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Sample records for spontaneous fermentation processes

  1. DGGE and multivariate analysis of a yeast community in spontaneous cocoa fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, A C R; Marques, E L S; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2015-12-28

    Cocoa bean is the main raw material used in the production of chocolate. In southern Bahia, Brazil, cocoa farming and processing is an important economic activity. The fermentation of cocoa is the processing stage that yields important chocolate flavor precursors and complex microbial involvement is essential for this process. In this study, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoreses (DGGE) was used to investigate the diversity of yeasts present during the spontaneous fermentation of cocoa in southern Bahia. The DGGE analysis revealed a richness of 8 to 13 distinct bands of varied intensities among the samples; and samples taken at 24, 36, and 48 h into the fermentation process were found to group with 70% similarity and showed the greatest diversity of bands. Hierarchical clustering showed that all samples had common operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and the highest number of OTUs was found in the 48 h sample. Variations in pH and temperature observed within the fermenting mass over time possibly had direct effects on the composition of the existing microbial community. The findings reported here indicate that a heterogeneous yeast community is involved in the complex cocoa fermentation process, which is known to involve a succession of specialized microorganisms.

  2. Behavior and viability of spontaneous oxidative stress-resistant Lactococcus lactis mutants in experimental fermented milk processing

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, M. N.; ALMEIDA, K. E.; DAMIN, M. R.; ROCHAT, T.; GRATADOUX, J. -J.; MIYOSHI, A.; LANGELLA, P.; AZEVEDO, V.

    2009-01-01

    Previously, we isolated two strains of spontaneous oxidative (SpOx2 and SpOx3) stress mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris. Herein, we compared these mutants to a parental wild- type strain (J60011) and a commercial starter in experimental fermented milk production. Total solid contents of milk and fermentation temperature both affected the acidification profile of the spontaneous oxidative stress- resistant L. lactis mutants during fermented milk production. Fermentation times to pH ...

  3. Behavior and viability of spontaneous oxidative stress-resistant Lactococcus lactis mutants in experimental fermented milk processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M N; Almeida, K E; Damin, M R; Rochat, T; Gratadoux, J-J; Miyoshi, A; Langella, P; Azevedo, V

    2009-07-21

    Previously, we isolated two strains of spontaneous oxidative (SpOx2 and SpOx3) stress mutants of Lactococcus lactis subsp cremoris. Herein, we compared these mutants to a parental wild-type strain (J60011) and a commercial starter in experimental fermented milk production. Total solid contents of milk and fermentation temperature both affected the acidification profile of the spontaneous oxidative stress-resistant L. lactis mutants during fermented milk production. Fermentation times to pH 4.7 ranged from 6.40 h (J60011) to 9.36 h (SpOx2); V(max) values were inversely proportional to fermentation time. Bacterial counts increased to above 8.50 log(10) cfu/mL. The counts of viable SpOx3 mutants were higher than those of the parental wild strain in all treatments. All fermented milk products showed post-fermentation acidification after 24 h of storage at 4 degrees C; they remained stable after one week of storage.

  4. Applying meta-pathway analyses through metagenomics to identify the functional properties of the major bacterial communities of a single spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Weckx, Stefan; De Vuyst, Luc

    2015-09-01

    A high-resolution functional metagenomic analysis of a representative single sample of a Brazilian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process was carried out to gain insight into its bacterial community functioning. By reconstruction of microbial meta-pathways based on metagenomic data, the current knowledge about the metabolic capabilities of bacterial members involved in the cocoa bean fermentation ecosystem was extended. Functional meta-pathway analysis revealed the distribution of the metabolic pathways between the bacterial members involved. The metabolic capabilities of the lactic acid bacteria present were most associated with the heterolactic fermentation and citrate assimilation pathways. The role of Enterobacteriaceae in the conversion of substrates was shown through the use of the mixed-acid fermentation and methylglyoxal detoxification pathways. Furthermore, several other potential functional roles for Enterobacteriaceae were indicated, such as pectinolysis and citrate assimilation. Concerning acetic acid bacteria, metabolic pathways were partially reconstructed, in particular those related to responses toward stress, explaining their metabolic activities during cocoa bean fermentation processes. Further, the in-depth metagenomic analysis unveiled functionalities involved in bacterial competitiveness, such as the occurrence of CRISPRs and potential bacteriocin production. Finally, comparative analysis of the metagenomic data with bacterial genomes of cocoa bean fermentation isolates revealed the applicability of the selected strains as functional starter cultures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods

    OpenAIRE

    KAKHRAMON SANOQULOVICH RAKHMONOV; ISABAEV ISMAIL BABADJANOVICH

    2016-01-01

    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  6. 1 INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION ON SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RopSvr

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  7. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico- chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  8. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    JAMILI; NUR ARFA YANTI; PRIMA ENDANG SUSILOWATI

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a coco...

  9. Yeast Population Dynamics in Spontaneous and Inoculated Alcoholic Fermentations of Zametovka Must

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    Franc Cus

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Inoculated fermentations, which are more rapid and more reliable than spontaneous fermentations, and assure predictable wine quality, are nowadays prevalent in Slovenia’s large-scale wine production. However, spontaneous fermentation strengthens local characteristics of wine and offers opportunities for technological innovation. In the 1999 vintage, spontaneous and inoculated fermentations of Zametovka (Vitis vinifera grape must were studied. Zametovka is the main red variety in production of traditional Slovene red blend wine, Cvicek. The diversity of yeast species and strains in both of the investigated fermentations was determined by molecular and traditional identification methods. The outset of alcoholic fermentation, yeast growth kinetics, and yeast population dynamics presents the main differences between the examined fermentations. Yeast population diversity was higher in the spontaneous process. Dominant yeast isolates from spontaneous fermentation were identified as Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae; whereas Saccharomyces bayanus, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia membranifaciens and Torulaspora delbrueckiim were found less frequently. Dominant species in the inoculated fermentation was Saccharomyces cerevisiae; other species found in smaller numbers were Candida stellata, Hanseniaspora uvarum and Debaryomyces hansenii var. hansenii. Using PFGE, we were able to distinguish among 15 different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains and three different Saccharomyces bayanus strains isolated from spontaneous fermentation, whereas, in the case of inoculated fermentation, only two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains were found. Their chromosomal patterns coincide with the chromosomal patterns of the starter culture strains.

  10. Yeast dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of mawe and tchoukoutou, two traditional products from Benin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greppi, Anna; Rantisou, Kalliopi; Padonou, Wilfrid

    2013-01-01

    Mawe and tchoukoutou are two traditional fermented foods largely consumed in Benin, West Africa. Their preparations remain as a house art and they are the result of spontaneous fermentation processes. In this study, dynamics of the yeast populations occurring during spontaneous fermentations...... of mawe and tchoukoutou were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. For each product, two productions were followed. Samples were taken at different fermentation times and yeasts were isolated, resulting in the collection of 177 isolates. They were identified by the PCR...

  11. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAMILI

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Jamili, Yanti NA, Susilowati PE. 2016. Diversity and the role of yeast in spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation from Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 17: 90-95. Yeast is one of the microbial group which is role in the process of cocoa spontaneously fermentation. The objective of this study was to determinate and to know the diversity of yeast that role on cocoa bean fermentation. Yeast was isolated by pour plate method from cocoa bean that was naturally fermented by a cocoa farmer in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi using yeast mannitol agar (YMA media. Yeast was characterized and identified using phenotypic characters based on numeric-phenetic analysis. Yeast isolates applied to cocoa bean to determine its role in cocoa bean fermentation. The result was obtained seven isolates the dominant yeast during cocoa bean fermentation in Kolaka District, Southeast Sulawesi. The result of numerical-phenetic analysis based on phenotypic characters to seven yeast isolates showed that 1 isolates (Klk1 identical with Candida krusei. Three isolates (Klk4, Klk5 and Klk7 identical with Candida tropicalis, one isolate (Klk2 identical with Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, one isolate (Klk3 identical with Kloeckera sp. and one isolate (Klk6 identical with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The result also showed that fermentation of cocoa with seeding of yeast inoculums served to increase the quality of cocoa beans than spontaneous fermentation. Therefore, the seven yeast isolates potentially be used as an inoculum to improve the cocoa quality.

  12. Spontaneous Food Fermentations and Potential Risks for Human Health

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    Vittorio Capozzi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented foods and beverages are a heterogeneous class of products with a relevant worldwide significance for human economy, nutrition and health for millennia. A huge diversity of microorganisms is associated with the enormous variety in terms of raw materials, fermentative behavior and obtained products. In this wide microbiodiversity it is possible that the presence of microbial pathogens and toxic by-products of microbial origin, including mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate and biogenic amines, are aspects liable to reduce the safety of the consumed product. Together with other approaches (e.g., use of preservatives, respect of specific physico-chemical parameters, starter cultures technology has been conceived to successfully dominate indigenous microflora and to drive fermentation to foresee the desired attributes of the matrix, assuring quality and safety. Recent trends indicate a general return to spontaneous food fermentation. In this review, we point out the potential risks for human health associated with uncontrolled (uninoculated food fermentation and we discuss biotechnological approaches susceptible to conciliate fermented food safety, with instances of an enhanced contribution of microbes associated to spontaneous fermentation.

  13. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS DURING SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF MAIZE [Isolasi dan Identifikasi Mikroorganisme pada Fermentasi Spontan Jagung

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    Rahmawati1,2

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maize was traditionally the second most common staple food in Indonesia. Conversion to maize flour has been accomplished to improve its convenience. Traditionally, maize flour is produced by soaking the kernels in water followed by grinding. It was reported that final physicochemical characteristics of the maize flour were influenced by spontaneous fermentation which occurred during soaking. This research aimed to isolate and identify important microorganisms that grew during fermentation thus a standardized starter culture can be developed for a more controlled fermentation process. Soaking of maize grits was conducted in sterile water (grits:water=1:2, w/v in a closed container at room temperature (±28ºC for 72 hours. After 0, 4, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 hours, water and maize grits were sampled and tested for the presence of mold, yeast, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB. Isolates obtained from the spontaneous fermentation were reinoculated into the appropriate media containing starch to observe their amylolytic activity. Individual isolate was then identified; mold by slide culture method, while yeast and LAB by biochemical rapid kits, i.e. API 20C AUX and API CH50, respectively. The number of each microorganism was plotted against time to obtain the growth curve of the microorganisms during spontaneous fermentation. The microorganisms were identified as Penicillium chrysogenum, P. citrinum, A. flavus, A. niger, Rhizopus stolonifer, R.oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum, Acremonium strictum, Candida famata, Kodamaea ohmeri, Candida krusei/incospicua, Lactobacillus plantarum 1a, Pediococcus pentosaceus, L. brevis 1, L. plantarum 1b, and L. paracasei ssp paracasei 3. Four molds and one yeast were amylolytic while none of the LAB was capable of starch hydrolysis. The growth curve suggested that the amylolitic mold and yeast grew to hydrolyze starch during the course of fermentation, while the LABs benefited from the hydrolyzed products and dominated the later

  14. Volatile Compounds and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Spontaneous Fermented Sourdough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, W.Y.; Aida, W.M.W.; Sahilah, A.M.; Maskat, M.Y.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the predominating lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in a spontaneous fermented wheat sourdough. At the same time, an investigation towards volatile compounds that were produced was also carried out. Lactobacillus plantarum has been identified as the dominant species of lactobacilli with characters of a facultative heterofermentative strain. The generated volatile compounds that were produced during spontaneous fermentation were isolated by solvent extraction method, analysed by gas chromatography (GC), and identified by mass spectrophotometer (MS). Butyric acid has been found to be the main volatile compound with relative abundance of 6.75 % and acetic acid at relative abundance of 3.60 %. Esters that were formed at relatively low amount were butyl formate (1.23 %) and cis 3 hexenyl propionate (0.05 %). Butanol was also found at low amount with relative abundance of 0.60 %. The carbohydrate metabolism of Lactobacillus plantarum may contributed to the production of acetic acid in this study via further catabolism activity on lactic acid that was produced. However, butyric acid was not the major product via fermentation by LAB but mostly carried out by the genus Clostridium via carbohydrate metabolism which needs further investigation. (author)

  15. Characterization and Dynamic Behavior of Wild Yeast during Spontaneous Wine Fermentation in Steel Tanks and Amphorae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Cecilia; Molina, Ana María; Nähring, Jörg; Fischer, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    We studied the dynamic behavior of wild yeasts during spontaneous wine fermentation at a winery in the Valais region of Switzerland. Wild yeasts in the winery environment were characterized using a PCR-RFLP method. Up to 11 different yeast species were isolated from the vineyard air, whereas only seven were recovered from the grapes surface. We initially investigated a cultureindependent method in pilot-scale steel fermentation tanks and found a greater diversity of yeasts in the musts from two red grape varieties compared to three white grape varieties. We found that the yeasts Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Pichia kluyveri, P. membranifaciens and Saccharomyces cerevisiae remained active at the end of the fermentation. We also studied the dynamic behavior of yeasts in Qvevris for the first time using a novel, highlysensitive quantitative real-time PCR method. We found that non-Saccharomyces yeasts were present during the entire fermentation process, with R. mucilaginosa and P. anomala the most prominent species. We studied the relationship between the predominance of different species and the output of the fermentation process. We identified so-called spoilage yeasts in all the fermentations, but high levels of acetic acid accumulated only in those fermentations with an extended lag phase. PMID:23738327

  16. Evolution of the population of Saccharomyces cerevisiae from grape to wine in a spontaneous fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, Christine; Erny, Claude; Demuyter, Catherine; Lollier, Marc

    2006-12-01

    To determine the grape or winery origin of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in spontaneous fermentation, musts were collected at different stages of wine-making process and fermented. First, grapes were collected in two different vineyards and crushed at the laboratory. Second, musts were collected after crushing and clarification in the cellar. Third, musts collected in the cellar were sterilized and inoculated with tartar deposit collected in the vats. The fourth fermentation was in the cellar. For the two vineyards, two hundred of S. cerevisiae clones were isolated for each of the four fermentations, driving to a library of 1600 clones. All the library was analysed by inter-delta PCR with a basic set of primers and about 20% of the library was further analysed by inter-delta PCR with an improved set of primers. Six, and more than 30 different PCR patterns were obtained from basic- and improved-PCR analysis, respectively. The amounts of each family were analysed at the different stages of wine making. Our study demonstrates that the two vineyards present different S. cerevisiae populations. Moreover the S. cerevisiae strains involved in spontaneous fermentation in the cellar originate partly from the vineyard and partly from the winery, in amounts varying with the must.

  17. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist; Bolic, Andrijana; Svanholm, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This manuscript therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: on-line sensors, mechanistic models and small-scale equipment for high-throughput experimentation. The manuscript ends with a short...

