WorldWideScience

Sample records for spontaneous lateral thought

  1. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

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    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  2. Representing Representation: Integration between the Temporal Lobe and the Posterior Cingulate Influences the Content and Form of Spontaneous Thought.

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    Jonathan Smallwood

    Full Text Available When not engaged in the moment, we often spontaneously represent people, places and events that are not present in the environment. Although this capacity has been linked to the default mode network (DMN, it remains unclear how interactions between the nodes of this network give rise to particular mental experiences during spontaneous thought. One hypothesis is that the core of the DMN integrates information from medial and lateral temporal lobe memory systems, which represent different aspects of knowledge. Individual differences in the connectivity between temporal lobe regions and the default mode network core would then predict differences in the content and form of people's spontaneous thoughts. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between seed-based functional connectivity and the contents of spontaneous thought recorded in a laboratory study several days later. Variations in connectivity from both medial and lateral temporal lobe regions was associated with different patterns of spontaneous thought and these effects converged on an overlapping region in the posterior cingulate cortex. We propose that the posterior core of the DMN acts as a representational hub that integrates information represented in medial and lateral temporal lobe and this process is important in determining the content and form of spontaneous thought.

  3. Spontaneous lateral sphenoid cerebrospinal fluid fistula: MRI diagnosis

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    Matthew Goodier

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous or primary cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula is a rare cause of CSF rhinorrhoea. Magnetic resonance imaging with high resolution highly T2-weighted images is valuable in preoperative localisation and characterisation of the defect particularly if a transnasal endoscopic approach is planned. This report describes the radiological evaluation and surgical management of a 53 year old male who presented with a spontaneous lateral sphenoid CSF fistula.

  4. Spontaneous laterality in mouse Crl:CD1.

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    Maciejewska, Maria; Zięba, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Justyna; Warońska, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization developed very early in evolution and it is a characteristic of a wide range of representatives from the animal kingdom. The aim of the present study was to examine the spontaneous laterality in mice (Mus musculus) with the T-maze test. We wanted to check if this kind of functional asymmetry occurs at a population level, and also if there are gender differences in this regard. The study involved 40 mice Crl:CD1. The research procedure was simple: mice had to choose one arm of the T-shaped apparatus to find the exit. The animals performed the 10 trails one after another. We took into account only the animals' fist reactions while preparing results. Most of the animals (68%) chose the right arm of the maze. The lateralization was stronger among females--75% of them had preferences for the right side. The majority of animals, which preferred the right side, were from the food deprivation group. However, the results did not unequivocally resolve whether mice evince the functional asymmetry at the population level, or whether there are gender differences in this area. Further research with a larger group and multiple observations for each animal are required to answer these questions.

  5. Unusual Association Between Spontaneous Lateral Sphenoid Encephalocele and Chiari Malformation Type I: Endoscopic Repair Through a Transpterygoid Approach.

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    Starnoni, Daniele; Daniel, Roy Thomas; George, Mercy; Messerer, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous meningoencephaloceles of the lateral sphenoid sinus are rare entities, and their peculiar location represents a surgical challenge due to the importance of a wide exposure and skull base reconstruction. They are thought to arise from the congenital base defect of the lateral sphenoid or in some cases have been postulated to represent a rare manifestation of altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. We report the first case in the literature of a Chiari malformation type I (CMI) and a lateral sphenoid encephalocele, revising the theoretic etiology and surgical technique of endoscopic repair. A 50-year-old woman with a surgical history of symptomatic CMI presented with episodes of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea. Radiologic investigations revealed a left mesial temporal encephalocele herniating into the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus and radiologic features of altered CSF dynamics, which may have played an etiologic role. An endoscopic transpterygoid excision of the encephalocele and multilayer skull base repair were performed. The association of spontaneous lateral sphenoid encephaloceles with CMI is distinctly unusual. Predisposing factors and disruption of CSF dynamics may play a major role in the development of these rare complications in patients with CMI. Because of their distinct location, transethmoid or transpterygoid endoscopic approaches represent an excellent surgical technique to treat these lesions thanks to their wide and direct visualization of the entire skull base defect following the encephalocele excision, allowing an adequate multilayer repair and lateral sphenoid recess occlusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Neural Responses to Heartbeats in the Default Network Encode the Self in Spontaneous Thoughts

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    Babo-Rebelo, Mariana; Richter, Craig G.

    2016-01-01

    theories according to which selfhood is grounded in the neural monitoring of internal organs. Using magnetoencephalography, we show that heartbeat-evoked responses (HERs) in the DN covary with the self-relatedness of ongoing spontaneous thoughts. HER amplitude in the ventral precuneus covaried with the “I” self-dimension, whereas HER amplitude in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex encoded the “Me” self-dimension. Our experimental results directly support theories rooting selfhood in the neural monitoring of internal organs. We propose a novel functional framework for the DN, where self-processing is coupled with physiological monitoring. PMID:27466329

  7. Dispatching the wandering mind? Toward a laboratory method for cuing "spontaneous" off-task thought

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    Jennifer C. McVay

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists study most phenomena of attention by measuring subjects’ overt responses to discrete environmental stimuli that can be manipulated to test competing theories. The mind-wandering experience, however, cannot be locally instigated by cleverly engineered stimuli. Investigators must therefore rely on correlational and observational methods to understand subjects’ flow of thought, which is only occasionally and indirectly monitored. In an effort toward changing this state of affairs, we present four experiments that develop a method for inducing mind-wandering episodes – on demand – in response to task-embedded cues. In an initial laboratory session, subjects described their personal goals and concerns across several life domains (amid some filler questionnaires. In a second session, 48 hours later, subjects completed a go/no-go task in which they responded to the perceptual features of words; unbeknownst to subjects, some stimulus words were presented in triplets to represent the personal concerns they had described in session 1. Thought probes appearing shortly after these personal-goal triplets indicated that, compared to control triplets, priming subjects’ concerns increased mind-wandering rate by about 3 – 4%. We argue that this small effect is, nonetheless, a promising development toward the pursuit of an experimentally informed, theory-driven science of mind wandering.

  8. Occult spontaneous lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele: A rare presentation

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    Shahina Bano

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Basal encephaloceles are extremely rare congenital malformations. Advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are necessary for diagnosing the asymptomatic, occult basal encephalocele and planning the surgical approach. We present an interesting case of clinically silent right-sided lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele through a large bony defect.

  9. Arachnoid Pit and Extensive Sinus Pnematization as the Cause of Spontaneous Lateral Intrasphenoidal Encephalocele

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    Ali AlMontasheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lateral sphenoid encephalocele, especially within the lateral aspect of the sphenoid sinus, when the sphenoid sinus has pneumatized extensively into the pterygoid recess, are considered exceedingly rare. We report a rare case of lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele with spontaneous cerebral spinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea. Computed tomography demonstrated bilateral arachnoid pit, extensive sphenoid sinus pneumatization, and a defect in the superior wall of the left lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated anteromedial temporal lobe herniating through the bony defect.

  10. Baby Sign but Not Spontaneous Gesture Predicts Later Vocabulary in Children with Down Syndrome

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    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena; Bailey, Jhonelle; Schmuck, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Early spontaneous gesture, specifically deictic gesture, predicts subsequent vocabulary development in typically developing (TD) children. Here, we ask whether deictic gesture plays a similar role in predicting later vocabulary size in children with Down Syndrome (DS), who have been shown to have difficulties in speech production, but strengths in…

  11. Endoscopic endonasal repair of spontaneous sphenoid sinus lateral wall meningocele presenting with cerebrospinal fluid leak

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    Ali Erdem Yildirim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous sphenoid sinus lateral wall meningoceles are rare lesions with an unknown etiology. Endoscopic endonasal technique is a considerable route in the treatment of this condition. The aim of this paper is to report the etiology, surgical technique, and outcome in a patient repaired via endoscopic endonasal approach. A 51-year-old male patient applied with rhinorrhea started three months ago after an upper respiratory infection. There were no history of trauma or sinus operation. Biochemical analysis of the fluid was positive for beta-2-transferrin. This asypthomatic patient had undergone for repairment of lateral sphenoid sinus meningocele with endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. After endoscopic endonasal meningocele closure procedure no complications occured and a quick recovery was observed. Endoscopic endonasal approach is an effective and safe treatment modality of spontaneous lateral sphenoid sinus meningoceles and efficient in anterior skull base reconstruction.

  12. Spontaneous Alpha Power Lateralization Predicts Detection Performance in an Un-Cued Signal Detection Task.

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    Gonzalo Boncompte

    Full Text Available Focusing one's attention by external guiding stimuli towards a specific area of the visual field produces systematical neural signatures. One of the most robust is the change in topological distribution of oscillatory alpha band activity across parieto-occipital cortices. In particular, decreases in alpha activity over contralateral and/or increases over ipsilateral scalp sites, respect to the side of the visual field where attention was focused. This evidence comes mainly from experiments where an explicit cue informs subjects where to focus their attention, thus facilitating detection of an upcoming target stimulus. However, recent theoretical models of attention have highlighted a stochastic or non-deterministic component related to visuospatial attentional allocation. In an attempt to evidence this component, here we analyzed alpha activity in a signal detection paradigm in the lack of informative cues; in the absence of preceding information about the location (and time of appearance of target stimuli. We believe that the unpredictability of this situation could be beneficial for unveiling this component. Interestingly, although total alpha power did not differ between Seen and Unseen conditions, we found a significant lateralization of alpha activity over parieto-occipital electrodes, which predicted behavioral performance. This effect had a smaller magnitude compared to paradigms in which attention is externally guided (cued. However we believe that further characterization of this spontaneous component of attention is of great importance in the study of visuospatial attentional dynamics. These results support the presence of a spontaneous component of visuospatial attentional allocation and they advance pre-stimulus alpha-band lateralization as one of its neural signatures.

  13. Prophecy In Later Islamic Thought: The Mystical Views of Shah Waliyyullah Ad-Dihlawi

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    Syamsuddin Arif

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Scholarly interest in the thought and teachings of Shâh Waliyyullâh adDihlawî has increased in recent years –not surprisingly, given the richness and profundity of his writings. This article explores the mystical dimension of prophecy emerging from Shâh Waliyyullâh’s insights and remarks, focusing on the key concepts such as the World of Images (‘Âlam al-Mithâl, the Highest Council of Angels (al-Mala’ al-A‘lâ and the Holy Enclave (Haz} îrat al-Quds, which help explain how, from the sûfî point of view, prophecy is possible. The main task of a prophet is to set up order in social, political and economic life of people. The prophet receives revelation which enables him to communicate the Divine Message to mankind containing all that is necessary for their welfare both in this life and the next according to the Divine Plan.

  14. Limits of Thought in the Light of Nature and Divinity. A Return to Ancient Thought or the Quest for the Being of Primordial Thinking in the Later Heidegger

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    Viktor Okorokov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Question about the essence of thought itself may be formulated in two ways: is it a manifestation of the existential presence or a habit to considerate a Universe as a representation of its rational core? Among various methods of inquiry of essential nature of thought, I would emphasize a Martin Heidegger’s approach, which was represented in his late papers. I mean, widely accepted in oriental culture but almost forgotten in European intellectual tradition approach which considers thought as luminous and light-bearing logos – the fundamental origin and principle of the Universe. The problem of logos appearance in primordial chaos and discovery of the thought origins, on Heidegger’s opinion, becomes the crucial matter of his “fundamental ontology”. Heidegger is confident that the problem of transformation of primordial chaos into well-ordered (by “logos” Universe was the most significant topic which the ancient philosophers (Anaximander, Heraclitus, and Parmenides were focused on. My research, represented in this article, discovers European philosopher’s acceptation and reception of the ancient interpretation of primordial thought as a “divine light”. My conclusion is that all classical European philosophical ontological theories (since the first philosophers to Plato, Aristotle, post-Aristotelian thinkers, and to the contemporary philosophers may be considered as the different varieties of interpretation of the primordial (given by gods luminous thinking itself and became a simulation of the primordial nature of thought. Another conclusion is, that origins of mentioned above ancient philosophical inquiries on the divine-light essence of primordial thinking, may be found in earlier, than Heidegger thinks, texts composed by Homer, Hesiod, and perhaps even in the religious philosophical texts of the Orient heritage (India, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient states, created before the sixth century BC.

  15. Decreased spontaneous attention to social scenes in 6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders.

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    Chawarska, Katarzyna; Macari, Suzanne; Shic, Frederick

    2013-08-01

    The ability to spontaneously attend to the social overtures and activities of others is essential for the development of social cognition and communication. This ability is critically impaired in toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however, it is not clear if prodromal symptoms in this area are already present in the first year of life of those affected by the disorder. To examine whether 6-month-old infants later diagnosed with ASD exhibit atypical spontaneous social monitoring skills, visual responses of 67 infants at high-risk and 50 at low-risk for ASD were studied using an eye-tracking task. Based on their clinical presentation in the third year, infants were divided into those with ASD, those exhibiting atypical development, and those developing typically. Compared with the control groups, 6-month-old infants later diagnosed with ASD attended less to the social scene, and when they did look at the scene, they spent less time monitoring the actress in general and her face in particular. Limited attention to the actress and her activities was not accompanied by enhanced attention to objects. Prodromal symptoms of ASD at 6 months include a diminished ability to attend spontaneously to people and their activities. A limited attentional bias toward people early in development is likely to have a detrimental impact on the specialization of social brain networks and the emergence of social interaction patterns. Further investigation into its underlying mechanisms and role in psychopathology of ASD in the first year is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Optical properties of spontaneous lateral composition modulation in AlAs/InAs short-period superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francoeur, S.; Zhang, Yong; Norman, A. G.; Alsina, F.; Mascarenhas, A.; Reno, J. L.; Jones, E. D.; Lee, S. R.; Follstaedt, D. M.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of lateral composition modulation, spontaneously generated during the epitaxial growth of an AlAs/InAs short-period superlattice, on the electronic band structure is investigated using phototransmission and photoluminescence spectroscopy. Compared with uniform layers of identical average composition, the presence of the composition modulation considerably reduces the band-gap energy and produces strongly polarized emission and absorption spectra. We demonstrate that the dominant polarization direction can selectively be aligned along the [1(bar sign)10] or [010] crystallographic directions. In compressively strained samples, the use of (001) InP substrates slightly miscut toward (111)A or (101) resulted in modulation directions along [110] or [100], respectively, and dominant polarization directions along a direction orthogonal to the respective composition modulation. Band-gap reductions as high as 350 and 310 meV are obtained for samples with composition modulation along [110] and [100], respectively. Ratios of polarized intensities up to 26 are observed in transmission spectra. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  17. Spontaneous Pushing in Lateral Position versus Valsalva Maneuver During Second Stage of Labor on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

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    Vaziri, Farideh; Arzhe, Amene; Asadi, Nasrin; Pourahmad, Saeedeh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    There are concerns about the harmful effects of the Valsalva maneuver during the second stage of labor. Comparing the effects of spontaneous pushing in the lateral position with the Valsalva maneuver during the second stage of labor on maternal and fetal outcomes. Inclusion criteria in this randomized clinical trial conducted in Iran were as follows: nulliparous mothers, live fetus with vertex presentation, gestational age of 37 - 40 weeks, spontaneous labor, and no complications. The intervention group pushed spontaneously while they were in the lateral position, whereas the control group pushed using Valsalva method while in the supine position at the onset of the second stage of labor. Maternal outcomes such as pain and fatigue severity and fetal outcomes such as pH and pO2 of the umbilical cord blood were measured. Data pertaining to 69 patients, divided into the intervention group (35 subjects) and control group (34 subjects), were analyzed statistically. The mean pain (7.80 ± 1.21 versus 9.05 ± 1.11) and fatigue scores (46.59 ± 21 versus 123.36 ± 43.20) of the two groups showed a statistically significant difference (P pushing in the lateral position reduced fatigue and pain severity of the mothers. Also, it did not worsen fetal outcomes. Thus, it can be used as an alternative method for the Valsalva maneuver.

  18. Spontaneous Transient Lateral Thoracic Lung Herniation Resulting in Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS and Subsequent Contralateral Lung Injury

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    Antony Kaliyadan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung herniation is a relatively rare clinical entity that is most commonly either congenital or acquired traumatically. We describe a case of spontaneous lung herniation secondary to acute cough in an obese male smoker complicated by contralateral acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS. Mechanisms of lung herniation, classification, diagnosis, and management will be discussed.

  19. Effect of lateralized epileptic discharges on the thought flow Efeito de descargas epilépticas lateralizadas no fluxo do pensamento

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    Paulo Bueno de Mendonça

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pauses in verbal expression of thought flow in patients with partial epilepsy was studied in order to achieve a best comprehension of brain interhemispheric influences. METHOD: We studied thirty nine patients with partial epileptic seizures and twenty four volunteers (control group. Free association of ideas was used as a method to stablish the thought flow, starting with a stimulus word (subject name that must be followed by spontaneous and consecutive word-phrase. Patients were instructed to say any thought that came to their minds without any kind of censoring. Subject responses were recorded through a PC keyboard and time intervals (pauses between each word-phrase were processed by a software developed for this purpose. RESULTS: Time intervals reduction among associations in right lesional group were compared to left lesional, right non-lesional and control groups. An increase of associative time intervals was observed in the right non-lesional group compared to left non-lesional group. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest a possible inhibitory inter-hemispheric function of the right hemisphere modulating verbal expression of the thought flow. Considering the hypothesis of the inter-hemispheric inhibition by the right hemisphere on left hemisphere, we admit that in epileptic patients with right hemispheric lesion there is an attenuation of the inter-hemispheric inhibition and an increase in thought flow, whereas in patients without a lesion but a paroxysmal epileptic activity in right temporal lobe there is an exacerbation of this inhibitory function and consequent reduction in the thought flow.OBJETIVO: Foram estudadas as pausas na expressão verbal do pensamento em pacientes com epilepsia parcial a fim de estabelecer uma melhor compreensão das influências interhemisféricas cerebrais. MÉTODO: foram estudados 39 pacientes com crises epilépticas parciais e 24 voluntários (grupo controle. A associação livre de idéias foi usada como m

  20. Working Memory Capacity, Mind Wandering, and Creative Cognition: An Individual-Differences Investigation into the Benefits of Controlled Versus Spontaneous Thought

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    Smeekens, Bridget A.; Kane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Should executive control, as indicated by working memory capacity (WMC) and mind-wandering propensity, help or hinder creativity? Sustained and focused attention should help guide a selective search of solution-relevant information in memory and help inhibit uncreative, yet accessible, ideas. However, unfocused attention and daydreaming should allow mental access to more loosely relevant concepts, remotely linked to commonplace solutions. Three individual-differences studies inserted incubation periods into one or two divergent thinking tasks and tested whether WMC (assessed by complex span tasks) and incubation-period mind wandering (assessed as probed reports of task-unrelated thought [TUT]) predicted post-incubation performance. Retrospective self-reports of Openness (Experiment 2) and mind-wandering and daydreaming propensity (Experiment 3) complemented our thought-probe assessments of TUT. WMC did not correlate with creativity in divergent thinking, whereas only the questionnaire measure of daydreaming, but not probed thought reports, weakly predicted creativity; the fact that in-the-moment TUTs did not correlate divergent creativity is especially problematic for claims that mind-wandering processes contribute to creative cognition. Moreover, the fact that WMC tends to strongly predict analytical problem solving and reasoning, but may not correlate with divergent thinking, provides a useful boundary condition for defining WMC’s nomological net. On balance, our data provide no support for either benefits or costs of executive control for at least one component of creativity. PMID:28458764

  1. Transcranial and Epidural Approach for Spontaneous Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Due to Meningoencephalocele of the Lateral Sphenoid Sinus.

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    Shintoku, Ryosuke; Tosaka, Masahiko; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Yoshimoto, Yuhei

    2018-01-01

    We experienced a case of sphenoid sinus type meningoencephalocele manifesting as severe cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea. A 35-year-old man became aware of serous nasal discharge 1 year previously, which had gradually worsened. The nasal discharge was diagnosed as CSF rhinorrhea. Head computed tomography (CT) showed several small depressions in the bone of the left middle cranial fossa, and the largest depression extended through the bone to the lateral sphenoid sinus. Head magnetic resonance imaging revealed that the meningoencephalocele projected to the lateral sphenoid sinus, through this small bone defect of the middle cranial fossa. We performed a combined craniotomy and epidural approach without intradural procedures using neuronavigation. Multiple meningoencephaloceles protruded into small depressions in the middle skull base. The small protrusions not passing through the sphenoid sinus were coagulated. The largest protrusion causing the CSF leakage was identified by neuronavigation. This meningoencephalocele was cut. Both the dural and bone sides were closed with double layers to prevent CSF leakage. The CSF rhinorrhea completely stopped after the surgery. In our case, identification of the leak site was easy with neuronavigation based on bone window CT. The epidural approach also has significant advantages with double layer closure, including both the dural and bone sides. If the site of CSF leakage is outside the foramen rotundum (as with the most common type of lateral sphenoid sinus meningoencephalocele), we recommend the epidural approach using neuronavigation for surgical treatment.

  2. Spontaneous brain activity in the sensorimotor cortex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can be negatively regulated by corticospinal fiber integrity.

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    Sako, Wataru; Abe, Takashi; Izumi, Yuishin; Yamazaki, Hiroki; Matsui, Naoko; Harada, Masafumi; Kaji, Ryuji

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies failed to detect reduced value of the amplitude of low frequency fluctuation (ALFF) derived from resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging in the primary motor cortex in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) though primary motor cortex was mainly affected with ALS. We aimed to investigate the cause of masking the abnormality in the primary motor cortex in ALS and usefulness of ALFF for differential diagnosis among diseases showing muscle weakness. We enrolled ten patients with ALS and eleven disease controls showing muscle weakness. Voxel-wise analysis revealed that significant reduction of ALFF value was present in the right sensorimotor cortex in ALS. There was a significant negative correlation between ALFF value in the right sensorimotor cortex and fractional anisotropy (FA) value in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule (PLIC). For a diagnostic tool, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve improved if the ALS patients with disease duration >1 year were excluded. The present findings raised the possibility of usefulness of ALFF value in the sensorimotor cortex for differential diagnosis of ALS, and supported the notion that adjustment for FA value in the PLIC could improve accuracy.

  3. Crisis Thought

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    Morris, Edwin Kent

    2016-01-01

    Crisis thought is an idea that gives a name to and accounts for some of the problematics of the sign crisis in political, social, cultural, and economic discourse. Specifically, crisis thought is a discursive formation, a concept used loosely here to refer to an assemblage of signs such as anxiety or fear that evoke or invoke similar, but inaccurate connotations as crisis in political and everyday usage. The general question this study grapples with is why political, social, cultural, and eco...

  4. Effects of dopamine D1 receptor blockade in the prelimbic prefrontal cortex or lateral dorsal striatum on frontostriatal function in Wistar and Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

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    Gauthier, Jamie M; Tassin, David H; Dwoskin, Linda P; Kantak, Kathleen M

    2014-07-15

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is associated with dysfunctional prefrontal and striatal circuitry and dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR), a heuristically useful animal model of ADHD, were evaluated against normotensive Wistar (WIS) controls to determine whether dopamine D1 receptor blockade of either prelimbic prefrontal cortex (plPFC) or lateral dorsal striatum (lDST) altered learning functions of both interconnected sites. A strategy set shifting task measured plPFC function (behavioral flexibility/executive function) and a reward devaluation task measured lDST function (habitual responding). Prior to tests, rats received bilateral infusions of SCH 23390 (1.0 μg/side) or vehicle into plPFC or lDST. Following vehicle, SHR exhibited longer lever press reaction times, more trial omissions, and fewer completed trials during the set shift test compared to WIS, indicating slower decision-making and attentional/motivational impairment in SHR. After reward devaluation, vehicle-treated SHR responded less than WIS, indicating relatively less habitual responding in SHR. After SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC, WIS expressed the same behavioral phenotype as vehicle-treated SHR during set shift and reward devaluation tests. In SHR, SCH 23390 infusions into plPFC exacerbated behavioral deficits in the set shift test and maintained the lower rate of responding in the reward devaluation test. SCH 23390 infusions into lDST did not modify set shifting in either strain, but produced lower rates of responding than vehicle infusions after reward devaluation in WIS. This research provides pharmacological evidence for unidirectional interactions between prefrontal and striatal brain regions, which has implications for the neurological basis of ADHD and its treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct.

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    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2

  6. Third thoughts

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Steven

    2018-01-01

    A wise, personal, and wide-ranging meditation on science and society by the Nobel Prize–winning author of To Explain the World. For more than four decades, one of the most captivating and celebrated science communicators of our time has challenged the public to think carefully about the foundations of nature and the inseparable entanglement of science and society. In Third Thoughts Steven Weinberg casts a wide net: from the cosmological to the personal, from astronomy, quantum mechanics, and the history of science to the limitations of current knowledge, the art of discovery, and the rewards of getting things wrong. Winner of the Nobel Prize in Physics and author of the classic The First Three Minutes, Weinberg shares his views on some of the most fundamental and fascinating aspects of physics and the universe. But he does not seclude science behind disciplinary walls, or shy away from politics, taking on what he sees as the folly of manned spaceflight, the harms of inequality, and the importance of public...

  7. 杜威晚期四本社會哲學專書揭示的民主與教育要義 John Dewey’s Thoughts on Democracy and Education in His Four Later Works on Social Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    單文經 Wen-Jing Shan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available 本研究就杜威所著《公眾及其問題:政治探究隨筆》、《新舊個人主義》、《自由主義與社會行動》及《自由與文化》,說明撰作緣起、解析內容、歸納旨趣,並揭示其民主與教育的要義。研究者有感於臺灣學者在探討杜威的民主與教育思想時,多以《學校與社會》、《兒童與課程》、《民主與教育》及《經驗與教育》等教育專著為切入點,而較少及於這四本專書,在探討其社會哲學思想時,則較少及於教育論著,乃撰寫本文,期能補苴罅漏、張皇幽眇。本研究於確認四本專書為杜威針對社會問題有感而發的專著 後,歸納出其等所呈顯的民主理論深化與概念釐清、社會制度重構與手段正用,以及民主目的與真教育的踐行等要義,並自現今的角度指出杜威較少注意種族、階級與性別等問題。 This article analyzes John Dewey’s thoughts on democracy and education, based on his four later works – The Public and Its Problems: An Essay in Political Inquiry, Individualism Old and New, Liberalism and Social Action, and Freedom and Culture. These works have received less attention than others such as School and Society, Child and Curriculum, Democracy and Education, and Experience and Education from local educationists investigating Dewey’s thoughts on democracy and education. This paper is intended to fill the gap. After confirming that these four works were conceived as Dewey’s special thoughts on social issues, three focal points were revealed – the deepening of his theory of democracy and clarification of related concepts, the reconstruction of social systems and the means by which this is to be achieved, and the purpose of democracy and the practice of genuine education. From a contemporary perspective, it is pointed out that little attention is paid to race, class and gender issues.

  8. Case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    1983-05-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH/sub 2/O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy.

  9. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  10. Exploring thought leadership, thought liberation and critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that any discussion of Africa's social and economic development has to take into account the three critical issues that remain pressing constraints for the further advancement of well-being in Africa: thought leadership, thought liberation and critical consciousness. These three 'ingredients' should anchor aspects ...

  11. Exploring Thought Leadership, Thought Liberation and Critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2015 ... peripheral position that the African continent occupies in the global ... Gumede: Exploring Thought Leadership, and Critical Consciousness ... and seemingly incapable of creative endeavours. ...... origin', Journal of Peace Research 9 (2): 105–20.

  12. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  13. Thought 2 Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes the...... the reader through key concepts like statement, argument, validity, fallacy, modality and demonstration.......Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes...

  14. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

  15. Beauty Requires Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  17. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  18. Educational Thoughts on "Three

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    With simple, light touches but deep philosophical thought, this article analyses the problems in China’s education, and at the same time, it probes into the problems of effectiveness of educational theories and methods from the considerations of THREE as the basic starting point.

  19. Elemental Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  20. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  1. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  2. Wittgenstein's True Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lugg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The central remarks of the Tractatus are without substantial content or consequence, remarks at the boundaries of sense that dissolve into truth.  While they say nothing, they encapsulate logical features of the language and the world.  Unasserted, they express thoughts, the truth of which Wittgenstein takes to be unassailable and definitive.  Asserted, they are out-and-out nonsense.  What is manifest in linguistic practice is no more sayable – and no less significant – than what is manifest in logical truths, mathematical equations and the principles of mechanics.

  3. Christianity and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy......, and freedom. This philosophical project had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics. At the theoretical level, the argument is embedded within a larger aim to recognize attempts within Catholic philosophy to articulate an Italian political trajectory that does not simply accept the tale...

  4. Spontaneous Vesicle Recycling in the Synaptic Bouton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eTruckenbrodt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The trigger for synaptic vesicle exocytosis is Ca2+, which enters the synaptic bouton following action potential stimulation. However, spontaneous release of neurotransmitter also occurs in the absence of stimulation in virtually all synaptic boutons. It has long been thought that this represents exocytosis driven by fluctuations in local Ca2+ levels. The vesicles responding to these fluctuations are thought to be the same ones that release upon stimulation, albeit potentially triggered by different Ca2+ sensors. This view has been challenged by several recent works, which have suggested that spontaneous release is driven by a separate pool of synaptic vesicles. Numerous articles appeared during the last few years in support of each of these hypotheses, and it has been challenging to bring them into accord. We speculate here on the origins of this controversy, and propose a solution that is related to developmental effects. Constitutive membrane traffic, needed for the biogenesis of vesicles and synapses, is responsible for high levels of spontaneous membrane fusion in young neurons, probably independent of Ca2+. The vesicles releasing spontaneously in such neurons are not related to other synaptic vesicle pools and may represent constitutively releasing vesicles (CRVs rather than bona fide synaptic vesicles. In mature neurons, constitutive traffic is much dampened, and the few remaining spontaneous release events probably represent bona fide spontaneously releasing synaptic vesicles (SRSVs responding to Ca2+ fluctuations, along with a handful of CRVs that participate in synaptic vesicle turnover.

