur during the course of follicle development. This basic information will be important for the development of future reproductive technologies in both humans and animals, and possibly for understanding polycystic ovarian syndrome in women.

  6. Parabens Accelerate Ovarian Dysfunction in a 4-Vinylcyclohexene Diepoxide-Induced Ovarian Failure Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Lee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Parabens are widely used preservatives in basic necessities such as cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. In previous studies, xenoestrogenic actions of parabens were reported in an immature rat model and a rat pituitary cell line (GH3 cells. The relationship between parabens and ovarian failure has not been described. In the present study, the influence of parabens on ovarian folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis was investigated. A disruptor of ovarian small pre-antral follicles, 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD, 40 mg/kg, was used to induce premature ovarian failure (POF. Methylparaben (MP, 100 mg/kg, propylparaben (PP, 100 mg/kg, and butylparaben (BP, 100 mg/kg dissolved in corn oil were treated in female 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rat for 5 weeks. Estrus cycle status was checked daily by vaginal smear test. Ovarian follicle development and steroid synthesis were investigated through real-time PCR and histological analyses. Diestrus phases in the VCD, PP, and BP groups were longer than that in the vehicle group. VCD significantly decreased mRNA level of folliculogenesis-related genes (Foxl2, Kitl and Amh. All parabens significantly increased the Amh mRNA level but unchanged Foxl2 and Kitlg acting in primordial follicles. VCD and MP slightly increased Star and Cyp11a1 levels, which are related to an initial step in steroidogenesis. VCD and parabens induced an increase in FSH levels in serum and significantly decreased the total number of follicles. Increased FSH implies impairment in ovarian function due to VCD or parabens. These results suggest that VCD may suppress both formation and development of follicles. In particular, combined administration of VCD and parabens accelerated inhibition of the follicle-developmental process through elevated AMH level in small antral follicles.

  7. A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF: a multicenter randomized non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, M A; van Wely, M; Al-Inany, H; Madani, T; Jahangiri, N; Khodabakhshi, S; Alhalabi, M; Akhondi, M; Ansaripour, S; Tokhmechy, R; Zarandi, L; Rizk, A; El-Mohamedy, M; Shaeer, E; Khattab, M; Mochtar, M H; van der Veen, F

    2017-01-01

    In subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF does a mild ovarian stimulation strategy lead to comparable ongoing pregnancy rates in comparison to a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy? A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF leads to similar ongoing pregnancy rates as a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. Women diagnosed with poor ovarian reserve are treated with a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal start GnRH-agonist protocol. Previous studies comparing a conventional strategy with a mild ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of low-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a GnRH-antagonist have been under powered and their effectiveness is inconclusive. This open label multicenter randomized trial was designed to compare one cycle of a mild ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of low-dose gonadotropins (150 IU FSH) and pituitary downregulation with a GnRH-antagonist to one cycle of a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins (450 IU HMG) and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal GnRH-agonist in women of advanced maternal age and/or women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF between May 2011 and April 2014. Couples seeking infertility treatment were eligible if they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: female age ≥35 years, a raised basal FSH level >10 IU/ml irrespective of age, a low antral follicular count of ≤5 follicles or poor ovarian response or cycle cancellation during a previous IVF cycle irrespective of age. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate per woman randomized. Analyses were on an intention-to-treat basis. We randomly assigned 195 women to the mild ovarian stimulation strategy and 199 women to the conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. Ongoing pregnancy rate was 12.8% (25/195) for mild

  8. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  9. Spontaneous Vesicle Recycling in the Synaptic Bouton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eTruckenbrodt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca2+, which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca2+ levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca2+ sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca2+. The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs responding to Ca2+ fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  10. Pregnancy following laparoscopic ovarian drilling for clomiphene resistant polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Mbamara, S U; Okeke, C A F

    2010-06-01

    We present a case of a 29 year old nulliparous woman with clomiphene resistance polycystic ovarian syndrome. She had a successful laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in a private fertility centre in Nnewi Southeast Nigeria. She achieved a pregnancy four months later following clomiphene citrate ovulation induction. The pregnancy was complicated with 1st trimester threatened abortion, pre-term PROM and later pre-term labour at 34 weeks gestation with breech presentation. She had a successful caesarean delivery of a 1.75 kg life female baby that was nursed in the incubator for 2 weeks before discharge. This is the first reported successful LOD in Southeast Nigeria with good pregnancy outcome.

  11. Follicular fluid placental growth factor is increased in polycystic ovarian syndrome: correlation with ovarian stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Reshef; Seifer, David B; Grazi, Richard V; Malter, Henry E

    2014-08-20

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by increased ovarian angiogenesis and vascularity. Accumulating evidence indicates that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is increased in PCOS and may play an important role in these vascular changes and the pathogenesis of this disease. Placental growth factor (PlGF), a VEGF family member, has not been previously characterized in PCOS women. We investigated levels and temporal expression patterns of PlGF and its soluble receptor sFlt-1 (soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase) in serum and follicular fluid (FF) of women with PCOS during controlled ovarian stimulation. This was a prospective cohort study of 14 PCOS women (Rotterdam criteria) and 14 matched controls undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. Serum was collected on day 3, day of hCG and day of oocyte retrieval. FF was collected on retrieval day. PlGF, sFlt-1 and anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) protein concentrations were measured using ELISA. Since sFlt-1 binds free PlGF, preventing its signal transduction, we calculated PlGF bioavailability as PlGF/sFlt-1 ratio. Serum PlGF and sFlt-1 levels were constant throughout controlled ovarian stimulation, and no significant differences were observed in either factor in PCOS women compared with non-PCOS controls at all three measured time points. However, FF PlGF levels were increased 1.5-fold in PCOS women compared with controls (p ovarian reserve marker anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and negatively with age. In addition, FF sFlt-1 levels were decreased 1.4-fold in PCOS women compared to controls (p = 0.04). PlGF bioavailability in FF was significantly greater (2-fold) in PCOS women compared with non-PCOS controls (p ovarian stimulation and that its bioavailability is increased in women with PCOS undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation. This suggests that PlGF may play a role in PCOS pathogenesis and its angiogenic dysregulation.

  12. Plasma and ovarian tissue sphingolipids profiling in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paweł; Bodnar, Lubomir; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Świderska, Magdalena; Chabowski, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    The role of lipids in carcinogenesis through induction of abnormal cell lines in the human body is currently undisputable. Based on the literature, bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and are involved in the metastatic process. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of selected sphingolipids in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC, FIGO III/IV, high grade ovarian cancer). Seventy-four patients with ovarian cancer were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer and C18-Cer were assessed by LC/MS/MS. The content of tissue sphingolipids was measured using a UHPLC/MS/MS. Plasma concentration of 3 ceramides: C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer and C18-Cer was significantly elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer compared to control group (P=0.031; 0.022; 0.020; respectively). There were increases in concentration of 5 ceramides: C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer, C18-Cer, C24:1-Cer, C24-Cer (P=0.025; 0.049; 0.032; 0.005; 0.013, respectively) and S1P (P=0.004) in ovarian tissue of women with advanced ovarian cancer compared to healthy individuals. Importantly, significantly higher risk of ovarian cancer when the plasma concentration of C16-Cer>311.88ng/100μl (AUC: 0.76, P=0.0261); C18:1-Cer>4.75ng/100μl (AUC: 0.77, P=0.0160) and C18-Cer>100.76ng/100μl (AUC:0.77, P=0.0136) was noticed. Bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and they also take part in the process of metastasizing. This study suggests that some sphingolipids can be used as potential biomarkers of advanced ovarian cancer and that they can play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of Ovarian Tumor β2-Adrenergic Receptor Status with Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors and Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianyi; Tworoger, Shelley S; Hecht, Jonathan L; Rice, Megan S; Sood, Anil K; Kubzansky, Laura D; Poole, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    The β 2 -adrenergic signaling pathway mediates the effects of chronic stress on ovarian cancer progression in mouse models. The relevance of this pathway to human ovarian cancer remains unknown. We assessed tumor expression of β 2 -adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) using tissue microarrays in 237 ovarian cancer cases from the Nurses' Health Studies (NHS/NHSII). Competing risks Cox regression was used to evaluate whether associations of reproductive, hormonal, and psychosocial factors with ovarian cancer risk differed by ADRB2. We also examined the association between tumor ADRB2 expression and ovarian cancer survival. Forty-five (19%) cases were positive for ADRB2 staining. High levels of anxiety symptoms were positively associated with ADRB2-positive tumors (HR, 2.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.15-5.84) but not with ADRB2-negative tumors (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.81-1.66; P heterogeneity = 0.07). We observed similar results for depression. No associations were observed for job strain, caregiving stress, or widowhood for either positive or negative ADRB2 status. Lifetime ovulatory years were more strongly associated with ADRB2-positive tumors (HR per 5 years, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.15-2.21) compared with ADRB2-negative tumors (HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.96-1.27; P heterogeneity = 0.04). Significant heterogeneity by ADRB2 was also observed for parity (P heterogeneity = 0.01), oral contraceptive use (P heterogeneity = 0.03), and age at menopause (P heterogeneity = 0.04). Tumor expression of ADRB2 was not associated with ovarian cancer mortality (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.69-1.59). Several stress- and ovulation-related factors were differentially associated with ovarian tumors responsive to β 2 -adrenergic signaling. Replication in larger studies is warranted to confirm the role of β 2 -adrenergic signaling in ovarian cancer etiology. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(12); 1587-94. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Anthropometric characteristics and ovarian cancer risk and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Moysich, Kirsten B; Mayor, Paul C; Etter, John L; Cannioto, Rikki A; Ness, Roberta B; Starbuck, Kristen; Edwards, Robert P; Segal, Brahm H; Lele, Sashikant; Odunsi, Kunle; Diergaarde, Brenda; Modugno, Francesmary