  18. PAT tools for fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    The publication of the Process Analytical Technology (PAT) guidance has been one of the most important milestones for pharmaceutical production during the past ten years. The ideas outlined in the PAT guidance are also applied in other industries, for example the fermentation industry. Process...... knowledge is central in PAT projects. This presentation therefore gives a brief overview of a number of PAT tools for collecting process knowledge on fermentation processes: - On-line sensors, where for example spectroscopic measurements are increasingly applied - Mechanistic models, which can be used...

  19. Analysis of the cocobiota and metabolites of Moniliophthora perniciosa - resistant Theobroma cacao beans during spontaneous fermentation in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Valdeci S; Santos, Maria F S; Gomes, Laidson P; Leite, Analy M O; Flosi Paschoalin, Vânia M; Del Aguila, Eduardo M

    2018-03-25

    Cocoa bean fermentation is a spontaneous process involving a succession of microbial activities; yeasts, lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria. The spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans by Theobroma cacao TSH565 clonal variety, a highly productive hybrid resistant to Moniliophthora perniciosa and Phytophthora spp. was investigated. The natural cocobiota involved in the spontaneous fermentation of this hybrid, in Southern Brazil, was investigated by using both a culture-dependent microbiological and a molecular analysis. The changes in physicochemical characteristics and the kinetics of substrate utilization and metabolite production during fermentation were also evaluated. Yeasts (178) and bacteria (244) isolated during fermentation were identified by partial sequencing of the ITS and 16S rDNAs, respectively. After 144h of fermentation, the indigenous yeast community was composed of Hanseniaspora spp., Saccharomyces spp. and Pichia spp. The bacterial population comprised Lactococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Acetobacter spp. and Lactobacilli strains. The kinetics of substrate transformation reflected the dynamic composition of the cocobiota. Substrates as glucose, fructose, sucrose and citric acid present at the beginning of fermentation were metabolized to produce ethanol, acetic acid and lactic acid. The results described herein provide new insights into the microbial diversity in cocoa bean-pulp mass fermentation and the kinetic of metabolites synthesis, and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency to obtain homogeneous and best-quality cocoa products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodiversity and technological potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermented amaranth sourdough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Rodríguez, L; Vera Pingitore, E; Rollan, G; Martos, G; Saavedra, L; Fontana, C; Hebert, E M; Vignolo, G

    2016-08-01

    Spontaneous fermented sourdoughs prepared from amaranth flour were investigated for the presence of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) predominating microbiota. The doughs were fermented with daily backslopping on a laboratory scale at 30°C for 10 days. LAB counts ranged from 2·60 to 8·54 log CFU g(-1) with a pH declined from 6·2 to 3·8 throughout fermentation. The combined use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR analysis and sequence analysis of 16S rRNA was applied for LAB intraspecies differentiation and taxonomic identification, respectively. Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus species were present in amaranth sourdoughs (AS). After the first refreshment step, Lactobacillus plantarum dominated AS until the end of fermentation. In coincidence, when DGGE analysis was performed, the occurrence of a progressive change in bacterial communities allowed the selection of Lact. plantarum as a dominant species. Moreover, technological, functional and safety characteristics of representative RAPD-biotypes were investigated. Lact. plantarum CRL1898 was selected as a potential candidate for gluten-free amaranth sourdough starter. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in ancient noncereal gluten-free (GF) crops such as amaranth, due to their reported nutritional and health benefits. However, the use of these grains is still limited to traditional foods and bread making processes that are not yet well standardized. Results on the dynamics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota during laboratory spontaneous amaranth sourdoughs (AS) fermentation will contribute to overcome challenges for GF-fermented products development. In addition, knowledge about LAB diversity involving Enterococcus, Pediococcus and Lactobacillus species, with Lactobacillus plantarum predominating during AS fermentation, and their technological and functional properties provides the basis for the selection of autochthonous strains as starters cultures

  1. Physico-chemical and microbiological characterization of spontaneous fermentation of Cellina di Nardò and Leccino table olives

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    Gianluca eBleve

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the most important traditional fermented vegetables in Europe and their world consumption is constantly increasing. In the Greek style, table olives are obtained by spontaneous fermentations, without any chemical debittering treatment. Evolution of sugars, organic acids, alcohols, mono and polyphenol compounds and volatile compounds associated with the fermentative metabolism of yeasts and bacteria throughout the natural fermentation process of the two Italian olive cultivars Cellina di Nardò and Leccino were determined. A protocol was developed and applied aimed at the technological characterization of LAB and yeast strains as possible candidate autochthonous starters for table olive fermentation from Cellina di Nardò and Leccino cultivars. The study of the main physic-chemical parameters and volatile compounds during fermentation helped to determine chemical descriptors that may be suitable for monitoring olive fermentation. In both the analyzed table olive cultivars, aldehydes proved to be closely related to the first stage of fermentation (30 days, while higher alcohols (2-methyl-1-propanol; 3-methyl-1-butanol, styrene, and o-cymene were associated with the middle stage of fermentation (90 days and acetate esters with the final step of olive fermentation (180 days.

  2. Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.

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    Esther Meersman

    Full Text Available The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts, and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts. Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency.

  3. Detailed analysis of the microbial population in Malaysian spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations reveals a core and variable microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Mathawan, Melissa; Wittocx, Pieter-Jan; Saels, Veerle; Struyf, Nore; Bernaert, Herwig; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2013-01-01

    The fermentation of cocoa pulp is one of the few remaining large-scale spontaneous microbial processes in today's food industry. The microbiota involved in cocoa pulp fermentations is complex and variable, which leads to inconsistent production efficiency and cocoa quality. Despite intensive research in the field, a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbiota is still lacking, especially for the expanding Asian production region. Here, we report a large-scale, comprehensive analysis of four spontaneous Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations across two time points in the harvest season and two fermentation methods. Our results show that the cocoa microbiota consists of a "core" and a "variable" part. The bacterial populations show a remarkable consistency, with only two dominant species, Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus. The fungal diversity is much larger, with four dominant species occurring in all fermentations ("core" yeasts), and a large number of yeasts that only occur in lower numbers and specific fermentations ("variable" yeasts). Despite this diversity, a clear pattern emerges, with early dominance of apiculate yeasts and late dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our results provide new insights into the microbial diversity in Malaysian cocoa pulp fermentations and pave the way for the selection of starter cultures to increase efficiency and consistency.

  4. Characterisation of lactic acid bacteria in spontaneously fermented camel milk and selection of strains for fermentation of camel milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugl, Angelina June Brandt; Berhe, Tesfemariam; Kiran, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The microbial communities in spontaneously fermented camel milk from Ethiopia were characterised through metagenomic 16S rRNA sequencing and lactic acid bacteria were isolated with the goal of selecting strains suitable as starter cultures. The fermented camel milk microbiota was dominated either...... by Lactobacillales or by Enterobacteriaceae, depending on incubation temperature and the provider of the milk. Strains of species with a potential use as starter cultures i.e., Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Pediococcus acidilactici, were isolated. Fast acidifiers of camel milk have been isolated...... from the species of Lc. lactis, P. acidilactici, and Streptococcus infantarius. Gram-negative and potentially pathogenic microorganisms were frequent in spontaneously fermented camel milk, indicating the need for improved hygiene in Ethiopian camel farms. The profiled microbiota of spontaneously...

  5. The Brewing Process: Optimizing the Fermentation

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    Teodora Coldea

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Beer is a carbonated alcoholic beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malt wort boiled with hops. Brown beer obtained at Beer Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca was the result of a recipe based on blond, caramel and black malt in different proportions, water, hops and yeast. This study aimed to monitorize the evolution of wort in primary and secondary alcoholic fermentation in order to optimize the process. Two wort batches were assambled in order to increase the brewing yeast fermentation performance. The primary fermentation was 14 days, followed by another 14 days of secondary fermentation (maturation. The must fermentation monitoring was done by the automatic FermentoStar analyzer. The whole fermentation process was monitorized (temperature, pH, alcohol concentration, apparent and total wort extract.

  6. Development of fermented milk “Leben” made from spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... products. Final characteristics of fermented milks depend on milk composition, heat treatment of milk, fermentation conditions and the composition of the starter's cultures. (Chammas ... dardization of the product (Tantaoui-Elaraki et al., 1983;. Guizani et ..... micellar structure and then to the modification in the.

  7. Energy balance in solid state fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, L.J.A.; Torres, A.; Echevarria, J.; Saura, G. (Instituto Cubano de Investigaciones de los Derivados de la Cana de Azucar (ICIDCA), La Habana (Cuba))

    1991-01-01

    It was applied a macroscopic energy balance to a solid state fermentation process and an electron balance in order to estimate the temperature and the heat evolved in the process. There were employed several equations that describe the development of the system and offer the possibility to design or control such fermentations. (orig.).

  8. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Jonathan T; Pacheco, Braydon; Russell, Gordon; Tong, Stephanie; Backstrom, Ian; Measday, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards.

  9. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiniuk, Jonathan T.; Pacheco, Braydon; Russell, Gordon; Tong, Stephanie; Backstrom, Ian; Measday, Vivien

    2016-01-01

    Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards. PMID:27551920

  10. Impact of Commercial Strain Use on Saccharomyces cerevisiae Population Structure and Dynamics in Pinot Noir Vineyards and Spontaneous Fermentations of a Canadian Winery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan T Martiniuk

    Full Text Available Wine is produced by one of two methods: inoculated fermentation, where a commercially-produced, single Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae yeast strain is used; or the traditional spontaneous fermentation, where yeast present on grape and winery surfaces carry out the fermentative process. Spontaneous fermentations are characterized by a diverse succession of yeast, ending with one or multiple strains of S. cerevisiae dominating the fermentation. In wineries using both fermentation methods, commercial strains may dominate spontaneous fermentations. We elucidate the impact of the winery environment and commercial strain use on S. cerevisiae population structure in spontaneous fermentations over two vintages by comparing S. cerevisiae populations in aseptically fermented grapes from a Canadian Pinot Noir vineyard to S. cerevisiae populations in winery-conducted fermentations of grapes from the same vineyard. We also characterize the vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations in two other geographically separate Pinot Noir vineyards farmed by the same winery. Winery fermentations were not dominated by commercial strains, but by a diverse number of strains with genotypes similar to commercial strains, suggesting that a population of S. cerevisiae derived from commercial strains is resident in the winery. Commercial and commercial-related yeast were also identified in the three vineyards examined, although at a lower frequency. There is low genetic differentiation and S. cerevisiae population structure between vineyards and between the vineyard and winery that persisted over both vintages, indicating commercial yeast are a driver of S. cerevisiae population structure. We also have evidence of distinct and persistent populations of winery and vineyard-associated S. cerevisiae populations unrelated to commercial strains. This study is the first to characterize S. cerevisiae populations in Canadian vineyards.

  11. Antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel (Camelus dromedarius) milk on spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, Mohammed A; Alhaj, Omar A; Al-Khalifah, Abdullrahman S

    2017-03-30

    Hypertension is one of the most common diseases in worldwide, thus prevention of hypertension is important in reducing the risks of cardiovascular disease. Milk contains bioactive peptides released during milk fermentation which lead to exhibit angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory. The aim of this study was to investigate the antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on rats and compared with unfermented skim camel milk as control. The antihypertensive effect of fermented skim camel milk on thirty six male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was carried out for (short-term) and (long-term) using different doses (80, 240 and 1200 mg/kg body weight). Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity was also measured using ACE Kit. The blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) in short term administration (24 hours) of 1200 mg/kg body weight fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk for long-term (20 days) decreased and affected the heart rate (beats/min). The lowest record of systolic (41 mmHg) and diastolic blood pressure (19 mmHg) were at dose of 1200 mg/kg body weight of fermented skim camel milk at 15 days of administration. Likewise, ACE activity in plasma of SHR administered fermented skim camel milk decreased significantly (p camel milk by L. helveticus and S. thermophillus in SHR rats depends on the high dose of fermented skim camel milk in short and long-term. The ACE activity inhibitory was clear with fermented skim camel milk.

  12. Scleroglucan: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

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    Shrikant A. Survase

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides produced by a variety of microorganisms find multifarious industrial applications in foods, pharmaceutical and other industries as emulsifiers, stabilizers, binders, gelling agents, lubricants, and thickening agents. One such exopolysaccharide is scleroglucan, produced by pure culture fermentation from filamentous fungi of genus Sclerotium. The review discusses the properties, fermentative production, downstream processing and applications of scleroglucan.

  13. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart; Sin, Gürkan

    Bioprocesses are inherently sensitive to fluctuations in processing conditions and must be tightly regulated to maintain cellular productivity. Industrial fermentations are often difficult to replicate across production sites or between facilities as the small operating differences in the equipment...... of a fermentation. Industrial fermentation processes are typically operated in fed batch mode, which also poses specific challenges for process monitoring and control. This is due to many reasons including non-linear behaviour, and a relatively poor understanding of the system dynamics. It is therefore challenging...

  14. Dynamics and species diversity of communities of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria during spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation in vessels.

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    Lefeber, Timothy; Gobert, William; Vrancken, Gino; Camu, Nicholas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-05-01

    To speed up research on the usefulness and selection of bacterial starter cultures for cocoa bean fermentation, a benchmark cocoa bean fermentation process under natural fermentation conditions was developed successfully. Therefore, spontaneous fermentations of cocoa pulp-bean mass in vessels on a 20 kg scale were tried out in triplicate. The community dynamics and kinetics of these fermentations were studied through a multiphasic approach. Microbiological analysis revealed a limited bacterial species diversity and targeted community dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation, as was the case during cocoa bean fermentations processes carried out in the field. LAB isolates belonged to two main (GTG)(5)-PCR clusters, namely Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, with Fructobacillus pseudofilculneus occurring occasionally; one main (GTG)(5)-PCR cluster, composed of Acetobacter pasteurianus, was found among the AAB isolates, besides minor clusters of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis. 16S rRNA-PCR-DGGE revealed that L. plantarum and L. fermentum dominated the fermentations from day two until the end and Acetobacter was the only AAB species present at the end of the fermentations. Also, species of Tatumella and Pantoea were detected culture-independently at the beginning of the fermentations. Further, it was shown through metabolite target analyses that similar substrate consumption and metabolite production kinetics occurred in the vessels compared to spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation processes. Current drawbacks of the vessel fermentations encompassed an insufficient mixing of the cocoa pulp-bean mass and retarded yeast growth. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel strategies for control of fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa

    to highly optimised industrial host strains. The focus of this project is instead on en-gineering of the process. The question to be answered in this thesis is, given a highly optimised industrial host strain, how can we operate the fermentation process in order to maximise the productivity of the system...... (2012). This model describes the fungal processes operated in the fermentation pilot plant at Novozymes A/S. This model is investigated using uncertainty analysis methods in order to as-sess the applicability to control applications. A mechanistic model approach is desirable, as it is a predictive....... This provides a prediction of the future trajectory of the process, so that it is possible to guide the system to the desired target mass. The control strategy is applied on-line at 550L scale in the Novozymes A/S fermentation pilot plant, and the method is challenged with four different sets of process...