  5. A theory of unconscious thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Nordgren, L.F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theory about human thought named the unconscious-thought theory (UTT). The theory is applicable to decision making, impression formation, attitude formation and change, problem solving, and creativity. It distinguishes between two modes of thought: unconscious and conscious. Unconscious

  6. The effect of mental alerting on peripheral vestibular nystagmus during spontaneous, gaze (30 degrees left, 30 degrees right) and body positional (left & right lateral lying) testing using electronystagmography (ENG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Tracey N; Fitzgerald, John E

    2008-10-01

    The performance of mental alerting during caloric testing has always been considered important, however its use/benefit during electronystagmography (ENG)/videonystagmography (VNG) testing has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mental alerting tasks on peripheral type vestibular nystagmus recorded during ENG. Thirty patients with significant spontaneous/gaze or positional nystagmus (slow phase velocity >or= 6 degrees /s) were recruited from consecutive referrals for vestibular assessment. Nystagmus was recorded by ENG both in the presence and absence of mental alerting for each patient. Investigation of nystagmus by analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly larger nystagmus (higher value SPV) with mental alerting than with no alerting (p<0.001), and for some patients nystagmus traces were reduced to a flat line (no nystagmus) with no alerting. The study demonstrates the importance of mental alerting in helping overcome central suppression of nystagmus and highlights its importance to help identify peripheral type nystagmus during ENG.

  7. Co-Thought and Co-Speech Gestures Are Generated by the Same Action Generation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Mingyuan; Kita, Sotaro

    2016-01-01

    People spontaneously gesture when they speak (co-speech gestures) and when they solve problems silently (co-thought gestures). In this study, we first explored the relationship between these 2 types of gestures and found that individuals who produced co-thought gestures more frequently also produced co-speech gestures more frequently (Experiments…

  8. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  9. From intrusive to oscillating thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Anne Griswold

    2007-10-01

    This paper focused on the possibility that intrusive thoughts (ITs) are a form of an evolutionary, adaptive, and complex strategy to prepare for and resolve stressful life events through schema formation. Intrusive thoughts have been studied in relation to individual conditions, such as traumatic stress disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. They have also been documented in the average person experiencing everyday stress. In many descriptions of thought intrusion, it is accompanied by thought suppression. Several theories have been put forth to describe ITs, although none provides a satisfactory explanation as to whether ITs are a normal process, a normal process gone astray, or a sign of pathology. There is also no consistent view of the role that thought suppression plays in the process. I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression may be better understood by examining them together as a complex and adaptive mechanism capable of escalating in times of need. The ability of a biological mechanism to scale up in times of need is one hallmark of a complex and adaptive system. Other hallmarks of complexity, including self-similarity across scales, sensitivity to initial conditions, presence of feedback loops, and system oscillation, are also discussed in this article. Finally, I propose that thought intrusion and thought suppression are better described together as an oscillatory cycle.

  10. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  11. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2010-06-01

    Evidence in Practice section uses a standardized format enabling practitioners to share their experience of integrating research evidence into their practice. The final section of these brief articles asks the writers to reflect on their experience. Although it is not research, the individual reflection allies with what Schön (1983 called “reflection on action” and such reflections over time form a practical, tacit knowledge that we use to inform our work. Within this section of the journal, we hope readers will become more aware of how different types of evidence can be integrated into real‐world decision making. Not everything requires a full blown research study, and this section allows readers to see what other practitioners are doing, and in turn it should enable them to reflect upon what they are doing in their own practice. Being aware of situations where things may or may not have worked, and reflecting on the reasons why, brings together our sense of critical thought and practical experience that go a long way in filling the “librarian observed” and “professional judgements” parts of the EBLIP definition (Booth and Brice 2004. Acquiring professional knowledge does not end when we complete a graduate program, or have a certain number of years experience under our belts. It needs to be continually and consciously cultivated via reflection on our practice, our research, and simply what works and why. Research knowledge only takes us so far. People often ask me, “What do I do when there is no evidence? Or when the research evidence is weak?” Does this stop us from moving ahead? No. A decision still needs to be made. Evidence based practice is not only about acting when there is good evidence. Enhancing our professional judgments via a career built on analytical reflection, will provide knowledge that goes a long way towards making difficult decisions a little bit easier; even (or perhaps, especially in the cases when there is already a large body of

  12. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 53-59

  13. Thought and Action in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup

    2015-01-01

    In much theory there is a tendency to place thought above action, or the opposite, action over thought. The consequence of the first option is that philosophy or scientific evidence gains the upper hand in educational thinking. The consequence of the second view is that pragmatism and relativism become the dominant features. This article discusses…

  14. Psychological effects of thought acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana; Wegner, Daniel M

    2008-10-01

    Six experiments found that manipulations that increase thought speed also yield positive affect. These experiments varied in both the methods used for accelerating thought (i.e., instructions to brainstorm freely, exposure to multiple ideas, encouragement to plagiarize others' ideas, performance of easy cognitive tasks, narration of a silent video in fast-forward, and experimentally controlled reading speed) and the contents of the thoughts that were induced (from thoughts about money-making schemes to thoughts of five-letter words). The results suggested that effects of thought speed on mood are partially rooted in the subjective experience of thought speed. The results also suggested that these effects can be attributed to the joy-enhancing effects of fast thinking (rather than only to the joy-killing effects of slow thinking). This work is inspired by observations of a link between "racing thoughts" and euphoria in cases of clinical mania, and potential implications of that observed link are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  16. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  17. Spontaneous Responses to Neoliberalism, and their Significance for Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L van der Walt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a sequel to the keynote address at the 2017 BCES Conference. The keynote address concluded with the thought that some educationists respond intuitively and spontaneously to neoliberalism and its impact on education whereas others reject neoliberalist precepts and their pedagogical implications on definite principled grounds. This paper deals with the former response; it offers pedagogical insights gleaned from an overview of intuitive, spontaneous reactions to neoliberalism.

  18. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  19. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  20. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  1. Language, Thought and Memory in Linguistic Performance, A Thought View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lado, Robert

    The contrasting views of Saussure and Bloomfield ("mentalist" versus "mechanist"), the hypotheses of Whorf showing the influence of language on certain habits of thought, and Chomsky's notion of generative transformational grammar in the context of language use are reviewed. The author notes the limits of these systems and suggests that in dealing…

  2. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  3. Spontaneous Responses to Neoliberalism, and Their Significance for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2017-01-01

    This paper is a sequel to the keynote address at the 2017 BCES Conference. The keynote address concluded with the thought that some educationists respond intuitively and spontaneously to neoliberalism and its impact on education whereas others reject neoliberalist precepts and their pedagogical implications on definite principled grounds. This…

  4. Thoughts on categorising bloodstain patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A thought piece submitted to the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI), as part of their consideration of forming an European Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Group, and submitted by one of their experts to the Taxonomy and Terminology...

  5. Operant Variability: Some Random Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, M. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Barba's (2012) paper is a serious and thoughtful analysis of a vexing problem in behavior analysis: Just what should count as an operant class and how do people know? The slippery issue of a "generalized operant" or functional response class illustrates one aspect of this problem, and "variation" or "novelty" as an operant appears to fall into…

  6. Definition of spontaneous reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses his view of driven versus spontaneous. There is a close link between ''spontaneous'' and ''instability.'' One of the prominent examples for instability is the thermal convection instability. Just to remind you, if you heat a fluid layer from below, it takes a certain Rayleigh number to make it unstable. Beyond the onset point you find qualitatively new features. That is called ''spontaneous,'' and this is a bit more than semantics. It's a new qualitative property that appears and it is spontaneous although we have an energy flux through the system. It's a misconception, to call this ''driven'' pointing at the energy flux through it. Of course, the convection would not exist without this energy flux. But what makes it ''spontaneous'' is that without any particular external signal, a new qualitative feature appears. And this is what is called an ''instability'' and ''spontaneous.'' From these considerations the author got a little reassured of what distinction should be made in the field of the magnetosphere. If we have a smooth energy transport into the magnetosphere and suddenly we have this qualitatively new feature (change of B-topology) coming up; then, using this terminology we don't have a choice other than calling this spontaneous or unstable, if you like. If we ''tell'' the system where it should make its neutral line and where it should make its plasmoids, then, it is driven. And this provides a very clear-cut observational distinction. The author emphasizes the difference he sees is a qualitative difference, not only a quantitative one

  7. Sheep laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W

    2013-01-01

    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  8. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  9. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L

    2017-01-01

    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  10. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-10-31

    We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported.Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  11. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itam Sarah

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such case reported. Aetiology and current approach to spontaneous haemothorax are discussed briefly.

  12. Spontaneous rib fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrancioglu, Ozgur; Akkas, Yucel; Arslan, Sulhattin; Sahin, Ekber

    2015-07-01

    Other than trauma, rib fracture can occur spontaneously due to a severe cough or sneeze. In this study, patients with spontaneous rib fractures were analyzed according to age, sex, underlying pathology, treatment, and complications. Twelve patients who presented between February 2009 and February 2011 with spontaneous rib fracture were reviewed retrospectively. The patients' data were evaluated according to anamnesis, physical examination, and chest radiographs. The ages of the patients ranged from 34 to 77 years (mean 55.91 ± 12.20 years), and 7 (58.4%) were male. All patients had severe cough and chest pain. The fractures were most frequently between 4th and 9th ribs; multiple rib fractures were detected in 5 (41.7%) patients. Eight (66.7%) patients had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 2 (16.7%) had bronchial asthma, and 2 (16.7%) had osteoporosis. Bone densitometry revealed a high risk of bone fracture in all patients. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or bronchial asthma had been treated with high-dose steroids for over a year. Spontaneous rib fracture due to severe cough may occur in patients with osteoporosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or bronchial asthma, receiving long-term steroid therapy. If these patients have severe chest pain, chest radiography should be performed to check for bone lesions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkey, Bálint; Vitális, Eszter; Vitális, Zsuzsanna

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs most commonly in cirrhotic patients with ascites. Pathogens get into the circulation by intestinal translocation and colonize in peritoneal fluid. Diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is based on elevated polymorphonuclear leukocyte count in the ascites (>0,25 G/L). Ascites culture is often negative but aids to get information about antibiotic sensitivity in positive cases. Treatment in stable patient can be intravenous then orally administrated ciprofloxacin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, while in severe cases intravenous III. generation cephalosporin. Nosocomial spontaneous bacterial peritonitis often caused by Gram-positive bacteria and multi-resistant pathogens can also be expected thus carbapenem should be the choice of the empiric treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered. Norfloxacin is used most commonly, but changes are expected due to increase in quinolone resistance. As a primary prophylaxis, a short-term antibiotic treatment is recommended after gastrointestinal bleeding for 5 days, while long-term prophylaxis is for patients with low ascites protein, and advanced disease (400 mg/day). Secondary prophylaxis is recommended for all patients recovered from spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Due to increasing antibiotic use of antibiotics prophylaxis is debated to some degree. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(2), 50-57.

  14. Descartes’s mathematical thought

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Chikara

    2003-01-01

    Covering both the history of mathematics and of philosophy, Descartes's Mathematical Thought reconstructs the intellectual career of Descartes most comprehensively and originally in a global perspective including the history of early modern China and Japan. Especially, it shows what the concept of "mathesis universalis" meant before and during the period of Descartes and how it influenced the young Descartes. In fact, it was the most fundamental mathematical discipline during the seventeenth century, and for Descartes a key notion which may have led to his novel mathematics of algebraic analysis.

  15. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  16. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  17. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M

    2013-03-01

    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. The spontaneous market order and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Naomi

    2016-08-01

    Darwin's theory of natural selection and the idea of a spontaneous order share a fundamental feature: the claim that apparent design or order do not necessarily imply a designer or rational planning. But they also present important differences, which touch upon central questions such as the evolution of morality, the role of human agency in social evolution, the existence (or not) of directionality in undesigned processes, and the presence (nor not) of a providential element in evolutionary accounts. In this article, I explore these themes and probe the relationship between the notion of a spontaneous order and the theory of evolution by natural selection. The reflections of Nobel laureate in economics, F.A. von Hayek, provide the beginning and endpoint in this voyage, for they constitute the most pronounced effort to develop a full-fledged theory combining evolution and economics in recent times. But along the way, I also investigate the influence of classical political economy on Darwin's thought, primarily that of Adam Smith, and consider the reasons for which Darwin did not refer to Smith when discussing the principle of natural selection in The Origin of Species. I conclude that the spontaneous order, as understood by Hayek, and evolution by natural selection constitute two disparate concepts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous tension haemopneumothorax

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, Benjamin Oliver; Itam, Sarah; Probst, Fey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We present a patient with sudden onset progressive shortness of breath and no history of trauma, who rapidly became haemodynamically compromised with a pneumothorax and pleural effusion seen on chest radiograph. He was treated for spontaneous tension pneumothorax but this was soon revealed to be a tension haemopneumothorax. He underwent urgent thoracotomy after persistent bleeding to explore an apical vascular abnormality seen on CT scanning. To our knowledge this is the first such c...

  1. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  2. Spontaneous actin dynamics in contractile rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Karsten; Wollrab, Viktoria; Thiagarajan, Raghavan; Wald, Anne; Riveline, Daniel

    Networks of polymerizing actin filaments are known to be capable to self-organize into a variety of structures. For example, spontaneous actin polymerization waves have been observed in living cells in a number of circumstances, notably, in crawling neutrophils and slime molds. During later stages of cell division, they can also spontaneously form a contractile ring that will eventually cleave the cell into two daughter cells. We present a framework for describing networks of polymerizing actin filaments, where assembly is regulated by various proteins. It can also include the effects of molecular motors. We show that the molecular processes driven by these proteins can generate various structures that have been observed in contractile rings of fission yeast and mammalian cells. We discuss a possible functional role of each of these patterns. The work was supported by Agence Nationale de la Recherche, France, (ANR-10-LABX-0030-INRT) and by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft through SFB1027.

  3. Spontaneous polyploidization in cucumber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Madera, Axel O; Miller, Nathan D; Spalding, Edgar P; Weng, Yiqun; Havey, Michael J

    2017-07-01

    This is the first quantitative estimation of spontaneous polyploidy in cucumber and we detected 2.2% polyploids in a greenhouse study. We provide evidence that polyploidization is consistent with endoreduplication and is an on-going process during plant growth. Cucumber occasionally produces polyploid plants, which are problematic for growers because these plants produce misshaped fruits with non-viable seeds. In this study, we undertook the first quantitative study to estimate the relative frequency of spontaneous polyploids in cucumber. Seeds of recombinant inbred lines were produced in different environments, plants were grown in the field and greenhouse, and flow cytometry was used to establish ploidies. From 1422 greenhouse-grown plants, the overall relative frequency of spontaneous polyploidy was 2.2%. Plants possessed nuclei of different ploidies in the same leaves (mosaic) and on different parts of the same plant (chimeric). Our results provide evidence of endoreduplication and polysomaty in cucumber, and that it is an on-going and dynamic process. There was a significant effect (p = 0.018) of seed production environment on the occurrence of polyploid plants. Seed and seedling traits were not accurate predictors of eventual polyploids, and we recommend that cucumber producers rogue plants based on stature and leaf serration to remove potential polyploids.

  4. Single-staged uniportal VATS in the supine position for simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Soo

    2017-05-15

    Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP) is rare, but requires surgery on both sides, in patients with definite bilateral bullae to prevent life-threatening conditions. Recently, uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been widely accepted as a less invasive technique for the treatment of pneumothorax. Thus, we introduced single-staged uniportal VATS technique in the supine position, for the management of two cases of SBPSP. A 17-year-old boy presented with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and he underwent single-staged uniportal VATS in the supine position. Single wide draping in consecutive bilateral approaches removes the needs of changing patients' position. Whole thoracoscopic procedure for wedge resection of bullae lesions was conducted without difficulty. The total operation time took 65 min and the patient discharged 3 days after the operation. The patient was followed for 24 months without recurrence of both sides. Another 18-year-old boy was admitted with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax and single-staged uniportal VATS was also performed in the supine position. The total operation time took 79 min and the patient discharged on postoperative day 4. He was followed for 19 months without recurrence of both sides. Single-staged uniportal VATS approach yielded satisfactory results from simplicity that not requires position change compared to conventional multi-ports VATS in the lateral position, and with better cosmetics. This technique is thought to be a feasible procedure in selective patients with SBPSP or with contralateral bullae for preventive role.

  5. Methodological pitfalls of the Unconscious Thought paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waroquier, Laurent; Marchiori, David; Klein, Olivier; Cleeremans, Axel

    2009-01-01

    According to Unconscious Thought Theory (UTT: Dijksterhuis & Nordgren, 2006), complex decisions are best made after a period of distraction assumed to elicit "unconscious thought". Over three studies, respectively offering a conceptual, an identical and a methodologically improved replication of

  6. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  7. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illu...

  8. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left–right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illus...

  9. Second-to-Last Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2016-06-01

    You can’t really prepare an abstract of a concluding-remarks talk, but having spent 19 years, 8 months as a full time student (Sept. 1948, Toluca Lake Grammar School kindergarten to April 1968 Caltech Ph.D.), most of the ensuing 48 years as a teacher, and about 51 years as some sort of astronomer, I find myself woefully ignorant of astronomy education and therefore well prepared to bring a fresh and vacant mind to the ideas presented by our colleagues here. Several thoughts, however, intrude. First, as Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin said, “a woman should do astronomy only if nothing else will satisfy her, for nothing else is what she will get.” Make that “person” and “science” and it still carries much truth. Second, it is better to be a professional astronomer and an amateur alto than the converse. And third, it is better to be a professional dentist and an amateur astronomer than the converse. This, I think, leaves room for all of us to work in areas that we find attractive and that we turn out to be reasonably good at. The latter is at least as important as the former. There is a great deal of pleasure to be found as a second-rate singer or artist, but not, I hope, as a lousy astronomer or teacher.

  10. Thoughts on the nude body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fabbri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The image of nude appears to have ‘moved’, both because of the shift in our gaze and its point of reference. That is, unless this ‘negative emphasis’ is seen only as the uncri­ti­cal acceptance of that ‘polarizing question’ that declared the end of Clas­sical art and the decisive advent of modernity or as the effect of an hermeneutic excess ‒ of a philosophical definition of the nude impli­cit in our figurative culture – is it now the moment to go beyond the observation of the canonic nude and to develop new approaches to nudity? Despite its obviousness, the nude, too, is difficult to define. Where does the garment begin and the gown end? The skin and the flesh? How are we to describe the for­ces, movements and gestures of the body and its involucres? I will argue that the nude should be neither a pictorial genre nor a philosophical concept, but a «thought of the body» (De Chirico. It is an aesthetic figure with the power of affection and perception, but also a conceptual figure. It is not a ‘critical operator’ ‒ a cognitive ‘walk-on’ or extra ‒ but an actor with the power of speech, capable of forming and transforming new relationships with observers.

  11. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, G; Cutler, A

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners' experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ considerably, however, which suggests that laboratory results may not generalise to the recognition of spontaneous speech. In the present study listeners were presented with both spontaneous and read speech materials, and their response time to detect word-initial target phonemes was measured. Responses were, overall, equally fast in each speech mode. However, analysis of effects previously reported in phoneme detection studies revealed significant differences between speech modes. In read speech but not in spontaneous speech, later targets were detected more rapidly than targets preceded by short words. In contrast, in spontaneous speech but not in read speech, targets were detected more rapidly in accented than in unaccented words and in strong than in weak syllables. An explanation for this pattern is offered in terms of characteristic prosodic differences between spontaneous and read speech. The results support claims from previous work that listeners pay great attention to prosodic information in the process of recognising speech.

  12. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  13. Two-Rockets Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin

    2014-03-01

    Let n>=2 be identical rockets: R1 ,R2 , ..., Rn. Each of them moving at constant different velocities respectively v1, v2, ..., vn on parallel directions in the same sense. In each rocket there is a light clock, the observer on earth also has a light clock. All n + 1 light clocks are identical and synchronized. The proper time Δt' in each rocket is the same. Let's focus on two arbitrary rockets Ri and Rjfrom the previous n rockets. Let's suppose, without loss of generality, that their speeds verify virocket Rj is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Lj =Lj' C(vj -vi) .(2) But in the reference frame of the astronaut in Rjit is like rocket Rjis stationary andRi moves with the speed vj -vi in opposite direction. Therefore, similarly, the non-proper time interval as measured by the astronaut inRj with respect to the event inRi is dilated with the same factor D(vj -vi) , i.e. Δtj . i = Δt' D(vj -vi) , and rocketRi is contracted with the factor C(vj -vi) , i.e. Li =Li' C(vj -vi) .But it is a contradiction to have time dilations in both rockets. (3) Varying i, j in {1, 2, ..., n} in this Thought Experiment we get again other multiple contradictions about time dilations. Similarly about length contractions, because we get for a rocket Rj, n-2 different length contraction factors: C(vj -v1) , C(vj -v2) , ..., C(vj -vj - 1) , C(vj -vj + 1) , ..., C(vj -vn) simultaneously! Which is abnormal.

  14. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardwell, C.; Cox, I.; Baldey, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  15. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardwell, C; Cox, I; Baldey, A [St. F.X. Cabrini Hospital, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    2002-07-01

    Full text: A 49-year old female presented with severe postural headache with no history of trauma. A Computed Tomography (CT) study of the brain demonstrated abnormal meningeal enhancement raising the possibility of leptomeningeal metastases. The patient was then referred to Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which demonstrated diffuse smooth dural enhancement with ancillary findings characteristic of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. The patient was then referred to Nuclear Medicine to confirm the diagnosis and localise the presumed leak 400MBq of 99mTc DTPA was injected via lumbar puncture into the L3-L4 subarachnoid space Posterior images of the spine were taken with a GE XRT single head gamma camera at 1 and 4 hours post administration of radionuclide. Images demonstrated abnormal early arrival of radionuclide in the kidneys and bladder at 1 hour and abnormal leak of tracer was demonstrate at the level of the first thoracic vertebra on the right side at 4 hours. This confirmed CSF leak at this level. Consequently the patient underwent a blood patch and her symptoms resolved. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension is a syndrome often unrecognised presenting with symptoms including severe postural headache neck stiffness nausea vomiting tinnitus and vertigo. The diagnosis is frequently suspected from findings on MRI, but Nuclear Medicine CSF imaging provides a readily available and cost effective method for confirming the diagnosis, and for making the diagnosis in patients who are unsuitable for or do not have access to MRI. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc.

  16. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  17. Dynamic interactions of the cortical networks during thought suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aso, Toshihiko; Nishimura, Kazuo; Kiyonaka, Takashi; Aoki, Takaaki; Inagawa, Michiyo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2016-08-01

    Thought suppression has spurred extensive research in clinical and preclinical fields, particularly with regard to the paradoxical aspects of this behavior. However, the involvement of the brain's inhibitory system in the dynamics underlying the continuous effort to suppress thoughts has yet to be clarified. This study aims to provide a unified perspective for the volitional suppression of internal events incorporating the current understanding of the brain's inhibitory system. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they performed thought suppression blocks alternating with visual imagery blocks. The whole dataset was decomposed by group-independent component analysis into 30 components. After discarding noise components, the 20 valid components were subjected to further analysis of their temporal properties including task-relatedness and between-component residual correlation. Combining a long task period and a data-driven approach, we observed a right-side-dominant, lateral frontoparietal network to be strongly suppression related. This network exhibited increased fluctuation during suppression, which is compatible with the well-known difficulty of suppression maintenance. Between-network correlation provided further insight into the coordinated engagement of the executive control and dorsal attention networks, as well as the reciprocal activation of imagery-related components, thus revealing neural substrates associated with the rivalry between intrusive thoughts and the suppression process.

  18. Sexual thoughts: links to testosterone and cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M

    2012-12-01

    Sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) or cortisol (C) in males of a variety of species, including humans, and just thinking about sex increases T in women. We investigated whether sexual thoughts change T or C in men and whether hormone measures (baseline, post-activity, and changes) correlate with psychological sexual arousal. We used the Imagined Social Situation Exercise to assess how hormones respond to and correlate with sexual thoughts and arousal relative to three control conditions: neutral, stressful, and positive. A total of 99 men provided a baseline saliva sample, imagined and wrote about a sexual or control situation, and provided a second saliva sample 15 min later. Results indicated that, for participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline and post-activity C corresponded to larger increases in self- reported sexual and autonomic arousal. Although sexual thoughts increased sexual arousal, they did not change T or C compared to control conditions. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts are not sufficient to change T or C in men, but C may facilitate sexual arousal by directing energy towards a sexual situation.

  19. Role of thought-related beliefs and coping strategies in the escalation of intrusive thoughts: an analog to obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcks, Brook A; Woods, Douglas W

    2007-11-01

    Cognitive-behavioral models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) assume that obsessions have their origin in normal intrusive thoughts. These models propose that certain beliefs, such as thought-action fusion (TAF) beliefs, combined with the use of ineffective coping strategies, such as thought suppression, lead to the development of OCD. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between these variables in a non-clinical sample in addition to exploring the effects of an alternative, acceptance-based coping strategy. This study explored the relationship between TAF beliefs, thought suppression, and OC-consistent symptoms via mediational analyses. Results showed that thought suppression mediated the relationship between TAF beliefs and OC-consistent symptoms. This study also experimentally examined the effects of various coping strategies (suppression, acceptance, or monitor-only) on the frequency of a distressing intrusion and appraisal ratings (e.g., anxiety, guilt, responsibility) after a TAF induction. Spontaneous suppression in the monitor-only group made comparisons of the experimental data difficult. However, analyses provided preliminary evidence suggesting that thought suppression is related to more intrusions, higher levels of anxiety, and negative appraisals, whereas an acceptance-based approach may be a useful alternative. Additional findings, limitations of the current study, and directions for future research are discussed.

  20. On the origins of endogenous thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillas, Alexandros

    2017-05-01

    Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Interestingly, IFG is also closely related to silent talking, as well as volition. The connection between IFG and volition is important given that endogenous thoughts are or at least greatly resemble voluntary actions. Against this background, I argue that IFG is key to understanding the origins of conscious endogenous thoughts. Furthermore, I look into goal-directed thinking and show that IFG plays a key role also in unconscious endogenous thinking.

  1. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  2. Spontaneous soft tissue hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, A; Darnige, L; Sapoval, M; Pellerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous muscle hematomas are a common and serious complication of anticoagulant treatment. The incidence of this event has increased along with the rise in the number of patients receiving anticoagulants. Radiological management is both diagnostic and interventional. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is the main tool for the detection of hemorrhage to obtain a positive, topographic diagnosis and determine the severity. Detection of an active leak of contrast material during the arterial or venous phase is an indication for the use of arterial embolization. In addition, the interventional radiological procedure can be planned with CTA. Arterial embolization of the pedicles that are the source of the bleeding is an effective technique. The rate of technical and clinical success is 90% and 86%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  4. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.

    2009-01-01

    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  5. Thought and Language in Cognitive Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Destéfano, Mariela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In cognitive science, the discussion about the relations between language and thought is very heterogeneous. It involves developments on linguistics, philosophy, psychology, etc. Carruthers and Boucher (1998 identify different criteria that would organize the diversity of positions about language and thought assumed in linguistics, philosophy and psychology. One of them is the constitution thesis (CT, which establishes that language is constitutively involved in thought. In this paper I would like to show some problems of CT in order to understand the relation between language and thought in cognitive science.

  6. Thoughts from an Unapologetically Honest Introvert

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Amy Michelle

    2014-01-01

    My thesis exhibition, titled Thoughts From An Unapologetically Honest Introvert, highlighted our extrovert-centered society and provided introverts with new communication tools to change the social expectation.

  7. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  8. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  9. Spatial diversity of spontaneous activity in the cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yong-Yi Tan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is a layered sheet across which a basic organization is thought to widely apply. The variety of spontaneous activity patterns is similar throughout the cortex, consistent with the notion of a basic cortical organization. However, the basic organization is only an outline which needs adjustments and additions to account for the structural and functional diversity across cortical layers and areas. Such diversity suggests that spontaneous activity is spatially diverse in any particular behavioral state. Accordingly, this review summarizes the laminar and areal diversity in cortical activity during fixation and slow oscillations, and the effects of attention, anesthesia and plasticity on the cortical distribution of spontaneous activity. Among questions that remain open, characterizing the spatial diversity in spontaneous membrane potential may help elucidate how differences in circuitry among cortical regions supports their varied functions. More work is also needed to understand whether cortical spontaneous activity not only reflects cortical circuitry, but also contributes to determining the outcome of plasticity, so that it is itself a factor shaping the functional diversity of the cortex.

  10. Spontaneous Pneumothorax as a Complication of Septic Pulmonary Embolism in an Intravenous Drug User: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Chyun Sheu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis has been the major cause of morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users (IDUs with infections, mostly involving the tricuspid valve and presenting multiple septic pulmonary embolisms. Numerous pulmonary complications of septic pulmonary embolism have been described, but only a few have reported spontaneous pneumothorax. Our patient, a 23-year-old heroin addict, was hospitalized for tricuspid endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Acute onset of respiratory distress occurred on his seventh hospital day and rapidly resulted in hypoxemia. Immediate bedside chest radiograph demonstrated left pneumothorax. It was thought to be a spontaneous pneumothorax, because he had not undergone any invasive procedure before the occurrence of pneumothorax. His clinical condition improved after the insertion of an intercostal chest tube. He later underwent surgery to replace the tricuspid valve as a result of the large size of the vegetation and poor control of infection. He ultimately survived. Pneumothorax is a possible lethal complication of septic pulmonary embolism in IDUs with right-sided endocarditis and should be considered in such patients when respiratory distress occurs acutely during their hospitalization.

  11. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E

    2017-03-01

    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  12. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  13. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  14. Discovering Supervisors' Thought Patterns through Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, Roger C.; Moon, R. Arden

    This study focused on the thoughts, related schema, and decision-making of student teaching supervisors as they go about their work of supervision. Twelve practicing supervisors were asked to write their thoughts on a three-stage data gathering, circle instrument. These concepts were weighted to reflect the significance each concept had in the…

  15. "Aid to Thought"--Just Simulate It!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinczkowski, Linda; Cardon, Phillip; Speelman, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides examples of Aid-to-Thought uses in urban decision making, classroom laboratory planning, and in a ship antiaircraft defense system. Aid-to-Thought modeling and simulations are tools students can use effectively in a STEM classroom while meeting Standards for Technological Literacy Benchmarks O and R. These projects prepare…

  16. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  17. Genetics Home Reference: primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Primary spontaneous pneumothorax Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Primary spontaneous pneumothorax is an abnormal accumulation of air in the ...

  18. Ziprasidone-induced spontaneous orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boora, K; Chiappone, K; Dubovsky, S; Xu, J

    2010-06-01

    Neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenic patients has been associated with sexual dysfunction, including impotence and decreased libido. Spontaneous ejaculation without sexual arousal during typical antipsychotic treatment is a rare condition that has been described with zuclopentixol, trifluoperazine, and thiothixene. Here, we are reporting a case of spontaneous orgasm with ziprasidone in a bipolar patient. This patient began to repeatedly experience spontaneous sexual arousal and orgasm, which she had never experienced in the past. Ziprasidone might be causing an increase in sexual orgasm by 5-HT2 receptor antagonism, which preclinical evidence suggests that it facilitates dopamine release in the cortex.

