Sample records for spontaneous lateral thought

  1. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts. (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I


    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat


    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  3. Do positive spontaneous thoughts function as incentive salience? (United States)

    Rice, Elise L; Fredrickson, Barbara L


    The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting. In Study 1, 103 adults recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk reported on key aspects of 10 everyday activities. As predicted, positive spontaneous thoughts mediated the relationship between liking an activity in the past and wanting to engage in it in the future. In Study 2, 99 undergraduate students viewed amusing and humorless cartoons and completed a thought-listing task, providing experimental evidence for the causal effect of liking on positive spontaneous thoughts. In Study 3, we tested whether positive spontaneous thoughts play an active role in energizing wanting rather than merely co-occurring with (inferred) incentive salience. In that experiment involving 80 undergraduates, participants who were led to believe that their spontaneous thoughts about a target activity were especially positive planned to devote more time to that activity over the coming week than participants who received no such information about their spontaneous thoughts. Collectively, these findings suggest that positive spontaneous thoughts may play an important role in shaping approach motivation. Broader implications and future directions in the study of positive spontaneous thoughts are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. The Relationship Between Lateral Dominance and Divergent Cognitive Thought. (United States)

    Williams, Barbara B.

    This study was designed to explore the relationship of lateral dominance to divergent cognitive thought. According to the screening results of the Harris Tests of Lateral Dominance, 36 subjects ranging from 9-12 years were divided equally into three groups of left, right, and mixed lateral dominance. In order to measure divergent cognitive…

  5. Representing Representation: Integration between the Temporal Lobe and the Posterior Cingulate Influences the Content and Form of Spontaneous Thought.

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    Jonathan Smallwood

    Full Text Available When not engaged in the moment, we often spontaneously represent people, places and events that are not present in the environment. Although this capacity has been linked to the default mode network (DMN, it remains unclear how interactions between the nodes of this network give rise to particular mental experiences during spontaneous thought. One hypothesis is that the core of the DMN integrates information from medial and lateral temporal lobe memory systems, which represent different aspects of knowledge. Individual differences in the connectivity between temporal lobe regions and the default mode network core would then predict differences in the content and form of people's spontaneous thoughts. This study tested this hypothesis by examining the relationship between seed-based functional connectivity and the contents of spontaneous thought recorded in a laboratory study several days later. Variations in connectivity from both medial and lateral temporal lobe regions was associated with different patterns of spontaneous thought and these effects converged on an overlapping region in the posterior cingulate cortex. We propose that the posterior core of the DMN acts as a representational hub that integrates information represented in medial and lateral temporal lobe and this process is important in determining the content and form of spontaneous thought.

  6. CASE REPORT Spontaneous lateral sphenoid cerebrospinal fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An open approach via a craniotomy may be required in large defects or in well pneumatised sphenoid sinuses where the defect is located in the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus. Pure obliteration of the sphenoid sinus would rarely be successful in large defects, and a vascularised flap is often needed in these instances.

  7. Spontaneous laterality in mouse Crl:CD1. (United States)

    Maciejewska, Maria; Zięba, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Justyna; Warońska, Magdalena


    Lateralization developed very early in evolution and it is a characteristic of a wide range of representatives from the animal kingdom. The aim of the present study was to examine the spontaneous laterality in mice (Mus musculus) with the T-maze test. We wanted to check if this kind of functional asymmetry occurs at a population level, and also if there are gender differences in this regard. The study involved 40 mice Crl:CD1. The research procedure was simple: mice had to choose one arm of the T-shaped apparatus to find the exit. The animals performed the 10 trails one after another. We took into account only the animals' fist reactions while preparing results. Most of the animals (68%) chose the right arm of the maze. The lateralization was stronger among females--75% of them had preferences for the right side. The majority of animals, which preferred the right side, were from the food deprivation group. However, the results did not unequivocally resolve whether mice evince the functional asymmetry at the population level, or whether there are gender differences in this area. Further research with a larger group and multiple observations for each animal are required to answer these questions.

  8. Lab meets real life: A laboratory assessment of spontaneous thought and its ecological validity.

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    Christine Kuehner

    Full Text Available People's minds frequently wander towards self-generated thoughts, which are unrelated to external stimuli or demands. These phenomena, referred to as "spontaneous thought" (ST and "mind wandering" (MW, have previously been linked with both costs and benefits. Current assessments of ST and MW have predominantly been conducted in the laboratory, whereas studies on the ecological validity of such lab-related constructs and their interrelations are rare. The current study examined the stability of ST dimensions assessed in the lab and their predictive value with respect to MW, repetitive negative thought (uncontrollable rumination, RUM, and affect in daily life. Forty-three university students were assessed with the Amsterdam Resting State Questionnaire (2nd version to assess ten ST dimensions during the resting state in two laboratory sessions, which were separated by five days of electronic ambulatory assessment (AA. During AA, individuals indicated the intensity of MW and RUM, as well as of positive and negative affect in daily life ten times a day. ST dimensions measured in the lab were moderately stable across one week. Five out of ten ST lab dimensions were predicted by mental health-related symptoms or by dispositional cognitive traits. Hierarchical linear models revealed that a number of ST lab dimensions predicted cognitive and affective states in daily life. Mediation analyses showed that RUM, but not MW per se, accounted for the relationship between specific ST lab dimensions and mood in daily life. By using a simple resting state task, we could demonstrate that a number of lab dimensions of spontaneous thought are moderately stable, are predicted by mental health symptoms and cognitive traits, and show plausible associations with categories of self-generated thought and mood in daily life.

  9. Unusual Association Between Spontaneous Lateral Sphenoid Encephalocele and Chiari Malformation Type I: Endoscopic Repair Through a Transpterygoid Approach. (United States)

    Starnoni, Daniele; Daniel, Roy Thomas; George, Mercy; Messerer, Mahmoud


    Spontaneous meningoencephaloceles of the lateral sphenoid sinus are rare entities, and their peculiar location represents a surgical challenge due to the importance of a wide exposure and skull base reconstruction. They are thought to arise from the congenital base defect of the lateral sphenoid or in some cases have been postulated to represent a rare manifestation of altered cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) dynamics. We report the first case in the literature of a Chiari malformation type I (CMI) and a lateral sphenoid encephalocele, revising the theoretic etiology and surgical technique of endoscopic repair. A 50-year-old woman with a surgical history of symptomatic CMI presented with episodes of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea. Radiologic investigations revealed a left mesial temporal encephalocele herniating into the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus and radiologic features of altered CSF dynamics, which may have played an etiologic role. An endoscopic transpterygoid excision of the encephalocele and multilayer skull base repair were performed. The association of spontaneous lateral sphenoid encephaloceles with CMI is distinctly unusual. Predisposing factors and disruption of CSF dynamics may play a major role in the development of these rare complications in patients with CMI. Because of their distinct location, transethmoid or transpterygoid endoscopic approaches represent an excellent surgical technique to treat these lesions thanks to their wide and direct visualization of the entire skull base defect following the encephalocele excision, allowing an adequate multilayer repair and lateral sphenoid recess occlusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dispatching the wandering mind? Toward a laboratory method for cuing "spontaneous" off-task thought

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    Jennifer C. McVay


    Full Text Available Cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists study most phenomena of attention by measuring subjects’ overt responses to discrete environmental stimuli that can be manipulated to test competing theories. The mind-wandering experience, however, cannot be locally instigated by cleverly engineered stimuli. Investigators must therefore rely on correlational and observational methods to understand subjects’ flow of thought, which is only occasionally and indirectly monitored. In an effort toward changing this state of affairs, we present four experiments that develop a method for inducing mind-wandering episodes – on demand – in response to task-embedded cues. In an initial laboratory session, subjects described their personal goals and concerns across several life domains (amid some filler questionnaires. In a second session, 48 hours later, subjects completed a go/no-go task in which they responded to the perceptual features of words; unbeknownst to subjects, some stimulus words were presented in triplets to represent the personal concerns they had described in session 1. Thought probes appearing shortly after these personal-goal triplets indicated that, compared to control triplets, priming subjects’ concerns increased mind-wandering rate by about 3 – 4%. We argue that this small effect is, nonetheless, a promising development toward the pursuit of an experimentally informed, theory-driven science of mind wandering.

  11. Occult spontaneous lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele: A rare presentation

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    Shahina Bano


    Full Text Available Basal encephaloceles are extremely rare congenital malformations. Advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are necessary for diagnosing the asymptomatic, occult basal encephalocele and planning the surgical approach. We present an interesting case of clinically silent right-sided lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele through a large bony defect.

  12. Arachnoid Pit and Extensive Sinus Pnematization as the Cause of Spontaneous Lateral Intrasphenoidal Encephalocele

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    Ali AlMontasheri


    Full Text Available Lateral sphenoid encephalocele, especially within the lateral aspect of the sphenoid sinus, when the sphenoid sinus has pneumatized extensively into the pterygoid recess, are considered exceedingly rare. We report a rare case of lateral intrasphenoidal encephalocele with spontaneous cerebral spinal fluid (CSF rhinorrhea. Computed tomography demonstrated bilateral arachnoid pit, extensive sphenoid sinus pneumatization, and a defect in the superior wall of the left lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated anteromedial temporal lobe herniating through the bony defect.

  13. Baby Sign but Not Spontaneous Gesture Predicts Later Vocabulary in Children with Down Syndrome (United States)

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena; Bailey, Jhonelle; Schmuck, Lauren


    Early spontaneous gesture, specifically deictic gesture, predicts subsequent vocabulary development in typically developing (TD) children. Here, we ask whether deictic gesture plays a similar role in predicting later vocabulary size in children with Down Syndrome (DS), who have been shown to have difficulties in speech production, but strengths in…

  14. Endoscopic endonasal repair of spontaneous sphenoid sinus lateral wall meningocele presenting with cerebrospinal fluid leak

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    Ali Erdem Yildirim


    Full Text Available Spontaneous sphenoid sinus lateral wall meningoceles are rare lesions with an unknown etiology. Endoscopic endonasal technique is a considerable route in the treatment of this condition. The aim of this paper is to report the etiology, surgical technique, and outcome in a patient repaired via endoscopic endonasal approach. A 51-year-old male patient applied with rhinorrhea started three months ago after an upper respiratory infection. There were no history of trauma or sinus operation. Biochemical analysis of the fluid was positive for beta-2-transferrin. This asypthomatic patient had undergone for repairment of lateral sphenoid sinus meningocele with endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach. After endoscopic endonasal meningocele closure procedure no complications occured and a quick recovery was observed. Endoscopic endonasal approach is an effective and safe treatment modality of spontaneous lateral sphenoid sinus meningoceles and efficient in anterior skull base reconstruction.

  15. Spontaneous Alpha Power Lateralization Predicts Detection Performance in an Un-Cued Signal Detection Task.

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    Gonzalo Boncompte

    Full Text Available Focusing one's attention by external guiding stimuli towards a specific area of the visual field produces systematical neural signatures. One of the most robust is the change in topological distribution of oscillatory alpha band activity across parieto-occipital cortices. In particular, decreases in alpha activity over contralateral and/or increases over ipsilateral scalp sites, respect to the side of the visual field where attention was focused. This evidence comes mainly from experiments where an explicit cue informs subjects where to focus their attention, thus facilitating detection of an upcoming target stimulus. However, recent theoretical models of attention have highlighted a stochastic or non-deterministic component related to visuospatial attentional allocation. In an attempt to evidence this component, here we analyzed alpha activity in a signal detection paradigm in the lack of informative cues; in the absence of preceding information about the location (and time of appearance of target stimuli. We believe that the unpredictability of this situation could be beneficial for unveiling this component. Interestingly, although total alpha power did not differ between Seen and Unseen conditions, we found a significant lateralization of alpha activity over parieto-occipital electrodes, which predicted behavioral performance. This effect had a smaller magnitude compared to paradigms in which attention is externally guided (cued. However we believe that further characterization of this spontaneous component of attention is of great importance in the study of visuospatial attentional dynamics. These results support the presence of a spontaneous component of visuospatial attentional allocation and they advance pre-stimulus alpha-band lateralization as one of its neural signatures.

  16. Prophecy In Later Islamic Thought: The Mystical Views of Shah Waliyyullah Ad-Dihlawi

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    Syamsuddin Arif


    Full Text Available Scholarly interest in the thought and teachings of Shâh Waliyyullâh adDihlawî has increased in recent years –not surprisingly, given the richness and profundity of his writings. This article explores the mystical dimension of prophecy emerging from Shâh Waliyyullâh’s insights and remarks, focusing on the key concepts such as the World of Images (‘Âlam al-Mithâl, the Highest Council of Angels (al-Mala’ al-A‘lâ and the Holy Enclave (Haz} îrat al-Quds, which help explain how, from the sûfî point of view, prophecy is possible. The main task of a prophet is to set up order in social, political and economic life of people. The prophet receives revelation which enables him to communicate the Divine Message to mankind containing all that is necessary for their welfare both in this life and the next according to the Divine Plan.

  17. Thoughts and sensations, twin galaxies of the inner space: The propensity to mind-wander relates to spontaneous sensations arising on the hands. (United States)

    Michael, George A; Tapiero, Isabelle; Gálvez-García, Germán; Jacquot, Laurence


    Sensations and thoughts have been described as potentially related to self-awareness. We therefore asked whether sensations that arise in the absence of external triggers, i.e., spontaneous sensations (SPS), which were shown to relate to interoception and perception of the self, vary as a function of the individual propensity to generate spontaneous thoughts, i.e., mind-wandering. The Mind Wandering Questionnaire (MWQ) was used as a specific tool to assess the frequency and propensity to mind-wander several weeks before completing an SPS task. Correlational analyses between the MWQ score and SPS showed that greater propensity to mind-wander coincided with widespread perception of SPS, while lesser propensity to mind-wander coincided with more spatially restricted perception of SPS. The results are interpreted in light of the role of spontaneous thoughts and sensations in self-awareness. The potential psychological processes and the way they might regulate the relation between mind-wandering and the perception of SPS are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Limits of Thought in the Light of Nature and Divinity. A Return to Ancient Thought or the Quest for the Being of Primordial Thinking in the Later Heidegger

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    Viktor Okorokov


    Full Text Available Question about the essence of thought itself may be formulated in two ways: is it a manifestation of the existential presence or a habit to considerate a Universe as a representation of its rational core? Among various methods of inquiry of essential nature of thought, I would emphasize a Martin Heidegger’s approach, which was represented in his late papers. I mean, widely accepted in oriental culture but almost forgotten in European intellectual tradition approach which considers thought as luminous and light-bearing logos – the fundamental origin and principle of the Universe. The problem of logos appearance in primordial chaos and discovery of the thought origins, on Heidegger’s opinion, becomes the crucial matter of his “fundamental ontology”. Heidegger is confident that the problem of transformation of primordial chaos into well-ordered (by “logos” Universe was the most significant topic which the ancient philosophers (Anaximander, Heraclitus, and Parmenides were focused on. My research, represented in this article, discovers European philosopher’s acceptation and reception of the ancient interpretation of primordial thought as a “divine light”. My conclusion is that all classical European philosophical ontological theories (since the first philosophers to Plato, Aristotle, post-Aristotelian thinkers, and to the contemporary philosophers may be considered as the different varieties of interpretation of the primordial (given by gods luminous thinking itself and became a simulation of the primordial nature of thought. Another conclusion is, that origins of mentioned above ancient philosophical inquiries on the divine-light essence of primordial thinking, may be found in earlier, than Heidegger thinks, texts composed by Homer, Hesiod, and perhaps even in the religious philosophical texts of the Orient heritage (India, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other ancient states, created before the sixth century BC.

  19. Spontaneous activity in electromyography may differentiate certain benign lower motor neuron disease forms from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Jokela, Manu E; Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Sandell, Satu; Palmio, Johanna; Penttilä, Sini; Saukkonen, Annamaija; Soikkeli, Raija; Udd, Bjarne


    There is limited data on electromyography (EMG) findings in other motor neuron disorders than amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We assessed whether the distribution of active denervation detected by EMG, i.e. fibrillations and fasciculations, differs between ALS and slowly progressive motor neuron disorders. We compared the initial EMG findings of 43 clinically confirmed, consecutive ALS patients with those of 41 genetically confirmed Late-onset Spinal Motor Neuronopathy and 14 Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy patients. Spontaneous activity was more frequently detected in the first dorsal interosseus and deltoid muscles of ALS patients than in patients with the slowly progressive motor neuron diseases. The most important observation was that absent fibrillations in the first dorsal interosseus muscle identified the benign forms with sensitivities of 66%-77% and a specificity of 93%. The distribution of active denervation may help to separate ALS from mimicking disorders at an early stage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [The role of electrophysiologic tests in the early diagnosis of posterior interosseous neuropathy in patients thought to have lateral epicondylitis]. (United States)

    Milcan, Abtullah; Ozge, Aynur; Sahin, Günşah; Saraçoğlu, Mehmet; Kuyurtar, Fehmi


    We investigated the role of electrophysiologic tests in determining posterior interosseous neuropathy (PIN) in patients with a preliminary diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis. Thirty-three patients (24 females, 9 males; mean age 49 years) with a preliminary diagnosis of lateral epicondylitis and 15 healthy controls (10 females, 5 males; mean age 48 years) underwent radial, median, and ulnar nerve conduction studies, electromyography (EMG) of some selected muscles, and measurements for grip strength. The duration of symptoms was less than a month in all the patients and no therapy was instituted. A diagnosis of PIN was made in 22 patients (66.7%). The mean ages of the patients with and without PIN were 45 and 51 years, respectively. The mean grip strengths did not differ significantly between the patients and controls, and between the right and left hands. All the patients responded well to conservative treatment. Electrophysiologic tests may be necessary and beneficial in the differential diagnosis of PIN in patients unresponsive to treatment for lateral epicondylitis of early stage.

  1. Lateral canal BPPV with Pseudo-Spontaneous Nystagmus masquerading as vestibular neuritis in acute vertigo: a series of 273 cases. (United States)

    Asprella-Libonati, Giacinto


    To investigate the incidence of Lateral Semicircular Canal BPPV (LSC BPPV) with Pseudo-Spontaneous Nystagmus in patients preliminarily diagnosed for vestibular neuritis in the Emergency Department (ED). Retrospective study of 273 patients with acute vertigo and persistent horizontal nystagmus in upright position (male 110, female 163, 14-93 years old) observed over four years. All the patients were checked for any nystagmus modification by performing the Head Pitch Test (HPT) in the upright position. The HPT modified the beating direction of the persistent horizontal nystagmus in 56 of the 273 examined patients. The positioning tests subsequently confirmed the diagnosis of LSC BPPV in all those 56 patients. There were 37 geotropic variants and 19 apogeotropic variants and all of them were successfully treated by performing liberatory manoeuvres in the course of the same session. Performing the HPT in the upright position helps to differentiate a direction fixed nystagmus from a direction changing one, and in so doing, to make the differential diagnosis between vestibular neuritis and LSC BPPV, achieving the goal of successfully treating LSC BPPV in the first session.

  2. Spontaneous Pushing in Lateral Position versus Valsalva Maneuver During Second Stage of Labor on Maternal and Fetal Outcomes: A Randomized Clinical Trial. (United States)

    Vaziri, Farideh; Arzhe, Amene; Asadi, Nasrin; Pourahmad, Saeedeh; Moshfeghy, Zeinab


    There are concerns about the harmful effects of the Valsalva maneuver during the second stage of labor. Comparing the effects of spontaneous pushing in the lateral position with the Valsalva maneuver during the second stage of labor on maternal and fetal outcomes. Inclusion criteria in this randomized clinical trial conducted in Iran were as follows: nulliparous mothers, live fetus with vertex presentation, gestational age of 37 - 40 weeks, spontaneous labor, and no complications. The intervention group pushed spontaneously while they were in the lateral position, whereas the control group pushed using Valsalva method while in the supine position at the onset of the second stage of labor. Maternal outcomes such as pain and fatigue severity and fetal outcomes such as pH and pO2 of the umbilical cord blood were measured. Data pertaining to 69 patients, divided into the intervention group (35 subjects) and control group (34 subjects), were analyzed statistically. The mean pain (7.80 ± 1.21 versus 9.05 ± 1.11) and fatigue scores (46.59 ± 21 versus 123.36 ± 43.20) of the two groups showed a statistically significant difference (P umbilical cord blood pO 2 levels of both groups showed a statistically significant difference (28.29 ± 11.76 versus 18.83 ± 9.86, P pain severity of the mothers. Also, it did not worsen fetal outcomes. Thus, it can be used as an alternative method for the Valsalva maneuver.

  3. Effect of lateralized epileptic discharges on the thought flow Efeito de descargas epilépticas lateralizadas no fluxo do pensamento

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    Paulo Bueno de Mendonça


    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Pauses in verbal expression of thought flow in patients with partial epilepsy was studied in order to achieve a best comprehension of brain interhemispheric influences. METHOD: We studied thirty nine patients with partial epileptic seizures and twenty four volunteers (control group. Free association of ideas was used as a method to stablish the thought flow, starting with a stimulus word (subject name that must be followed by spontaneous and consecutive word-phrase. Patients were instructed to say any thought that came to their minds without any kind of censoring. Subject responses were recorded through a PC keyboard and time intervals (pauses between each word-phrase were processed by a software developed for this purpose. RESULTS: Time intervals reduction among associations in right lesional group were compared to left lesional, right non-lesional and control groups. An increase of associative time intervals was observed in the right non-lesional group compared to left non-lesional group. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest a possible inhibitory inter-hemispheric function of the right hemisphere modulating verbal expression of the thought flow. Considering the hypothesis of the inter-hemispheric inhibition by the right hemisphere on left hemisphere, we admit that in epileptic patients with right hemispheric lesion there is an attenuation of the inter-hemispheric inhibition and an increase in thought flow, whereas in patients without a lesion but a paroxysmal epileptic activity in right temporal lobe there is an exacerbation of this inhibitory function and consequent reduction in the thought flow.OBJETIVO: Foram estudadas as pausas na expressão verbal do pensamento em pacientes com epilepsia parcial a fim de estabelecer uma melhor compreensão das influências interhemisféricas cerebrais. MÉTODO: foram estudados 39 pacientes com crises epilépticas parciais e 24 voluntários (grupo controle. A associação livre de idéias foi usada como m

  4. Immunoglobulins from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients enhance the frequency of glycine-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents in rat hypoglossal motoneurons

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    Anđus P.R.


    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a devastating, still incurable neurological disorder affecting upper and lower motoneurons. Passive transfer of the disease occurs when immunoglobulins from ALS patients are injected into experimental animals. It is suggested that ALS IgGs cause excitotoxicity by acting on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. We reported previously that ALS IgGs increase spontaneous release of glutamate in hippocampal neurons. Since these cells are not normally affected in ALS, we here studied the effect of ALS IgGs on hypoglossal motoneurons in rat brain-stem slices. The frequency of spontaneous glycine-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs was augmented, but not that of miniature ones (mIPSCs, thus pointing to an indirect effect on release.

  5. Working Memory Capacity, Mind Wandering, and Creative Cognition: An Individual-Differences Investigation into the Benefits of Controlled Versus Spontaneous Thought (United States)

    Smeekens, Bridget A.; Kane, Michael J.


    Should executive control, as indicated by working memory capacity (WMC) and mind-wandering propensity, help or hinder creativity? Sustained and focused attention should help guide a selective search of solution-relevant information in memory and help inhibit uncreative, yet accessible, ideas. However, unfocused attention and daydreaming should allow mental access to more loosely relevant concepts, remotely linked to commonplace solutions. Three individual-differences studies inserted incubation periods into one or two divergent thinking tasks and tested whether WMC (assessed by complex span tasks) and incubation-period mind wandering (assessed as probed reports of task-unrelated thought [TUT]) predicted post-incubation performance. Retrospective self-reports of Openness (Experiment 2) and mind-wandering and daydreaming propensity (Experiment 3) complemented our thought-probe assessments of TUT. WMC did not correlate with creativity in divergent thinking, whereas only the questionnaire measure of daydreaming, but not probed thought reports, weakly predicted creativity; the fact that in-the-moment TUTs did not correlate divergent creativity is especially problematic for claims that mind-wandering processes contribute to creative cognition. Moreover, the fact that WMC tends to strongly predict analytical problem solving and reasoning, but may not correlate with divergent thinking, provides a useful boundary condition for defining WMC’s nomological net. On balance, our data provide no support for either benefits or costs of executive control for at least one component of creativity. PMID:28458764

  6. H1-antihistamine-refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria: it's worse than we thought - first results of the multicenter real-life AWARE study. (United States)

    Maurer, M; Staubach, P; Raap, U; Richter-Huhn, G; Bauer, A; Ruëff, F; Jakob, T; Yazdi, A S; Mahler, V; Wagner, N; Lippert, U; Hillen, U; Schwinn, A; Pawlak, M; Behnke, N; Chaouche, K; Chapman-Rothe, N


    Most data on chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) originate from highly selected patient populations treated at specialized centres. Little is known about CSU patient characteristics and the burden of CSU in routine clinical practice. AWARE (A World-wide Antihistamine-Refractory chronic urticaria patient Evaluation) is an ongoing global study designed to assess chronic urticaria in the real-life setting. To describe the baseline characteristics of the first 1539 German AWARE patients with H1-antihistamine-refractory CSU. This prospective non-interventional study included patients (18-75 years) with a diagnosis of H1-antihistamine-refractory CSU for > 2 months. Baseline demographic and disease characteristics, comorbidities, and pharmacological treatments were recorded. Quality of life (QoL) was assessed using the dermatology life quality index (DLQI), chronic urticaria QoL questionnaire (CU-Q 2 oL), and angioedema QoL questionnaire (AE-QoL, in cases of angioedema). Previous healthcare resource utilization and sick leave data were collected retrospectively. Between March and December 2014, 1539 patients were assessed in 256 sites across Germany. The percentage of females, mean age, and mean body mass index were 70%, 46.3 years, and 27 kg/m 2 , respectively. The mean urticaria control test score was 7.9, one in two patients had angioedema, and the most frequent comorbidities were chronic inducible urticaria (CIndU; 24%), allergic rhinitis (18.2%), hypertension (18.1%), asthma (12%), and depression (9.5%). Overall, 57.6% of patients were receiving at least one pharmacological treatment including second-generation H1-antihistamines (46.3%), first-generation H1-antihistamines (9.1%), and corticosteroids (15.8%). The mean DLQI, total CU-Q 2 oL, and total AE-QoL scores were 8.3, 36.2, and 46.8, respectively. CSU patients reported frequent use of healthcare resources, including emergency services (29.7%), general practitioners (71.9%), and additional allergists or

  7. Perverse thought. (United States)

    Sánchez-Medina, Alfonso


    Based on Bion's work on the 'psychotic and non-psychotic parts of the personality', the author hypothesises the existence of a special type of thought disorder known as 'perverse thought'. First the author presents an overview of the major contributions to the concept of perversion that have a bearing on 'perverse thought'. These include Freud's splitting and disavowal concepts, Klein's projective identification concept, Bion's -K link and Meltzer's transference perversion. Then, by means of a case study and some vignettes, the author illustrates how this thought disorder is configured within the analytic process. The author focuses on three main aspects of this pathology: the specific modality of projective identification in a perverse scheme, the lie and some important clinical events that reveal an attack against knowledge through the formation of the -K link. Perverse thought is an important resistance mechanism in the analytic process. Its clarification is essential, given that its main objective is to attack the knowledge process, and therefore truth, in order to pervert the analytic relationship.

  8. Thought Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov V.D.


    Full Text Available The thought evolution is studied by historical reconstruction method that is based on the propositions of the theory of culturalhistorical determination of the psyche development, and the data of the morphological analysis and child development, and the conception of the psyche neuroontogenesis. The grounds for advisability of protothinking are presented. The protothinking is understood as the use of objective thought in cases of awareness absence. It is shown that protothinking is a form of transition from animal thinking to human speech. The particular attention is paid to the process of the word producing and thought generation in that process. The conditions of word producing as cooccurring acoustic pattern served for though expression are discussed. It is emphasized that a word is produced by a particular person. The historical development of the language and the specificity of this development are pointed out

  9. Orexin signaling in rostral lateral hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens shell in the control of spontaneous physical activity in high- and low-activity rats. (United States)

    Perez-Leighton, Claudio; Little, Morgan R; Grace, Martha; Billington, Charles; Kotz, Catherine M


    Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) describes activity outside of formal exercise and shows large interindividual variability. The hypothalamic orexin/hypocretin peptides are key regulators of SPA. Orexins drive SPA within multiple brain sites, including rostral lateral hypothalamus (LH) and nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh). Rats with high basal SPA (high activity, HA) show higher orexin mRNA expression and SPA after injection of orexin-A in rostral LH compared with low-activity (LA) rats. Here, we explored the contribution of orexin signaling in rostral LH and NAcSh to the HA/LA phenotype. We found that HA rats have higher sensitivity to SPA after injection of orexin-A in rostral LH, but not in NAcSh. HA and LA rats showed similar levels of orexin receptor expression in rostral LH, and activation of orexin-producing neurons after orexin-A injection in rostral LH. Also, in HA and LA rats, the coinjection of orexin-A in rostral LH and NAcSh failed to further increase SPA beyond the effects of orexin-A in rostral LH. Pretreatment with muscimol, a GABA A receptor agonist, in NAcSh potentiated SPA produced by orexin-A injection in rostral LH in HA but not in LA rats. Our results suggest that a feedback loop from orexin-responsive neurons in rostral LH to orexin neurons and a the NAcSh-orexin neuron-rostral LH circuit regulate SPA. Overall, our data suggest that differences in orexin sensitivity in rostral LH and its modulation by GABA afferents from NAcSh contribute to individual SPA differences. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Involvement of plasma membrane Ca2+ channels, IP3 receptors, and ryanodine receptors in the generation of spontaneous rhythmic contractions of the cricket lateral oviduct. (United States)

    Tamashiro, Hirotake; Yoshino, Masami


    In the present study, the isolated cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) lateral oviduct exhibited spontaneous rhythmic contractions (SRCs) with a frequency of 0.29±0.009 Hz (n=43) and an amplitude of 14.6±1.25 mg (n=29). SRCs completely disappeared following removal of extracellular Ca2+ using a solution containing 5mM EGTA. Application of the non-specific Ca2+ channel blockers Co2+, Ni2+, and Cd2+ also decreased both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs in dose-dependent manners, suggesting that Ca2+ entry through plasma membrane Ca2+ channels is essential for the generation of SRCs. Application of ryanodine (30 μM), which depletes intracellular Ca2+ by locking ryanodine receptor (RyR)-Ca2+ channels in an open state, gradually reduced the frequency and amplitude of SRCs. A RyR antagonist, tetracaine, reduced both the frequency and amplitude of SRCs, whereas a RyR activator, caffeine, increased the frequency of SRCs with a subsequent increase in basal tonus, indicating that RyRs are essential for generating SRCs. To further investigate the involvement of phospholipase C (PLC) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) in SRCs, we examined the effect of a PLC inhibitor, U73122, and an IP3R antagonist, 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), on SRCs. Separately, U73122 (10 μM) and 2-APB (30-50 μM) both significantly reduced the amplitude of SRCs with little effect on their frequency, further indicating that the PLC/IP3R signaling pathway is fundamental to the modulation of the amplitude of SRCs. A hypotonic-induced increase in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs and a hypertonic-induced decrease in the frequency and amplitude of SRCs indicated that mechanical stretch of the lateral oviduct is involved in the generation of SRCs. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-pump ATPase inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid impaired or suppressed the relaxation phase of SRCs. Taken together, the present results indicate that Ca2+ influx through plasma membrane Ca2

  11. Exploring thought leadership, thought liberation and critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that any discussion of Africa's social and economic development has to take into account the three critical issues that remain pressing constraints for the further advancement of well-being in Africa: thought leadership, thought liberation and critical consciousness. These three 'ingredients' should anchor aspects ...

  12. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R


    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  13. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd


    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  14. Thought 2 Talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent F.

    Thought2Talk is a crash course on argument, reasoning and logical method honoring the Swedish poet and Bishop of Lund, Esaias Tegnér, who once said: The words and thoughts of men are born together: To speak obscurely is to think obscurely. In 100 humorous yet erudite pages, Thought2Talk takes...

  15. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  16. Archives: Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 14 of 14 ... Archives: Thought and Practice. Journal Home > Archives: Thought and Practice. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 14 of 14 Items. 2015 ...

  17. Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The journal Thought & Practice is a biannual publication of the Philosophical Association of Kenya. Vision A forum for incisive philosophic reflection on intellectual, social and political issues within the African context. Mission Thought and Practice serves scholars with broad interests in the humanities and social sciences by ...

  18. The Association between Thoughts of Defecation and Thoughts of Death (United States)

    Dunkel, Curtis S.


    Three studies were conducted examining the relationship between thoughts of defecation and thoughts of death. In Study 1 and Study 3 it was found that making thoughts of feces salient reduced the accessibility of death thoughts. In Study 2 it was found that making thoughts of death salient decreased the accessibility of feces thoughts. It is…

  19. Beauty Requires Thought. (United States)

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G


    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Some Thoughts About Thinking. (United States)

    Manguel, Alberto


    In this first-person case history, the writer Alberto Manguel chronicles the experience of losing his ability to write and speak during a stroke. He was reassured somewhat by his continued ability to read and to quote mentally from literature that he had memorized. Within hours after the stroke, he regained the ability to write. He remained unable to speak for a month. In this essay he ponders eloquently the relationship between thought and language, and describes how it felt not to be able to bridge the gap between thought and speech during his period of aphasia.

  1. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD


    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  2. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.


    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  3. Language, Thought, and Culture. (United States)

    Henle, Paul, Ed.

    This book presents a collection of essays intended for an integrated study of language by anthropologists, literary critics, philosophers, psychologists, sociologists, and linguists. There is first a discussion of theories concerning the interrelationship of language, thought, and culture. This is followed by a discussion of the development of…

  4. The Evolution of Thought (United States)

    Shadrikov, V. D.