  16. Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations in Brazil are characterized by a restricted species diversity of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Vrancken, Gino; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-10-01

    Spontaneous organic cocoa bean box fermentations were carried out on two different farms in Brazil. Physical parameters, microbial growth, bacterial species diversity [mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB)], and metabolite kinetics were monitored, and chocolates were produced from the fermented dry cocoa beans. The main end-products of the catabolism of the pulp substrates (glucose, fructose, and citric acid) by yeasts, LAB, and AAB were ethanol, lactic acid, mannitol, and/or acetic acid. Lactobacillus fermentum and Acetobacter pasteurianus were the predominating bacterial species of the fermentations as revealed through (GTG)(5)-PCR fingerprinting of isolates and PCR-DGGE of 16S rRNA gene PCR amplicons of DNA directly extracted from fermentation samples. Fructobacillus pseudoficulneus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Acetobacter senegalensis were among the prevailing species during the initial phase of the fermentations. Also, three novel LAB species were found. This study emphasized the possible participation of Enterobacteriaceae in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Tatumella ptyseos and Tatumella citrea were the prevailing enterobacterial species in the beginning of the fermentations as revealed by 16S rRNA gene-PCR-DGGE. Finally, it turned out that control over a restricted bacterial species diversity during fermentation through an ideal post-harvest handling of the cocoa beans will allow the production of high-quality cocoa and chocolates produced thereof, independent of the fermentation method or farm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dynamic changes in microbiota and mycobiota during spontaneous 'Vino Santo Trentino' fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanini, Irene; Albanese, Davide; Cavazza, Agostino; Franciosi, Elena; De Filippo, Carlotta; Donati, Claudio; Cavalieri, Duccio

    2016-03-01

    Vino Santo is a sweet wine produced from late harvesting and pressing of Nosiola grapes in a small, well-defined geographical area in the Italian Alps. We used metagenomics to characterize the dynamics of microbial communities in the products of three wineries, resulting from spontaneous fermentation with almost the same timing and procedure. Comparing fermentation dynamics and grape microbial composition, we show a rapid increase in a small number of wine yeast species, with a parallel decrease in complexity. Despite the application of similar protocols, slight changes in the procedures led to significant differences in the microbiota in the three cases of fermentation: (i) fungal content of the must varied significantly in the different wineries, (ii) Pichia membranifaciens persisted in only one of the wineries, (iii) one fermentation was characterized by the balanced presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora osmophila during the later phases. We suggest the existence of a highly winery-specific 'microbial-terroir' contributing significantly to the final product rather than a regional 'terroir'. Analysis of changes in abundance during fermentation showed evident correlations between different species, suggesting that fermentation is the result of a continuum of interaction between different species and physical-chemical parameters. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation carried out in a novel-design stainless steel tank: influence on the dynamics of microbial populations and physical-chemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Magalhães, Karina Teixeira; de Almeida, Euziclei Gonzaga; da Silva Coelho, Irene; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-02-01

    Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out in a novel-design 40-kg-capacity stainless steel tank (SST) was studied in parallel to traditional Brazilian methods of fermentation in wooden boxes (40-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB1) and 600-kg-capacity wooden boxes (WB2)) using a multiphasic approach that entailed culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa bean pulp samples and target metabolite analyses of both cocoa pulp and cotyledons. Both microbiological approaches revealed that the dominant species of major physiological roles were the same for fermentations in SST, relative to boxes. These species consisted of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Hanseniaspora sp. in the yeast group; Lactobacillus fermentum and L. plantarum in the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group; Acetobacter tropicalis belonging to the acetic acid bacteria (AAB) group; and Bacillus subtilis in the Bacillaceae family. A greater diversity of bacteria and non-Saccharomyces yeasts was observed in box fermentations. Additionally, a potentially novel AAB belonging to the genus Asaia was isolated during fermentation in WB1. Cluster analysis of the rRNA genes-PCR-DGGE profiles revealed a more complex picture of the box samples, indicating that bacterial and yeast ecology were fermentation-specific processes (wooden boxes vs. SST). The profile of carbohydrate consumption and fermentation products in the pulp and beans showed similar trends during both fermentation processes. However, the yeast-AAB-mediated conversion of carbohydrates into ethanol, and subsequent conversion of ethanol into acetic acid, was achieved with greater efficiency in SST, while temperatures were generally higher during fermentation in wooden boxes. With further refinements, the SST model may be useful in designing novel bioreactors for the optimisation of cocoa fermentation with starter cultures. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biodiversity and technological-functional potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from spontaneously fermented quinoa sourdoughs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Rodríguez, L; Vera Pingitore, E; Rollan, G; Cocconcelli, P S; Fontana, C; Saavedra, L; Vignolo, G; Hebert, E M

    2016-05-01

    To analyse lactic acid bacteria (LAB) diversity and technological-functional and safety properties of strains present during spontaneous fermented quinoa sourdoughs. Fermentation was performed by daily backslopping at 30°C for 10 days. Autochthonous LAB microbiota was monitored by a biphasic approach combining random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR and rRNA gene sequencing with PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. Identification and intraspecies differentiation allowed to group isolates within nine LAB species belonging to four genera. A succession of LAB species occurred during 10-days backslopping; Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis were detected as dominant species in the consortium. The characterization of 15 representative LAB strains was performed based on the acidifying capacity, starch and protein hydrolysis, γ-aminobutyric acid and exopolysaccharides production, antimicrobial activity and antibiotic resistance. Strains characterization led to the selection of Lact. plantarum CRL1905 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides CRL1907 as candidates to be assayed as functional starter culture for the gluten-free (GF) quinoa fermented products. Results on native LAB microbiota present during quinoa sourdough fermentation will allow the selection of strains with appropriate technological properties to be used as a novel functional starter culture for GF-fermented products. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Influence of Turning and Environmental Contamination on the Dynamics of Populations of Lactic Acid and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Cocoa Bean Heap Fermentation in Ghana▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Ángel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Addo, Solomon K.; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing. PMID:17993565

  2. Influence of turning and environmental contamination on the dynamics of populations of lactic acid and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; González, Angel; De Winter, Tom; Van Schoor, Ann; De Bruyne, Katrien; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Addo, Solomon K; De Vuyst, Luc

    2008-01-01

    The influence of turning and environmental contamination on six spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentations performed in Ghana was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological (culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques) and metabolite target analyses. A sensory analysis of chocolate made from the fermented, dried beans was performed as well. Only four clusters were found among the isolates of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter ghanensis, Acetobacter senegalensis, and a potential new Acetobacter lovaniensis-like species. Two main clusters were identified among the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated, namely, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum. No differences in biodiversity of LAB and AAB were seen for fermentations carried out at the farm and factory sites, indicating the cocoa pod surfaces and not the general environment as the main inoculum for spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation. Turning of the heaps enhanced aeration and increased the relative population size of AAB and the production of acetic acid. This in turn gave a more sour taste to chocolate made from these beans. Bitterness was reduced through losses of polyphenols and alkaloids upon fermentation and cocoa bean processing.

  3. Bacterial dynamics during yearlong spontaneous fermentation for production of ngari, a dry fermented fish product of Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Khunjamayum Romapati; Deka, Manab; Jeyaram, Kumaraswamy

    2015-04-16

    Ngari is the most popular traditionally processed non-salted fish product, prepared from sun-dried small cyprinid fish Puntius sophore (Ham.) in Manipur state of Northeast India. The microbial involvement in ngari production remained uncertain due to its low moisture content and yearlong incubation in anaerobically sealed earthen pots without any significant change in total microbial count. The culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis used during this study confirmed a drastic bacterial community structural change in comparison to its raw material. To understand the bacterial dynamics during this dry fermentation, time series samples collected over a period of nine months through destructive sampling from two indigenous ngari production centres were analysed by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent molecular methods. A total of 210 bacteria isolated from the samples were identified by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) based grouping and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity analysis. The dominant bacteria were Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. cohnii (38.0%), Tetragenococcus halophilus subsp. flandriensis (16.8%), a novel phylotype related to Lactobacillus pobuzihii (7.2%), Enterococcus faecium (7.2%), Bacillus indicus (6.3%) and Staphylococcus carnosus (3.8%). Distinct bacterial dynamics with the emergence of T. halophilus at third month (10(6)CFU/g), L. pobuzihii at sixth month (10(6)CFU/g), S. carnosus at three to six months (10(4)CFU/g) and B. indicus at six to nine months (10(5)CFU/g) in both the production centres was observed during ngari fermentation. However, the other two dominant bacteria S. cohnii and E. faecium were isolated throughout the fermentation with the population of 10(6)CFU/g and 10(4)CFU/g respectively. Culture-independent PCR-DGGE analysis further showed the presence of additional species, in which Kocuria halotolerans and Macrococcus caseolyticus disappeared during fermentation while Clostridium irregulare and

  4. Microbiota and metabolome during controlled and spontaneous fermentation of Nocellara Etnea table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randazzo, Cinzia Lucia; Todaro, Aldo; Pino, Alessandra; Pitino, Iole; Corona, Onofrio; Caggia, Cinzia

    2017-08-01

    This study is aimed to investigate bacterial community and its dynamics during the fermentation of Nocellara Etnea table olives and to study its effect on metabolome formation. Six different combination of bacterial cultures (BC1-BC6) were used as starters for table olive fermentation and one additional process, conducted without addition of any starters, was used as control (C). The processes were conducted in triplicate and, overall, 21 vessels were performed at industrial scale. The fermentation was monitored for 120 days through culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Microbial counts of the main microbial groups revealed slight differences among brine samples, with the exception of LAB counts and Enterobacteriaceae, which were higher and lower, respectively, in most of the inoculated samples than the control ones. In addition, results demonstrated that the use of bacterial cultures (except the BC1), singly or in different combinations, clearly influenced the fermentation process reducing the final pH value below 4.50. When microbiota was investigated through sequencing analysis, data revealed the presence of halophilic bacteria and, among lactobacilli, the dominance of Lactobacillus plantarum group at the initial stage of fermentation, in all brine samples, except in the BC5 in which dominated Lactobacillus casei group. At 60 and 120 days of fermentation, an overturned bacterial ecology and an increase of biodiversity was observed in all samples, with the occurrence of Lactobacillus paracollinoides, Lactobacillus acidipiscis and Pediococcus parvulus. Correlation between bacterial OTU and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) revealed that, aldehydes and alcohol compounds exhibited a positive correlation with Proteobacteria, while several esters with LAB and Hafnia. In particular, esters, associated with fruity and floral notes, were positively correlated to L. paracollinoides, L. acidipiscis, and P. parvulus species. Although the VOCs amounts were sample

  5. RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE EVOLUTION OF WINE MICROBIOTA DURING THE SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION OF RED GRAPES JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionica Deliu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to keep its place on the wine international market, Romania should produce typical wines starting from localgrape varieties and conducting the alcoholic fermentation by starter cultures obtained from local isolated wine yeast.The present study was initiated due to the fact that there are few informations regarding the evolution of winemicrorganisms in plantations and in the fermentations process for quantitative point of view.The population dynamics of microbiota in Valea Calugareasca vineyard was analysed during the alcoholicfermentation. No yeast starter cultures had been used in order to investigate the dynamics of grape-related indigenousmicroorganisms population. Classical works and methods for alcoholic fermentation monitoring have been employed atthis level.At the beginning of fermentation the total number of yeasts found is doubling, while the number of bacteria is stabilizedat a value of 103 CFU/ml. During the alcoholic fermentation the yeasts become predominant (107–108 cfu/ml andcontinue the fermentation until its completion. Significant differences regarding the evolution of yeast microbiota forquantitative point of view between varieties have been recorded.

  6. Composition of lactic acid bacteria during spontaneous curly kale (Brassica oleracea var. sabellica) fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Magdalena; Gustaw, Klaudia; Waśko, Adam; Polak-Berecka, Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    The present work is the first report on spontaneous fermentation of curly kale and characteristics of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Our results indicate that curly kale fermentation is the new possibility of the technological use of this vegetable. Bacteria representing ten different species were isolated from three phases of curly kale fermentation and identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Among them, four species were identified as Lactobacillus spp. (Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, Lb. brevis R413, Lb. curvatus 154), two as Weissella spp. (W. hellenica 152, W. cibaria G44), two as Pediococcus spp. (P. pentosaceus 45AN, P. acidilactici 2211), one as Leuconostoc mesenteroides 153, and one as Lactococcus lactis 37BN. The functional properties of isolates, i.e. acid, NaCl and bile salt tolerance, enzyme activities, adhesion to hydrocarbons, and antibiotic resistance, were examined. Among the tested strains, Lb. plantarum 332, Lb. paraplantarum G2114, P. pentosaceus 2211, and Lb. brevis R413 exhibited the best hydrophobicity value and high tolerance to bile salts, NaCl, and low pH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of fermentation and other processing steps on the folate content of a traditional African cereal-based fermented food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saubade, Fabien; Hemery, Youna M; Rochette, Isabelle; Guyot, Jean-Pierre; Humblot, Christèle

    2018-02-02

    Folate deficiency can cause a number of diseases including neural tube defects and megaloblastic anemia, and still occurs in both developed and developing countries. Cereal-based food products are staple foods in many countries, and may therefore be useful sources of folate. The production of folate by microorganisms has been demonstrated in some cereal-based fermented foods, but has never been studied in a traditional African cereal based food spontaneously fermented. The microbiota of ben-saalga, a pearl-millet based fermented porridge frequently consumed in Burkina Faso, has a good genetic potential for the synthesis of folate, but the folate content of ben-saalga is rather low, suggesting that folate is lost during the different processing steps. The aim of this study was therefore to monitor changes in folate content during the different steps of preparing ben-saalga, from pearl-millet grains to porridge. Traditional processing involves seven different steps: washing, soaking, grinding, kneading, sieving, (spontaneous) fermentation, and cooking. Two type of porridge were prepared, one using a process adapted from the traditional process, the other a modified process based on fermentation by backslopping. Dry matter and total folate contents were measured at each step, and a mass balance assessment was performed to follow folate losses and gains. Folate production was observed during the soaking of pearl-millet grains (+26% to +79%), but the folate content of sieved batters (2.5 to 3.4μg/100g fresh weight) was drastically lower than that of milled soaked grains (17.3 to 19.4μg/100g FW). The final folate content of the porridges was very low (1.5 to 2.4μg/100g FW). The fermentation had no significant impact on folate content, whatever the duration and the process used. This study led to a better understanding of the impact on folate of the different processing steps involved in the preparation of ben-saalga. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of problems with dry fermentation process for biogas production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilát, Peter; Patsch, Marek; Jandačka, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    The technology of dry anaerobic fermentation is still meeting with some scepticism, and therefore in most biogas plants are used wet fermentation technology. Fermentation process would be not complete without an optimal controlled condition: dry matter content, density, pH, and in particular the reaction temperature. If is distrust of dry fermentation eligible it was on the workplace of the Department of Power Engineering at University of Zilina built an experimental small-scale biogas station that allows analysis of optimal parameters of the dry anaerobic fermentation, in particular, however, affect the reaction temperature on yield and quality of biogas.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Illeghems

    Full Text Available This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni. Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  10. Phylogenetic analysis of a spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation metagenome reveals new insights into its bacterial and fungal community diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Papalexandratou, Zoi; Weckx, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This is the first report on the phylogenetic analysis of the community diversity of a single spontaneous cocoa bean box fermentation sample through a metagenomic approach involving 454 pyrosequencing. Several sequence-based and composition-based taxonomic profiling tools were used and evaluated to avoid software-dependent results and their outcome was validated by comparison with previously obtained culture-dependent and culture-independent data. Overall, this approach revealed a wider bacterial (mainly γ-Proteobacteria) and fungal diversity than previously found. Further, the use of a combination of different classification methods, in a software-independent way, helped to understand the actual composition of the microbial ecosystem under study. In addition, bacteriophage-related sequences were found. The bacterial diversity depended partially on the methods used, as composition-based methods predicted a wider diversity than sequence-based methods, and as classification methods based solely on phylogenetic marker genes predicted a more restricted diversity compared with methods that took all reads into account. The metagenomic sequencing analysis identified Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus fermentum, and Acetobacter pasteurianus as the prevailing species. Also, the presence of occasional members of the cocoa bean fermentation process was revealed (such as Erwinia tasmaniensis, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Oenococcus oeni). Furthermore, the sequence reads associated with viral communities were of a restricted diversity, dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae, and reflecting Lactobacillus as the dominant host. To conclude, an accurate overview of all members of a cocoa bean fermentation process sample was revealed, indicating the superiority of metagenomic sequencing over previously used techniques.