    2018-02-01

    Multiple studies have examined the role of anthropometric characteristics in ovarian cancer risk and survival; however, their results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between weight change, height and height change and risk and outcome of ovarian cancer using data from a large population-based case-control study. Data from 699 ovarian cancer cases and 1,802 controls who participated in the HOPE study were included. We used unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, race, number of pregnancies, use of oral contraceptives, and family history of breast or ovarian cancer to examine the associations between self-reported height and weight and height change with ovarian cancer risk. Cox proportional hazards regression models adjusted for age and stage were used to examine the association between the exposure variables and overall and progression-free survival among ovarian cancer cases. We observed an increased risk of ovarian cancer mortality and progression for gaining more than 20 pounds between ages 18-30, HR 1.36; 95% CI 1.05-1.76, and HR 1.31; 95% CI 1.04-1.66, respectively. Losing weight and gaining it back multiple times was inversely associated with both ovarian cancer risk, OR 0.78; 95% CI 0.63-0.97 for 1-4 times and OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.54-0.99 for 5-9 times, and mortality, HR 0.63; 95% CI 0.40-0.99 for 10-14 times. Finally, being taller during adolescence and adulthood was associated with increased risk of mortality. Taller stature and weight gain over lifetime were not related to ovarian cancer risk. Our results suggest that height and weight and their change over time may influence ovarian cancer risk and survival. These findings suggest that biological mechanisms underlying these associations may be hormone driven and may play an important role in relation to ovarian carcinogenesis and tumor progression.

  15. Recovery of ovarian function after postradiation menopause. Do FSH levels have a definitive prognostic value?; Recuperation de fonctionnement ovarien apres menopause radio-induite. L`hormone folliculostimulante (FSH) a-t-elle une valeur pronostique definitive?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Letur-Konirsch, H. [Hopital Necker-Enfants-Malades, 75 - Paris (France); Guis, F. [Hopital Antoine-Beclere, Clamart (France)

    1996-08-01

    Menopause, conventionally defined as the permanent cessation as a result of loss of ovarian follicular activity, is biologically expressed by the collapse of plasma levels and increased plasma levels of the gonadotrophins FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) and LH (luteinizing hormone). At present, estimation of the ovarian follicle reserve is based on endocrine capacity tests of the ovaries, with increased FSH representing the first sign of exocrine ovarian failure. We report the case of one of our amenorrhoeic patients after chemotherapy, total body radiation and allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for acute immuno-blastic leukaemia. This patient was included in an in vitro fertilization with oocyte donation (IVF-OD) programme for iatrogenic premature ovarian failure with increased FSH levels. Instead of high levels of gonadotrophins, this young woman recovered spontaneous follicular developments, benefited from standard IVF with her own oocytes and brought a twin pregnancy to term. This observation shows that a high FSH level is not a definitive prediction of ovarian exocrine capacity. In young women of child-bearing age such as these wanting a child and showing signs of endogenous estrogen impregnation, evaluation of the existence and quality of follicular development is an important factor. (author). 13 refs.

  16. The non-target bi-ovarian branches occlusion in fibroids embolization on resumption of menses and ovarian function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wenbo; Yang Jianyong; Chen Wei; Zhuang Wenquan; Yao Shuzhong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of the non-target bi-ovarian branches occlusion in fibroids embolization on resumption of menses and ovarian function. Methods: The patients with the non-target bi-ovarian branches occlusion in uterine fibroids embolization (UFE) were classified into two groups, one for lipiodol deposited in bi-ovarian areas (Group A) , another for non lipiodol deposited in ovarian areas or in single ovarian area (Group B of non lipiodol deposited in bi-ovarian areas). The statistical difference between the data of group A and group B were assessed with Fisher test. All UFE were performed with the mixture of lipiodol and pingyangmycin. The serum level of Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E2) were measured before UFE and 6 months after UFE. The statistical difference between the data of before and after UFE was assessed with t test. Results: Fifteen patients [age ranged 26-46 years, average (39.00 ± 5.62) years] had been followed up for an average (30.5±6.4) months (range 16-47 months). In 12 of 15, regular menses resumed after an average of (3.0 ±0.3) weeks (range 2-6 weeks). In 3 of 15 (20%), regular menses did not resume. The sexual hormone findings of menopause were found in three cases with amenorrhea after UFE. Amenorrhea was found in three cases with lipiodol deposited in bi-ovarian areas (Group A). Non-amenorrhea was found in the group of non-lipiodol deposited in bi-ovarian areas (Group B). There were significant statistical difference between Group A and Group B (P=0.002 19). Non amenorrhea was found in the patients aged over 45 years old. Three patients were found amenorrhea in the patients aged younger than 45 years old. There were no significant statistical difference between the serum level of FSH, LH and E2 before and 6 months after UFE (P>0.05). Conclusion: The incidence of amenorrhea is very high in the patients with lipiodol deposited in bi-ovarian areas when the bi-ovarian branches of

  17. Ovarian cystic teratoma containing balls of fat. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas, A.; Rebolledo, M.; Escribano, M.; Alejo, J. P.; Morenom, J.

    1998-01-01

    We present the case of a ovarian cystic teratoma characterized predominantly by the mobile balls floating in the intra cystic fluid. Ultrasonography demonstrated their marked echo reflectivity and computed tomography revealed that they had the density of fat. We establish a relationship among the ultrasound, computed tomography and histological findings in this uncommon type of ovarian cystic teratoma. (Author) 6 refs

  18. CT differentiation of solid ovarian tumor and uterine subserosal leiomyoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Rae; Cho, Kyoung Sik [Asan Medical Center, Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sohn, Chul Ho [Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Ji, Eun Kyung [Bombit Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-01

    On the basis of CT findings, to differentiate between solid ovarian tumor and uterine subserosal myoma. In eight surgically proven cases of solid ovarian tumor and in ten uterine subserosal myoma patients, contrast-enhanced CT images were obtained. Two genitourinary radiologists reviewed the findings with regard to degree of enhancement of the mass as compared with enhancement of uterine myometrium, thickening of round ligaments, visualization of normal ovaries, contour of the mass, and the presence of ascites in the pelvic cavity. Six of eight ovarian tumors but only two of ten uterine myomas were less enhanced than normal uterine myometrium (p<0.05). Pelvic ascites were seen in six of eight ovarian tumors, but in only one of ten uterine myomas (P<0.05). Three of 16 ovaries in ovarian tumor patients, but 12 of 20 ovaries in uterine myoma patients, were normal (p<0.05). Six of 16 round ligaments of the uterus in ovarian tumor patients, were thichened but 11 of 20 round ligaments in uterine myoma patients, were thickened (p>0.05). The contour of the mass was lobulated in two of eight ovarian tumor patients, but in five of ten uterine myoma patients (p>0.05). CT findings suggestive of solid ovarian tumor were less contrast enhancement of the mass than of normal uterine myometrium, pelvic ascites, and nonvisualization of normal ovary.