    We investigate the evolution of thought using the method of historical reconstruction, the theory of the cultural and historical determinism of psychological development, data on the relationship between morphological studies, modern findings about child development, and the scientific understanding of neural morphogenesis. We argue for…

  5. Comments and Thoughts (United States)

    Black, Paul; Wilson, Mark; Yao, Shih-Ying


    In this rejoinder, the authors provide their thoughts on each of the commentaries of the seven respondents to their article. They find that the response of Kyngdon differs markedly from the others in questioning some basic elements of the methods of analysis that they propose for the construction of a "road map." The authors emphasize that they…

  6. Christianity and Political Thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario


    This article engages with the thought of Augusto Del Noce (1910-1989), the most important Italian Catholic philosopher and political thinker of the twentieth century. The focus is on how Del Noce came to elaborate a Catholic ‘modernity,’ bridging a positive encounter between Catholicism, democracy...

  7. Letting Thoughts Take Wing (United States)

    Jorgensen, Chuck; Wheeler, Kevin


    Scientists are conducting research into electroencephalograms (EEGs) of brainwave activity, and electromyography (EMG) of muscle activity, in order to develop systems which can control an aircraft with only a pilot's thoughts. This article describes some EEG and EMG signals, and how they might be analyzed and interpreted to operate an aircraft. The development of a system to detect and interpret fine muscle movements is also profiled in the article.

  8. Capturing Thoughts, Capturing Minds?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni


    Think Aloud is cost effective, promises access to the user's mind and is the applied usability technique. But 'keep talking' is difficult, besides, the multimodal interface is visual not verbal. Eye-tracking seems to get around the verbalisation problem. It captures the visual focus of attention...... and probing about her actions and thoughts open for participatory analysis. Keywords usability test, cost effective, unobtrusive, TA, eye and cursor tracking, user experience, participatory analysis...

  9. Thoughts on Book Banning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet Uluğbay


    Full Text Available This article, written by the author who used to be one of the former ministers of national education, includes some instances that took place in different date ranges in Turkey and different countries around the world about book censorship. It is emphasized in the article that censorship has been in public agenda since history of religions, some books with various subjects in different periods has been censored especially due to public safety and decency. The author states that philosophers particularly such as authors, publishers, journalists and scientists have been suppressed in each period by indicating that censorship is mainly derived from differences of ideas and the root of the problem is violation of freedom of thought and thought broadcast. The article supports the idea that book censorship is against democracy by citing quotations from famous statesmen, scientists, lawyers and litterateurs from past to present. Suggestions were made for governments about subjects such as freedom of thought and freedom of press which are the basis of democracy by referring to the “banned books week” as an example from the USA. It is suggested that such practices should be initiated in Turkey as well on the path towards the solution of the problem.

  10. Thoughts on Interaction Design

    CERN Document Server

    Kolko, Jon


    Interaction Designers-whether practicing as Usability Engineers, Visual Interface Designers, or Information Architects-attempt to understand and shape human behavior in order to design products that are at once usable, useful, and desirable. Although the value of design is now recognized as essential to product development, the field is often misunderstood by managers and other team members, who don't understand a designer's role in a team. This can cause inefficient and ineffective products. Thoughts on Interaction Design gives individuals engaged in this profession the dialogue to justify t

  11. How to suppress obsessive thoughts. (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Diepstraten, Philip


    Thought suppression (i.e. consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts from entering consciousness) has been argued to be an inadequate strategy in case of unwanted intrusions. That is, thought suppression seems to result in more rather than less intrusions. Although this experimental finding has been explained in terms of failing attempts to distract oneself from the target thought, the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a scale that measures chronic thought suppression tendencies) does not address the means by which respondents try to suppress unwanted thoughts. To examine which strategies of mental control people use to suppress unwanted thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (N=47) completed the WBSI, the Thought Control Questionnaire, and two measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that the crucial mechanism in thought suppression may not be distraction, but self-punishment.

  12. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU


    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or balanced thoughts that explain the situation better than negative automatic thoughts is one of the important process goals of cognitive therapy.Objective: Aim of this review is to describe methods used to generate alternative/balanced thoughts that are used in examining automatic thoughts and also a part of automatic thought records. Alternative/balanced thoughts are the summary and end point of automatic thought work. In this text different ways including listing alternative thoughts, using examining the evidence for generating balanced thoughts, decatastrophizing in anxiety and a meta-cognitive method named two explanations are discussed. Different ways to use this technique as a homework assignment is also reviewed. Remarkable aspects of generating alternative explanations and realistic/balanced thoughts are also reviewed and exemplified using therapy transcripts. Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders

  13. Chaos Theory and Strategic Thought (United States)


    Chaos Theory and Strategic Thought STEVEN R. MANN A revolution that can change strategic thought is underway. The bitter-sweet truth is that this...TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1992 to 00-00-1992 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Chaos Theory and Strategic Thought 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...exploit chaos theory will change the hardware of war. On the theoretical level, it offers up a new foundation of strategic thought. In hardware terms

  14. An Alternative to Thought Suppression? (United States)

    Boice, Robert


    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  15. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko


    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  16. Walking from thought. (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Leeb, Robert; Keinrath, Claudia; Friedman, Doron; Neuper, Christa; Guger, Christoph; Slater, Mel


    Online analysis and classification of single electroencephalogram (EEG) trials during motor imagery were used for navigation in the virtual environment (VE). The EEG was recorded bipolarly with electrode placement over the hand and foot representation areas. The aim of the study was to demonstrate for the first time that it is possible to move through a virtual street without muscular activity when the participant only imagines feet movements. This is achieved by exploiting a brain-computer interface (BCI) which transforms thought-modulated EEG signals into an output signal that controls events within the VE. The experiments were carried out in an immersive projection environment, commonly referred to as a "Cave" (Cruz-Neira, C., Sandin, D.J., DeFanti, T.A., Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE. Proceedings of the 20th annual conference on Computer graphics and interactive techniques, ACM Press, 1993, pp. 135-142) where participants were able to move through a virtual street by foot imagery only. Prior to the final experiments in the Cave, the participants underwent an extensive BCI training.

  17. The effect of mental alerting on peripheral vestibular nystagmus during spontaneous, gaze (30 degrees left, 30 degrees right) and body positional (left & right lateral lying) testing using electronystagmography (ENG). (United States)

    McGovern, Tracey N; Fitzgerald, John E


    The performance of mental alerting during caloric testing has always been considered important, however its use/benefit during electronystagmography (ENG)/videonystagmography (VNG) testing has been questioned. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mental alerting tasks on peripheral type vestibular nystagmus recorded during ENG. Thirty patients with significant spontaneous/gaze or positional nystagmus (slow phase velocity >or= 6 degrees /s) were recruited from consecutive referrals for vestibular assessment. Nystagmus was recorded by ENG both in the presence and absence of mental alerting for each patient. Investigation of nystagmus by analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significantly larger nystagmus (higher value SPV) with mental alerting than with no alerting (p<0.001), and for some patients nystagmus traces were reduced to a flat line (no nystagmus) with no alerting. The study demonstrates the importance of mental alerting in helping overcome central suppression of nystagmus and highlights its importance to help identify peripheral type nystagmus during ENG.

  18. Spontaneous regression of a lumbar disc herniation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostarchid Brahim El


    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation is a common disease that induces back pain and radicular pain. Some cases require conservative treatment or at times relived spontaneously. Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is an atypical clinical presentation, and it has been recognized with the advancement of recent advances in imaging techniques. We present a 35-year-old woman presented a spontaneous regression of a lumbar disc herniation with good outcome after intensive physical therapy program. Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is thought to occur via an inflammatory reaction with molecular mechanisms of phagocytic processes.

  19. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters. (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J


    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  20. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper


    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  1. Thoughts on Reflection (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis


    Evidence in Practice section uses a standardized format enabling practitioners to share their experience of integrating research evidence into their practice. The final section of these brief articles asks the writers to reflect on their experience. Although it is not research, the individual reflection allies with what Schön (1983 called “reflection on action” and such reflections over time form a practical, tacit knowledge that we use to inform our work. Within this section of the journal, we hope readers will become more aware of how different types of evidence can be integrated into real‐world decision making. Not everything requires a full blown research study, and this section allows readers to see what other practitioners are doing, and in turn it should enable them to reflect upon what they are doing in their own practice. Being aware of situations where things may or may not have worked, and reflecting on the reasons why, brings together our sense of critical thought and practical experience that go a long way in filling the “librarian observed” and “professional judgements” parts of the EBLIP definition (Booth and Brice 2004. Acquiring professional knowledge does not end when we complete a graduate program, or have a certain number of years experience under our belts. It needs to be continually and consciously cultivated via reflection on our practice, our research, and simply what works and why. Research knowledge only takes us so far. People often ask me, “What do I do when there is no evidence? Or when the research evidence is weak?” Does this stop us from moving ahead? No. A decision still needs to be made. Evidence based practice is not only about acting when there is good evidence. Enhancing our professional judgments via a career built on analytical reflection, will provide knowledge that goes a long way towards making difficult decisions a little bit easier; even (or perhaps, especially in the cases when there is already a large body of

  2. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan AKKOYUNLU


    Conclusion: Generating alternative explanations and balanced thoughts are the end point and important part of therapy work on automatic thoughts. When applied properly and rehearsed as homework between sessions, these methods may lead to improvement in many mental disorders. [JCBPR 2013; 2(1.000: 53-59

  3. Thought Experiments: Determining Their Meaning (United States)

    Galili, Igal


    This paper considers thought experiment as a special scientific tool that mediates between theory and experiment by mental simulation. To clarify the meaning of thought experiment, as required in teaching science, we followed the relevant episodes throughout the history of science paying attention to the epistemological status of the performed…

  4. Psychological effects of thought acceleration. (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana; Wegner, Daniel M


    Six experiments found that manipulations that increase thought speed also yield positive affect. These experiments varied in both the methods used for accelerating thought (i.e., instructions to brainstorm freely, exposure to multiple ideas, encouragement to plagiarize others' ideas, performance of easy cognitive tasks, narration of a silent video in fast-forward, and experimentally controlled reading speed) and the contents of the thoughts that were induced (from thoughts about money-making schemes to thoughts of five-letter words). The results suggested that effects of thought speed on mood are partially rooted in the subjective experience of thought speed. The results also suggested that these effects can be attributed to the joy-enhancing effects of fast thinking (rather than only to the joy-killing effects of slow thinking). This work is inspired by observations of a link between "racing thoughts" and euphoria in cases of clinical mania, and potential implications of that observed link are discussed. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  5. Thought and Action in Education (United States)

    Rømer, Thomas Aastrup


    In much theory there is a tendency to place thought above action, or the opposite, action over thought. The consequence of the first option is that philosophy or scientific evidence gains the upper hand in educational thinking. The consequence of the second view is that pragmatism and relativism become the dominant features. This article discusses…

  6. In Defence of Thought Stopping (United States)

    Bakker, Gary Maria


    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  7. Bon Mots for Bad Thoughts (United States)

    Wallin, Jason J.


    This article questions how the philosophy of Gilles Deleuze has been received and connected to the field of curriculum theory. In an effort to reconnect Deleuze-thought to its political force, this essay commences a series of arguments pertaining to the ways in which the revolutionary thought of Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari have been…

  8. Brainmining emotive lateral solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore Scaltsas


    Full Text Available BrainMining is a theory of creative thinking that shows how we should exploit the mind’s spontaneous natural disposition to use old solutions to address new problems – our Anchoring Cognitive Bias. BrainMining develops a simple and straightforward method to transform recalcitrant problems into types of problems which we have solved before, and then apply an old type of solution to them. The transformation makes the thinking lateral by matching up disparate types of problem and solution. It emphasises the role of emotive judgements that the agent makes, when she discerns whether a change of the values or the emotions and feelings in a situation, which would expand the space of solutions available for the problem at hand, would be acceptable or appropriate in the situation. A lateral solution for an intractable problem is thus spontaneously brainmined from the agent’s old solutions, to solve a transformed version of the intractable problem, possibly involving changes in the value system or the emotional profile of the situation, which the agent judges, emotively, will be acceptable, and even appropriate in the circumstances.

  9. Personal identity and eastern thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia Carlos João


    Full Text Available This paper aims to show that the problem of personal identity is a fundamental question of the classical Indian thought. Usually we tend to think that personal identity is a Western philosophical subject, and so we tend to forget the significance of the Self (Atman in Hinduism and even in Buddhism. The author shows how the Indian thought approached the question of personal identity and which was the singular solution outlined in the work consensually attributed to Gotama, the Buddha.

  10. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  11. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L


    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  12. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  13. Trauma-related versus positive involuntary thoughts with and without meta-awareness. (United States)

    Green, Deanne M; Strange, Deryn; Lindsay, D Stephen; Takarangi, Melanie K T


    In earlier work, we asked subjects to report involuntary thoughts relating to a trauma film and also probed subjects periodically. Subjects often reported involuntary thoughts in response to probes, suggesting they lacked meta-awareness of those thoughts. But it is possible that some or all probe-detected thoughts were continuations of thoughts subjects had spontaneously reported, leading us to overestimate involuntary thoughts lacking meta-awareness. It is also unclear whether failures in meta-awareness occur for other emotional events. We exposed subjects to a negative or positive film. Subsequently, they reported involuntary film-related thoughts and responded to probes that distinguished new from continuing thoughts. Many (54%) but not all probe-caught thoughts were thought continuations. This result supports our earlier finding that people can lack meta-awareness for trauma-related thoughts, but suggests caution in how meta-awareness is assessed. We also found that self-caught negative and positive involuntary thoughts occurred at a similar frequency, with different characteristics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum on Bedside Ultrasound: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachariah, Sybil


    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare disease process with no clear etiology, although it is thought to be related to changes in intrathoracic pressure causing chest pain and dyspnea. We present a case of a 17-year-old male with acute chest pain evaluated initially by bedside ultrasound, which showed normal lung sliding but poor visualization of the parasternal and apical cardiac views due to significant air artifact, representing air in the thoracic cavity. The diagnosis was later verified by chest radiograph. We present a case report on ultrasound-diagnosed pneumomediastinum, and we review the diagnostic modalities to date. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:321–324.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In the works of Mevlana (Rumi, the social, religious and philosophical dimensions of human life were examined and the psychological aspects as well. The cognitive behavioral therapies are among the most commonly usedtherapy methods and also the most studied ones in the literature. According to the this model, the person can distorte the objective state by the present cognitive substructure. As a result of these distortions, the automatic thinkings arises which lead to the emergence of a number of dysfunctional emotions and often behaviors associated with these emotions. Spontaneously occured automatic thoughts, related to problematic behaviors or disturbing emotions are accepted without any hesitations are existed at the top of the mind. In the cognitive therapy, it is suggested that the focus of the therapy should be the individual's thoughts and beliefs, because some individuals may have the potential to destroy-reduce other¸s experiences with their ability to influence them with their own experiences. Mevlana's books emphasized that the relationship between thoughts and feelings, and also included a lotsof recommendations that suggest awareness and cognitive changes to get rid of various mental problems. In this rewiev, the aim was to examine the Mevlana's approach to thought in the context of cognitive therapy. The main books of Mevlana; Mesnevi, Fihi-Ma-Fih and Divan-i Kebir were examined and discussed in the sections related to thought. [JCBPR 2017; 6(2.000: 82-87

  16. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jul 4, 2017 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 96; Issue 3. Conceptual foundations of evolutionary thought. K. P. MOHANAN. Perspectives Volume 96 Issue 3 July 2017 pp 401-412. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Abstract ...

  17. Operant Variability: Some Random Thoughts (United States)

    Marr, M. Jackson


    Barba's (2012) paper is a serious and thoughtful analysis of a vexing problem in behavior analysis: Just what should count as an operant class and how do people know? The slippery issue of a "generalized operant" or functional response class illustrates one aspect of this problem, and "variation" or "novelty" as an operant appears to fall into…

  18. Thoughts on categorising bloodstain patterns

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K


    Full Text Available A thought piece submitted to the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes (ENFSI), as part of their consideration of forming an European Bloodstain Pattern Analysis Group, and submitted by one of their experts to the Taxonomy and Terminology...

  19. Language may indeed influence thought. (United States)

    Zlatev, Jordan; Blomberg, Johan


    We discuss four interconnected issues that we believe have hindered investigations into how language may affect thinking. These have had a tendency to reappear in the debate concerning linguistic relativity over the past decades, despite numerous empirical findings. The first is the claim that it is impossible to disentangle language from thought, making the question concerning "influence" pointless. The second is the argument that it is impossible to disentangle language from culture in general, and from social interaction in particular, so it is impossible to attribute any differences in the thought patterns of the members of different cultures to language per se. The third issue is the objection that methodological and empirical problems defeat all but the most trivial version of the thesis of linguistic influence: that language gives new factual information. The fourth is the assumption that since language can potentially influence thought from "not at all" to "completely," the possible forms of linguistic influence can be placed on a cline, and competing theories can be seen as debating the actual position on this cline. We analyze these claims and show that the first three do not constitute in-principle objections against the validity of the project of investigating linguistic influence on thought, and that the last one is not the best way to frame the empirical challenges at hand. While we do not argue for any specific theory or mechanism for linguistic influence on thought, our discussion and the reviewed literature show that such influence is clearly possible, and hence in need of further investigations.

  20. Modulating spontaneous brain activity using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werf, Y.D.; Sanz-Arigita, E.J.; Menning, S.; van den Heuvel, O.A.


    Background: When no specific stimulus or task is presented, spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity occur. Brain regions showing such coherent fluctuations are thought to form organized networks known as 'resting-state' networks, a main representation of which is the default mode network.

  1. Spontaneous Responses to Neoliberalism, and Their Significance for Education (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.


    This paper is a sequel to the keynote address at the 2017 BCES Conference. The keynote address concluded with the thought that some educationists respond intuitively and spontaneously to neoliberalism and its impact on education whereas others reject neoliberalist precepts and their pedagogical implications on definite principled grounds. This…

  2. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Pregnancy. (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-traumatic cause of coronary artery dissection. SCAD is the most common cause of myocardial infarction in pregnancy or the postpartum period and results in significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the pregnant population. It is important to consider pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (PASCAD) high on the differential for a pregnant woman who presents with symptoms consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Management of these patients requires a thoughtful, multidisciplinary approach, with consideration of conservative management if possible. Counseling regarding future pregnancies is also critical and requires compassionate care. Given our limited understanding of SCAD, including PASCAD, more data and research are needed to help guide diagnosis, management, and determination of prognosis.

  3. Sheep laterality. (United States)

    Anderson, Dean M; Murray, Leigh W


    Turning preferences among 309 white-faced ewes were individually evaluated in an enclosed, artificially lit T-maze, followed by each ewe choosing either a right or left return alley to return to peers. Data recorded included time in the start box, time in the T-maze, exit arm chosen to leave the T-maze, and return alley. Right and left arms of the T-maze were chosen 65.7% and 34.3% of the time, respectively, while right and left return alleys were chosen 32.4% and 67.6%, respectively. Exit arm and return alley were not independently chosen (p laterality was not related (α =.05) to time of day the test was administered, ewe's age or genetics, most recent liveweight, or most recent shorn fleece weight. The mean time spent in the start box (21 s) was not related to exit arm (p =.947) or return alley (p =.779). Mean time (15 s) spent in the T-maze was not related to exit arm (p =.086) or return alley (p =.952). More research will be required to understand sheep turning laterality and how it can impact working facilities and research equipment.

  4. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  5. A Technique: Generating Alternative Thoughts




    Introduction: One of the basic techniques of cognitive therapy is examination of automatic thoughts and reducing the belief in them. By employing this, we can overcome the cognitive bias apparent in mental disorders. Despite this view, according to another cognitive perspective in a given situation, there are distinct cognitive representations competing for retrieval from memory just like positive and negative schemas. In this sense generating or strengthening alternative explanations or bala...

  6. Laterality and Lateralization in Autism Spectrum Disorder, Using a Standardized Neuro-Psychomotor Assessment. (United States)

    Paquet, A; Golse, B; Girard, M; Olliac, B; Vaivre-Douret, L


    A detailed assessment of laterality in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) was realized, including handedness and other measures (muscle tone, manual performance, dominant eye), using a standardized battery for the developmental assessment of neuro-psychomotor functions. The results of the laterality tests relating to cerebral hemisphere organization (spontaneous gestural laterality and tonic laterality) were different in ASD children, and indicate that the cerebral organization could be disrupted. These assessments, added to the observations of usual laterality most often reported in the literature, provide better understanding of the developmental organization from the pathophysiological point of view in children with ASD.

  7. Descartes’s mathematical thought

    CERN Document Server

    Sasaki, Chikara


    Covering both the history of mathematics and of philosophy, Descartes's Mathematical Thought reconstructs the intellectual career of Descartes most comprehensively and originally in a global perspective including the history of early modern China and Japan. Especially, it shows what the concept of "mathesis universalis" meant before and during the period of Descartes and how it influenced the young Descartes. In fact, it was the most fundamental mathematical discipline during the seventeenth century, and for Descartes a key notion which may have led to his novel mathematics of algebraic analysis.

  8. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  9. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis]. (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  10. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations. (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn


    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  12. Spontaneous dimensional reduction? (United States)

    Carlip, Steven


    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  13. Project governance: "Schools of thought"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel Christiaan Bekker


    Full Text Available The terminology, definition and context of project governance have become a focal subject for research and discussions in project management literature. This article reviews literature on the subject of project governance and categorise the arguments into three schools of thought namely the single-firm school, multi-firm school and large capital school. The single-firm school is concerned with governance principles related to internal organisational projects and practice these principles at a technical level. The multi-firm school address the governance principles concerned with two of more organisations participating on a contractual basis on the same project and focus their governance efforts at the technical and strategic level. The large capital school consider projects as temporary organisations, forming their own entity and establishing governance principles at an institutional level. From these schools of thought it can be concluded that the definition of project governance is dependent on the type of project and hierarchical positioning in the organisation. It is also evident that further research is required to incorporate other governance variables and mechanisms such as transaction theory, social networks and agency theory. The development of project governance frameworks should also consider the complexity of projects spanning across international companies, across country borders and incorporating different value systems, legal systems, corporate governance guidelines, religions and business practices.

  14. Motor laterality as an indicator of speech laterality. (United States)

    Flowers, Kenneth A; Hudson, John M


    The determination of speech laterality, especially where it is anomalous, is both a theoretical issue and a practical problem for brain surgery. Handedness is commonly thought to be related to speech representation, but exactly how is not clearly understood. This investigation analyzed handedness by preference rating and performance on a reliable task of motor laterality in 34 patients undergoing a Wada test, to see if they could provide an indicator of speech laterality. Hand usage preference ratings divided patients into left, right, and mixed in preference. Between-hand differences in movement time on a pegboard task determined motor laterality. Results were correlated (χ2) with speech representation as determined by a standard Wada test. It was found that patients whose between-hand difference in speed on the motor task was small or inconsistent were the ones whose Wada test speech representation was likely to be ambiguous or anomalous, whereas all those with a consistently large between-hand difference showed clear unilateral speech representation in the hemisphere controlling the better hand (χ2 = 10.45, df = 1, p laterality are related where they both involve a central control of motor output sequencing and that a measure of that aspect of the former will indicate the likely representation of the latter. A between-hand measure of motor laterality based on such a measure may indicate the possibility of anomalous speech representation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Suicidal thoughts and emotion competence. (United States)

    Paradiso, Sergio; Beadle, Janelle N; Raymont, Vanessa; Grafman, Jordan


    During deployment and upon returning home, veterans experience emotional challenges that test their social and psychological adaptation and place them at risk for suicidal thinking. Individual variability in skill-based capacity to adaptively perceive, understand, correctly use, and manage emotions (called emotional competence) may play a role in the development of psychological suffering and suicidal thinking. Based on research in healthy and clinical samples, poor emotional competence was predicted to be associated with suicidal thinking among returning veterans. Participants were selected from the W. F. Caveness Vietnam Head Injury Study (VHIS) registry, which in the late 1960s began prospectively assessing 1221 veterans). The study sample was composed of veterans examined between 2003 and 2006 and included 185 participants who at the time of assessment with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) did (N= 46) or did not endorse (N= 139) suicidal thinking then or during the previous two weeks and received performance-based measures of emotional competence (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test; MSCEIT, Version 2.0) and theory of mind. MSCEIT subtests and theory of mind tasks were condensed via principal component analysis: Component 1 (Emotion Processing) included use, understand, and manage emotions tasks, and Component 2 (Emotion Perception) included perceive emotions. Veterans endorsing suicidal thoughts showed poorer emotion processing whereas emotion perception and theory of mind tasks did not show significant group effects. In addition, veterans who endorsed thoughts of suicide were deployed at a younger age, had lower education, and tended to report more negative experiences in social interactions upon return to the United States. The capacity to understand, use, and manage emotionally charged stimuli and situations may represent risk factors for suicidal thinking among veterans.

  16. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection. (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  17. Replacing intrusive thoughts: investigating thought control in relation to OCD symptoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ólafsson, R.P.; Snorrason, Í.; Bjarnason, R.K.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Ólason, D.Þ.; Kristjánsson, Á


    Background and objectives: Control of obsessive thoughts in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves both avoidance and removal of undesirable intrusive thoughts. Thought suppression tasks tap both of these processes but experimental results have been inconsistent. Experimental tasks allowing

  18. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... time periods are the relevant measure. We followed a cohort of first pregnancy planners from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses include 181 pregnancies, of which 32 were subclinical pregnancies detected by hCG analysis only. During early...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  19. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P


    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  20. Self-Compassion and Automatic Thoughts (United States)

    Akin, Ahmet


    The aim of this research is to examine the relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts. Participants were 299 university students. In this study, the Self-compassion Scale and the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire were used. The relationships between self-compassion and automatic thoughts were examined using correlation analysis…

  1. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.


    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  2. On Mary Wollstonecraft's Protofeminist Thought


    Brajković, Lidija


    Mary Wollstonecraft is an 18th century author whose name and ideas still echo in feminist world. She advocated a change in approach to education for women which would lead to their better position in society and would end an oppression to which they were exposed. Wollstonecraft's life was turbulent and gave her plenty of material to observe and discuss the position of women, starting from her own family and later love affairs. Also, she felt the atmosphere of some great social events such as ...

  3. Language, thought, and real nouns. (United States)

    Barner, David; Inagaki, Shunji; Li, Peggy


    We test the claim that acquiring a mass-count language, like English, causes speakers to think differently about entities in the world, relative to speakers of classifier languages like Japanese. We use three tasks to assess this claim: object-substance rating, quantity judgment, and word extension. Using the first two tasks, we present evidence that learning mass-count syntax has little effect on the interpretation of familiar nouns between Japanese and English, and that speakers of these languages do not divide up referents differently along an individuation continuum, as claimed in some previous reports [Gentner, D., & Boroditsky, L. (2001). Individuation, relativity, and early word learning. In M. Bowerman, & S. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development (pp. 215-256). Cambridge University Press]. Instead, we argue that previous cross-linguistic differences [Imai, M., & Gentner, D. (1997). A cross-linguistic study of early word meaning: Universal ontology and linguistic influence. Cognition, 62, 169-200] are attributable to "lexical statistics" [Gleitman, L., & Papafragou, A. (2005). Language and thought. In K. Holyoak, & R. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 633-661). Cambridge University Press]. Speakers of English are more likely to think that a novel ambiguous expression like "the blicket" refers to a kind of object (relative to speakers of Japanese) because speakers of English are likely to assume that "blicket" is a count noun rather than a mass noun, based on the relative frequency of each kind of word in English. This is confirmed by testing Mandarin-English bilinguals with a word extension task. We find that bilinguals tested in English with mass-count ambiguous syntax extend novel words like English monolinguals (and assume that a word like "blicket" refers to a kind of object). In contrast, bilinguals tested in Mandarin are significantly more likely to extend novel words by material. Thus, online

  4. Second-to-Last Thoughts (United States)

    Trimble, Virginia L.


    You can’t really prepare an abstract of a concluding-remarks talk, but having spent 19 years, 8 months as a full time student (Sept. 1948, Toluca Lake Grammar School kindergarten to April 1968 Caltech Ph.D.), most of the ensuing 48 years as a teacher, and about 51 years as some sort of astronomer, I find myself woefully ignorant of astronomy education and therefore well prepared to bring a fresh and vacant mind to the ideas presented by our colleagues here. Several thoughts, however, intrude. First, as Cecilia Payne Gaposchkin said, “a woman should do astronomy only if nothing else will satisfy her, for nothing else is what she will get.” Make that “person” and “science” and it still carries much truth. Second, it is better to be a professional astronomer and an amateur alto than the converse. And third, it is better to be a professional dentist and an amateur astronomer than the converse. This, I think, leaves room for all of us to work in areas that we find attractive and that we turn out to be reasonably good at. The latter is at least as important as the former. There is a great deal of pleasure to be found as a second-rate singer or artist, but not, I hope, as a lousy astronomer or teacher.

  5. Some thoughts on Mercurian resources (United States)

    Gillett, Stephen L.


    Virtually all scenarios on Solar System development ignore Mercury, but such inattention is probably undeserved. Once viable lunar and (probably) asteroidal facilities are established in the next century, Mercury warrants further investigation. Mercury's high solar energy density is a major potential advantage for space-based industries. Indeed, despite its higher gravity, Mercury is roughly twice as easy to leave as the Moon if the additional solar flux is taken into account. Moreover, with solar-driven technologies such as solar sails or electric propulsion, its depth in the Sun's gravity well is less important. Because Mercury is airless and almost certainly waterless, it will be an obvious place to export lunar technology, which will have been developed to deal with very similar conditions. Methods for extracting resources from anhydrous silicates will be particularly germane. Even without solar-powered propulsion, the discovery of low-delta-V access via multiple Venus and Earth encounters makes the planet easier to reach than had been thought. Technology developed for multi-year missions to asteroids and Mars should be readily adaptable to such Mercurian missions. Mercury will not be our first outpost in the Solar System. Nonetheless, as facilities are established in cis-Earth space, it probably merits attention as a next step for development.

  6. Thoughts on the nude body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Fabbri


    Full Text Available The image of nude appears to have ‘moved’, both because of the shift in our gaze and its point of reference. That is, unless this ‘negative emphasis’ is seen only as the uncri­ti­cal acceptance of that ‘polarizing question’ that declared the end of Clas­sical art and the decisive advent of modernity or as the effect of an hermeneutic excess ‒ of a philosophical definition of the nude impli­cit in our figurative culture – is it now the moment to go beyond the observation of the canonic nude and to develop new approaches to nudity? Despite its obviousness, the nude, too, is difficult to define. Where does the garment begin and the gown end? The skin and the flesh? How are we to describe the for­ces, movements and gestures of the body and its involucres? I will argue that the nude should be neither a pictorial genre nor a philosophical concept, but a «thought of the body» (De Chirico. It is an aesthetic figure with the power of affection and perception, but also a conceptual figure. It is not a ‘critical operator’ ‒ a cognitive ‘walk-on’ or extra ‒ but an actor with the power of speech, capable of forming and transforming new relationships with observers.

  7. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K


    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  8. Lateral thinking, from the Hopfield model to cortical dynamics. (United States)

    Akrami, Athena; Russo, Eleonora; Treves, Alessandro


    Self-organizing attractor networks may comprise the building blocks for cortical dynamics, providing the basic operations of categorization, including analog-to-digital conversion, association and auto-association, which are then expressed as components of distinct cognitive functions depending on the contents of the neural codes in each region. To assess the viability of this scenario, we first review how a local cortical patch may be modeled as an attractor network, in which memory representations are not artificially stored as prescribed binary patterns of activity as in the Hopfield model, but self-organize as continuously graded patterns induced by afferent input. Recordings in macaques indicate that such cortical attractor networks may express retrieval dynamics over cognitively plausible rapid time scales, shorter than those dominated by neuronal fatigue. A cortical network encompassing many local attractor networks, and incorporating a realistic description of adaptation dynamics, may be captured by a Potts model. This network model has the capacity to engage long-range associations into sustained iterative attractor dynamics at a cortical scale, in what may be regarded as a mathematical model of spontaneous lateral thought. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neural Coding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Replacing intrusive thoughts: investigating thought control in relation to OCD symptoms. (United States)

    Ólafsson, Ragnar P; Snorrason, Ívar; Bjarnason, Reynar K; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Ólason, Daníel Þ; Kristjánsson, Árni


    Control of obsessive thoughts in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) involves both avoidance and removal of undesirable intrusive thoughts. Thought suppression tasks tap both of these processes but experimental results have been inconsistent. Experimental tasks allowing more focused study of the processes involved in controlling intrusive thoughts may be needed. In two experiments, control over neutral, standardized intrusive and personal intrusive thoughts was investigated as participants attempted to replace them with neutral thoughts. Non-selected university students (Experiment 1: N = 61) and university students scoring high and low on self-report measure of OC symptoms (Experiment 2: N = 40) performed a computerized thought replacement task. In experiment 1 replacing personal intrusive thoughts took longer than replacing neutral thoughts. Self-reports showed that intrusive thoughts were rated more difficult to replace and were associated with greater thought reoccurrence during replacement, larger emotional reaction and more discomfort. These results were largely replicated in experiment 2. Furthermore, the high OC symptom group experienced greater overall difficulty controlling thoughts on the replacement task, experienced more reoccurrences of personal intrusive thoughts, larger emotional reactions and discomfort associated with them, and felt a greater urge to remove them. All participants were non-clinical university students, and older adults with OCD should be tested. The findings are in line with cognitive behavioural theories of OCD. They support the usefulness of thought replacement as a research paradigm to study thought control in OCD and possibly other psychological conditions characterized by repetitive thoughts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur-Ain Nadir


    Full Text Available Audience: The Halloween Lateral Canthotomy Model” is designed to instruct Emergency Medicine residents PGY 1-4, as well as Emergency Medicine-bound students. Introduction: Although uncommon, retrobulbar hemorrhage associated with facial trauma is a potential cause of permanent vision loss due to orbital compartment syndrome. To prevent vision loss, treatment with lateral canthotomy is time-sensitive and to perform this procedure in an emergent setting requires properly trained practitioners. Objectives: The purpose of the model is to teach residents and students how to perform lateral canthotomy and to achieve competency in their skills. Method: Lateral canthotomy is an important skill to be proficient in for any Emergency Medicine Physician, as it is an uncommon, sight-saving procedure. It is indicated in scenarios of facial trauma that cause a retrobulbar hemorrhage. Patients are at risk for permanent vision loss due to acute orbital compartment syndrome if the procedure is not done expeditiously.1 A less likely cause of retrobulbar hemorrhage is spontaneous hemorrhage due to a bleeding disorder or anticoagulant use.2 The features of retrobulbar hemorrhage include acute loss of visual acuity, relative afferent pupillary defect, proptosis with resistance to retropulsion, increased intraocular pressure, and limited extra ocular movement.3 While the diagnosis is clinical, it can be confirmed by computed tomography (CT and measurement of intraocular pressure.2 When the diagnosis is established, lateral canthotomy and cantholysis should be performed emergently. Cantholysis is contraindicated when a globe rupture is suspected or with an orbital blowout fracture. Potential complications of this procedure include iatrogenic injury to the globe or lateral rectus muscle, damage to the elevator aponeurosis resulting in ptosis, injury to the lacrimal gland and lacrimal artery, bleeding and infection.3 This task trainer uses affordable materials to let

  11. Sexual thoughts: links to testosterone and cortisol in men. (United States)

    Goldey, Katherine L; van Anders, Sari M


    Sexual stimuli increase testosterone (T) or cortisol (C) in males of a variety of species, including humans, and just thinking about sex increases T in women. We investigated whether sexual thoughts change T or C in men and whether hormone measures (baseline, post-activity, and changes) correlate with psychological sexual arousal. We used the Imagined Social Situation Exercise to assess how hormones respond to and correlate with sexual thoughts and arousal relative to three control conditions: neutral, stressful, and positive. A total of 99 men provided a baseline saliva sample, imagined and wrote about a sexual or control situation, and provided a second saliva sample 15 min later. Results indicated that, for participants in the sexual condition, higher baseline and post-activity C corresponded to larger increases in self- reported sexual and autonomic arousal. Although sexual thoughts increased sexual arousal, they did not change T or C compared to control conditions. Our results suggest that sexual thoughts are not sufficient to change T or C in men, but C may facilitate sexual arousal by directing energy towards a sexual situation.