  19. The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C; Salgado, Sinue

    2015-11-01

    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Messianism in Latin American Environmental Thought

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago, Dairo

    2008-01-01

    One appears in the communication as one resorts for the social mobilization, towards the political pretensions of the messianic environmental thought, to symbiologies of body, psychic character and society of skeptical or relativist character. For the analysis of the symbiologies, we start from the criterion that when they are used politically in the environmental thought it is not done necessarily with an intention of strategic use I specify, but that its use can be by the implicit valuations that have these symbiologies in the world of the daily life, where the systems of environmental thought also interact of messianic type

  1. Does unconscious thought outperform conscious thought on complex decisions? A further examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Thorsteinson

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the benefits of unconscious thought on complex decisions (Dijksterhuis, 2004. Experiment 1 attempted to replicate and extend past research by examining the effect of providing reasons prior to rating the options. Results indicated no significant differences between the conditions. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate the findings of Dijksterhuis, Bos, Nordgren, and van Baaren (2006 and determine if a memory aid could overcome the limitations of conscious thought on complex tasks. Results revealed that a memory aid improved decisions compared to the conscious thought condition. Participants in the unconscious thought condition did not perform significantly better than did participants in the conscious thought condition.

  2. Quark potential of spontaneous strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    German, G.; Kleinert, H.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present some recent developments in string models with an extrinsic curvature term in action. Particular emphasis is placed upon the static quark potential and on the thermal deconfinement properties of spontaneous strings

  3. Hematome Extra - Dural Rachidien Spontane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cl. Gros

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available Four personal cases of Spontaneous Spinal Epidurdl Hemerrhage are Reported. And 29 additional cases have been analysed by reviewing the literature. The clinical radiologcal and surgical aspects were discussed.

  4. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  5. A few thoughts on the history ofepilepsy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A few thoughts on the history ofepilepsy. J. C. DE ... Abstract The history of epilepsy is a saga ofthe struggle by ..... great detail in Germany using faradic stimulation and .... Holmes G. Evolution of clinical medicine as illustrated by rhe his-.

  6. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  7. Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Harnessing Intellectual Property for Development: Some Thoughts on an Appropriate ... This will be achieved through the creation of an IP system that provides ... the good being protected and the manner in which the creative process unfolds.

  8. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  9. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  10. Spontaneous calf haematoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, N H; Liew, N C

    2014-02-01

    Spontaneous calf haematoma is a rare condition and few case reports have been published in the English literature. Common conditions like deep vein thrombosis and traumatic gastrocnemius muscle tear need to be considered when a patient presents with unilateral calf swelling and tenderness. Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging are essential for confirmation of diagnosis. The purpose of this paper is to report on a rare case of spontaneous calf hematoma and its diagnosis and management.

  11. Quantifying emissions from spontaneous combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous combustion can be a significant problem in the coal industry, not only due to the obvious safety hazard and the potential loss of valuable assets, but also with respect to the release of gaseous pollutants, especially CO2, from uncontrolled coal fires. This report reviews methodologies for measuring emissions from spontaneous combustion and discusses methods for quantifying, estimating and accounting for the purpose of preparing emission inventories.

  12. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Þahin ÇÝFTÇÝ; Tacettin KURU

    2013-01-01

    Thought Action Fusion (TAF) is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996), is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). TAF alleged includi...

  13. Simultaneous and spontaneous reversal of positional nystagmus; an unusual peripheral sign of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser, MD

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Direction-changing positional nystagmus is generally thought to be of central origin. Reversal of initial positional nystagmus during maintaining the head position in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is quite unusual and could be a sign of peripheral pathology. Vestibular reflex adaptation, simultaneous co-existence of canalolithiasis and cupulolithiasis in the same or both ears and changing in direction of debris movement have been proposed for the mechanism of this phenomenon. This can be a sign of simultaneous ampullopedal and ampulofugal flows during single head movement. This double-phase pattern of flow causing reversal of positional nystagmus could be related with the amount, location and dispersal of otolithic debris inside the membranous labyrinth. Four patients (3 lateral canal canalolithiasis and 1 posterior canal with reversing spontaneous nystagmus among 530 patients with BPPV have been identified in our clinic. They have been cured with standard re-positioning maneuvers. Endolymphatic reflux theory has been proposed as the underlying mechanism for unusual behavior of otolithic debris.

  14. Top-Down Cognitive and Linguistic Influences on the Suppression of Spontaneous Otoacoustic Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorica Marian

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Auditory sensation is often thought of as a bottom-up process, yet the brain exerts top-down control to affect how and what we hear. We report the discovery that the magnitude of top-down influence varies across individuals as a result of differences in linguistic background and executive function. Participants were 32 normal-hearing individuals (23 female varying in language background (11 English monolinguals, 10 Korean-English late bilinguals, and 11 Korean-English early bilinguals, as well as cognitive abilities (working memory, cognitive control. To assess efferent control over inner ear function, participants were presented with speech-sounds (e.g., /ba/, /pa/ in one ear while spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs were measured in the contralateral ear. SOAEs are associated with the amplification of sound in the cochlea, and can be used as an index of top-down efferent activity. Individuals with bilingual experience and those with better cognitive control experienced larger reductions in the amplitude of SOAEs in response to speech stimuli, likely as a result of greater efferent suppression of amplification in the cochlea. This suppression may aid in the critical task of speech perception by minimizing the disruptive effects of noise. In contrast, individuals with better working memory exert less control over the cochlea, possibly due to a greater capacity to process complex stimuli at later stages. These findings demonstrate that even peripheral mechanics of auditory perception are shaped by top-down cognitive and linguistic influences.

  15. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koora Kiran

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  16. Later Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig Børsen

    2010-01-01

    This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument...

  17. Lateral collateral ligament (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  18. Non-erotic thoughts and sexual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdon, Christine; Watson, Chris

    2011-10-01

    This study sought to replicate and extend investigations of current models of sexual dysfunction (Barlow, 2002; Janssen, Everaerd, Spiering, & Janssen, 2000) which implicate factors such as spectatoring, failure to use ameliorative strategies, and information processing biases in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. A sample of 165 (n = 71 men) undergraduates completed measures of sexual dysfunction and relationship satisfaction, and reported on the content and frequency of non-erotic thoughts during sex with a partner (i.e., spectatoring), the emotional impact of non-erotic thoughts, and the strategies used to manage them. They also reported on their main sexual functioning difficulties and the strategies they used to manage those difficulties. Finally, participants were presented with a series of hypothetical sexual scenarios and were asked to report their immediate interpretation of events in the scenario. The content of non-erotic thoughts was similar to previous work (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006), although gender differences in thought content were less pronounced. As in previous research, greater frequency of, and anxiety evoked by, non-erotic thoughts was associated with poorer sexual functioning, but we found that this was over and above relationship satisfaction. Participants both high and low in sexual functioning reported using a variety of strategies to manage their non-erotic thoughts, thought suppression being the least effective, and also used a variety of strategies to manage sexual difficulties. Poorer sexual functioning was associated with more negative interpretations of ambiguous sexual scenarios, but this was mediated by relationship satisfaction. However, positive interpretations were predicted by sexual functioning. Results were discussed in terms of their theoretical and clinical implications.

  19. Spontaneous formation of densely packed shear bands of rotating fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, J A; Timonen, J

    2012-05-01

    Appearance of self-similar space-filling ball bearings has been suggested to provide the explanation for seismic gaps, shear weakness, and lack of detectable frictional heat formation in mature tectonic faults (shear zones). As the material in a shear zone fractures and grinds, it could be thought to eventually form a conformation that allows fragments to largely roll against each other without much sliding. This type of space-filling "ball bearing" can be constructed artificially, but so far how such delicate structures may appear spontaneously has remained unexplained. It is demonstrated here that first-principles simulations of granular packing with fragmenting grains indeed display spontaneous formation of shear bands with fragment conformations very similar to those of densely packed ball bearings.

  20. Anodal Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of the Prefrontal Cortex Enhances Complex Verbal Associative Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerruti, Carlo; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2009-01-01

    The remote associates test (RAT) is a complex verbal task with associations to both creative thought and general intelligence. RAT problems require not only lateral associations and the internal production of many words but a convergent focus on a single answer. Complex problem-solving of this sort may thus require both substantial verbal…

  1. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þahin ÇÝFTÇÝ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Thought Action Fusion (TAF is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996, is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. TAF alleged including a certain level also in the normal population, was seen in the relationship with the inflated responsability in OCD, thought suppression and neutralising, was tried to explain the direction of this relationship in the mediationel model framework. [JCBPR 2013; 2(3.000: 138-146

  2. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahin CIFTCI

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Thought Action Fusion (TAF is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996, is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. TAF alleged including a certain level also in the normal population, was seen in the relationship with the inflated responsability in OCD, thought suppression and neutralising, was tried to explain the direction of this relationship in the mediationel model framework.

  3. Fast thought speed induces risk taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Jesse J; Pronin, Emily

    2012-04-01

    In two experiments, we tested for a causal link between thought speed and risk taking. In Experiment 1, we manipulated thought speed by presenting neutral-content text at either a fast or a slow pace and having participants read the text aloud. In Experiment 2, we manipulated thought speed by presenting fast-, medium-, or slow-paced movie clips that contained similar content. Participants who were induced to think more quickly took more risks with actual money in Experiment 1 and reported greater intentions to engage in real-world risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex and illegal drug use, in Experiment 2. These experiments provide evidence that faster thinking induces greater risk taking.

  4. Flow Friction or Spontaneous Ignition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, Joel M.; Gallus, Timothy D.; Sparks, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    "Flow friction," a proposed ignition mechanism in oxygen systems, has proved elusive in attempts at experimental verification. In this paper, the literature regarding flow friction is reviewed and the experimental verification attempts are briefly discussed. Another ignition mechanism, a form of spontaneous combustion, is proposed as an explanation for at least some of the fire events that have been attributed to flow friction in the literature. In addition, the results of a failure analysis performed at NASA Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility are presented, and the observations indicate that spontaneous combustion was the most likely cause of the fire in this 2000 psig (14 MPa) oxygen-enriched system.

  5. Spontaneous rupture of vaginal enterocele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Galatius, H; Hansen, P K

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission.......Spontaneous rupture of an enterocele is a rare complication. Only 24 cases including the present case have been reported in the literature. The patients were elderly and had had at least one vaginal operation. The patients were remarkably unaffected symptomatically on admission....

  6. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  7. How intention and monitoring your thoughts influence characteristics of autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv

    2018-05-01

    Involuntary autobiographical memories come to mind effortlessly and unintended, but the mechanisms of their retrieval are not fully understood. We hypothesize that involuntary retrieval depends on memories that are highly accessible (e.g., intense, unusual, recent, rehearsed), while the elaborate search that characterizes voluntary retrieval also produces memories that are mundane, repeated or distant - memories with low accessibility. Previous research provides some evidence for this 'threshold hypothesis'. However, in almost every prior study, participants have been instructed to report only memories while ignoring other thoughts. It is possible that such an instruction can modify the phenomenological characteristics of involuntary memories. This study aimed to investigate the effects of retrieval intentionality (i.e., wanting to retrieve a memory) and selective monitoring (i.e., instructions to report only memories) on the phenomenology of autobiographical memories. Participants were instructed to (1) intentionally retrieve autobiographical memories, (2) intentionally retrieve any type of thought (3) wait for an autobiographical memory to spontaneously appear, or (4) wait for any type of thought to spontaneously appear. They rated the mental content on a number of phenomenological characteristics both during retrieval and retrospectively following retrieval. The results support the prediction that highly accessible memories mostly enter awareness unintended and without selective monitoring, while memories with low accessibility rely on intention and selective monitoring. We discuss the implications of these effects. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  8. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil

    2012-02-01

    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  9. Mapping the Brain’s Metaphor Circuitry:Is Abstract Thought Metaphorical Thought?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George eLakoff

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.

  10. Suicidal Thoughts Among Medical Residents with Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report

  11. The relation between language, culture, and thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Mutsumi; Kanero, Junko; Masuda, Takahiko

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between culture, language, and thought has long been one of the most important topics for those who wish to understand the nature of human cognition. This issue has been investigated for decades across a broad range of research disciplines. However, there has been scant communication across these different disciplines, a situation largely arising through differences in research interests and discrepancies in the definitions of key terms such as 'culture,' 'language,' and 'thought.' This article reviews recent trends in research on the relation between language, culture and thought to capture how cognitive psychology and cultural psychology have defined 'language' and 'culture,' and how this issue was addressed within each research discipline. We then review recent research conducted in interdisciplinary perspectives, which directly compared the roles of culture and language. Finally, we highlight the importance of considering the complex interplay between culture and language to provide a comprehensive picture of how language and culture affect thought. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evolutionary Regeneration Model of Thought Process

    OpenAIRE

    Noboru, HOKKYO; Hitachi Energy Research Laboratory

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary attempt is made to understand the thought process and the evolution of the nervous system on the same footing as regeneration processes obeying certain recursive algebraic rules which possibly economize the information content of the increasingly complex structural-functional correlate of the evolving and thinking nervous system.

  13. Some thoughts on interacting binary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The author presents some thoughts on the theory and observation of interacting binary systems. The complex physical processes possible in these systems make our present understanding inconclusive. New types of observation (X-ray, EUV, radio) present new challenges to the theoretician. The author discusses those problems which seem to hold the most promise for future progress. (Auth.)

  14. Patients' thoughts on patient- retained medical records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was also thought to motivate the patients to act on the advice given, and the records also served as a reminder to take their ... to use it and to standardise the information that is recorded; and health planners should be motivated to implement .... Table I: Combined list of themes identified and quotations supporting them.

  15. Disciplines in the Service of Educational Thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Ian

    1999-01-01

    Suggests that the 20th century has been the century of the application of disciplines - philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, statistics, cognitive science, and computer science - to educational thought on an unprecedented scale. The same disciplines, in the service of the study of women by women, have led to a whole new complex of thought…

  16. Scientific publishing: some food for thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Bo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publishing, here to be considered in a broader sense, as publishing of both specialised scientific journals and science popularisation works addressed to a wider audience, has been sailing for some years on troubled waters. To gather some possible food for thought is the purpose of this brief article.

  17. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  18. Spontaneous regression of pulmonary bullae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, H.; Ishikawa, H.; Ohtsuka, M.; Sekizawa, K.

    2002-01-01

    The natural history of pulmonary bullae is often characterized by gradual, progressive enlargement. Spontaneous regression of bullae is, however, very rare. We report a case in which complete resolution of pulmonary bullae in the left upper lung occurred spontaneously. The management of pulmonary bullae is occasionally made difficult because of gradual progressive enlargement associated with abnormal pulmonary function. Some patients have multiple bulla in both lungs and/or have a history of pulmonary emphysema. Others have a giant bulla without emphysematous change in the lungs. Our present case had treated lung cancer with no evidence of local recurrence. He had no emphysematous change in lung function test and had no complaints, although the high resolution CT scan shows evidence of underlying minimal changes of emphysema. Ortin and Gurney presented three cases of spontaneous reduction in size of bulla. Interestingly, one of them had a marked decrease in the size of a bulla in association with thickening of the wall of the bulla, which was observed in our patient. This case we describe is of interest, not only because of the rarity with which regression of pulmonary bulla has been reported in the literature, but also because of the spontaneous improvements in the radiological picture in the absence of overt infection or tumor. Copyright (2002) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  19. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  20. Silicosis with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotedar Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presentation with simultaneous bilateral pneumothorax is uncommon and usually in the context of secondary spontaneous pneumothorax.The association of pneumothorax and silicosis is infrequent and most cases are unilateral. Bilateral pneumothorax in silicosis is very rare with just a few reports in medical literature.

  1. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  2. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  3. Thoughts in flight: automation use and pilots' task-related and task-unrelated thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M; Schooler, Jonathan W

    2014-05-01

    The objective was to examine the relationship between cockpit automation use and task-related and task-unrelated thought among airline pilots. Studies find that cockpit automation can sometimes relieve pilots of tedious control tasks and afford them more time to think ahead. Paradoxically, automation has also been shown to lead to lesser awareness. These results prompt the question of what pilots think about while using automation. A total of 18 airline pilots flew a Boeing 747-400 simulator while we recorded which of two levels of automation they used. As they worked, pilots were verbally probed about what they were thinking. Pilots were asked to categorize their thoughts as pertaining to (a) a specific task at hand, (b) higher-level flight-related thoughts (e.g.,planning ahead), or (c) thoughts unrelated to the flight. Pilots' performance was also measured. Pilots reported a smaller percentage of task-at-hand thoughts (27% vs. 50%) and a greater percentage of higher-level flight-related thoughts (56% vs. 29%) when using the higher level of automation. However, when all was going according to plan, using either level of automation, pilots also reported a higher percentage of task-unrelated thoughts (21%) than they did when in the midst of an unsuccessful performance (7%). Task-unrelated thoughts peaked at 25% when pilots were not interacting with the automation. Although cockpit automation may provide pilots with more time to think, it may encourage pilots to reinvest only some of this mental free time in thinking flight-related thoughts. This research informs the design of human-automation systems that more meaningfully engage the human operator.

  4. A Case of Spontaneously Resolved Bilateral Primary Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kahraman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A condition of intrapleural air-space accumulation in individuals without any history of trauma or lung disease is called as primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP. Sixteen-years-old male patient admitted with complains of chest pain and dyspnea beginning 3 day ago. On physical examination, severity of breath sounds decreased on right side. Chest radiograph was taken and right-sided pneumothorax was detected and tube thoracostomy was inserted. Two months ago the patient referred to a doctor with similar complaints and physical examination and chest radiograph were reported as normal. The radiograph was retrospectively examined and bilateral PSP was detected. We presented the case duo to spontaneous recovery of bilateral PSP is seen very rarely and so contributes data to the literature. In patients admitted to the clinic with chest pain and shortness of breath, pneumothorax should be considered at differential diagnosis.

  5. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Beom [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2000-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  6. Manic thinking: independent effects of thought speed and thought content on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Wegner, Daniel M

    2006-09-01

    This experiment found that the speed of thought affects mood. Thought speed was manipulated via participants' paced reading of statements designed to induce either an elated or a depressed mood. Participants not only experienced more positive mood in response to elation than in response to depression statements, but also experienced an independent increase in positive mood when they had been thinking fast rather than slow--for both elation and depression statements. This effect of thought speed extended beyond mood to other experiences often associated with mania (i.e., feelings of power, feelings of creativity, a heightened sense of energy, and inflated self-esteem or grandiosity).

  7. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  8. Christian thought in Momcilo Nastasijevic's poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić-Tmušić Aleksandra S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Poetry of Momcilo Nastasijevic gives us undoubted motive to talk about him as a consistent religious poet, a poet of orthodox religious inspiration. He approached towards words as sanctity, he endeavoured to measure each word, reach it, and clean it from accumulated dust of everyday’s blather. His attitude towards poetical locution, his personal law of poetical perfection, represents, brought up to the last consequences, principles of symbolist poetics. He thought of words as magic of sound and rhythm and examines all the effects we can get from it. To him, poetry was identical to crucial and the purest flickering of what he called human soul. The thought of our poet come down to essence of his poetry: who has understood his poems, can be sure that will understand Nastasijevic as a poet.

  9. Modular thought in the circuit analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng

    2018-04-01

    Applied to solve the problem of modular thought, provides a whole for simplification's method, the complex problems have become of, and the study of circuit is similar to the above problems: the complex connection between components, make the whole circuit topic solution seems to be more complex, and actually components the connection between the have rules to follow, this article mainly tells the story of study on the application of the circuit modular thought. First of all, this paper introduces the definition of two-terminal network and the concept of two-terminal network equivalent conversion, then summarizes the common source resistance hybrid network modular approach, containing controlled source network modular processing method, lists the common module, typical examples analysis.

  10. Globalising the classical foundations of IPE thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Helleiner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Current efforts to teach and research the historical foundations of IPE thought in classical political economy in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries centre largely on European and American thinkers. If a more extensive 'global conversation' is to be fostered in the field today, the perspectives of thinkers in other regions need to be recognised, and brought into the mainstream of its intellectual history. As a first step towards 'globalising' the classical foundations of IPE thought, this article demonstrates some ways in which thinkers located beyond Europe and the United States engaged with and contributed to debates associated with the three well-known classical traditions on which current IPE scholarship often draws: economic liberalism, economic nationalism and Marxism. It also reveals the extensive nature of 'global conversations' about IPE issues in this earlier era.

  11. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  12. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  13. Life and its transfiguration in Nietzsche's thought

    OpenAIRE

    Cominos, Marina Olive

    2017-01-01

    This thesis argues that Nietzsche’s thought takes two paths toward overcoming the nihilism of modern culture. It shows that affirmation is alternatively conceived as a revaluation of life and as a transfiguration of it, introducing an ambiguity at the heart of Nietzsche’s philosophy. Nietzsche’s aspiration to cultural regeneration prevents him from recognising the implications of affirmation as it is best conceived, as transfiguration, an aesthetic condition that cannot be imposed or designed...

  14. Jean Rouch: sign, true and thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a fundamental question: thinking cinema verite documentary created by Jean Rouch from Deleuze’s power of the false problematic to highlight the singularities of images and signs that make it up. The cinematographic images created by Rouch allowing that thought be taken to maximum intensity and the process of artistic creation make speakable the unspeakable, audible the inaudible and visible the invisible.  

  15. Thought and Behavior Contagion in Capital Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hirshleifer, David; Teoh, Siew Hong

    2008-01-01

    Prevailing models of capital markets capture a limited form of social influence and information transmission, in which the beliefs and behavior of an investor affects others only through market price, information transmission and processing is simple (without thoughts and feelings), and there is no localization in the influence of an investor on others. In reality, individuals often process verbal arguments obtained in conversation or from media presentations, and observe...

  16. Thought Suppression in Patients With Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.

    2010-01-01

    Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or ?hyperpositive? (manic/goa...

  17. A Reappraisal of Jevons's Thought on Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Motohiro, Okada; Faculty of Economics, Konan University

    2012-01-01

    This paper re-examines W. S. Jevons's thought on labour and elucidates its uniqueness and limitations. Jevons's subjectivist approach penetrated his theory of labour, and he regarded pain as the measure of labour. In the first edition of The Theory of Political Economy, Jevons provided insights that could lead to the negation of the market determination of wages and other work conditions, thus offering a rationalisation of the intervention of socio-political factors in labour exchange. In doi...

  18. [Population policy: the legacy of Greek thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgegren Reategui, F

    1994-01-01

    The author "explains that the Greek philosophy and scientific thought developed elements of what is known today as population policies. These include roles and gender relationships, the population volume, the family, sexuality, birth control, eugenics, abortion and [quality of life]....The first part of the article reviews issues on family and women's roles. The second part is related to aspects associated with sexuality and...population policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  19. Daydreaming, Thought Blocking and Strudels in the Taskless, Resting Human Brain's Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Arnold J.; Selz, Karen A.; Aven, John; Holroyd, Tom; Coppola, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The incidence, i(S), and duration, l(S), of transient, intermittent, hierarchical vorticities, strudels, S, in magnetic flux fluctuations, were computed from MEG records. from 91 task-free resting subjects. The MEG's i(S) and l(S) manifested characteristic times and entropic sensitivity resembling those reported in psychological studies of daydreaming and task-unrelated thoughts, TUTs. Transient reduction or absences of strudels can be found in patients with syndromes characterized by thought blocking. Positive ergodic single orbit measures of expansiveness and mixing predict i(S) and l(S). An analogy with the relationship between intermittent pontine-geniculate-occipital waves and dreaming is made to strudels with daydreaming. Both can be interpreted as neurophysiological correlates of the spontaneous intrusions into consciousness of the never idle unconscious mind.

  20. Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempala, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies.

  1. Language as an instrument of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Asoulin

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available I show that there are good arguments and evidence to boot that support the language as an instrument of thought hypothesis. The underlying mechanisms of language, comprising of expressions structured hierarchically and recursively, provide a perspective (in the form of a conceptual structure on the world, for it is only via language that certain perspectives are available to us and to our thought processes. These mechanisms provide us with a uniquely human way of thinking and talking about the world that is different to the sort of thinking we share with other animals. If the primary function of language were communication then one would expect that the underlying mechanisms of language will be structured in a way that favours successful communication. I show that not only is this not the case, but that the underlying mechanisms of language are in fact structured in a way to maximise computational efficiency, even if it means causing communicative problems. Moreover, I discuss evidence from comparative, neuropathological, developmental, and neuroscientific evidence that supports the claim that language is an instrument of thought.

  2. Language, Thought, and Culture: Views and Arguments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyvan Zahedi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study follows two aims: one to review some late views on the relations among language, thought, and culture; and the other, to offer a new strategy, in a novel model, based on last achievements in the minimalist approach. Studying views and arguments, three dichotomies are discussed: 1 the views which confirm the relation between culture and language in opposition to the views that deny this; 2 distinguishing the symmetry-procedural view and the transforming views of language; and 3 distinction among the social-communicational, and the biological-genetic motivations of language. The hypothesis for the novel strategy is that considering what the minimalist program has offered, especially from 2000 onwards, it is possible that language affects thought, while coding the and that culture affects language (which is called ethno-grammar . This is in addition to the biological-genetic base. From this point of view, language’s main function is neither to provide communication, nor to express thought, but to connect cognitive and socio-cultural terminals together.

  3. Thought-action fusion and thought suppression in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Diepstraten, P; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    2001-07-01

    To examine the significance of thought-action fusion (TAF) and thought suppression tendencies, the present study obtained pre- and post-treatment questionnaire data on these constructs in a sample of OCD patients (n=24) and non-OCD anxiety patients (n=20). Results indicate that TAF and suppression are correlated with severity of psychopathology. Yet, the associations between TAF and psychopathology are not typical for OCD, but do also occur in other anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, and social phobia). As well, mean scores on the TAF and thought suppression measures dropped significantly from pre- to post-treatment, indicating that TAF and thought suppression are susceptible to change during psychotherapy.

  4. Responsibility, thought-action fusion, and thought suppression in Turkish patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorulmaz, O; Karanci, A N; Bastug, B; Kisa, C; Goka, E

    2008-03-01

    Although an inflated sense of responsibility, thought-action fusion, and thought suppression are influential factors in cognitive models of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), their impact on OCD has generally been demonstrated in samples from Western countries. The aim of the present study is to evaluate these cognitive factors in Turkish patients with OCD, other anxiety disorders, and community controls. Group comparisons showed that responsibility based on self-dangerousness and thought suppression significantly distinguished OCD patients from patients with other anxiety disorders and controls. Moreover, correlation and discriminant function analyses indicated that thought-action fusion in morality and likelihood was also associated with OCD symptoms. The present findings provide support for the international validity and specificity of cognitive factors and model for OCD.

  5. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  6. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  7. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra

    2014-02-01

    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effectiveness of online self-help for suicidal thoughts: results of a randomised controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bregje A J van Spijker

    Full Text Available Many people with suicidal thoughts do not receive treatment. The Internet can be used to reach more people in need of support.To test the effectiveness of unguided online self-help to reduce suicidal thoughts.236 adults with mild to moderate suicidal thoughts were randomised to the intervention (n=116 or a waitlist control group (n=120. Assessments took place at baseline, and 2, 4 and 6 weeks later. Primary outcome was suicidal thoughts. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptoms, anxiety, hopelessness, worry, and health status.The intervention group showed a small significant effect in reducing suicidal thoughts (d=0.28. Effects were more pronounced for those with a history of repeated suicide attempts. There was also a significant reduction in worry (d=0.33. All other secondary outcomes showed small but non-significant improvements.Although effect sizes were small, the reach of the internet could enable this intervention to help many people reduce their suicidal thoughts.Netherlands Trial Register NTR1689.

  9. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa

    2013-12-11

    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  10. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  11. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  12. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  13. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sameer; Prakash, Mahesh; Kaman, Lileshwar; Bhardwaj, Nidhi; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF) is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  14. Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous esophageal-pleural fistula (EPF is a rare entity. We describe a case in a middle-aged female who presented with severe retrosternal chest pain and shortness of breadth. Chest computed tomography showed right EPF and hydropneumothorax. She was managed conservatively keeping the chest tube drainage and performing feeding jejunostomy. A brief review of the imaging finding and management of EPF is discussed.

  15. Spontaneous acute spinal subdural hematoma: spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis--case report and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payer, Michael; Agosti, Reto

    2010-11-01

    Spontaneous idiopathic acute spinal subdural hematomas are highly exceptional. Neurological symptoms are usually severe, and rapid diagnosis with MRI is mandatory. Surgical evacuation has frequently been used therapeutically; however, spontaneous recovery in mild cases has also been reported. We present a case of spontaneous recovery from severe paraparesis after spontaneous acute SSDH, and review the English-speaking literature.

  16. Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma: Report of a case managed conservatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Tariq

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a rare cause of acute spinal cord compression. A 25-year-old male presented with a history of sudden onset of complete quadriplegia with sensory loss below the neck along with loss of bowel and bladder control. He had no history of any constitutional symptoms. He reported 10 days later. He was managed conservatively and after two weeks of intensive rehabilitation he had complete neural recovery. The spontaneous recovery of neurological impairment is attributed to the spreading of the hematoma throughout the epidural space, thus decreasing the pressure with partial neural recovery. Conservative treatment is a fair option in young patients who present late and show neurological improvement. The neurological status on presentation will guide the further approach to management.

  17. Embolization of Spontaneous Hemarthrosis Post Total Knee Replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Given, M. F.; Smith, P.; Lyon, S. M.; Robertson, D.; Thomson, K. R.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous nonhemophiliac hemarthrosis is an unusual entity, which has been little described. We present three cases of spontaneous recurrent hemarthrosis post total knee replacement (TKR) and successful management with embolization. Three male patients were referred to our service for angiography and treatment of recurrent hemarthrosis post TKR. In all three patients antegrade ipsilateral common femoral artery punctures and selective angiography of the geniculate branches were performed with a microcatheter. Abnormal vasculature was noted in all cases. Subsequent embolization was performed with Contour (Boston Scientific, Target Vascular, Cork, Ireland) embolization particles (150-250 and 250-355 μm) in two patients and microcoils in the third (TornadoR; Cook Inc., Bloomington, IN, USA). Technical success was 100%. One patient had a recurrence of symptoms requiring a repeat procedure 6 months later. No complications were encountered. Selective angiography and particle embolization is an effective technique for management of this unusual but problematic postoperative sequelae.