  19. Neovascularisation of the ovary post ligation of ovarian vessels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grossly, all harvested ovaries were insignificantly regressed except the ovary of bitch 1 and 4 which showed significant regression and degeneration. Histopathologically, there were diffused necrosis, dense fibrosis of the ovarian cortex and medulla, degeneration of primary and graafian follicles in the ovarian stroma as well ...

  20. History of thyroid disease and survival of ovarian cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minlikeeva, Albina N; Freudenheim, Jo L; Cannioto, Rikki A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Findings from in vitro studies suggest that increased exposure to thyroid hormones can influence progression of ovarian tumours. However, epidemiologic evidence on this topic is limited. METHODS: We pooled data from 11 studies from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Using mult...

  1. Bilateral ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma in a teenager: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Epithelial ovarian cancers are uncommon among young girls and teenagers compared to germ cell tumors. We report a case of bilateral ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma in a teenage girl with the attendant challenges of diagnosis, management and follow up. HT, 19 year old had presented at a secondary care level with ...

  2. Primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma in an adolescent following radiation for medulloblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.G.; Das Narla, L.; Ferraro, E.

    1998-01-01

    Primary ovarian leiomyosarcomas are rare neoplasms of the ovary, particularly in the pediatric population. Their occurrence following radiation therapy for previous malignancy has important implications. We present a case of primary ovarian leiomyosarcoma in an adolescent following therapy for medulloblastoma. (orig.)

  3. Large twisted ovarian fibroma in menopausal women: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ovarian fibroma is the most common benign solid tumors of the ovary, commonly misdiagnosed as uterine fibromaor as malignant ovarian tumors. It occurs generally in older perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Occasionally large fibromas may undergo torsion causing acute abdominal pain. Doppler ...

  4. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  5. Options for modulation of drug resistance in ovarian cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, HJG; Van der Zee, AGJ; De Jong, S; De Vries, EGE

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an update of mechanisms responsible for drug resistance in ovarian cancer and the possible therapeutic options to modulate this resistance using literature review with emphasis on data acquired in studies comprising ovarian tumor samples. The classic

  6. Ovarian yolk sac tumour in a girl - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Charu; Shah, Hemanshi; Sisodiya Shenoy, Neha; Makhija, Deepa; Waghmare, Mukta

    2017-01-01

    Yolk sac tumours are rare ovarian malignancies accounting for less than 1% of malignant ovarian germ cell tumours. They are mostly seen in adolescents and young women and are usually unilateral making fertility preservation imperative. Raised alpha-feto protein level is the hallmark of this tumour. We describe stage III yolk sac tumour in a girl child.

  7. Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black women, but have decreased in both groups. Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer and/or certain inherited gene ... ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer: Personal history of breast cancer A woman who has had breast cancer has an increased ...

  8. General Information About Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... black women, but have decreased in both groups. Women who have a family history of ovarian cancer and/or certain inherited gene ... ovarian, fallopian tube, and primary peritoneal cancer: Personal history of breast cancer A woman who has had breast cancer has an increased ...

  9. 1 Bizarre presentation of bilateral ovarian leiomyoma: a case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ovarian leiomyoma. Challenges remain in the management of bilateral primary ovarian tumours, especially for young and nulliparous women. Pre-laparotomy diagnostic ... normal external genitalia, vaginal mucosa appeared to be smooth, cervix was healthy and ... Both masses had irregular surface with some cystic areas.

  10. Ovarian capsular drilling in the treatment of clomiphene citrate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Laparoscopic Ovarian Drilling (LOD) is an effective and a well evaluated surgical Treatment of Clomiphene Citrate resistant Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (TVHL) is a relatively new simple method of exploring the pelvis and has recently been introduced as a transvaginal ...

  11. Tubal ligation and risk of ovarian cancer subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieh, Weiva; Salvador, Shannon; McGuire, Valerie

    2013-01-01

    Tubal ligation is a protective factor for ovarian cancer, but it is unknown whether this protection extends to all invasive histological subtypes or borderline tumors. We undertook an international collaborative study to examine the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer subtypes....

  12. Pathways to Genome-targeted Therapies in Serous Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Joshua; Delaney, Joe

    2017-07-01

    Genome sequencing technologies and corresponding oncology publications have generated enormous publicly available datasets for many cancer types. While this has enabled new treatments, and in some limited cases lifetime management of the disease, the treatment options for serous ovarian cancer remain dismal. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of ovarian cancer, with a focus on heterogeneity, functional genomics, and actionable data.

  13. Intestinal Obstruction due to Bilateral Ovarian Cystic Teratoma in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teratoma is the most common ovarian tumour associated with pregnancy. The complications in pregnancy include torsion, rupture and malignant transformation mimicking ovarian carcinoma. Its association with intestinal obstruction is uncommon. Case: A 35 year old gravida 5 para 4 woman with 18 week gestation was ...

  14. Characteristic odour in the blood reveals ovarian carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, György; Andersson, Håkan; Paulsson, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Ovarian carcinoma represents about 4% of all cancers diagnosed in women worldwide. Mortality rate is high, over 50%, mainly due to late diagnosis. Currently there are no acceptable screening techniques available, although ovarian cancer belongs to the group of malignancies for which mortality could be dramatically reduced by early diagnosis. In a recently published study, we clearly demonstrated that human ovarian carcinoma tissues can be characterized by a specific odour, detectable by a trained dog. Another recent study confirmed these results using an electronic nose. In the present work, we examined whether the cancer-specific odour can also be found in the blood. Two specially trained dogs were used. Both ovarian cancer tissues and blood from patients with ovarian carcinoma were tested. The tissue tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 95%, while the blood tests showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 98%. The present study strongly suggests that the characteristic odour emitted by ovarian cancer samples is also present in blood (plasma) taken from patients with the disease. This finding opens possibilities for future screening of healthy populations for early diagnosis of ovarian carcinoma. A future challenge is to develop a sensitive electronic nose for screening of ovarian carcinoma by testing the blood/plasma to detect the disease at a stage early enough for treatment to be effective

  15. Spontaneous transformation of murine oviductal epithelial cells: A model system to investigate the onset of fallopian-derived tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIchael P. Endsley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available High-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC is the most lethal ovarian cancer histotype. The fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells (FTSECs are a proposed progenitor cell type. Genetically altered FTSECs form tumors in mice; however, a spontaneous HGSC model has not been described. Apart from a subpopulation of genetically predisposed women, most women develop ovarian cancer spontaneously, which is associated with aging and lifetime ovulations. A murine oviductal cell line (MOELOW was developed and continuously passaged in culture to mimic cellular aging (MOEHIGH. The MOEHIGH cellular model exhibited a loss of acetylated tubulin consistent with an outgrowth of secretory epithelial cells in culture. MOEHIGH cells proliferated significantly faster than MOELOW, and the MOEHIGH cells produced more 2D foci and 3D soft agar colonies as compared to MOELOW. MOEHIGH were xenografted into athymic female nude mice both in the subcutaneous and the intraperiteonal compartments. Only the subcutaneous grafts formed tumors that were negative for cytokeratin, but positive for oviductal markers such as oviductal glycoprotein 1 and Pax8. These tumors were considered to be poorly differentiated carcinoma. The differential molecular profiles between MOEHIGH and MOELOW were determined using RNA-Seq and confirmed by protein expression to uncover pathways important in transformation, like the p53 pathway, the FOXM1 pathway, WNT signaling, and splicing. MOEHIGH had enhanced protein expression of c-myc, Cyclin E, p53 and FOXM1 with reduced expression of p21. MOEHIGH were also less sensitive to cisplatin and DMBA, which induce lesions typically repaired by base-excision repair. A model of spontaneous tumorogenesis was generated starting with normal oviductal cells. Their transition to cancer involved alterations in pathways associated with high-grade serous cancer in humans.