  12. On the origins of endogenous thoughts. (United States)

    Tillas, Alexandros


    Endogenous thoughts are thoughts that we activate in a top-down manner or in the absence of the appropriate stimuli. We use endogenous thoughts to plan or recall past events. In this sense, endogenous thinking is one of the hallmarks of our cognitive lives. In this paper, I investigate how it is that we come to possess endogenous control over our thoughts. Starting from the close relation between language and thinking, I look into speech production-a process motorically controlled by the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Interestingly, IFG is also closely related to silent talking, as well as volition. The connection between IFG and volition is important given that endogenous thoughts are or at least greatly resemble voluntary actions. Against this background, I argue that IFG is key to understanding the origins of conscious endogenous thoughts. Furthermore, I look into goal-directed thinking and show that IFG plays a key role also in unconscious endogenous thinking.

  13. Thoughts from an Unapologetically Honest Introvert


    Wilson, Amy Michelle


    My thesis exhibition, titled Thoughts From An Unapologetically Honest Introvert, highlighted our extrovert-centered society and provided introverts with new communication tools to change the social expectation.

  14. Function Lateralization via Measuring Coherence Laterality (United States)

    Wang, Ze; Mechanic-Hamilton, Dawn; Pluta, John; Glynn, Simon; Detre, John A.


    A data-driven approach for lateralization of brain function based on the spatial coherence difference of functional MRI (fMRI) data in homologous regions-of-interest (ROI) in each hemisphere is proposed. The utility of using coherence laterality (CL) to determine function laterality was assessed first by examining motor laterality using normal subjects’ data acquired both at rest and with a simple unilateral motor task and subsequently by examining mesial temporal lobe memory laterality in normal subjects and patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. The motor task was used to demonstrate that CL within motor ROI correctly lateralized functional stimulation. In patients with unilateral epilepsy studied during a scene-encoding task, CL in a hippocampus-parahippocampus-fusiform (HPF) ROI was concordant with lateralization based on task activation, and the CL index (CLI) significantly differentiated the right side group to the left side group. By contrast, normal controls showed a symmetric HPF CLI distribution. Additionally, similar memory laterality prediction results were still observed using CL in epilepsy patients with unilateral seizures after the memory encoding effect was removed from the data, suggesting the potential for lateralization of pathological brain function based on resting fMRI data. A better lateralization was further achieved via a combination of the proposed approach and the standard activation based approach, demonstrating that assessment of spatial coherence changes provides a complementary approach to quantifying task-correlated activity for lateralizing brain function. PMID:19345736

  15. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.


    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  16. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.


    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  17. Multiple genetic switches spontaneously modulating bacterial mutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Randal N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background All life forms need both high genetic stability to survive as species and a degree of mutability to evolve for adaptation, but little is known about how the organisms balance the two seemingly conflicting aspects of life: genetic stability and mutability. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR system is essential for maintaining genetic stability and defects in MMR lead to high mutability. Evolution is driven by genetic novelty, such as point mutation and lateral gene transfer, both of which require genetic mutability. However, normally a functional MMR system would strongly inhibit such genomic changes. Our previous work indicated that MMR gene allele conversion between functional and non-functional states through copy number changes of small tandem repeats could occur spontaneously via slipped-strand mis-pairing during DNA replication and therefore may play a role of genetic switches to modulate the bacterial mutability at the population level. The open question was: when the conversion from functional to defective MMR is prohibited, will bacteria still be able to evolve by accepting laterally transferred DNA or accumulating mutations? Results To prohibit allele conversion, we "locked" the MMR genes through nucleotide replacements. We then scored changes in bacterial mutability and found that Salmonella strains with MMR locked at the functional state had significantly decreased mutability. To determine the generalizability of this kind of mutability 'switching' among a wider range of bacteria, we examined the distribution of tandem repeats within MMR genes in over 100 bacterial species and found that multiple genetic switches might exist in these bacteria and may spontaneously modulate bacterial mutability during evolution. Conclusions MMR allele conversion through repeats-mediated slipped-strand mis-pairing may function as a spontaneous mechanism to switch between high genetic stability and mutability during bacterial evolution.

  18. Spatial diversity of spontaneous activity in the cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yong-Yi Tan


    Full Text Available The neocortex is a layered sheet across which a basic organization is thought to widely apply. The variety of spontaneous activity patterns is similar throughout the cortex, consistent with the notion of a basic cortical organization. However, the basic organization is only an outline which needs adjustments and additions to account for the structural and functional diversity across cortical layers and areas. Such diversity suggests that spontaneous activity is spatially diverse in any particular behavioral state. Accordingly, this review summarizes the laminar and areal diversity in cortical activity during fixation and slow oscillations, and the effects of attention, anesthesia and plasticity on the cortical distribution of spontaneous activity. Among questions that remain open, characterizing the spatial diversity in spontaneous membrane potential may help elucidate how differences in circuitry among cortical regions supports their varied functions. More work is also needed to understand whether cortical spontaneous activity not only reflects cortical circuitry, but also contributes to determining the outcome of plasticity, so that it is itself a factor shaping the functional diversity of the cortex.

  19. Later in Life (United States)

    ... Contáctenos Contact Us About Tourette Blog Later in Life Later in Life There are plenty of challenges for those still coping with Tourette Syndrome in later life — and plenty of ways to deal with them. ...

  20. Spontaneous Pneumothorax as a Complication of Septic Pulmonary Embolism in an Intravenous Drug User: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Chyun Sheu


    Full Text Available Infective endocarditis has been the major cause of morbidity and mortality among intravenous drug users (IDUs with infections, mostly involving the tricuspid valve and presenting multiple septic pulmonary embolisms. Numerous pulmonary complications of septic pulmonary embolism have been described, but only a few have reported spontaneous pneumothorax. Our patient, a 23-year-old heroin addict, was hospitalized for tricuspid endocarditis and septic pulmonary embolism. Acute onset of respiratory distress occurred on his seventh hospital day and rapidly resulted in hypoxemia. Immediate bedside chest radiograph demonstrated left pneumothorax. It was thought to be a spontaneous pneumothorax, because he had not undergone any invasive procedure before the occurrence of pneumothorax. His clinical condition improved after the insertion of an intercostal chest tube. He later underwent surgery to replace the tricuspid valve as a result of the large size of the vegetation and poor control of infection. He ultimately survived. Pneumothorax is a possible lethal complication of septic pulmonary embolism in IDUs with right-sided endocarditis and should be considered in such patients when respiratory distress occurs acutely during their hospitalization.

  1. [Malignant lymphoma presented as recurrent multiple cranial nerve palsy after spontaneous regression of oculomotor nerve palsy: A case report]. (United States)

    Hirose, Takahiko; Nakajima, Hideto; Shigekiyo, Tarou; Yokote, Taiji; Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu


    We report the case of a 62-year-old man who presented with malignant lymphoma as recurrent multiple cranial nerve palsy after spontaneous regression of oculomotor nerve palsy. He developed ptosis and diplopia due to right oculomotor nerve palsy. Brain MRI/MRA showed no abnormality, and he recovered with conservative medical management. Three months later, he showed diplopia due to right abducens nerve palsy and facial pain and trigeminal sensory loss. Neurological examination revealed multiple cranial nerve palsy involved cranial nerve III, V, IX, and X of the right side. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels were normal, and cerebrospinal fluid examination was unremarkable. Steroid and subsequent intravenous immunoglobulin therapy didn't improve his symptoms. Six weeks after his admission, he showed rapid enlargement of the cervical lymph node and the right tonsil, and post-contrast T1-weighted MRI showed enlargement and enhancement of the left infraorbital nerve, the bilateral cavernous sinus, the bilateral facial nerves, and the left trigeminal nerve. The histopathologic examination of the tonsil biopsy revealed diffuse large B cell lymphoma. The cause of these symptoms was thought to be infiltrating the cavernous sinus, and adjacent nerves. Spontaneous regression of malignant lymphoma is an exceptional event, but this possibility should be considered so as to the correct diagnosis and proper treatment.

  2. Types and myths in Brazilian thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavio Ianni


    Full Text Available "Ideal types" elaborated by different authors and that have become emblematic, notorious or even definitive, sometimes representing myths are quite frequent in Brazilian thought. That is the case of the bandeirantes (colonial crusaders, the gaúcho, Jeca Tatu, Macunaíma, cordial man and others. It is worth contemplating this aspect of Brazilian culture and thought.

  3. Some thoughts on wood utilization research (United States)

    P. Koch


    For over 17 years our small group of scientists has worked to improve utilization of southern wood species. From these years of experience, I have distilled some thoughts on research objectives, attributes of scientists who accomplish the objectives, administration of research, and transferring results from laboratory to industry. I would like to share these thoughts...

  4. Beyond words: sensory properties of depressive thoughts. (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Hörmann, Claudia Cecile; Schröder, Johanna; Berger, Thomas; Jacob, Gitta A; Meyer, Björn; Holmes, Emily A; Späth, Christina; Hautzinger, Martin; Lutz, Wolfgang; Rose, Matthias; Klein, Jan Philipp


    Verbal thoughts (such as negative cognitions) and sensory phenomena (such as visual mental imagery) are usually conceptualised as distinct mental experiences. The present study examined to what extent depressive thoughts are accompanied by sensory experiences and how this is associated with symptom severity, insight of illness and quality of life. A large sample of mildly to moderately depressed patients (N = 356) was recruited from multiple sources and asked about sensory properties of their depressive thoughts in an online study. Diagnostic status and symptom severity were established over a telephone interview with trained raters. Sensory properties of negative thoughts were reported by 56.5% of the sample (i.e., sensation in at least one sensory modality). The highest prevalence was seen for bodily (39.6%) followed by auditory (30.6%) and visual (27.2%) sensations. Patients reporting sensory properties of thoughts showed more severe psychopathological symptoms than those who did not. The degree of perceptuality was marginally associated with quality of life. The findings support the notion that depressive thoughts are not only verbal but commonly accompanied by sensory experiences. The perceptuality of depressive thoughts and the resulting sense of authenticity may contribute to the emotional impact and pervasiveness of such thoughts, making them difficult to dismiss for their holder.

  5. Editor's Note | Oduor | Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Welcome to the new series of "Thought and Practice: A Journal of the Philosophical Association of Kenya". Africa's socio-political crisis is multi-faceted, and therefore requires a many-pronged approach. It is for this reason that Thought and Practice seeks to serve as a forum for scholars with broad interests in the humanities ...

  6. The Merits of Unconscious Thought in Creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong, C.B.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Galinsky, A.D.


    Research has yielded weak empirical support for the idea that creative solutions may be discovered through unconscious thought, despite anecdotes to this effect. To understand this gap, we examined the effect of unconscious thought on two outcomes of a remote-association test (RAT): implicit

  7. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.


    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  8. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.


    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  9. Associations between schizotypy and cerebral laterality. (United States)

    Park, Haeme R P; Waldie, Karen E


    Atypical lateralization for language has been found in schizophrenia, suggesting that language and thought disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum may be due to left hemispheric dysfunction. However, research with those with non-clinical schizotypy has been inconsistent, with some studies finding reduced or reversed language laterality (particularly with positive schizotypal traits), and others finding typical left hemispheric specialization. The aim of the current study was to use both a behavioural (dual reading-finger tapping) task and an functional magnetic resonance imaging lexical decision task to investigate language laterality in a university sample of high- and low-schizotypal adults. Findings revealed no evidence for atypical lateralization in our sample for both overall schizotypy (measured by the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences) and positive schizotypy (measured by the Unusual Experiences subscale) groups. Our findings provide further evidence that non-clinical schizotypy is not associated with atypical language laterality.

  10. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  11. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS


    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  12. Unilateral Post-LASIK Ectasia and Contralateral Spontaneous Ectasia. (United States)

    Qin, Vincent; Saad, Alain; Gatinel, Damien


    To report a case of iatrogenic unilateral post-LASIK corneal ectasia with contralateral spontaneous ectatic evolution. Case report with preoperative and postoperative measurements including uncorrected visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, slit-scanning topographic and pachymetric maps, and differential maps. Six months after unilateral LASIK, the operated eye progressively developed signs of post-LASIK ectasia with increased inferior corneal steepening and corneal thinning and decrease in corrected distance visual acuity. Five years later, the unoperated eye also developed signs of spontaneous ectatic evolution with increased inferior steepening and corneal thinning. LASIK accelerates occurrence of ectasia in ectasia-susceptible and biomechanically fragile eyes. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. The neural representation of intrusive thoughts (United States)

    Schmiedek, Florian; Brose, Annette; Schott, Björn H.; Lindenberger, Ulman; Lövden, Martin


    Based on the philosophical notion that language embodies thought we investigated whether a habitual tendency for intrusive thought that younger and older participants report over a period of 100 sessions, spread out over about 6 months, is associated with brain regions related to language production. In favour of this hypothesis, we found that individual differences in habitual intrusive thoughts are correlated with activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, Broca’s area) as well as the cingulate cortex (CC) during a two-choice reaction-time task in fMRI. Participants who habitually tended to experience intrusive thoughts showed greater activity during task-free (baseline) compared to task periods in brain regions involved in language production. Task performance was unrelated to individual differences in intrusive thoughts. We conclude that intrusive thoughts may be represented in a language-like format and that individuals reporting a habitually higher tendency for intrusive thoughts may have stronger and more habitual inner speech processes. PMID:22563007

  14. A web-based examination of experiences with intrusive thoughts across the adult lifespan (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Smyth, Frederick L.; Teachman, Bethany A.


    Objectives Intrusive thoughts and images are common across the adult lifespan, but vary in their consequences. Understanding age-related experiences with intrusive thoughts is important for identifying risk and protective factors for intrusive thought problems across the adult lifespan. This study characterized age trajectories for six aspects of experiences with intrusive thoughts using Internet data collection. Method Participants (N=1427; ages 18–87) were randomly assigned to suppress (i.e., keep out of mind) or monitor an intrusive thought for one minute, and then later to monitor the thought for a second minute. Participants tracked thought recurrences during each thinking period, then reported their positive and negative affect following each thinking period, as well as their effort expended suppressing the thought, and perceived difficulty controlling the intrusive thought. Multilevel modeling and generalized estimating equations modeled the continuous relationships between age and each dependent variable. Results As expected, older age was associated with less decline in positive affect while engaging with an intrusive thought. Interestingly, older age was also associated with a sharper rise and fall of negative affect. Suppression effort increased linearly with age (though perceived difficulty did not). Finally, no age differences were found in either the frequency or duration of the thought’s recurrence, adding to previous evidence that older adults function similarly to younger adults in their control of intrusive thoughts, despite certain age-related declines in cognitive functioning. Conclusion These findings suggest a dissociation between age-related changes in emotional versus cognitive characteristics of engaging with intrusive thoughts. PMID:24460223

  15. The frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and future thoughts in relation to daydreaming, emotional distress, and age. (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C; Salgado, Sinue


    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Frequency of Involuntary Autobiographical Memories and Future Thoughts in Relation to Daydreaming, Emotional Distress, and Age (United States)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.; Salgado, Sinue


    We introduce a new scale, the Involuntary Autobiographical Memory Inventory (IAMI), for measuring the frequency of involuntary autobiographical memories and involuntary future thoughts. Using the scale in relation to other psychometric and demographic measures provided three important, novel findings. First, the frequency of involuntary and voluntary memories and future thoughts are similarly related to general measures of emotional distress. This challenges the idea that the involuntary mode is uniquely associated with emotional distress. Second, the frequency of involuntary autobiographical remembering does not decline with age, whereas measures of daydreaming, suppression of unwanted thoughts and dissociative experiences all do. Thus, involuntary autobiographical remembering relates differently to aging than daydreaming and other forms of spontaneous and uncontrollable thoughts. Third, unlike involuntary autobiographical remembering, the frequency of future thoughts does decrease with age. This finding underscores the need for examining past and future mental time travel in relation to aging and life span development. PMID:26241025

  17. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.


    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  18. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.


    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  19. ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) (United States)

    ... here Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Fact Sheet What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Who ... Where can I get more information? What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a group of ...

  20. Does unconscious thought outperform conscious thought on complex decisions? A further examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd J. Thorsteinson


    Full Text Available Two experiments examined the benefits of unconscious thought on complex decisions (Dijksterhuis, 2004. Experiment 1 attempted to replicate and extend past research by examining the effect of providing reasons prior to rating the options. Results indicated no significant differences between the conditions. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate the findings of Dijksterhuis, Bos, Nordgren, and van Baaren (2006 and determine if a memory aid could overcome the limitations of conscious thought on complex tasks. Results revealed that a memory aid improved decisions compared to the conscious thought condition. Participants in the unconscious thought condition did not perform significantly better than did participants in the conscious thought condition.

  1. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection. (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis


    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  2. The Intersituational Generality of Formal Thought (United States)

    Stone, Mary Ann; Ausubel, David P.


    Shows that, contrary to Piagetian Theory, formal thought in a variety of subject matters is not possible until sufficient requisite concrete background experience in each content area involved has been attained. (MH)

  3. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C


    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  4. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan


    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  5. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.


    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  6. Spontaneity and international marketing performance


    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.


    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  7. Simultaneous and spontaneous reversal of positional nystagmus; an unusual peripheral sign of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser, MD


    Full Text Available Direction-changing positional nystagmus is generally thought to be of central origin. Reversal of initial positional nystagmus during maintaining the head position in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV is quite unusual and could be a sign of peripheral pathology. Vestibular reflex adaptation, simultaneous co-existence of canalolithiasis and cupulolithiasis in the same or both ears and changing in direction of debris movement have been proposed for the mechanism of this phenomenon. This can be a sign of simultaneous ampullopedal and ampulofugal flows during single head movement. This double-phase pattern of flow causing reversal of positional nystagmus could be related with the amount, location and dispersal of otolithic debris inside the membranous labyrinth. Four patients (3 lateral canal canalolithiasis and 1 posterior canal with reversing spontaneous nystagmus among 530 patients with BPPV have been identified in our clinic. They have been cured with standard re-positioning maneuvers. Endolymphatic reflux theory has been proposed as the underlying mechanism for unusual behavior of otolithic debris.

  8. Spontaneous cell polarization: Feedback control of Cdc42 GTPase breaks cellular symmetry. (United States)

    Martin, Sophie G


    Spontaneous polarization without spatial cues, or symmetry breaking, is a fundamental problem of spatial organization in biological systems. This question has been extensively studied using yeast models, which revealed the central role of the small GTPase switch Cdc42. Active Cdc42-GTP forms a coherent patch at the cell cortex, thought to result from amplification of a small initial stochastic inhomogeneity through positive feedback mechanisms, which induces cell polarization. Here, I review and discuss the mechanisms of Cdc42 activity self-amplification and dynamic turnover. A robust Cdc42 patch is formed through the combined effects of Cdc42 activity promoting its own activation and active Cdc42-GTP displaying reduced membrane detachment and lateral diffusion compared to inactive Cdc42-GDP. I argue the role of the actin cytoskeleton in symmetry breaking is not primarily to transport Cdc42 to the active site. Finally, negative feedback and competition mechanisms serve to control the number of polarization sites. © 2015 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Later Wittgenstein and the Philosophy of Religion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stig Børsen


    This article sets out by distinguishing Wittgenstein’s own views in the philosophy of religion from a school of thought in the philosophy of religion that relies on later Wittgenstein’s philosophy of language. After a survey of distinguishing features of Wittgenstein’s later philosophy, the third...... section explores Wittgenstein’s treatment of Frazer’s account of magic among primitive peoples. The following section offers an account of Wittgensteinian philosophy of religion, including the use of the notions of a language game and superstition. I conclude by criticizing a very influential argument...

  10. Non-erotic thoughts and sexual functioning. (United States)

    Purdon, Christine; Watson, Chris


    This study sought to replicate and extend investigations of current models of sexual dysfunction (Barlow, 2002; Janssen, Everaerd, Spiering, & Janssen, 2000) which implicate factors such as spectatoring, failure to use ameliorative strategies, and information processing biases in the development and persistence of sexual difficulties. A sample of 165 (n = 71 men) undergraduates completed measures of sexual dysfunction and relationship satisfaction, and reported on the content and frequency of non-erotic thoughts during sex with a partner (i.e., spectatoring), the emotional impact of non-erotic thoughts, and the strategies used to manage them. They also reported on their main sexual functioning difficulties and the strategies they used to manage those difficulties. Finally, participants were presented with a series of hypothetical sexual scenarios and were asked to report their immediate interpretation of events in the scenario. The content of non-erotic thoughts was similar to previous work (Purdon & Holdaway, 2006), although gender differences in thought content were less pronounced. As in previous research, greater frequency of, and anxiety evoked by, non-erotic thoughts was associated with poorer sexual functioning, but we found that this was over and above relationship satisfaction. Participants both high and low in sexual functioning reported using a variety of strategies to manage their non-erotic thoughts, thought suppression being the least effective, and also used a variety of strategies to manage sexual difficulties. Poorer sexual functioning was associated with more negative interpretations of ambiguous sexual scenarios, but this was mediated by relationship satisfaction. However, positive interpretations were predicted by sexual functioning. Results were discussed in terms of their theoretical and clinical implications.

  11. A Young Man with Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Lieve Willemien Verhaert


    Full Text Available Case. A 33-year-old male nonsmoker presented with sudden onset of dyspnoea and thoracic pain. Chest radiograph showed a left-sided pneumothorax. Few days later he developed a right-sided pneumothorax. He had a positive family history of pneumothorax. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed multiple pulmonary cysts predominantly located in the lower lung regions. We suspected Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD. Conclusion. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited genodermatosis and characterised by clinical manifestations including hamartomas of the skin, renal tumors, and pulmonary cysts with spontaneous pneumothorax. BHD is probably underdiagnosed because of the wide variability in its clinical expression. It is important to recognize these patients because of the possibility of developing renal cancer.

  12. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koora Kiran


    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  13. Lateral collateral ligament (image) (United States)

    The lateral collateral ligament connects the end of the femur (thigh) to the top of the fibula (the thin bone that runs next to the shin bone). The lateral collateral ligament provides stability against varus stress. Varus stress ...

  14. The quality of preterm infants' spontaneous movements : an early indicator of intelligence and behaviour at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butcher, Phillipa R.; van Braeckel, Koen; Bouma, Anke; Einspieler, Christa; Stremmelaar, Elisabeth F.; Bos, Arend F.

    Background: The quality of very preterm infants' spontaneous movements at 11 to 16 weeks post-term age is a powerful predictor of their later neurological status. This study investigated whether early spontaneous movements also have predictive value for the intellectual and behavioural problems that

  15. Spontaneous rupture of hepatic epithelioid haemangio-endothelioma. (United States)

    Lau, W Y; Dewar, G A; Li, A K


    A 69 year old man presented with haemoperitoneum due to spontaneous rupture of a hepatic epithelioid haemangio-endothelioma. The tumour was found by ultrasound and coeliac angiogram to be locally advanced, involving both lobes of the liver. The bleeding was stopped by transcatheter arterial embolization. The diagnosis was established 4 weeks later by a Trucut biopsy under ultrasound guidance. The patient refused further treatment by radiation and chemotherapy, so he was observed closely. Chest radiography carried out 3 months later revealed multiple pulmonary secondaries. Despite his disseminated disease, he was well and enjoying a normal active life 4 months after embolization.

  16. Influence of age, thought content, and anxiety on suppression of intrusive thoughts. (United States)

    Beadel, Jessica R; Green, Jennifer S; Hosseinbor, Shahrzad; Teachman, Bethany A


    Understanding differences in responses following attempts to suppress versus simply monitor intrusive thoughts is important given the established relationship between intrusive thinking and numerous forms of psychopathology. Moreover, these differences may vary as a function of age. Because of the links between aging and both enhancement in emotion regulation skills and decline in inhibition skills, older and younger adults were expected to differ in their responses (e.g., experience of negative affect and thought recurrence) to attempts at suppressing intrusive thoughts. This study examined whether efforts to suppress thought content that varied in valence and age-relevance differentially affected older (N=40, aged 66-92) and younger (N=42, aged 16-25) adults' ability to inhibit intrusive thought recurrence and their resulting negative affect. Interestingly, older adults experienced less recurrence for most thoughts than younger adults. Also, for several dependent variables (negative affect and perceived difficulty suppressing intrusive thoughts), older adults showed less decline in their magnitude of response across thinking periods (i.e., from suppression to monitoring) than did younger adults. These age effects were not generally moderated by level of trait anxiety, though higher anxiety did predict intrusive thought responding in expected directions, such as greater negative affect. These findings point to independent influences of age and anxiety, and suggest a complex mix of risk and protective factors for older adults' responses to intrusive thoughts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fast thought speed induces risk taking. (United States)

    Chandler, Jesse J; Pronin, Emily


    In two experiments, we tested for a causal link between thought speed and risk taking. In Experiment 1, we manipulated thought speed by presenting neutral-content text at either a fast or a slow pace and having participants read the text aloud. In Experiment 2, we manipulated thought speed by presenting fast-, medium-, or slow-paced movie clips that contained similar content. Participants who were induced to think more quickly took more risks with actual money in Experiment 1 and reported greater intentions to engage in real-world risky behaviors, such as unprotected sex and illegal drug use, in Experiment 2. These experiments provide evidence that faster thinking induces greater risk taking.

  18. Thought Action Fusion in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Þahin ÇÝFTÇÝ


    Full Text Available Thought Action Fusion (TAF is defined as tought and action percieved as equivalent to each other or as an exaggerated power given to idea. With the usage of “Thought Action Fusion Scale” which is created by Shafran (1996, is began to investigate its role in psychopathologies. Researches about the three-component structure which has TAF-Likelihood-Self, TAF-Likelihood-Others, TAF-Moral, are concentrated especially around the obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD. TAF alleged including a certain level also in the normal population, was seen in the relationship with the inflated responsability in OCD, thought suppression and neutralising, was tried to explain the direction of this relationship in the mediationel model framework. [JCBPR 2013; 2(3.000: 138-146

  19. Lateral flow strip assay (United States)

    Miles, Robin R [Danville, CA; Benett, William J [Livermore, CA; Coleman, Matthew A [Oakland, CA; Pearson, Francesca S [Livermore, CA; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L [Livermore, CA


    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  20. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission. (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C


    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  1. How intention and monitoring your thoughts influence characteristics of autobiographical memories. (United States)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv


    Involuntary autobiographical memories come to mind effortlessly and unintended, but the mechanisms of their retrieval are not fully understood. We hypothesize that involuntary retrieval depends on memories that are highly accessible (e.g., intense, unusual, recent, rehearsed), while the elaborate search that characterizes voluntary retrieval also produces memories that are mundane, repeated or distant - memories with low accessibility. Previous research provides some evidence for this 'threshold hypothesis'. However, in almost every prior study, participants have been instructed to report only memories while ignoring other thoughts. It is possible that such an instruction can modify the phenomenological characteristics of involuntary memories. This study aimed to investigate the effects of retrieval intentionality (i.e., wanting to retrieve a memory) and selective monitoring (i.e., instructions to report only memories) on the phenomenology of autobiographical memories. Participants were instructed to (1) intentionally retrieve autobiographical memories, (2) intentionally retrieve any type of thought (3) wait for an autobiographical memory to spontaneously appear, or (4) wait for any type of thought to spontaneously appear. They rated the mental content on a number of phenomenological characteristics both during retrieval and retrospectively following retrieval. The results support the prediction that highly accessible memories mostly enter awareness unintended and without selective monitoring, while memories with low accessibility rely on intention and selective monitoring. We discuss the implications of these effects. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.


    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  3. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan: Some Thoughts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 10. Bird Flight and Satish Dhawan: Some Thoughts. K R Y Simha. General Article Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 31-39. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  4. Teaching Geographical Thought Through Student Interviews. (United States)

    Cosgrove, Denis


    Outlines advantages and disadvantages of a history of postwar geographical thought course, focusing on student-led interviews of geography staff. Students examine geographical career of a lecturer, discuss courses s/he has taken, character of departments s/he has experienced, his/her awareness at different stages of philosophical and…

  5. Disciplines in the Service of Educational Thought. (United States)

    Winchester, Ian


    Suggests that the 20th century has been the century of the application of disciplines - philosophy, psychology, history, sociology, statistics, cognitive science, and computer science - to educational thought on an unprecedented scale. The same disciplines, in the service of the study of women by women, have led to a whole new complex of thought…

  6. Editor's Note | Oduor | Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editor's Note. Reginald M.J. Oduor. Abstract. No Abstract available ...

  7. Editor's Note | Oduor | Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editor's Note. R M J Oduor. Abstract. No Abstract available. Full Text:.

  8. Editor's Note | Oduor | Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editor's Note. R M J Oduor. Abstract. No abstract available. Full Text:.

  9. Editor's Note | Oduor | Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 6, No 2 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editor's Note. R M J Oduor. Abstract. No abstract available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  10. Editor's Note | Oduor | Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editor's Note. R MJ Oduor. Abstract. No Abstract available. Full Text:.

  11. Editor's Note | Oduor | Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editor's Note. RMJ Oduor. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  12. Patients' thoughts on patient- retained medical records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was also thought to motivate the patients to act on the advice given, and the records also served as a reminder to take their ... to use it and to standardise the information that is recorded; and health planners should be motivated to implement .... Table I: Combined list of themes identified and quotations supporting them.

  13. Suicidal Thoughts Among Medical Residents with Burnout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Frank; Dillingh, Gea; Bakker, Arnold; Prins, Jelle


    Objectives: Recent research showed that medical residents have a high risk for developing burnout. The present study investigates the prevalence of burnout and its relationship with suicidal thoughts among medical residents. Methods: All Dutch medical residents (n = 5126) received a self-report

  14. Revolutions in Evolutionary Thought: Darwin and After

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 2. Revolutions in Evolutionary Thought: Darwin and After. Renee M Borges. General Article Volume 14 Issue 2 February 2009 pp 102-123. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Buddhist thought and nursing: a hermeneutic exploration. (United States)

    McCaffrey, Graham; Raffin-Bouchal, Shelley; Moules, Nancy J


    In this paper I lay out the ground for a creative dialogue between Buddhist thought and contemporary nursing. I start from the observation that in tracing an arc from the existential human experience of suffering to finding compassionate responses to suffering in everyday practice Buddhist thought already appears to present significant affinities with nursing as a practice discipline. I discuss some of the complexities of entering into a cross-cultural dialogue, which is already well under way in the working out of Western forms of Buddhism, and which is beginning to be reflected in nursing literature. I introduce philosophical hermeneutics as a useful framework for elaborating an open and constructive exchange. I then discuss key Mahayana Buddhist concepts of emptiness and two truths that lead to a dynamic and open way of understanding reality and responding in the world. I turn to examples of original texts to give a flavour of the varied and distinctive forms of literature in the Buddhist tradition. This is intended partly to keep the reader alert to cultural difference (from a Western standpoint, that is) while exploring the creative potential of Buddhist thought. Hermeneutics again provides a framework for interpretation. This paper establishes a philosophical ground for a critical and creative dialogue between Buddhist thought and nursing. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Maffucci syndrome and intracranial chondrosarcomas: a case report featuring spontaneous resolution of sixth nerve palsy. (United States)

    Munro, Monique; Costello, Fiona; Burrowes, David; Yau, Ryan


    Maffucci syndrome is a rare disease process characterized by enchondromatosis with cutaneous hemangiomatosis. We report a 20-year-old woman with Maffucci syndrome with a 5-day history of diplopia. She was found to have a left sixth nerve palsy due to a parasellar chondrosarcoma. Three weeks later, the patient's diplopia spontaneously resolved. This unusual clinical course prompted us to review frequency of sixth nerve palsy with skull base neoplasms and the phenomenon of spontaneous resolution of diplopia.