  18. Autonomous dynamics in neural networks: the dHAN concept and associative thought processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gros, Claudius

    2007-02-01

    The neural activity of the human brain is dominated by self-sustained activities. External sensory stimuli influence this autonomous activity but they do not drive the brain directly. Most standard artificial neural network models are however input driven and do not show spontaneous activities. It constitutes a challenge to develop organizational principles for controlled, self-sustained activity in artificial neural networks. Here we propose and examine the dHAN concept for autonomous associative thought processes in dense and homogeneous associative networks. An associative thought-process is characterized, within this approach, by a time-series of transient attractors. Each transient state corresponds to a stored information, a memory. The subsequent transient states are characterized by large associative overlaps, which are identical to acquired patterns. Memory states, the acquired patterns, have such a dual functionality. In this approach the self-sustained neural activity has a central functional role. The network acquires a discrimination capability, as external stimuli need to compete with the autonomous activity. Noise in the input is readily filtered-out. Hebbian learning of external patterns occurs coinstantaneous with the ongoing associative thought process. The autonomous dynamics needs a long-term working-point optimization which acquires within the dHAN concept a dual functionality: It stabilizes the time development of the associative thought process and limits runaway synaptic growth, which generically occurs otherwise in neural networks with self-induced activities and Hebbian-type learning rules.

  19. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  20. Spontaneous Scalarization: Dead or Alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Emanuele; Crispino, Luis; Gerosa, Davide; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Horbatsch, Michael; Macedo, Caio; Okada da Silva, Hector; Pani, Paolo; Sotani, Hajime; Sperhake, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In 1993, Damour and Esposito-Farese showed that a wide class of scalar-tensor theories can pass weak-field gravitational tests and exhibit nonperturbative strong-field deviations away from General Relativity in systems involving neutron stars. These deviations are possible in the presence of ``spontaneous scalarization,'' a phase transition similar in nature to spontaneous magnetization in ferromagnets. More than twenty years after the original proposal, binary pulsar experiments have severely constrained the possibility of spontaneous scalarization occurring in nature. I will show that these experimental constraints have important implications for the torsional oscillation frequencies of neutron stars and for the so-called ``I-Love-Q'' relations in scalar-tensor theories. I will also argue that there is still hope to observe strong scalarization effects, despite the strong experimental bounds on the original mechanism. In particular, I will discuss two mechanisms that could produce strong scalarization in neutron stars: anisotropy and multiscalarization. This work was supported by NSF CAREER Award PHY-1055103.

  1. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  2. The early markers for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy are different from those for spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einspieler, C; Cioni, G; Paolicelli, PB; Bos, AF; Dressler, A; Ferrari, F; Roversi, MF; Prechtl, HFR

    Qualitative abnormalities of spontaneous motor activity in new-borns and young infants are early predictive markers for later spastic cerebral palsy. Aim of this research was to identify which motor patterns may be specific for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy. In a large, prospectively performed

  3. Later zaaien kost opbrengst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.

    2000-01-01

    Onderzoek naar de gevolgen van het uitstellen van het zaaitijdstip op de gewasproductie en op opbrengstderving, bijvoorbeeld doordat de grond later bewerkt kan worden door een hogere grondwaterstand als gevolg van peilverhoging

  4. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  5. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  6. Spontaneous Gamma Activity in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Yoji; Oribe, Naoya; Kanba, Shigenobu; Onitsuka, Toshiaki; Nestor, Paul G; Spencer, Kevin M

    2015-08-01

    A major goal of translational neuroscience is to identify neural circuit abnormalities in neuropsychiatric disorders that can be studied in animal models to facilitate the development of new treatments. Oscillations in the gamma band (30-100 Hz) of the electroencephalogram have received considerable interest as the basic mechanisms underlying these oscillations are understood, and gamma abnormalities have been found in schizophrenia (SZ). Animal models of SZ based on hypofunction of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) demonstrate increased spontaneous broadband gamma power, but this phenomenon has not been identified clearly in patients with SZ. To examine spontaneous gamma power and its relationship to evoked gamma oscillations in the auditory cortex of patients with SZ. We performed a cross-sectional study including 24 patients with chronic SZ and 24 matched healthy control participants at the Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System from January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2012. Electroencephalograms were obtained during auditory steady-state stimulation at multiple frequencies (20, 30, and 40 Hz) and during a resting state in 18 participants in each group. Electroencephalographic activity in the auditory cortex was estimated using dipole source localization. Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) measures included the phase-locking factor and evoked power. Spontaneous gamma power was measured as induced (non-phase-locked) gamma power in the ASSR data and as total gamma power in the resting-state data. The ASSR phase-locking factor was reduced significantly in patients with SZ compared with controls for the 40-Hz stimulation (mean [SD], 0.075 [0.028] vs 0.113 [0.065]; F1,46 = 6.79 [P = .012]) but not the 20- or the 30-Hz stimulation (0.042 [0.038] vs 0.043 [0.034]; F1,46 = 0.006 [P = .938] and 0.084 [0.040] vs 0.098 [0.050]; F1,46 = 1.605 [P = .212], respectively), repeating previous findings. The mean [SD] broadband-induced (30

  7. Spontaneous grafting of diazonium salts: chemical mechanism on metallic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesnage, Alice; Lefèvre, Xavier; Jégou, Pascale; Deniau, Guy; Palacin, Serge

    2012-08-14

    The spontaneous reaction of diazonium salts on various substrates has been widely employed since it consists of a simple immersion of the substrate in the diazonium salt solution. As electrochemical processes involving the same diazonium salts, the spontaneous grafting is assumed to give covalently poly(phenylene)-like bonded films. Resistance to solvents and to ultrasonication is commonly accepted as indirect proof of the existence of a covalent bond. However, the most relevant attempts to demonstrate a metal-C interface bond have been obtained by an XPS investigation of spontaneously grafted films on copper. Similarly, our experiments give evidence of such a bond in spontaneously grafted films on nickel substrates in acetonitrile. In the case of gold substrates, the formation of a spontaneous film was unexpected but reported in the literature in parallel to our observations. Even if no interfacial bond was observed, formation of the films was explained by grafting of aryl cations or radicals on the surface arising from dediazoniation, the film growing later by azo coupling, radical addition, or cationic addition on the grafted phenyl layer. Nevertheless, none of these mechanisms fits our experimental results showing the presence of an Au-N bond. In this work, we present a fine spectroscopic analysis of the coatings obtained on gold and nickel substrates that allow us to propose a chemical structure of such films, in particular, their interface with the substrates. After testing the most probable mechanisms, we have concluded in favor of the involvement of two complementary mechanisms which are the direct reaction of diazonium salts with the gold surface that accounts for the observed Au-N interfacial bonds as well as the formation of aryl cations able to graft on the substrate through Au-C linkages.

  8. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  9. Death and dignity in Catholic Christian thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2017-12-01

    This article traces the history of the concept of dignity in Western thought, arguing that it became a formal Catholic theological concept only in the late nineteenth century. Three uses of the word are distinguished: intrinsic, attributed, and inflorescent dignity, of which, it is argued, the intrinsic conception is foundational. The moral norms associated with respect for intrinsic dignity are discussed briefly. The scriptural and theological bases for adopting the concept of dignity as a Christian idea are elucidated. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of this concept of dignity to the spiritual and ethical care of the dying.

  10. Media Influences on Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirkis, Jane E; Mok, Katherine; Robinson, Jo

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the media on suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Until recently, the vast majority of studies in this area were concerned with traditional forms of media like newspapers and television and looked at the potential for irresponsible reporting of suicide to lead....... The recent proliferation of pro-suicide websites has led to concerns that contagion effects may operate in newer media like the Internet, particularly with the advent of Web 2.0. There are numerous suicide prevention websites, which include educational, interactive, and social networking content. A body...

  11. The effects of psychoeducation on thought-action fusion, thought suppression, and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Carper, Teresa; Negy, Charles; Burns, Gillian; Lunt, Rachael A

    2010-09-01

    The current study examined the effects of a psychoeducational intervention designed to target thought-action fusion (TAF) on TAF, thought suppression, and responsibility cognitions. 139 undergraduate students (25 male; 114 female) who were relatively high in TAF with respect to their peers served as participants. Immediately following intervention, individuals who had received psychoeducation regarding TAF reported significantly lower morality TAF scores than individuals who had received psychoeducation regarding thoughts in general and individuals in the control group. At the two-week follow-up assessment, the likelihood TAF scores of those who had received psychoeducation regarding TAF were significantly lower than those of the control group. In addition, the group that received psychoeducation regarding TAF was the only group that did not experience a significant increase in thought suppression from baseline to post-intervention, and was also the only group to experience an increase in both frequency of and belief in low-responsibility thoughts from baseline to follow-up. Implications are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical workload and thoughts of retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkiö-Mäkelä, Merja; Hirvonen, Maria

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present Finnish employees' opinions on continuing work until retirement pension and after the age of 63, and to find out if physical workload is related to these opinions. Altogether 39% of men and 40% of women had never had thoughts of early retirement, and 59% claimed (both men and women) that they would consider working beyond the age of 63. Own health (20%); financial gain such as salary and better pension (19%); meaningful, interesting and challenging work (15%); flexible working hours or part-time work (13%); lighter work load (13%); good work community (8%); and good work environment (6%) were stated as factors affecting the decision to continue working after the age of 63. Employees whose work involved low physical workload had less thoughts of early retirement and had considered continuing work after the age of 63 more often than those whose work involved high physical loads. Own health in particular was stated as a reason to consider continuing work by employees whose work was physically demanding.

  13. Mystical thoughts of Eynolghozat regarding Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KH Assadollahi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Love is a basic subject of Islamic mysticism. It is apparently the hallmark of Eynolghozat's thought as well. Hence, Mystics pronounce him as "Sheikh-al-Asheghin", "Sultan-al-oshshagh", and so on. Eynalghozat considers love as a common faith between God, human beings, and the whole universe by which enmity changes to friendship. He also considers love as a perfect leader who guides the lovers through the way ending to the eminent God. In his opinion, Love which can never be spoken of except by symbolic language is of three main types Great Love, e, middle love, and lower love. Like other mystics figurative (platonic love id of considerable importance for him. However, the first and second types of love -mentioned above- are much more prevalent in his works. In this article, the writer tries to supply a brief definition of love in Eynolghozat's opinion, as well as a comparison of his thoughts with his master that is, Ahmad Ghazali.

  14. [On the evolution of scientific thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Micheli, Alfredo; Iturralde Torres, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    The Nominalists of the XIV century, precursors of modern science, thought that science's object was not the general, vague and indeterminate but the particular, which is real and can be known directly. About the middle of the XVII Century the bases of the modern science became established thanks to a revolution fomented essentially by Galileo, Bacon and Descartes. During the XVIII Century, parallel to the development of the great current of English Empiricism, a movement of scientific renewal also arose in continental Europe following the discipline of the Dutch Physicians and of Boerhaave. In the XIX Century, Claude Bernard dominated the scientific medicine but his rigorous determinism impeded him from taking into account the immense and unforeseeable field of the random. Nowadays, we approach natural science and medicine, from particular groups of facts; that is, from the responses of Nature to specific questions, but not from the general laws. Furthermore, in recent epistemology, the concept that experimental data are not pure facts, but rather, facts interpreted within a hermeneutical context has been established. Finally a general tendency to retrieve philosophical questions concerning the understanding of essence and existence can frequently be seen in scientific inquiry. In the light of the evolution of medical thought, it is possible to establish the position of scientific medicine within the movement of ideas dominating in our time. Copyright © 2014 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Treated with a Targeted CT-Guided Epidural Blood Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH is an important cause of new daily persistent headache. It is thought to be due to spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leaks, which probably have a multifactorial etiology. The classic manifestation of SIH is an orthostatic headache, but other neurological symptoms may be present. An epidural blood patch is thought to be the most effective treatment, but a blind infusion may be ineffective. We describe the case of a young man who developed an acute severe headache, with pain worsening when assuming an upright posture and relief gained with recumbency. No history of previous headache, recent cranial or cervical trauma, or invasive procedures was reported. Magnetic resonance imaging showed pachymeningeal enhancement and other features consistent with SIH and pointed towards a cervical CSF leak site. After failure of conservative treatment, a targeted computer tomography-guided EBP was performed, with complete recovery.

  16. Spontaneous high-gamma band activity reflects functional organization of auditory cortex in the awake macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Leopold, David A; Mishkin, Mortimer; Averbeck, Bruno B

    2012-06-07

    In the absence of sensory stimuli, spontaneous activity in the brain has been shown to exhibit organization at multiple spatiotemporal scales. In the macaque auditory cortex, responses to acoustic stimuli are tonotopically organized within multiple, adjacent frequency maps aligned in a caudorostral direction on the supratemporal plane (STP) of the lateral sulcus. Here, we used chronic microelectrocorticography to investigate the correspondence between sensory maps and spontaneous neural fluctuations in the auditory cortex. We first mapped tonotopic organization across 96 electrodes spanning approximately two centimeters along the primary and higher auditory cortex. In separate sessions, we then observed that spontaneous activity at the same sites exhibited spatial covariation that reflected the tonotopic map of the STP. This observation demonstrates a close relationship between functional organization and spontaneous neural activity in the sensory cortex of the awake monkey. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneous Resolution of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J. Micale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 71 yo woman with primary hyperparathyroidism awaiting surgery because of significant hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria presented to the local emergency department with the chief complaints of discomfort in her neck, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. She was found to be hypocalcemic with a calcium level of 8.1 mg/dL. She was seen by her endocrinologist three days later at which time serum calcium, iPTH, and serum phosphate levels were all within normal limits. Based on history and a series of ultrasounds the patient was diagnosed with spontaneous infarction of her parathyroid adenoma, which resulted in resolution of her primary hyperparathyroidism.

  18. Lateral Pectoral Nerve Injury Mimicking Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, Ilknur; Palamar, Deniz; Akgun, Kenan

    2015-07-01

    The lateral pectoral nerve (LPN) is commonly injured along with the brachial plexus, but its isolated lesions are rare. Here, we present a case of an isolated LPN lesion confused with cervical radiculopathy. A 41-year-old man was admitted to our clinic because of weakness in his right arm. Previous magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination revealed right posterolateral protrusion at the C6-7 level. At the initial assessment, atrophy of the right pectoralis major muscle was evident, and mild weakness of the right shoulder adductor, internal rotator, and flexor muscles was observed. Therefore, electrodiagnostic evaluation was performed, and a diagnosis of isolated LPN injury was made. Nerve injury was thought to have been caused by weightlifting exercises and traction injury. Lateral pectoral nerve injury can mimic cervical radiculopathy, and MRI examination alone may lead to misdiagnosis. Repeated physical examinations during the evaluation and treatment phase will identify the muscle atrophy that occurs 1 or more months after the injury.

  19. SPHENOID SINUS (SS ANTERIOR MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE ENCEPHALOCELE (AMTLE WITH SPONTANEOUS CSF RHINORRHOEA : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laveena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cranial encephaloceles are the herniation of intracranial meninges and brain tissue through a defect in the cranium or skull base. These are rare conditions with an incidence of approximately 1 in 35,000 people, and are more common in the anterior cranial fossa than those in the middle one . 1,2 Temporal lobe herniation through a mid dle fossa defect into the lateral recess of the Sphenoid Sinus is even rarer than its medial representation. Intrasphenoidal encephaloceles are extremely rare findings 3 . Spontaneous, or primary, CSF fistula is a separate entity with no underlying cause of the CSF leak. Spontaneous CSF leaks are usually associated with a co - existing encephalocele of variable size 4 . We present a case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea in a sphenoid sinus Anterior Medial Temporal lobe encephalocele herniating through a clinically silent lateral Craniopharyngeal canal.

  20. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson

    2017-11-01

    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  1. Spontaneous coronary dissection: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Gustavo J. Ventura; Deslandes, Alexandre de O.; Santos, Paulo César de Souza; Cruz, Alexandre de Araújo; Saraiva, Roberto Santos

    2007-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho é demonstrar o caso de um homem de 62 anos, com quadro de dissecção coronariana espontânea, localizada em 1/3 inicial de coronária circunflexa esquerda, tratado cirurgicamente com revascularização miocárdica. A operação realizada com sucesso demonstra, nesse caso, ser o único meio possível de cura.The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate the case of a 62-year-old man, with spontaneous coronary dissection of the left circumflex artery, treated surgically by myocardial ...

  2. [Spontaneous neoplasms in guinea pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khar'kovskaia, N A; Khrustalev, S A; Vasil'eva, N N

    1977-01-01

    The authors present an analysis of the data of foreign literature and the results of their personal studies of spontaneous neoplasms in 40 guinea pigs of national breeding observed during observed during a 5-year period. In 4 of them malignant tumors were diagnosed-lympholeucosis (2 cases), dermoid ovarian cysts and also cancer and adenoma of the adrenal cortex (in one animal). The neoplasms described developed in guinea pigs, aged over 4 years, and they are referred to as mostly common tumors in this species of animals.

  3. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  4. Preventing Errors in Laterality

    OpenAIRE

    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie

    2014-01-01

    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  5. Thoughts Invade Us: Lexical Cognition and Cyberspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    enables us to learn a language to begin with. In the same way that technology is socially constructed but later exerts influence within a...http://www.stratcom.mil/ Media /Factsheets/Factsheet- View/Article/960492/us-cyber-command-uscybercom/. Wendt, Alexander. Social Theory of...perspective extends a purely social construction of cyberspace, where the domain changes simply as an extension of social dynamics, utility, and

  6. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  7. Effective e-Learning by Thoughtful Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Joyes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an insight into an e-learning design approach that has been used by the author in a wide range of contexts in Higher Education as part of an ongoing enquiry into transforming online teaching and learning within sustainable 'real' courses. A key driver has been the need to engage learners in Higher Education in moving from consumers to producers of knowledge and to engage in communities of practice through the use of online tools for learning. These developments use an analytic framework to support thoughtful e-learning design and insights into the way his framework has been applied are presented through a number of case studies. This work is shaping Web2.0 technologies to match a learning rather than a social agenda by casting them in particular learning activities within specific contexts for particular learning purposes.Keywords: e-learning, activity theory

  8. Two channel EEG thought pattern classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D A; Nguyen, H T; Burchey, H A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time electro-encephalogram (EEG) identification system with the goal of achieving hands free control. With two EEG electrodes placed on the scalp of the user, EEG signals are amplified and digitised directly using a ProComp+ encoder and transferred to the host computer through the RS232 interface. Using a real-time multilayer neural network, the actual classification for the control of a powered wheelchair has a very fast response. It can detect changes in the user's thought pattern in 1 second. Using only two EEG electrodes at positions O(1) and C(4) the system can classify three mental commands (forward, left and right) with an accuracy of more than 79 %

  9. Thought-action fusion: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafran, R; Rachman, S

    2004-06-01

    The cognitive bias of "Thought Action Fusion" (TAF) has received significant research attention in the past decade. The review addresses the assessment of TAF, its place in cognitive theories of obsessional difficulties, and the evidence demonstrating that TAF is relevant to disorders beyond Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Data on the components of TAF, its extension to positive outcomes and its role in the aetiology, maintenance and treatment of OCD are reviewed. It is concluded that the moral form of TAF is less robust than the likelihood form and that scales may be best used as a starting point in identifying beliefs and conducting experimental investigations. It is also suggested that the scales be amended to include harm avoidance, which would also increase their clinical utility.

  10. Thought action fusion: can it be corrected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Bonnie G; Craske, Michelle G; Barrios, Velma; Holguin, Monique

    2002-06-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether or not a brief educational intervention delivered prior to engaging in an anxiety-provoking task (writing a sentence about hoping that a friend/relative was in a car accident) would be effective in offsetting anxiety in college students with a strong propensity to endorse statements of thought action fusion (TAF). As hypothesized, individuals receiving the educational intervention were less anxious than a placebo intervention control group at post task; they were also less likely to endorse statements of TAF after receiving the educational intervention. Also, those who chose to neutralize after writing the sentence (regardless of experimental group) were more likely to report feeling guiltier, more immoral and a greater sense of responsibility about writing the sentence prior to neutralizing than those who did not subsequently neutralize. These results are discussed in relation to the cognitive theory of obsessive-compulsive disorder and implications for prevention programs.

  11. Meaning and death-thought accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Green, Jeffrey D

    2018-01-01

    Meaning is a central feature in human life, but death can disrupt a sense of meaning. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that meaning in life and meaning in death are distinct types of meaning when mortality is salient and differentially affect death-thought accessibility (DTA). In Experiment 1, imagining a specific scenario in which meaning is preserved beyond death reduced DTA relative to a standard mortality salience prime; moreover, these effects were not due to changes in self-esteem. In Experiment 2, imagining a meaningful life when mortality is salient elicited greater DTA, whereas imagining meaning in death elicited less DTA. Imbuing death with meaning attenuates DTA, whereas meaning in life increases DTA. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF MODERN THOUGHTS IN ISLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Hendry Ar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For more than 14 centuries, history has proved that Islamic teachings come with a variety of thoughts, social cultural backgrounds, periods through which the development and the dynamics evolved. The primary mission of mankind as the khalifah fil ardh (the caliph of the earth, is to practice the Islamic teachings (Shariah in accordance with the provisions of the primary source of Islam itself, i.e. the Qur’an and Hadith. At least, a long history of Islam as a religion of revelation suggests that the existence of Islamic teachings can grow and develop in every corner of the world, with a variety of spreading patterns that give the nuances and the mosaics in the development of the religion the present day.

  13. First thoughts on MD priorities for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Assmann, R

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, 22 days of beam time will be allocated for LHC MDs. In this paper, after recalling the 2011 LHC MD experience, the MD rrequests for 2012 are reviewed. Three primary MD themes for 2012 can be identified: 1)pushing performance in 2012, 2)preparing for 2014/15, and 3)towards maximum luminosity. Example topics include emittance growth in collision or enhanced satellites for theme 1), 25 ns operation for 2), and ATS optics for 3). Structures lists of MD requests and topics for each theme as well as some initial thoughts on the MD priorities are presented. For certain topics, "start-of-fill MDs" are proposed in order to most efficiently use of the available beam time.

  14. RETHINKING THE ANIMATE, RE-ANIMATING THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  15. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  16. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.

    2012-01-01

    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  17. Stamina in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colerick, E J

    1985-01-01

    Patterns of aging raise a number of important questions concerning the paths to successful adaptation. What gives some older individuals their staying power in the face of misfortune? What causes others to function less effectively when stressed, to resist change? Clearly, the margin of safety, the degree of elasticity and resilience varies across individuals in the later years. This study focuses on event histories and current behavior of 62 elderly men and women (Phase I) and reports by their confidants (N = 62; Phase II). A central proposition, that stamina in later life depends, in part, on the appraisal of previous events involving loss is investigated using a model that incorporates aspects of earlier life, cognitive appraisal and clinically judged dimensions of stamina in old age. Multivariate (particularly path analytic) techniques are used to test the links between variable foci. Results suggest that antecedents of stamina involve the interaction of social resources and cognitive orientations. Specifically, stamina in later life is contingent, for the most part, on a triumphant, positive outlook during periods of adversity. Elderly so oriented are also those with robust health histories and marked educational accomplishments. Conversely, persons who view situations involving loss as threatening, overwhelming and potentially defeating experience no such outcome; low levels of stamina mark their later years. Interestingly, quality childhood ties matter for stamina in old age only by increasing the likelihood of perceptions of a supportive environment during hard times. The findings corroborate the general pattern of research documenting the importance of cognitive orientations in adaptive processes.

  18. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  19. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.

    1981-01-01

    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  20. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  1. Spontaneous pneumothorax in silicotuberculosis of lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolenic, J.; Jurgova, T.; Zimacek, J.; Vajo, J.; Krchnavy, M.

    1995-01-01

    The authors describe the case of 62 years old man with the appearance of spontaneous pneumothorax, in whom the basic pulmonary disease was silicotuberculosis of the lung. At clinic of occupational diseases in Kosice have been evidence 965 cases of silicosis and silicotuberculosis. From 1971 they have now the first case of spontaneous pneumothorax. The authors make discussion about possible mechanical and biochemical factors, which cause relatively low incidence of spontaneous pneumothorax in silicosis of the lung. (authors)

  2. Osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures following renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Aarhus Univ.

    1981-01-01

    31 renal transplant recipients with posttransplant development of osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures were evaluated with regard to age, duration of dialysis before transplantation. Determination of metacarpal bone mass at the time of transplantation and registration of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification at the time of transplantation and at the time of onset of osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures were made. Apart from the increased mean age in patients with spontaneous fractures no difference was seen between the groups. Osteonecrosis and spontaneous fractures occurred in areas of trabecular bone. It seems most likely that after renal transplantation the patients show bone complications of different localization. (orig.) [de

  3. Confined Blood Chimerism in Monochorionic Dizygotic Twins Conceived Spontaneously

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kanda

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, monochorionicity has been regarded as synonymous with monozygosity. However, several recent cases of monochorionic dizygotic twins have shown that monochorionic twins can be dizygous. We report a rare case of monochorionic diamnionic, gender-discordant twins who were conceived spontaneously. Initially, a monochorionic placenta was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 8 weeks of gestation and then confirmed by pathology after delivery. The twins had different genders. A comparison of cytogenetic analyses using peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts revealed that chimerism was confined to blood cells. We have experienced two cases of monochorionic dizygotic twins since 2003. These cases suggest that monochorionic dizygotic twins are not as rare as previously thought.

  4. The effects of thoughts of survival and thoughts of death on recall in the adaptive memory paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Stanley B

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper Hart and Burns (2012) presented evidence that conditions that prime thoughts of one's mortality benefit recall. Drawing on the conceptual relation between thoughts of death and thoughts of survival, Hart and Burns interpret their findings as suggestive of the possibility that death-related thoughts function in manner similar to survival-related thoughts in enhancing recall. In the present study I draw on evolutionary arguments to question whether a conceptual relation between thoughts of death and thoughts of survival translates into a functional relation. I then present data showing that while death-related thoughts can promote high levels of recall, (a) the level achieved does not match that produced by survival processing and (b) survival and death cognition likely rely on different mechanisms to achieve their effects.

  5. Spontaneous non aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bian Jieyong; Wang Zhong; Zhou Dai

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study the etiology and the treatment of spontaneous non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: Twenty five cases of cerebral vessel angiography negative patients were analysed retrospectively, the majority of them had been undergone CT, DSA, MRI examination in order to define the etiological factor. Results: Among them, there was 1 case of spinal arteria-vena malformation, 1 case of hemorrhagic blood and 2 cases according to the revealing of MRI could be explained as bled vascular-occult malformation or cavernous angioma. Conclusion: The management and prognosis of patients in whom non-aneurysm is founded on the initial angiogram depends on the pattern of hemorrhage of the initial CT scanning, repeated angiography should be avoided for the case of premise encephalic non-aneurysmal SAH and MRI examination may be indicated to defining of etiological factors

  6. Spontaneous baryogenesis in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Cottingham, W.N.; Whittingham, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we extent the results of previous work on spontaneous baryogenesis to general models involving charge-parity (CP) violation in the Higgs sector. We show how to deal with Chern-Simons terms appearing in the effective potential arising from phase changes in the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields. In particular, this enables us to apply this mechanism to general supersymmetric models including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the extended model with a gauge singlet. A comparison is made between this approach, and that in which one solves the equations of motion for Higgs winding modes. As anticipated in earlier work, the effect of the latter approach is found to be small. (Author)

  7. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward

    2015-01-19

    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas

    2012-10-01

    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  9. Lateral Attitude Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Tina; Dickel, Nina; Liersch, Benjamin; Rees, Jonas; Süssenbach, Philipp; Bohner, Gerd

    2015-08-01

    The authors propose a framework distinguishing two types of lateral attitude change (LAC): (a) generalization effects, where attitude change toward a focal object transfers to related objects, and (b) displacement effects, where only related attitudes change but the focal attitude does not change. They bring together examples of LAC from various domains of research, outline the conditions and underlying processes of each type of LAC, and develop a theoretical framework that enables researchers to study LAC more systematically in the future. Compared with established theories of attitude change, the LAC framework focuses on lateral instead of focal attitude change and encompasses both generalization and displacement. Novel predictions and designs for studying LAC are presented. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  10. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline C.

    2017-01-01

    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  11. Advantages of later motherhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrskylä, M; Barclay, K; Goisis, A

    2017-01-01

    In high-income countries childbearing has been increasingly postponed since the 1970s and it is crucial to understand the consequences of this demographic shift. The literature has tended to characterize later motherhood as a significant health threat for children and parents. We contribute to this debate by reviewing recent evidence suggesting that an older maternal age can also have positive effects. Literature linking the age at parenthood with the sociodemographic characteristics of the parents, with macrolevel interactions, and with subjective well-being. Comprehensive review of the existing literature. Recent studies show that there can also be advantages associated with later motherhood. First, whilst in past older mothers had low levels of education and large families, currently older mothers tend to have higher education and smaller families than their younger peers. Consequently, children born to older mothers in the past tended to have worse outcomes than children born to younger mothers, whilst the opposite is true in recent cohorts. Second, postponement of childbearing means that the child is born at a later date and in a later birth cohort, and may benefit from secular changes in the macroenvironment. Evidence shows that when the positive trends in the macroenvironment are strong they overweigh the negative effects of reproductive ageing. Third, existing studies show that happiness increases around and after childbirth among older mothers, whereas for younger mothers the effect does not exist or is short-lived. There are important sociodemographic pathways associated with postponement of childbearing which might compensate or even more than compensate for the biological disadvantages associated with reproductive ageing.

  12. Fundamental Frequency Variation of Neonatal Spontaneous Crying Predicts Language Acquisition in Preterm and Term Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako; Imafuku, Masahiro; Myowa, Masako

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous cries of infants exhibit rich melodic features (i.e., time variation of fundamental frequency [ F 0 ]) even during the neonatal period, and the development of these characteristics might provide an essential base for later expressive prosody in language. However, little is known about the melodic features of spontaneous cries in preterm infants, who have a higher risk of later language-related problems. Thus, the present study investigated how preterm birth influenced melodic features of spontaneous crying at term-equivalent age as well as how these melodic features related to language outcomes at 18 months of corrected age in preterm and term infants. At term, moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) infants showed spontaneous cries with significantly higher F 0 variation and melody complexity than term infants, while there were no significant differences between very preterm (VP) and term infants. Furthermore, larger F 0 variation within cry series at term was significantly related to better language and cognitive outcomes, particularly expressive language skills, at 18 months. On the other hand, no other melodic features at term predicted any developmental outcomes at 18 months. The present results suggest that the additional postnatal vocal experience of MLP preterm infants increased F 0 variation and the complexity of spontaneous cries at term. Additionally, the increases in F 0 variation may partly reflect the development of voluntary vocal control, which, in turn, contributes to expressive language in infancy.