  11. Diversity and functionality of Bacillus and related genera isolated from spontaneously fermented soybeans (Indian Kinema) and locus beans (African Soumbala)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkar, P.K.; Hasenack, B.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2002-01-01

    A total of 126 isolates of Bacillus and related genera from indigenous, spontaneously fermented soybeans (Kinema) and locust beans (Soumbala) were characterized with the purpose of defining interspecific, as well as intraspecific relationships among the components of their microflora. B. subtilis

  12. Reverse Osmosis Processing of Organic Model Compounds and Fermentation Broths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    key species found in the fermentation broth: ethanol, butanol, acetic acid, oxalic acid, lactic acid, and butyric acid. Correlations of the rejection...AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2007-4545 POSTPRINT REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESSING OF ORGANIC MODEL COMPOUNDS AND FERMENTATION BROTHS Robert Diltz...TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) Bioresource Technology 98 (2007) 686–695Reverse osmosis processing of organic model compounds and fermentation broths

  13. AN INFLUENCE OF SPONTANEOUS MICROFLORA OF FERMENTED HORSEMEAT PRODUCTS ON THE FORMATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PEPTIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Chernukha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, different methods are used to accumulate functional peptides in meat raw materials, including the use of spontaneous microflora during autolysis, the use of the microbial enzymes (the application of starter cultures and the use of the non-microbial enzymes (enzymes of animals and plant origin. Each method has its own specific characteristics of an impact on raw materials, which requires their detail study. This paper examines an effect of spontaneous microflora of fermented meat products from horsemeat on formation of biologically active peptides. Using the T-RFLP analysis, it was established that in air dried and uncooked smoked sausages produced with the use of the muscle tissue of horsemeat as a raw material, a significant proportion of microflora was presented by lactic acid microorganisms. The highest content of lactic acid microflora was observed in sample 1 (52.45 %, and the least in sample 3 (29.62 %. Sample 2 had the medium percent content of microflora compared to samples 1 and 3 — 38.82 %. It is necessary to note that about 25 % of microflora was unculturable; i.e., it had metabolic processes but did not grow on culture media. In the samples, the representatives of Actinobacteria and Pseudomonadales were found. Pathogenic and conditionally pathogenic microflora was not detected. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the studied samples. For example, in samples 1 and 2, the fractions of amilo-1,6-glucosidase, fast-type muscle myosin-binding-protein C; glucose-6-phosphate isomerase; fast skeletal muscle troponin I, phosphoglycerate kinase, pyruvate kinase and skeletal muscle actin were found, which were absent or reduced in sample 3. Therefore, in the studied product, good preservation of the main spectra of muscle proteins was observed, and the identified fractions, apparently, can be sources of new functional peptides. Not only quantitative but also qualitative changes were observed in the

  14. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiane da Silva Oliveira Nunes

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52, belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil, and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  15. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis. PMID:28419110

  16. Cocoa pulp in beer production: Applicability and fermentative process performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Cassiane da Silva Oliveira; de Carvalho, Giovani Brandão Mafra; da Silva, Marília Lordêlo Cardoso; da Silva, Gervásio Paulo; Machado, Bruna Aparecida Souza; Uetanabaro, Ana Paula Trovatti

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluated the effect of cocoa pulp as a malt adjunct on the parameters of fermentation for beer production on a pilot scale. For this purpose, yeast isolated from the spontaneous fermentation of cachaça (SC52), belonging to the strain bank of the State University of Feira de Santana-Ba (Brazil), and a commercial strain of ale yeast (Safale S-04 Belgium) were used. The beer produced was subjected to acceptance and purchase intention tests for sensorial analysis. At the beginning of fermentation, 30% cocoa pulp (adjunct) was added to the wort at 12°P concentration. The production of beer on a pilot scale was carried out in a bioreactor with a 100-liter capacity, a usable volume of 60 liters, a temperature of 22°C and a fermentation time of 96 hours. The fermentation parameters evaluated were consumption of fermentable sugars and production of ethanol, glycerol and esters. The beer produced using the adjunct and yeast SC52 showed better fermentation performance and better acceptance according to sensorial analysis.

  17. A Perspective on PSE in Fermentation Process Development and Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gernaey, Krist

    2015-01-01

    Compared to the chemical industry, the use of PSE methods and tools is not as widespread in industrial fermentation processes. This paper gives an overview of some of the main engineering challenges in industrial fermentation processes. Furthermore, a number of mathematical models are highlighted...... as examples of PSE methods and tools that are used in the context of industrial fermentation technology. Finally, it is discussed what could be done to increase the future use of PSE methods and tools within the industrial fermentation technology area....

  18. Alcoholic fermentation process control by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, J.; Dincer, A.K.; Ivie, K.

    1983-02-01

    In large-scale fermentation for energy production high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) provides an accurate method of monitoring the original oligosaccharides and polysaccharides, as well as their hydrolysis to fermentable monosaccharides. Also measuring the saccharide and alcohol content of the fermentation vat allows overseeing of the process, providing the capability of allowing the fermentation to proceed to the most economical level prior to distillation. Another application for HPLC in a large-scale fermentation for energy is to analyze the stillage for its ethanol content during distillation, in order to observe the efficiency of the still. HPLC can separate and detect very low levels, (i.e., 100 parts per million), of ethanol to yield information concerning the distillation process. These capabilities indicate that HPLC is an extremely useful efficient instrument to the fermentation industries. (Refs. 2).

  19. Optimal Control of Beer Fermentation Process Using Differential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the mathematical model of batch fermentation process of ethanol was formulated. The method of differential transform was used to obtain the solution governing the fermentation process; the system of equation was transformed using the differential transform method. The result obtained from the model was ...

  20. Bacillus licheniformis affects the microbial community and metabolic profile in the spontaneous fermentation of Daqu starter for Chinese liquor making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Wu, Qun; Jiang, Xuejian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Tang, Jingli; Xu, Yan

    2017-06-05

    Chinese liquor is produced from spontaneous fermentation starter (Daqu) that provides the microbes, enzymes and flavors for liquor fermentation. To improve the flavor character of Daqu, we inoculated Bacillus licheniformis and studied the effect of this strain on the community structure and metabolic profile in Daqu fermentation. The microbial relative abundance changed after the inoculation, including the increase in Bacillus, Clavispora and Aspergillus, and the decrease in Pichia, Saccharomycopsis and some other genera. This variation was also confirmed by pure culture and coculture experiments. Seventy-three metabolites were identified during Daqu fermentation process. After inoculation, the average content of aromatic compounds were significantly enriched from 0.37mg/kg to 0.90mg/kg, and the average content of pyrazines significantly increased from 0.35mg/kg to 5.71mg/kg. The increase in pyrazines was positively associated with the metabolism of the inoculated Bacillus and the native genus Clavispora, because they produced much more pyrazines in their cocultures. Whereas the increase in aromatic compounds might be related to the change of in situ metabolic activity of several native genera, in particular, Aspergillus produced more aromatic compounds in cocultures with B. licheniformis. It indicated that the inoculation of B. licheniformis altered the flavor character of Daqu by both its own metabolic activity and the variation of in situ metabolic activity. Moreover, B. licheniformis inoculation influenced the enzyme activity of Daqu, including the significant increase in amylase activity (from 1.3gstarch/g/h to 1.7gstarch/g/h), and the significant decrease in glucoamylase activity (from 627.6mgglucose/g/h to 445.6mgglucose/g/h) and esterase activity (from 28.1mgethylcaproate/g/100h to 17.2mgethylcaproate/g/100h). These effects of inoculation were important factors for regulating the metabolism of microbial communities, hence for improving the flavor profile

  1. Sulfur dioxide addition at crush alters Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain composition in spontaneous fermentations at two Canadian wineries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sydney C; Scholl, Chrystal M; Benson, Natasha L; Stone, Morgan L; Durall, Daniel M

    2017-03-06

    During winemaking, sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is often added prior to the onset of alcoholic fermentation to prevent the growth of spoilage microorganisms and to create an environment that promotes the rapid colonization of the grape must by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Most recent research has focused on the impacts of SO 2 additions on spoilage microorganisms or on the yeast community at a species level, but less is known about the impacts that SO 2 additions have on S. cerevisiae populations. We investigated whether different levels of SO 2 addition at crush (0, 20, or 40mg/L SO 2 ) have an effect upon the relative abundance and composition of S. cerevisiae strains conducting spontaneous fermentations of two grape varietals at two commercial wineries. Yeast isolates collected from fermentations were identified to the strain level using microsatellite analysis. Commercial strains made up the majority (64-98%) of the S. cerevisiae strains isolated during fermentation, and most of these commercial strains were used as inoculants by their respective wineries. Different SO 2 additions were found to significantly alter S. cerevisiae strain compositions at both wineries (p≤0.002). The results of this study demonstrate that initial SO 2 addition significantly alters the S. cerevisiae strain composition in spontaneous fermentations, and highlights the dominance of commercial strains in commercial winery environments. Because different yeast strains are known to produce different chemical and sensory profiles, our findings have important implications for winemakers. In addition, adding different concentrations of SO 2 may be a way for winemakers to manage or control the strain composition during spontaneous fermentations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusianto .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor machine and plastic sacks; fermentation agents (fresh cage-luwakcoffee, “ragi tape”, “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk; temperature of fermentation (room, 30 C, 35 C, and 40 C; and duration of fermentation (6, 12, and 18 hours. The experiment were replicated three times. Wet-coffee parchments were washed and sundried until moisture content reached 12%. The dried parchment was hulled and examined for the bean quality and flavors. The experiment indicated that 40 C fermentation in fermentor machine resulted in higher content of “full sour defect”. Fermentation agents significanly influenced bean size. Temperature treatment significanly influenced bulk density and bean size. The best flavor profile was obtained from fermentation in plastic sack at ambient temperature. Bacteria of fermented milk and “fresh luwak coffee” as fermentation agents resulted up to excellent flavor. Twelve hours fermentation produced best flavor of Arabica coffee compared to 6 and 18 hours. Key words: Arabica coffee, fermentation, flavour, fermentation agents

  3. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Culture in the Production of Nunu, a Spontaneously Fermented Milk Product in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortune Akabanda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nunu, a spontaneously fermented yoghurt-like product, is produced and consumed in parts of West Africa. A total of 373 predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB previously isolated and identified from Nunu product were assessed in vitro for their technological properties (acidification, exopolysaccharides production, lipolysis, proteolysis and antimicrobial activities. Following the determination of technological properties, Lactobacillus fermentum 22-16, Lactobacillus plantarum 8-2, Lactobacillus helveticus 22-7, and Leuconostoc mesenteroides 14-11 were used as single and combined starter cultures for Nunu fermentation. Starter culture fermented Nunu samples were assessed for amino acids profile and rate of acidification and were subsequently evaluated for consumer acceptability. For acidification properties, 82%, 59%, 34%, and 20% of strains belonging to Lactobacillus helveticus, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and Leu. mesenteriodes, respectively, demonstrated fast acidification properties. High proteolytic activity (>100 to 150 μg/mL was observed for 50% Leu. mesenteroides, 40% L. fermentum, 41% L. helveticus, 27% L. plantarum, and 10% Ent. faecium species. In starter culture fermented Nunu samples, all amino acids determined were detected in Nunu fermented with single starters of L. plantarum and L. helveticus and combined starter of L. fermntum and L. helveticus. Consumer sensory analysis showed varying degrees of acceptability for Nunu fermented with the different starter cultures.

  4. A review on traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages: microbiota, fermentation process and quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Filiz; Karbancıoglu-Güler, Funda; Daskaya-Dikmen, Ceren; Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-10-01

    Shalgam juice, hardaliye, boza, ayran (yoghurt drink) and kefir are the most known traditional Turkish fermented non-alcoholic beverages. The first three are obtained from vegetables, fruits and cereals, and the last two ones are made of milk. Shalgam juice, hardaliye and ayran are produced by lactic acid fermentation. Their microbiota is mainly composed of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei in shalgam fermentation and L. paracasei subsp. paracasei and Lactobacillus casei subsp. pseudoplantarum in hardaliye fermentation are predominant. Ayran is traditionally prepared by mixing yoghurt with water and salt. Yoghurt starter cultures are used in industrial ayran production. On the other hand, both alcohol and lactic acid fermentation occur in boza and kefir. Boza is prepared by using a mixture of maize, wheat and rice or their flours and water. Generally previously produced boza or sourdough/yoghurt are used as starter culture which is rich in Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts. Kefir is prepared by inoculation of raw milk with kefir grains which consists of different species of yeasts, LAB, acetic acid bacteria in a protein and polysaccharide matrix. The microbiota of boza and kefir is affected from raw materials, the origin and the production methods. In this review, physicochemical properties, manufacturing technologies, microbiota and shelf life and spoilage of traditional fermented beverages were summarized along with how fermentation conditions could affect rheological properties of end product which are important during processing and storage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Identification and characterization of wild lactobacilli and pediococci from spontaneously fermented Mountain cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafa, Ilaria; Nardin, Tiziana; Larcher, Roberto; Viola, Roberto; Tuohy, Kieran; Franciosi, Elena

    2015-06-01

    The Traditional Mountain Malga (TMM) cheese is made from raw cow's milk by spontaneously fermentation in small farms called "Malga" located in Trentino region. This study was designed to characterize the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growing on MRS medium, of TMM-cheese at the end of the ripening. Ninety-five LAB were isolated and genotypically characterized by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) with two primers, species-specific PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. The 95 LAB clustered in 70 biotypes. Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus paracasei were the dominant species. Isolates were tested for their growth properties, carbohydrate metabolism, acidifying ability, proteolytic and lipolytic activities, acetoin production, amino-peptidase (AP) activity, biogenic amines production, bile salts hydrolysis, conjugated linoleic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid production. Lb. paracasei isolates resulted to be well adapted to Malga environment and to show the best AP activity and acetoin production. TMM-cheese related LAB showed also interesting health promoting properties and produced bioactive substances. In particular, one Lb. brevis biotype produced a GABA mean value of 129 mg/L that is considered a high concentration. The results confirmed that TMM-cheese resident LAB could be exploited for dairy production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Isolation and Identification of the Indigenous Yeast Population during Spontaneous Fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) Grape Must

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond Eder, María L.; Reynoso, Cristina; Lauret, Santiago C.; Rosa, Alberto L.