  17. Lateral canthal surgery. (United States)

    Chong, Kelvin Kam-Lung; Goldberg, Robert A


    The lateral canthus is a delicate and complicated three-dimensional structure with function relevant to the health of the ocular surface. Dysfunction of the lateral canthus, due to aging changes or iatrogenic trauma, results in ocular morbidity ranging from chronic irritation to tearing to recalcitrant keratopathy. From an aesthetic standpoint, symmetric, normally positioned lateral canthi are cornerstones of youthful periorbital appearance, disruption of which leads to cosmetically significant deformity or asymmetry. Reconstruction of the lateral canthus is important in the rehabilitation of the aging eyelid and an unfortunate necessity after failed lateral canthal surgery. The common methods for improving or maintaining position, tone, and shape of the lower eyelid and lateral canthus use tightening or shortening the lower eyelid horizontally, keeping the canthal angle in an appropriate vertical level, and hugging the ocular surface. Many techniques have been described for the reconstruction of the lateral canthus in functional conditions or for aesthetic purposes. These methods have met with varying success. In this article, we begin with a discussion of the anatomy and physiology of the lateral canthus, followed by clinical examples of lateral canthal abnormalities and underlying pathophysiologies. A review of surgical options for the lateral canthus is presented with concluding remarks on postoperative complications.

  18. Elective affinities and economic thought: 1870-1914


    João Antônio de Paula; Pedro Rocha de Oliveira


    This article seeks to demonstrate that the concept of "elective affinities" can be applied to the relations between economic thought, literature, and philosophy. Emphasis is given to Institutionalist thought, the German historical school, and neoclassical thought.

  19. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk


    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  20. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)


    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  1. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy]. (United States)

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil


    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  2. Current management of spontaneous coronary artery dissection. (United States)

    Bastante, Teresa; Cuesta, Javier; García-Guimaraes, Marcos; Rivero, Fernando; Maruri, Ramon; Adlan, David; Alfonso, Fernando


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) remains an infrequent and elusive clinical entity of unknown etiology. However, our knowledge of SCAD has been significantly enriched in recent years. Large and prospective contemporary series have increased the interest in this disease with fewer patients misdiagnosed and a growing number of cases recognized in daily clinical practice. Classically, SCAD was thought to present mainly in young women without traditional atherosclerotic risk factors but, actually, most patients are middle-aged and are not free from coronary risk factors. A high number of associated conditions have been reported. Of these, fibromuscular dysplasia emerges as a major association with intriguing pathophysiological implications. Areas covered: This review aims to present a contemporary update on SCAD. We concentrate on the clinical scenario, related conditions, practical management and treatment strategies. Expert commentary: Recognition of SCAD is currently much more frequent and accurate as a result of increased clinical awareness and the widespread use of intravascular imaging techniques. Hopefully, in the near future an improvement in the management of SCAD patients will come not only from empirical evidence but also from dedicated clinical trials.

  3. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen


    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  4. Assessing Sexually Intrusive Thoughts: Parsing Unacceptable Thoughts on the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. (United States)

    Wetterneck, Chad T; Siev, Jedidiah; Adams, Thomas G; Slimowicz, Joseph C; Smith, Angela H


    Sexual obsessions are a common symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), often classified in a broader symptom dimension that includes aggressive and religious obsessions, as well. Indeed, the Dimensional Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (DOCS) Unacceptable Thoughts Scale includes obsessional content relating to sexual, violent, and religious themes associated with rituals that are often covert. However, there is reason to suspect that sexual obsessions differ meaningfully from other types of unacceptable thoughts. We conducted two studies to evaluate the factor structure, initial psychometric characteristics, and associated clinical features of a new DOCS scale for sexually intrusive thoughts (SIT). In the first study, nonclinical participants (N=475) completed the standard DOCS with additional SIT questions and we conducted an exploratory factor analysis on all items and examined clinical and cognitive correlates of the different scales, as well as test-retest reliability. The SIT Scale was distinct from the Unacceptable Thoughts Scale and was predicted by different obsessional cognitions. It had good internal consistency and there was evidence for convergent and divergent validity. In the second study, we examined the relationships among the standard DOCS and SIT scales, as well as types of obsessional cognitions and symptom severity, in a clinical sample of individuals with OCD (N=54). There were indications of both convergence and divergence between the Unacceptable Thoughts and SIT scales, which were strongly correlated with each other. Together, the studies demonstrate the potential utility of assessing sexually intrusive thoughts separately from the broader category of unacceptable thoughts. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.


    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  6. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts (United States)

    Siegal, M.


    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  7. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter


    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  8. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien


    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  9. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  10. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  11. Thoughts in flight: automation use and pilots' task-related and task-unrelated thought. (United States)

    Casner, Stephen M; Schooler, Jonathan W


    The objective was to examine the relationship between cockpit automation use and task-related and task-unrelated thought among airline pilots. Studies find that cockpit automation can sometimes relieve pilots of tedious control tasks and afford them more time to think ahead. Paradoxically, automation has also been shown to lead to lesser awareness. These results prompt the question of what pilots think about while using automation. A total of 18 airline pilots flew a Boeing 747-400 simulator while we recorded which of two levels of automation they used. As they worked, pilots were verbally probed about what they were thinking. Pilots were asked to categorize their thoughts as pertaining to (a) a specific task at hand, (b) higher-level flight-related thoughts (e.g.,planning ahead), or (c) thoughts unrelated to the flight. Pilots' performance was also measured. Pilots reported a smaller percentage of task-at-hand thoughts (27% vs. 50%) and a greater percentage of higher-level flight-related thoughts (56% vs. 29%) when using the higher level of automation. However, when all was going according to plan, using either level of automation, pilots also reported a higher percentage of task-unrelated thoughts (21%) than they did when in the midst of an unsuccessful performance (7%). Task-unrelated thoughts peaked at 25% when pilots were not interacting with the automation. Although cockpit automation may provide pilots with more time to think, it may encourage pilots to reinvest only some of this mental free time in thinking flight-related thoughts. This research informs the design of human-automation systems that more meaningfully engage the human operator.

  12. The paradoxical effects of suppressing anxious thoughts during imminent threat. (United States)

    Koster, Ernst H W; Rassin, Eric; Crombez, Geert; Näring, Gérard W B


    In line with the ironic processing theory of Wegner (Psychol. Rev. 101 (1994) 34), it is often argued that the suppression of anxiety-related thoughts results in a paradoxical increase of anxiety and thought intrusions, both after and during the thought suppression. In a sample of undergraduate students (14 men, 18 women), we investigated the effects of suppressing anxious thoughts about an imminent painful electrocutaneous stimulus. During thought suppression, self-reported anxiety and frequency of anxious thoughts did not increase, and duration of anxious thoughts decreased. After thought suppression, participants experienced an increase in self-reported anxiety and the frequency of anxious thoughts. There was no effect upon thought duration. The results support the idea that suppression of anxiety-related thoughts may result in a paradoxical increase in anxiety, and may cause and/or maintain anxiety problems.

  13. Manic thinking: independent effects of thought speed and thought content on mood. (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Wegner, Daniel M


    This experiment found that the speed of thought affects mood. Thought speed was manipulated via participants' paced reading of statements designed to induce either an elated or a depressed mood. Participants not only experienced more positive mood in response to elation than in response to depression statements, but also experienced an independent increase in positive mood when they had been thinking fast rather than slow--for both elation and depression statements. This effect of thought speed extended beyond mood to other experiences often associated with mania (i.e., feelings of power, feelings of creativity, a heightened sense of energy, and inflated self-esteem or grandiosity).

  14. Christian thought in Momcilo Nastasijevic's poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić-Tmušić Aleksandra S.


    Full Text Available Poetry of Momcilo Nastasijevic gives us undoubted motive to talk about him as a consistent religious poet, a poet of orthodox religious inspiration. He approached towards words as sanctity, he endeavoured to measure each word, reach it, and clean it from accumulated dust of everyday’s blather. His attitude towards poetical locution, his personal law of poetical perfection, represents, brought up to the last consequences, principles of symbolist poetics. He thought of words as magic of sound and rhythm and examines all the effects we can get from it. To him, poetry was identical to crucial and the purest flickering of what he called human soul. The thought of our poet come down to essence of his poetry: who has understood his poems, can be sure that will understand Nastasijevic as a poet.

  15. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory. (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P


    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  16. Globalising the classical foundations of IPE thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Helleiner


    Full Text Available Abstract Current efforts to teach and research the historical foundations of IPE thought in classical political economy in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries centre largely on European and American thinkers. If a more extensive 'global conversation' is to be fostered in the field today, the perspectives of thinkers in other regions need to be recognised, and brought into the mainstream of its intellectual history. As a first step towards 'globalising' the classical foundations of IPE thought, this article demonstrates some ways in which thinkers located beyond Europe and the United States engaged with and contributed to debates associated with the three well-known classical traditions on which current IPE scholarship often draws: economic liberalism, economic nationalism and Marxism. It also reveals the extensive nature of 'global conversations' about IPE issues in this earlier era.

  17. Thought-evoking approaches in engineering problems

    CERN Document Server


    In creating the value-added product in not distant future, it is necessary and inevitable to establish a holistic and though-evoking approach to the engineering problem, which should be at least associated with the inter-disciplinary knowledge and thought processes across the whole engineering spheres. It is furthermore desirable to integrate it with trans-disciplinary aspects ranging from manufacturing culture, through liberal-arts engineering, and industrial sociology.   The thought-evoking approach can be exemplified and typified by representative engineering problems: unveiling essential features in ‘Tangential Force Ratio and Interface Pressure’, prototype development for ‘Bio-mimetic Needle’ and application of ‘Water-jet Machining to Artificial Hip Joint’, product innovation in ‘Heat Sink for Computer’, application of ‘Graph Theory’ to similarity evaluation of production systems, leverage among reciprocity attributes in ‘Industrial and Engineering Designs for Machine Enclosure’,...

  18. Daydreaming, Thought Blocking and Strudels in the Taskless, Resting Human Brain's Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, Arnold J.; Selz, Karen A.; Aven, John; Holroyd, Tom; Coppola, Richard


    The incidence, i(S), and duration, l(S), of transient, intermittent, hierarchical vorticities, strudels, S, in magnetic flux fluctuations, were computed from MEG records. from 91 task-free resting subjects. The MEG's i(S) and l(S) manifested characteristic times and entropic sensitivity resembling those reported in psychological studies of daydreaming and task-unrelated thoughts, TUTs. Transient reduction or absences of strudels can be found in patients with syndromes characterized by thought blocking. Positive ergodic single orbit measures of expansiveness and mixing predict i(S) and l(S). An analogy with the relationship between intermittent pontine-geniculate-occipital waves and dreaming is made to strudels with daydreaming. Both can be interpreted as neurophysiological correlates of the spontaneous intrusions into consciousness of the never idle unconscious mind.

  19. Daydreaming, Thought Blocking and Strudels in the Taskless, Resting Human Brain's Magnetic Fields (United States)

    Mandell, Arnold J.; Selz, Karen A.; Aven, John; Holroyd, Tom; Coppola, Richard


    The incidence, i(S), and duration, l(S), of transient, intermittent, hierarchical vorticities, strudels, S, in magnetic flux fluctuations, were computed from MEG records. from 91 task-free resting subjects. The MEG's i(S) and l(S) manifested characteristic times and entropic sensitivity resembling those reported in psychological studies of daydreaming and task-unrelated thoughts, TUTs. Transient reduction or absences of strudels can be found in patients with syndromes characterized by thought blocking. Positive ergodic single orbit measures of expansiveness and mixing predict i(S) and l(S). An analogy with the relationship between intermittent pontine-geniculate-occipital waves and dreaming is made to strudels with daydreaming. Both can be interpreted as neurophysiological correlates of the spontaneous intrusions into consciousness of the never idle unconscious mind.

  20. How intention and monitoring your thoughts influence characteristics of autobiographical memories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barzykowski, Krystian; Staugaard, Søren Risløv


    search that characterizes voluntary retrieval also produces memories that are mundane, repeated or distant – memories with low accessibility. Previous research provides some evidence for this ‘threshold hypothesis’. However, in almost every prior study, participants have been instructed to report only...... memories while ignoring other thoughts. It is possible that such an instruction can modify the phenomenological characteristics of involuntary memories. This study aimed to investigate the effects of retrieval intentionality (i.e., wanting to retrieve a memory) and selective monitoring (i.e., instructions...... to report only memories) on the phenomenology of autobiographical memories. Participants were instructed to (1) intentionally retrieve autobiographical memories, (2) intentionally retrieve any type of thought (3) wait for an autobiographical memory to spontaneously appear, or (4) wait for any type...

  1. Jean Rouch: sign, true and thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Oliveira


    Full Text Available This article is based on a fundamental question: thinking cinema verite documentary created by Jean Rouch from Deleuze’s power of the false problematic to highlight the singularities of images and signs that make it up. The cinematographic images created by Rouch allowing that thought be taken to maximum intensity and the process of artistic creation make speakable the unspeakable, audible the inaudible and visible the invisible.  



    Vo Van Dung; Nguyen Thi Hong Van; Vo Tu Phuong


    It can be said that Ho Chi Minh’s thoughts about the teaching methods in an attempt to develop learners' capability are really comprehensive perspectives. In order to develop learners’ capability, Ho Chi Minh advocated to reform teaching methods in accord with each specific condition, as well as outlined the basic direction for human and educational development strategies at present and in the future. Ho Chi Minh’s ideas about innovative teaching methods have been greatly meaningful in reform...

  3. Memory impairment in older adults' diversionary thoughts. (United States)

    Alves, Fátima; Resende, Flávia; Salomé Pinho, Maria


    The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males), aged 65-69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30) and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini-Mental State Examination). Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one's childhood home or the last party that one had attended) after studying one word list (List 1) and before viewing the second word list (List 2). After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information.

  4. Memory impairment in older adults’ diversionary thoughts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima eAlves


    Full Text Available The diversion paradigm was created in the context of explaining the effect of the instruction to forget some recently encoded material in the list-method of the directed forgetting paradigm. The current study of healthy older adults employed the diversion paradigm with two main goals: to determine whether thinking about an autobiographical memory interferes with the recall of recently encoded information and to explore whether the degree of forgetting depends on the temporal distance created by the diversionary thought. Ninety non-institutionalized Portuguese older adults (47 females and 43 males, aged 65 to 69 years, with education levels of between 3 and 6 years participated in this study. The exclusion criteria were as follows: presence of depressive symptomatology (assessed with the Geriatric Depression Scale-30 and global cognitive deterioration (assessed with the Mini–Mental State Examination. Concerning the diversion paradigm, one group was instructed to think about an autobiographical event (remembering one’s childhood home or the last party that one had attended after studying one word list (List 1 and before viewing the second word list (List 2. After a brief distraction task, the participant had to recall the words from both of the studied lists. In the control group, the procedure was the same, but the diversionary thought was substituted by a speed reading task. The obtained results showed the amnesic effect of diversionary thought but did not show a greater degree of forgetting when the autobiographical events in the diversionary thoughts were temporally more distant. Considering the practical implications of these results, this study alerts us to the importance of promoting strategies that enable older adults to better remember important information and effectively forget irrelevant information.

  5. A Reappraisal of Jevons's Thought on Labour


    Motohiro, Okada; Faculty of Economics, Konan University


    This paper re-examines W. S. Jevons's thought on labour and elucidates its uniqueness and limitations. Jevons's subjectivist approach penetrated his theory of labour, and he regarded pain as the measure of labour. In the first edition of The Theory of Political Economy, Jevons provided insights that could lead to the negation of the market determination of wages and other work conditions, thus offering a rationalisation of the intervention of socio-political factors in labour exchange. In doi...

  6. Language as an instrument of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eran Asoulin


    Full Text Available I show that there are good arguments and evidence to boot that support the language as an instrument of thought hypothesis. The underlying mechanisms of language, comprising of expressions structured hierarchically and recursively, provide a perspective (in the form of a conceptual structure on the world, for it is only via language that certain perspectives are available to us and to our thought processes. These mechanisms provide us with a uniquely human way of thinking and talking about the world that is different to the sort of thinking we share with other animals. If the primary function of language were communication then one would expect that the underlying mechanisms of language will be structured in a way that favours successful communication. I show that not only is this not the case, but that the underlying mechanisms of language are in fact structured in a way to maximise computational efficiency, even if it means causing communicative problems. Moreover, I discuss evidence from comparative, neuropathological, developmental, and neuroscientific evidence that supports the claim that language is an instrument of thought.

  7. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Beom [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others


    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  8. Thought-action fusion and thought suppression in obsessive-compulsive disorder. (United States)

    Rassin, E; Diepstraten, P; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P


    To examine the significance of thought-action fusion (TAF) and thought suppression tendencies, the present study obtained pre- and post-treatment questionnaire data on these constructs in a sample of OCD patients (n=24) and non-OCD anxiety patients (n=20). Results indicate that TAF and suppression are correlated with severity of psychopathology. Yet, the associations between TAF and psychopathology are not typical for OCD, but do also occur in other anxiety disorders (e.g., panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, and social phobia). As well, mean scores on the TAF and thought suppression measures dropped significantly from pre- to post-treatment, indicating that TAF and thought suppression are susceptible to change during psychotherapy.

  9. Behavioural laterality as a factor in emotional regulation. (United States)

    Rempala, Daniel M


    Individuals who perform a variety of tasks using one side of their bodies (i.e., high-dominance people) are thought to differ from individuals who perform a variety of tasks with both sides of their body (i.e., low-dominance people) in several neurological and cognitive characteristics. We examined whether behavioural laterality predicted the efficacy of different emotional regulation strategies. Specifically, we thought that behavioural laterality would influence verbal strategies (associated with left hemisphere activation) when regulating anxiety (associated with right hemisphere activation). In three studies participants presented in front of small audiences. Behavioural laterality (as measured by a modified handedness inventory) positively correlated with presentation anxiety, such that "low-dominance" participants reported less anxiety than "high-dominance" participants, but only when using cognitive reappraisal (a verbal strategy), not attention deployment or response modulation (behavioural strategies). These results provide preliminary evidence that individual differences in behavioural laterality mediate the efficacy of certain emotional regulation strategies.

  10. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  11. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  12. Subjective experience of thought overactivation in mood disorders: beyond racing and crowded thoughts. (United States)

    Keizer, Ineke; Piguet, Camille; Favre, Sophie; Aubry, Jean-Michel; Dayer, Alexandre; Gervasoni, Nicola; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Bertschy, Gilles


    Racing thoughts, crowded thoughts and flight of ideas are frequent symptoms in mood disorders, but the underlying subjective experience of overactivation of thought processes remains poorly documented. Qualitative analysis of audiotaped interviews explored subjective experience of thought overactivation in patients with mood disorders (sample 1, n = 45). Quantitative analysis considered the properties of a newly developed rating scale in sample 1, in an additional sample of patients with mood disorders (sample 2, n = 37) and in healthy subjects (sample 3, n = 38). Qualitative analysis of individual interviews revealed that 5 conceptual categories characterized thought overactivation: sequential thought flow, overstimulation, competition for resource allocation, unexpected/unexplained onset, and association with mood and emotions. A principal component analysis of the initial 16-item rating scale indicated that a single component explained 55.9% of the variance, with major and exclusive contributions from 9 items, which were retained in the final 9-item Subjective Thought Overactivation Questionnaire (STOQ; Cronbach's α = 0.95). Total score correlated significantly with activation, depression and perceived conflict subscales of the Internal State Scale (ISS; rs = 0.57-0.66, p well-being (ISS; rs = -0.48, p = 0.001) and increased state anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; rs = 0.60, p subjects. It allowed distinguishing between ISS mood states, with the highest median score in mixed states. Sample size, representativeness, possible bias in qualitative analysis, and quality of expert consensus. Qualitative analysis of clinical interviews, together with a new short rating scale, contributed to a documentation of subjective thought overactivation, an important but often undetected feature in mood disorders. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The relationship of thought suppression and recent rape to disordered eating in emerging adulthood. (United States)

    Collins, Brittany; Fischer, Sarah; Stojek, Monika; Becker, Kendra


    This study utilizes a prospective design to examine the interaction of recent rape/attempted rape with individual differences in thought suppression on increases in disordered eating symptoms during late adolescence/emerging adulthood. Thought suppression is the attempt to suppress unwanted thoughts. We propose that emerging adult women who have experienced recent rape/attempted rape and tend to use thought suppression as a coping mechanism are at risk for increases in disordered eating. 319 women completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, the Sexual Experiences Survey, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the White Bear Thought Suppression Inventory in their first month of college and three months later. The experience of recent rape/attempted rape in the three months prior to the assessment accounted for unique variance in disordered eating at Time 2. Levels of thought suppression assessed at Time 1 significantly moderated the influence of recent rape/attempted rape on disordered eating at Time 2. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Brain and behavioral lateralization in invertebrates. (United States)

    Frasnelli, Elisa


    Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioral asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which has asymmetric odor sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behavior with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with a specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test the evolutionary

  15. Brain and behavioural lateralization in invertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa eFrasnelli


    Full Text Available Traditionally, only humans were thought to exhibit brain and behavioural asymmetries, but several studies have revealed that most vertebrates are also lateralized. Recently, evidence of left-right asymmetries in invertebrates has begun to emerge, suggesting that lateralization of the nervous system may be a feature of simpler brains as well as more complex ones. Here I present some examples in invertebrates of sensory and motor asymmetries, as well as asymmetries in the nervous system. I illustrate two cases where an asymmetric brain is crucial for the development of some cognitive abilities. The first case is the nematode C. elegans, which has asymmetric odour sensory neurons and taste perception neurons. In this worm left/right asymmetries are responsible for the sensing of a substantial number of salt ions, and lateralized responses to salt allow the worm to discriminate between distinct salt ions. The second case is the fruit fly D. melanogaster, where the presence of asymmetry in a particular structure of the brain is important in the formation or retrieval of long-term memory. Moreover, I distinguish two distinct patterns of lateralization that occur in both vertebrates and invertebrates: individual-level and population-level lateralization. Theoretical models on the evolution of lateralization suggest that the alignment of lateralization at the population level may have evolved as an evolutionary stable strategy in which individually-asymmetrical organisms must coordinate their behaviour with that of other asymmetrical organisms. This implies that lateralization at the population-level is more likely to have evolved in social rather than in solitary species. I evaluate this new hypothesis with specific focus on insects showing different level of sociality. In particular, I present a series of studies on antennal asymmetries in honeybees and other related species of bees, showing how insects may be extremely useful to test evolutionary

  16. Laterally loaded masonry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun Gottfredsen, F.

    In this thesis results from experiments on mortar joints and masonry as well as methods of calculation of strength and deformation of laterally loaded masonry are presented. The strength and deformation capacity of mortar joints have been determined from experiments involving a constant compressive...... stress and increasing shear. The results show a transition to pure friction as the cohesion is gradually destroyed. An interface model of a mortar joint that can take into account this aspect has been developed. Laterally loaded masonry panels have also been tested and it is found to be characteristic...... that laterally loaded masonry exhibits a non-linear load-displacement behaviour with some ductility....

  17. The early markers for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy are different from those for spastic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einspieler, C; Cioni, G; Paolicelli, PB; Bos, AF; Dressler, A; Ferrari, F; Roversi, MF; Prechtl, HFR

    Qualitative abnormalities of spontaneous motor activity in new-borns and young infants are early predictive markers for later spastic cerebral palsy. Aim of this research was to identify which motor patterns may be specific for later dyskinetic cerebral palsy. In a large, prospectively performed

  18. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.


    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  19. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain


    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  20. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer. (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki


    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  1. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke


    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  2. Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma: Report of a case managed conservatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Tariq


    Full Text Available Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a rare cause of acute spinal cord compression. A 25-year-old male presented with a history of sudden onset of complete quadriplegia with sensory loss below the neck along with loss of bowel and bladder control. He had no history of any constitutional symptoms. He reported 10 days later. He was managed conservatively and after two weeks of intensive rehabilitation he had complete neural recovery. The spontaneous recovery of neurological impairment is attributed to the spreading of the hematoma throughout the epidural space, thus decreasing the pressure with partial neural recovery. Conservative treatment is a fair option in young patients who present late and show neurological improvement. The neurological status on presentation will guide the further approach to management.

  3. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation


    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide


    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  4. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  5. Creativity and innovation: thought and action. (United States)

    Pesut, Daniel J


    The purpose of this article is to discuss the significance of creativity and innovation in contemporary health care contexts, and to provide nurses and other health care professionals with models, resources, and ways of thinking about creativity that informs the development of an innovation-action and creative thinking mind-set. As the complexity of health care and nursing escalates, health care providers are challenged to think more creatively and develop innovations that advance the knowledge, learning, and service contributions of their discipline to the health care enterprise. Nursing requires creative thought and innovative action in service of the greater good.

  6. Media Influences on Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirkis, Jane E; Mok, Katherine; Robinson, Jo


    This chapter explores the influence of the media on suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Until recently, the vast majority of studies in this area were concerned with traditional forms of media like newspapers and television and looked at the potential for irresponsible reporting of suicide to lead....... The recent proliferation of pro-suicide websites has led to concerns that contagion effects may operate in newer media like the Internet, particularly with the advent of Web 2.0. There are numerous suicide prevention websites, which include educational, interactive, and social networking content. A body...

  7. Death and dignity in Catholic Christian thought. (United States)

    Sulmasy, Daniel P


    This article traces the history of the concept of dignity in Western thought, arguing that it became a formal Catholic theological concept only in the late nineteenth century. Three uses of the word are distinguished: intrinsic, attributed, and inflorescent dignity, of which, it is argued, the intrinsic conception is foundational. The moral norms associated with respect for intrinsic dignity are discussed briefly. The scriptural and theological bases for adopting the concept of dignity as a Christian idea are elucidated. The article concludes by discussing the relevance of this concept of dignity to the spiritual and ethical care of the dying.



    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew


    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with ...

  9. Childhood laterality and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffman, Jason; Pestle, Sarah; Mednick, Sara


    Left or mixed-handedness, footedness, and eye dominance are thought to indicate abnormalities in lateralization related to schizophrenia. Increased left or mixed-dominance in schizophrenia suggests possible hemispheric abnormalities associated with the disorder. A related body of research suggests...... that some indications of lateralization abnormalities may be evident prior to the onset of schizophrenia, suggesting that disruptions in lateralization are inherent to the developmental course of the disorder. We attempted to replicate and extend upon findings indicating differences in lateralization...... between children who later developed a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 26) and those who did not develop a schizophrenia spectrum disorder (n = 216), among a high-risk and control, longitudinal sample. The rate of left or mixed-footedness, eye dominance, and any anomalous lateralization...

  10. Pathways of lateral spreading. (United States)

    Jacobi, U; Schanzer, S; Weigmann, H-J; Patzelt, A; Vergou, T; Sterry, W; Lademann, J


    In the case of topically applied substances, usually both lateral spreading and competitive penetration into the skin occur in parallel. In the present study, the pathways of lateral spreading were studied quantitatively and visually. The local distribution and lateral spreading of the UV filter substance butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane applied in an o/w emulsion was studied on the forearm and the back. The tape stripping procedure was used to determine the recovery rates inside and outside the area of application. The skin characteristics of transepidermal water loss, pH value, hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum rate were determined at both anatomic sites. Photography and laser scanning microscopy were used to visually investigate the lateral spreading of topically applied dyes. On the back, a preferred direction of lateral spreading parallel to the body axis was observed. This result was caused by differences in the network of furrows. The furrows functioned as a pathway for lateral spreading, whereas the follicles formed a reservoir for the topically applied substance. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Do thoughts have sound? Differences between thoughts and auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Cuevas-Yust, Carlos


    Cognitive theories about auditory hallucinations maintain that inner speech is erroneously interpreted as coming from an external source. Few first-hand accounts of patients' experiences have been made, so there is limited knowledge of the process through which patients distinguish their auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) from ordinary thoughts. 89 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia, some experiencing acute hallucinatory symptomatology (Sz-AVHs) and some who were not (Sz-noAVHs), were assessed along with 48 individuals from the general population using the Auditory Hallucinations Assessment Questionnaire (AHAQ; Cuevas-Yust, Rodríguez Martín, Ductor Recuerda, Salas Azcona, & León Gómez, 2006). The Schz-AVHs group reported hearing ordinary thoughts at the same volume as their auditory hallucinations (p = .53) and spoken words (p = .89). In contrast, the Sz-noAVHs and general population samples reported hearing spoken words louder than their own thoughts (p = .002; p = .04). In comparison to these last two groups, the Sz-AVHs group described the sound of their thoughts as louder. These findings are consistent with the cognitive hypothesis of auditory verbal hallucinations. Confusion identifying the source of auditory hallucinations could be due, in part, to "hearing" one's thoughts at the same volume as auditory hallucinations and spoken words.

  12. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: risk factors in the genome and exposome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, P.T.C.


    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease resulting in progressive weakness and death in three to five years on average. In most patients there are no family members with ALS, and therefore an interplay of genetic and environmental risk factors is thought to be

  13. [On Mao Zedong's thoughts about population]. (United States)

    Qin, R


    The historical position for Comrade Mao Zedong's thoughts about population cannot be ignored. History has told us that the Party and Government of China have always treated the problem of birth control and family planning seriously. In 1957, Chairman Mao lectured both inside and outside the Party on the importance of family planning. Regulations were drafted to govern the excercise of family planning. According to these regulations, people who live in the populated areas should be educated concerning the need for and practice of birth control, and they should have children according to family planning regulations. In this way, the overburden for families may be reduced, the younger generation may receive a better education, and they will have sufficient employment opportunities when they grow up. In the areas inhabited by ethnic minorities, and exception should be made as far as family planning is concerned. In general, family planning should be integrated as a part of the overall plan for the development of the national economy. On the need for emphasizing both quantity and quality in population policy, Mao Zedong pointed out that people should learn how to manage material production and how to "manage themselves." Such thoughts of Mao Zedong provide an essential guideline in China's revolution and social construction.

  14. Styles of Thought and Epistemological Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryianela del Carmen Maita Guédez


    Full Text Available This paper begins with a historical reference whose purpose is to distinguish the various philosophical positions given throughout the construction of science. The path is divided into two periods, before and after the seventeenth century, on the one hand, focuses on the Greek thought constituted by the Aristotelian and Galilean traditions; On the other hand are presented the great epistemological traditions: Rationalism and Empiricism. It continues in the XIX with Augusto Comte who introduces the positivist approach to science till the figure of Thomas Kuhn with the concept of paradigm. Then, it is about the styles of thought and epistemological approaches due to each human being has a particular way of approaching reality, learning, solving problems, inferring, developing in their environment or following certain patterns that resemble or differentiate them from others. Then the relationship between them is established, proving that they are the support of any scientific revolution exhibited in the course of history. Finally, it is concluded that all research work acquires a value in the context of the belief system where it has been raised, rather than within impositions of paradigms that establish supposedly indisputable and universal schemes.

  15. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Treated with a Targeted CT-Guided Epidural Blood Patch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Correia


    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH is an important cause of new daily persistent headache. It is thought to be due to spontaneous spinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leaks, which probably have a multifactorial etiology. The classic manifestation of SIH is an orthostatic headache, but other neurological symptoms may be present. An epidural blood patch is thought to be the most effective treatment, but a blind infusion may be ineffective. We describe the case of a young man who developed an acute severe headache, with pain worsening when assuming an upright posture and relief gained with recumbency. No history of previous headache, recent cranial or cervical trauma, or invasive procedures was reported. Magnetic resonance imaging showed pachymeningeal enhancement and other features consistent with SIH and pointed towards a cervical CSF leak site. After failure of conservative treatment, a targeted computer tomography-guided EBP was performed, with complete recovery.

  16. Mechanical models for dikes: A third school of thought (United States)

    Townsend, Meredith R.; Pollard, David D.; Smith, Richard P.


    Geological and geophysical data from continental volcanic centers and giant radial swarms, and from oceanic shield volcanoes and rift zones, indicate that dikes propagate laterally for distances that can be 10 to over 100 times their height. What traps dikes within the shallow lithosphere and promotes these highly eccentric shapes? Gravity-induced stress gradients in the surrounding rock and pressure gradients in the magma are the primary loading mechanisms; pressure gradients due to magma flow are secondary to insignificant, because the flow direction is dominantly horizontal. This configuration of vertical, blade-shaped dikes with horizontal dike propagation and magma flow is fundamentally different from the two dike model configurations described in a recent review paper as two schools of thought for mechanical models of dikes. In School I, a dike is disconnected from its source and ascends under the influence of buoyancy. In School II, a dike is connected to a magma reservoir and is driven upward by magma flux from the source. We review the geological and geophysical data supporting the vertical dike - horizontal flow/propagation configuration and suggest the abundance and veracity of these data in many different geological settings, and the modeling results that address this physical process, warrant adding this as a third school of thought. A new analytical solution for the boundary-value problem of a homogeneous, isotropic, and linear elastic solid with a vertical, fluid-filled crack is used to investigate the effects of gravitationally induced stress and pressure gradients on the aperture distribution, dike-tip stress intensity, and stable height. Model results indicate that in a homogeneous crust, dikes can achieve stable heights greater than a kilometer only if the host rock fracture toughness KIC 100 MPa · m1/2. However, density stratification of the crust is an effective mechanism for trapping kilometer-scale dikes even if the host rock is very weak

  17. Laterality of amblyopia. (United States)

    Repka, Michael; Simons, Kurt; Kraker, Raymond


    To determine the frequency of unilateral amblyopia in right versus left eyes among children younger than 18 years. Analysis of data collected in randomized clinical trials conducted by the Pediatric Eye Disease Investigator Group. The laterality of the amblyopic eye was analyzed in 2635 subjects younger than 18 years who participated in 9 multicenter prospective, randomized treatment trials. Eligibility criteria for these clinical trials included unilateral amblyopia associated with strabismus, anisometropia, or both, with visual acuity between 20/40 and 20/400. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of baseline and demographic factors with the laterality of amblyopia. Among subjects with anisometropic amblyopia (with or without strabismus), amblyopia was present more often in left than right eyes, with a relative prevalence of 59% in left eyes (95% confidence interval, 57% to 62%; P amblyopia, there was no laterality predilection (relative prevalence of 50% in left eyes; 95% confidence interval, 47% to 54%; P = .94). Anisometropic amblyopia, with or without strabismus, occurs more often in left eyes than right eyes. This finding of amblyopia laterality may be related to microtropia, sighting dominance, or other forms of ocular dominance; developmental or neurological factors; laterality in the development of refractive error; or a combination thereof. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Spontaneous renal vein rupture in pregnant woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Giffoni Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Spontaneous perirenalhematoma are serious conditions that demand immediate attention. Although they have been described in the scientific literature since the late nineteenth century, its etiology is not fully understood. The present study reports the case of a 34 year-old patient, 39 weeks pregnant, that had been admitted complaining of acute abdominal pain. Physical examination was unremarkable, as well as the examination of transabdominal ultrasound. Her condition worsened later and she was referred to the operating room for emergency cesarean section for suspected placenta previa. She was identified then hemoperitoneum with bulky retroperitoneal hematoma on the right side.