  16. The role of mTOR in ovarian cancer, polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin; Wu, Dai-Chao; Qu, Li-Hua; Liao, Hong-Qing; Li, Mei-Xiang

    2018-05-12

    The mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, is a serine-threonine protein kinase downstream of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT axis. The pathway can regulate cell growth, proliferation, and survival by activating ribosomal kinases. Recent studies have implicated the mTOR signaling pathway in ovarian neoplasms, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and premature ovarian failure (POF). Preclinical investigations have demonstrated that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is frequently activated in the control of various ovarian functions. mTOR allows cancer cells to escape the normal biochemical system and regulates the balance between apoptosis and survival. Some recent studies have suggested that involvement of the mTOR signaling system is an important pathophysiological basis of PCOS. Overexpression of the mTOR pathway can impair the interaction of cumulus cells, lead to insulin resistance, and affect the growth of follicles directly. The roles of mTOR signaling in follicular development have been extensively studied in recent years; abnormalities in this process lead to a series of pathologies such as POF and infertility. To improve understanding of the role of the mTOR signaling pathway in the pathogenesis and development of ovarian diseases, here we review the roles of mTOR signaling in such diseases and discuss the corresponding therapeutic strategies that target this pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy of endometriomas does not affect the ovarian response to gonadotropin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Guillermo; Vilela, Martín; Quintana, Ramiro; Sueldo, Carlos

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate the ovarian response cycles of IVF-ET in patients who previously underwent laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas. Retrospective study with prospective selection of participants and controls. Instituto de Ginecología y Fertilidad Buenos Aires, Argentina. Thirty-nine patients underwent an operation for ovarian endometriomas by atraumatic removal of the pseudocapsule with minimal bipolar cauterization of small bleeders and an IVF-ET cycle (group A) and 39 control patients of similar age underwent an IVF-ET cycle for tubal factor infertility (group B). Laparoscopic endometrioma cystectomy, IVF-ET cycle. E(2) levels, number of gonadotropin ampoules, follicles, oocytes retrieved, number and quality of embryos transferred, and clinical pregnancy rate. There were no differences in all the parameters studied (E(2) levels, number of follicles, oocytes retrieved, number and quality of embryos transferred, and clinical pregnancy rate) except for the number of gonadotropin ampoules needed for ovarian hyperstimulation, which was significantly higher in group A than in group B. Our results indicate that laparoscopic cystectomy for endometriomas is an appropriate treatment since it did not negatively affect the ovarian response for IVF-ET.

  18. Retaining Residual Ovarian Tissue following Ovarian Failure Has Limited Influence on Bone Loss in Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelieann R. Craig

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work showed that retaining residual ovarian tissue protects young mice from accelerated bone loss following ovarian failure. The present study was designed to determine whether this protection is also present in aged animals. Aged (9–12 months C57BL/6Hsd female mice were divided into: CON (vehicle, VCD (160 mg/kg; 15d, or OVX (ovariectomized. Lumbar BMD was monitored by DXA and μCT used to assess vertebral microarchitecture. BMD was not different between VCD and CON at any time point but was lower (P<.05 than baseline, starting 1 month after ovarian failure in VCD and OVX mice. Following μCT analysis there were no differences between CON and VCD, but OVX mice had lower bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and a trend for decreased connectivity density. These findings provide evidence that retention of residual ovarian tissue may protect aged follicle-depleted mice from accelerated bone loss to a lesser extent than that observed in young mice.

  19. Monophasic teratoma of the ovarian remnant in a bitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, A; Tursi, M; Zabarino, S; Appino, S

    2013-04-01

    An exploratory laparotomy on a mixed-breed bitch of an estimated age of 5 years revealed that she had undergone ovariectomy in the past, but a cystic structure was present in the area of the right ovary and a whitish mass, approximately 3 cm in diameter, in the area of the left ovary. These structures were removed together with an apparently normal uterus. Histological examination of the cyst showed a thin layer of connective tissue, while the left ovarian mass revealed ovarian tissue and highly differentiated nervous tissue, confirmed through immunohistochemistry. A presumptive diagnosis of mature ovarian teratoma was made. Although teratomas generally contain recognizable elements from more than one of the three germ cell layers, they can also be monophasic, when there is only one germ layer component. Ovarian teratomas are rare in the dog and never before have been reported in an ovarian fragment. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Polycystic ovary syndrome, oligomenorrhea, and risk of ovarian cancer histotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Holly R; Babic, Ana; Webb, Penelope M

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and one if its distinguishing characteristics, oligomenorrhea, have both been associated with ovarian cancer risk in some but not all studies. However, these associations have been rarely been examined by ovarian cancer histotypes which may explain...... the lack of clear associations reported in previous studies. METHODS: We analyzed data from 14 case-control studies including 16,594 women with invasive ovarian cancer (n=13,719) or borderline ovarian disease (n=2,875) and 17,718 controls. Adjusted study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using...... logistic regression and combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Pooled histotype-specific ORs were calculated using polytomous logistic regression. RESULTS: Women reporting menstrual cycle length >35 days had decreased risk of invasive ovarian cancer compared to women reporting cycle length

  1. Profound nephrotic syndrome in a patient with ovarian teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Jeroudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The nephrotic syndrome (NS has been associated with a variety of malignancies in a number of reports in the literature, but has been reported in only nine cases associated with ovarian neoplasms. Membranous nephropathy is the most common glomerular pathology causing the NS in patients with solid tumors. There has been only one report of an ovarian neoplasm associated with minimal change disease (MCD. We describe the case of a 36-year-old woman who presented with the NS secondary to biopsy-proven MCD, likely secondary to mature ovarian teratoma. Treatment by tumor removal and prednisone led to remission of the NS. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an ovarian teratoma and the second report of an ovarian neoplasm associated with MCD.

  2. Successful ovarian autotransplant with no vascular reanastomosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Flávio S V; de Oliveira, Rodrigo M; Alves, Felipe M T; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2008-12-15

    Preservation of ovarian functions in woman with premature ovarian failure remains an issue in reproductive medicine. Hormone replacement therapy for maintaining endocrine functions, and cryopreservation of embryos or oocytes for those who wish pregnancy, are some of the choices. However, ovarian transplantation is a more physiological alternative, although problems related to ovarian ischemia have been reported. Herein, we investigated the viability of autologous transplantation of the ovarian tissue into the rat peritoneum, without vascular reanastomosis. Twenty animals in the study group had both ovaries excised, and each ovary was dissected into two halves. A half of an ovary was autotransplanted to the peritoneal surface, closely located to the left epigastric vessels. This simple procedure does not require surgical vascular reanastomosis while it maintains appropriate follicular growth and therefore should be further considered as an alternative for women undergoing oophorectomy, not only to maintain endocrine functions but also for fertility preservation.

  3. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  4. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  5. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  6. Impact of laparoscopic ovarian drilling on serum anti-mullerian hormone levels in patients with anovulatory Polycystic Ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramu, Sobhana

    2016-12-01

    Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) is a marker of the activity of recruitable ovarian follicles. It is useful in the prediction of ovarian reserve. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) have elevated circulating and intrafollicular AMH levels. Laparoscopic ovarian drilling (LOD) in patients with PCOS destroys ovarian androgen-producing tissue and reduces their peripheral conversion to estrogens. Identifying factors that determine the response of patients with PCOS to LOD will help in selecting the patients who would likely benefit from this treatment. AMH is one such marker that can predict the response to LOD. To evaluate the effect of LOD on serum AMH levels among PCOS responders and non-responders and the usefulness of AMH as a tool in predicting the response to LOD, and to whether there was loss of ovarian function after LOD. This is a prospective cohort study including 30 clomiphene-resistant women with anovulatory PCOS undergoing LOD. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of LOD on serum levels of AMH on these women. A significant fall in the levels of AMH was observed after LOD in both responders and non-responders (p8.3 ng/mL showed a significantly lower ovulation rate (33.3%). LOD was not associated with a risk of diminished ovarian reserve. LOD is an effective first-line treatment for women with PCOS who are clomiphene resistant. LOD has no negative effect on ovarian reserve. AMH is a useful marker in predicting the outcome of LOD.