    2017-01-01

    Grape must harbors a complex community of yeast species responsible for spontaneous alcoholic fermentation. Although there are detailed studies on the microbiota of Vitis vinifera L. grapes, less is known about the diversity and behavior of yeast communities present on fermenting grape must from other species of Vitis. In this work, we used a culture-dependent method to study the identity and dynamics of the indigenous yeast population present during the spontaneous fermentation of Isabella (Vitis labrusca L.) grape must. Alcoholic fermentation was conducted using standard enological practices, and the associated non-Saccharomyces and S. cerevisiae yeast community was analyzed using selective growth media and 5.8-ITS DNA sequencing. Candida californica, Candida hellenica, Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina), Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Hanseniaspora vineae were the main non-Saccharomyces species identified on Isabella fermenting must. Issatchenkia hanoiensis, a yeast species rarely found on Vitis vinifera L. grapes, was also recognized on Isabella grape must. Candida azymoides, Candida californica and Pichia cecembensis, identified in this work on Isabella fermenting must, have not previously been found on Vitis vinifera L. grape must. Interestingly, C. azymoides, I. hanoiensis and P. cecembensis have recently been isolated from the surface of Vitis labrusca L. grapes from vineyards in the Azores archipelago, suggesting that specific Vitis-yeast species associations are formed independently of geographic origin. We suggest that C. azymoides, C. californica, and P. cecembensis are yeast species preferentially associated with Vitis labrusca L. grapes. Specific biological interactions between grapevines and yeast species may underlie the assembly of differential Vitis-microbial communities. PMID:28424672

  7. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Fermentation on Processed Chocolate in West Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    H, Jhon David; P, Tommy

    2011-01-01

    Research studies of fermentation effects on processed chocolate have been made. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of different levels of fermentation of cocoa preparations (pasta, fats and powder) to the chemical quality and flavor. Harvested Cocoa beans will be treated fermentation. The treatment used was the time of fermentation namely: (A) Non fermentation, (B) Imperfect fermentation (4 days) and (C) Perfect fermentation (5 days). The parameters observed was: (a) chemical qua...

  8. Mechanistic Fermentation Models for Process Design, Monitoring, and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-10-01

    Mechanistic models require a significant investment of time and resources, but their application to multiple stages of fermentation process development and operation can make this investment highly valuable. This Opinion article discusses how an established fermentation model may be adapted for application to different stages of fermentation process development: planning, process design, monitoring, and control. Although a longer development time is required for such modeling methods in comparison to purely data-based model techniques, the wide range of applications makes them a highly valuable tool for fermentation research and development. In addition, in a research environment, where collaboration is important, developing mechanistic models provides a platform for knowledge sharing and consolidation of existing process understanding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Optimal control of switched systems arising in fermentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chongyang

    2014-01-01

    The book presents, in a systematic manner, the optimal controls under different mathematical models in fermentation processes. Variant mathematical models – i.e., those for multistage systems; switched autonomous systems; time-dependent and state-dependent switched systems; multistage time-delay systems and switched time-delay systems – for fed-batch fermentation processes are proposed and the theories and algorithms of their optimal control problems are studied and discussed. By putting forward novel methods and innovative tools, the book provides a state-of-the-art and comprehensive systematic treatment of optimal control problems arising in fermentation processes. It not only develops nonlinear dynamical system, optimal control theory and optimization algorithms, but can also help to increase productivity and provide valuable reference material on commercial fermentation processes.

  10. Mechanistic Fermentation Models for Process Design, Monitoring, and Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads Orla

    2017-01-01

    Mechanistic models require a significant investment of time and resources, but their application to multiple stages of fermentation process development and operation can make this investment highly valuable. This Opinion article discusses how an established fermentation model may be adapted...... for application to different stages of fermentation process development: planning, process design, monitoring, and control. Although a longer development time is required for such modeling methods in comparison to purely data-based model techniques, the wide range of applications makes them a highly valuable tool...... for fermentation research and development. In addition, in a research environment, where collaboration is important, developing mechanistic models provides a platform for knowledge sharing and consolidation of existing process understanding....

  11. Microbiological diversity associated with the spontaneous wet method of coffee fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2015-10-01

    The evaluation of the microbiota present during coffee wet fermentation was done in two distinct regions of Minas Gerais, Brazil: one farm in the South of Minas Gerais (Lavras=L) and another farm in the savannah region (Monte Carmelo=MC). The yeast population ranged from 2.48 to 4.92 log CFU/g and from 2 to 4.81 log CFU/g, the mesophilic bacteria population ranged from 3.83 to 8.47 log CFU/g and from 5.37 to 7.36 log CFU/g, and the LAB population ranged from 2.57 to 5.66 log CFU/g and from 3.40 to 4.49 log CFU/g in the L and MC farms, respectively. Meyerozyma caribbica and Hanseniaspora uvarum were the dominant yeasts in coffee wet fermentation at L farm, and Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast at MC farm. The species Staphylococcus warneri and Erwinia persicina were the predominant bacteria at L farm, and Enterobacter asburiae and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the dominant species at MC farm. Lactic acid was the principal acid detected, reaching 2.33 g/kg at L farm and 1.40 g/kg at MC farm by the end of the process. The volatiles composition was similar for roasted coffee from the two different regions and furans, acids, and alcohol were the main groups detected. Temporal Dominance Sensation (TDS) analyses showed that the coffee beverage from L farm was dominated by citrus and herbaceous sensory characteristics, while the coffee from MC farm was dominated by citrus, herbaceous, and nuts sensory characteristics. Evaluating the microbiota in these two regions was important in improving the knowledge of the microbial species present during coffee wet fermentation in Brazil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality and Flavor Profiles of Arabica Coffee Processed by Some Fermentation Treatments: Temperature, Containers, and Fermentation Agents Addition

    OpenAIRE

    Yusianto; Widyotomo, Sukrisno

    2013-01-01

    Coffee fermentation is a step of wet processing. In fact, some microorganisms naturally exist on the surface of coffee cherry. Using a starter culture of microorganisms may change equilibrium of microorganism population. Among some safe fermentation agents are present in “ragi tape” (yeast), “ragi tempe”, and fermented milk. A fermentor machine equipped with eating-control and stirrer had been designed, and tested before. Some treatments investigated were fermentation containers (fermentor ma...

  13. Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes : The underestimated potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.T.W.M.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also

  14. Dynamic study of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during the spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc in Jingyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiao; Liu, Yanlin

    2013-04-01

    The evolution of yeast species and Saccharomyces cerevisiae genotypes during spontaneous fermentations of Muscat blanc planted in 1957 in Jingyang region of China was followed in this study. Using a combination of colony morphology on Wallerstein Nutrient (WLN) medium, sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and 5.8S-ITS-RFLP analysis, a total of 686 isolates were identified at the species level. The six species identified were S. cerevisiae, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Hanseniaspora opuntiae, Issatchenkia terricola, Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis) and Trichosporon coremiiforme. This is the first report of T. coremiiforme as an inhabitant of grape must. Three new colony morphologies on WLN medium and one new 5.8S-ITS-RFLP profile are described. Species of non-Saccharomyces, predominantly H. opuntiae, were found in early stages of fermentation. Subsequently, S. cerevisiae prevailed followed by large numbers of P. kudriavzevii that dominated at the end of fermentations. Six native genotypes of S. cerevisiae were determined by interdelta sequence analysis. Genotypes III and IV were predominant. As a first step in exploring untapped yeast resources of the region, this study is important for monitoring the yeast ecology in native fermentations and screening indigenous yeasts that will produce wines with regional characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complex media from processing of agricultural crops for microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, M.H.

    2005-01-01

    This mini-review describes the concept of the green biorefinery and lists a number of suitable agricultural by-products, which can be used for production of bioenergy and/or biochemicals. A process, in which one possible agricultural by-product from the green crop drying industry, brown juice...... examples of such products-polylactic acid and L-lysine-are given. A cost calculation shows that this fermentation medium can be produced at a very low cost approximate to 1.7 Euro cent/kg, when taking into account that the green crop industry has expenses amounting to 270,000 Euro/year for disposal...... of the brown juice. A newly built lysine factory in Esbjerg, Denmark, can benefit from this process by buying a low price medium for the fermentation process instead of more expensive traditional fermentation liquids such as corn steep liquor....

  16. Microbial fuel cell treatment of ethanol fermentation process water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P [Knoxville, TN

    2012-06-05

    The present invention relates to a method for removing inhibitor compounds from a cellulosic biomass-to-ethanol process which includes a pretreatment step of raw cellulosic biomass material and the production of fermentation process water after production and removal of ethanol from a fermentation step, the method comprising contacting said fermentation process water with an anode of a microbial fuel cell, said anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of said inhibitor compounds while producing electrical energy or hydrogen from said oxidative degradation, and wherein said anode is in electrical communication with a cathode, and a porous material (such as a porous or cation-permeable membrane) separates said anode and cathode.

  17. Imaging for monitoring downstream processing of fermentation broths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Baum, Andreas; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini

    In relation to downstream processing of a fermentation broth coagulation/flocculation is a typical pretreatment method for separating undesirable particles/impurities from the wanted product. In the coagulation process the negatively charged impurities are destabilized by adding of a clarifying...

  18. Chemical Assessment of White Wine during Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodora Coldea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There were investigated chemical properties of indigenous white wine varieties (Fetească albă, Fetească regală and Galbenă de Odobeşti during fermentation. The white wine making process took place at Wine Pilot Station of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca. We aimed to monitorize the evolution of fermentation process parameters (temperature, alcohol content, and real extract and the quality of the bottled white wine (total acidity, alcohol content, total sulfur dioxide, total dry extract. The results obtained were in accordance to Romanian Legislation.

  19. Aroma formation by immobilized yeast cells in fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, V; Gibson, B; Mantzouridou, T F; Bugarski, B; Djordjević, V; Kalušević, A; Paraskevopoulou, A; Sandell, M; Šmogrovičová, D; Yilmaztekin, M

    2015-01-01

    Immobilized cell technology has shown a significant promotional effect on the fermentation of alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine and cider. However, genetic, morphological and physiological alterations occurring in immobilized yeast cells impact on aroma formation during fermentation processes. The focus of this review is exploitation of existing knowledge on the biochemistry and the biological role of flavour production in yeast for the biotechnological production of aroma compounds of industrial importance, by means of immobilized yeast. Various types of carrier materials and immobilization methods proposed for application in beer, wine, fruit wine, cider and mead production are presented. Engineering aspects with special emphasis on immobilized cell bioreactor design, operation and scale-up potential are also discussed. Ultimately, examples of products with improved quality properties within the alcoholic beverages are addressed, together with identification and description of the future perspectives and scope for cell immobilization in fermentation processes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. New alternatives for the fermentation process in the ethanol production from sugarcane: Extractive and low temperature fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios-Bereche, Reynaldo; Ensinas, Adriano; Modesto, Marcelo; Nebra, Silvia A.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is produced in large scale from sugarcane in Brazil by fermentation of sugars and distillation. This is currently considered as an efficient biofuel technology, leading to significant reduction on greenhouse gases emissions. However, some improvements in the process can be introduced in order to improve the use of energy. In current distilleries, a significant fraction of the energy consumption occurs in the purification step – distillation and dehydration – since conventional fermentation systems employed in the industry require low substrate concentration, which must be distilled, consequently with high energy consumption. In this study, alternatives to the conventional fermentation processes are assessed, through computer simulation: low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. The aim of this study is to assess the incorporation of these alternative fermentation processes in ethanol production, energy consumption and electricity surplus produced in the cogeneration system. Several cases were evaluated. Thermal integration technique was applied. Results shown that the ethanol production increases between 3.3% and 4.8% and a reduction in steam consumption happens of up to 36%. About the electricity surplus, a value of 85 kWh/t of cane can be achieved when condensing – extracting steam turbines are used. - Highlights: • Increasing the wine concentration in the ethanol production from sugarcane. • Alternatives to the conventional fermentation process. • Low temperature fermentation and vacuum extractive fermentation. • Reduction of steam consumption through the thermal integration of the processes. • Different configurations of cogeneration system maximizing the electricity surplus

  1. Development of a high temperature microbial fermentation process for butanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeor, Jeffery D. St. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Reed, David W. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daubaras, Dayna L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Thompson, Vicki S. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Transforming renewable biomass into cost-competitive high-performance biofuels and bioproducts is key to the U.S. future energy and chemical needs. Butanol production by microbial fermentation for chemical conversion to polyolefins, elastomers, drop-in jet or diesel fuel, and other chemicals is a promising solution. A high temperature fermentation process could decrease energy costs, capital cost, give higher butanol production, and allow for continuous fermentation. In this paper, we describe our approach to genetically transform Geobacillus caldoxylosiliticus, using a pUCG18 plasmid, for potential insertion of a butanol production pathway. Transformation methods tested were electroporation of electrocompetent cells, ternary conjugation with E. coli donor and helper strains, and protoplast fusion. These methods have not been successful using the current plasmid. Growth controls show cells survive the various methods tested, suggesting the possibility of transformation inhibition from a DNA restriction modification system in G. caldoxylosiliticus, as reported in the literature.

  2. Effect of processing (sprouting and fermentation) of five local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLEMENT O BEWAJI

    ABSTRACT: The effect of processing (combined sprouting and fermentation) on chemical composition, tannin content, in vitro protein digestibility and mineral element composition of five local varieties were studied. The five varieties studied were: “chakalari white, chakalari red, yafimoro, tumbuna and mire”. The parameters ...