  19. Spontaneous Resolution of Primary Hyperparathyroidism in Parathyroid Adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara J. Micale


    Full Text Available A 71 yo woman with primary hyperparathyroidism awaiting surgery because of significant hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria presented to the local emergency department with the chief complaints of discomfort in her neck, sore throat, and difficulty swallowing. She was found to be hypocalcemic with a calcium level of 8.1 mg/dL. She was seen by her endocrinologist three days later at which time serum calcium, iPTH, and serum phosphate levels were all within normal limits. Based on history and a series of ultrasounds the patient was diagnosed with spontaneous infarction of her parathyroid adenoma, which resulted in resolution of her primary hyperparathyroidism.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Cranial encephaloceles are the herniation of intracranial meninges and brain tissue through a defect in the cranium or skull base. These are rare conditions with an incidence of approximately 1 in 35,000 people, and are more common in the anterior cranial fossa than those in the middle one . 1,2 Temporal lobe herniation through a mid dle fossa defect into the lateral recess of the Sphenoid Sinus is even rarer than its medial representation. Intrasphenoidal encephaloceles are extremely rare findings 3 . Spontaneous, or primary, CSF fistula is a separate entity with no underlying cause of the CSF leak. Spontaneous CSF leaks are usually associated with a co - existing encephalocele of variable size 4 . We present a case of spontaneous CSF rhinorrhoea in a sphenoid sinus Anterior Medial Temporal lobe encephalocele herniating through a clinically silent lateral Craniopharyngeal canal.

  1. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson


    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  2. General features of spontaneous baryogenesis (United States)

    Arbuzova, Elena


    The classical version of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in details. It is shown that the relation between the time derivative of the (pseudo)goldstone field and the baryonic chemical potential essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks). The kinetic equation, used for the calculations of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, is generalized to the case of non-stationary background. The effects of the finite interval of the integration over time are also included into consideration.

  3. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail:


    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  4. Two channel EEG thought pattern classifier. (United States)

    Craig, D A; Nguyen, H T; Burchey, H A


    This paper presents a real-time electro-encephalogram (EEG) identification system with the goal of achieving hands free control. With two EEG electrodes placed on the scalp of the user, EEG signals are amplified and digitised directly using a ProComp+ encoder and transferred to the host computer through the RS232 interface. Using a real-time multilayer neural network, the actual classification for the control of a powered wheelchair has a very fast response. It can detect changes in the user's thought pattern in 1 second. Using only two EEG electrodes at positions O(1) and C(4) the system can classify three mental commands (forward, left and right) with an accuracy of more than 79 %

  5. Meaning and death-thought accessibility. (United States)

    Van Tongeren, Daryl R; Green, Jeffrey D


    Meaning is a central feature in human life, but death can disrupt a sense of meaning. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that meaning in life and meaning in death are distinct types of meaning when mortality is salient and differentially affect death-thought accessibility (DTA). In Experiment 1, imagining a specific scenario in which meaning is preserved beyond death reduced DTA relative to a standard mortality salience prime; moreover, these effects were not due to changes in self-esteem. In Experiment 2, imagining a meaningful life when mortality is salient elicited greater DTA, whereas imagining meaning in death elicited less DTA. Imbuing death with meaning attenuates DTA, whereas meaning in life increases DTA. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Ingold


    Full Text Available Animism is often described as the imputation of life to inert objects. Such imputation is more typical of people in western societies who dream of finding life on other planets than of indigenous peoples to whom the label of animism has classically been applied. These peoples are united not in their beliefs but in a way of being that is alive and open to a world in continuous birth. In this animic ontology, beings do not propel themselves across a ready-made world but rather issue forth through a world-in-formation, along the lines of their relationships. To its inhabitants this weather-world, embracing both sky and earth, is a source of astonishment but not surprise. Re-animating the ‘western’ tradition of thought means recovering the sense of astonishment banished from offi cial science.

  7. First thoughts on MD priorities for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, F; Assmann, R


    In 2012, 22 days of beam time will be allocated for LHC MDs. In this paper, after recalling the 2011 LHC MD experience, the MD rrequests for 2012 are reviewed. Three primary MD themes for 2012 can be identified: 1)pushing performance in 2012, 2)preparing for 2014/15, and 3)towards maximum luminosity. Example topics include emittance growth in collision or enhanced satellites for theme 1), 25 ns operation for 2), and ATS optics for 3). Structures lists of MD requests and topics for each theme as well as some initial thoughts on the MD priorities are presented. For certain topics, "start-of-fill MDs" are proposed in order to most efficiently use of the available beam time.

  8. Effective e-Learning by Thoughtful Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Joyes


    Full Text Available This paper provides an insight into an e-learning design approach that has been used by the author in a wide range of contexts in Higher Education as part of an ongoing enquiry into transforming online teaching and learning within sustainable 'real' courses. A key driver has been the need to engage learners in Higher Education in moving from consumers to producers of knowledge and to engage in communities of practice through the use of online tools for learning. These developments use an analytic framework to support thoughtful e-learning design and insights into the way his framework has been applied are presented through a number of case studies. This work is shaping Web2.0 technologies to match a learning rather than a social agenda by casting them in particular learning activities within specific contexts for particular learning purposes.Keywords: e-learning, activity theory

  9. Linearly Polarized, Single-Mode Spontaneous Emission in a Photonic Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munsch, Mathieu; Claudon, Julien; Bleuse, Joël


    We introduce dielectric elliptical photonic nanowires to funnel efficiently the spontaneous emission of an embedded emitter into a single optical mode. Inside a wire with a moderate lateral aspect ratio, the electromagnetic environment is largely dominated by a single guided mode, with a linear...

  10. Preventing Errors in Laterality


    Landau, Elliot; Hirschorn, David; Koutras, Iakovos; Malek, Alexander; Demissie, Seleshie


    An error in laterality is the reporting of a finding that is present on the right side as on the left or vice versa. While different medical and surgical specialties have implemented protocols to help prevent such errors, very few studies have been published that describe these errors in radiology reports and ways to prevent them. We devised a system that allows the radiologist to view reports in a separate window, displayed in a simple font and with all terms of laterality highlighted in sep...

  11. Lateral Control”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Hanne Nina; Veierskov, Bjarke; Hansen-Møller, Jens


    . The treetop buds remaining after bud excision experienced an immediate decrease in most cytokinins, followed, however, by a large surplus later in the season. The following spring this high level persisted in the leader bud of destipitated trees, but not in whorl buds of decapitated trees. Conspicuous growth...... pattern changes followed from destipitation, but few from decapitation. Growth reactions suggest that resource allocation to main branch buds inhibits leader growth in normal trees, a kind of “lateral control.” Auxin and ABA content in buds and stems was largely unaffected by treatments. Data suggest...

  12. Lateral Thinking of Prospective Teachers (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Xavier, S. Amaladoss


    Edward de Bono who invented the term "lateral thinking" in 1967 is the pioneer of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is concerned with the generation of new ideas. Liberation from old ideas and the stimulation of new ones are twin aspects of lateral thinking. Lateral thinking is a creative skills from which all people can benefit…

  13. Measuring Negative and Positive Thoughts in Children: An Adaptation of the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendoorn, Sanne M.; Wolters, Lidewij H.; Vervoort, Leentje; Prins, Pier J. M.; Boer, Frits; Kooij, Emelie; de Haan, Else


    The aim of this study is to describe the factor structure and psychometric properties of an extended version of the Children's Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS), the CATS-Negative/Positive (CATS-N/P). The CATS was originally designed to assess negative self-statements in children and adolescents.

  14. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.


    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  15. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.


    This article presents the results of a validation study of a previously published method of sex determination from the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle method for the internal acoustic canal for accurately determining the sex of human skeletal remains usi...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology....

  16. Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (United States)

    Aggarwal, Anju; Shashiraj


    Juvenile amytrophic lateral sclerosis (JALS) is a type of motor neuron disease presenting before 25 years of age. It is characterized by a combination of upper and lower motor signs. It may be familial or sporadic. We are reporting a sporadic case of JALS with onset of symptoms at 4 years of age. Diagnostic criteria and a brief review of literature are presented.

  17. Laterally situated sinus pericranii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshu, K.; Takahashi, S.


    Sinus pericranii has been reported to be situated usually along the midline. Two cases of laterally situated sinus pericranii are presented. Venous blood was obtained by puncturing the tumors directly. Injection of contrast medium into the tumors demonstrated a communication between the tumors and the intracranial venous sinuses through marked diploic veins. (orig.)

  18. Lateral flow assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G.A.; Amerongen, van A.


    A simple version of immunochemical-based methods is the Lateral Flow Assay (LFA). It is a dry chemistry technique (reagents are included); the fluid from the sample runs through a porous membrane (often nitrocellulose) by capillary force. Typically the membrane is cut as a strip of 0.5*5 cm. In most

  19. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri


    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  20. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism. (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark


    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  1. Connectivity and thought: the influence of semantic network structure in a neurodynamical model of thinking. (United States)

    Marupaka, Nagendra; Iyer, Laxmi R; Minai, Ali A


    Understanding cognition has been a central focus for psychologists, neuroscientists and philosophers for thousands of years, but many of its most fundamental processes remain very poorly understood. Chief among these is the process of thought itself: the spontaneous emergence of specific ideas within the stream of consciousness. It is widely accepted that ideas, both familiar and novel, arise from the combination of existing concepts. From this perspective, thought is an emergent attribute of memory, arising from the intrinsic dynamics of the neural substrate in which information is embedded. An important issue in any understanding of this process is the relationship between the emergence of conceptual combinations and the dynamics of the underlying neural networks. Virtually all theories of ideation hypothesize that ideas arise during the thought process through association, each one triggering the next through some type of linkage, e.g., structural analogy, semantic similarity, polysemy, etc. In particular, it has been suggested that the creativity of ideation in individuals reflects the qualitative structure of conceptual associations in their minds. Interestingly, psycholinguistic studies have shown that semantic networks across many languages have a particular type of structure with small-world, scale free connectivity. So far, however, these related insights have not been brought together, in part because there has been no explicitly neural model for the dynamics of spontaneous thought. Recently, we have developed such a model. Though simplistic and abstract, this model attempts to capture the most basic aspects of the process hypothesized by theoretical models within a neurodynamical framework. It represents semantic memory as a recurrent semantic neural network with itinerant dynamics. Conceptual combinations arise through this dynamics as co-active groups of neural units, and either dissolve quickly or persist for a time as emergent metastable attractors

  2. The Thought Experiment: An Imaginative Way into Civic Literacy (United States)

    Zarnowski, Myra


    Thought experiments enable students to think about persistent social issues by drawing on both knowledge and imagination. In this article, the author provides examples of thought experiments found in literature for adults and middle school students, a rationale for doing thought experiments in the classroom, a step-by-step procedure to follow, and…

  3. Thought and language | Pendlebury | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article defends the view that nonlinguistic animals could be capable of thought (in the sense in which the mere possession of beliefs and desires is sufficient for thought). It is easy to identify flaws in Davidson's arguments for the thesis that thought depends upon language if one is open to the idea that some ...

  4. Prolonged Paroxysmal Sympathetic Storming Associated with Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu


    Full Text Available Paroxysmal sympathetic storming (PSS is a rare disorder characterized by acute onset of nonstimulated tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, hyperthermia, external posturing, and diaphoresis. It is most frequently associated with severe traumatic brain injuries and has been reported in intracranial tumors, hydrocephalous, severe hypoxic brain injury, and intracerebral hemorrhage. Although excessive release of catecholamine and therefore increased sympathetic activities have been reported in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, there is no descriptive report of PSS primarily caused by spontaneous SAH up to date. Here, we report a case of prolonged PSS in a patient with spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and consequent vasospasm. The sympathetic storming started shortly after patient was rewarmed from hypothermia protocol and symptoms responded to Labetalol, but intermittent recurrence did not resolve until 3 weeks later with treatment involving Midazolam, Fentanyl, Dexmedetomidine, Propofol, Bromocriptine, and minimizing frequency of neurological and vital checks. In conclusion, prolonged sympathetic storming can also be caused by spontaneous SAH. In this case, vasospasm might be a precipitating factor. Paralytics and hypothermia could mask the manifestations of PSS. The treatment of the refractory case will need both timely adjustment of medications and minimization of exogenous stressors or stimuli.

  5. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkanuparph S


    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, spontaneous peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is uncommon. Delayed diagnosis of cryptococcal peritonitis often results in death. We describe three cases of spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One case had associated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical awareness of this entity may lead to the early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  6. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu


    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  7. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.


    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  8. Spontaneous spinal epidural hemorrhage from intense piano playing. (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Ju; Su, Fang Jy; Huang, Ying C; Chen, Shih-Han


    Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma (SSEH) is a rare but real neurosurgical emergency. It is caused by atraumatic rupture of the vertebral epidural vein that results in nerve root or spinal cord compression. Most cases of SSEH have a multifactorial etiology, including congenital and acquired coagulopathies; platelet dysfunction; vascular malformation; tumors; uncontrolled hypertension; pregnancy; and, very rarely, activities requiring Valsalva. Herein we reported the case of a young pianist who was attacked by SSEH during piano practice. Playing the piano is a joyful, relaxing entertainment; however, this musical activity can be a highly demanding physical and mental exercise for pianists. Emotional and expressive performance, especially in professional performing, has been reported to result in significant increase of sympathetic and decrease of parasympathetic activities and thus influence the cardiorespiratory variables. The increased biomechanical stress from fluctuating hemodynamics was thought to trigger the rupture of her spinal arteriovenous malformation.

  9. Second-Trimester Anterior Cervical Angle in a Low-Risk Population as a Marker for Spontaneous Preterm Delivery. (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Martínez, Alvaro; Díaz, Francisco; Muñoz, Hernán; Valdés, Enrique; Parra-Cordero, Mauro


    The aim of this article is to assess the use of the anterior cervical angle (ACA) as a predictor of spontaneous preterm delivery (sPTD) at 20+0-24+6 weeks of gestation in an unselected population. We conducted a nested case-control study that included 93 women who later delivered spontaneously history, CL and ACA at 20+0-24+6 weeks of gestation can predict approximately 40% of the severe preterm births. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Choice as an engine of analytic thought. (United States)

    Savani, Krishna; Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose


    Choice is a behavioral act that has a variety of well-documented motivational consequences-it fosters independence by allowing people to simultaneously express themselves and influence the environment. Given the link between independence and analytic thinking, the current research tested whether choice also leads people to think in a more analytic rather than holistic manner. Four experiments demonstrate that making choices, recalling choices, and viewing others make choices leads people to think more analytically, as indicated by their attitudes, perceptual judgments, categorization, and patterns of attention allocation. People who made choices scored higher on a subjective self-report measure of analytic cognition compared to whose did not make a choice (pilot study). Using an objective task-based measure, people who recalled choices rather than actions were less influenced by changes in the background when making judgments about focal objects (Experiment 1). People who thought of others' behaviors as choices rather than actions were more likely to group objects based on categories rather than relationships (Experiment 2). People who recalled choices rather than actions subsequently allocated more visual attention to focal objects in a scene (Experiment 3). Together, these experiments demonstrate that choice has important yet previously unexamined consequences for basic psychological processes such as attention and cognition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Place of learning in prophetic thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahshoori Ahmad


    Full Text Available With the Renaissance Era there came a change in the philosophical and scientific worldview, which provided a mechanistic view of the universe, and the same goes for human history, where a new phase began that led to the radical changes in human history and education. The advent of the Newtonian era led to its laws and rules replacing the divine law and discursive wisdom replaced the divine will and God and sought the rule of Newton's and mathematical laws; material concepts were replaced by the metaphysical concept. One of the concepts that influenced the worldview is the concept of learning. Most theories in psychology see the brain as the learning center, because they believe that the brain is the center of perception and cognition; however, in the viewpoint of prophetic thought it is the heart that is the center of learning and the brain is seen just as the sensory center. This paper examines the prophetic vision about the center and place of learning and presents a critical approach to psychology theories.

  12. Some thoughts on psychoanalysis and ethics. (United States)

    Szpilka, Jaime


    The author attempts to establish a framework for understanding the contribution of psychoanalysis to ethics through examining the work of certain philosophers, especially Kant. After reviewing the development of Freudian thought and going beyond the 'psychoanalysis and/or psychiatry?' question, he asserts that the space of the psychoanalytical cure revolves around an ethical problem. Thus, the limits of analysis should be determined by the subject's capacity for developing a structure of belief in the unconscious, with the concomitant capacity to go beyond equivocation in respect of an ethical conflict that underlies all cases where psychical suffering is manifested. Indeed, only human beings are called upon to deal with an ethical paradox-equally a logical one-which could be stated thus: there is Good in Evil and Evil in Good. This ethical paradox is the consequence of human subjection to the constituent laws of the Oedipus complex, which distances the human being, in his/her dealings with Evil and with Good, from any naturalist stance. In respect of the cure, then, we must take into account that Evil does not proceed from any particular drive-based characteristic, but is rather the expression of specific subjection to an unconscious Other, towards which it directs its affects. Finally, the author proposes a principle that emerges from the preceding discussion: let us not impute to or place in the Other our own subjective splitting or pain at existing.

  13. Lateral flow assays. (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M; Gallotta, Andrea


    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  14. Lateral flow assays (United States)

    Koczula, Katarzyna M.


    Lateral flow assays (LFAs) are the technology behind low-cost, simple, rapid and portable detection devices popular in biomedicine, agriculture, food and environmental sciences. This review presents an overview of the principle of the method and the critical components of the assay, focusing on lateral flow immunoassays. This type of assay has recently attracted considerable interest because of its potential to provide instantaneous diagnosis directly to patients. The range and interpretation of results and parameters used for evaluation of the assay will also be discussed. The main advantages and disadvantages of LFAs will be summarized and relevant future improvements to testing devices and strategies will be proposed. Finally, the major recent advances and future diagnostic applications in the LFA field will be explored. PMID:27365041

  15. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian


    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  16. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  17. [The effects of rumination on automatic thoughts and depressive symptoms]. (United States)

    Nishikawa, Daiji; Matsunaga, Miki; Furutani, Kaichiro


    This study investigated the effects of rumination (reflective pondering and brooding) on automatic thoughts (both negative and positive) and depressive symptoms. University students (N=183; 96 men) completed the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire-Revised (ATQ-R), and Response Style Scale (RSS). We conducted a path analysis which included gender as a factor. The results revealed that brooding was associated with negative automatic thoughts. Negative automatic thoughts contributed to the aggravation of depressive symptoms. In contrast, reflective pondering was associated with positive automatic thoughts. Positive automatic thoughts contributed to the reduction of depressive symptoms. These results indicate that rumination does not affect depressive symptoms directly. We suggest that rumination affects depressive symptoms indirectly through automatic thoughts, and that there are gender differences in the influence process.

  18. Organizations Utilize Lateral Relationships


    Jacqueline C.


    The structures that subscribe to different organization play a major role and determine how information flows throughout an organization as well as the reporting structure within the organization. In some organization, decision making rely with the top management, and in other organizations, decision making responsibilities may be distributed within the organization. The latter part is what mainly constitutes a lateral structural arrangement where various departments work hand in hand in achi...

  19. The lateral atlantooccipital ligament. (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Stetler, William; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Hansasuta, Ake; Liechty, Peter; Acakpo-Satchivi, Leslie; Wellons, John C; Blount, Jeffrey P; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry


    Stability of the atlantooccipital joint is of vital importance. The ligaments of this region, for the most part, have been thoroughly investigated, except for the lateral atlantooccipital ligament (LAO), which is not described in most modern texts. The authors examined 20 adult cadaveric specimens to observe the morphology of the LAO. All specimens were found to have an LAO, bilaterally, immediately posterior to the rectus capitis lateralis muscle with a fiber direction more or less opposite to this muscle. The LAO was found in intimate contact with the vertebral artery posteriorly and with the contents of the jugular foramen anteriorly. In all specimens, the origin of this ligament was from the anterolateral aspect of the transverse process of the atlas and the insertion onto the jugular process of the occipital bone. The fibers of the LAO had a mean angle of 26 degrees from the midline. The mean length and width of this ligament was 2.2 and 0.5 cm, respectively. The mean thickness of the LAO was 2 mm. The average tensile strength of this band was 37.5 degrees N. The LAO remained lax with flexion and extension of the craniocervical junction. With contralateral lateral flexion of the craniocervical junction, the LAO became fully taut at a mean of 8 degrees . Partial, but never complete, tautness was observed with rotation of the occipital on the atlas bilaterally. Following sectioning of the LAO, approximately an additional 3 degrees -5 degrees of contralateral lateral flexion was observed. The LAO is a constant anatomical structure of the craniocervical junction that might be of concern to the clinician. This ligament inhibits lateral flexion of the atlantooccipital joint and its disruption appears to add to instability at this articulation.

  20. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness. (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas


    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  1. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning. (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward


    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fundamental Frequency Variation of Neonatal Spontaneous Crying Predicts Language Acquisition in Preterm and Term Infants. (United States)

    Shinya, Yuta; Kawai, Masahiko; Niwa, Fusako; Imafuku, Masahiro; Myowa, Masako


    Spontaneous cries of infants exhibit rich melodic features (i.e., time variation of fundamental frequency [ F 0 ]) even during the neonatal period, and the development of these characteristics might provide an essential base for later expressive prosody in language. However, little is known about the melodic features of spontaneous cries in preterm infants, who have a higher risk of later language-related problems. Thus, the present study investigated how preterm birth influenced melodic features of spontaneous crying at term-equivalent age as well as how these melodic features related to language outcomes at 18 months of corrected age in preterm and term infants. At term, moderate-to-late preterm (MLP) infants showed spontaneous cries with significantly higher F 0 variation and melody complexity than term infants, while there were no significant differences between very preterm (VP) and term infants. Furthermore, larger F 0 variation within cry series at term was significantly related to better language and cognitive outcomes, particularly expressive language skills, at 18 months. On the other hand, no other melodic features at term predicted any developmental outcomes at 18 months. The present results suggest that the additional postnatal vocal experience of MLP preterm infants increased F 0 variation and the complexity of spontaneous cries at term. Additionally, the increases in F 0 variation may partly reflect the development of voluntary vocal control, which, in turn, contributes to expressive language in infancy.

  3. Fundamental Frequency Variation of Neonatal Spontaneous Crying Predicts Language Acquisition in Preterm and Term Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shinya


    Full Text Available Spontaneous cries of infants exhibit rich melodic features (i.e., time variation of fundamental frequency [F0] even during the neonatal period, and the development of these characteristics might provide an essential base for later expressive prosody in language. However, little is known about the melodic features of spontaneous cries in preterm infants, who have a higher risk of later language-related problems. Thus, the present study investigated how preterm birth influenced melodic features of spontaneous crying at term-equivalent age as well as how these melodic features related to language outcomes at 18 months of corrected age in preterm and term infants. At term, moderate-to-late preterm (MLP infants showed spontaneous cries with significantly higher F0 variation and melody complexity than term infants, while there were no significant differences between very preterm (VP and term infants. Furthermore, larger F0 variation within cry series at term was significantly related to better language and cognitive outcomes, particularly expressive language skills, at 18 months. On the other hand, no other melodic features at term predicted any developmental outcomes at 18 months. The present results suggest that the additional postnatal vocal experience of MLP preterm infants increased F0 variation and the complexity of spontaneous cries at term. Additionally, the increases in F0 variation may partly reflect the development of voluntary vocal control, which, in turn, contributes to expressive language in infancy.

  4. Effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation on spontaneous language production. (United States)

    Ehlen, Felicitas; Vonberg, Isabelle; Kühn, Andrea A; Klostermann, Fabian


    The thalamus is thought to contribute to language-related processing, but specifications of this notion remain vague. An assessment of potential effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on spontaneous language may help to delineate respective functions. For this purpose, we analyzed spontaneous language samples from thirteen (six female / seven male) patients with essential tremor treated with DBS of the thalamic ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) in their respective ON vs. OFF conditions. Samples were obtained from semi-structured interviews and examined on multidimensional linguistic levels. In the VIM-DBS ON condition, participants used a significantly higher proportion of paratactic as opposed to hypotactic sentence structures. This increase correlated negatively with the change in the more global cognitive score, which in itself did not change significantly. In conclusion, VIM-DBS appears to induce the use of a simplified syntactic structure. The findings are discussed in relation to concepts of thalamic roles in language-related cognitive behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Birth and Death of Tragedy in Nietzsche's thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S TA


    Full Text Available Friedrich Nietzsche, one of the most influential and thoughtful philosopher in the 19th century, in an attempt to reassess values, finds himself in confrontation with accepted ideas of the modern world. Therefore, in his critical review, in order to reform and revive the modern civilization and culture, he writes his first book, i.e. The Birth of Tragedy. His various intentions in this book are as following: a cultural concerns and saving the culture of his age from nihilism and the danger of falling apart, b reassessing values, c showing the opposition of Christianity and conceptual philosophy of Socrates with the nature of life, Dionysus element as well as the desire to live, d aesthetic interpretation of living and being and e viewing life from the perspective of art. Nietzsche considers the last two cases as the special features of Greek's tragic art and praises Greek's tragic age for such perspective. He admires ancient Greeks as well as their culture and thought because they are the creators of tragic art and through such creation as well as by considering Dionysus element they accepted life with all of its good and bad aspects. Nietzsche discusses two fundamental concepts of birth and death of tragedy as well. However, he views the birth and death of tragedy in two different ways a in a particular age, Greek tragedy emerged from Greek culture and became an influential factor in the development of that nation’s culture but died later on, b Nietzsche's hope in the re-emergence of Greek tragic art in the modern world lies in Wagner's music which died, too. In his view, the factors behind the death of tragedy are as following: the Socrates' conceptual philosophy and Euripides' plays, Christianity and ethicality as well as modern dialectic and Wagner himself. This article, first, tries to study Nietzsche’s important intentions in writing The Birth of Tragedy and explain such birth in the first sense emphasizing the interpretation of

  6. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien


    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  7. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  8. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  9. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  10. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  11. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth


    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  12. The neural basis of unwanted thoughts during resting state. (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; Gallinat, Jürgen


    Human beings are constantly engaged in thought. Sometimes thoughts occur repetitively and can become distressing. Up to now the neural bases of these intrusive or unwanted thoughts is largely unexplored. To study the neural correlates of unwanted thoughts, we acquired resting-state fMRI data of 41 female healthy subjects and assessed the self-reported amount of unwanted thoughts during measurement. We analyzed local connectivity by means of regional homogeneity (ReHo) and functional connectivity of a seed region. More unwanted thoughts (state) were associated with lower ReHo in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and higher ReHo in left striatum (putamen). Additional seed-based analysis revealed higher functional connectivity of the left striatum with left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in participants reporting more unwanted thoughts. The state-dependent higher connectivty in left striatum was positively correlated with rumination assessed with a dedicated questionnaire focussing on trait aspects. Unwanted thoughts are associated with activity in the fronto-striatal brain circuitry. The reduction of local connectivity in DLPFC could reflect deficiencies in thought suppression processes, whereas the hightened activity in left striatum could imply an imbalance of gating mechanisms housed in basal ganglia. Its functional connectivity to left IFG is discussed as the result of thought-related speech processes. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  13. The merits of unconscious thought in rule detection. (United States)

    Li, Jiansheng; Zhu, Yawen; Yang, Yang


    According to unconscious thought theory (UTT), unconscious thought is more adept at complex decision-making than is conscious thought. Related research has mainly focused on the complexity of decision-making tasks as determined by the amount of information provided. However, the complexity of the rules generating this information also influences decision making. Therefore, we examined whether unconscious thought facilitates the detection of rules during a complex decision-making task. Participants were presented with two types of letter strings. One type matched a grammatical rule, while the other did not. Participants were then divided into three groups according to whether they made decisions using conscious thought, unconscious thought, or immediate decision. The results demonstrated that the unconscious thought group was more accurate in identifying letter strings that conformed to the grammatical rule than were the conscious thought and immediate decision groups. Moreover, performance of the conscious thought and immediate decision groups was similar. We conclude that unconscious thought facilitates the detection of complex rules, which is consistent with UTT.

  14. The merits of unconscious thought in rule detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansheng Li

    Full Text Available According to unconscious thought theory (UTT, unconscious thought is more adept at complex decision-making than is conscious thought. Related research has mainly focused on the complexity of decision-making tasks as determined by the amount of information provided. However, the complexity of the rules generating this information also influences decision making. Therefore, we examined whether unconscious thought facilitates the detection of rules during a complex decision-making task. Participants were presented with two types of letter strings. One type matched a grammatical rule, while the other did not. Participants were then divided into three groups according to whether they made decisions using conscious thought, unconscious thought, or immediate decision. The results demonstrated that the unconscious thought group was more accurate in identifying letter strings that conformed to the grammatical rule than were the conscious thought and immediate decision groups. Moreover, performance of the conscious thought and immediate decision groups was similar. We conclude that unconscious thought facilitates the detection of complex rules, which is consistent with UTT.

  15. Propositions toward the development of a psychological theory of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrikov, Vladimir D.


    Full Text Available Thought is considered a psychological concept associated with an individual’s mental ex- istence. It is apparent that a great deal of research has been focused on thought as an area of study. however, there is no psychological theory of thought which provides an expla- nation for its nature and structural organization. So far, researchers have mainly looked at the ways this concept is expressed, rather than investigating what it actually is. In this study, however, based on studies of the functions of the psyche, mental processes, and the neurophysiological bases of mental activity, thought is identified as a need-emotion- intentional substance existing in the human being’s inner world. In keeping with this understanding of thought, the hypothesis that thought generation is caused by desire and experience (feeling and emotion is put forward. An individual’s thought is linked to his behavior or motivation for activity, and is followed by an emotional experience. The process of thought generation is regarded through the mechanism of behavioral motiva- tion. The primary purpose of this mechanism is to define the qualities of the external objects that serve for need satisfaction and functionality in individuals. The ability to generate thoughts is a feature of thinking related to an individual’s mental ability or frame of mind. From this standpoint, a person’s mentality is considered to be the capacity of the individual to generate thoughts and work through thoughts. It is shown that the abil- ity to generate thoughts and establish relationships within a stream of consciousness is characteristic of human intelligence. Some basic propositions toward a development of a psychological theory of thought are introduced.

  16. A case of recurrent spontaneous vesical rupture subsequent to irradiation for uterine cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemura, Hiroshi; Baba, Katsuyuki; Yajima, Michitaka; Yamakawa, Katsunori; Nishida, Shigehito; Iwamoto, Teruaki [St. Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine


    The patient, a 68-year-old woman, had undergone radical hysterectomy and post-operative radiotherapy for uterine cancer in 1974. She was admitted to our hospital complaining of abdominal pain in February, 1996. Contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan and cystography showed leakage of contrast medium around the bladder. We diagnosed her with spontaneous vesical rupture, and performed conservative therapy. Two months later, she was re-admitted with recurrent vesical rupture. We again performed conservative therapy. We consider that conservative therapy can be indicated for spontaneous vesical rupture with good general condition and no severe urinary tract infection. (author)

  17. A case of BOOP-like pneumonia induced by radiotherapy after surgical resection of breast cancer which healed spontaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamura, Masahiro; Sawada, Satoshi; Sougawa, Mitsuharu; Harima, Yoko; Kariya, Shuji; Yamaguchi, Kazuyuki


    The patient was a 67-year-old woman. After mastectomy, she received 50 Gy radiation to her chest wall using a tangential beam. About 3 months later, she developed dry cough, and an infiltrated shadow was noted in the irradiated lung. The shadow later moved to the opposite lung. The pneumonia healed spontaneously thereafter. This case is noteworthy since it endorses the previously reported clinical feature of broncholitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), i.e., a high likelihood of spontaneous healing even when it is induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  18. The organization of prospective thinking: evidence of event clusters in freely generated future thoughts. (United States)

    Demblon, Julie; D'Argembeau, Arnaud


    Recent research suggests that many imagined future events are not represented in isolation, but instead are embedded in broader event sequences-referred to as event clusters. It remains unclear, however, whether the production of event clusters reflects the underlying organizational structure of prospective thinking or whether it is an artifact of the event-cuing task in which participants are explicitly required to provide chains of associated future events. To address this issue, the present study examined whether the occurrence of event clusters in prospective thought is apparent when people are left to think freely about events that might happen in their personal future. The results showed that the succession of events participants spontaneously produced when envisioning their future frequently included event clusters. This finding provides more compelling evidence that prospective thinking involves higher-order autobiographical knowledge structures that organize imagined events in coherent themes and sequences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. LATERAL ANKLE INJURY (United States)

    Pollard, Henry; Sim, Patrick; McHardy, Andrew


    Background: Injury to the ankle joint is the most common peripheral joint injury. The sports that most commonly produce high ankle injury rates in their participating athletes include: basketball, netball, and the various codes of football. Objective: To provide an up to date understanding of manual therapy relevant to lateral ligament injury of the ankle. A discussion of the types of ligament injury and common complicating factors that present with lateral ankle pain is presented along with a review of relevant anatomy, assessment and treatment. Also included is a discussion of the efficacy of manual therapy in the treatment of ankle sprain. Discussion: A detailed knowledge of the anatomy of the ankle as well as the early recognition of factors that may delay the rate of healing are important considerations when developing a management plan for inversion sprains of the ankle. This area appears to be under-researched however it was found that movement therapy and its various forms appear to be the most efficient and most effective method of treating uncomplicated ankle injury. Future investigations should involve a study to determine the effect chiropractic treatment (manipulation) may have on the injured ankle. PMID:17987171

  20. Does mindfulness attenuate thoughts emphasizing negativity, but not positivity? (United States)

    Kiken, Laura G.; Shook, Natalie J.