  13. The antecedents and belief-polarized effects of thought confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsuan-Yi; Lien, Nai-Hwa; Liang, Kuan-Yu

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates 2 possible antecedents of thought confidence and explores the effects of confidence induced before or during ad exposure. The results of the experiments indicate that both consumers' dispositional optimism and spokesperson attractiveness have significant effects on consumers' confidence in thoughts that are generated after viewing the advertisement. Higher levels of thought confidence will influence the quality of the thoughts that people generate, lead to either positively or negatively polarized message processing, and therefore induce better or worse advertising effectiveness, depending on the valence of thoughts. The authors posit the belief-polarization hypothesis to explain these findings.

  14. Some thoughts on psychoanalysis and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpilka, Jaime

    2002-10-01

    The author attempts to establish a framework for understanding the contribution of psychoanalysis to ethics through examining the work of certain philosophers, especially Kant. After reviewing the development of Freudian thought and going beyond the 'psychoanalysis and/or psychiatry?' question, he asserts that the space of the psychoanalytical cure revolves around an ethical problem. Thus, the limits of analysis should be determined by the subject's capacity for developing a structure of belief in the unconscious, with the concomitant capacity to go beyond equivocation in respect of an ethical conflict that underlies all cases where psychical suffering is manifested. Indeed, only human beings are called upon to deal with an ethical paradox-equally a logical one-which could be stated thus: there is Good in Evil and Evil in Good. This ethical paradox is the consequence of human subjection to the constituent laws of the Oedipus complex, which distances the human being, in his/her dealings with Evil and with Good, from any naturalist stance. In respect of the cure, then, we must take into account that Evil does not proceed from any particular drive-based characteristic, but is rather the expression of specific subjection to an unconscious Other, towards which it directs its affects. Finally, the author proposes a principle that emerges from the preceding discussion: let us not impute to or place in the Other our own subjective splitting or pain at existing.

  15. FROM MYTHICAL THINKING TO POLITICAL THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Lassan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the Russian epos as well as Russian fairy tales: the images that are frequently there tend to be projected on the contemporary political discourse. The author assumes that the analysis of the folklore stories might allow defining the archetypes, which in a certain manner affect the contemporary political thought in Russia. The author demonstrates the way in which the national cultural archetypes relate to the common cultural ones (Greek myths, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, contain their specific national modification. Thus, the Hero Archetype in Russian epos appears to be nationally marked (its Russianness is particularly stressed as well as the image of an enemy, filling in the Shadow Archetype. Russian ‘bogatyr’ is traditionally on a state service and remains faithful to his grand duke, notwithstanding the injustice of the latter. The characters of fairy tales wage “preventive wars” in which they become the winners. The contemporary Russian political discourse inherits, to a certain extent, the value as well as the worldview aspects of the Russian epos.

  16. Choice as an engine of analytic thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    Choice is a behavioral act that has a variety of well-documented motivational consequences-it fosters independence by allowing people to simultaneously express themselves and influence the environment. Given the link between independence and analytic thinking, the current research tested whether choice also leads people to think in a more analytic rather than holistic manner. Four experiments demonstrate that making choices, recalling choices, and viewing others make choices leads people to think more analytically, as indicated by their attitudes, perceptual judgments, categorization, and patterns of attention allocation. People who made choices scored higher on a subjective self-report measure of analytic cognition compared to whose did not make a choice (pilot study). Using an objective task-based measure, people who recalled choices rather than actions were less influenced by changes in the background when making judgments about focal objects (Experiment 1). People who thought of others' behaviors as choices rather than actions were more likely to group objects based on categories rather than relationships (Experiment 2). People who recalled choices rather than actions subsequently allocated more visual attention to focal objects in a scene (Experiment 3). Together, these experiments demonstrate that choice has important yet previously unexamined consequences for basic psychological processes such as attention and cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A new class of spontaneously polarized materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Very large electric fields form spontaneously within films of seemingly prosaic chemicals such as nitrous oxide or propane.We describe how the discovery of this unexpected phenomenon took place and how we attempt to understand the nature of the new class of spontaneously polarized materials...

  18. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  19. Spontaneous onset of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rooij, A.M.; Perez, R.S.G.M.; Huygen, F.J.; van Eijs, F.; van Kleef, M.; Bauer, M.C.R.; van Hilten, J.J.; Marinus, J.

    2010-01-01

    Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS) usually develops after a noxious event, but spontaneous onsets have been described in 3-11% of the cases. The existence of spontaneous-onset CRPS is highly debated and the aim of the present study was therefore to compare the phenotypic characteristics of CRPS

  20. Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young

    2002-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued

  2. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  3. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  4. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  5. Children's Spontaneous Vocalisations during Play: Aesthetic Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Countryman, June; Gabriel, Martha; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of spontaneous vocalisations in the self-chosen, unstructured outdoor play of children aged 3-12. Spontaneous vocalisations encompass the whole range of children's unprompted, natural, expressive vocal soundings beyond spoken language. Non-participant observations at childcare centres and on elementary school…

  6. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  7. The Birth and Death of Tragedy in Nietzsche's thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S TA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Friedrich Nietzsche, one of the most influential and thoughtful philosopher in the 19th century, in an attempt to reassess values, finds himself in confrontation with accepted ideas of the modern world. Therefore, in his critical review, in order to reform and revive the modern civilization and culture, he writes his first book, i.e. The Birth of Tragedy. His various intentions in this book are as following: a cultural concerns and saving the culture of his age from nihilism and the danger of falling apart, b reassessing values, c showing the opposition of Christianity and conceptual philosophy of Socrates with the nature of life, Dionysus element as well as the desire to live, d aesthetic interpretation of living and being and e viewing life from the perspective of art. Nietzsche considers the last two cases as the special features of Greek's tragic art and praises Greek's tragic age for such perspective. He admires ancient Greeks as well as their culture and thought because they are the creators of tragic art and through such creation as well as by considering Dionysus element they accepted life with all of its good and bad aspects. Nietzsche discusses two fundamental concepts of birth and death of tragedy as well. However, he views the birth and death of tragedy in two different ways a in a particular age, Greek tragedy emerged from Greek culture and became an influential factor in the development of that nation’s culture but died later on, b Nietzsche's hope in the re-emergence of Greek tragic art in the modern world lies in Wagner's music which died, too. In his view, the factors behind the death of tragedy are as following: the Socrates' conceptual philosophy and Euripides' plays, Christianity and ethicality as well as modern dialectic and Wagner himself. This article, first, tries to study Nietzsche’s important intentions in writing The Birth of Tragedy and explain such birth in the first sense emphasizing the interpretation of

  8. Laparoscopic Puestow: lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biteman, Benjamin R; Harr, Jeffrey N; Brody, Fred

    2016-12-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a painful inflammatory disease that leads to progressive and irreversible destruction of pancreatic parenchyma [1]. A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy, also known as the Puestow procedure, is performed for symptomatic chronic pancreatitis associated with a dilated pancreatic duct secondary to calcifications or strictures [4]. An open approach is used traditionally due to the complexity of the case, and there have only been a handful of laparoscopic case reports [2]. This video depicts a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis. A 45-year-old gentleman with a 20-year history of chronic alcohol abuse presented with diffuse abdominal pain. His pain was worse postprandially and associated with loose stools. A computed tomography scan revealed multiple calcified deposits within the body and tail of the pancreas, and a dilated pancreatic duct measuring 1.4 cm with a proximal obstructing calcified stone. A 5-port foregut technique was used, and a 15-cm pancreatic ductotomy was performed with an ultrasonic scalpel. Calcified stones were cleared from the duct, and a roux-en-y pancreaticojejunostomy was performed using a hand-sewn technique. The patient had a relatively uncomplicated hospital course with return of bowel function on postoperative day 4. His patient-controlled analgesic device was discontinued on post operative day 3. He was ambulating, tolerating a regular diet and discharged home on postoperative day 5. At 12- and 26-month follow-up, he remains off narcotics, but still requires 1-2 tabs of pancreatic enzyme replacement per meal. Most importantly, he has not had any alcohol for over 2 years. The two primary goals in treating chronic pancreatitis include long-term pain relief and improvements in quality of life [3]. For patients with chronic pancreatitis and a dilated pancreatic duct, a laparoscopic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy may be an effective approach to decrease pain and improve quality of life.

  9. Modified puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppa, Eugene P; Pappas, Theodore N

    2009-05-01

    There are various surgical options for the treatment of pain associated with chronic pancreatitis. The modified Puestow lateral pancreaticojejunostomy has been proven to be effective in ameliorating symptoms and expediting return to normal lifestyle while maintaining a low rate of morbidity and mortality. However, the debate regarding which surgical treatment provides the best outcomes is controversial. The aims of this manuscript are to identify the patient population for which the Puestow benefits the most and discuss the pertinent technical aspects of the surgical procedure.

  10. The merits of unconscious thought in rule detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiansheng; Zhu, Yawen; Yang, Yang

    2014-01-01

    According to unconscious thought theory (UTT), unconscious thought is more adept at complex decision-making than is conscious thought. Related research has mainly focused on the complexity of decision-making tasks as determined by the amount of information provided. However, the complexity of the rules generating this information also influences decision making. Therefore, we examined whether unconscious thought facilitates the detection of rules during a complex decision-making task. Participants were presented with two types of letter strings. One type matched a grammatical rule, while the other did not. Participants were then divided into three groups according to whether they made decisions using conscious thought, unconscious thought, or immediate decision. The results demonstrated that the unconscious thought group was more accurate in identifying letter strings that conformed to the grammatical rule than were the conscious thought and immediate decision groups. Moreover, performance of the conscious thought and immediate decision groups was similar. We conclude that unconscious thought facilitates the detection of complex rules, which is consistent with UTT.

  11. The merits of unconscious thought in rule detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Li

    Full Text Available According to unconscious thought theory (UTT, unconscious thought is more adept at complex decision-making than is conscious thought. Related research has mainly focused on the complexity of decision-making tasks as determined by the amount of information provided. However, the complexity of the rules generating this information also influences decision making. Therefore, we examined whether unconscious thought facilitates the detection of rules during a complex decision-making task. Participants were presented with two types of letter strings. One type matched a grammatical rule, while the other did not. Participants were then divided into three groups according to whether they made decisions using conscious thought, unconscious thought, or immediate decision. The results demonstrated that the unconscious thought group was more accurate in identifying letter strings that conformed to the grammatical rule than were the conscious thought and immediate decision groups. Moreover, performance of the conscious thought and immediate decision groups was similar. We conclude that unconscious thought facilitates the detection of complex rules, which is consistent with UTT.

  12. Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov, Vladimir D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced.

  13. A case of BOOP-like pneumonia induced by radiotherapy after surgical resection of breast cancer which healed spontaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masahiro; Sawada, Satoshi; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Harima, Yoko; Kariya, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Kazuyuki

    2004-01-01

    The patient was a 67-year-old woman. After mastectomy, she received 50 Gy radiation to her chest wall using a tangential beam. About 3 months later, she developed dry cough, and an infiltrated shadow was noted in the irradiated lung. The shadow later moved to the opposite lung. The pneumonia healed spontaneously thereafter. This case is noteworthy since it endorses the previously reported clinical feature of broncholitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), i.e., a high likelihood of spontaneous healing even when it is induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  14. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  15. Spontaneous flocking in human groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete

    2013-01-01

    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Andrea De; Kobayashi, Takeshi [SISSA,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-08-24

    We investigate cosmological aspects of spontaneous baryogenesis driven by a scalar field, and present general constraints that are independent of the particle physics model. The relevant constraints are obtained by studying the backreaction of the produced baryons on the scalar field, the cosmological expansion history after baryogenesis, and the baryon isocurvature perturbations. We show that cosmological considerations alone provide powerful constraints, especially for the minimal scenario with a quadratic scalar potential. Intriguingly, we find that for a given inflation scale, the other parameters including the reheat temperature, decoupling temperature of the baryon violating interactions, and the mass and decay constant of the scalar are restricted to lie within ranges of at most a few orders of magnitude. We also discuss possible extensions to the minimal setup, and propose two ideas for evading constraints on isocurvature perturbations: one is to suppress the baryon isocurvature with nonquadratic scalar potentials, another is to compensate the baryon isocurvature with cold dark matter isocurvature by making the scalar survive until the present.

  18. Spontaneous pneumothorax in diffuse cystic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Joseph; Lee, Yun Chor Gary; Gupta, Nishant

    2017-07-01

    Diffuse cystic lung diseases (DCLDs) are a heterogeneous group of disorders with varying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are characterized by the presence of air-filled lung cysts. These cysts are prone to rupture, leading to the development of recurrent spontaneous pneumothoraces. In this article, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, and management DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax, with a focus on lymphangioleiomyomatosis, Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis. DCLDs are responsible for approximately 10% of apparent primary spontaneous pneumothoraces. Computed tomography screening for DCLDs (Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome, lymphangioleiomyomatosis, and pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis) following the first spontaneous pneumothorax has recently been shown to be cost-effective and can help facilitate early diagnosis of the underlying disorders. Patients with DCLD-associated spontaneous pneumothorax have a very high rate of recurrence, and thus pleurodesis should be considered following the first episode of spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients, rather than waiting for a recurrent episode. Prior pleurodesis is not a contraindication to future lung transplant. Although DCLDs are uncommon, spontaneous pneumothorax is often the sentinel event that provides an opportunity for diagnosis. By understanding the burden and implications of pneumothoraces in DCLDs, clinicians can facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate management of the underlying disorders.

  19. The organization of prospective thinking: evidence of event clusters in freely generated future thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demblon, Julie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud

    2014-02-01

    Recent research suggests that many imagined future events are not represented in isolation, but instead are embedded in broader event sequences-referred to as event clusters. It remains unclear, however, whether the production of event clusters reflects the underlying organizational structure of prospective thinking or whether it is an artifact of the event-cuing task in which participants are explicitly required to provide chains of associated future events. To address this issue, the present study examined whether the occurrence of event clusters in prospective thought is apparent when people are left to think freely about events that might happen in their personal future. The results showed that the succession of events participants spontaneously produced when envisioning their future frequently included event clusters. This finding provides more compelling evidence that prospective thinking involves higher-order autobiographical knowledge structures that organize imagined events in coherent themes and sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  1. The Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlmann, Charlotte; Madsen, Trine; Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard

    2017-01-01

    -list assignment for 32 weeks. The primary outcomes are frequency and intensity of suicidal thoughts. Secondary outcome measures include depressive symptoms, hopelessness, worrying, quality of life, costs related to health care utilization and production loss. Number of deliberate self-harm episodes, suicides......BACKGROUND: Suicidal thoughts are common, causing distress for millions of people all over the world. However, people with suicidal thoughts might not access support due to financial restraints, stigma or a lack of available treatment offers. Self-help programs provided online could overcome...... these barriers, and previous efforts show promising results in terms of reducing suicidal thoughts. This study aims to examine the effectiveness of an online self-help intervention in reducing suicidal thoughts among people at risk of suicide. The Danish Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial...

  2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  3. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  4. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  5. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  6. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Italic Typography and Wordsworth's Later Sonnets as Visual Poetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Peter

    2007-01-01

      The later Wordsworth understood the sonnet as a form of visual poetry. The essay investigates this in relation to Wordsworth's sense of layout in his 1838 book of sonnets, his conceptualization of the sonnet as "picture," "frame," and "monument," and his use of italic typeface in printings...... of the sonnet "After-Thought" after 1827. The positive sense of the visual thus articulated by the later poet constitutes one way in which he swerves from his earlier self, and, the essay argues in contrast to traditional readings of the career, enriches even as it complicates our understanding of his work....

  8. The evolution of language and thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip

    2016-06-20

    Language primarily evolved as a vocal medium that transmits the attributes of human culture and the necessities of daily communication. Human language has a long, complex evolutionary history. Language also serves as an instrument of thought since it has become evident that in the course of this process neural circuits that initially evolved to regulate motor control, motor responses to external events, and ultimately talking were recycled to serve tasks such as working memory, cognitive flexibility linguistic tasks such as comprehending distinctions in meaning conveyed by syntax. This precludes the human brain possessing an organ devoted exclusively to language, such as the Faculty of Language proposed by Chomsky (1972, 2012). In essence like Fodor's (1983) modular model, a restatement of archaic phrenological theories (Spurzheim, 1815). The subcortical basal ganglia can be traced back to early anurans. Although our knowledge of the neural circuits of the human brain is at a very early stage and incomplete, the findings of independent studies over the past 40 years, discussed here, have identified circuits linking the basal ganglia with various areas of prefrontal cortex, posterior cortical regions and other subcortical structures. These circuits are active in linguistic tasks such as lexical access, comprehending distinctions in meaning conferred by syntax and the range of higher cognitive tasks involving executive control and play a critical role in conferring cognitive flexibility. The cingulate cortex which appeared in Therapsids, transitional mammal-like reptiles who lived in age of the dinosaurs, most likely enhanced mother-infant interaction, contributing to success in the Darwinian (1859) "Struggle for Existence" - the survival of progeny. They continue to fill that role in present-day mammals as well as being involved in controlling laryngeal phonation during speech and directing attention (Newman & MacLean, 1983; Cummings, 1993". The cerebellum and

  9. Proteorhodopsin lateral gene transfer between marine planktonic Bacteria and Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Martinez, Asuncion; Mincer, Tracy J

    2006-01-01

    Planktonic Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya reside and compete in the ocean's photic zone under the pervasive influence of light. Bacteria in this environment were recently shown to contain photoproteins called proteorhodopsins, thought to contribute to cellular energy metabolism by catalysing light...... phylogenetic distribution of proteorhodopsins reflects their significant light-dependent fitness contributions, which drive the photoprotein's lateral acquisition and retention, but constrain its dispersal to the photic zone....

  10. Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied

  11. Radiologic findings of acute spontaneous subdural hematomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Jung; Bae, Won Kyong; Gyu, Cha Jang; Kim, Gun Woo; Cho, Won Su; Kim, Il Young; Lee, Kyung Suk [Soonchunhyang University, Chonan (Korea, Republic of). Chonan Hospital

    1998-03-01

    To evaluate the characteristic CT and cerebral angiographic findings in patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematomas and correlate these imaging findings with causes of bleeding and clinical outcome. Twenty-one patients with nontraumatic acute spontaneous subdural hematoma presenting during the last five years underwent CT scanning and cerebral angiography was performed in twelve. To determine the cause of bleedings, CT and angiographic findings were retrospectively analysed. Clinical history, laboratory and operative findings, and final clinical outcome were reviewed. Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma is a rare condition, and the mortality rate is high. In patients with acute spontaneous subdural hematoma, as seen on CT, associated subarachnoid or intracerebral hemorrhage is strongly indicative of intracerebral vascular abnormalities such as aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation, and cerebral angiography is necessary. To ensure proper treatment and thus markedly reduce mortality, the causes of bleedings should be prompty determined by means of cerebral angiography. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  12. Spontaneous neonatal gastrointestinal perforation: surgical or ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cases of spontaneous gastrointestinal perforation in neonates at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital, Benin City. The perinatal stress factors were caesarian delivery, prematurity and fetal distress due to prolonged obstructed labour.

  13. Rapid and spontaneous recovery in autistic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Sitholey, Prabhat; Agarwal, Vivek; Pargaonkar, Amol

    2009-01-01

    Recovery in autistic disorder is rare. There are few reports of recovery from autistic disorder after a few years of therapeutic intervention. We report here a case of autistic disorder who recovered spontaneously without any intervention in 13 days.

  14. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  15. Absolute calibration technique for spontaneous fission sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.; Karpf, E.

    1984-01-01

    An absolute calibration technique for a spontaneously fissioning nuclide (which involves no arbitrary parameters) allows unique determination of the detector efficiency for that nuclide, hence of the fission source strength

  16. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  17. Spontaneous local alpha oscillations predict motion-induced blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Barbara F; Jensen, Ole

    2014-11-01

    Bistable visual illusions are well suited for exploring the neuronal states of the brain underlying changes in perception. In this study, we investigated oscillatory activity associated with 'motion-induced blindness' (MIB), which denotes the perceptual disappearance of salient target stimuli when a moving pattern is superimposed on them (Bonneh et al., ). We applied an MIB paradigm in which illusory target disappearances would occur independently in the left and right hemifields. Both illusory and real target disappearance were followed by an alpha lateralization with weaker contralateral than ipsilateral alpha activity (~10 Hz). However, only the illusion showed early alpha lateralization in the opposite direction, which preceded the alpha effect present for both conditions and coincided with the estimated onset of the illusion. The duration of the illusory disappearance was further predicted by the magnitude of this early lateralization when considered over subjects. In the gamma band (60-80 Hz), we found an increase in activity contralateral relative to ipsilateral only after a real disappearance. Whereas early alpha activity was predictive of onset and length of the illusory percept, gamma activity showed no modulation in relation to the illusion. Our study demonstrates that the spontaneous changes in visual alpha activity have perceptual consequences. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  19. Spontaneously broken global symmetries and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.; Vilenkin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Phase transitions associated with spontaneously broken global symmetries, in case these occur in nature, can have important cosmological implications. This is illustrated through two examples. The first one shows how the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry, present, for instance, in the minimal SU(5) model, can lead to an inflationary phase. The second example illustrates how topologically stable strings associated with the breaking of U(1) symmetry make an appearance at (or near) the end of the inflationary era

  20. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    OpenAIRE

    Manoranjan Dash; Thitta Mohanty; Jyoti Patnaik; Narayan Mishra; Saswat Subhankar; Priyadarsini Parida

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a ra...

  1. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  2. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: leonardoruschel@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  3. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François

    2010-10-01

    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  4. Symmetry restoration in spontaneously broken induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Russo, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the recuperation of expected invariant behaviours in a non-metric gravity theory in which the full general relativistic invariance is broken spontaneously. We show how dangerous increasing energy behaviours of physical amplitudes cancel in a highly non-trivial way. This evidences the expected loss of the vacuum generated scale in the UV regime and gives support for the consistency of spontaneously broken gravity theories. (orig.)

  5. Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking

  6. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  7. Outcomes after endoscopic port surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hematomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochalski, Pawel; Chivukula, Srinivas; Shin, Samuel; Prevedello, Daniel; Engh, Johnathan

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. Traditional open surgical management strategies offer limited benefit except for the most superficial hemorrhages in select patients. Recent reports suggest that endoscopic approaches may improve outcomes, particularly for deep subcortical hemorrhages. However, the management of these patients remains controversial. We reviewed our experience using endoscopic port surgery to identify characteristics that may predict acceptable outcomes. We completed a retrospective chart and imaging review of patients who underwent endoscopic port surgery for evacuation of spontaneous ICH at a single center. Data were gathered regarding patient demographics, hemorrhage locations, operative findings, and clinical outcomes. From 2007 to 2011, 18 patients underwent evacuation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas using an endoscopic port. The mean age in years was 62 years (range, 43-84 years). Six of 18 patients (33%) died before discharge, and 2 others (11%) died after at least 1 month of survival. Of 12 initial survivors, all were discharged to a rehabilitation or nursing facility. Complete hematoma evacuation was achieved in 7 of 18 patients, with the remaining 11 having a partial evacuation. The patients who died (n = 6) before discharge were statistically more likely to have a left-sided hemorrhage, partial evacuation, or older age than the survivors; death at least 1  month after evacuation was additionally associated with greater preoperative hematoma volumes. Our series demonstrates that endoscopic port surgery for acute intracerebral hematoma evacuation has the ability to achieve significant decompression of large and deep-seated hematomas. Patient age, extent of evacuation, laterality, and preoperative hematoma volume appear to influence patient outcome. Most overall outcomes remain poor. Future studies are necessary to determine if surgical evacuation is in fact superior to best

  8. Complex tasks force hand laterality and technological behaviour in naturalistically housed chimpanzees: inferences in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, M; Geribàs, N; Bargalló, A; Llorente, M; Riba, D

    2012-01-01

    Clear hand laterality patterns in humans are widely accepted. However, humans only elicit a significant hand laterality pattern when performing complementary role differentiation (CRD) tasks. Meanwhile, hand laterality in chimpanzees is weaker and controversial. Here we have reevaluated our results on hand laterality in chimpanzees housed in naturalistic environments at Fundació Mona (Spain) and Chimfunshi Wild Orphanage (Zambia). Our results show that the difference between hand laterality in humans and chimpanzees is not as great as once thought. Furthermore, we found a link between hand laterality and task complexity and also an even more interesting connection: CRD tasks elicited not only the hand laterality but also the use of tools. This paper aims to turn attention to the importance of this threefold connection in human evolution: the link between CRD tasks, hand laterality, and tool use, which has important evolutionary implications that may explain the development of complex behaviour in early hominins.

  9. Robotic lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John J; Sawin, Robert

    2011-06-01

    A lateral pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ), also known as the Puestow procedure, is a complex procedure performed for chronic pancreatitis when the pancreatic duct is dilated and unable to drain properly. Traditionally, these procedures are performed with open surgery. A minimally invasive approach to the LPJ using rigid handheld nonarticulating instruments is tedious and rarely performed. In fact, there are no prior laparoscopic case reports for LPJ in children and only a small handful of cases in the adult literature. This lack of laparoscopic information may be an indication of the difficulty in performing this complex operation with nonarticulating laparoscopic instruments. The advantages of robotic surgery may help overcome these difficulties. We present the first robotic LPJ ever reported in a 14-year-old child with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis. This case demonstrates the utility of this advanced surgical technology and may lead to a new minimally invasive option for both adults and children with chronic pancreatitis requiring surgical intervention. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial Working Memory Is Necessary for Actions to Guide Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E.

    2013-01-01

    Directed actions can play a causal role in cognition, shaping thought processes. What drives this cross-talk between action and thought? I investigated the hypothesis that representations in spatial working memory mediate interactions between directed actions and problem solving. Participants attempted to solve an insight problem while…

  11. Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years Robin Horton has argued for what he refers to as the 'continuity thesis' according to which there are theoretical similarities between African traditional thought and modern Western science. Horton's thesis stands in contrast to the standard Western anthropological appraisal of traditional African thought.

  12. Weighing Photons Using Bathroom Scales: A Thought Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Elisha

    2010-01-01

    Jay Orear, in his introductory physics text, defined the weight of a person as the reading one gets when standing on a (properly calibrated) bathroom scale. Here we will use Jay's definition of weight in a thought experiment to measure the weight of a photon. The thought experiment uses the results of the Pound-Rebka-Snider experiments, Compton…

  13. The Influence of Family of Origin Relationships on Career Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Xu, Yonghong Jade; Strauser, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Family of origin relationships are an important influence on career decision-making. The current study investigates the relationship between family cohesion, expressiveness and conflict and dysfunctional career thoughts. The Family Environment Scale-Form R (Moos & Moos, 2009) measured the family environment and the Career Thoughts Inventory…

  14. Thought-action fusion in individuals with OCD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, N; Freshman, M; Ramsey, B; Neary, E; Brigidi, B

    2001-07-01

    Rachman (Rachman, S. (1993). Obsessions, responsibility, and guilt. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31, 149-154) suggested that patients with OCD may interpret thoughts as having special importance, thus experiencing thought-action fusion (TAF). Shafran, Thordarson and Rachman (Shafran, R., Thordarson, D. S. & Rachman, S. (1996). Thought-action fusion in obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 710, 379-391) developed a questionnaire (TAF) and found that obsessives scored higher than non-obsessives on the measure. In the current study, we modified the TAF to include a scale that assessed the "likelihood of events happening to others" as well as ratings of the responsibility and cost for having these thoughts. Replicating previous findings, we found that individuals with OC symptoms gave higher ratings to the likelihood of negative events happening as a result of their negative thoughts. Individuals with OC symptoms also rated the likelihood that they would prevent harm by their positive thoughts higher than did individuals without OC symptoms. These results suggest that the role of thought-action fusion in OCs may extend to exaggerated beliefs about thoughts regarding the reduction of harm.

  15. Thought Suppression and Meaning in Life: A Longitudinal Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if older adults who experience problems with thought suppression tend to encounter greater difficulty deriving a sense of meaning in life. Data from a longitudinal nationwide survey of older people (N = 988) indicate that greater difficulty with thought suppression is associated with a decline in meaning over…

  16. The Content of Emotional Thoughts | Bloser | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I examine Peter Goldie's theory of emotional thoughts and feelings, offered in his recent book The Emotions and subsequent articles. Goldie argues that emotional thoughts cannot be assimilated to belief or judgment, together with some added-on phenomenological component, and on this point I agree with ...

  17. Emancipation in postmodernity : political thought in Japanese science fiction animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, M.

    2017-01-01

    Animation has long been overlooked as source for political thought. The aim of this thesis is to rectify this, and it will do so in two ways. First, it makes a theoretical and empirical case for animation as an intellectual source of political thought that should be used along with philosophical

  18. A validation study of the Brief Irrational Thoughts Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogsteder, L.M.; Wissink, I.B.; Stams, G.J.J.M.; van Horn, J.E.; Hendriks, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the reliability and validity of the "Brief Irrational Thoughts Inventory" (BITI) in a sample of 256 justice-involved youths. The BITI is a questionnaire used to determine the nature and severity of irrational thoughts related to aggressive (externalizing), sub-assertive

  19. Implicit and explicit appraisals of the importance of intrusive thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teachman, Bethany A; Woody, Sheila R; Magee, Joshua C

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate cognitive theories of obsessions, the current study experimentally manipulated appraisals of the importance of intrusive thoughts. Undergraduate students (N = 156) completed measures of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms and beliefs and were primed with a list of commonly reported unwanted thoughts. Participants were then informed that unwanted thoughts are either (1) significant and indicative of their personal values, or (2) meaningless, or participants (3) received no instructions about unwanted thoughts. Participants then completed implicit and explicit measures of self-evaluation and interpretations of their unwanted thoughts. Results indicated that the manipulation shifted implicit appraisals of unwanted thoughts in the expected direction, but not self-evaluations of morality or dangerousness. Interestingly, explicit self-esteem and beliefs about the significance of unwanted thoughts were associated with measures of OCD beliefs, whereas implicit self-evaluations of dangerousness were better predicted by the interaction of pre-existing OCD beliefs with the manipulation. Results are discussed in terms of divergent predictors of implicit and explicit responses to unwanted thoughts.

  20. A Meta-Analysis on Unconscious Thought Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Bos, M.W.; Sjoerdsma, A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Nordgren, L.F.