  3. Fermentation of sewage sludge using the MixAlco process

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    biological treatment, and is usually in the form of a liquid or semi-solid liquid that contains around 0.25 – 12% solids ... Figure 1 below gives a process flow diagram of the various operations involved. Figure 1. Overview of .... countercurrent fermentation - Effect of using intermediate lime treatment. Applied Biochemistry and ...

  4. Eco-efficient butanol separation in the ABE fermentation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patraşcu, Iulian; Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Kiss, Anton A.

    2017-01-01

    Butanol is considered a superior biofuel, as it is more energy dense and less hygroscopic than the more popular ethanol, resulting in higher possible blending ratios with gasoline. However, the production cost of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is still high, mainly due to the

  5. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  6. Stability of the pyrethroid pesticide bifenthrin in milled wheat during thermal processing, yeast and lactic acid fermentation, and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorđević, Tijana M; Šiler-Marinković, Slavica S; Ðurović, Rada D; Dimitrijević-Branković, Suzana I; Gajić Umiljendić, Jelena S

    2013-10-01

    Pesticide residues have become an unavoidable part of food commodities. In the context of increased interest for food processing techniques as a tool for reducing pesticide residues, it is interesting to study the potential loss of pesticides during lactic acid and yeast fermentation. In the present paper the effect of fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and storage on 23 °C on bifenthrin in wheat was investigated. In addition, the effect of sterilisation (applied in order to avoid contamination with wild microorganism strains, i.e. to determine the individual effects of used strains) on bifenthrin degradation was tested as well. No significant loss of bifenthrin was observed during storage, or after the sterilisation. During the lactic acid fermentation, reduction within wheat fortified with 0.5 mg kg(-1) was 42%, while quite lower within samples fortified with 2.5 mg kg(-1) , maximum 18%. In contrast, bifenthrin concentration was not reduced during yeast fermentation, as the reduction in fortified samples was in the range of spontaneous chemical degradation during incubation period. Possible bifenthrin contamination in wheat, in amounts over the maximum residue limits, could not be reduced by sterilisation or by yeast fermentation, but lactic acid fermentation could be an effective tool for minimising residual contamination. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoek; Pim , Aristidou; Aristos , Rush; Brian

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  8. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoek, Pim [Minnetonka, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Rush, Brian [Minneapolis, MN

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  9. Gellan Gum: Fermentative Production, Downstream Processing and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishwar B. Bajaj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial exopolysaccharides are water-soluble polymers secreted by microorganisms during fermentation. The biopolymer gellan gum is a relatively recent addition to the family of microbial polysaccharides that is gaining much importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries due to its novel properties. It is commercially produced by C. P. Kelco in Japan and the USA. Further research and development in biopolymer technology is expected to expand its use. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the gellan gum synthesized by Sphingomonas paucimobilis with special emphasis on its fermentative production and downstream processing. Rheological behaviour of fermentation broth during fermentative production of gellan gum and problems associated with mass transfer have been addressed. Information on the biosynthetic pathway of gellan gum, enzymes and precursors involved in gellan gum production and application of metabolic engineering for enhancement of yield of gellan gum has been specified. Characteristics of gellan gum with respect to its structure, physicochemical properties, rheology of its solutions and gel formation behaviour are discussed. An attempt has also been made to review the current and potential applications of gellan gum in food, pharmaceutical and other industries.

  10. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and...

  11. Monitoring of Lactic Fermentation Process by Ultrasonic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alouache, B.; Touat, A.; Boutkedjirt, T.; Bennamane, A.

    The non-destructive control by using ultrasound techniques has become of great importance in food industry. In this work, Ultrasound has been used for quality control and monitoring the fermentation stages of yogurt, which is a highly consumed product. On the contrary to the physico-chemical methods, where the measurement instruments are directly introduced in the sample, ultrasound techniques have the advantage of being non-destructive and contactless, thus reducing the risk of contamination. Results obtained in this study by using ultrasound seem to be in good agreement with those obtained by physico-chemical methods such as acidity measurement by using a PH-meter instrument. This lets us to conclude that ultrasound method may be an alternative for a healthy control of yoghurt fermentation process.

  12. Background information for the economic assessment of solvent fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    An economic assessment of solvent fermentation processes was made. The question of whether or not the increased costs for petrochemical raw materials are sufficiently high now (or their projected costs in the 1980's), such that certain chemicals could be produced commercially from a cheaper raw material, say cellulosics, via various fermentation routes is considered. Specific examples under consideratin are n-butanol, propionic acid, and acetic acid. A qualitative approach was developed, based on major cost factors of alternative routes for making such projections. The technique described can be made as quantitative as desired by applying accepted engineering design and economic analysis principles to the complex, interacting factors that are involved. Some broad qualitative conclusions are made.

  13. Proteomic insight into the primycin fermentation process of Saccharomonospora azurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, Andrea; Kiss, Írisz Éva; Fodor, István; Kovács, Márk; Urbán, Péter; Jámbor, Éva; Fekete, Csaba; Kerepesi, Ildikó

    2016-12-01

    Saccharomonospora azurea SZMC 14600 is a member of the family Pseudonocardiaceae exclusively used for industrial scale production of primycin a large 36-membered non-polyene macrolide lactone antibiotic belonging to the polyketide class of natural products. Even though maximum antibiotic yield has been achieved by empirically optimized two-step fermentation process, little is known about the molecular components and mechanisms underlying the efficient antibiotic production. In order to identify differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between the pre- and main-fermentation stages of primycin, comparative 2D-PAGE experiments were performed. In total, 98 DEP spots were reproducibly detected, out of which four spots were excised from gels, and identified through MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis revealed peptide matches to HicB antitoxin for the HicAB toxin-antitoxin system (EHK86651), to a nucleoside diphosphate kinase regulator ((Ndk; EHK81899) and two other proteins with unknown function (EHK88946 and EHK86777).

  14. Effect of spontaneous fermentation and amylase-rich flour on the nutritive value, functional and viscoelastic properties of cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene; Aidoo, Philip Roger; Adjonu, Randy

    2010-05-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of spontaneous fermentation and amylase-rich flours (ARF) on some nutritive value, functional and viscoelastic properties of cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. A 2 x 3 x 3 factorial design, with fermentation medium, fermentation time and ARF level, was performed. The blends were fermented for the specific times and analysed for their titratable acidity, pH, water absorption capacity, viscoelastic properties, texture, protein and mineral content. Fermentation and ARF addition influenced titratable acidity, pH, water absorption, viscoelastic properties and texture of the cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize. Addition of ARF decreased the viscoelastic properties, texture and pH of all the blends with a corresponding increase in acidity. Slight increases in protein and ash contents were noted with products fermented in coconut water, but ARF addition had only a marginal effect. Thus, fermentation and ARF addition could be applied to cowpea-fortified nixtamalized maize to enhance the functionalities with reduced viscosity and texture suitable for weaning food formulations.

  15. Genetic segregation of natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains derived from spontaneous fermentation of Aglianico wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipiczki, M; Romano, P; Capece, A; Paraggio, M

    2004-01-01

    Investigation of the meiotic segregation of karyotypes and physiological traits in indigenous Saccharomyces strains isolated from Aglianico (South Italy) red wine. Segregation was studied in F1 and F2 descendants. Tetrads were isolated from sporulating cultures by micromanipulation. The spore clones were subjected to karyotype analysis by pulse-field gel electrophoresis (Bio-Rad model CHEF-DR II) and to various physiological tests. Certain chromosomes of the isolates showed 2:2 segregation patterns in F1 but proved to be stable in F2. The ability of cells to utilize maltose also segregated in a 2 : 2 manner in F1 and did not segregate in F2. Resistance to CuSO4, SO2 tolerance, the fermentative power and the production of certain metabolites segregated in both F1 and F2 generations and showed patterns indicating the involvement of polygenic regulation. The analysis revealed a high degree of genetic instability and demonstrated that meiosis can improve chromosomal and genetic stability. Winemaking is critically dependent on the physiological properties and genetic stability of the fermenting Saccharomyces yeasts. Selection of clones from F2 or later generations can be a method of reduction of genetic instability.

  16. Monitoring the convection coefficient in fermentative processes using numerical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Paz, Priscila Marques; de Oliveira, Juliana

    2018-02-13

    This work is based on the importance of monitoring the thermodynamic variables of sugarcane juice fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a numerical technique, and providing artifices that lead to the best performance of this bioprocess. Different combinations of yeast quantity were added to diverse dilutions of cane juice, allowing the evaluation of the fermentation performance. This was conducted by observing the temperature signal obtained from thermal probes inserted in the experimental set up. The best performances are utilized in the mathematical model evaluation. Thus, the signal reconstructed by the appropriate inverse problem and subsequently, regularized by the simplified method of least squares (the method used for adjusting the defined parameters) allows a common method to process the convection coefficient that can be monitored and controlled within an actuation range. This leads to an increased level of refinement in the technique. Results show that it is possible to determine the best parameters for this technique and observe the occurrence of fermentation by monitoring the temperature signal, thereby ensuring the realization of a high-quality and high-performance bioprocess.

  17. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... osmotic pressure, ethanol stress and other metabolic inhibitors accumulation in broth. At 48 h, the maximum ethanol concentration reached 137 g L-1, after which fermentation ended with the residual glucose at approximately 4.71 g L-1 and the volumetric productivity at approximately 2.54 g L-1 h-1.

  18. Lactic acid bacteria dynamics during spontaneous fermentation of cocoa beans verified by culture-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T F; Santana, L K A; Santos, A C F; Silva, G S; Romano, C C; Dias, J C T; Rezende, R P

    2011-11-04

    Cocoa is naturally fermented in the field before the cocoa seeds are removed for processing. We assessed the dynamics of lactic acid bacteria during cocoa fermentation in Bahia, Brazil. During five days of fermentation, temperature and pH were measured and beans were collected for genomic DNA extraction every 12 h. The DNA was used as a template for amplification with Lac1-Lac2 and Lac3-Lac2 for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. pH values ranged from 3.34 to 4.98, while the temperature varied from 23° to 50°C. Lac1-Lac2 primers permitted detection of 11 operational taxonomic units. Twenty-eight operational taxonomic units were obtained with the primer pair Lac3-Lac2. It was observed that there were variations between the numbers of operational taxonomic units throughout the process, probably because of changes in pH and temperature. The greatest similarity in amplified samples was obtained with the primers Lac3-Lac2.

  19. The effect of hexose ratios on metabolite production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains obtained from the spontaneous fermentation of mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva Hernández, Amanda A; Taillandier, Patricia; Reséndez Pérez, Diana; Narváez Zapata, José A; Larralde Corona, Claudia Patricia

    2013-04-01

    Mezcal from Tamaulipas (México) is produced by spontaneous alcoholic fermentation using Agave spp. musts, which are rich in fructose. In this study eight Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates obtained at the final stage of fermentation from a traditional mezcal winery were analysed in three semi-synthetic media. Medium M1 had a sugar content of 100 g l(-1) and a glucose/fructose (G/F) of 9:1. Medium M2 had a sugar content of 100 g l(-1) and a G/F of 1:9. Medium M3 had a sugar content of 200 g l(-1) and a G/F of 1:1. In the three types of media tested, the highest ethanol yield was obtained from the glucophilic strain LCBG-3Y5, while strain LCBG-3Y8 was highly resistant to ethanol and the most fructophilic of the mezcal strains. Strain LCBG-3Y5 produced more glycerol (4.4 g l(-1)) and acetic acid (1 g l(-1)) in M2 than in M1 (1.7 and 0.5 g l(-1), respectively), and the ethanol yields were higher for all strains in M1 except for LCBG-3Y5, -3Y8 and the Fermichamp strain. In medium M3, only the Fermichamp strain was able to fully consume the 100 g of fructose l(-1) but left a residual 32 g of glucose l(-1). Regarding the hexose transporters, a high number of amino acid polymorphisms were found in the Hxt1p sequences. Strain LCBG-3Y8 exhibited eight unique amino acid changes, followed by the Fermichamp strain with three changes. In Hxt3p, we observed nine amino acid polymorphisms unique for the Fermichamp strain and five unique changes for the mezcal strains.

  20. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Bao, Jia-Wei; Su, Xian-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Zeng, Xin; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2016-03-01

    In this study, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was established to solve the problem of wastewater treatment in citric acid production. Citric acid wastewater was treated through anaerobic digestion and then the anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) was further treated and recycled for the next batch citric acid fermentation. This process could eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Propionic acid was found in the ADE and its concentration continually increased in recycling. Effect of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated, and results indicated that influence of propionic acid on citric acid fermentation was contributed to the undissociated form. Citric acid fermentation was inhibited when the concentration of propionic acid was above 2, 4, and 6 mM in initial pH 4.0, 4.5 and, 5.0, respectively. However, low concentration of propionic acid could promote isomaltase activity which converted more isomaltose to available sugar, thereby increasing citric acid production. High concentration of propionic acid could influence the vitality of cell and prolong the lag phase, causing large amount of glucose still remaining in medium at the end of fermentation and decreasing citric acid production.

  1. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  2. Investigating the association between African spontaneously fermented dairy products, faecal carriage of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and colorectal adenocarcinoma in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindi, Dasel W M; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lule, Godfrey N; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Renault, Pierre; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Schelling, Esther; Zinsstag, Jakob; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo; Jans, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan

    2018-02-01

    Consumption of traditional fermented dairy products (tFDP) in Africa leads to the ingestion of up to 10 8 Streptococcus infantarius subspecies infantarius (Sii) per millilitre of spontaneously fermented milk. Sii is a member of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) for which some members are associated particularly with colorectal cancer or endocarditis. The extent of health risks to tFDP consumers is largely unknown. A hospital-based unmatched case-control study was conducted at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi (Kenya) on 80 cases and 193 controls that were selected exhaustively from patients attending colonoscopy at the hospital. Logistic regression models adjusted for age, sex and residency were used in the statistical analysis. Consumption of tFDP was not associated with CRC (odds ratio (OR) 1.4; 95% Confidence interval (CI) 0.7-2.7; p=0.34). Risk factors associated with CRC included age above 40 years, and consumption of processed meat and alcohol. Faecal carriage of Sii was significantly higher in persons with colon tumours and polyps compared to controls (8.4% vs 21.6%: OR: 4.6; CI 1.3-15.9). Patients with haemorrhoids represented an unexpected carrier group with significantly higher Sii faecal carriage (30.4%, CI: 17.7-45.8). Consumption of tFDP does not represent risk factors for CRC whereas Sii seems to be associated with CRC. However, there is urgent need to assess this finding also in the general population, investigate the causality of SBSEC, Sii and CRC as well as compare the phylogenetic, functional and genomic relationship between human and dairy Sii with regards to the ongoing application of Sii in FDP production. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-02

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pHbakery productions (slow pH decrease, pH4.0 after eight backslopping steps). In both sourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  5. Bacillus thuringiensis: fermentation process and risk assessment: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise M. F Capalbo

    1995-02-01

    Full Text Available Several factors make the local production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt highly appropriate for pest control in developing nations. Bt can be cheaply produced on a wide variety of low cost, organic substrates. Local production results in considerable savings in hard currency which otherwise would be spent on importation of chemical and biological insecticides. The use of Bt in Brazil has been limited in comparison with chemical insecticides. Although Bt is imported, some Brazilian researchers have been working on its development and production. Fermentation processes (submerged and semi-solid were applied, using by-products from agro-industries. As the semi-solid fermentation process demonstrated to be interesting for Bt endotoxins production, it could be adopted for small scale local production. Although promising results had been achieved, national products have not been registered due to the absence of a specific legislation for biological products. Effective actions are being developed in order to solve this gap. Regardless of the biocontrol agents being considered atoxic and harmless to the environment, information related to direct and indirect effects of microbials are still insufficient in many cases. The risk analysis of the use of microbial control agents is of upmost importance nowadays, and is also discussed.