    The current research investigated whether mindfulness is differentially associated with thoughts that emphasize positive or negative valence. In Study 1, trait mindfulness was inversely associated with negative rumination but unassociated with positive rumination, controlling for state affect. In Study 2, participants completed either a mindful breathing meditation or a comparable control exercise, followed by a thought listing while viewing affective images. Compared to the control condition, the mindfulness condition listed proportionately fewer negative thoughts, particularly in response to negative images, and more non-valenced thoughts. The conditions did not differ in their proportions of positive thoughts. These results suggest that mindfulness may attenuate thoughts that emphasize negativity but not those that emphasize positivity. PMID:25284906

  1. Enhancing Battlemind: Preventing PTSD by Coping with Intrusive Thoughts (United States)


    Training enhancement (not treatment)  Addressing intrusive thoughts (secondary prevention of PTSD ?? decrease distress)  Mindfulness based intervention...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-09-1-0535 TITLE: Enhancing BATTLEMIND: Preventing PTSD by Coping with Intrusive Thoughts PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0535 Enhancing BATTLEMIND: Preventing PTSD by Coping With Intrusive Thoughts 5b. GRANT NUMBER 08194004

  2. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys. (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R


    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Spontaneous flocking in human groups. (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete


    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek


    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  5. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  6. The evolution of language and thought. (United States)

    Lieberman, Philip


    Language primarily evolved as a vocal medium that transmits the attributes of human culture and the necessities of daily communication. Human language has a long, complex evolutionary history. Language also serves as an instrument of thought since it has become evident that in the course of this process neural circuits that initially evolved to regulate motor control, motor responses to external events, and ultimately talking were recycled to serve tasks such as working memory, cognitive flexibility linguistic tasks such as comprehending distinctions in meaning conveyed by syntax. This precludes the human brain possessing an organ devoted exclusively to language, such as the Faculty of Language proposed by Chomsky (1972, 2012). In essence like Fodor's (1983) modular model, a restatement of archaic phrenological theories (Spurzheim, 1815). The subcortical basal ganglia can be traced back to early anurans. Although our knowledge of the neural circuits of the human brain is at a very early stage and incomplete, the findings of independent studies over the past 40 years, discussed here, have identified circuits linking the basal ganglia with various areas of prefrontal cortex, posterior cortical regions and other subcortical structures. These circuits are active in linguistic tasks such as lexical access, comprehending distinctions in meaning conferred by syntax and the range of higher cognitive tasks involving executive control and play a critical role in conferring cognitive flexibility. The cingulate cortex which appeared in Therapsids, transitional mammal-like reptiles who lived in age of the dinosaurs, most likely enhanced mother-infant interaction, contributing to success in the Darwinian (1859) "Struggle for Existence" - the survival of progeny. They continue to fill that role in present-day mammals as well as being involved in controlling laryngeal phonation during speech and directing attention (Newman & MacLean, 1983; Cummings, 1993". The cerebellum and

  7. Vitiligo Lateral Lower Lip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Antaryami


    Full Text Available Vitiligo characteristically affecting the lateral lower lip (LLL is a common presentation in South Orissa. This type of lesion has rarely been described in literature. One hundred eighteen such cases were studied during the period from October 1999 to September, 2000. LLL vitiligo constituted 16.39% of all vitiligo patients. Both sexes were affected equally. The peak age of onset was in the 2nd decade, mean duration of illness 21.46 months. Fifty six patients had unilateral lesion (38 on the left and 18 on the right. Among the 62 patients having bilateral lesions, the onset was more frequent on the left (38 than either the right (8 or both sides together (16. All the patients were right handed. Association with local factors like infection, trauma, cheilitis, FDE etc were associated in 38.98% of cases, but systemic or autoimmune diseases were not associated. Positive family history was found in 22% of cases.

  8. Lateral Flow Immunoassay. (United States)

    Ching, Kathryn H


    Lateral flow immunoassays (LFIAs) are a staple in the field of rapid diagnostics. These small handheld devices require no specialized training or equipment to operate, and generate a result within minutes of sample application. They are an ideal format for many types of home test kits, for emergency responders and for food manufacturers and producers looking for a quick evaluation of a given sample. LFIAs rely on high quality monoclonal antibodies that recognize the analyte of interest. As monoclonal antibody technology becomes more accessible to smaller laboratories, there has been increased interest in developing LFIA prototypes for potential commercial manufacture. In this chapter, the basics of designing and building an LFIA prototype are described.

  9. Clock frequency estimation under spontaneous emission (United States)

    Qin, Xi-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Hao; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Lee, Chaohong


    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a driven two-level system under spontaneous emission and its application in clock frequency estimation. By using the Lindblad equation to describe the system, we analytically obtain its exact solutions, which show three different regimes: Rabi oscillation, damped oscillation, and overdamped decay. From the analytical solutions, we explore how the spontaneous emission affects the clock frequency estimation. We find that under a moderate spontaneous emission rate, the transition frequency can still be inferred from the Rabi oscillation. Our results enable potential practical applications in frequency measurement and quantum control under decoherence.

  10. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta


    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  11. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.


    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  12. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination? (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte


    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Labyrinth. Enigma, Dialectics and the Origin of Philosophy in Giorgio Colli's Thought


    Adán, Oscar


    In this paper the A.intends to offer a view as complete as possible of the insights of the ltalian philosopher and critic Giorgio Colli on the origin of Greek philosophy. With aspecial emphasis on Nietzsche's Apollony an paradigm, Colli views the origin of the rational lagos as found in thes ages of the Archaic period and their interpretation of Apollos's oracle -whichappears to men as an enigma. From this origin will emerge two basic characteristics of archaic thought which will later appear...

  14. The Labyrinth. Enigma, Dialectics and the Origin of Philosophy in Giorgio Colli's Thought


    Oscar Adán


    In this paper the A.intends to offer a view as complete as possible of the insights of the ltalian philosopher and critic Giorgio Colli on the origin of Greek philosophy. With aspecial emphasis on Nietzsche's Apollony an paradigm, Colli views the origin of the rational lagos as found in thes ages of the Archaic period and their interpretation of Apollos's oracle -whichappears to men as an enigma. From this origin will emerge two basic characteristics of archaic thought which will later appear...

  15. Lateral Thinking and Technology Education. (United States)

    Waks, Shlomo


    Presents an analysis of technology education and its relevance to lateral thinking. Discusses prospects for utilizing technology education as a platform and a contextual domain for nurturing lateral thinking. Argues that technology education is an appropriate environment for developing complementary incorporation of vertical and lateral thinking.…

  16. Al Ghazali's Thoughts on Islamic Education Curriculum (United States)

    Barni, Mahyuddin; Mahdany, Diny


    Al Ghazali lived in the Islamic golden age when all the fields of education flourished. There have been many studies of al-Ghazali's thoughts, yet, further and deeper examination from various perspective is needed to get objective and actual thoughts of Al-Ghazali. In al Ghazali's time, there was no term of curriculum, however, the concept emerged…

  17. Existential Thoughts in Fanon's Post-Colonialism Discourse (United States)

    Yeh, Chuan-Rong


    Frantz Fanon, a pioneer of post-colonial theory, attempted to seek some unbeknown possibilities through a Sartrean existentialism thought toward ethnic liberation and the fighting against imperialism. This article tries to enter Fanon's short life that was full of humanism and existentialist thought and to explore the hidden theoretical context…

  18. The Influence of Family of Origin Relationships on Career Thoughts (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Xu, Yonghong Jade; Strauser, David R.


    Family of origin relationships are an important influence on career decision-making. The current study investigates the relationship between family cohesion, expressiveness and conflict and dysfunctional career thoughts. The Family Environment Scale-Form R (Moos & Moos, 2009) measured the family environment and the Career Thoughts Inventory…

  19. When thought suppression backfires: its moderator effect on eating psychopathology. (United States)

    Ferreira, Cláudia; Palmeira, Lara; Trindade, Inês A; Catarino, Francisca


    Recently, several studies have pointed the importance of thought suppression as a form of experiential avoidance in different psychopathological conditions. Thought suppression may be conceptualized as an attempt to decrease or eliminate unwanted internal experiences. However, it encloses a paradoxical nature, making those thoughts hyper accessible and placing an extra burden on individuals. This avoidance process has been associated with several psychopathological conditions. However, its role in eating psychopathology remains unclear. The present study aims to explore the moderation effect of thought suppression on the associations between body image-related unwanted internal experiences (unfavorable social comparison through physical appearance and body image dissatisfaction) and eating psychopathology severity in a sample of 211 female students. Correlational analyses showed that thought suppression is associated with psychological inflexibility and eating disorders' main risk factors and symptoms. Moreover, two independent analyses revealed that thought suppression moderates, as it amplifies, the impact of unfavorable social comparisons through physical appearance (model 1) and body image dissatisfaction (model 2) on disordered eating attitudes and behaviors. Hence, for the same level of these body-related internal experiences, young females who reveal higher levels of thought suppression present higher eating psychopathology. Taken together, these findings highlight the key role of thought suppression in eating psychopathology and present important clinical implications.

  20. Relation of Disability Type and Career Thoughts to Vocational Identity (United States)

    Yanchak, Kristen V.; Lease, Suzanne H.; Strauser, David R.


    This study compared dysfunctional career thoughts and perceptions of vocational identity for individuals with different types of disabilities and examined whether the relation of career thoughts to vocational identity was moderated by type of disability. Ninety adults with cognitive and physical impairments were administered the Career Thoughts…

  1. The Content of Emotional Thoughts | Bloser | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper I examine Peter Goldie's theory of emotional thoughts and feelings, offered in his recent book The Emotions and subsequent articles. Goldie argues that emotional thoughts cannot be assimilated to belief or judgment, together with some added-on phenomenological component, and on this point I agree with ...

  2. Emancipation in postmodernity : political thought in Japanese science fiction animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, M.


    Animation has long been overlooked as source for political thought. The aim of this thesis is to rectify this, and it will do so in two ways. First, it makes a theoretical and empirical case for animation as an intellectual source of political thought that should be used along with philosophical

  3. Dealing With Resistance to Thought-Stopping: A Transcript (United States)

    Wolpe, Joseph


    A woman who had from childhood suffered from neurotic anxieties of an interpersonal kind had for 10 years been plagued with insistent and fruitless negative thoughts about herself. This transcript deals mainly with her objections to the technique of thought stopping and the efforts that were made to overcome them. (Author)

  4. Horton Revisited: African Traditional Thought and Western Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Over the years Robin Horton has argued for what he refers to as the 'continuity thesis' according to which there are theoretical similarities between African traditional thought and modern Western science. Horton's thesis stands in contrast to the standard Western anthropological appraisal of traditional African thought.

  5. A Meta-Analysis on Unconscious Thought Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strick, M.A.; Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Bos, M.W.; Sjoerdsma, A.; Baaren, R.B. van; Nordgren, L.F.


    A meta-analysis was performed on the unconscious thought effect (UTE). All available published and unpublished data on unconscious thought were included. Our aims were to provide a statistically robust estimate of the effect size of the UTE, to identify significant moderators, and to

  6. Spatial Working Memory Is Necessary for Actions to Guide Thought (United States)

    Thomas, Laura E.


    Directed actions can play a causal role in cognition, shaping thought processes. What drives this cross-talk between action and thought? I investigated the hypothesis that representations in spatial working memory mediate interactions between directed actions and problem solving. Participants attempted to solve an insight problem while…

  7. Prospective risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviour in adolescents with onset, maintenance or cessation of direct self-injurious behaviour. (United States)

    Koenig, Julian; Brunner, Romuald; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Parzer, Peter; Plener, Paul L; Park, JiYeon; Wasserman, Camilla; Carli, Vladimir; Hoven, Christina W; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta; Resch, Franz; Kaess, Michael


    Direct self-injurious behaviour (D-SIB) is associated with suicidal behaviour and suicide risk. It is not known if D-SIB cessation reduces these risks. The aim of this study was to explore trajectories of D-SIB and their prospective influence on suicidal thoughts and behaviour during adolescence. Data (n = 506; 62.06 % females, 14.53 years) from the Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe study were analysed. D-SIB and suicidal thoughts and behaviour were assessed at baseline (T0), 1- (T1) and 2-year follow-up (T2). Onset and maintenance of D-SIB between T0 and T1 were associated with a two to threefold increased odds ratio for suicidal thoughts and behaviour at T2. Suicidal thoughts and behaviour in those terminating D-SIB before T1 were similar compared to those with no life-time history of D-SIB. Late onset and maintenance of D-SIB prospectively indicate risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviour. This is the first study showing that D-SIB cessation reduces later risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviour in adolescence. Suicide prevention efforts should set one focus on reducing adolescent D-SIB.

  8. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi


    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  9. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant gastroenteritis: report of a rare case. Duvuru Ram, Vilvapathy S. Karthikeyan, Sarath C. Sistla, Sheik M. Ali, Parnandi Sridhar, Nagarajan Rajkumar ...

  10. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media. (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja


    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  11. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal


    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  12. Spontaneous local alpha oscillations predict motion-induced blindness. (United States)

    Händel, Barbara F; Jensen, Ole


    Bistable visual illusions are well suited for exploring the neuronal states of the brain underlying changes in perception. In this study, we investigated oscillatory activity associated with 'motion-induced blindness' (MIB), which denotes the perceptual disappearance of salient target stimuli when a moving pattern is superimposed on them (Bonneh et al., ). We applied an MIB paradigm in which illusory target disappearances would occur independently in the left and right hemifields. Both illusory and real target disappearance were followed by an alpha lateralization with weaker contralateral than ipsilateral alpha activity (~10 Hz). However, only the illusion showed early alpha lateralization in the opposite direction, which preceded the alpha effect present for both conditions and coincided with the estimated onset of the illusion. The duration of the illusory disappearance was further predicted by the magnitude of this early lateralization when considered over subjects. In the gamma band (60-80 Hz), we found an increase in activity contralateral relative to ipsilateral only after a real disappearance. Whereas early alpha activity was predictive of onset and length of the illusory percept, gamma activity showed no modulation in relation to the illusion. Our study demonstrates that the spontaneous changes in visual alpha activity have perceptual consequences. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A


    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  14. Parsing a perceptual decision into a sequence of moments of thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGraziano


    Full Text Available Theoretical, computational and experimental studies have converged to a model of decision-making in which sensory evidence is stochastically integrated to a threshold, implementing a shift from an analog to a discrete form of computation. Understanding how this process can be chained and sequenced - as virtually all real-life tasks involve a sequence of decisions - remains an open question in neuroscience. We reasoned that incorporating a virtual continuum of possible behavioral outcomes in a simple decision task- a fundamental ingredient of real-life decision making – should result in a progressive sequential approximation to the correct response. We used real-time tracking of motor action in a decision task, as a measure of cognitive states reflecting an internal decision process. We found that response trajectories were spontaneously segmented into a discrete sequence of explorations separated by brief stops (about 200 ms – which remained unconscious to the participants. The characteristics of these stops were indicative of a decision process - a moment of thought: their duration correlated with the difficulty of the decision and with the efficiency of the subsequent exploration. Our findings suggest that simple navigation in an abstract space involves a discrete sequence of explorations and stops and, moreover, that these stops reveal a fingerprint of moments of thought.

  15. Postmenopausal spontaneous uterine perforation: Case report (United States)

    İşlek Seçen, Elçin; Ağış, Hilal; Altunkaya, Canan; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz


    Spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis caused by pyometra occurs rarely with high morbidity and mortality. A correct and definite diagnosis can be made with laparotomy or laparoscopy. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and gynecologic symptoms are less frequent, which makes preoperative diagnosis difficult. We report a case of a patient aged 82 years who underwent surgery for spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis as a result of pyometra. PMID:28913055

  16. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture. (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François


    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  17. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J


    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  18. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  19. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment. (United States)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jerônimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo


    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xareltor. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban.

  20. Complex tasks force hand laterality and technological behaviour in naturalistically housed chimpanzees: inferences in hominin evolution. (United States)

    Mosquera, M; Geribàs, N; Bargalló, A; Llorente, M; Riba, D


    Clear hand laterality patterns in humans are widely accepted. However, humans only elicit a significant hand laterality pattern when performing complementary role differentiation (CRD) tasks. Meanwhile, hand laterality in chimpanzees is weaker and controversial. Here we have reevaluated our results on hand laterality in chimpanzees housed in naturalistic environments at Fundació Mona (Spain) and Chimfunshi Wild Orphanage (Zambia). Our results show that the difference between hand laterality in humans and chimpanzees is not as great as once thought. Furthermore, we found a link between hand laterality and task complexity and also an even more interesting connection: CRD tasks elicited not only the hand laterality but also the use of tools. This paper aims to turn attention to the importance of this threefold connection in human evolution: the link between CRD tasks, hand laterality, and tool use, which has important evolutionary implications that may explain the development of complex behaviour in early hominins.

  1. Tests of running performance do not predict subsequent spontaneous running in rats. (United States)

    Lambert, M I; Van Zyl, C; Jaunky, R; Lambert, E V; Noakes, T D


    Rats of similar mass and genetic stock have up to a 50-fold difference in spontaneous daily running distance. However, the reasons for this large variability in spontaneous running distance are not known. This study examined whether tests of running performance predict subsequent spontaneous running distance in rats housed in individual running wheel cages. Long-Evans rats (n = 56) were randomly assigned to either a sedentary control group (C) or a group housed in specially designed wheel cages in which they were able to exercise spontaneously (ES). They then underwent a high-intensity running test (MAX), during which oxygen consumption was measured at a submaximal (VO2 submax) and maximal workload (VO2 max). The rats' submaximal running endurance (END) and maximal sprinting speed (SPRINT) were also tested on the treadmill. After 8 weeks the average spontaneous running distance of ES was 29.7 +/- 3.7 km.wk-1 (mean +/- SE), but ranged from 1.4 to 71.1 km.wk-1. Tests of running performance and oxygen consumption were repeated in both groups, followed by in situ measurements of muscle contractile properties and of citrate synthase activity in the skeletal muscle. None of the measurements of running performance or oxygen consumption during the initial tests conducted at the start of the experiment was related to subsequent average spontaneous running distance. After 8 weeks, the mean peak force generated by the electrically stimulated gastrocnemius/plantaris muscles was greater in ES than in C (746 +/- 89 vs. 455 +/- 28 mg, p SPRINT (r = 0.61, p < 0.0005) and was inversely related to running intensity (r = -0.66, p < 0.002) after 8 weeks of training. It can be concluded from this study that 1) spontaneous running distance in rats cannot be predicted by pretraining tests of running performance. Hence, low levels of spontaneous running activity in some rats are not explained by skeletal muscular and cardiovascular factors thought to determine running capacity, and 2

  2. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others


    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  3. Lateral Casimir-Polder forces by breaking time-reversal symmetry (United States)

    Oude Weernink, Ricardo R. Q. P. T.; Barcellona, Pablo; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi


    We examine the lateral Casimir-Polder force acting on a circular rotating emitter near a dielectric plane surface. As the circular motion breaks time-reversal symmetry, the spontaneous emission in a direction parallel to the surface is in general anisotropic. We show that a lateral force arises which can be interpreted as a recoil force because of this asymmetric emission. The force is an oscillating function of the distance between the emitter and the surface, and the lossy character of the dielectric strongly influences the results in the near-field regime. The force exhibits also a population-induced dynamics, decaying exponentially with respect to time on time scales of the inverse of the spontaneous decay rate. We propose that this effect could be detected measuring the velocity acquired by the emitter, following different cycles of excitation and spontaneous decay. Our results are expressed in terms of the Green's tensor and can therefore easily be applied to more complex geometries.

  4. Lateralization of mother-infant interactions in wild horses. (United States)

    Karenina, Karina; Giljov, Andrey; Malashichev, Yegor


    The manifestation of behavioural lateralization has been shown to be modified by environmental conditions, life experiences, and selective breeding. This study tests whether the lateralization recently found in feral domestic horse (Equus caballus) is evident in undomesticated horses. Mother-offspring interactions were investigated in Przewalski's horse (E. ferus przewalskii) living in their natural habitat in Mongolia. Lateral position preferences during mare-foal spontaneous reunions were used as a behavioural marker of visual lateralization. Preferences were separately assessed for foals' approaches to their mothers and mares' approaches to their foals. Preference to keep the mother in the visual field of the left eye was found in various types of foals' behaviour. In slow travelling, Przewalski's foals showed stronger preference for the left eye use than feral horse foals. Population-level left-eye bias was also found in mothers approaching their foals. Our results indicate right-hemispheric dominance for control of mother-offspring interactions in Przewalski's horses, similar to what has been reported for other mammals including humans. Benefits conferred by the lateralized social processing of and responding to social stimuli may explain that the left-lateralized social behaviour is a robust trait of equine behaviour, not modified by domestication or specific environmental conditions of the population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Frontal dynamic aphasia in progressive supranuclear palsy: Distinguishing between generation and fluent sequencing of novel thoughts. (United States)

    Robinson, Gail A; Spooner, Donna; Harrison, William J


    Frontal dynamic aphasia is characterised by a profound reduction in spontaneous speech despite well-preserved naming, repetition and comprehension. Since Luria (1966, 1970) designated this term, two main forms of dynamic aphasia have been identified: one, a language-specific selection deficit at the level of word/sentence generation, associated with left inferior frontal lesions; and two, a domain-general impairment in generating multiple responses or connected speech, associated with more extensive bilateral frontal and/or frontostriatal damage. Both forms of dynamic aphasia have been interpreted as arising due to disturbances in early prelinguistic conceptual preparation mechanisms that are critical for language production. We investigate language-specific and domain-general accounts of dynamic aphasia and address two issues: one, whether deficits in multiple conceptual preparation mechanisms can co-occur; and two, the contribution of broader cognitive processes such as energization, the ability to initiate and sustain response generation over time, to language generation failure. Thus, we report patient WAL who presented with frontal dynamic aphasia in the context of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). WAL was given a series of experimental tests that showed that his dynamic aphasia was not underpinned by a language-specific deficit in selection or in microplanning. By contrast, WAL presented with a domain-general deficit in fluent sequencing of novel thoughts. The latter replicated the pattern documented in a previous PSP patient (Robinson, et al., 2006); however, unique to WAL, generating novel thoughts was impaired but there was no evidence of a sequencing deficit because perseveration was absent. Thus, WAL is the first unequivocal case to show a distinction between novel thought generation and subsequent fluent sequencing. Moreover, WAL's generation deficit encompassed verbal and non-verbal responses, showing a similar (but more profoundly reduced) pattern

  6. Lateral loadings on snubber assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raphael, L.S.


    This paper examines the installation of snubber assemblies in power plants with respect to transverse or lateral loads as well as axial loads. Evaluation of the effects of low level, lateral loads was performed by analytical means. At higher loadings, the snubber assembly could no longer be treated as a column; therefore, the effects of lateral loadings was determined by test. The test consisted of applying both lateral and axial loads simultaneously. Results of both the analysis and the test showed that the application of lateral loads had a considerable effect on the snubber assemblies

  7. The functional neuroanatomy of spontaneous retrieval and strategic monitoring of delayed intentions. (United States)

    Beck, Stefanie M; Ruge, Hannes; Walser, Moritz; Goschke, Thomas


    An intention stored in prospective memory (PM) for later execution can be retrieved either strategically through preparatory attentional processes such as active monitoring for PM targets or spontaneously through automatic retrieval processes when encountering a relevant cue. Using functional MRI to identify distinct brain areas involved in spontaneous retrieval of intentions and to dissociate them from monitoring-related processes, we compared brain activity in PM blocks in which subjects had to maintain and execute an intention in response to rarely occurring PM cues with blocks in which the previous intention had been completed. Although the PM task incurred performance costs in the ongoing task and was associated with increased block-related activation in the rostro-lateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC), performance costs and RLPFC activation were no longer observed after the intention had been completed, providing further evidence for an involvement of RLPFC in strategic monitoring during PM tasks. By contrast, event-related activation induced by PM cues was observed in the ventral parietal cortex (VPC), precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex even after the intention was completed. These activations are consistent with the notion of spontaneous intention retrieval possibly mediated through a bottom-up driven re-activation of intention representations still persisting in a heightened state of activation in episodic memory. In conclusion, the results highlight the functional relevance of VPC and precuneus in prospective memory retrieval, possibly reflecting spontaneous, cue-based processes as opposed to top-down controlled strategic monitoring. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Population calcium imaging of spontaneous respiratory and novel motor activity in the facial nucleus and ventral brainstem in newborn mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Karin; Rekling, Jens C


    The brainstem contains rhythm and pattern forming circuits, which drive cranial and spinal motor pools to produce respiratory and other motor patterns. Here we used calcium imaging combined with nerve recordings in newborn mice to reveal spontaneous population activity in the ventral brainstem...... in lateral and medial subnuclei. Whole-cell recordings from facial motoneurons showed weak respiratory drives, and electrical field potential recordings confirmed respiratory drive to particularly the dorsal and lateral subnuclei. Putative facial premotoneurons showed respiratory-related calcium signals...

  9. Neglected Esophageal Injury Presenting With Spontaneously Shrunken Retroesophageal Pocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Chih Chang


    Full Text Available Cervical stab wounds with a thoracic-inlet esophageal injury are extremely rare. A 30-year-old man presented with dysphagia and stridor. He had attempted suicide by stabbing his neck with a screwdriver followed by jumping from a building 10 days previously, when a cervical tracheal injury was found and surgically repaired. Physical examination was unremarkable. Lateral cervical radiography revealed an air-fluid level within an extensive retropharyngeal pocket. Follow-up radiography showed that the retropharyngeal lesion had shrunk spontaneously. Contrast esophagography demonstrated an extravasation at the thoracic inlet. The patient underwent surgical exploration of the esophagus via a lower neck incision. A thoracic-inlet esophageal slit was found and primary repair was performed. He resumed oral intake uneventfully on the 8th postoperative day. This was a rare case of esophageal injury secondary to cervical stabbing wounds, presenting with delayed occurrence and spontaneously shrunken retroesophageal pocket. Esophageal perforation can be easily missed if tracheal lesion is found. Both bronchoscopy and esophagoscopy are mandatory. In patients highly suspected to have esophageal injury but with a negative esophagoscopy result, contrast esophagography is indicated and can decrease the incidence of false-negative results.

  10. Spontaneous gas gangrene in a patient with Crohn's disease. (United States)

    Vaidya, Yash P; Vaidya, Tanvi P


    Spontaneous gas gangrene is necrosis of muscles in the absence of trauma, causing an acutely painful and potentially fatal condition. However, the occurrence of this condition in Crohn's disease has been very rarely documented. In this extremely rare case we describe an occurrence of spontaneous gas gangrene, in a known case of Crohn's disease. The patient presented with fever and pain in the left arm and abdomen. After admission and initial management with antibiotics, the patient developed crepitus in the arm and myonecrosis necessitating a fasciotomy and later an emergency amputation of his left upper limb. The pathogenesis of gas gangrene in inflammatory bowel disease is not fully understood. Management includes aggressive antibiotic administration followed by amputation of the non-salvageable limb. A high index of suspicion of such rare complications is a must and surgical intervention is life saving; however, the efficacy of anti-gas gangrene serum is controversial. We recommend use of a multipronged approach in such cases with high mortality rates.

  11. Postponing worrisome thoughts in children: the effects of a postponement intervention on perseverative thoughts, emotions and somatic complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jellesma, F.C.; Verkuil, B.; Brosschot, J.F.


    In this study we examined the prospective relationships between perseverative thoughts, internalizing negative emotions, and somatic complaints in children aged 9-13, and evaluated whether a perseverative thoughts intervention had a beneficial effect on these experiences. Children (N = 227) from 7

  12. A thought in the park: The influence of naturalness and low-level visual features on expressed thoughts (United States)

    Kathryn E. Schertz; Sonya Sachdeva; Omid Kardan; Hiroki P. Kotabe; Kathleen L. Wolf; Marc G. Berman


    Prior research has shown that the physical characteristics of one's environment have wide ranging effects on affect and cognition. Other research has demonstrated that one's thoughts have impacts on mood and behavior, and in this three-part research program we investigated how physical features of the environment can alter thought content. In one study, we...

  13. Singular and combined effects of thought suppression and anxiety induction on frequency of threatening thoughts: An experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cougle, J.R.; Smits, J.A.J.; Lee, H.J.; Powers, M.B.; Telch, M.J.


    The suppression of unwanted thoughts has been hypothesized to play an important role in the maintenance of clinical disorders such as OCD and PTSD. The present study sought to examine the singular and combined effects of thought suppression instructions and anxiety induction (as induced by an

  14. Spontaneous remission of hepatocellular carcinoma without any treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ciao Luo


    A 61 year old asymptomatic woman visited our outpatient clinic (OPC with a high alpha-fetal protein (AFP level. A computed tomogram (CT revealed a 4.1 cm hypervascular tumor (arterial phase at S4 of the liver and washed out in venous phase. Her Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg was negative and Hepatitis C Antibody (anti-HCV was positive. This patient also had esophageal varices. She refused any treatment and returned to our OPC about 2 years later. Her AFP level was 11.8 ng/ml. The following CT scan revealed a small amount of cirrhosis, but no mass, in the liver, so that spontaneous remission of HCC was determined. She was treated by oral diuretics. Here we report the case and review of literature.

  15. Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax in Chronic Silicosis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritinanda Mishra


    Full Text Available Silicosis is an occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica. People working in occupations like sandblasting, surface drilling, tunneling, silica flour milling, ceramic making, and so forth are predisposed to develop silicosis. Crystalline forms of silica are more fibrogenic than the amorphous forms, highlighting the importance of the physical form in pathogenesis. Lung biopsy is rarely performed for the diagnosis of silicosis as it can easily be detected by occupational history and radiological features. Patients with silicosis can develop complications like tuberculosis, lung cancer, progressive massive fibrosis, cor pulmonale, broncholithiasis, or tracheobronchial compression by lymph nodes. Pleural involvement in silicosis is rare. Spontaneous pneumothorax is a pleural complication that can develop in such patients. Usually in silicosis pneumothorax is unilateral. We hereby report the lung biopsy findings and discuss the mechanism of pneumothorax development in a case of chronic silicosis who, later on died during the course of the disease.

  16. Spontaneous Movements of a Computer Mouse Reveal Egoism and In-group Favoritism. (United States)

    Maliszewski, Norbert; Wojciechowski, Łukasz; Suszek, Hubert


    The purpose of the project was to assess whether the first spontaneous movements of a computer mouse, when making an assessment on a scale presented on the screen, may express a respondent's implicit attitudes. In Study 1, the altruistic behaviors of 66 students were assessed. The students were led to believe that the task they were performing was also being performed by another person and they were asked to distribute earnings between themselves and the partner. The participants performed the tasks under conditions with and without distractors. With the distractors, in the first few seconds spontaneous mouse movements on the scale expressed a selfish distribution of money, while later the movements gravitated toward more altruism. In Study 2, 77 Polish students evaluated a painting by a Polish/Jewish painter on a scale. They evaluated it under conditions of full or distracted cognitive abilities. Spontaneous movements of the mouse on the scale were analyzed. In addition, implicit attitudes toward both Poles and Jews were measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). A significant association between implicit attitudes (IAT) and spontaneous evaluation of images using a computer mouse was observed in the group with the distractor. The participants with strong implicit in-group favoritism of Poles revealed stronger preference for the Polish painter's work in the first few seconds of mouse movement. Taken together, these results suggest that spontaneous mouse movements may reveal egoism (in-group favoritism), i.e., processes that were not observed in the participants' final decisions (clicking on the scale).

  17. Unmasking Language Lateralization in Human Brain Intrinsic Activity (United States)

    McAvoy, Mark; Mitra, Anish; Coalson, Rebecca S.; d'Avossa, Giovanni; Keidel, James L.; Petersen, Steven E.; Raichle, Marcus E.


    Lateralization of function is a fundamental feature of the human brain as exemplified by the left hemisphere dominance of language. Despite the prominence of lateralization in the lesion, split-brain and task-based fMRI literature, surprisingly little asymmetry has been revealed in the increasingly popular functional imaging studies of spontaneous fluctuations in the fMRI BOLD signal (so-called resting-state fMRI). Here, we show the global signal, an often discarded component of the BOLD signal in resting-state studies, reveals a leftward asymmetry that maps onto regions preferential for semantic processing in left frontal and temporal cortex and the right cerebellum and a rightward asymmetry that maps onto putative attention-related regions in right frontal, temporoparietal, and parietal cortex. Hemispheric asymmetries in the global signal resulted from amplitude modulation of the spontaneous fluctuations. To confirm these findings obtained from normal, healthy, right-handed subjects in the resting-state, we had them perform 2 semantic processing tasks: synonym and numerical magnitude judgment and sentence comprehension. In addition to establishing a new technique for studying lateralization through functional imaging of the resting-state, our findings shed new light on the physiology of the global brain signal. PMID:25636911


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later

  19. Spontaneous thrombosis of a vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation: possible effects of contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konus, Oe.L.; Ilgit, E.T.; Oezdemir, A.; Oenal, B.