    2011-01-01

    A meta-analysis was performed on the unconscious thought effect (UTE). All available published and unpublished data on unconscious thought were included. Our aims were to provide a statistically robust estimate of the effect size of the UTE, to identify significant moderators, and to

  1. Relation of Disability Type and Career Thoughts to Vocational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanchak, Kristen V.; Lease, Suzanne H.; Strauser, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared dysfunctional career thoughts and perceptions of vocational identity for individuals with different types of disabilities and examined whether the relation of career thoughts to vocational identity was moderated by type of disability. Ninety adults with cognitive and physical impairments were administered the Career Thoughts…

  2. Spontaneous Recovery After Extinction of the Conditioned Proboscis Extension Response in the Honeybee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Jean-Christophe; Pham-Delègue, Minh-Hà

    2004-01-01

    In honeybees, the proboscis extension response (PER) can be conditioned by associating an odor stimulus (CS) to a sucrose reward (US). Conditioned responses to the CS, which are acquired by most bees after a single CS-US pairing, disappear after repeated unrewarded presentations of the CS, a process called extinction. Extinction is usually thought to be based either on (1) the disruption of the stored CS-US association, or (2) the formation of an inhibitory “CS-no US” association that is better retrieved than the initial CS-US association. The observation of spontaneous recovery, i.e., the reappearance of responses to the CS after time passes following extinction, is traditionally interpreted as a proof for the formation of a transient inhibitory association. To provide a better understanding of extinction in honeybees, we examined whether time intervals during training and extinction or the number of conditioning and extinction trials have an effect on the occurrence of spontaneous recovery. We found that spontaneous recovery mostly occurs when conditioning and testing took place in a massed fashion (1-min intertrial intervals). Moreover, spontaneous recovery depended on the time elapsed since extinction, 1 h being an optimum. Increasing the number of conditioning trials improved the spontaneous recovery level, whereas increasing the number of extinction trials reduced it. Lastly, we show that after single-trial conditioning, spontaneous recovery appears only once after extinction. These elements suggest that in honeybees extinction of the PER actually reflects the impairment of the CS-US association, but that depending on training parameters different memory substrates are affected. PMID:15466313

  3. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  4. Parsing a perceptual decision into a sequence of moments of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGraziano

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical, computational and experimental studies have converged to a model of decision-making in which sensory evidence is stochastically integrated to a threshold, implementing a shift from an analog to a discrete form of computation. Understanding how this process can be chained and sequenced - as virtually all real-life tasks involve a sequence of decisions - remains an open question in neuroscience. We reasoned that incorporating a virtual continuum of possible behavioral outcomes in a simple decision task- a fundamental ingredient of real-life decision making – should result in a progressive sequential approximation to the correct response. We used real-time tracking of motor action in a decision task, as a measure of cognitive states reflecting an internal decision process. We found that response trajectories were spontaneously segmented into a discrete sequence of explorations separated by brief stops (about 200 ms – which remained unconscious to the participants. The characteristics of these stops were indicative of a decision process - a moment of thought: their duration correlated with the difficulty of the decision and with the efficiency of the subsequent exploration. Our findings suggest that simple navigation in an abstract space involves a discrete sequence of explorations and stops and, moreover, that these stops reveal a fingerprint of moments of thought.

  5. Lateral Casimir-Polder forces by breaking time-reversal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oude Weernink, Ricardo R. Q. P. T.; Barcellona, Pablo; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2018-03-01

    We examine the lateral Casimir-Polder force acting on a circular rotating emitter near a dielectric plane surface. As the circular motion breaks time-reversal symmetry, the spontaneous emission in a direction parallel to the surface is in general anisotropic. We show that a lateral force arises which can be interpreted as a recoil force because of this asymmetric emission. The force is an oscillating function of the distance between the emitter and the surface, and the lossy character of the dielectric strongly influences the results in the near-field regime. The force exhibits also a population-induced dynamics, decaying exponentially with respect to time on time scales of the inverse of the spontaneous decay rate. We propose that this effect could be detected measuring the velocity acquired by the emitter, following different cycles of excitation and spontaneous decay. Our results are expressed in terms of the Green's tensor and can therefore easily be applied to more complex geometries.

  6. Spontaneous pneumocephalus after commercial air travel complicated by meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javan, Ramin; Duszak, Richard; Eisenberg, Alan D; Eggers, Frank M

    2011-12-01

    Pneumocephalus usually results from trauma, infection, neoplasm, or iatrogenic causes. Barotrauma-induced spontaneous pneumocephalus is extremely rare, usually seen in divers or occassionally with air travel. We report a case of a 61-yr-old female presenting with confusion, fever, and respiratory failure one day after developing sudden nausea, vomiting, and headache during descent on a commercial airliner. Pneumocephalus and meningitis were present on admission. Sinus computed tomography (CT) showed pansinusitis and a tiny bone defect in the posterior wall of the right sphenoid sinus, through which a cisternogram later showed free communication with the prepontine cistern. An orbital CT 2 yr earlier after a fall showed the bone defect, with no other areas of abnormality or fracture. After repair of defects by otolaryngology and appropriate antibiotics, she did well and was eventually discharged. Changes in aircraft cabin pressure likely resulted in rupture of dura and arachnoid layers beneath the pre-existing bony defect, predisposed by existing sinus disease. The pathophysiology, implications, and potential sources of spontaneous pneumocephalus, as well as risks of postcraniotomy and post-trauma air-travel, are discussed.

  7. Spontaneous remission of hepatocellular carcinoma without any treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ciao Luo

    2016-12-01

    A 61 year old asymptomatic woman visited our outpatient clinic (OPC with a high alpha-fetal protein (AFP level. A computed tomogram (CT revealed a 4.1 cm hypervascular tumor (arterial phase at S4 of the liver and washed out in venous phase. Her Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg was negative and Hepatitis C Antibody (anti-HCV was positive. This patient also had esophageal varices. She refused any treatment and returned to our OPC about 2 years later. Her AFP level was 11.8 ng/ml. The following CT scan revealed a small amount of cirrhosis, but no mass, in the liver, so that spontaneous remission of HCC was determined. She was treated by oral diuretics. Here we report the case and review of literature.

  8. Spontaneous Movements of a Computer Mouse Reveal Egoism and In-group Favoritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski, Norbert; Wojciechowski, Łukasz; Suszek, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to assess whether the first spontaneous movements of a computer mouse, when making an assessment on a scale presented on the screen, may express a respondent's implicit attitudes. In Study 1, the altruistic behaviors of 66 students were assessed. The students were led to believe that the task they were performing was also being performed by another person and they were asked to distribute earnings between themselves and the partner. The participants performed the tasks under conditions with and without distractors. With the distractors, in the first few seconds spontaneous mouse movements on the scale expressed a selfish distribution of money, while later the movements gravitated toward more altruism. In Study 2, 77 Polish students evaluated a painting by a Polish/Jewish painter on a scale. They evaluated it under conditions of full or distracted cognitive abilities. Spontaneous movements of the mouse on the scale were analyzed. In addition, implicit attitudes toward both Poles and Jews were measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). A significant association between implicit attitudes (IAT) and spontaneous evaluation of images using a computer mouse was observed in the group with the distractor. The participants with strong implicit in-group favoritism of Poles revealed stronger preference for the Polish painter's work in the first few seconds of mouse movement. Taken together, these results suggest that spontaneous mouse movements may reveal egoism (in-group favoritism), i.e., processes that were not observed in the participants' final decisions (clicking on the scale).

  9. Frontal dynamic aphasia in progressive supranuclear palsy: Distinguishing between generation and fluent sequencing of novel thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gail A; Spooner, Donna; Harrison, William J

    2015-10-01

    Frontal dynamic aphasia is characterised by a profound reduction in spontaneous speech despite well-preserved naming, repetition and comprehension. Since Luria (1966, 1970) designated this term, two main forms of dynamic aphasia have been identified: one, a language-specific selection deficit at the level of word/sentence generation, associated with left inferior frontal lesions; and two, a domain-general impairment in generating multiple responses or connected speech, associated with more extensive bilateral frontal and/or frontostriatal damage. Both forms of dynamic aphasia have been interpreted as arising due to disturbances in early prelinguistic conceptual preparation mechanisms that are critical for language production. We investigate language-specific and domain-general accounts of dynamic aphasia and address two issues: one, whether deficits in multiple conceptual preparation mechanisms can co-occur; and two, the contribution of broader cognitive processes such as energization, the ability to initiate and sustain response generation over time, to language generation failure. Thus, we report patient WAL who presented with frontal dynamic aphasia in the context of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). WAL was given a series of experimental tests that showed that his dynamic aphasia was not underpinned by a language-specific deficit in selection or in microplanning. By contrast, WAL presented with a domain-general deficit in fluent sequencing of novel thoughts. The latter replicated the pattern documented in a previous PSP patient (Robinson, et al., 2006); however, unique to WAL, generating novel thoughts was impaired but there was no evidence of a sequencing deficit because perseveration was absent. Thus, WAL is the first unequivocal case to show a distinction between novel thought generation and subsequent fluent sequencing. Moreover, WAL's generation deficit encompassed verbal and non-verbal responses, showing a similar (but more profoundly reduced) pattern

  10. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmawati1,2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later

  11. Spontaneous mentalizing during an interactive real world task: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Hugo J; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2006-01-01

    There are moments in everyday life when we need to consider the thoughts and intentions of other individuals in order to act in a socially appropriate manner. Most of this mentalizing occurs spontaneously as we go about our business in the complexity of the real world. As such, studying the neural basis of spontaneous mentalizing has been virtually impossible. Here we devised a means to achieve this by employing a unique combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a detailed and interactive virtual reality simulation of a bustling familiar city, and a retrospective verbal report protocol. We were able to provide insights into the content of spontaneous mentalizing events and identify the brain regions that underlie them. We found increased activity in a number of regions, namely the right posterior superior temporal sulcus, the medial prefrontal cortex and the right temporal pole associated with spontaneous mentalizing. Furthermore, we observed the right posterior superior temporal sulcus to be consistently active during several different subtypes of mentalizing events. By contrast, medial prefrontal cortex seemed to be particularly involved in thinking about agents that were visible in the environment. Our findings show that it is possible to investigate the neural basis of mentalizing in a manner closer to its true context, the real world, opening up intriguing possibilities for making comparisons with those who have mentalizing problems.

  12. Ketorolac does not reduce effectiveness of pleurodesis in pediatric patients with spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizardo, Radhames E; Langness, Simone; Davenport, Katherine P; Kling, Karen; Fairbanks, Timothy; Bickler, Stephen W; Grabowski, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Antiinflammatory medications are thought to reduce the effectiveness of pleurodesis performed for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. We reviewed our experience with children undergoing video-assisted thorascopic surgery (VATS) with pleurodesis for pneumothorax to determine if ketorolac administration influences patient outcomes. A retrospective review of patients who underwent VATS pleurodesis for spontaneous pneumothorax from 2009 to 2013 at a pediatric hospital was performed. Length of stay, radiographic pneumothorax resolution prior to discharge, and ipsilateral recurrence rates were compared in patients who did and did not receive perioperative ketorolac. Over a 50-month period, 51 patients underwent VATS with mechanical pleurodesis for spontaneous pneumothorax. The average age was 15.5years, and 76% were male. Ketorolac was administered to 26/51 patients. There were no differences in average length of stay (11.3 vs 10.9days, p=0.36), incidence of residual pneumothorax at discharge (22/41 vs 19/41, p=0.48), or ipsilateral recurrence (5/10 vs 5/10, p=1). Despite the intrinsic antiinflammatory properties of ketorolac, our data suggests that its use for patients undergoing pleurodesis for spontaneous pneumothorax does not detrimentally influence the outcomes of surgery. Therefore, we conclude that ketorolac can be used for pain control in this population. Large-scale studies are warranted to validate these findings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Unmasking Language Lateralization in Human Brain Intrinsic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAvoy, Mark; Mitra, Anish; Coalson, Rebecca S.; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Keidel, James L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2016-01-01

    Lateralization of function is a fundamental feature of the human brain as exemplified by the left hemisphere dominance of language. Despite the prominence of lateralization in the lesion, split-brain and task-based fMRI literature, surprisingly little asymmetry has been revealed in the increasingly popular functional imaging studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI BOLD signal (so-called resting-state fMRI). Here, we show the global signal, an often discarded component of the BOLD signal in resting-state studies, reveals a leftward asymmetry that maps onto regions preferential for semantic processing in left frontal and temporal cortex and the right cerebellum and a rightward asymmetry that maps onto putative attention-related regions in right frontal, temporoparietal, and parietal cortex. Hemispheric asymmetries in the global signal resulted from amplitude modulation of the spontaneous fluctuations. To confirm these findings obtained from normal, healthy, right-handed subjects in the resting-state, we had them perform 2 semantic processing tasks: synonym and numerical magnitude judgment and sentence comprehension. In addition to establishing a new technique for studying lateralization through functional imaging of the resting-state, our findings shed new light on the physiology of the global brain signal. PMID:25636911

  14. Subchondral Bone Plate Thickening Precedes Chondrocyte Apoptosis and Cartilage Degradation in Spontaneous Animal Models of Osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zamli, Zaitunnatakhin; Robson Brown, Kate; Tarlton, John F.; Adams, Mike A.; Torlot, Georgina E.; Cartwright, Charlie; Cook, William A.; Vassilevskaja, Kristiina; Sharif, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disorder characterised by bone remodelling and cartilage degradation and associated with chondrocyte apoptosis. These processes were investigated at 10, 16, 24, and 30 weeks in Dunkin Hartley (DH) and Bristol Strain 2 (BS2) guinea pigs that develop OA spontaneously. Both strains had a more pronounced chondrocyte apoptosis, cartilage degradation, and subchondral bone changes in the medial than the lateral side of the tibia, and between strains, the ...

  15. Acute Myocardial Infarction Due to Spontaneous Dissection of the Right Coronary Artery in a Young Male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadopoulos, Dimitris P.; Moyssakis, Ioannis; Perakis, Alexandros; Athanasiou, Andreas; Anagnostopoulou, Sophia; Benos, Ioannis; Votteas, Vassilios E.

    2004-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare cause of acute myocardial infarction. We report a case of a 33-year-old male who presented with an acute inferior myocardial infarction. Coronary arteriography performed 3 hours after the episode revealed a dissection involving the middle segment of right coronary artery. Because of a spiral form of dissection and the TIMI 3 flow grade, our patient was treated medically and repeat coronary angiography 6 months later was decided

  16. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min [Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting.

  17. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min

    2006-01-01

    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting

  18. A thought in the park: The influence of naturalness and low-level visual features on expressed thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathryn E. Schertz; Sonya Sachdeva; Omid Kardan; Hiroki P. Kotabe; Kathleen L. Wolf; Marc G. Berman

    2018-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the physical characteristics of one's environment have wide ranging effects on affect and cognition. Other research has demonstrated that one's thoughts have impacts on mood and behavior, and in this three-part research program we investigated how physical features of the environment can alter thought content. In one study, we...

  19. Singular and combined effects of thought suppression and anxiety induction on frequency of threatening thoughts: An experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cougle, J.R.; Smits, J.A.J.; Lee, H.J.; Powers, M.B.; Telch, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been hypothesized to play an important role in the maintenance of clinical disorders such as OCD and PTSD. The present study sought to examine the singular and combined effects of thought suppression instructions and anxiety induction (as induced by an

  20. A case of simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax after the Nuss procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Shunichiro; Miyazawa, Masahisa; Kashimoto, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Fumihiko; Tsunoda, Hajime; Kunitomo, Kazuyoshi; Chisuwa, Hisanao; Haba, Yoshiaki

    2016-06-01

    We present a case of simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax caused by a pleuro-pleural communication formed from Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum. A 17-year-old man with a history of Nuss operation complained chest pain and dyspnea. A chest roentgenogram demonstrated a tiny bilateral pneumothorax and two metallic bars inserted at the Nuss procedure. Computed tomography revealed furthermore a bulla in the apex of the left lung. The bilateral pneumothorax critically deteriorated after 4 days from onset and urgent bilateral chest drainages were performed. Nevertheless the drainages the full expansion of both lungs was not obtained and air leakage only from left side was continued. A video-assisted left bullectomy was performed 9 days after the tube insertion. The two bars penetrating anterior mediastinal pleura were thought to be a cause of the simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax.

  1. Cosmetic Lateral Canthoplasty: Preserving the Lateral Canthal Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Jun Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.

  2. LATERAL SURVIVAL: AN OT ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  3. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  4. Thought Speed, Mood, and the Experience of Mental Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana

    2008-11-01

    This article presents a theoretical account relating thought speed to mood and psychological experience. Thought sequences that occur at a fast speed generally induce more positive affect than do those that occur slowly. Thought speed constitutes one aspect of mental motion. Another aspect involves thought variability, or the degree to which thoughts in a sequence either vary widely from or revolve closely around a theme. Thought sequences possessing more motion (occurring fast and varying widely) generally produce more positive affect than do sequences possessing little motion (occurring slowly and repetitively). When speed and variability oppose each other, such that one is low and the other is high, predictable psychological states also emerge. For example, whereas slow, repetitive thinking can prompt dejection, fast, repetitive thinking can prompt anxiety. This distinction is related to the fact that fast thinking involves greater actual and felt energy than slow thinking does. Effects of mental motion occur independent of the specific content of thought. Their consequences for mood and energy hold psychotherapeutic relevance. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.

  5. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  6. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  7. Active hippocampal networks undergo spontaneous synaptic modification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masako Tsukamoto-Yasui

    Full Text Available The brain is self-writable; as the brain voluntarily adapts itself to a changing environment, the neural circuitry rearranges its functional connectivity by referring to its own activity. How the internal activity modifies synaptic weights is largely unknown, however. Here we report that spontaneous activity causes complex reorganization of synaptic connectivity without any external (or artificial stimuli. Under physiologically relevant ionic conditions, CA3 pyramidal cells in hippocampal slices displayed spontaneous spikes with bistable slow oscillations of membrane potential, alternating between the so-called UP and DOWN states. The generation of slow oscillations did not require fast synaptic transmission, but their patterns were coordinated by local circuit activity. In the course of generating spontaneous activity, individual neurons acquired bidirectional long-lasting synaptic modification. The spontaneous synaptic plasticity depended on a rise in intracellular calcium concentrations of postsynaptic cells, but not on NMDA receptor activity. The direction and amount of the plasticity varied depending on slow oscillation patterns and synapse locations, and thus, they were diverse in a network. Once this global synaptic refinement occurred, the same neurons now displayed different patterns of spontaneous activity, which in turn exhibited different levels of synaptic plasticity. Thus, active networks continuously update their internal states through ongoing synaptic plasticity. With computational simulations, we suggest that with this slow oscillation-induced plasticity, a recurrent network converges on a more specific state, compared to that with spike timing-dependent plasticity alone.

  8. God's Thoughts: Practical Steps Toward a Theory of Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2017-04-01

    In 1922, Einstein was speaking to young Esther Salaman during a long walk; she was talking of her dreams and goals and he was sharing some of his thoughts. Among thoughts of travel, he described his core guiding intellectual principle when he said, "I want to know how God created this world [wie sich Gott die Welt beschaffen]. I'm not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that element. I want to know His thoughts; the rest are just details."

  9. On social death: ostracism and the accessibility of death thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social death (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make death more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of death-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced death-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of death-related thoughts.

  10. Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    Final Technical 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01/01/2009 – 12/31/2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Lagrangian Studies of Lateral Mixing 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The Lateral Mixing Experiment (LATMIX) focused on mixing and...anomalies. LATMIX2 targeted the wintertime Gulf Stream, where deep mixed layers, strong lateral density gradients (Gulf Stream north wall) and the

  11. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  12. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.

    2008-01-01

    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  13. Revisiting Einstein's Happiest Thought: On Ernst Mach and the Early History of Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Richard

    2016-03-01

    This paper argues we should distinguish three phases in the formation of relativity. The first involved relational approaches to perception, and physiological and geometrical space and time in the 1860s and 70s. The second concerned electrodynamics and mechanics (special relativity). The third concerned mechanics, gravitation, and physical and geometrical space and time. Mach's early work on the Doppler effect, together with studies of visual and motor perception linked physiology, physics and psychology, and offered new approaches to physiological space and time. These informed the critical conceptual attacks on Newtonian absolutes that Mach famously outlined in The Science of Mechanics. Subsequently Mach identified a growing group of ``relativists,'' and his critiques helped form a foundation for later work in electrodynamics (in which he did not participate). Revisiting Mach's early work will suggest he was still more important to the development of new approaches to inertia and gravitation than has been commonly appreciated. In addition to what Einstein later called ``Mach's principle,'' I will argue that a thought experiment on falling bodies in Mach's Science of Mechanics also provided a point of inspiration for the happy thought that led Einstein to the equivalence principle.

  14. How does thought-action fusion relate to responsibility attitudes and thought suppression to aggravate the obsessive-compulsive symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altın, Müjgan; Gençöz, Tülin

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive cognitive theories of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that clinical obsessions and compulsions arise from specific sorts of dysfunctional beliefs and appraisals, such as inflated sense of responsibility, thought-action fusion (TAF), and thought suppression. The present study aimed to examine the mediator roles of responsibility and thought suppression between TAF and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Specifically, it aimed to explore the relative effects of TAF factors (i.e. morality and likelihood) on inflated sense of responsibility and on thought suppression to increase the obsessive qualities of intrusions. Two hundred and eighty-three Turkish undergraduate students completed a battery of measures on responsibility, thought suppression, TAF, OC symptoms, and depression. A series of hierarchical regression analyses, where depressive symptoms were controlled for, indicated that TAF-morality and TAF-likelihood follow different paths toward OC symptoms. Although TAF-morality associated with inflated sense of responsibility, TAF-likelihood associated with thought suppression efforts, and in turn these factors increased OC symptoms. These findings provide support for the critical role of sense of responsibility and thought suppression between the relationship of TAF and OC symptoms. Findings were discussed in line with the literature.

  15. Relationships between thought-action fusion, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a structural equation modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Muris, P; Schmidt, H; Merckelbach, H

    2000-09-01

    Research has shown that there are strong similarities in content between the obsessions and compulsions that characterize obsessive-compulsive disorder and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions. However, clinical and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions do differ with respect to characteristics like frequency, intensity, discomfort and elicited resistance. Two separate concepts have been invoked to explain how normal obsessions and compulsions may develop into clinical phenomena. First, it is suggested that thought-action fusion (TAF) contributes to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Second, thought suppression may intensify obsessive-compulsive symptoms due to its paradoxical effect on intrusive thoughts. Although both phenomena have been found to contribute to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, possible interactions between these two have never been investigated. The current study explored how TAF and thought suppression interact in the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 173) completed questionnaires pertaining to TAF, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Covariances between the scores on these questionnaires were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. Results suggest that TAF triggers thought suppression, while thought suppression, in turn, promotes obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  16. The Connection between the Thought of Progress and Philosophical Thinking in the West Case Study: Descartes’ Thought System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mustafa Shahraeeni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thought of progress has been considered as one of the presuppositions of the West modernity. Having accepted this idea, we should regard it as one of the bases and foundations of early modern philosophy, and consider Descartes, known as the father of modern philosophy, as having a major role in its formation. There is a strong relationship between the West philosophical thought and the change of the idea of progress to one of the undisputed facts of the west civilization, and this issue can be seen clearly in Descartes thought system better than anywhere else. The present paper intends to show the leading position of Descartes’ thought system in the institutionalization of the concept of progress in the West philosophical system in three main parts: 1. Authority fighting and its relation with Cartesian’s Doubt, 2. The genuineness of the worldly life in Descartes’ thought system, and 3. Establishing the foundation of modern science. This article is based on the modern forerunners’ change of opinion about the philosophy mission in the world. It  makes attempt to demonstrate in order to achieve the thought of progress, some prerequisites are necessary; and these prerequisite, though not exclusively, in their best and most complete form are generally achieved in the West philosophical thought and are particularly accomplished in Descartes’ philosophy.

  17. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  18. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Dong Wook; Jung, Seung Hyae; Yoon, Yup; Lim, Jae Hoon; Cho, Kyu Soek; Yang, Moon Ho

    1991-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is a rare manifestation of lung cancer. Eight cases of pneumothorax found in 1648 patients with lung cancer from 1979-1990 are reported. Histopathologic types of cancer were adenocarcinoma in three cases, squamous cell carcinoma in two cases, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma in two cases, and metastatic renal cell carcinoma in one case. The primary tumor mass was not found even after thoracotomy in two cases. Spontaneous pneumothorax occurred on the ipsilateral side of the cancer. All the patients were more than 40 years old with a history of smoking 1-2 packs a day for 20 to 50 years, and had chronic lung diseases. The authors emphasize that bronchogenic carcinoma may be one of the causes of spontaneous pneumothorax in appropriate clinical settings

  19. Validation of the Paranoid Thoughts Scale in Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Abdolmohammadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Objectives: Considering that paranoid thought has one-dimensional approach, use of long questionnaires has no clinical and research application, therefore use of short questionnaires seems necessary. The Green et al. paranoid thought scale is a short self-assessment tool for assessing paranoid thought in non-clinical and clinical group. This research was conducted to validate this questionnaire in Iranian population. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, 356 students were selected using stratified sampling method and assessed by GPTS and Minnesota multiphasic paranoid inventory (MMPI in 2015. Validity was assessed simultaneously with MMPI testing. Results: The correlation coefficient of GPTS and MMPI scores was α=0.71 and significant (p<0.001. Internal consistency value was estimated to be 0.81 according to Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Conclusion: GPTS is an appropriate and short tool for screening in paranoid thought-related researches. Keywords: Paranoid disorders; Personality tests; Validation studies.

  20. Preliminary thoughts on the data acquisition for the next generation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preliminary thoughts about the data acquisition system to be developed for ... the fully processed detector information, there is a long path with different cru- ... detector to the outside, 6 GHz SCM fiber optic links are presently considered, but.

  1. Teaching thoughtful practice: narrative pedagogy in addictions education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermause, Roxanne K; Townsend, Ryan P

    2010-07-01

    Preparing practitioners for this rapidly changing and demanding health care environment is challenging. A surge in knowledge development and scientific advancement has placed a priority on technical skill and a focus on content driven educational processes that prepare students for evidence-based practice. However, the most difficult health care scenarios require thinking-in-action and thoughtfulness as well as didactic knowledge. It is our contention that interpretive educational methods, like narrative pedagogy, will promote judgment-based practice that includes use of evidence and delivery of thoughtful care. In this article, we describe and interpret a narrative approach to addictions content and teaching thoughtful practice. We present our pedagogical process, including observations and field notes, to show how interpretive pedagogies can be introduced into nursing curricula. By presenting this process, the reader is invited to consider interpretive methods as a way to inspire and habituate thoughtful practice and judgment-based care. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Factors associated with suicidal thoughts in a large community study of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Osvaldo P; Draper, Brian; Snowdon, John; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Pirkis, Jane; Byrne, Gerard; Sim, Moira; Stocks, Nigel; Flicker, Leon; Pfaff, Jon J

    2012-12-01

    Thoughts about death and self-harm in old age have been commonly associated with the presence of depression, but other risk factors may also be important. To determine the independent association between suicidal ideation in later life and demographic, lifestyle, socioeconomic, psychiatric and medical factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted of a community-derived sample of 21 290 adults aged 60-101 years enrolled from Australian primary care practices. We considered that participants endorsing any of the four items of the Depressive Symptom Inventory -Suicidality Subscale were experiencing suicidal thoughts. We used standard procedures to collect demographic, lifestyle, psychosocial and clinical data. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The 2-week prevalence of suicidal ideation was 4.8%. Male gender, higher education, current smoking, living alone, poor social support, no religious practice, financial strain, childhood physical abuse, history of suicide in the family, past depression, current anxiety, depression or comorbid anxiety and depression, past suicide attempt, pain, poor self-perceived health and current use of antidepressants were independently associated with suicidal ideation. Poor social support was associated with a population attributable fraction of 38.0%, followed by history of depression (23.6%), concurrent anxiety and depression (19.7%), prevalent anxiety (15.1%), pain (13.7%) and no religious practice (11.4%). Prevalent and past mood disorders seem to be valid targets for indicated interventions designed to reduce suicidal thoughts and behaviour. However, our data indicate that social disconnectedness and stress account for a larger proportion of cases than mood disorders. Should these associations prove to be causal, then interventions that succeeded in addressing these issues would contribute the most to reducing suicidal ideation and, possibly, suicidal behaviour in later life.