  6. Software Sensors Design for a Class of Aerobic Fermentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trayana Patarinska

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of on-line state and parameter estimation (software sensors design of a class of aerobic fermentation processes for metabolite product formation is considered. The class is characterized by: two limiting substrates one of which, growth factor, is practically depleted during the biomass growth where the product formation is negligible; corresponding general reaction scheme – a qualitative description of the main metabolic reactions between the main components in the liquid phase (biomass, substrates, product and dissolved oxygen concentrations. Two separate sensors – state and parameter estimators – are designed. The state estimator is developed based on knowledge of only one on-line measurable variable, the dissolved oxygen, and the yield factors assumed as constant coefficients. Parameter estimator of the specific reaction rates is developed under the assumption that all the process variables are known on-line by measurements or estimates. The yield factors are estimated also as non-stationary parameters, thus creating a basis for comparison with the specified constant values used for the state estimator design. As a case study industrial Lysine fermentation in fed-batch mode of operation is considered. Simulation investigations under different operating conditions are done in order to highlight the performances of the proposed sensors.

  7. Characterization, Ecological Distribution, and Population Dynamics of Saccharomyces Sensu Stricto Killer Yeasts in the Spontaneous Grape Must Fermentations of Southwestern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqueda, Matilde; Zamora, Emiliano; Álvarez, María L.

    2012-01-01

    Killer yeasts secrete protein toxins that are lethal to sensitive strains of the same or related yeast species. Among the four types of Saccharomyces killer yeasts already described (K1, K2, K28, and Klus), we found K2 and Klus killer yeasts in spontaneous wine fermentations from southwestern Spain. Both phenotypes were encoded by medium-size double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses, Saccharomyces cerevisiae virus (ScV)-M2 and ScV-Mlus, whose genome sizes ranged from 1.3 to 1.75 kb and from 2.1 to 2.3 kb, respectively. The K2 yeasts were found in all the wine-producing subareas for all the vintages analyzed, while the Klus yeasts were found in the warmer subareas and mostly in the warmer ripening/harvest seasons. The middle-size isotypes of the M2 dsRNA were the most frequent among K2 yeasts, probably because they encoded the most intense K2 killer phenotype. However, the smallest isotype of the Mlus dsRNA was the most frequent for Klus yeasts, although it encoded the least intense Klus killer phenotype. The killer yeasts were present in most (59.5%) spontaneous fermentations. Most were K2, with Klus being the minority. The proportion of killer yeasts increased during fermentation, while the proportion of sensitive yeasts decreased. The fermentation speed, malic acid, and wine organoleptic quality decreased in those fermentations where the killer yeasts replaced at least 15% of a dominant population of sensitive yeasts, while volatile acidity and lactic acid increased, and the amount of bacteria in the tumultuous and the end fermentation stages also increased in an unusual way. PMID:22101056

  8. Continuous fermentative hydrogen production in different process conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasirian, N. [Islamic Azad Univ., Shoushtar (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Mechanization; Almassi, M.; Minaee, S. [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Agricultural Mechanization; Widmann, R. [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Essen (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Waste and Water

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which hydrogen was produced by fermentation of biomass. A continuous process using a non-sterile substrate with a readily available mixed microflora was used on heat treated digested sewage sludge from a wastewater treatment plant. Hydrogen was produced from waste sugar at a pH of 5.2 and a temperature of 37 degrees C. An experimental setup of three 5.5 L working volume continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) in different stirring speeds were constructed and operated at 7 different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and different organic loading rates (OLR). Dissolved organic carbon was examined. The results showed that the stirring speed of 135 rpm had a beneficial effect on hydrogen fermentation. The best performance was obtained in 135 rpm and 8 h of HRT. The amount of gas varied with different OLRs, but could be stabilized on a high level. Methane was not detected when the HRT was less than 16 h. The study identified the reactor in which the highest specific rate of hydrogen production occurred.

  9. Comparative genome analysis of the candidate functional starter culture strains Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80 for controlled cocoa bean fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; De Vuyst, Luc; Weckx, Stefan

    2015-10-12

    Lactobacillus fermentum 222 and Lactobacillus plantarum 80, isolates from a spontaneous Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation process, proved to be interesting functional starter culture strains for cocoa bean fermentations. Lactobacillus fermentum 222 is a thermotolerant strain, able to dominate the fermentation process, thereby converting citrate and producing mannitol. Lactobacillus plantarum 80 is an acid-tolerant and facultative heterofermentative strain that is competitive during cocoa bean fermentation processes. In this study, whole-genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis was used to investigate the mechanisms of these strains to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Through functional annotation and analysis of the high-coverage contigs obtained through 454 pyrosequencing, plantaricin production was predicted for L. plantarum 80. For L. fermentum 222, genes encoding a complete arginine deiminase pathway were attributed. Further, in-depth functional analysis revealed the capacities of these strains associated with carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, such as the ability to use alternative external electron acceptors, the presence of an extended pyruvate metabolism, and the occurrence of several amino acid conversion pathways. A comparative genome sequence analysis using publicly available genome sequences of strains of the species L. plantarum and L. fermentum revealed unique features of both strains studied. Indeed, L. fermentum 222 possessed genes encoding additional citrate transporters and enzymes involved in amino acid conversions, whereas L. plantarum 80 is the only member of this species that harboured a gene cluster involved in uptake and consumption of fructose and/or sorbose. In-depth genome sequence analysis of the candidate functional starter culture strains L. fermentum 222 and L. plantarum 80 revealed their metabolic capacities, niche adaptations and functionalities that enable them to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation

  10. Species diversity, community dynamics, and metabolite kinetics of the microbiota associated with traditional ecuadorian spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexandratou, Zoi; Falony, Gwen; Romanens, Edwina; Jimenez, Juan Carlos; Amores, Freddy; Daniel, Heide-Marie; De Vuyst, Luc

    2011-11-01

    Traditional fermentations of the local Ecuadorian cocoa type Nacional, with its fine flavor, are carried out in boxes and on platforms for a short time. A multiphasic approach, encompassing culture-dependent and -independent microbiological analyses of fermenting cocoa pulp-bean samples, metabolite target analyses of both cocoa pulp and beans, and sensory analysis of chocolates produced from the respective fermented dry beans, was applied for the investigation of the influence of these fermentation practices on the yeast and bacterial species diversity and community dynamics during cocoa bean fermentation. A wide microbial species diversity was found during the first 3 days of all fermentations carried out. The prevailing ethanol-producing yeast species were Pichia kudriavzevii and Pichia manshurica, followed by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (glucose and fructose fermenting), Fructobacillus tropaeoli-like (fructose fermenting), and Lactobacillus fermentum (citrate converting, mannitol producing) represented the main lactic acid bacterial species in the fermentations studied, resulting in intensive heterolactate metabolism of the pulp substrates. Tatumella saanichensis and Tatumella punctata were among the members of the family Enterobacteriaceae present during the initial phase of the cocoa bean fermentations and could be responsible for the production of gluconic acid in some cases. Also, a potential new yeast species was isolated, namely, Candida sorbosivorans-like. Acetic acid bacteria, whose main representative was Acetobacter pasteurianus, generally appeared later during fermentation and oxidized ethanol to acetic acid. However, acetic acid bacteria were not always present during the main course of the platform fermentations. All of the data taken together indicated that short box and platform fermentation methods caused incomplete fermentation, which had a serious impact on the quality of the fermented dry cocoa beans.

  11. The Effect of Cocoa Beans Fermentation on Processed Chocolate In West Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon David H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of fermentation effects on processed chocolate have been made. The purpose of this study was to see the effect of different levels of fermentation of cocoa preparations (pasta, fats and powder to the chemical quality and flavor. Harvested Cocoa beans will be treated fermentation. The treatment used was the time of fermentation namely: (A Non fermentation, (B Imperfect fermentation (4 days and (C Perfect fermentation (5 days. The parameters observed was: (a chemical quality namely water content, fat content, pH, (b organoleptic tests namely color, aroma, taste bitter (bitterness, texture. The results showed that fermentation of cocoa beans have real impact on levels of fat, water content and pH. Panelists gave the highest rankings for quality of organoleptic attributes of pasta, fat and chocolate powder from perfectly fermented beans. Processing of cocoa beans into refined products had levels of depreciation for each stage. 100 kg dried cocoa beans could produce 79.0 kilograms of chocolate paste, 48.7 kg of cocoa powder, and 26.5 kg of fat. Fermentation for 5 days is the best solution to improve the quality of processed chocolate.

  12. Metabolite profiling of the fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" Japanese sake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukami, Yohei; Morisaka, Hironobu; Aburaya, Shunsuke; Aoki, Wataru; Kohsaka, Chihiro; Tani, Masafumi; Hirooka, Kiyoo; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Kitaoka, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hisashi; Wakai, Yoshinori; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2018-01-01

    Sake is a traditional Japanese alcoholic beverage prepared by multiple parallel fermentation of rice. The fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" sake is mainly performed by three microbes, Aspergillus oryzae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Lactobacilli; the levels of various metabolites fluctuate during the fermentation of sake. For evaluation of the fermentation process, we monitored the concentration of moderate-sized molecules (m/z: 200-1000) dynamically changed during the fermentation process of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" Japanese sake. This analysis revealed that six compounds were the main factors with characteristic differences in the fermentation process. Among the six compounds, four were leucine- or isoleucine-containing peptides and the remaining two were predicted to be small molecules. Quantification of these compounds revealed that their quantities changed during the month of fermentation process. Our metabolomic approach revealed the dynamic changes observed in moderate-sized molecules during the fermentation process of sake, and the factors found in this analysis will be candidate molecules that indicate the progress of "yamahai-ginjo-shikomi" sake fermentation.

  13. Isolation, selection and evaluation of yeasts for use in fermentation of coffee beans by the wet process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Pandey, Ashok; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Andrade Lara, João Marcos Rodrigues; Gollo, André Luiz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    During wet processing of coffee, the ripe cherries are pulped, then fermented and dried. This study reports an experimental approach for target identification and selection of indigenous coffee yeasts and their potential use as starter cultures during the fermentation step of wet processing. A total of 144 yeast isolates originating from spontaneously fermenting coffee beans were identified by molecular approaches and screened for their capacity to grow under coffee-associated stress conditions. According to ITS-rRNA gene sequencing, Pichia fermentans and Pichia kluyveri were the most frequent isolates, followed by Candida Candida glabrata, quercitrusa, Saccharomyces sp., Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia caribbica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae. Nine stress-tolerant yeast strains were evaluated for their ability to produce aromatic compounds in a coffee pulp simulation medium and for their pectinolytic activity. P. fermentans YC5.2 produced the highest concentrations of flavor-active ester compounds (viz., ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate), while Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 was the best pectinase-producing strain. The potential impact of these selected yeast strains to promote flavor development in coffee beverages was investigated for inoculating coffee beans during wet fermentation trials at laboratory scale. Inoculation of a single culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and co-culture of P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 enhanced significantly the formation of volatile aroma compounds during the fermentation process compared to un-inoculated control. The sensory analysis indicated that the flavor of coffee beverages was influenced by the starter cultures, being rated as having the higher sensory scores for fruity, buttery and fermented aroma. This demonstrates a complementary role of yeasts associated with coffee quality through the synthesis of yeast-specific volatile constituents. The yeast strains P. fermentans YC5.2 and Saccharomyces sp. YC9.15 have a great

  14. Metabolic engineering of microbial competitive advantage for industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A Joe; Lam, Felix H; Hamilton, Maureen; Consiglio, Andrew; MacEwen, Kyle; Brevnova, Elena E; Greenhagen, Emily; LaTouf, W Greg; South, Colin R; van Dijken, Hans; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2016-08-05

    Microbial contamination is an obstacle to widespread production of advanced biofuels and chemicals. Current practices such as process sterilization or antibiotic dosage carry excess costs or encourage the development of antibiotic resistance. We engineered Escherichia coli to assimilate melamine, a xenobiotic compound containing nitrogen. After adaptive laboratory evolution to improve pathway efficiency, the engineered strain rapidly outcompeted a control strain when melamine was supplied as the nitrogen source. We additionally engineered the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Yarrowia lipolytica to assimilate nitrogen from cyanamide and phosphorus from potassium phosphite, and they outcompeted contaminating strains in several low-cost feedstocks. Supplying essential growth nutrients through xenobiotic or ecologically rare chemicals provides microbial competitive advantage with minimal external risks, given that engineered biocatalysts only have improved fitness within the customized fermentation environment. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Yeasts Diversity in Fermented Foods and Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Fleet, Graham H.