    A 5-year-old boy with macrocephaly and mental retardation was referred for radiologic evaluation. After cranial CT and MR imaging, the diagnosis of mural type vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation was established by angiography. Two weeks later, preembolization angiography revealed complete thrombosis of the malformation. Although it is a very rare event, vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation may spontaneously thrombose following diagnostic angiography. Possible effects of contrast media on thrombosis were discussed. (orig.)

  20. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min [Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting.

  1. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min


    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting

  2. A case of simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax after the Nuss procedure. (United States)

    Matsuoka, Shunichiro; Miyazawa, Masahisa; Kashimoto, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Mitsui, Fumihiko; Tsunoda, Hajime; Kunitomo, Kazuyoshi; Chisuwa, Hisanao; Haba, Yoshiaki


    We present a case of simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax caused by a pleuro-pleural communication formed from Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum. A 17-year-old man with a history of Nuss operation complained chest pain and dyspnea. A chest roentgenogram demonstrated a tiny bilateral pneumothorax and two metallic bars inserted at the Nuss procedure. Computed tomography revealed furthermore a bulla in the apex of the left lung. The bilateral pneumothorax critically deteriorated after 4 days from onset and urgent bilateral chest drainages were performed. Nevertheless the drainages the full expansion of both lungs was not obtained and air leakage only from left side was continued. A video-assisted left bullectomy was performed 9 days after the tube insertion. The two bars penetrating anterior mediastinal pleura were thought to be a cause of the simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax.

  3. Thought Speed, Mood, and the Experience of Mental Motion. (United States)

    Pronin, Emily; Jacobs, Elana


    This article presents a theoretical account relating thought speed to mood and psychological experience. Thought sequences that occur at a fast speed generally induce more positive affect than do those that occur slowly. Thought speed constitutes one aspect of mental motion. Another aspect involves thought variability, or the degree to which thoughts in a sequence either vary widely from or revolve closely around a theme. Thought sequences possessing more motion (occurring fast and varying widely) generally produce more positive affect than do sequences possessing little motion (occurring slowly and repetitively). When speed and variability oppose each other, such that one is low and the other is high, predictable psychological states also emerge. For example, whereas slow, repetitive thinking can prompt dejection, fast, repetitive thinking can prompt anxiety. This distinction is related to the fact that fast thinking involves greater actual and felt energy than slow thinking does. Effects of mental motion occur independent of the specific content of thought. Their consequences for mood and energy hold psychotherapeutic relevance. © 2008 Association for Psychological Science.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Yip


    Full Text Available When laterals are the targets of phonological processes, laterality may or may not survive. In a fixed feature geometry, [lateral] should be lost if its superordinate node is eliminated by either the spreading of a neighbouring node, or by coda neutralization. So if [lateral] is under Coronal (Blevins 1994, it should be lost under Place assimilation, and if [lateral] is under Sonorant Voicing (Rice & Avery 1991 it should be lost by rules that spread voicing. Yet in some languages lateral survives such spreading intact. Facts like these argue against a universal attachment of [lateral] under either Coronal or Sonorant Voicing, and in favour of an account in terms of markedness constraints on feature-co-occurrence (Padgett 2000. The core of an OT account is that IFIDENTLAT is ranked above whatever causes neutralization, such as SHARE-F or *CODAF. laterality will survive. If these rankings are reversed, we derive languages in which laterality is lost. The other significant factor is markedness. High-ranked feature co-occurrence constraints like *LATDORSAL can block spreading from affecting laterals at all.

  5. On social death: ostracism and the accessibility of death thoughts. (United States)

    Steele, Caroline; Kidd, David C; Castano, Emanuele


    Being rejected, excluded, or simply ignored is a painful experience. Ostracism researchers have shown its powerful negative consequences (Williams, 2007), and sociologists have referred to such experiences as social death (Bauman, 1992). Is this is just a metaphor or does being ostracized make death more salient in people's minds? An experiment was conducted in which participants experienced ostracism or inclusion using the Cyberball manipulation, and the accessibility of death-related thoughts was measured via a word-stem completion puzzle. Results showed enhanced death-thought accessibility in the ostracism condition, as well as a negative effect of dispositional self-esteem on the accessibility of death-related thoughts.

  6. God's Thoughts: Practical Steps Toward a Theory of Everything (United States)

    Lincoln, Don


    In 1922, Einstein was speaking to young Esther Salaman during a long walk; she was talking of her dreams and goals and he was sharing some of his thoughts. Among thoughts of travel, he described his core guiding intellectual principle when he said, "I want to know how God created this world [wie sich Gott die Welt beschaffen]. I'm not interested in this or that phenomenon, in the spectrum of this or that element. I want to know His thoughts; the rest are just details."

  7. Dream rebound: the return of suppressed thoughts in dreams. (United States)

    Wegner, Daniel M; Wenzlaff, Richard M; Kozak, Megan


    People spent 5 min before sleep at home writing their stream of thought as they suppressed thoughts of a target person, thought of the person, or wrote freely after mentioning the person. These presleep references generally prompted people to report increased dreaming about the person. However, suppression instructions were particularly likely to have this influence, increasing dreaming about the person as measured both by participants' self-ratings of their dreams and by raters' coding of mentions of the person in written dream reports. This effect was observed regardless of emotional attraction to the person.

  8. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh P Nigel


    Full Text Available Abstract Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a neurodegenerative disease characterised by progressive muscular paralysis reflecting degeneration of motor neurones in the primary motor cortex, corticospinal tracts, brainstem and spinal cord. Incidence (average 1.89 per 100,000/year and prevalence (average 5.2 per100,000 are relatively uniform in Western countries, although foci of higher frequency occur in the Western Pacific. The mean age of onset for sporadic ALS is about 60 years. Overall, there is a slight male prevalence (M:F ratio~1.5:1. Approximately two thirds of patients with typical ALS have a spinal form of the disease (limb onset and present with symptoms related to focal muscle weakness and wasting, where the symptoms may start either distally or proximally in the upper and lower limbs. Gradually, spasticity may develop in the weakened atrophic limbs, affecting manual dexterity and gait. Patients with bulbar onset ALS usually present with dysarthria and dysphagia for solid or liquids, and limbs symptoms can develop almost simultaneously with bulbar symptoms, and in the vast majority of cases will occur within 1–2 years. Paralysis is progressive and leads to death due to respiratory failure within 2–3 years for bulbar onset cases and 3–5 years for limb onset ALS cases. Most ALS cases are sporadic but 5–10% of cases are familial, and of these 20% have a mutation of the SOD1 gene and about 2–5% have mutations of the TARDBP (TDP-43 gene. Two percent of apparently sporadic patients have SOD1 mutations, and TARDBP mutations also occur in sporadic cases. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, examination, electromyography, and exclusion of 'ALS-mimics' (e.g. cervical spondylotic myelopathies, multifocal motor neuropathy, Kennedy's disease by appropriate investigations. The pathological hallmarks comprise loss of motor neurones with intraneuronal ubiquitin-immunoreactive inclusions in upper motor neurones and TDP-43

  9. Working through: in-session processes that promote between-session thoughts and activities. (United States)

    Owen, Jesse; Quirk, Kelley; Hilsenroth, Mark J; Rodolfa, Emil


    This study examined whether clients' ratings of the working alliance as well as their perception of cognitive-behavioral (CB) and psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) techniques (delivered by therapists who used both) were associated with clients' intersession processes (i.e., their thoughts about therapy and therapeutic activity between sessions). Seventy-five clients who were currently in therapy at a large university counseling center participated in the current study. Multilevel regression analyses demonstrated that alliance and clients' perceptions of their therapists' use of PI techniques were positively associated with clients' general thoughts about therapy between sessions. Also, stronger alliances were associated with more therapeutic activities between sessions and more positive (and less negative) thoughts about therapy between sessions. In addition, clients at later sessions who described their therapists as using more PI techniques also reported engaging in more therapeutic activities between sessions (after controlling for the variance in the other variables, such as use of CB techniques). Clients' perceptions of their therapists' use of CB techniques in the most recent session were not related to thinking about therapy or therapeutic activities after controlling for the variance in the other variables. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Revisiting Einstein's Happiest Thought: On Ernst Mach and the Early History of Relativity (United States)

    Staley, Richard


    This paper argues we should distinguish three phases in the formation of relativity. The first involved relational approaches to perception, and physiological and geometrical space and time in the 1860s and 70s. The second concerned electrodynamics and mechanics (special relativity). The third concerned mechanics, gravitation, and physical and geometrical space and time. Mach's early work on the Doppler effect, together with studies of visual and motor perception linked physiology, physics and psychology, and offered new approaches to physiological space and time. These informed the critical conceptual attacks on Newtonian absolutes that Mach famously outlined in The Science of Mechanics. Subsequently Mach identified a growing group of ``relativists,'' and his critiques helped form a foundation for later work in electrodynamics (in which he did not participate). Revisiting Mach's early work will suggest he was still more important to the development of new approaches to inertia and gravitation than has been commonly appreciated. In addition to what Einstein later called ``Mach's principle,'' I will argue that a thought experiment on falling bodies in Mach's Science of Mechanics also provided a point of inspiration for the happy thought that led Einstein to the equivalence principle.

  11. Relationships between thought-action fusion, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a structural equation modeling approach. (United States)

    Rassin, E; Muris, P; Schmidt, H; Merckelbach, H


    Research has shown that there are strong similarities in content between the obsessions and compulsions that characterize obsessive-compulsive disorder and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions. However, clinical and nonclinical obsessions and compulsions do differ with respect to characteristics like frequency, intensity, discomfort and elicited resistance. Two separate concepts have been invoked to explain how normal obsessions and compulsions may develop into clinical phenomena. First, it is suggested that thought-action fusion (TAF) contributes to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Second, thought suppression may intensify obsessive-compulsive symptoms due to its paradoxical effect on intrusive thoughts. Although both phenomena have been found to contribute to obsessive-compulsive symptoms, possible interactions between these two have never been investigated. The current study explored how TAF and thought suppression interact in the development of obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Undergraduate psychology students (N = 173) completed questionnaires pertaining to TAF, thought suppression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. Covariances between the scores on these questionnaires were analyzed by means of structural equation modeling. Results suggest that TAF triggers thought suppression, while thought suppression, in turn, promotes obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

  12. The Connection between the Thought of Progress and Philosophical Thinking in the West Case Study: Descartes’ Thought System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mustafa Shahraeeni


    Full Text Available Thought of progress has been considered as one of the presuppositions of the West modernity. Having accepted this idea, we should regard it as one of the bases and foundations of early modern philosophy, and consider Descartes, known as the father of modern philosophy, as having a major role in its formation. There is a strong relationship between the West philosophical thought and the change of the idea of progress to one of the undisputed facts of the west civilization, and this issue can be seen clearly in Descartes thought system better than anywhere else. The present paper intends to show the leading position of Descartes’ thought system in the institutionalization of the concept of progress in the West philosophical system in three main parts: 1. Authority fighting and its relation with Cartesian’s Doubt, 2. The genuineness of the worldly life in Descartes’ thought system, and 3. Establishing the foundation of modern science. This article is based on the modern forerunners’ change of opinion about the philosophy mission in the world. It  makes attempt to demonstrate in order to achieve the thought of progress, some prerequisites are necessary; and these prerequisite, though not exclusively, in their best and most complete form are generally achieved in the West philosophical thought and are particularly accomplished in Descartes’ philosophy.

  13. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu


    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  14. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.


    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  15. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha


    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  16. Cursed lamp: the problem of spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Simkulet, William


    Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Snapping popliteal tendon as a source of lateral knee pain. (United States)

    Crites, B M; Lohnes, J; Garrett, W E


    A 25-year-old female patient underwent surgery for a history of pain and popping on the lateral aspect of her right knee. It was initially thought that the patient had iliotibial (IT) band syndrome which was refractory to conservative treatment. However, upon release of the IT band, the snapping which was audible and palpable pre-operatively was still present. Further exploration of the posterior-lateral aspect of the knee revealed that the popliteal tendon was snapping over the incisura poplitea extensoria on the lateral femoral condyle. Excision of the prominent portion of the articular ridge below the sulcus popliteus eliminated the snapping sensation. The patient has remained asymptomatic since surgery for the past 22 months.

  18. Thought Experiment Analyses of René Descartes' Cogito

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Hertogh

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: René Descartes' Cogito is an example of a paradigmatic thought experiment, herald of both subjectivism and new science in Europe's Modern Age, that seems to have escaped the attention of thought experiment philosophers. On deep analysis, the Cogito appears as universal instantiation (or modus ponens with implicit major 'whatever has the property of thinking, exists'. The Cogito has strong rhetorical effects for it narratively generalizes from I to all human kind, and its historical and philosophical success can be explained from its concise enthymematic structure that rings true in many possible senses. We consider it a preeminent example of a thought experiment as it states the power of thinking as its very contents. From Descartes' methodology of doubt we can conclude that, e.g., on a Wittgensteinian interpretation, the Cogito is a logical thought experiment rather than a psychological one.

  19. Ethnomathematics in Anatolia-Turkey: Mathematical Thoughts in Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Küçük


    Full Text Available Mathematical thoughts are in interaction with culture and they, together, form an indivisible whole. Therefore, Ethnomathematics both helps us understanding the nature of mathematics and contributes to understanding of one’s self as well as the other people sharing the same planet. Ethnomathematics reflects the studies of mathematical thoughts of multicultural or traditional societies. Mathematical thought is an approach in which people try to find quick and systematic solutions to a problem in many ways. The role of Ethnomathematics, which studies mathematical thoughts, cannot be ignored in a historical-cultural context. This paper examines some reflections of Ethnomathematics in Anatolian culture through geometry perception in engineering field, carpet, rug motifs and intelligence games.

  20. Teaching thoughtful practice: narrative pedagogy in addictions education. (United States)

    Vandermause, Roxanne K; Townsend, Ryan P


    Preparing practitioners for this rapidly changing and demanding health care environment is challenging. A surge in knowledge development and scientific advancement has placed a priority on technical skill and a focus on content driven educational processes that prepare students for evidence-based practice. However, the most difficult health care scenarios require thinking-in-action and thoughtfulness as well as didactic knowledge. It is our contention that interpretive educational methods, like narrative pedagogy, will promote judgment-based practice that includes use of evidence and delivery of thoughtful care. In this article, we describe and interpret a narrative approach to addictions content and teaching thoughtful practice. We present our pedagogical process, including observations and field notes, to show how interpretive pedagogies can be introduced into nursing curricula. By presenting this process, the reader is invited to consider interpretive methods as a way to inspire and habituate thoughtful practice and judgment-based care. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Contemporary Condition: Introductory Thoughts on Contemporaneity and Contemporary Art


    Cox, G; Lund, J


    The Contemporary Condition: Introductory Thoughts on Contemporaneity and Contemporary Art, the first book in the Contemporary Condition series, introduces key issues concerning contemporaneity as a defining condition of our historical present and calls for a deep ...

  2. Lenguaje y Proceso de Pensamiento (Language and Thought Processes) (United States)

    Rimoldi, H. J. A.


    Thought processes as they are observed during problem solving are discussed. A theoretical framework is designed to establish the correspondence between the tactics the subjects use to solve problems and thinking processes. (NCR)

  3. African art: an impetus but implicit magnitude of architectural thought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    garde mutiny, while the European artistic thought came to recognize the perpetual aspect of its composition and adapted these characteristics to evade naturalism which defined Western art, since the Renaissance. Architecture has opprobrium for ...

  4. Perceptual Demonstrative Thought: A Property-Dependent Theory


    Crawford, Sean


    The paper presents a new theory of perceptual demonstrative thought, the property-dependent theory. It argues that the theory is superior to both the object-dependent theory (Evans, McDowell) and the object-independent theory (Burge).

  5. Endocrine disruptors and spontaneous premature labor: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaby Cheryl


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Premature labor is a poorly understood condition. Estrogen is thought to play a key role and therefore the labor process may be affected by endocrine disruptors. We sought to determine whether or not an environmental toxicant, DDE, or dietary derived endocrine disruptors, daidzein and genistein, are associated with spontaneous preterm labor. Methods Cases were defined as primiparous patients having a preterm delivery at or before 35 weeks following the spontaneous onset of labor. Controls were defined as primiparous women who delivered on the same day as the cases but at term gestation. Over approximately 1 year, 26 cases and 52 controls were recruited. Subjects agreed to have blood tests on day one postpartum for DDE and for the phytoestrogens genistein and daidzein. Results The mean concentration of DDE was similar in the case and control groups: 4.29 vs 4.32 ng/g lipid p = .85. In the case group, 13/26 had detectable levels of daidzein (range 0.20 – 1.56 ng/ml compared to 25/52 controls (range 0.21 – 3.26 ng/ml. The mean concentration of daidzein was similar in cases compared to controls: 0.30 vs .34 ng/ml p = 0.91. Of the case group,14/26 had detectable levels of genistein (range 0.20 – 2.19 ng/ml compared to 32/52 controls (range 0.21 – 2.55 ng/ml. The mean concentration of genistein was similar in cases compared to controls: 0.39 vs 0.31 ng/ml, p = 0.61. Conclusion The serum levels of DDE in this population were found to be low. There appears to be no relationship between serum concentrations of DDE, daidzein, and genistein and spontaneous preterm labor in our population. The inability to identify an effect may be related to the comparatively low concentrations of DDE in our population and the rapid and variable reduction of phytoestrogens from women in labor.

  6. Integrated vehicle's lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.


    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  7. Integrated vehicle’s lateral safety: the LATERAL SAFE experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amditis, A.; Floudas, N.; Kaiser-Dieckhoff, U.; Hackbarth, T.; Broek, S.P. van den; Miglietta, M.; Danielson, L.; Gemou, M.; Bekiaris, E.


    The applications developed and the evaluation results of the EU funded automotive safety PReVENT IP subproject LATERAL SAFE are described. The data synthesis algorithms that aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, in the lateral and rear fields of the host

  8. Enhancing BATTLEMIND: Preventing PTSD by Coping with Intrusive Thoughts (United States)


    all sorts of people, including professional athletes , to help them manage when unwanted thoughts are getting in the way. SLIDE 4: Acronym “Now, I... athletes , to help them manage unwanted thoughts when they are taking them out of the present moment. SLIDE 4: Acronym “Now, I know that you get taught A...List • Watching TV • Listening to Music • Playing Video Games • Going for a Drive • Taking a Relaxing Bath • Flip though Magazines

  9. A role of negative and positive thoughts to persuade


    深田, 博己


    The purpose of this study was to investigate a role of negative and positive thoughts to persuade, l b o experimental conditions (negative and positive thought conditions) were set. Immediately after the persuasion, subjects were instructed to think negatively or positively about the preceding persuasive message. In addition, a control condition was set where subjects were neither presented the persuasive message nor instructed to think. Subjects were 111 university students. 37 students were...

  10. Does mindfulness attenuate thoughts emphasizing negativity, but not positivity?


    Kiken, Laura G.; Shook, Natalie J.


    The current research investigated whether mindfulness is differentially associated with thoughts that emphasize positive or negative valence. In Study 1, trait mindfulness was inversely associated with negative rumination but unassociated with positive rumination, controlling for state affect. In Study 2, participants completed either a mindful breathing meditation or a comparable control exercise, followed by a thought listing while viewing affective images. Compared to the control condition...

  11. Cognitive restructuring of gambling-related thoughts: A systematic review. (United States)

    Chrétien, Maxime; Giroux, Isabelle; Goulet, Annie; Jacques, Christian; Bouchard, Stéphane


    Gamblers' thoughts have a fundamental influence on their gambling problem. Cognitive restructuring is the intervention of choice to correct those thoughts. However, certain difficulties are noted in the application of cognitive restructuring techniques and the comprehension of their guidelines. Furthermore, the increase of skill game players (e.g. poker) entering treatment creates a challenge for therapists, as these gamblers present with different thoughts than those of the gamblers usually encountered in treatment (e.g. chance-only games like electronic gambling machines). This systematic review aims to describe how cognitive restructuring is carried out with gamblers based on the evidence available in empirical studies that include cognitive interventions for gambling. Of the 2607 studies collected, 39 were retained. The results highlight exposure as the most frequently used technique to facilitate identification of gambling-related thoughts (imaginal=28.2%; in vivo=10.3%). More than half of the studies (69.2%) clearly reported therapeutic techniques aimed to correct gamblers' thoughts, of which 37% involved visual support to challenge those thoughts (e.g. ABC log). Of the 39 studies retained, 48.7% included skill game players (i.e., poker, blackjack, sports betting) in their sample. However, none of these studies mentioned whether cognitive restructuring had been adapted for these gamblers. Several terms referring to gamblers' thoughts were used interchangeably (e.g. erroneous, dysfunctional or inadequate thoughts), although each of these terms could refer to specific content. Clinical implications of the results are discussed with regard to the needs of therapists. This review also suggests recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Negative and Positive Automatic thoughts in Social Anxiety Disorder. (United States)

    Iancu, Iulian; Bodner, Ehud; Joubran, Samia; Lupinsky, Yelena; Barenboim, Damian


    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is characterized by fear and avoidance in social situations where one is exposed to scrutiny by others. It is possible that automatic thoughts either cause the disorder or maintain it, and thus their examination is warranted. 30 SAD subjects diagnosed with the MiniInternational Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and 30 healthy controls were administered the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS), the Automatic Thoughts Questionnaires (ATQ-Negative and ATQ-Positive), the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). It was hypothesized that the SAD subjects would display more depression and disability, more negative automatic thoughts and fewer positive automatic thoughts than the healthy controls, and that the automatic thoughts will predict the severity of SAD. SAD patients had higher scores of depression and disability, higher scores on the ATQ-Negative questionnaire and lower scores on the ATQ-Positive questionnaire. The scores of the LSAS subscales were predicted by the scores of the ATQ-Positive and the BDI questionnaires. Moderate sample size and limits of the questionnaires used in the study. Automatic thoughts may be an important area of research with larger samples. Further studies should be carried out in order to examine if strengthening positive thinking and ablation of negative thinking can reduce SAD symptoms during cognitive behavioral treatment.

  13. Repetitive thought impairs sleep quality: an experience sampling study. (United States)

    Takano, Keisuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Tanno, Yoshihiko


    Although previous research has suggested that presleep negative cognitive activities are associated with poor sleep quality, there is little evidence regarding the association between negative thoughts and sleep in real-life settings. The present study used experience sampling and long-term sleep monitoring with actigraphy to investigate the relationships among negative repetitive thought, mood, and sleep problems. During a 1-week sampling period, 43 undergraduate students recorded their thought content and mood eight times a day at semirandom intervals. In addition to these subjective reports, participants wore actigraphs on their wrists in order to measure sleep parameters. Analyses using multilevel modeling showed that repetitive thought in the evening was significantly associated with longer sleep-onset latency, decreased sleep efficiency, and reduced total sleep time. Furthermore, impaired sleep quality was significantly associated with reduced positive affect the next morning, and decreased positive affect was indirectly associated with increased repetitive thought in the evening. These findings suggest the existence of a self-reinforcing cycle involving repetitive thought, mood, and impaired sleep quality, highlighting the importance of cognitive and emotional factors in enhancement and maintenance of good-quality sleep. © 2013.

  14. Spontaneous Regression of Lumbar Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Chang


    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation of the lumbar spine is a common disease presenting with low back pain and involving nerve root radiculopathy. Some neurological symptoms in the majority of patients frequently improve after a period of conservative treatment. This has been regarded as the result of a decrease of pressure exerted from the herniated disc on neighboring neurostructures and a gradual regression of inflammation. Recently, with advances in magnetic resonance imaging, many reports have demonstrated that the herniated disc has the potential for spontaneous regression. Regression coincided with the improvement of associated symptoms. However, the exact regression mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present 2 cases of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with spontaneous regression. We review the literature and discuss the possible mechanisms, the precipitating factors of spontaneous disc regression and the proper timing of surgical intervention.

  15. Spontaneous hemothorax: primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Panjwani


    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition seen in coagulation and vascular disorders. Uncommonly, malignant neoplasms may cause spontaneous hemothorax. Primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas (excluding the cases with pleuropulmonary or chest wall involvement are extremely rare pleural tumors, which may be mistaken for mesothelioma or adenocarcinoma, and only 19 cases (one of them from India have been reported in the English literature, to date. It commonly occurs in older men, has a nonspecific clinicoradiological presentation, and carries a poor prognosis with no survivors beyond a year of establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma presenting as a life-threatening spontaneous hemothorax. We also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  16. Computed tomographic findings of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Young Chul [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Computed tomography (CT) was a reliable technique to evaluate the exact size and location of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and to predict it's prognosis. Fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and reviewed by CT scan. The following results were obtained. 1. The sex ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4, The highest incidence was in 6th and 7th decades. 2. The most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage was hypertension (74.6%), followed by the aneurysm (13.5%), arteriovenous malformation (5.1%), occlusive vascular disease (3.4%), and blood dyscrasia (3.4%). 3. The most common location was basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage (37.3%), followed by lobar hemorrhage (27.1%), cerebellar hemorrhage (13.5%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11.9%). 4. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage carried the highest mortality. 5. The larger volume of hematoma, the higher the mortality rate.

  17. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  18. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smits, Marion [Erasmus MC - University Medical Center Rotterdam, Department of Radiology, Hs 224, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan [University Hospitals of the Catholic University Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium); Ridder, Dirk de [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium)


    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P{sub corrected} < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  19. Lateralization of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in the auditory pathway of patients with lateralized tinnitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, Marion; Kovacs, Silvia; Peeters, Ronald R.; Hecke, Paul van; Sunaert, Stefan; Ridder, Dirk de


    Tinnitus is hypothesized to be an auditory phantom phenomenon resulting from spontaneous neuronal activity somewhere along the auditory pathway. We performed fMRI of the entire auditory pathway, including the inferior colliculus (IC), the medial geniculate body (MGB) and the auditory cortex (AC), in 42 patients with tinnitus and 10 healthy volunteers to assess lateralization of fMRI activation. Subjects were scanned on a 3T MRI scanner. A T2*-weighted EPI silent gap sequence was used during the stimulation paradigm, which consisted of a blocked design of 12 epochs in which music presented binaurally through headphones, which was switched on and off for periods of 50 s. Using SPM2 software, single subject and group statistical parametric maps were calculated. Lateralization of activation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. Tinnitus was lateralized in 35 patients (83%, 13 right-sided and 22 left-sided). Significant signal change (P corrected < 0.05) was found bilaterally in the primary and secondary AC, the IC and the MGB. Signal change was symmetrical in patients with bilateral tinnitus. In patients with lateralized tinnitus, fMRI activation was lateralized towards the side of perceived tinnitus in the primary AC and IC in patients with right-sided tinnitus, and in the MGB in patients with left-sided tinnitus. In healthy volunteers, activation in the primary AC was left-lateralized. Our paradigm adequately visualized the auditory pathways in tinnitus patients. In lateralized tinnitus fMRI activation was also lateralized, supporting the hypothesis that tinnitus is an auditory phantom phenomenon. (orig.)

  20. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.


    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  1. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni


    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.


    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  3. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD


    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  4. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  5. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon


    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  6. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.

  7. A Penny for Your Thoughts: Dimensions of Thought Content and Relationships with Individual Differences in Emotional Well-Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R Andrews-Hanna


    Full Text Available A core aspect of human cognition involves overcoming the constraints of the present environment by mentally simulating another time, place, or perspective. Although these self-generated processes confer many benefits, they can come at an important cost, and this cost is greater for some individuals than for others. Here we explore the possibility that the costs and benefits of self-generated thought depend, in part, upon its phenomenological content. To test these hypotheses, we first developed a novel thought sampling paradigm and explored normative ratings of multiple thought content variables (i.e. valence, specificity, self-relevance, etc. across a large sample of young adults. Next, we examined multi-level relationships among these content variables, and used a hierarchical clustering approach to partition self-generated thought into multiple dimensions. Finally, we investigated whether these content dimensions predicted individual differences in the costs and benefits of the experience, assessed with questionnaires measuring emotional health and wellbeing. Individuals who characterized their thoughts as more negative and more personally-significant exhibited scored higher on constructs associated with Depression and Trait Negative Affect, whereas those who characterized their thoughts as less specific scored higher on constructs linked to Rumination. In contrast, individuals who characterized their thoughts as more positive, less personally-significant, and more specific scored higher on constructs linked to improved wellbeing (Mindfulness. Collectively, these findings suggest that the content of people’s inner thoughts can 1 be productively examined, 2 be distilled into several major dimensions, and 3 account for a large portion of variability in their functional outcomes.

  8. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, H., E-mail:


    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  9. Measuring thought content valence after a breakup: Development of the Positive and Negative Ex-Relationship Thoughts (PANERT) scale. (United States)

    Brenner, Rachel E; Vogel, David L


    The end of a romantic relationship is a common and serious presenting concern among clients at university counseling centers. Researchers have highlighted the need to understand the nature of thoughts about an ex-relationship, because they may lead to unique clinical interventions. One aspect of thought that may be clinically relevant is content valence, or the positive or negative emotions associated with the content of the thought. Unfortunately, content valence has not been addressed in the romantic relationship dissolution literature. To address this omission, we developed the 12-item Positive and Negative Ex-Relationship Thoughts (PANERT) scale across 4 samples. In Sample 1 (n = 475), exploratory factor analyses demonstrated a multidimensional scale with 2 factors: positive content valence and negative content valence. Sample 2 (n = 509) and Sample 3 (n = 291) confirmed the factor structure in college and community samples. Internal consistencies ranged from .88-.94 for positive content valence and from .87-.94 for negative content valence. In Sample 4 (n = 133), construct validity was supported, with the PANERT factors uniquely predicting breakup distress, relationship preoccupation, depression, loss of self-concept, rediscovery of self-concept, negative emotional adjustment, and positive emotional adjustment. Further, the direction of these relationships suggest that positive thought content valence may be consistently maladaptive to recovery from an ex-relationship, and negative thought content valence may have maladaptive and adaptive features. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Remembering September 11th 2001: Early correlates of later memory vividness, confidence, and errror

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tia

    100 students were approached twice: The day after the attack on World Trade Center (early data) and nine months later (memory data). Early ratings of having talked and, in particular, thought about the event predicted later memory better than other early measures. Errors were frequent but largely...... equivalent in meaning although wrong in detail. Results seem inconsistent with suggestions of a special flashbulb memory mechanism operating at immediate encoding, but consistent with suggestions of normal memory processes elicited by strange situations.......100 students were approached twice: The day after the attack on World Trade Center (early data) and nine months later (memory data). Early ratings of having talked and, in particular, thought about the event predicted later memory better than other early measures. Errors were frequent but largely...

  11. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods




    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  12. Original article Spontaneous Pregnancy Outcome after Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 28, 2011 ... Table 2: Spontaneous pregnancy in relation to postoperative semen parameters. (no statistically significant difference), comparable to the mean ages of 22, 28.4 and. 34.9 years, respectively, reported by Bach et al9, Abdel- Meguid et al10 and Baazeem et al11. The mean age of the wives who did or did.

  13. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.


    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  14. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  17. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  18. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)


    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  19. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, W.; Toelly, E.; Ebner, F.; Kullnig, P.


    Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of renal cysts is a rare occurrence. The contents of the cyst can perforate into the renal calyx system or into the perirenal space. Perforation into the peritoneal cavity has also been described (1, 2, 4, 5).

  20. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana


    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  1. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik


    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  2. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco


    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  3. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Lule | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 81, No 3 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. GN Lule. Abstract. No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  4. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny


    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  5. Spontaneous dimensional reduction in quantum gravity (United States)

    Carlip, S.


    Hints from a number of different approaches to quantum gravity point to a phenomenon of “spontaneous dimensional reduction” to two spacetime dimensions near the Planck scale. I examine the physical meaning of the term “dimension” in this context, summarize the evidence for dimensional reduction, and discuss possible physical explanations.

  6. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  7. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Allium sativum extract on the medial prefrontal cortex and neurobehaviour of adult Wistar rats. ... altered spontaneous alternation, while cellular pathologic changes were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex of these test groups in a dose dependent sequence.

  8. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.


    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  9. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  10. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  11. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptug Tokatli


    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a very rare clinical condition. Physiopathology of SCAD is still mostly unclear. Clinical presentation of SCAD ranges from atypical symptoms to sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of dissection is generally made by using conventional coronary angiography. Invasive or conservative treatment is reasonable.

  12. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.


    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  13. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  14. Spontaneous Sourcing among Students Reading Multiple Documents (United States)

    Stromso, Helge I.; Braten, Ivar; Britt, M. Anne; Ferguson, Leila E.


    This study used think-aloud methodology to explore undergraduates' spontaneous attention to and use of source information while reading six documents that presented conflicting views on a controversial social scientific issue in a Google-like environment. Results showed that students explicitly and implicitly paid attention to sources of documents…

  15. Massive Spontaneous Hemothorax, Giant Intrathoracic Meningocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haemothorax associated with von Recklinghausen's disease: Review of occurrence in Japan. Thorax 1997;52:575‑8. 3. Fedoruk LM, English J, Fradet GJ. Spontaneous hemothorax and neurofibromatosis: A review of a lethal combination. Asian Cardiovasc. Thorac Ann 2007;15:342‑4. 4. Conlon NP, Redmond KC, Celi LA.

  16. A Fatal Complication of Dermatomyositis: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Demirdöğen Çetinoğlu


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a negative prognostic factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of DM and it can be fatal. We present a 48-year-old woman with DM and ILD complicated by pneumomediastinum without pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema.

  17. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de


    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  18. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short ...

  19. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues. (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm


    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  20. Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew


    When dipolar gases are condensed at sufficiently low temperature onto a solid surface, they form films that may spontaneously exhibit electric fields in excess of 108V/m. This effect, called the ‘spontelectric effect’, was recently revealed using an instrument designed to measure scattering...

  1. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.


    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  2. Individual differences in spontaneous analogical transfer. (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J


    Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. In two experiments, we systematically compared the effect of augmenting verbal descriptions of the source with animations or static diagrams. Solution rates to Duncker's radiation problem were measured across varying source presentation conditions, and participants' understanding of the relevant source material was assessed. The pattern of transfer was best fit by a moderated mediation model: the positive impact of fluid intelligence on spontaneous transfer was mediated by its influence on source comprehension; however, this path was in turn modulated by provision of a supplemental animation via its influence on comprehension of the source. Animated source depictions were most beneficial in facilitating spontaneous transfer for those participants with low scores on the fluid intelligence measure.