  3. Not Merely Experiential: Unconscious Thought Can Be Rational

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Garrison

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals often form more reasonable judgments from complex information after a period of distraction vs. deliberation. This phenomenon has been attributed to sophisticated unconscious thought during the distraction period that integrates and organizes the information (Unconscious Thought Theory; Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006. Yet, other research suggests that experiential processes are strengthened during the distraction (relative to deliberation period, accounting for the judgment and decision benefit. We tested between these possibilities, hypothesizing that unconscious thought is distinct from experiential processes, and independently contributes to judgments and decisions during a distraction period. Using an established paradigm, Experiment 1 (N = 319 randomly induced participants into an experiential or rational mindset, after which participants received complex information describing three roommates to then consider consciously (i.e., deliberation or unconsciously (i.e., distraction. Results revealed superior roommate judgments (but not choices following distraction vs. deliberation, consistent with Unconscious Thought Theory. Mindset did not have an influence on roommate judgments. However, planned tests revealed a significant advantage of distraction only within the rational-mindset condition, which is contrary to the idea that experiential processing alone facilitates complex decision-making during periods of distraction. In a second experiment (N = 136, we tested whether effects of unconscious thought manifest for a complex analytical reasoning task for which experiential processing would offer no advantage. As predicted, participants in an unconscious thought condition outperformed participants in a control condition, suggesting that unconscious thought can be analytical. In sum, the current results support the existence of unconscious thinking processes that are distinct from experiential processes, and can be rational. Thus

  4. Not Merely Experiential: Unconscious Thought Can Be Rational.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Katie E; Handley, Ian M

    2017-01-01

    Individuals often form more reasonable judgments from complex information after a period of distraction vs. deliberation. This phenomenon has been attributed to sophisticated unconscious thought during the distraction period that integrates and organizes the information (Unconscious Thought Theory; Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006). Yet, other research suggests that experiential processes are strengthened during the distraction (relative to deliberation) period, accounting for the judgment and decision benefit. We tested between these possibilities, hypothesizing that unconscious thought is distinct from experiential processes, and independently contributes to judgments and decisions during a distraction period. Using an established paradigm, Experiment 1 ( N = 319) randomly induced participants into an experiential or rational mindset, after which participants received complex information describing three roommates to then consider consciously (i.e., deliberation) or unconsciously (i.e., distraction). Results revealed superior roommate judgments (but not choices) following distraction vs. deliberation, consistent with Unconscious Thought Theory. Mindset did not have an influence on roommate judgments. However, planned tests revealed a significant advantage of distraction only within the rational-mindset condition, which is contrary to the idea that experiential processing alone facilitates complex decision-making during periods of distraction. In a second experiment ( N = 136), we tested whether effects of unconscious thought manifest for a complex analytical reasoning task for which experiential processing would offer no advantage. As predicted, participants in an unconscious thought condition outperformed participants in a control condition, suggesting that unconscious thought can be analytical. In sum, the current results support the existence of unconscious thinking processes that are distinct from experiential processes, and can be rational. Thus, the

  5. Cognitive restructuring of gambling-related thoughts: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrétien, Maxime; Giroux, Isabelle; Goulet, Annie; Jacques, Christian; Bouchard, Stéphane

    2017-12-01

    Gamblers' thoughts have a fundamental influence on their gambling problem. Cognitive restructuring is the intervention of choice to correct those thoughts. However, certain difficulties are noted in the application of cognitive restructuring techniques and the comprehension of their guidelines. Furthermore, the increase of skill game players (e.g. poker) entering treatment creates a challenge for therapists, as these gamblers present with different thoughts than those of the gamblers usually encountered in treatment (e.g. chance-only games like electronic gambling machines). This systematic review aims to describe how cognitive restructuring is carried out with gamblers based on the evidence available in empirical studies that include cognitive interventions for gambling. Of the 2607 studies collected, 39 were retained. The results highlight exposure as the most frequently used technique to facilitate identification of gambling-related thoughts (imaginal=28.2%; in vivo=10.3%). More than half of the studies (69.2%) clearly reported therapeutic techniques aimed to correct gamblers' thoughts, of which 37% involved visual support to challenge those thoughts (e.g. ABC log). Of the 39 studies retained, 48.7% included skill game players (i.e., poker, blackjack, sports betting) in their sample. However, none of these studies mentioned whether cognitive restructuring had been adapted for these gamblers. Several terms referring to gamblers' thoughts were used interchangeably (e.g. erroneous, dysfunctional or inadequate thoughts), although each of these terms could refer to specific content. Clinical implications of the results are discussed with regard to the needs of therapists. This review also suggests recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Not Merely Experiential: Unconscious Thought Can Be Rational

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Katie E.; Handley, Ian M.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals often form more reasonable judgments from complex information after a period of distraction vs. deliberation. This phenomenon has been attributed to sophisticated unconscious thought during the distraction period that integrates and organizes the information (Unconscious Thought Theory; Dijksterhuis and Nordgren, 2006). Yet, other research suggests that experiential processes are strengthened during the distraction (relative to deliberation) period, accounting for the judgment and decision benefit. We tested between these possibilities, hypothesizing that unconscious thought is distinct from experiential processes, and independently contributes to judgments and decisions during a distraction period. Using an established paradigm, Experiment 1 (N = 319) randomly induced participants into an experiential or rational mindset, after which participants received complex information describing three roommates to then consider consciously (i.e., deliberation) or unconsciously (i.e., distraction). Results revealed superior roommate judgments (but not choices) following distraction vs. deliberation, consistent with Unconscious Thought Theory. Mindset did not have an influence on roommate judgments. However, planned tests revealed a significant advantage of distraction only within the rational-mindset condition, which is contrary to the idea that experiential processing alone facilitates complex decision-making during periods of distraction. In a second experiment (N = 136), we tested whether effects of unconscious thought manifest for a complex analytical reasoning task for which experiential processing would offer no advantage. As predicted, participants in an unconscious thought condition outperformed participants in a control condition, suggesting that unconscious thought can be analytical. In sum, the current results support the existence of unconscious thinking processes that are distinct from experiential processes, and can be rational. Thus, the

  7. Neural reactivation links unconscious thought to decision-making performance

    OpenAIRE

    Creswell, John David; Bursley, James K.; Satpute, Ajay B.

    2013-01-01

    Brief periods of unconscious thought (UT) have been shown to improve decision making compared with making an immediate decision (ID). We reveal a neural mechanism for UT in decision making using blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants (N = 33) encoded information on a set of consumer products (e.g. 48 attributes describing four different cars), and we manipulated whether participants (i) consciously thought about this information (conscious thou...

  8. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ridder, Dirk de [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium)

    2007-08-15

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P{sub corrected} < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  9. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Marion; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan; Ridder, Dirk de

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P corrected < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  10. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  11. Glycemia in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  12. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  13. Associative memory model with spontaneous neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurikawa, Tomoki; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2012-05-01

    We propose a novel associative memory model wherein the neural activity without an input (i.e., spontaneous activity) is modified by an input to generate a target response that is memorized for recall upon the same input. Suitable design of synaptic connections enables the model to memorize input/output (I/O) mappings equaling 70% of the total number of neurons, where the evoked activity distinguishes a target pattern from others. Spontaneous neural activity without an input shows chaotic dynamics but keeps some similarity with evoked activities, as reported in recent experimental studies.

  14. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  15. Spontaneous Bilateral Meningoencephalocoeles of the Temporal Bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Rose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous tegmen tympani defects are rare with even rarer bilateral cases. The symptoms are nonspecific; hence, a high index of suspicion is required to prevent serious intracranial complications. We present a case of spontaneous bilateral tegmen tympani defects with associated meningoencephalocoeles in a 54-year-old male who presented with the signs and symptoms of severe meningitis. After careful workup which included a lumbar puncture, CT and MRI scans, both defects were repaired using a middle fossa approach. The patient made an uneventful recovery with complete cessation of otorrhoea and improvement in his hearing.

  16. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  17. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Manoranjan; Mohanty, Thitta; Patnaik, Jyoti; Mishra, Narayan; Subhankar, Saswat; Parida, Priyadarsini

    2017-01-01

    Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF) is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a rare entity in a middle-aged male.

  18. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2012-12-01

    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, Salvatore; Draghi, Ferdinando

    2018-07-01

    Spontaneous ruptures of the plantar fascia are uncommon injuries. They typically occur at its calcaneal insertion and usually represent a complication of plantar fasciitis and local treatment with steroid injections. In contrast, distal ruptures commonly result from traumatic injuries. We describe the case of a spontaneous distal rupture of the plantar fascia in a 48-year-old woman with a low level of physical activity and no history of direct injury to the foot, plantar fasciitis, or steroid injections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Bradycardia after Tube Thoracostomy for Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yomi Fashola

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of an elderly patient who became bradycardic after chest tube insertion for spontaneous pneumothorax. Arrhythmia is a rare complication of tube thoracostomy. Unlike other reported cases of chest tube induced arrhythmias, the bradycardia in our patient responded to resuscitative measures without removal or repositioning of the tube. Our patient, who had COPD, presented with shortness of breath due to spontaneous pneumothorax. Moments after tube insertion, patient developed severe bradycardia that responded to Atropine. In patients requiring chest tube insertion, it is important to be prepared to provide cardiopulmonary resuscitative therapy in case the patient develops a life-threatening arrhythmia.

  1. An unusual case of spontaneous esophagopleural fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoranjan Dash

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Esophago-pleural fistula (EPF is an uncommon condition, despite of an anatomical proximity of these structures. Causes of EPF include pneumonectomy for suppurative or tubercular disease of lung and carcinoma lung, malignancy of esophagus. Benign EPF is rare and may be due to trauma or infection. The most common infectious cause is tuberculosis. Spontaneous development of fistula between esophagus and pleura is rarely described in literature. We, hereby present a spontaneous case of such a rare entity in a middle-aged male.

  2. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon

    2014-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  3. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  4. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail: hendrik.jansen@desy.de

    2016-09-21

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  5. A Penny for Your Thoughts: Dimensions of Thought Content and Relationships with Individual Differences in Emotional Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Andrews-Hanna

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A core aspect of human cognition involves overcoming the constraints of the present environment by mentally simulating another time, place, or perspective. Although these self-generated processes confer many benefits, they can come at an important cost, and this cost is greater for some individuals than for others. Here we explore the possibility that the costs and benefits of self-generated thought depend, in part, upon its phenomenological content. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a novel thought sampling paradigm and explored normative ratings of multiple thought content variables (i.e. valence, specificity, self-relevance, etc. across a large sample of young adults. Next, we examined multi-level relationships among these content variables, and used a hierarchical clustering approach to partition self-generated thought into multiple dimensions. Finally, we investigated whether these content dimensions predicted individual differences in the costs and benefits of the experience, assessed with questionnaires measuring emotional health and wellbeing. Individuals who characterized their thoughts as more negative and more personally-significant exhibited scored higher on constructs associated with Depression and Trait Negative Affect, whereas those who characterized their thoughts as less specific scored higher on constructs linked to Rumination. In contrast, individuals who characterized their thoughts as more positive, less personally-significant, and more specific scored higher on constructs linked to improved wellbeing (Mindfulness. Collectively, these findings suggest that the content of people’s inner thoughts can 1 be productively examined, 2 be distilled into several major dimensions, and 3 account for a large portion of variability in their functional outcomes.

  6. Conscious and unconscious thought in risky choice: Testing the capacity principle and the appropriate weighting principle of Unconscious Thought Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel James Siebert Ashby

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Daily we make decisions ranging from the mundane to the seemingly pivotal that shape our lives. Assuming rationality, all relevant information about one’s options should be thoroughly examined in order to make the best choice. However, some findings suggest that under specific circumstances thinking too much has disadvantageous effects on decision quality and that it might be best to let the unconscious do the busy work. In three studies we test the capacity assumption and the appropriate weighting principle of unconscious thought theory using a classic risky choice paradigm and including a ‘deliberation with information’ condition. Although we replicate an advantage for unconscious thought over ‘deliberation without information’, we find that ‘deliberation with information’ equals or outperforms unconscious thought in risky choices. These results speak against the generality of the assumption that unconscious thought has a higher capacity for information integration and show that this capacity assumption does not hold in all domains. We furthermore show that ‘deliberate thought with information’ leads to more differentiated knowledge compared to unconscious thought which speaks against the generality of the appropriate weighting assumption.

  7. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  8. Spatial Memory in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sontag, Thomas-A.; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Hauser, Joachim; Kaunzinger, Ivo; Tucha, Oliver; Lange, Klaus W.

    2013-01-01

    The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is an established animal model of ADHD. It has been suggested that ADHD symptoms arise from deficits in executive functions such as working memory, attentional control and decision making. Both ADHD patients and SHRs show deficits in spatial working memory.

  9. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  10. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory evaluation indicated that the techniques of nixtamalization, fermentation and cowpea fortification used for the processing of the products did not influence their acceptability by the panel. Nixtamalized maize can therefore be subjected to spontaneous fermentation with cowpea fortification to enhance the functional, ...

  11. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de

    1987-01-01

    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  12. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...

  13. Spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli anastomosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Nikolaidis, I.; Dimakakos, P.

    1986-01-01

    A case of a spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli communication is presented in a 65 year old patient who was admitted to the Hospital with severe abdominal pain simulating a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The diagnosis was suspected on a CT examination and established by a free flow aortogram and selective catheterization of the cisterna chyli through the aorta. (orig.)

  14. Spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli anastomosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlahos, L.; Gouliamos, A.; Nikolaidis, I.; Dimakakos, P.

    1986-02-01

    A case of a spontaneous aorto-cisterna chyli communication is presented in a 65 year old patient who was admitted to the Hospital with severe abdominal pain simulating a dissecting aneurysm of the aorta. The diagnosis was suspected on a CT examination and established by a free flow aortogram and selective catheterization of the cisterna chyli through the aorta. (orig.).

  15. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  16. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.

    2008-01-01

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  17. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous emission from active dielectric microstructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Thomas; Tromborg, Bjarne

    2001-01-01

    and engineered due to the dependence of the emission rate on the location and polarisation of the emitters in the structure. This paper addresses the methods of quantum electrodynamics of dielectric media which enable calculation of the local rate of spontaneous emission in active microstructures....

  19. Synchronization of cubic distortion spontaneous otoacoustic emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, P; Wit, HP

    A spontaneous otoacoustic emission spectrum may contain equally spaced emission peaks. Then, two peaks, at frequencies, f(1) and f(2), respectively, apparently generate a distortion product at f(d)=2f(1)-f(2) [or 2f(2)-f(1)]. For the three emission peaks of nine of such triplets tin six emission

  20. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  1. Spontaneous fluxoid formation in superconducting loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Rivers, R.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the experimental verification of the Zurek-Kibble scenario in an isolated superconducting ring over a wide parameter range. The probability of creating a single flux quantum spontaneously during the fast normal-superconducting phase transition of a wide Nb loop clearly follows...

  2. A Spontaneous Joint Infection with Corynebacterium striatum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Scholle, David

    2006-01-01

    Corynebacterium striatum is a ubiquitous saprophyte with the potential to cause bacteremia in immunocompromised patients. Until now, spontaneous infection of a natural joint has not been reported. When phenotyping failed, gene sequencing was used to identify the species. The isolate demonstrated high-level resistance to most antibiotics.

  3. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N = 2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    A model describing the interaction of N = 2 supergravity with a vector and a linear multiplet is constructed. The model admits the introduction of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking with two arbitrary scales, one of which can be equal to zero, corresponding to the partial super-Higgs effect (N = 2→N = 1). The cosmological term is automatically equal to zero

  5. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The whole brains were removed and the medial prefrontal cortex excised and processed for histomorphologic studies by haematoxylin and eosin, and cresyl fast violet techniques. Neurobehavioural test revealed less spontaneous alternation in 156 mg/kg Allium sativum group, while the prefrontal cortices of the test groups ...

  6. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  7. Spontaneously broken version of N=4 supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terent'ev, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    The special scenario of reduction from the space of D=10 dimensions is used to construct the theory with describes interaction of supergravity with only one multiplet of matter in the framework of spontaneously broken N=4 supersymmetry. 6 refs.; 1 fig

  8. Bilateral spontaneous adrenal haemorrhage complicating acute pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pianta, M.; Varma, D. K.

    2007-01-01

    Bilateral adrenal haemorrhage is an event that mandates prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent primary adrenocortical insufficiency and potential death. Presentation can be non-specific and incidentally diagnosed with imaging alone, primarily CT. We present a case of acute pancreatitis with spontaneous bilateral adrenal haemorrhage and briefly discuss imaging and treatment implications

  9. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.

    2017-01-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  10. Starting and Stopping Spontaneous Family Conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchinich, Samuel

    1987-01-01

    Examined how 52 nondistressed families managed spontaneous verbal conflicts during family dinners. Found conflict initiation to be evenly distributed across family roles. Extension of conflict was constrained by constant probability of a next conflict move occurring. Most conflicts ended with no resolution. Mothers were most active in closing…

  11. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  12. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm

    2017-05-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  13. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  14. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  15. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...

  16. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  17. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  18. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.

    2004-05-01

    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  19. Remembering September 11th 2001: Early correlates of later memory vividness, confidence, and errror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tia

    100 students were approached twice: The day after the attack on World Trade Center (early data) and nine months later (memory data). Early ratings of having talked and, in particular, thought about the event predicted later memory better than other early measures. Errors were frequent but largely...... equivalent in meaning although wrong in detail. Results seem inconsistent with suggestions of a special flashbulb memory mechanism operating at immediate encoding, but consistent with suggestions of normal memory processes elicited by strange situations....

  20. Validation of the ureteral diameter ratio for predicting early spontaneous resolution of primary vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlen, Angela M; Kirsch, Andrew J; Leong, Traci; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-08-01

    Management of primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) remains controversial, and reflux grade currently constitutes an important prognostic factor. Previous reports have demonstrated that distal ureteral diameter ratio (UDR) may be more predictive of outcome than vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade. We performed an external validation study in young children, evaluating early spontaneous resolution rates relative to reflux grade and UDR. Voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs) were reviewed. UDR was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between the L1 and L3 vertebral bodies (Figure). VUR grade and UDR were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was status of VUR at last clinical follow-up (i.e. resolution, persistence, or surgical intervention). Demographics, VUR timing, laterality, and imaging indication were also assessed. One-hundred and forty-seven children (98 girls, 49 boys) were diagnosed with primary VUR at a mean age of 5.5 ± 4.7 months. Sixty-seven (45.6%) resolved spontaneously, 55 (37.4%) had persistent disease, and 25 (17%) were surgically corrected. Patients who spontaneously resolved had significantly lower VUR grade, refluxed later during bladder filling, and had significantly lower UDR. In a multivariable model, grade of VUR (p = 0.001), age early spontaneous resolution than grade alone. Furthermore, unlike traditional VUR grading where children with grade 1-5 may outgrow reflux depending on other factors, there appears to be a consistent UDR cutoff whereby patients are unlikely to resolve. In the present study, no child with a UDR greater than 0.43 experienced early spontaneous resolution, and only three (4.5%) of those with spontaneous resolution had a UDR above 0.35. UDR correlates with reflux grade, and is predictive of early resolution in children with primary VUR. UDR is an objective measurement of VUR, and provides valuable prognostic information about spontaneous

  1. The Concept of Paleologic Thought According to Arieti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Melo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The Aristotelic Logic, which is characterized by four laws, is commonly accepted as being representative of normal though, when considered in its formal aspect. Arieti defends the existence of another logic, one that he has designated "Paleological", which was dominant in human beings in the beginning of their evolution, and that also occurs in certain characteristics of infantile thought, as well as in the primary process (manner in which the unconscious operates. The same author considers that this logic, whoch is quiescent, emerges in schizophrenic thought, dominating and overlapping the Aristotelian logic. In order to escape from anguish, the shizophrenic patient abandons Aristotelian norms of thought and adopts the Paleological form, because by interpreting reality, in light of Aristotelian logic, it's felt to be threatening and unbearable. Finally, Arieti explains that the principles of Paleological thought don't explain the phenomenon dynamically, merely formally. The study of psychodinamic mechanisms reveals what and why (content and motivation, while the study of formal mechanims reveal how, thoughts and feelings are processed.

  2. Brain mechanisms for loss of awareness of thought and movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David A.; Halligan, Peter W.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Deeley, Quinton

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Loss or reduction of awareness is common in neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena but the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. fMRI was combined with suggestions for automatic writing in 18 healthy highly hypnotically suggestible individuals in a within-subjects design to determine whether clinical alterations in awareness of thought and movement can be experimentally modelled and studied independently of illness. Subjective ratings of control, ownership, and awareness of thought and movement, and fMRI data were collected following suggestions for thought insertion and alien control of writing movement, with and without loss of awareness. Subjective ratings confirmed that suggestions were effective. At the neural level, our main findings indicated that loss of awareness for both thought and movement during automatic writing was associated with reduced activation in a predominantly left-sided posterior cortical network including BA 7 (superior parietal lobule and precuneus), and posterior cingulate cortex, involved in self-related processing and awareness of the body in space. Reduced activity in posterior parietal cortices may underlie specific clinical and cultural alterations in awareness of thought and movement. Clinically, these findings may assist development of imaging assessments for loss of awareness of psychological origin, and interventions such as neurofeedback. PMID:28338742

  3. Objectification of people and thoughts: An attitude change perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briñol, Pablo; Petty, Richard E; Belding, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    Many objectification phenomena can be understood from a mind-body dualism perspective in which the more people focus on their bodies, the less they focus on their minds. Instead of viewing mind and body in opposition to each other, we advocate for a more reciprocal view in which mind and body work in conjunction. Consistent with an integrated mind-body approach, we begin our review by describing research on embodied persuasion revealing that focusing on our own body can reduce but also increase thinking (elaboration), as well as affecting the use of thoughts in forming evaluations (validation). Next, we extend our integrated view to a new domain and suggest that physical objects can influence thoughts and that one's thoughts can also be objectified. The first portion of this section focuses on research on enclothed cognition revealing that wearing physical objects can operate through the same processes of elaboration (increasing and decreasing thinking) and validation (increasing and decreasing thought usage) as the body. The second portion reveals that thoughts can be understood and treated as if they were physical objects affecting evaluative processes by influencing elaboration and validation processes. The final section provides some practical guidance relevant to campaigns designed to reduce the objectification of women and the infrahumanization of stigmatized groups. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  4. Christfried Jakob's Late Views (1930-1949) on the Psychogenetic Function of the Cerebral Cortex and Its Localization: Culmination of the Neurophilosophical Thought of a Keen Brain Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe D.; Triarhou, Lazaros C.

    2012-01-01

    This article follows the culmination of the scientific thought of the neurobiologist Christfried Jakob (1866-1956) during the later part of his career, based on publications from 1930 to 1949, when he was between 64 and 83 years of age. Jakob emphasized the necessity of bridging philosophy to the biological sciences, neurobiology in particular.…

  5. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  6. Modeling multi-lateral wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, H. J.; Fong, W. S. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company (United States)

    1998-12-31

    A method for modeling multi-lateral wells by using a computational scheme embedded in a general-purpose, finite difference simulator was described. The calculation of wellbore pressure profile for each lateral included the frictional pressure drop along the wellbore and proper fluid mixing at lateral connection points. To obtain a good production profile the Beggs and Brill correlation, a homogenous flow model, and the model proposed by Ouyang et al, which includes an acceleration term and accounts for the lubrication effect due to radial influx, were implemented. Well performance prediction results were compared using the three models. The impact of different tubing sizes on the well performance and the prediction contribution from each lateral were also studied. Results of the study in the hypothetical example and under normal field operating conditions were reviewed. 7 refs., 10 tabs., 3 figs.

  7. Posed versus spontaneous facial expressions are modulated by opposite cerebral hemispheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elliott D; Pulusu, Vinay K

    2013-05-01

    Clinical research has indicated that the left face is more expressive than the right face, suggesting that modulation of facial expressions is lateralized to the right hemisphere. The findings, however, are controversial because the results explain, on average, approximately 4% of the data variance. Using high-speed videography, we sought to determine if movement-onset asymmetry was a more powerful research paradigm than terminal movement asymmetry. The results were very robust, explaining up to 70% of the data variance. Posed expressions began overwhelmingly on the right face whereas spontaneous expressions began overwhelmingly on the left face. This dichotomy was most robust for upper facial expressions. In addition, movement-onset asymmetries did not predict terminal movement asymmetries, which were not significantly lateralized. The results support recent neuroanatomic observations that upper versus lower facial movements have different forebrain motor representations and recent behavioral constructs that posed versus spontaneous facial expressions are modulated preferentially by opposite cerebral hemispheres and that spontaneous facial expressions are graded rather than non-graded movements. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Electric current precedes emergence of a lateral root in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, S; Ezaki, S; Hayashi, K; Toko, K; Yamafuji, K

    1992-10-01

    Stable electrochemical patterns appear spontaneously around roots of higher plants and are closely related to growth. An electric potential pattern accompanied by lateral root emergence was measured along the surface of the primary root of adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) over 21 h using a microelectrode manipulated by a newly developed apparatus. The electric potential became lower at the point where a lateral root emerged. This change preceded the emergence of the lateral root by about 10 h. A theory is presented for calculating two-dimensional patterns of electric potential and electric current density around the primary root (and a lateral root) using only data on the one-dimensional electric potential measured near the surface of the primary root. The development of the lateral root inside the primary root is associated with the influx of electric current of about 0.7 muA.cm(-2) at the surface.

  9. Formal Thought Disorder and language impairment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness in which disorders of thought content are a prominent feature. The disruption of normal flow of thought, or “Formal Thought Disorder” (FTD, has been traditionally assessed through the content and form of patients’ speech, and speech abnormalities in schizophrenia were considered as a by-product of the disruption in conceptual structures and associative processes related to psychosis. This view has been changed due to increasing evidence that language per se is impaired in schizophrenia, especially its semantic, discursive, and pragmatic aspects. Schizophrenia is currently considered by some authors as a “language related human specific disease” or “logopathy”, and the neuroanatomical and genetic correlates of the language impairment in these patients are under investigation. Such efforts may lead to a better understanding about the pathophysiology of this devastating mental disease. We present some current concepts related to FTD as opposed to primary neurolinguistic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  10. The magic of Rudaki's thought and literary language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S Basiri

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article, at first, discuses the fact that language is the most important means of human being to reach the fact and beauty. Language is a means of logical thinking rather than a way of communication. However, literary language in Rudaki's poetry has the best capacity to identify and reveal mental concepts through using aesthetics. The main question of this article is how Rudaki connected language to thought and what is his artistic creation? For this reason the researcher, after presenting and considering evidences, proves that Rudaki has used all characteristics of language and principals of creative language to connect literary language and thought together. The most prominent elements of Rudaki's thought and literary language are: using the most proper words in collocation, distinguishing the relationship of cause and effect and existence through literary language, asserting artistic fact, using imagination and principles of association of meanings, and entering poetical experience in language dominion (domain.

  11. Cinema as the Interdisciplinary Conjuncture of Political Thought and History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Alavipoor

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available From the dawn of its history, cinema has been considered as a phenomenon in which different thoughts, among them the political, could be addressed. Indeed, many film-makers have presented various aspects of political norms and the good order of society through movies. However, this combination of the idea and image has been addressed in different ways and among others, as seems, the historical narrative has the potentiality to convey critical and normal political ideas in cinema. Exploring different types of representing the political thought in cinematic historical narratives, the present study attempts to identify cinema’s interdisciplinary potential as a conjuncture for the disciplines of history and political thought.

  12. Bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary metastases of synovial sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matushita, J.P.K.; Azevedo, C.M. de

    1989-01-01

    The association of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax with pulmonary tumor is uncommon and with pulmonary metastases is rare. The clinical and radiological features of bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax from a synovial sarcoma in a 14 years old boy are described. (author) [pt

  13. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  14. Detection of target phonemes in spontaneous and read speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, G.; Cutler, A.

    1988-01-01

    Although spontaneous speech occurs more frequently in most listeners' experience than read speech, laboratory studies of human speech recognition typically use carefully controlled materials read from a script. The phonological and prosodic characteristics of spontaneous and read speech differ

  15. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin

    2016-01-01

    attractor. Its existence guarantees that evoked spiking return to the spontaneous state. However, the spontaneous ongoing spiking state and the visual evoked spiking states are qualitatively different and are separated by a threshold (separatrix). The functional advantage of this organization...

  16. Thoracoscopic modified pleural tent for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawachi, Riken; Matsuwaki, Rie; Tachibana, Keisei; Karita, Shin; Nakazato, Yoko; Tanaka, Ryota; Nagashima, Yasushi; Takei, Hidefumi; Kondo, Haruhiko

    2016-08-01

    We developed a modified pleural tent (m-tent) procedure and used it in our hospital in almost 30 consecutive patients with spontaneous pneumothorax. The objective of this study was to clarify the feasibility and effectiveness of a thoracoscopic m-tent for the treatment of spontaneous pneumothorax. From July 2013 to November 2014, 107 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax were treated in our institution. Eighty-nine of these patients were analysed retrospectively. The inclusion criteria for thoracoscopic m-tent for spontaneous pneumothorax were multiple and widespread bullae, postoperative relapse and secondary spontaneous pneumothorax. The surgical procedures were usually performed through three ports. After bullectomy, an m-tent is made to strip the parietal pleura off the chest wall from about the level of the fourth or fifth rib to the apex, and two or three ligations are then applied to fix the pleural tent and lung parenchyma. Patients in whom an m-tent was not indicated underwent bullectomy plus coverage using absorbable materials. Twenty-seven patients underwent bullectomy plus m-tent (m-tent group) and 62 underwent bullectomy plus coverage over a staple line using an absorbable material such as a polyglycolic acid sheet or nitrocellulose sheet (coverage group). No severe postoperative complications were observed in either group. The m-tent and coverage groups showed significant differences in operation time (129 vs 86 min, mean), haemorrhage (12.8 vs 7.2 ml), postoperative hospital stay (3.7 vs 2.9 days) and postoperative painkiller intake (8.6 vs 6.8 days). Recurrence was observed in 1 (3.7%) and 2 patients (3.2%), respectively. The thoracoscopic m-tent procedure requires a longer operation, a longer hospital stay and greater painkiller intake. However, these differences are acceptable, and an m-tent should be considered as an option for pleural reinforcement in spontaneous pneumothorax, especially in patients who are complicated with severe pulmonary

  17. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabant, G

    2016-12-01

    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low

  18. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József

    2008-07-30

    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  19. Boundaries of regulatory fit: Is it the thought that counts?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leikas, S.; Lindeman, M.; Roininen, K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeling of regulatory fit is thought to arise from the right kind of goal pursuit, but some studies imply that it may be evoked even by lesser involvement in the right kind of strategies. The present experiment explored the minimum of involvement necessary to evoke regulatory fit. Participants...... the same information. Participants in promotion focus reported more positive attitudes in the rich information condition, whereas prevention-focused participants reported more positive attitudes in the accurate information condition. The results showed that regulatory fit can be evoked through mere thought...