  7. Risk of borderline and invasive ovarian tumours after ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization in a large Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.E. van Leeuwen; H. Klip; T.M. Mooij (Thea); A.M.G. van de Swaluw; C.B. Lambalk (Cornelius); M. Kortman; J.S.E. Laven (Joop); C.A.M. Jansen; F.M. Helmerhorst; B.J. Cohlen; W.N.P. Willemsen (Wim); J.M.J. Smeenk; A.H.M. Simons; F. van der Veen; J.L.H. Evers (Johannes); P.A. van Dop; N.S. Macklon (Nick); C.W. Burger (Curt)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Long-term effects of ovarian stimulation for IVF on the risk of ovarian malignancies are unknown.Methods: We identified a nationwide historic cohort of 19 146 women who received IVF treatment in the Netherlands between 1983 and 1995, and a comparison group of 6006 subfertile

  8. Risk of borderline and invasive ovarian tumours after ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization in a large Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, F. E.; Klip, H.; Mooij, T. M.; de Swaluw, A. M. G. van; Lambalk, C. B.; Kortman, M.; Laven, J. S. E.; Jansen, C. A. M.; Helmerhorst, F. M.; Cohlen, B. J.; Willemsen, W. N. P.; Smeenk, J. M. J.; Simons, A. H. M.; van der Veen, F.; Evers, J. L. H.; van Dop, P. A.; Macklon, N. S.; Burger, C. W.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of ovarian stimulation for IVF on the risk of ovarian malignancies are unknown. METHODS: We identified a nationwide historic cohort of 19 146 women who received IVF treatment in the Netherlands between 1983 and 1995, and a comparison group of 6006 subfertile women not

  9. Nedd4L expression is decreased in ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to ovarian non-cancer tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiuyun; Zhao, Jinghe; Cui, Manhua; Gi, Shuting; Wang, Wei; Han, Xiaole

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 4-like (Nedd4L) gene plays a role in the progression of various cancers. However, reports describing Nedd4L expression in ovarian cancer tissues are limited. A cohort (n = 117) of archival formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded resected normal ovarian epithelial tissues (n = 10), benign ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 10), serous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 14), mucous borderline ovarian epithelial tumor tissues (n = 11), and invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues (n = 72) were assessed for Nedd4L protein expression using immunohistochemistry. Nedd4L protein expression was significantly decreased in invasive ovarian epithelial cancer tissues compared to non-cancer tissues (P < 0.05). Decreased Nedd4L protein expression correlated with clinical stage, pathological grade, lymph node metastasis and survival (P < 0.05). Nedd4L protein expression may be an independent prognostic marker of ovarian cancer development. © 2015 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  10. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramus, Susan J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers ...

  11. Ovarian cancer susceptibility alleles and risk of ovarian cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramus, Susan J.; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Soucy, Penny; Beesley, Jonathan; Chen, Xiaoqing; McGuffog, Lesley; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Healey, Sue; Barrowdale, Daniel; Lee, Andrew; Thomassen, Mads; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Kruse, Torben A.; Jensen, Uffe Birk; Skytte, Anne-Bine; Caligo, Maria A.; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Olsson, Håkan; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Stenmark-Askmalm, Marie; Melin, Beatrice; Domchek, Susan M.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Rebbeck, Timothy R.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Złowocka, Elżbieta; Gronwald, Jacek; Huzarski, Tomasz; Byrski, Tomasz; Cybulski, Cezary; Toloczko-Grabarek, Aleksandra; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, Javier; Duran, Mercedes; Tejada, Maria-Isabel; Hamann, Ute; Rookus, Matti; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Aalfs, Cora M.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne E. J.; van Asperen, Christi J.; van Roozendaal, K. E. P.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Collée, J. Margriet; Kriege, Mieke; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Peock, Susan; Frost, Debra; Ellis, Steve D.; Platte, Radka; Fineberg, Elena; Evans, D. Gareth; Lalloo, Fiona; Jacobs, Chris; Eeles, Ros; Adlard, Julian; Davidson, Rosemarie; Eccles, Diana; Cole, Trevor; Cook, Jackie; Paterson, Joan; Douglas, Fiona; Brewer, Carole; Hodgson, Shirley; Morrison, Patrick J.; Walker, Lisa; Porteous, Mary E.; Kennedy, M. John; Pathak, Harsh; Godwin, Andrew K.; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Caux-Moncoutier, Virginie; de Pauw, Antoine; Gauthier-Villars, Marion; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Léoné, Mélanie; Calender, Alain; Lasset, Christine; Bonadona, Valérie; Hardouin, Agnès; Berthet, Pascaline; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Uhrhammer, Nancy; Faivre, Laurence; Loustalot, Catherine; Buys, Saundra; Daly, Mary; Miron, Alex; Terry, Mary Beth; Chung, Wendy K.; John, Esther M.; Southey, Melissa; Goldgar, David; Singer, Christian F.; tea, Muy-Kheng; Pfeiler, Georg; Fink-Retter, Anneliese; Hansen, Thomas v O.; Ejlertsen, Bent; Johannsson, Oskar Th; Offit, Kenneth; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Gaudet, Mia M.; Vijai, Joseph; Robson, Mark; Piedmonte, Marion; Phillips, Kelly-Anne; van Le, Linda; Hoffman, James S.; Ewart Toland, Amanda; Montagna, Marco; Tognazzo, Silvia; Imyanitov, Evgeny; Issacs, Claudine; Janavicius, Ramunas; Lazaro, Conxi; Blanco, Iganacio; Tornero, Eva; Navarro, Matilde; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Karlan, Beth Y.; Gross, Jenny; Olah, Edith; Vaszko, Tibor; teo, Soo-Hwang; Ganz, Patricia A.; Beattie, Mary S.; Dorfling, Cecelia M.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Diez, Orland; Kwong, Ava; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Wappenschmidt, Barbara; Engel, Christoph; Meindl, Alfons; Ditsch, Nina; Arnold, Norbert; Heidemann, Simone; Niederacher, Dieter; Preisler-Adams, Sabine; Gadzicki, Dorotehea; Varon-Mateeva, Raymonda; Deissler, Helmut; Gehrig, Andrea; Sutter, Christian; Kast, Karin; Fiebig, Britta; Schäfer, Dieter; Caldes, Trinidad; de la Hoya, Miguel; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Plante, Marie; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Ding, Yuan Chun; Wang, Xianshu; Lindor, Noralane; Fredericksen, Zachary; Pankratz, V. Shane; Peterlongo, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Zaffaroni, Daniela; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Dolcetti, Riccardo; Papi, Laura; Ottini, Laura; Radice, Paolo; Greene, Mark H.; Mai, Phuong L.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Glendon, Gord; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Gayther, Simon A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Couch, Fergus J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Gregory, Helen; Morrison, Patrick; Jeffers, Lisa; Ong, Kai-Ren; Hoffman, Jonathan; Donaldson, Alan; James, Margaret; Downing, Sarah; Taylor, Amy; Murray, Alexandra; Rogers, Mark T.; McCann, Emma; Barton, David; Porteous, Mary; Drummond, Sarah; Kivuva, Emma; Searle, Anne; Goodman, Selina; Hill, Kathryn; Murday, Victoria; Bradshaw, Nicola; Snadden, Lesley; Longmuir, Mark; Watt, Catherine; Gibson, Sarah; Haque, Eshika; Tobias, Ed; Duncan, Alexis; Izatt, Louise; Langman, Caroline; Whaite, Anna; Dorkins, Huw; Barwell, Julian; Serra-Feliu, Gemma; Ellis, Ian; Houghton, Catherine; Taylor, Jane; Side, Lucy; Male, Alison; Berlin, Cheryl; Eason, Jacqueline; Collier, Rebecca; Claber, Oonagh; Jobson, Irene; McLeod, Diane; Halliday, Dorothy; Durell, Sarah; Stayner, Barbara; Shanley, Susan; Rahman, Nazneen; Houlston, Richard; Bancroft, Elizabeth; D'Mello, Lucia; Page, Elizabeth; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Kohut, Kelly; Wiggins, Jennifer; Castro, Elena; Mitra, Anita; Robertson, Lisa; Quarrell, Oliver; Bardsley, Cathryn; Goff, Sheila; Brice, Glen; Winchester, Lizzie; Eddy, Charlotte; Tripathi, Vishakha; Attard, Virginia; Lucassen, Anneke; Crawford, Gillian; McBride, Donna; Smalley, Sarah; Sinilnikova, Olga; Barjhoux, Laure; Verny-Pierre, Carole; Giraud, Sophie; Léone, Mélanie; Buecher, Bruno; Houdayer, Claude; Moncoutier, Virginie; Belotti, Muriel; Tirapo, Carole; Bressac-de-Paillerets, Brigitte; Remenieras, Audrey; Byrede, Véronique; Caron, Olivier; Lenoir, Gilbert; Urhammer, Nancy; Sobol, Hagay; Bourdon, Violaine; Noguchi, Tetsuro; Eisinger, François; Coulet, Florence; Colas, Chrystelle; Soubrier, Florent; Coupier, Isabelle; Pujol, Pascal; Peyrat, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Joëlle; Révilliion, Françoise; Vennin, Philippe; Adenis, Claude; Rouleau, Etienne; Lidereau, Rosette; Demange, Liliane; Nogues, Catherine; Muller, Danièle; Fricker, Jean-Pierre; Barouk-Simonet, Emmanuelle; Bonnet, Françoise; Bubien, Virginie; Sevenet, Nicolas; Longy, Michel; Toulas, Christine; Guimbaud, Rosine; Gladieff, Laurence; Feillel, Viviane; Leroux, Dominique; Dreyfus, Hélène; Rebischung, Christine; Peysselon, Megalie; Coron, Fanny; Prieur, Fabienne; Lebrun, Marine; Kientz, Caroline; Frénay, Marc; Vénat-Bouvet, Laurence; Delnatte, Capucine; Mortemousque, Isabelle; Lynch, Henry T.; Snyder, Carrie L.; Hogervorst, F. B. L.; Verhoef, S.; Verheus, M.; van't Veer, L. J.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Collée, M.; van den Ouweland, A. M. W.; Jager, A.; Hooning, M. J.; Tilanus-Linthorst, M. M. A.; Seynaeve, C.; van Asperen, C. J.; Wijnen, J. T.; Vreeswijk, M. P.; Tollenaar, R. A.; Devilee, P.; Ligtenberg, M. J.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Ausems, M. G.; van der Luijt, R. B.; van Os, T. A.; Gille, J. J. P.; Waisfisz, Q.; Gomez-Garcia, E. B.; van Roozendaal, C. E.; Blok, Marinus J.; Caanen, B.; Oosterwijk, J. C.; van der Hout, A. H.; Mourits, M. J.; Vasen, H. F.; Thorne, Heather; Niedermayr, Eveline; Gill, Mona; Collins, Lucine; Gokgoz, Nalan; Selander, Teresa; Weerasooriya, Nayana; Karlsson, Per; Nordlilng, Margareta; Bergman, Annika; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Liedgren, Sigrun; Borg, Åke; Loman, Niklas; Soller, Maria; Jernström, Helena; Harbst, Katja; Henriksson, Karin; Arver, Brita; von Wachenfeldt, Anna; Barbany-Bustinza, Gisela; Rantala, Johanna; Grönberg, Henrik; Stattin, Eva-Lena; Emanuelsson, Monica; Ehrencrona, Hans; Rosenquist, Richard; Dahl, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    Germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 are associated with increased risks of breast and ovarian cancer. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified six alleles associated with risk of ovarian cancer for women in the general population. We evaluated four of these loci as potential modifiers of