  3. Spontaneous regression of a mandibular arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B. Raymond, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Mandibular arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rare lesions that may initially present as catastrophic bleeding during dental surgical procedures. Owing to the significant risk of bleeding, most mandibular AVMs are treated definitively by resection or embolization. In this report, we describe a mandibular AVM that spontaneously regressed after biopsy.

  4. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.


    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  5. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico- chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  6. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A class of spontaneously broken field theories is proposed, and the occurrence of their periodic, classical solutions is investigated in detail. The emergence of multiple solutions is observed, their normal modes of oscillation are studied, and the bifurcations of the classical energy functional are

  8. Factors related to Chinese older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts. (United States)

    Li, Hong; Xu, Ling; Chi, Iris


    Guided by the biopsychosocial framework and empirical evidence, this study examined protective and risk factors of older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts during the previous month, 12 months, and 5 years. The data used in this study were extracted from the Sample Survey on Aged Population in Urban/Rural China conducted in 2006, which included 15,957 older adults from mainland China. Multiple penalized logistic regressions were used to conduct the analyses. During the previous month, 12 months, and 5 years, 5.1‰, 10.0‰, and 17.7‰ of older adults indicated that they thought about suicide, whereas 2.2‰, 3.5‰, and 6.3‰ reported suicidal attempts, respectively. Older adults' age, financial strain, functional limitations, depression, children's filial piety, social network, loneliness, and urban residence were significantly related to suicidal thoughts during the different time periods. In addition, older adults' religious affiliation, depression, loneliness, and urban residence were significantly related to suicidal attempts during the different time periods. Older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts need to be assessed by mental health care professionals and primary care doctors. Programs addressing these important protective and risk factors may help reduce older adults' suicidal thoughts and attempts.

  9. The Concept of Paleologic Thought According to Arieti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Melo


    Full Text Available The Aristotelic Logic, which is characterized by four laws, is commonly accepted as being representative of normal though, when considered in its formal aspect. Arieti defends the existence of another logic, one that he has designated "Paleological", which was dominant in human beings in the beginning of their evolution, and that also occurs in certain characteristics of infantile thought, as well as in the primary process (manner in which the unconscious operates. The same author considers that this logic, whoch is quiescent, emerges in schizophrenic thought, dominating and overlapping the Aristotelian logic. In order to escape from anguish, the shizophrenic patient abandons Aristotelian norms of thought and adopts the Paleological form, because by interpreting reality, in light of Aristotelian logic, it's felt to be threatening and unbearable. Finally, Arieti explains that the principles of Paleological thought don't explain the phenomenon dynamically, merely formally. The study of psychodinamic mechanisms reveals what and why (content and motivation, while the study of formal mechanims reveal how, thoughts and feelings are processed.

  10. Recording thoughts while memorizing music: a case study. (United States)

    Lisboa, Tania; Chaffin, Roger; Demos, Alexander P


    Musicians generally believe that memory differs from one person to the next. As a result, memorizing strategies that could be useful to almost everyone are not widely taught. We describe how an 18-years old piano student (Grade 7, ABRSM), learned to memorize by recording her thoughts, a technique inspired by studies of how experienced soloists memorize. The student, who had previously ignored suggestions that she play from memory, decided to learn to memorize, selecting Schumann's "Der Dichter Spricht" for this purpose. Rather than explicitly teaching the student how to memorize, the teacher taught her to record her thoughts while playing by marking them on copies of the score, adapting an approach used previously in research with experienced performers. Over a 6½ week period, the student recorded her thoughts during practice (five times) and while performing from memory for the teacher (three times). The student also video-recorded 3 weeks of practice, three performances, and the reconstruction of the piece from memory after a 9½-weeks break. The thoughts that the student reported were prepared during practice, stable over time, and functioned as memory retrieval cues during reconstruction. This suggests that the student memorized in the same way as the more experienced musicians who have been studied previously and that teaching student musicians to record their thoughts may be an effective way to help them memorize. The speed and durability of her memorization surprised the student, inspiring her to perform in public and to use the same technique for new pieces.

  11. Brain mechanisms for loss of awareness of thought and movement. (United States)

    Walsh, Eamonn; Oakley, David A; Halligan, Peter W; Mehta, Mitul A; Deeley, Quinton


    Loss or reduction of awareness is common in neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena but the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. fMRI was combined with suggestions for automatic writing in 18 healthy highly hypnotically suggestible individuals in a within-subjects design to determine whether clinical alterations in awareness of thought and movement can be experimentally modelled and studied independently of illness. Subjective ratings of control, ownership, and awareness of thought and movement, and fMRI data were collected following suggestions for thought insertion and alien control of writing movement, with and without loss of awareness. Subjective ratings confirmed that suggestions were effective. At the neural level, our main findings indicated that loss of awareness for both thought and movement during automatic writing was associated with reduced activation in a predominantly left-sided posterior cortical network including BA 7 (superior parietal lobule and precuneus), and posterior cingulate cortex, involved in self-related processing and awareness of the body in space. Reduced activity in posterior parietal cortices may underlie specific clinical and cultural alterations in awareness of thought and movement. Clinically, these findings may assist development of imaging assessments for loss of awareness of psychological origin, and interventions such as neurofeedback. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Brain mechanisms for loss of awareness of thought and movement (United States)

    Oakley, David A.; Halligan, Peter W.; Mehta, Mitul A.; Deeley, Quinton


    Abstract Loss or reduction of awareness is common in neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena but the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. fMRI was combined with suggestions for automatic writing in 18 healthy highly hypnotically suggestible individuals in a within-subjects design to determine whether clinical alterations in awareness of thought and movement can be experimentally modelled and studied independently of illness. Subjective ratings of control, ownership, and awareness of thought and movement, and fMRI data were collected following suggestions for thought insertion and alien control of writing movement, with and without loss of awareness. Subjective ratings confirmed that suggestions were effective. At the neural level, our main findings indicated that loss of awareness for both thought and movement during automatic writing was associated with reduced activation in a predominantly left-sided posterior cortical network including BA 7 (superior parietal lobule and precuneus), and posterior cingulate cortex, involved in self-related processing and awareness of the body in space. Reduced activity in posterior parietal cortices may underlie specific clinical and cultural alterations in awareness of thought and movement. Clinically, these findings may assist development of imaging assessments for loss of awareness of psychological origin, and interventions such as neurofeedback. PMID:28338742

  13. Lateralization of the Huggins pitch (United States)

    Zhang, Peter Xinya; Hartmann, William M.


    The lateralization of the Huggins pitch (HP) was measured using a direct estimation method. The background noise was initially N0 or Nπ, and then the laterality of the entire stimulus was varied with a frequency-independent interaural delay, ranging from -1 to +1 ms. Two versions of the HP boundary region were used, stepped phase and linear phase. When presented in isolation, without the broadband background, the stepped boundary can be lateralized on its own but the linear boundary cannot. Nevertheless, the lateralizations of both forms of HP were found to be almost identical functions both of the interaural delay and of the boundary frequency over a two-octave range. In a third experiment, the same listeners lateralized sine tones in quiet as a function of interaural delay. Good agreement was found between lateralizations of the HP and of the corresponding sine tones. The lateralization judgments depended on the boundary frequency according to the expected hyperbolic law except when the frequency-independent delay was zero. For the latter case, the dependence on boundary frequency was much slower than hyperbolic. [Work supported by the NIDCD grant DC 00181.

  14. Christfried Jakob's Late Views (1930-1949) on the Psychogenetic Function of the Cerebral Cortex and Its Localization: Culmination of the Neurophilosophical Thought of a Keen Brain Observer (United States)

    Theodoridou, Zoe D.; Triarhou, Lazaros C.


    This article follows the culmination of the scientific thought of the neurobiologist Christfried Jakob (1866-1956) during the later part of his career, based on publications from 1930 to 1949, when he was between 64 and 83 years of age. Jakob emphasized the necessity of bridging philosophy to the biological sciences, neurobiology in particular.…

  15. Spontaneous sensorimotor coupling with multipart music. (United States)

    Hurley, Brian K; Martens, Peter A; Janata, Petr


    Music often evokes spontaneous movements in listeners that are synchronized with the music, a phenomenon that has been characterized as being in "the groove." However, the musical factors that contribute to listeners' initiation of stimulus-coupled action remain unclear. Evidence suggests that newly appearing objects in auditory scenes orient listeners' attention, and that in multipart music, newly appearing instrument or voice parts can engage listeners' attention and elicit arousal. We posit that attentional engagement with music can influence listeners' spontaneous stimulus-coupled movement. Here, 2 experiments-involving participants with and without musical training-tested the effect of staggering instrument entrances across time and varying the number of concurrent instrument parts within novel multipart music on listeners' engagement with the music, as assessed by spontaneous sensorimotor behavior and self-reports. Experiment 1 assessed listeners' moment-to-moment ratings of perceived groove, and Experiment 2 examined their spontaneous tapping and head movements. We found that, for both musically trained and untrained participants, music with more instruments led to higher ratings of perceived groove, and that music with staggered instrument entrances elicited both increased sensorimotor coupling and increased reports of perceived groove. Although untrained participants were more likely to rate music as higher in groove, trained participants showed greater propensity for tapping along, and they did so more accurately. The quality of synchronization of head movements with the music, however, did not differ as a function of training. Our results shed new light on the relationship between complex musical scenes, attention, and spontaneous sensorimotor behavior.

  16. Spontaneous rupture of bladder diverticulum after postoperative radiotherapy for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Kazunori; Iijima, Mitsuharu; Nozue, Masashi; Imai, Michiko; Suzuki, Sachiko; Sakahara, Harumi; Ohta, Nobutaka; Kasami, Masako [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan)


    We present a case of spontaneous rupture of bladder diverticulum three years after postoperative whole pelvic irradiation (50.4 Gy) for carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The patient had suffered from a neurogenic bladder after hysterectomy, but excretory urography revealed no abnormalities. Bladder diverticulum was found two years later. Spontaneous rupture of the urinary bladder is one of the late complications associated with radiotherapy, although it is very rare. Postoperative neurogenic bladder may also be associated with rupture. We should be aware of this rare complication in patients who receive pelvic irradiation. (author)

  17. Formal Thought Disorder and language impairment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Radanovic


    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness in which disorders of thought content are a prominent feature. The disruption of normal flow of thought, or “Formal Thought Disorder” (FTD, has been traditionally assessed through the content and form of patients’ speech, and speech abnormalities in schizophrenia were considered as a by-product of the disruption in conceptual structures and associative processes related to psychosis. This view has been changed due to increasing evidence that language per se is impaired in schizophrenia, especially its semantic, discursive, and pragmatic aspects. Schizophrenia is currently considered by some authors as a “language related human specific disease” or “logopathy”, and the neuroanatomical and genetic correlates of the language impairment in these patients are under investigation. Such efforts may lead to a better understanding about the pathophysiology of this devastating mental disease. We present some current concepts related to FTD as opposed to primary neurolinguistic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  18. The Religion of Art in the Hegelian aesthetic thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Moya Ruiz


    Full Text Available The concept of the «Religion of Art» (Kunstreligion occupies an eminent place within the Hegelian aesthetic thought, forming a thematic-speculative core that, despite its successive terminological transformations, is preserved and maintained throughout his philosophical work. Hegel uses this concept, for the first time and under this denomination, in the Phenomenology of the Spirit, but its evolution has its roots in the author’s earliest philosophical speculations and continues, through different revisions and variations, until the mature thought that we find in the aesthetic courses in Berlin. The Kunstreligion would be, in its ultimate significance, one of the core elements that allows us to sustain a «nuanced» continuity among the different periods of the Hegelian aesthetic thought.

  19. Formal Thought Disorder and language impairment in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Radanovic, Marcia; Sousa, Rafael T de; Valiengo, L; Gattaz, Wagner Farid; Forlenza, Orestes Vicente


    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric illness in which disorders of thought content are a prominent feature. The disruption of normal flow of thought, or "Formal Thought Disorder" (FTD), has been traditionally assessed through the content and form of patients' speech, and speech abnormalities in schizophrenia were considered as a by-product of the disruption in conceptual structures and associative processes related to psychosis. This view has been changed due to increasing evidence that language per se is impaired in schizophrenia, especially its semantic, discursive, and pragmatic aspects. Schizophrenia is currently considered by some authors as a "language related human specific disease" or "logopathy", and the neuroanatomical and genetic correlates of the language impairment in these patients are under investigation. Such efforts may lead to a better understanding about the pathophysiology of this devastating mental disease. We present some current concepts related to FTD as opposed to primary neurolinguistic abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  20. Resolution of gallstone ileus with spontaneous evacuation of gallstone: a case report. (United States)

    Tandon, Anupama; Usha, Thingujam; Bhargava, Satish K; Bhatt, Shuchi; Bhargava, Sumeet; Prakash, Meenakshi; Durgadas, Aggrwal Anupkumar


    Gallstone ileus is an infrequent complication of cholelithiasis. The formation of a fistula between the gallbladder and duodenum may allow a gallstone to enter the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Gallstone ileus generally occurs in the elderly patients and is associated with significant mortality. Spontaneous resolution of gallstone ileus after passage of gallstone per rectally, though rare, has been reported Farooq et al. (Emerg Radiol 4(6):421-423, 2007). We describe a 60-year-old woman who presented with a 3-day history of vomiting, pain, distension and constipation .Radiological investigations revealed dilatation of small bowel loops with multiple air fluid levels with a large lamellated radio-opaque density measuring 4.4 cm × 4 cm seen in the right iliac fossa. A possibility of gallstone ileus was kept. Because of co-morbid conditions (post-myocardial infarct with cardiac failure), surgery could not be done and patient was kept on conservative management. Three days later patient had sudden relief of her symptoms after passing a large calculus per rectally suggesting a spontaneous evacuation of gallstone. This case highlights the possibility of spontaneous resolution of gallstone ileus after the passage of gallstone. It has been reported in stones less than 2.5 cm. However, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which a large stone measuring 4 cm × 3.8 cm passed spontaneously.

  1. The Self-help Online against Suicidal thoughts (SOS) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mühlmann, Charlotte; Madsen, Trine; Hjorthøj, Carsten


    BACKGROUND: Suicidal thoughts are common, causing distress for millions of people all over the world. However, people with suicidal thoughts might not access support due to financial restraints, stigma or a lack of available treatment offers. Self-help programs provided online could overcome...... to the intervention condition (N = 219) or the control condition (N = 219). The intervention condition consists of a 6-week, Internet-based self-help therapy intervention. The format of the intervention is self-help, but the participants can be guided by the trial manager. The control condition consists of a waiting...

  2. The economic thought of José Calvo Sotelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro PRIETO MAZAIRA


    Full Text Available The Spanish conservative politician José Calvo Sotelo was a finance minister during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera and one of the main right-wing political figures of the monarchy of Alfonso XIII during the Second Spanish Republic. Through his discourses and essays he developed an economic thought integrating nationalistic and interventionist postulates and a solid defense of private property and austerity, his main goal being to guarantee the independence of the Spanish economy. Some of his thoughts are a subject for debate in today’s crisis.

  3. Electric current precedes emergence of a lateral root in higher plants. (United States)

    Hamada, S; Ezaki, S; Hayashi, K; Toko, K; Yamafuji, K


    Stable electrochemical patterns appear spontaneously around roots of higher plants and are closely related to growth. An electric potential pattern accompanied by lateral root emergence was measured along the surface of the primary root of adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis) over 21 h using a microelectrode manipulated by a newly developed apparatus. The electric potential became lower at the point where a lateral root emerged. This change preceded the emergence of the lateral root by about 10 h. A theory is presented for calculating two-dimensional patterns of electric potential and electric current density around the primary root (and a lateral root) using only data on the one-dimensional electric potential measured near the surface of the primary root. The development of the lateral root inside the primary root is associated with the influx of electric current of about 0.7 at the surface.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging features of spontaneously regressed thymoma: report of 2 cases. (United States)

    Nakazono, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Ken; Egashira, Ryoko; Satoh, Toshimi; Yamasaki, Fumio; Mitsuoka, Masahiro; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Kudo, Sho


    The authors describe 2 cases in which thymoma spontaneously regressed. The first patient was a 49-year-old woman with myasthenia gravis. A chest radiograph on admission showed an anterior mediastinal mass that spontaneously decreased in size as shown on a radiograph obtained 2 weeks later. Surgical removal of the mass was performed and the histopathologic examination showed a type B2 thymoma with marked coagulation necrosis in the central area. The second patient was a 46-year-old woman who was hospitalized due to chest and back pain. A chest radiograph on admission showed an anterior mediastinal mass and bilateral pleural effusion. The mass decreased in size and the effusion disappeared as shown on a chest radiograph obtained 2 months later. Computed tomography-guided biopsy was performed, and histopathologic examination revealed thymoma with marked necrosis. In both cases, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images showed peripheral ringlike enhancement of the mass. The clinical and radiologic features of spontaneously regressed thymoma may be different from those of common thymoma.

  5. Role of spinal glial cells in bee-toxin-induced spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia, and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao LU


    Full Text Available Objective To observe the effects of intrathecal injection of fluorocitrate, a glial metabolism inhibitor, on bee-toxin-induced spontaneous pain, hyperalgesia and inflammatory response. Methods Forty adult male SD rats with intrathecal catheterization were randomly divided into five groups (8 each: (1 bee-toxin alone group; (2 vehicle (solvent group; (3 low dose (1nmol fluorocitrate group; (4 middle dose (10nmol fluorocitrate group; (5 high dose (50nmol fluorocitrate group. After the measurement of rat paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and paw volume (PV, the drug or vehicle was administered intrathecally. Twenty minutes later, bee-toxin (0.2mg/50μl was intraplantarly injected into the left hind paw of every rat, and spontaneous flinching reflexes (SFR were observed instantly for 1 hour. Two hours later, PWMT and PV were measured again. Results Intraplantar injection of bee-toxin into one hind paw of rat induced persistent SFR lasting for 1 hour, with PWMT decreased and PV increased in the injected paw. Compared with control group, pretreatment with intrathecal injection of fluorocitrate produced a significant inhibition of bee-toxin-induced persistent SFR (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, decreased the PWMT in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05, but it had no effect on bee-toxin-induced paw edema. Conclusion Activation of spinal glial cells may participate in bee-toxin-induced spontaneous pain and mechanical hyperalgesia, but not inflammatory response.

  6. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie


    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  7. Spontaneous Cdc42 polarization independent of GDI-mediated extraction and actin-based trafficking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe O Bendezú


    Full Text Available The small Rho-family GTPase Cdc42 is critical for cell polarization and polarizes spontaneously in absence of upstream spatial cues. Spontaneous polarization is thought to require dynamic Cdc42 recycling through Guanine nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor (GDI-mediated membrane extraction and vesicle trafficking. Here, we describe a functional fluorescent Cdc42 allele in fission yeast, which demonstrates Cdc42 dynamics and polarization independent of these pathways. Furthermore, an engineered Cdc42 allele targeted to the membrane independently of these recycling pathways by an amphipathic helix is viable and polarizes spontaneously to multiple sites in fission and budding yeasts. We show that Cdc42 is highly mobile at the membrane and accumulates at sites of activity, where it displays slower mobility. By contrast, a near-immobile transmembrane domain-containing Cdc42 allele supports viability and polarized activity, but does not accumulate at sites of activity. We propose that Cdc42 activation, enhanced by positive feedback, leads to its local accumulation by capture of fast-diffusing inactive molecules.

  8. Rhythmic Spontaneous Activity Mediates the Age-Related Decline in Somatosensory Function. (United States)

    Spooner, Rachel K; Wiesman, Alex I; Proskovec, Amy L; Heinrichs-Graham, Elizabeth; Wilson, Tony W


    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological process whereby the response to a second stimulus in a pair of identical stimuli is attenuated, and it is thought to reflect the capacity of the CNS to preserve neural resources for behaviorally relevant stimuli. Such gating is observed across multiple sensory modalities and is modulated by age, but the mechanisms involved are not understood. In this study, we examined somatosensory gating in 68 healthy adults using magnetoencephalography (MEG) and advanced oscillatory and time-domain analysis methods. MEG data underwent source reconstruction and peak voxel time series data were extracted to evaluate the dynamics of somatosensory gating, and the impact of spontaneous neural activity immediately preceding the stimulation. We found that gating declined with increasing age and that older adults had significantly reduced gating relative to younger adults, suggesting impaired local inhibitory function. Most importantly, older adults had significantly elevated spontaneous activity preceding the stimulation, and this effect fully mediated the impact of aging on sensory gating. In conclusion, gating in the somatosensory system declines with advancing age and this effect is directly tied to increased spontaneous neural activity in the primary somatosensory cortices, which is likely secondary to age-related declines in local GABA inhibitory function. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  9. Early removal of odontoma resulting in spontaneous eruption of the impacted teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Harijadi


    Full Text Available Background: Compound odontomas in the anterior maxilla during mixed dentition frequently cause obstruction to the eruption pathway of permanent upper anterior teeth. Removal of the odontomas may or may not lead to spontaneous eruption of the impacted teeth depending on the age when the surgery is performed, the size of the lesion, and the stage of tooth development of the involved teeth. Purpose: This paper attempts to emphasize the importance of early removal of compound odontoma to enable spontaneous eruption of the affected teeth. Case: A case of odontoma in the anterior maxilla causing failure of eruption and delayed root formation of upper right permanent lateral incisor and canine in a 10-year-old male patient is presented. Case management: The odontoma was surgically removed under general anesthesia and histology result confirmed the diagnosis of compound odontoma. A three-year post surgical follow up showed spontaneous eruption as well as continued root formation of the two affected teeth. Conclusion: Removal of odontoma may lead to spontaneous eruption of the affected teeth if their root development are not completed.Latar belakang: Compound odontoma pada daerah anterior maksila pada masa geligi pergantian sering menyebabkan hambatan erupsi pada gigi permanen penggantinya. Kemungkinan terjadinya erupsi spontan gigi permanen yang impaksi setelah pengambilan odontoma tergantung dari: umur penderita pada saat dilakukan operasi, ukuran lesi odontoma dan tahapan perkembangan gigi permanen yang terlibat. Tujuan: Laporan kasus ini ingin menekankan pentingnya pengambilan compound odontoma sedini mungkin untuk memberi kesempatan tumbuhnya gigi permanen yang terlibat dan erupsi secara spontan. Kasus: Ditampilkan sebuah kasus compound odontoma pada regio maksila anterior menyebabkan gagalnya erupsi dan terlambatnya pembentukan akar gigi insisif kedua dan kaninus permanent rahang atas kanan pada penderita anak laki-laki berumur 10 tahun

  10. [Brain lateralization and seizure semiology: ictal clinical lateralizing signs]. (United States)

    Horváth, Réka; Kalmár, Zsuzsanna; Fehér, Nóra; Fogarasi, András; Gyimesi, Csilla; Janszky, József


    Clinical lateralizing signs are the phenomena which can unequivocally refer to the hemispheric onset of epileptic seizures. They can improve the localization of epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation, moreover, their presence can predict a success of surgical treatment. Primary sensory phenomena such as visual aura in one half of the field of vision or unilateral ictal somatosensory sensation always appear on the contralateral to the focus. Periictal unilateral headache, although it is an infrequent symptom, is usually an ipsilateral sign. Primary motor phenomena like epileptic clonic, tonic movements, the version of head ubiquitously appear contralateral to the epileptogenic zone. Very useful lateralization sign is the ictal hand-dystonia which lateralizes to the contralateral hemisphere in nearly 100%. The last clonus of the secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizure lateralizes to the ipsilateral hemisphere in 85%. The fast component of ictal nystagmus appears in nearly 100% on the contralateral side of the epileptic focus. Vegetative symptoms during seizures arising from temporal lobe such as spitting, nausea, vomiting, urinary urge are typical for seizures originating from non-dominant (right) hemisphere. Ictal pallor and cold shivers are dominant hemispheric lateralization signs. Postictal unilateral nose wiping refers to the ipsilateral hemispheric focus compared to the wiping hand. Ictal or postictal aphasia refers to seizure arising from dominant hemisphere. Intelligable speech during complex partial seizures appears in non-dominant seizures. Automatism with preserved consciousness refers to the seizures of non-dominant temporal lobe.

  11. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth]. (United States)

    Brabant, G


    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Nesterenko


    Full Text Available The essence and the genesis of spontaneous order are disclosed in the context of critical analysis of constructivism. The author’s approach to the definition of the characteristic features of the spontaneous order is proposed. The dichotomy of the order is revealed towards the economic sphere in form of spontaneous order and organization.

  13. Measuring negative and positive thoughts in children: an adaptation of the Children’s Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS)


    Hogendoorn, S.M.; Wolters, L.H.; Vervoort, L.; Prins, P.J.M.; Boer, F.; van der Kooij, E.; de Haan, E.


    The aim of this study is to describe the factor structure and psychometric properties of an extended version of the Children?s Automatic Thoughts Scale (CATS), the CATS-Negative/Positive (CATS-N/P). The CATS was originally designed to assess negative self-statements in children and adolescents. However, positive thoughts also play a major role in childhood disorders such as anxiety and depression. Therefore, positive self-statements were added to the CATS. The CATS-N/P was administered to a c...

  14. The time course of attention: It's better than we thought.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivers, C.N.L.


    What is the time course of attention? Research using rapid-stimulus streams has suggested that it is rather slow: Attention takes half a second to recover from processing one thing before it can process the next. This period is referred to as the attentional blink, and it is thought to reflect a

  15. An Outsider's Ethnographic Thoughts about Design (United States)

    Agar, Michael


    This article gives Michael Agar's email responses to two questions put by Gavin Melles: "What are your thoughts on the advantages and dangers of developments in applied anthropology for ethnographic and anthropology practice?" and "What are your impressions of the potential and actual use of ethnography in design?" The…

  16. Thought-Leaders in Asynchronous Online Learning Environments (United States)

    Waters, Jim


    The growth of online learning has exposed fundamental gaps in our knowledge, both theoretical and pragmatic. This research investigated some questions of the role of emergent leaders in online leaning and the influence of different behaviors. Firstly are there any common factors that identify thought-leaders? Secondly does the presence of…

  17. Intrusive Thoughts: A Primary Variable in Breakup Distress (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Pelaez, Martha; Deeds, Osvelia; Delgado, Jeannette


    University students who were high versus low on breakup distress scores were given self-report measures to assess their intrusive thoughts about the romantic breakup and their somatic symptoms that followed the breakup as well as their extracurricular activities and social support that might alleviate their breakup distress. In a regression…

  18. Where creativity resides: The generative power of unconscious thought

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijksterhuis, A.J.; Meurs, T.


    In three experiments, the relation between different modes of thought and the generation of "creative" and original ideas was investigated. Participants were asked to generate items according to a specific instruction (e.g., generate place names starting with an "A"). They either did so immediately

  19. Critique of Nkrumah's Philosophical Materialism | Ani | Thought and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 7, No 1 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if ...

  20. Feeding Health: Thoughts on Healthy Food for a Healthy Planet

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Food Rules author Michael Pollan discusses American food culture and gives his thoughts on how food can impact human and environmental health.  Created: 8/19/2009 by National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Office of Sustainability.   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  1. Deafness, Thought Bubbles, and Theory-of-Mind Development (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M.; Peterson, Candida C.


    The processes and mechanisms of theory-of-mind development were examined via a training study of false-belief conceptions in deaf children of hearing parents (N = 43). In comparison to 2 different control conditions, training based on thought-bubble instruction about beliefs was linked with improved false-belief understanding as well as progress…

  2. Confucius as a Critical Educator: Towards Educational Thoughts of Confucius (United States)

    Zhao, Juanjuan


    This paper is a cross-cultural comparative study in education philosophy. A comparative and philosophical approach is used to interpret texts from the Analects of Confucius and to find connections with ideas of critical educators. In comparing Confucius' educational thought with that of Paulo Freire, John Dewey and other theorists in critical…

  3. Thoughts of Death and Suicide in Early Adolescence (United States)

    Vander Stoep, Ann; McCauley, Elizabeth; Flynn, Cynthia; Stone, Andrea


    The prevalence and persistence of thoughts of death and suicide during early adolescence were estimated in a community-based cohort. A latent class approach was used to identify distinct subgroups based on endorsements to depression items administered repeatedly over 24 months. Two classes emerged, with 75% in a low ideation class across four…

  4. Negative Thought Stopping. A Key to Performance Enhancement. (United States)

    Ziegler, Susan G.


    The effects of mental training on skill acquisition and performance is currently emphasized in the study of sport psychology and motor learning. This article provides the teacher and coach with general guidelines for understanding and incorporating negative thought stopping training into athletic programs. (MT)

  5. Preliminary thoughts on the data acquisition for the next generation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Preliminary thoughts about the data acquisition system to be developed for the next generation of large area silicon tracker are presented in this paper. This paper describes the set of data delivered by these tracking systems, and the various stages of processing and data flow transmission from the front-end chip ...

  6. General Theory of Relativity-The Power of Speculative Thought

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 4. General Theory of Relativity – The Power of Speculative Thought. Asit Banerjee. General Article Volume 11 Issue 4 April 2006 pp 45-55. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Wisdom, Knowledge, Contemplation: India in the History of European Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xicoténcatl Martínez Ruiz


    Full Text Available The intellectual tradition of India not always has been taken into account as a full recognized speaker in the European history of ideas. Especially for the European thought, the problem is premised by the common idea which considers Indian thought as non-systematic and without a textual corpus characterized by non-European identity. One of Schopenhauer’s merits was to think about the Indian intellectual tradition as integral piece of the universal history of thought. The purpose of this paper is to explore this parallel between Indian Philosophy and Western Philosophy by the key contention to rethink India into the universal history of ideas. To do so the task is focused on suggestions to contemporary problems by taking as a point of departure the work of two thinkers: Arthur Schopenhauer (19th century and Rabindranath Tagore (20th century. To start with the analysis the following questions must be addressed. How the encounters and interpretations of Indian thought made by European thinkers should be understood? Can we talk about conjunctions relating both traditions, Europe and India? Can we locate a comparative method as a guide of this comparative exercise?

  8. Thought Control Training as a Treatment for Insomnia. (United States)

    Ribordy, Sheila C.

    College students with difficulty falling asleep were treated with either progressive relaxation, systematic desensitization, or a thought control procedure. All three treatment groups showed significant lower latency to sleep onset times than a waiting-list control group at the end of the three-week treatment period. A three-week followup revealed…

  9. Preliminary thoughts on the data acquisition for the next generation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preliminary thoughts about the data acquisition system to be developed for the next generation of large area silicon tracker are presented in this paper. This paper describes the set of data delivered by these tracking systems, and the various stages of processing and data flow transmission from the front-end chip sitting on ...

  10. Debating the Autonomy of Reason | Masolo | Thought and Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thought and Practice. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 1 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web ...

  11. Getting Serious: Thoughts on Agricultural Research and Increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Getting Serious: Thoughts on Agricultural Research and Increased Smallholder productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Increase in agriculture productivity are fundamental to the sustainable development of many African economies. While efforts are being made to provide more appropriate policies to encourage policies to ...

  12. Recalibrating the context for reported speech and thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Wagner, Johannes


    This paper investigates how speakers who are about to produce, or in the midst of producing, reported speech and thought (RT), temporarily abandon the production of RT to include other material. Using Conversation Analysis, we identify three positions in which RT is abandoned temporarily...

  13. Freedom, Solidarity, Independence: Political Thought of the "Fighting Solidarity" Organization


    Brzechczyn, Krzysztof


    The aim of the paper is presentation of the main tenets of political thought of Solidarność Walcząca and attempt of answer why political and social proposals of this organization were marginalized in Polish political discourse after 1989.

  14. Sexism in Political Thought and Its Refutation: A Schematic Overview. (United States)

    Fox, Siegrun F.

    The document examines Western political thought in terms of women's and men's expected spheres of concern, the proper male and female nature, and the sex-specific allocation of social values. In addition, the author applies her conclusions to contemporary political issues in the United States. Aristotle, Cicero, Aquinas, Rousseau, and Hegel made a…

  15. Thoughts on meat production | Hirzel | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 2 (1972) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Thoughts on meat production. R Hirzel. Abstract.

  16. Food for Thought: Expanding School Breakfast to NJ Students (United States)

    Allen-Kyle, Portia; Parello, Nancy


    This brief marks the start of "Advocates for Children of New Jersey's Food for Thought School Breakfast Campaign", which seeks to expand innovative approaches to serving school breakfast and significantly increase students' participation rates. This report provides a closer look at the data, including identifying districts that have high…

  17. Understanding in the humanities: Gadamer's thought at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Because Gadamer is very sensitive to the role of history, tradition and authority within human life, the overall intention of this article will be to unveil major elements of modern philosophy which exerted an influence upon his thought. In this sense it can be seen as applying his notion of 'Wirkungsgeschichte' to an assessment ...

  18. Foreword Thought and Practice: Taking Stock, Re-engaging

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    awakening - of the processes of self-creating acts after a period of lull and despair in Greek culture, Sartre thought that Léopold S. Senghor's inauguration of the new generation of poetry, one that followed an almost decimating effects of colonialism ...

  19. Pause for Thought: Why Bernstein Was Not a Psycholinguist (United States)

    Good, David


    Bernstein recognised that his claims about the role of language in education, and the differential success of children from different social strata were effectively claims about underlying psychological processes, and the relationship between language and thought. In attempting to bridge the gap between macro-sociological analyses and individual…

  20. E-learning: some critical thoughts | Le Grange | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, a technological revolution is taking place in higher education. The effects of this revolution are increasingly being felt in South Africa. The growth of e-learning has been described as explosive, unprecedented, amazing and disruptive. In this article I raise some critical thoughts about e-learning. In particular I raise ...