  20. Early removal of odontoma resulting in spontaneous eruption of the impacted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Harijadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla during mixed dentition frequently cause obstruction to the eruption pathway of permanent upper anterior teeth. Removal of the odontomas may or may not lead to spontaneous eruption of the impacted teeth depending on the age when the surgery is performed, the size of the lesion, and the stage of tooth development of the involved teeth. Purpose: This paper attempts to emphasize the importance of early removal of compound odontoma to enable spontaneous eruption of the affected teeth. Case: A case of odontoma in the anterior maxilla causing failure of eruption and delayed root formation of upper right permanent lateral incisor and canine in a 10-year-old male patient is presented. Case management: The odontoma was surgically removed under general anesthesia and histology result confirmed the diagnosis of compound odontoma. A three-year post surgical follow up showed spontaneous eruption as well as continued root formation of the two affected teeth. Conclusion: Removal of odontoma may lead to spontaneous eruption of the affected teeth if their root development are not completed.Latar belakang: Compound odontoma pada daerah anterior maksila pada masa geligi pergantian sering menyebabkan hambatan erupsi pada gigi permanen penggantinya. Kemungkinan terjadinya erupsi spontan gigi permanen yang impaksi setelah pengambilan odontoma tergantung dari: umur penderita pada saat dilakukan operasi, ukuran lesi odontoma dan tahapan perkembangan gigi permanen yang terlibat. Tujuan: Laporan kasus ini ingin menekankan pentingnya pengambilan compound odontoma sedini mungkin untuk memberi kesempatan tumbuhnya gigi permanen yang terlibat dan erupsi secara spontan. Kasus: Ditampilkan sebuah kasus compound odontoma pada regio maksila anterior menyebabkan gagalnya erupsi dan terlambatnya pembentukan akar gigi insisif kedua dan kaninus permanent rahang atas kanan pada penderita anak laki-laki berumur 10 tahun

  1. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  2. Depression and physical health in later life : results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, ATF; Penninx, BWJH; Deeg, DJH; Ormel, J; Braam, AW; van Tilburg, W

    1997-01-01

    Background: In later life, declining physical health is often thought to be one of the most important risk factors for depression. Major depressive disorders are relatively rare, while depressive syndromes which do not fulfil diagnostic criteria (minor depression) are common. Methods:

  3. Infralimbic cortex projects to all parts of the pontine and medullary lateral tegmental field in cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, Rutger; Mensinga, Gabe M.; Boers, Jose; Klop, Esther Marije; Holstege, Gert

    The infralimbic cortex (ILc) in cat is the ventralmost part of the anterior cingulate gyrus. The ILc, together with the amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and lateral hypothalamus, is involved in the regulation of fear behavior. The latter three structures are thought to take part in

  4. For Which Side the Bell Tolls: The Laterality of Approach-Avoidance Associative Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Adam K; Ode, Scott; Robinson, Michael D

    2013-03-01

    The two hemispheres of the brain appear to play different roles in emotion and/or motivation. A great deal of previous research has examined the valence hypothesis (left hemisphere = positive; right = negative), but an increasing body of work has supported the motivational hypothesis (left hemisphere = approach; right = avoidance) as an alternative. The present investigation ( N = 117) sought to provide novel support for the latter perspective. Left versus right hemispheres were briefly activated by neutral lateralized auditory primes. Subsequently, participants categorized approach versus avoidance words as quickly and accurately as possible. Performance in the task revealed that approach-related thoughts were more accessible following left-hemispheric activation, whereas avoidance-related thoughts were more accessible following right-hemispheric activation. The present results are the first to examine such lateralized differences in accessible motivational thoughts, which may underlie more "downstream" manifestations of approach and avoidance motivation such as judgments, decision making, and behavior.

  5. F. VON HAYEK’S THEORY OF SPONTANEOUS ORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Nesterenko

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence and the genesis of spontaneous order are disclosed in the context of critical analysis of constructivism. The author’s approach to the definition of the characteristic features of the spontaneous order is proposed. The dichotomy of the order is revealed towards the economic sphere in form of spontaneous order and organization.

  6. Motivational Projections of Russian Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Shipitsina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the semantic, pragmatic and structural features of words, phrases, dialogues motivation, in the contemporary Russian popular speech. These structural features are characterized by originality and unconventional use. Language material is the result of authors` direct observation of spontaneous verbal communication between people of different social and age groups. The words and remarks were analyzed in compliance with the communication system of national Russian language and cultural background of popular speech. Studies have discovered that in spoken discourse there are some other ways to increase the expression statement. It is important to note that spontaneous speech identifies lacunae in the nominative language and its vocabulary system. It is proved, prefixation is also effective and regular way of the same action presenting. The most typical forms, ways and means to update language resources as a result of the linguistic creativity of native speakers were identified.

  7. Episodic spontaneous hypothermia: a periodic childhood syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cynthia; Gener, Blanca; Garaizar, Carmen; Prats, José M

    2003-04-01

    Episodic spontaneous hypothermia is an infrequent disorder, with unknown pathogenic mechanisms. A systemic cause or underlying brain lesion has not been found for the disease. We report four new patients, 3-9 years old, with episodic hypothermia lower than 35 degrees C, marked facial pallor, and absent shivering. The episodes could last a few hours or four days, and recurred once a week or every 2-3 months. Two patients also demonstrated bradycardia, mild hypertension, and somnolence during the events; in one of them, profuse sweating was also a feature, and all four presented with either headache, a periodic childhood syndrome, or both (recurrent abdominal pain, cyclic vomiting, or vertigo). Three patients reported a family history of migraine. Neurologic examination, endocrine function, and imaging studies were normal. Migraine prophylactic therapy was of moderate efficacy. Spontaneous resolution was observed in one patient. The clinical characteristics of the syndrome allow for its inclusion as a childhood periodic syndrome related to migraine.

  8. Spontaneous subconjunctival abscess in congenital lamellar ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand C Bubanale

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital lamellar ichthyosis is an autosomal recessive, heterogeneous disorder presenting at birth with generalized skin involvement. The most common ophthalmic manifestation noted is bilateral ectropion of the lower eyelids. A 1-month-old female neonate, the second born of a nonconsanguineous marriage, presented with 4 days' history of redness, discharge, and swelling in the right eye. There was severe right upper eyelid ectropion, conjunctival injection, chemosis, a subconjunctival mass on the temporal bulbar conjunctiva spontaneously draining pus and corneal haze. The anterior chamber, iris, lens and fundus appeared normal. Congenital lamellar ichthyosis was suspected because of scaling and excessive dryness of the entire body. The occurrence of a spontaneous subconjunctival abscess is not known in lamellar ichthyosis. We thus report the management of a rare case of unilateral upper eyelid ectropion, subconjunctival abscess with orbital cellulitis in congenital lamellar ichthyosis.

  9. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  10. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  11. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  12. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  13. Spontaneous bladder rupture in acute alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahjat Barakat

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous bladder rupture is a rare condition that can be followed by an acute alcohol intoxication and can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case diagnosed in a alcoholic young male who was admitted to our emergency room for epigastric pain. The case demonstrates the difficulties with diagnosis and the need for physicians who work in an emergency room to be aware of this condition.

  14. Urosepsis complicated by a spontaneous bladder perforation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2011-11-08

    The authors present a case of a 72-year-old diabetic male s/p pelvic irradiation for prostate carcinoma who arrived in the emergency department with complaints of shaking chills. After admission for urosepsis, he developed severe abdominal pain and examination revealed a diffusely tender abdomen. The patient was diagnosed with spontaneous urinary bladder perforation and underwent surgery. After several weeks of intravenous antibiotics, he was discharged with multiple drains in place and bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

  15. Spontaneous emission in Cherenkov FEL devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciocci, F.; Dattoli, G.; Doria, A.; Schettini, G.; Torre, A.; Walsh, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The main features of the spectral characteristics of the spontaneously emitted Cherenkov light in circular and rectangular wave-guides filled with dielectric are discussed. The characteristics of the radiation emitted by an electron beam moving near and parallel to the surface of a dielectric slab are also analysed. Finally, the relevance of these results to a possible FEL-Cherenkov operation is briefly discussed

  16. N=1 superstrings with spontaneously broken symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.

    1988-01-01

    We construct N=1 chiral superstrings with spontaneously broken gauge symmetry in four space-time dimensions. These new string solutions are obtained by a generalized coordinate-dependent Z 2 orbifold compactification of some non-chiral five-dimensional N=1 and N=2 superstrings. The scale of symmetry breaking is arbitrary (at least classically) and it can be chosen hierarchically smaller than the string scale (α') -1/2 . (orig.)

  17. Self energy QED: Multipole spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamin, Y.I.

    1990-08-01

    Within the context of Barut's self-field approach, we write the exact expression of the spontaneous atomic decay rate (Phys. Rev. A37, 2284 (1988)), in the long wavelength approximation, in terms of electric- and magnetic-like multipole contributions which are related to the matrix elements of the transition charge and current distributions of the relativistic electron. A number of features of these expressions are discussed and their generalization to interacting composite systems is also pointed out. (author). 8 refs

  18. Spontaneous neonatal pneumomediastinum: the "spinnaker sail" sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, T A; Glüer, S; Reismann, M; Dördelmann, M; Schirg, E; Ure, B

    2009-02-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare condition in the newborn, not associated with identifiable trauma or mechanical ventilation. It is diagnosed by a combination of physical examination and confirmatory chest radiograph, with various recognized signs identifiable in this condition. We report the case of a male neonate, who had pneumomediastinum confirmed by the presence of a wind blown spinnaker sail sign and was managed conservatively. We also reviewed the literature.

  19. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, J B; Perez-Mercader, J; Sanchez, F J

    1987-04-16

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems.

  20. Quantum mechanics with spontaneous localization and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Grassi, R.

    1994-05-01

    We examine from an experimental point of view the recently proposed models of spontaneous reduction. We compare their implications about decoherence with those of environmental effects. We discuss the treatment, within the considered models, of the so called quantum telegraph phenomenon and we show that, contrary to what has been recently stated, no problems are met. Finally, we review recent interesting work investigating the implications of dynamical reduction for the proton decay. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.B.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems. (orig.)

  2. Spontaneous parity violation and minimal Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez, H.; Martins Simoes, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present a model for the spontaneous breaking of parity with two Higgs doublets and two neutral Higgs singlets which are even and odd under D-parity. The condition υ R >>υ L can be satisfied without introducing bidoublets, and it is induced by the breaking of D-parity through the vacuum expectation value of the odd Higgs singlet. Examples of left-right symmetric and mirror fermions models in grand unified theories are presented. (orig.)

  3. Spontaneous entropy decrease and its statistical formula

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Xiu-San

    2007-01-01

    Why can the world resist the law of entropy increase and produce self-organizing structure? Does the entropy of an isolated system always only increase and never decrease? Can be thermodymamic degradation and self-organizing evolution united? How to unite? In this paper starting out from nonequilibrium entropy evolution equation we proved that a new entropy decrease could spontaneously emerge in nonequilibrium system with internal attractive interaction. This new entropy decrease coexists wit...

  4. Spontaneous Resolution of Optic Disc Pit Maculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathy, Koushik

    2017-01-01

    I read with interest the article reporting spontaneous resolution of optic disc pit maculopathy in a boy.1 Though the presence of an optic disc pit and associated macular involvement is undoubted in the presented case, the provided optical coherence tomography (OCT) does not clearly show typical intraretinal schisis (Figure 1B)1 at multiple retinal levels which may communicate with the pit. Instead, it shows a sub-internal limiting membrane (sub-ILM) cavity. Such cavities are known to occur f...

  5. Rethinking spontaneous giving: Extreme time pressure and ego-depletion favor self-regarding reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2016-06-02

    Previous experimental studies suggest that cooperation in one-shot anonymous interactions is, on average, spontaneous, rather than calculative. To explain this finding, it has been proposed that people internalize cooperative heuristics in their everyday life and bring them as intuitive strategies in new and atypical situations. Yet, these studies have important limitations, as they promote intuitive responses using weak time pressure or conceptual priming of intuition. Since these manipulations do not deplete participants' ability to reason completely, it remains unclear whether cooperative heuristics are really automatic or they emerge after a small, but positive, amount of deliberation. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we report two experiments demonstrating that spontaneous reactions in one-shot anonymous interactions tend to be egoistic. In doing so, our findings shed further light on the cognitive underpinnings of cooperation, as they suggest that cooperation in one-shot interactions is not automatic, but appears only at later stages of reasoning.

  6. Spontaneous rupture of the distal iliopsoas tendon: clinical and imaging findings, with anatomic correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecouvet, Frederic E.; Vande Berg, Bruno C.; Malghem, Jacques [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Saint Luc University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Demondion, Xavier [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Department of Bone Radiology and Laboratory of Anatomy, Lille (France); Leemrijse, Thibaut [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Saint Luc University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium); Devogelaer, Jean-Pierre [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Rheumatology, Saint Luc University Hospital, Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-11-01

    We report the clinical and imaging findings in two elderly female patients with spontaneous rupture of the distal iliopsoas tendon from the lesser trochanter of the femur. We emphasize the key contribution of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to this diagnosis and provide an anatomic correlation. Spontaneous rupture of the distal iliopsoas tendon should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of acute groin pain in the elderly. MR imaging enables positive diagnosis, by showing mass effect on the anterior aspect of the hip joint, proximal muscle thickening, and abnormal signal intensity, and by demonstrating interruption of the psoas tendon, whereas the distal insertion of the lateral portion of the iliacus muscle remains muscular and is preserved. (orig.)

  7. Ward identities of local supersymmetry and spontaneous breaking of extended supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecotti, S.; Girardello, L.; Porrati, M.

    1985-01-01

    It is a general agreement that any extended supergravity theory, in order to lead to a viable model with acceptable phenomenological implications, should admit spontaneous breaking to N = 1 local supersymmetry in a Minkowski background. It is then important to understand the possible patterns of partial breaking of extended local supersymmetry. These patterns strongly depend on the theory being formulated directly in 4-D or in higher-D. In general, the higher-D theories lead to partial breaking in 4-D anti-de Sitter spaces. Examples are known with partial breaking in flat space. They result respectively from a generalized dimensional reduction of the N = 1 theory in 11-D or from the spontaneous compactification of the 10-D low-energy theory from the superstring theory and of a 6-D Maxwell-Einstein supergravity model. We will comment later on this example. In this paper we will discuss some considerations which apply to theories formulated in 4-D

  8. Rethinking spontaneous giving: Extreme time pressure and ego-depletion favor self-regarding reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Valerio; Cococcioni, Giorgia

    2016-01-01

    Previous experimental studies suggest that cooperation in one-shot anonymous interactions is, on average, spontaneous, rather than calculative. To explain this finding, it has been proposed that people internalize cooperative heuristics in their everyday life and bring them as intuitive strategies in new and atypical situations. Yet, these studies have important limitations, as they promote intuitive responses using weak time pressure or conceptual priming of intuition. Since these manipulations do not deplete participants’ ability to reason completely, it remains unclear whether cooperative heuristics are really automatic or they emerge after a small, but positive, amount of deliberation. Consistent with the latter hypothesis, we report two experiments demonstrating that spontaneous reactions in one-shot anonymous interactions tend to be egoistic. In doing so, our findings shed further light on the cognitive underpinnings of cooperation, as they suggest that cooperation in one-shot interactions is not automatic, but appears only at later stages of reasoning. PMID:27251762

  9. Successful medical management of a neonate with spontaneous splenic rupture and severe hemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Sherif M; Rossoff, Jenna; Yallapragada, Sushmita; Liem, Robert I; Sharathkumar, Anjali A

    2017-03-01

    Splenic rupture in neonates is a rare event, usually occurring in the setting of underlying predisposing conditions. Here, we present the case of a term neonate who presented with worsening anemia in the setting of known hemolytic disease during the newborn period and was later found to have a spontaneous splenic rupture. He was subsequently diagnosed with severe hemophilia A, and was managed medically with recombinant factor VIII replacement therapy without any surgical intervention. This is the first reported case of a neonate who had spontaneous splenic rupture and severe hemophilia A, and underwent successful medical treatment without any surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Centre. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. C1-C2 arthrodesis after spontaneous Propionibacterium acnes spondylodiscitis: Case report and literature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Russo, Paolo; Tascini, Carlo; Benini, Maria Elena; Martini, Carlotta; Lepori, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    Background: Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is a microaerophilic anaerobic Gram-positive rod responsible for acne vulgaris. Although it is often considered to be a skin contaminant, it may act as a virulent agent in implant-associated infections. Conversely, spontaneous infectious processes have been rarely described. Case Description: Here, we describe a 43-year-old female with C1-C2 spondylodiscitis attributed to P. acnes infection. Despite long-term antibiotic treatment, computed tomography demonstrated erosion of the C1 and C2 vertebral complex that later warranted a fusion. One year postoperatively, the patient was asymptomatic. Conclusions: Clinical knowledge of P. acnes virulence in spontaneous cervical spondylodiscitis allows early diagnosis, which is necessary to prevent or reduce complications such as cervical deformity with myelopathy or mediastinitis. PMID:29497567

  11. Case of a spontaneously ruptured epidermoid cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiroyama, Y; Saiki, M; Ueda, H; Katayama, S; Mitani, T

    1987-02-01

    Intracranial fat-containing congenital tumors are characterized by negative absorption values on CT. We hereby report a case of an epidermoid cyst with subarachnoid free fats diagnosed preoperatively by CT. A 21-year-old female was admitted to our hospital because of continuous mild headache and nausea. At the time of admission, the results of her physical and neurological examinations were normal. CT, however, demonstrated multiple subarachnoid low-density spots and a suprasellar low-density area with high-density spots. In addition, there were negative absorption values (-12 -- -77), suggesting free fats. A spontaneously ruptured epidermoid or dermoid cyst was diagnosed on the basis of these findings. At surgery, a suprasellar tumor containing a yellowish, cheese-like material was confirmed. The patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged 14 days after surgery. There have been several published reports of CT appearances of intracranial fat-containing tumors. However, spontaneously ruptured cases diagnosed by CT are rare. CT was found to be useful for the diagnosis of spontaneously ruptured cases of fat-containing tumors.

  12. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos

    2003-10-01

    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  13. Spontaneously broken realization of supersymmetry in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.; Trieste Univ.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that if supersymmetry is relevant for the physical world it must be broken either spontaneously or explicitly. Renormalizability and simplicity are in favor of a spontaneous realization of the symmetry breaking. When supersymmetry is spontaneously broken the spinorial analogue of the Goldstone phenomenon occurs, namely massless particles arise in the spectrum of the theory which carry the same quantum numbers of the broken generators Qsup(i) they are N spin 1/2 Goldstone fermions (goldstinos). These particles may be eaten by spin 3/2 gauge particles (gravitinos) when supersymmetry is gauged. It is shown that both the Higgs effect and super Higgs effect have taken place. 8 of the spin 1/2 particles have been eaten by the spin 3/2 particles and 24 of 70 scalars have been eaten by the spin 3/2 particles and 24 of 70 scalars have been eaten by 24 of the 28 vector particles to provide them with mass. The conclusion is that the number of mass relations is, in general, equal to r-1, where r is the rank of the algebra which generates the spectrum

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Martini, M.; Molinari, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study the quantum phase transition occurring in an infinite homogeneous system of spin 1/2 fermions in a non-relativistic context. As an example we consider neutrons interacting through a simple spin-spin Heisenberg force. The two critical values of the coupling strength-signaling the onset into the system of a finite magnetization and of the total magnetization, respectively-are found and their dependence upon the range of the interaction is explored. The spin response function of the system in the region where the spin-rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken is also studied. For a ferromagnetic interaction the spin response along the direction of the spontaneous magnetization occurs in the particle-hole continuum and displays, for not too large momentum transfers, two distinct peaks. The response along the direction orthogonal to the spontaneous magnetization displays instead, beyond a softened and depleted particle-hole continuum, a collective mode to be identified with a Goldstone boson of type II. Notably, the random phase approximation on a Hartree-Fock basis accounts for it, in particular for its quadratic-close to the origin-dispersion relation. It is shown that the Goldstone boson contributes to the saturation of the energy-weighted sum rule for ∼25% when the system becomes fully magnetized (that is in correspondence of the upper critical value of the interaction strength) and continues to grow as the interaction strength increases

  15. Spontaneous droplet trampolining on rigid superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutzius, Thomas M.; Jung, Stefan; Maitra, Tanmoy; Graeber, Gustav; Köhme, Moritz; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous removal of condensed matter from surfaces is exploited in nature and in a broad range of technologies to achieve self-cleaning, anti-icing and condensation control. But despite much progress, our understanding of the phenomena leading to such behaviour remains incomplete, which makes it challenging to rationally design surfaces that benefit from its manifestation. Here we show that water droplets resting on superhydrophobic textured surfaces in a low-pressure environment can self-remove through sudden spontaneous levitation and subsequent trampoline-like bouncing behaviour, in which sequential collisions with the surface accelerate the droplets. These collisions have restitution coefficients (ratios of relative speeds after and before collision) greater than unity despite complete rigidity of the surface, and thus seemingly violate the second law of thermodynamics. However, these restitution coefficients result from an overpressure beneath the droplet produced by fast droplet vaporization while substrate adhesion and surface texture restrict vapour flow. We also show that the high vaporization rates experienced by the droplets and the associated cooling can result in freezing from a supercooled state that triggers a sudden increase in vaporization, which in turn boosts the levitation process. This effect can spontaneously remove surface icing by lifting away icy drops the moment they freeze. Although these observations are relevant only to systems in a low-pressure environment, they show how surface texturing can produce droplet-surface interactions that prohibit liquid and freezing water-droplet retention on surfaces.

  16. Hepatic Rupture Induced by Spontaneous Intrahepatic Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-bao Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of hepatic rupture is usually secondary to trauma, and hepatic rupture induced by spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma is clinically rare. We describe here a 61-year-old female patient who was transferred to our hospital with hepatic rupture induced by spontaneous intrahepatic hematoma. The patient had no history of trauma and had a history of systemic lupus erythematosus for five years, taking a daily dose of 5 mg prednisone for treatment. The patients experienced durative blunt acute right upper abdominal pain one day after satiation, which aggravated in two hours, accompanied by dizziness and sweating. Preoperative diagnosis was rupture of the liver mass. Laparotomy revealed 2500 mL fluid consisting of a mixture of blood and clot in the peritoneal cavity. A 3.5 cm × 2.5 cm rupture was discovered on the hepatic caudate lobe near the vena cava with active arterial bleeding, and a 5  × 6 cm hematoma was reached on the right posterior lobe of the liver. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and laparotomy revealed spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic hematoma with hemorrhagic shock. The patient was successfully managed by suturing the rupture of the hepatic caudate lobe and clearing part of the hematoma. The postoperative course was uneventful, and the patient was discharged after two weeks of hospitalization.

  17. Lateral topological crystalline insulator heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qilong; Dai, Ying; Niu, Chengwang; Ma, Yandong; Wei, Wei; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

    2017-06-01

    The emergence of lateral heterostructures fabricated by two-dimensional building blocks brings many exciting realms in material science and device physics. Enriching available nanomaterials for creating such heterostructures and enabling the underlying new physics is highly coveted for the integration of next-generation devices. Here, we report a breakthrough in lateral heterostructure based on the monolayer square transition-metal dichalcogenides MX2 (M  =  W, X  =  S/Se) modules. Our results reveal that the MX2 lateral heterostructure (1S-MX2 LHS) can possess excellent thermal and dynamical stability. Remarkably, the highly desired two-dimensional topological crystalline insulator phase is confirmed by the calculated mirror Chern number {{n}\\text{M}}=-1 . A nontrivial band gap of 65 meV is obtained with SOC, indicating the potential for room-temperature observation and applications. The topologically protected edge states emerge at the edges of two different nanoribbons between the bulk band gap, which is consistent with the mirror Chern number. In addition, a strain-induced topological phase transition in 1S-MX2 LHS is also revealed, endowing the potential utilities in electronics and spintronics. Our predictions not only introduce new member and vitality into the studies of lateral heterostructures, but also highlight the promise of lateral heterostructure as appealing topological crystalline insulator platforms with excellent stability for future devices.

  18. The Development of Motivational Thought in the Study of Curiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidler, Derek C.

    1981-01-01

    Presents an overview of the development of motivational thought in the study of exploratory behavior and curiosity. Traces the way in which concepts of curiosity were considered from the perspectives of instinct and drive-reduction theories to the more recent notions of optimal stimulation. (Author)

  19. Willful Ignorance and the Death Knell of Critical Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Daniel Ian

    2018-01-01

    Independent, critical thought has never been more important in the United States. In the Age of Trump, political officials spout falsehoods called "alternative facts" as if they were on equal footing with researchable, scientific data. At the same time, an unquestioning populace engages in acts of "willful ignorance" on a daily…

  20. Military Airpower: A Revised Digest of Airpower Opinions and Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Opinions and Thoughts Air University Press Team Chief Editor Jeanne Shamburger Copy Editor Sherry Terrell Cover Art and Book...Design Steven C. Garst Illustrations Daniel Armstrong Composition and Prepress Production Ann Bailey Quality Review Mary J. Moore Print Preparation Joan Hickey Distribution Diane Clark

  1. Film as a "Thoughtful" Medium for Teaching History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Jeremy D.

    2012-01-01

    This collective case study of teachers and students in two ninth-grade US history classes examines the role that films can play as a "thoughtful" medium for teaching history. Specifically, the study focuses on the nature and range of authentic intellectual work that students are engaged in with film in the classroom (Newmann, F., B.…

  2. Academic Achievement and Formal Thought in Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, Stella Maris; de Anglat, Hilda Difabio

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research on university-level academic performance has significantly linked failure and dropping out to formal reasoning deficiency. We have not found any papers on formal thought in Argentine university students, in spite of the obvious shortcomings observed in the classrooms. Thus, the main objective of this paper was exploring the…

  3. Sexism in Political Thought and Its Refutation: A Schematic Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Siegrun F.

    The document examines Western political thought in terms of women's and men's expected spheres of concern, the proper male and female nature, and the sex-specific allocation of social values. In addition, the author applies her conclusions to contemporary political issues in the United States. Aristotle, Cicero, Aquinas, Rousseau, and Hegel made a…

  4. The effects of familiarity on thought--action fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Noah C; Wheaton, Michael G; Fabricant, Laura E; Jacobson, Spenser R; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2011-10-01

    The present study examined whether beliefs about the importance of thoughts (i.e., thought--action fusion; TAF) are related to the target subject of the negative thought. One hundred and seven undergraduate students were randomly assigned to imagine either a beloved relative or a stranger being diagnosed with cancer and provided in vivo ratings of anxiety, likelihood, moral wrongness, urge to neutralize, and how upsetting the event would be if it occurred. Results indicated that thinking of a relative being diagnosed with cancer provoked more distress, urges to neutralize, and higher estimates of likelihood, as well greater use of mental neutralizing behaviors, compared to thinking of a stranger. Contrary to our prediction, the groups did not differ in their ratings of the moral wrongness. These findings broadly support the assertion that the more personally significant a negative intrusive thought, the more it will provoke distress and urges to neutralize. Results are discussed in terms of the cognitive model of obsessions and clinical implications are addressed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Depressive Thought Content Among Female College Students With Bulimia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwers, Mariette

    1988-01-01

    Compared overall depression scores on Beck Depression Inventory between women with and without bulimia and examined differences in specific depression items. Results indicated that bulimics were more depressed than controls and had distorted thoughts regarding body image, self-blame, somatic preoccupation, guilt, and suicidal ideation. (Author/NB)

  6. God's Thoughts: Practical Steps toward a Theory of Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Don

    2017-01-01

    No matter your opinion on religion, whether you are a staunch believer or an unapologetic atheist, that phrase "God's thoughts" is a delightfully poetic one. It represents in a metaphorical way nothing less than an understanding of the deepest and most fundamental laws of the universe. Specifically, the hope is that we will one day be…

  7. Feeding Health: Thoughts on Healthy Food for a Healthy Planet

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-08-19

    In this podcast, Food Rules author Michael Pollan discusses American food culture and gives his thoughts on how food can impact human and environmental health.  Created: 8/19/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Office of Sustainability.   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  8. Critique of Nkrumah's Philosophical Materialism | Ani | Thought and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  9. About the Reflective Thought Also Known as the Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Federico R.

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable…

  10. Deafness, Thought Bubbles, and Theory-of-Mind Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    The processes and mechanisms of theory-of-mind development were examined via a training study of false-belief conceptions in deaf children of hearing parents (N = 43). In comparison to 2 different control conditions, training based on thought-bubble instruction about beliefs was linked with improved false-belief understanding as well as progress…

  11. Neurally and mathematically motivated architecture for language and thought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, L I; Ilin, R

    2010-01-01

    Neural structures of interaction between thinking and language are unknown. This paper suggests a possible architecture motivated by neural and mathematical considerations. A mathematical requirement of computability imposes significant constraints on possible architectures consistent with brain neural structure and with a wealth of psychological knowledge. How language interacts with cognition. Do we think with words, or is thinking independent from language with words being just labels for decisions? Why is language learned by the age of 5 or 7, but acquisition of knowledge represented by learning to use this language knowledge takes a lifetime? This paper discusses hierarchical aspects of language and thought and argues that high level abstract thinking is impossible without language. We discuss a mathematical technique that can model the joint language-thought architecture, while overcoming previously encountered difficulties of computability. This architecture explains a contradiction between human ability for rational thoughtful decisions and irrationality of human thinking revealed by Tversky and Kahneman; a crucial role in this contradiction might be played by language. The proposed model resolves long-standing issues: how the brain learns correct words-object associations; why animals do not talk and think like people. We propose the role played by language emotionality in its interaction with thought. We relate the mathematical model to Humboldt's "firmness" of languages; and discuss possible influence of language grammar on its emotionality. Psychological and brain imaging experiments related to the proposed model are discussed. Future theoretical and experimental research is outlined.

  12. Color, Temperature and Heat: Exploring University Students Mental Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canlas, Ian Phil

    2016-01-01

    Color, temperature and heat are among the concepts in science that are interconnected. These concepts are introduced to learners even before they enter the basic education. On the other hand, in school, it is formally introduced to them not only in science but also in the humanities. The foregoing study attempted to explore the mental thoughts of…

  13. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  14. Commerce and morality in eighteenth-century Italian political thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.H. Stapelbroek (Koen)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis special issue presents a number of studies by young scholars in the history of eighteenth-century Italian political thought, a field that was put on the map in the second half of the twentieth century by the efforts of Franco Venturi. By taking up the theme of commerce and morality,

  15. Negative Thought Stopping. A Key to Performance Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Susan G.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of mental training on skill acquisition and performance is currently emphasized in the study of sport psychology and motor learning. This article provides the teacher and coach with general guidelines for understanding and incorporating negative thought stopping training into athletic programs. (MT)

  16. Recalibrating the context for reported speech and thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how speakers who are about to produce, or in the midst of producing, reported speech and thought (RT), temporarily abandon the production of RT to include other material. Using Conversation Analysis, we identify three positions in which RT is abandoned temporarily...

  17. Scientific publishing: some food for thought (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Bo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publishing, here to be considered in a broader sense, as publishing of both specialised scientific journals and science popularisation works addressed to a wider audience, has been sailing for some years on troubled waters. To gather some possible food for thought is the purpose of this brief article.

  18. Sound Not Light: Levinas and the Elements of Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma; Standish, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Can Levinas' thought of the other be extended beyond the relation to the other human being? This article seeks to demonstrate that Levinas' philosophy can indeed be read in such a sense and that this serves to open up a new way of understanding human thinking. Key to understanding such an extension of Levinas' philosophy will be his account of the…

  19. Kindness in the Art Classroom: Kind Thoughts on Stephen Rowland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampert, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    This article is a response to Stephen Rowland's article, "Kindness," which appeared in "London Review of Education," November 2009. Much to my amazement, Stephen Rowland's article was the only one I found when I did a global database search on "kindness in education". I had thought that I would find reams of information in the databases on the…

  20. Antonio Gramsci on intellectual thought – Challenging nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, B

    2017-01-01

    publisher: Elsevier articletitle: Antonio Gramsci on intellectual thought – Challenging nursing journaltitle: Nurse Education Today articlelink: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2017.02.023 content_type: simple-article copyright: © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.