  12. Ovarian failure due to cancer treatment and fertility preservation options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Aminimoghaddam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI, commonly referred to premature ovarian failure, is defined as ovarian failure before the age of 40 years. It is the loss of ovarian function caused by a process directly affecting ovaries. Cancer therapy which includes surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy influence ovarian function, leading to premature menopause and loss of fertility. POI is idiopathic in most cases (74-90%. The known causes, in addition to anticancer treatment, are other processes like chromosomal abnormalities, autoimmunity, and natural aging can result in secondary ovarian failure, which is detected by an increase in serum gonadotropin levels (FSH and LH. There are evident risks of POI in women treated for cancer. Those who receive anticancer treatments have an increased risk of developing POI. There by, anticancer drugs and radiation therapy are considered as the most common toxins of ovaries. Although cancer incidence rates in women less than 50 years old continue to increase during recent years, mortality rates are dramatically decreasing due to modern advances in treatment. Increasing numbers of survivors are now confronted with the long-term consequences of exposure to these treatments. The pool of primordial follicles in the ovary is fixed and any injury to the ovary can potentially reduce this ovarian reserve, effectively advancing the patient’s reproductive age, thus narrowing the window of reproductive opportunity. Ovarian failure occurs in a significant percentage of childhood cancer survivors and many of them will seek care for reproductive dysfunction. Nevertheless, Embryo cryopreservation, oocyte cryopreservation, ovary tissue cryopreservation, ovarian suppression and oophoro-pexy are some options to preserve fertility in these groups. As a result, having foreknowledge of potential treatment related ovarian failure will allow the physician to give a better counsel to patients and their family regarding the importance and

  13. Dexrazoxane Diminishes Doxorubicin-Induced Acute Ovarian Damage and Preserves Ovarian Function and Fecundity in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenna Kropp

    Full Text Available Advances in cancer treatment utilizing multiple chemotherapies have dramatically increased cancer survivorship. Female cancer survivors treated with doxorubicin (DXR chemotherapy often suffer from an acute impairment of ovarian function, which can persist as long-term, permanent ovarian insufficiency. Dexrazoxane (Dexra pretreatment reduces DXR-induced insult in the heart, and protects in vitro cultured murine and non-human primate ovaries, demonstrating a drug-based shield to prevent DXR insult. The present study tested the ability of Dexra pretreatment to mitigate acute DXR chemotherapy ovarian toxicity in mice through the first 24 hours post-treatment, and improve subsequent long-term fertility throughout the reproductive lifespan. Adolescent CD-1 mice were treated with Dexra 1 hour prior to DXR treatment in a 1:1 mg or 10:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio. During the acute injury period (2-24 hours post-injection, Dexra pretreatment at a 1:1 mg ratio decreased the extent of double strand DNA breaks, diminished γH2FAX activation, and reduced subsequent follicular cellular demise caused by DXR. In fertility and fecundity studies, dams pretreated with either Dexra:DXR dose ratio exhibited litter sizes larger than DXR-treated dams, and mice treated with a 1:1 mg Dexra:DXR ratio delivered pups with birth weights greater than DXR-treated females. While DXR significantly increased the "infertility index" (quantifying the percentage of dams failing to achieve pregnancy through 6 gestations following treatment, Dexra pretreatment significantly reduced the infertility index following DXR treatment, improving fecundity. Low dose Dexra not only protected the ovaries, but also bestowed a considerable survival advantage following exposure to DXR chemotherapy. Mouse survivorship increased from 25% post-DXR treatment to over 80% with Dexra pretreatment. These data demonstrate that Dexra provides acute ovarian protection from DXR toxicity, improving reproductive health

  14. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors by Histologic Subtype: An Analysis From the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Poole, Elizabeth M; Trabert, Britton; White, Emily; Arslan, Alan A; Patel, Alpa V; Setiawan, V Wendy; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov; Black, Amanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A; Buring, Julie; Butler, Lesley M; Chamosa, Saioa; Clendenen, Tess V; Dossus, Laure; Fortner, Renee; Gapstur, Susan M; Gaudet, Mia M; Gram, Inger T; Hartge, Patricia; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Idahl, Annika; Jones, Michael; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kirsh, Victoria; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lacey, James V; Lee, I-Min; Lundin, Eva; Merritt, Melissa A; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Peters, Ulrike; Poynter, Jenny N; Rinaldi, Sabina; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas; Sandler, Dale P; Schairer, Catherine; Schouten, Leo J; Sjöholm, Louise K; Sieri, Sabina; Swerdlow, Anthony; Tjonneland, Anna; Travis, Ruth; Trichopoulou, Antonia; van den Brandt, Piet A; Wilkens, Lynne; Wolk, Alicja; Yang, Hannah P; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S

    2016-08-20

    An understanding of the etiologic heterogeneity of ovarian cancer is important for improving prevention, early detection, and therapeutic approaches. We evaluated 14 hormonal, reproductive, and lifestyle factors by histologic subtype in the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium (OC3). Among 1.3 million women from 21 studies, 5,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified (3,378 serous, 606 endometrioid, 331 mucinous, 269 clear cell, 1,000 other). By using competing-risks Cox proportional hazards regression stratified by study and birth year and adjusted for age, parity, and oral contraceptive use, we assessed associations for all invasive cancers by histology. Heterogeneity was evaluated by likelihood ratio test. Most risk factors exhibited significant heterogeneity by histology. Higher parity was most strongly associated with endometrioid (relative risk [RR] per birth, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.83) and clear cell (RR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.76) carcinomas (P value for heterogeneity [P-het] < .001). Similarly, age at menopause, endometriosis, and tubal ligation were only associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumors (P-het ≤ .01). Family history of breast cancer (P-het = .008) had modest heterogeneity. Smoking was associated with an increased risk of mucinous (RR per 20 pack-years, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.46) but a decreased risk of clear cell (RR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.94) tumors (P-het = .004). Unsupervised clustering by risk factors separated endometrioid, clear cell, and low-grade serous carcinomas from high-grade serous and mucinous carcinomas. The heterogeneous associations of risk factors with ovarian cancer subtypes emphasize the importance of conducting etiologic studies by ovarian cancer subtypes. Most established risk factors were more strongly associated with nonserous carcinomas, which demonstrate challenges for risk prediction of serous cancers, the most fatal subtype. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Computed tomographic findings of ovarian tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Kwi Ryeon; Lee, Ki Man; Woo, Seong Ku; Suh, Soo Jhi [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Duk Sik [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-08-15

    The diagnosis of ovarian tumor has been mainly dependent on manual pelvic examination and ultrasonography. But in case of malignant ovarian tumor, CT has more advantages over ultrasonography in assessing anatomic details, relationships to bowel loops, precise extents of tumors and follow-up examinations after surgery. Authors analyzed CT features of 46 cases of pathologically proven ovarian tumors for recent 4 years at Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. The most common tumor was serous cyst adenocarcinoma (9 cases: 20%), followed by metastases (8 cases: 17%), mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma (7 cases: 15%), mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma (5 cases: 11%), teratoma (5 cases: 11%), lymphoma (3 cases: 7%) and dysgerminoma (2 cases: 4%). 2. The ovarian tumors were variable in size from 2.5 cm to 33 cm in diameter. Most of the solid tumors were smaller than 10 cm in diameter and most of the cystic tumors were larger than 10 cm in diameter. Usually mucinous tumors were much larger than serous tumors. Mucinous cyst adenomas were the largest tumors. 3. Unilateral tumors (left 19, right 13 cases) were more common than bilateral tumors (12 cases). Bilateral tumors were seen in serous and mucinous cyst adenocarcinoma, metastases and lymphoma. 4. CT features of mucinous cyst adenomas were smooth margins and thin wall of the tumor masses and multifaceted cysts with internal septa in all 7 cases. 5. In contrast, CT demonstration of bilaterally, irregular margin, thick wall, enhancing solid lesion, septal irregularity, adhesion to adjacent structures, peritoneal/omental implantation, ascites and hydronephrosis were signs suggesting malignancy. CT features of the serous cyst adenocarcinoma were mostly solid to mixed nature (83%), irregular margin (75%), enhancing solid lesion (67%), papillary growth (75%), internal septa (58%), multilocularity (58%) and calcification (25%) in descending order of frequency. 6. On CT, mucinous cystadenocarcinoma were

  16. Evaluation of ultrasonographic and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH changes as predictors for ovarian reserve after laparoscopic ovarian drilling for women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Seyam

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: AMH and AFC are reliable markers for assessment of the ovarian reserve and measuring them for women with anovulatory PCOS undergoing LOD may provide a useful tool in evaluating the outcome of LOD.

  17. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  18. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  19. Ovarian Spigelian hernia: A radiological diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Ciaran Scott; Chahil, Balvinder; Marlow, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    We describe that case of a 54 year old lady with achondroplasia who presented with ongoing left sided abdominal pain. Ultrasound and abdominal computerized tomography images demonstrated an enlarged left ovary and Fallopian tube trapped between the rectus abdominus and the lateral semilunar line under cover of the external oblique aponeurosis. A left sided salpingoophrectomy with mesh herniorrhaphy was performed and histological analysis confirmed the hernia contents were a hydrosalpinx and normal ovary. This case report presents the unusual radiographic images and intraoperative photographs of an ovarian Speglian hernia.

  20. [Ovarian carcinoma: new prognostic and therapeutic viewpoints].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsch, A; Joss, R; Greiner, R; Brunner, K W

    1980-11-01

    Some recently developed concepts concerning the management of ovarian cancer are discussed. Cytoreductive surgery to debulk the tumor to a minimum, even in those cases which were considered inoperable in the past, improves the chances for cure. Adjuvant radiotherapy or combination chemotherapy with new drugs have proved highly effective in inducing complete remission and potential cures in these patients. The definition and better understanding of prognostic criteria play a primary role in the selection of treatment. In designing the strategy for adequate treatment, the following points are of major importance: (1) exact definition of tumor spread as determined by accurate surgical staging; (2) histologic and cytologic grading; and (3) evaluation of response.

  1. The immunobiology and immunotherapy of ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bookman, M.A.; Bast, R.C. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Small volume residual peritoneal disease in patients undergoing therapy for ovarian carcinoma remains an attractive, but elusive, target for immunobiological therapy. Hypothetical advantages and disadvantages of regional peritoneal therapy are being better defined through increased clinical experience and more sophisticated animal models. Developments in cytokine biology, adoptive cellular therapy, monoclonal antibody conjugation, and molecular biology continue to provide an exciting, and nearly overwhelming, array of reagents for clinical evaluation. Ongoing and anticipated investigational trials should provide intriguing data in years to follow.198 references

  2. An ovarian teratoma of late Roman age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentano, Núria; Subirana, Mercè; Isidro, Albert; Escala, Oscar; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2012-12-01

    We report here a very unusual pelvic calcification recovered from the remains of a 30-40-year-old woman found at the late Roman period archeological site of La Fogonussa (Lleida, Catalonia). Although differential diagnoses for calcifications of the pelvis are complicated in archeological contexts, the precise localization, macroscopic features, and the presence of teeth along with part of a small bone led us to identify this case as an ovarian teratoma, based upon gross observations and computerized tomography (CT). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Systematic evaluation of candidate blood markers for detecting ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chana Palmer

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial ovarian cancer is a significant cause of mortality both in the United States and worldwide, due largely to the high proportion of cases that present at a late stage, when survival is extremely poor. Early detection of epithelial ovarian cancer, and of the serous subtype in particular, is a promising strategy for saving lives. The low prevalence of ovarian cancer makes the development of an adequately sensitive and specific test based on blood markers very challenging. We evaluated the performance of a set of candidate blood markers and combinations of these markers in detecting serous ovarian cancer.We selected 14 candidate blood markers of serous ovarian cancer for which assays were available to measure their levels in serum or plasma, based on our analysis of global gene expression data and on literature searches. We evaluated the performance of these candidate markers individually and in combination by measuring them in overlapping sets of serum (or plasma samples from women with clinically detectable ovarian cancer and women without ovarian cancer. Based on sensitivity at high specificity, we determined that 4 of the 14 candidate markers--MUC16, WFDC2, MSLN and MMP7--warrant further evaluation in precious serum specimens collected months to years prior to clinical diagnosis to assess their utility in early detection. We also reported differences in the performance of these candidate blood markers across histological types of epithelial ovarian cancer.By systematically analyzing the performance of candidate blood markers of ovarian cancer in distinguishing women with clinically apparent ovarian cancer from women without ovarian cancer, we identified a set of serum markers with adequate performance to warrant testing for their ability to identify ovarian cancer months to years prior to clinical diagnosis. We argued for the importance of sensitivity at high specificity and of magnitude of difference in marker levels between cases and

  4. Ovarian ageing: the role of mitochondria in oocytes and follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May-Panloup, Pascale; Boucret, Lisa; Chao de la Barca, Juan-Manuel; Desquiret-Dumas, Valérie; Ferré-L'Hotellier, Véronique; Morinière, Catherine; Descamps, Philippe; Procaccio, Vincent; Reynier, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    There is a great inter-individual variability of ovarian ageing, and almost 20% of patients consulting for infertility show signs of premature ovarian ageing. This feature, taken together with delayed childbearing in modern society, leads to the emergence of age-related ovarian dysfunction concomitantly with the desire for pregnancy. Assisted reproductive technology is frequently inefficacious in cases of ovarian ageing, thus raising the economic, medical and societal costs of the procedures. Ovarian ageing is characterized by quantitative and qualitative alteration of the ovarian oocyte reserve. Mitochondria play a central role in follicular atresia and could be the main target of the ooplasmic factors determining oocyte quality adversely affected by ageing. Indeed, the oocyte is the richest cell of the body in mitochondria and depends largely on these organelles to acquire competence for fertilization and early embryonic development. Moreover, the oocyte ensures the uniparental transmission and stability of the mitochondrial genome across the generations. This review focuses on the role played by mitochondria in ovarian ageing and on the possible consequences over the generations. PubMed was used to search the MEDLINE database for peer-reviewed original articles and reviews concerning mitochondria and ovarian ageing, in animal and human species. Searches were performed using keywords belonging to three groups: 'mitochondria' or 'mitochondrial DNA'; 'ovarian reserve', 'oocyte', 'ovary' or 'cumulus cells'; and 'ageing' or 'ovarian ageing'. These keywords were combined with other search phrases relevant to the topic. References from these articles were used to obtain additional articles. There is a close relationship, in mammalian models and humans, between mitochondria and the decline of oocyte quality with ageing. Qualitatively, ageing-related mitochondrial (mt) DNA instability, which leads to the accumulation of mtDNA mutations in the oocyte, plays a key role in

  5. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  6. Glycemia in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  7. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  8. Associative memory model with spontaneous neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-01

    We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input (i.e., spontaneous activity) is modified by an input to generate a target response that is memorized for recall upon the same input. Suitable design of synaptic connections enables the model to memorize input/output (I/O) mappings equaling 70% of the total number of neurons, where the evoked activity distinguishes a target pattern from others. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities, as reported in recent experimental studies.

  9. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Spontaneous Bilateral Meningoencephalocoeles of the Temporal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Rose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous tegmen tympani defects are rare with even rarer bilateral cases. The symptoms are nonspecific; hence, a high index of suspicion is required to prevent serious intracranial complications. We present a case of spontaneous bilateral tegmen tympani defects with associated meningoencephalocoeles in a 54-year-old male who presented with the signs and symptoms of severe meningitis. After careful workup which included a lumbar puncture, CT and MRI scans, both defects were repaired using a middle fossa approach. The patient made an uneventful recovery with complete cessation of otorrhoea and improvement in his hearing.

  11. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  12. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Thitta; Patnaik, Jyoti; Mishra, Narayan; Subhankar, Saswat; Parida, Priyadarsini

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a rare entity in a middle-aged male.

  13. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-12-01

    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Salvatore; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2018-07-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the plantar fascia are uncommon injuries. They typically occur at its calcaneal insertion and usually represent a complication of plantar fasciitis and local treatment with steroid injections. In contrast, distal ruptures commonly result from traumatic injuries. We describe the case of a spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia in a 48-year-old woman with a low level of physical activity and no history of direct injury to the foot, plantar fasciitis, or steroid injections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  16. Bradycardia after Tube Thoracostomy for Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomi Fashola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an elderly patient who became bradycardic after chest tube insertion for spontaneous pneumothorax. Arrhythmia is a rare complication of tube thoracostomy. Unlike other reported cases of chest tube induced arrhythmias, the bradycardia in our patient responded to resuscitative measures without removal or repositioning of the tube. Our patient, who had COPD, presented with shortness of breath due to spontaneous pneumothorax. Moments after tube insertion, patient developed severe bradycardia that responded to Atropine. In patients requiring chest tube insertion, it is important to be prepared to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitative therapy in case the patient develops a life-threatening arrhythmia.

  17. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Dash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a rare entity in a middle-aged male.

  18. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon

    2014-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  19. Impact of transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy ovarian drilling on ovarian stromal blood flow and ovarian volume in clomiphene citrate-resistant PCOS patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolino, Pierluigi; Morra, Ilaria; De Rosa, Nicoletta; Cagnacci, Angelo; Pellicano, Massimiliano; Di Carlo, Costantino; Nappi, Carmine; Bifulco, Giuseppe

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in gynecology. In PCOS patients vascularization parameters are altered. Transvaginal hydrolaparoscopy (THL) is a mini-invasive approach for ovarian drilling in PCOS patients. In this study, we assessed the effect of ovarian drilling using THL on ovarian volume (OV) and vascularization index (VI) using 3D power Doppler ultrasonography in CC-resistant PCOS patients. A case-control study on 123 CC-resistant PCOS women who underwent THL ovarian drilling was performed. Patients underwent 3D ultrasound and power Doppler to measure VI, flow index (FI), vascularization flow index (VFI) and to evaluate OV before and after the procedure, at six months, and on the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. After THL ovarian drilling, OV and power Doppler flow indices were significantly reduced compared to pre-operative values (OV: 7.85 versus 11.72 cm 3 , p drilling seems to reduce OV and 3D power Doppler indices, and could therefore be a viable alternative to LOD in PCOS patients resistant to medical therapy.

  20. Spontaneous fertility and pregnancy outcomes amongst 480 women with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Valérie; Donadille, Bruno; Zenaty, Delphine; Courtillot, Carine; Salenave, Sylvie; Brac de la Perrière, Aude; Albarel, Frédérique; Fèvre, Anne; Kerlan, Véronique; Brue, Thierry; Delemer, Brigitte; Borson-Chazot, Françoise; Carel, Jean-Claude; Chanson, Philippe; Léger, Juliane; Touraine, Philippe; Christin-Maitre, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    What are the prevalence and the outcomes of spontaneous pregnancies (SP) in a large cohort of French women with Turner syndrome (TS)? Amongst 480 women with TS, 27 women (5.6%) had a total of 52 SP, with 30 full-term deliveries for 18 women. Primary ovarian insufficiency is a classic feature of TS. So far, few studies have evaluated the rate of SP in these patients. The French Ministry of Health set up a National Reference Centre for Rare Growth Disorders (CRMERC), including TS. We studied a cohort of adult TS patients from seven endocrine units (Saint-Antoine, Pitié-Salpêtrière, Bicêtre, Lyon, Marseille, Brest, Reims Hospitals) belonging to this centre, between January 1999 and January 2014. A total of 480 adult patients with TS were included. The patients' clinical characteristics, karyotypes and reproductive histories had been collected, after informed consent, in a web database called CEMARA. Our reference population was issued from a database belonging to the French Health Ministry, collecting pregnancy outcomes in the French general population. In order to find predictive characteristics of SP, TS with spontaneous pregnancies were compared with non-pregnant TS patients from our cohort. There were 27 patients (5.6%) who had a total of 52 SP. The two predictive factors which correlated with occurrence of a SP were spontaneous menarche and mosaic karyotype. The median delay to conception was 6 months (range 0-84). Miscarriage occurred in 16 pregnancies, 30.8% versus 15% in the general French population (P Paris France All authors claim no competing interests. NA. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.