    People across the world have learnt to culture and use the essential microorganisms for production of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages. A fermented food is produced either spontaneously or by adding mixed/pure starter culture(s). Yeasts are among the essential functional microorganisms encountered in many fermented foods, and are commercially used in production of baker's yeast, breads, wine, beer, cheese, etc. In Asia, moulds are predominant followed by amylolytic and alcohol-producing yeasts in the fermentation processes, whereas in Africa, Europe, Australia and America, fermented products are prepared exclusively using bacteria or bacteria-yeasts mixed cultures. This chapter would focus on the varieties of fermented foods and alcoholic beverages produced by yeasts, their microbiology and role in food fermentation, widely used commercial starters (pilot production, molecular aspects), production technology of some common commercial fermented foods and alcoholic beverages, toxicity and food safety using yeasts cultures and socio-economy

  16. Conducting starter culture-controlled fermentations of coffee beans during on-farm wet processing: Growth, metabolic analyses and sensorial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Pereira, Gilberto Vinícius; Neto, Ensei; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Woiciechowski, Adenise Lorenci; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the potential use of Pichia fermentans YC5.2 as a starter culture to conduct controlled coffee bean fermentations during on-farm wet processing was investigated. Inoculated fermentations were conducted with or without the addition of 2% (w/v) sucrose, and the resultant microbial growth and metabolism, bean chemistry and beverage quality were compared with spontaneous (control) fermentation. In both inoculated treatments, P. fermentans prevailed over indigenous microbiota and a restricted microbial composition was observed at the end of fermentation process. The inoculation also increased the production of specific volatile aroma compounds (e.g., ethanol, acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate) and decreased the production of lactic acid during the fermentation process. Sucrose supplementation did not significantly interfere with the growth and frequency of P. fermentans YC5.2 inoculum but maintained high levels of wild bacteria population and lactic acid production similar to the spontaneous process. In roasted beans, the content of sugars and organic acids were statistically (pcoffee beans by increasing the concentration of yeast-derived metabolites compared to control. Sensory analysis of coffee beverages demonstrated that the use of the YC5.2 strain was favorable for the production of high-quality coffees with distinctive characteristics, e.g., intense perception of 'vanilla' taste and 'floral' aromas. In conclusion, the use of P. fermentans YC5.2 in coffee processing was shown to be a viable alternative to control the fermentation step and to ensure consistent quality of finished products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced Down-Stream Processing of Biobutanol in the ABE Fermentation Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Patraşcu, Iulian; Segovia Hernandez, J. G.; Kiss, Anton A.; Kravanja, Zdravko; Bogataj, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Butanol is considered a superior biofuel, as it is more energy dense and less hygroscopic than bioethanol, resulting in higher possible blending ratios with gasoline. However, the production cost of the acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation process is high, mainly due to the low butanol titer,

  18. The deep processing of seaweed industrial waste--Influence of several fermentation on seaweed waste of feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shipeng; Zhang, Shuping

    2018-02-01

    This paper focuses on several factors on the effects of fermented seaweed feed, and obtains the optimal fermentation process through the analysis of nutrients. Through the experiment we can get, Seaweed waste fermented the best feed when adding 1% of microbial agents and 0.5% of corn powder, fermenting for 15 days.

  19. A review of conversion processes for bioethanol production with a focus on syngas fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamatha Devarapalli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioethanol production from corn is a well-established technology. However, emphasis on exploring non-food based feedstocks is intensified due to dispute over utilization of food based feedstocks to generate bioethanol. Chemical and biological conversion technologies for non-food based biomass feedstocks to biofuels have been developed. First generation bioethanol was produced from sugar based feedstocks such as corn and sugar cane. Availability of alternative feedstocks such as lignocellulosic and algal biomass and technology advancement led to the development of complex biological conversion processes, such as separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF, simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF, consolidated bioprocessing (CBP, and syngas fermentation. SHF, SSF, SSCF, and CBP are direct fermentation processes in which biomass feedstocks are pretreated, hydrolyzed and then fermented into ethanol. Conversely, ethanol from syngas fermentation is an indirect fermentation that utilizes gaseous substrates (mixture of CO, CO2 and H2 made from industrial flue gases or gasification of biomass, coal or municipal solid waste. This review article provides an overview of the various biological processes for ethanol production from sugar, lignocellulosic, and algal biomass. This paper also provides a detailed insight on process development, bioreactor design, and advances and future directions in syngas fermentation.

  20. Study on fermentation kinetics and extraction process of rhamnolipid production by papermaking wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Keer

    2018-01-01

    Paper mill wastewater (PMW) is the outlet water generated during pulp and papermaking process in the paper industry. Fermentation by wastewater can lower the cost of production as well as alleviate the pressure of wastewater treatment. Rhamnolipids find broad placations as natural surfactants. This paper studied the rhamnolipids fermentation by employing Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated by the laboratory, and determined to use wastewater which filtered by medium speed filter paper and strain Z2, the culture conditions were optimized, based on the flask shaking fermentation. On the basis of 5L tank fermentation, batch fermentation was carried out, the yield of fermentation reached 7.067g/L and the fermentation kinetics model of cell growth, product formation and substrate consumption was established by using origin software, and the fermentation process could be simulated well. And studied on the extraction process of rhamnolipids, through fermentation dynamic equation analysis can predict the in fill material yield can be further improved. Research on the extraction process of rhamnolipid simplifies the operation of extraction, and lays the foundation for the industrial extraction.

  1. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Ganda-Putra

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG and pectin metyl esterase (PME and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics of cocoa beans produced and to study the role of those fermentation process in reducing fermentation time to produce cocoa beans with standard quality. This research used split plot design, with treatments of process condition of cocoa fermentation as main plot and fermentation period as split plot. Treatment of process condition of cocoa fermentation consisted of optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization by PGs (temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6; optimum condition of depolymerization on sequence depolymerization by PGs (temperature 48.5OC; initial pulp pH 8.0 during 1 day; last temperature 47.5OC; initial pulp pH 4.6 during 6 days, and natural fermentation process a control. While treatment of fermentation period consisted of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. Evaluation of fermentation period was carried out based on pursuant to criteria of unfermented beans content and fermentation index. The results showed that process condition and fermentation time of cocoa affected quality characteristic of cocoa beans produced. Period of cocoa fermentation process based on optimum condition for pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes was 2 days shorter compared to natural fermentation. Cocoa beans quality of grade I and II were obtained from fermentation time of 4 and 2 days, respectively, using fermentation process based on optimum condition of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes, whereas 6 and 4 days

  2. The influence of petroleum products on the methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choromański, Paweł; Karwowska, Ewa; Łebkowska, Maria

    2016-01-15

    In this study the influence of the petroleum products: diesel fuel and spent engine oil on the sewage sludge digestion process and biogas production efficiency was investigated. Microbiological, chemical and enzymatic analyses were applied in the survey. It was revealed that the influence of the petroleum derivatives on the effectiveness of the methane fermentation of sewage sludge depends on the type of the petroleum product. Diesel fuel did not limit the biogas production and the methane concentration in the biogas, while spent engine oil significantly reduced the process efficacy. The changes in physical-chemical parameters, excluding COD, did not reflect the effect of the tested substances. The negative influence of petroleum products on individual bacterial groups was observed after 7 days of the process, while after 14 days probably some adaptive mechanisms appeared. The dehydrogenase activity assessment was the most relevant parameter to evaluate the effect of petroleum products contamination. Diesel fuel was probably used as a source of carbon and energy in the process, while the toxic influence was observed in case of spent engine oil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Process engineering and scale-up of autotrophic Clostridium strain P11 syngas fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundiyana, Dimple Kumar Aiyanna

    Scope and Method of Study. Biomass gasification followed by fermentation of syngas to ethanol is a potential process to produce bioenergy. The process is currently being researched under laboratory- and pilot-scale in an effort to optimize the process conditions and make the process feasible for commercial production of ethanol and other biofuels such as butanol and propanol. The broad research objectives for the research were to improve ethanol yields during syngas fermentation and to design a economical fermentation process. The research included four statistically designed experimental studies in serum bottles, bench-scale and pilot-scale fermentors to screen alternate fermentation media components, to determine the effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and buffer on syngas fermentation, to determine the effect of key limiting nutrients of the acetyl-CoA pathway in a continuous series reactor design, and to scale-up the syngas fermentation in a 100-L pilot scale fermentor. Findings and Conclusions. The first experimental study identified cotton seed extract (CSE) as a feasible medium for Clostridium strain P11 fermentation. The study showed that CSE at 0.5 g L-1 can potentially replace all the standard Clostridium strain P11 fermentation media components while using a media buffer did not significantly improve the ethanol production when used in fermentation with CSE. Scale-up of the CSE fermentation in 2-L and 5-L stirred tank fermentors showed 25% increase in ethanol yield. The second experimental study showed that syngas fermentation at 32°C without buffer was associated with higher ethanol concentration and reduced lag time in switching to solventogenesis. Conducting fermentation at 40°C or by lowering incubation pH to 5.0 resulted in reduced cell growth and no production of ethanol or acetic acid. The third experiment studied the effect of three limiting nutrients, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B12 and CoCl2 on syngas fermentation. Results

  4. FERMENTATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MAIZE SILAGE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bíro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the fermentation process differences in different hybrid maize silage. We conserved in laboratory conditions hybrids of whole maize plants with different length of the vegetative period (FAO number. Maize hybrids for silage were harvested in the vegetation stage of the milk-wax maturity of corn and the content of dry matter was from 377.7 to 422.8 g.kg-1. The highest content of dry matter was typical for silages made from the hybrids with FAO number 310 (400.0 g.kg-1 and FAO 300a (400.4 g.kg-1. The content of desirable lactic acid ranged from 23.7 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 350 to 58.9 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 420. We detected the occurrence of undesirable butyric acid in silages from hybrids FAO 250, 300b, 310 and 380. The highest content of total alcohols we found in silages made from hybrid with FAO number 240 (25.2 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Ammonia contents were in tested silages from 0.153 (FAO 270 to 0.223 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 240. The lowest value of silage titration acidity we analyzed in silage made from hybrid FAO 420 (3.66. We observed in maize silages with different length of plant maturity tested in the experiment differences in content of lactic acid, total alcohols, titration acidity, pH and content of fermentation products.

  5. Oxygen and diverse nutrients influence the water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-08-01

    Eight water kefir fermentation series differing in the presence of oxygen, the nutrient concentration, and the nutrient source were studied during eight consecutive backslopping steps. The presence of oxygen allowed the proliferation of acetic acid bacteria, resulting in high concentrations of acetic acid, and decreased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium aquikefiri. Low nutrient concentrations resulted in slow water kefir fermentation and high pH values, which allowed the growth of Comamonas testosteroni/thiooxydans. Further, low nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Dekkera bruxellensis, whereas high nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dried figs, dried apricots, and raisins resulted in stable water kefir fermentation. Water kefir fermentation with dried apricots resulted in the highest pH and water kefir grain growth, whereas that with raisins resulted in the lowest pH and water kefir grain growth. Further, water kefir fermentation with raisins resembled fermentations with low nutrient concentrations, that with dried apricots resembled fermentations with normal nutrient concentrations, and that with fresh figs or a mixture of yeast extract and peptone resembled fermentations with high nutrient concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing the digestibility of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) by traditional processing and fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madode, Y.E.; Nout, M.J.R.; Bakker, E.J.; Linnemann, A.R.; Hounhouigan, D.J.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Flatulence is an important drawback for the consumption of legumes. Therefore, the ability of traditional processing (dehulling, boiling, soaking) and fermentation (bacterial, fungal or yeast) of cowpeas to reduce flatulence was investigated. Raw and processed cowpeas were assessed for their

  7. TRADITIONAL FERMENTED FOODS OF LESOTHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tendekayi H. Gadaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the traditional methods of preparing fermented foods and beverages of Lesotho. Information on the preparation methods was obtained through a combination of literature review and face to face interviews with respondents from Roma in Lesotho. An unstructured questionnaire was used to capture information on the processes, raw materials and utensils used. Four products; motoho (a fermented porridge, Sesotho (a sorghum based alcoholic beverage, hopose (sorghum fermented beer with added hops and mafi (spontaneously fermented milk, were found to be the main fermented foods prepared and consumed at household level in Lesotho. Motoho is a thin gruel, popular as refreshing beverage as well as a weaning food. Sesotho is sorghum based alcoholic beverage prepared for household consumption as well as for sale. It is consumed in the actively fermenting state. Mafi is the name given to spontaneously fermented milk with a thick consistency. Little research has been done on the technological aspects, including the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of fermented foods in Lesotho. Some of the traditional aspects of the preparation methods, such as use of earthenware pots, are being replaced, and modern equipment including plastic utensils are being used. There is need for further systematic studies on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of these these products.

  8. Microbiological Hydrogen Production by Anaerobic Fermentation and Photosynthetic Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asada, Y.; Ohsawa, M.; Nagai, Y.; Fukatsu, M.; Ishimi, K.; Ichi-ishi, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is a clean and renewable energy carrier. Microbiological hydrogen production from glucose or starch by combination used of an anaerobic fermenter and a photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter spheroides RV was studied. In 1984, the co-culture of Clostridium butyricum and RV strain to convert glucose to hydrogen was demonstrated by Miyake et al. Recently, we studied anaerobic fermentation of starch by a thermophilic archaea. (Author)

  9. Hydrogen generation from glycerol in batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seifert, K.; Waligorska, M.; Wojtowski, M.; Laniecki, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, A. Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60-780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-05-15

    The influence of concentration of glycerol, inoculum and total nitrogen on hydrogen generation, in batch dark fermentation process in the presence of digested sludge (at 37 C and at initial pH = 6) was studied. Changes in substrate and products concentrations were modeled with modified Gompertz equations (correlation coefficient R{sup 2} = 0.9015). The 1,3-propandiol, butyric acid, acetic acid, lactic acid and ethanol were found as the main liquid metabolites. Maximal substrate yield for hydrogen was 0.41 mol H{sub 2}/mol glycerol and was obtained for medium containing 10 g/l of glycerol with the lowest amount of inoculum - 1.16 g volatile suspended solid (VSS)/l. Increase of glycerol concentration from 5 to 30 g/l resulted in much better hydrogen generation, namely from 0.345 to 0.715 l H{sub 2}/l. Further increase of glycerol concentration did not cause any changes. The H{sub 2}:CO{sub 2} ratio in biogas in system with the highest substrate yield was always 1. The initial concentration of glycerol does not influence the rate of hydrogen generation. The increase of initial concentration of inoculum from 1.2 to 11.6 g VSS/l results in the decrease of specific hydrogen yield. Nitrogen concentration in medium does not influence the hydrogen production. (author)

  10. A vertical ball mill as a new reactor design for biomass hydrolysis and fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Assis Castro, Rafael Cunha; Mussatto, Solange I.; Conceicao Roberto, Inês

    2017-01-01

    A vertical ball mill (VBM) reactor was evaluated for use in biomass conversion processes. The effects of agitation speed (100–200 rpm), number of glass spheres (0–30 units) and temperature (40–46 °C) on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and on glucose fermentation by a thermotolerant Kluyveromyc...... (hydrolysis and fermentation), the VBM reactor could be efficiently used for biomass conversion into ethanol.......A vertical ball mill (VBM) reactor was evaluated for use in biomass conversion processes. The effects of agitation speed (100–200 rpm), number of glass spheres (0–30 units) and temperature (40–46 °C) on enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw and on glucose fermentation by a thermotolerant Kluyveromyces...... marxianus strain were separately studied. The results revealed an important role of the spheres during biomass' fiber liquefaction and yeast's fermentative performance. For hydrolysis, the spheres were the only variable with significant positive impact on cellulose conversion, while for fermentation all...

  11. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  12. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process

  13. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-02-01

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dominance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in alcoholic fermentation processes: role of physiological fitness and microbial interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albergaria, Helena; Arneborg, Nils

    2016-03-01

    Winemaking, brewing and baking are some of the oldest biotechnological processes. In all of them, alcoholic fermentation is the main biotransformation and Saccharomyces cerevisiae the primary microorganism. Although a wide variety of microbial species may participate in alcoholic fermentation and contribute to the sensory properties of end-products, the yeast S. cerevisiae invariably dominates the final stages of fermentation. The ability of S. cerevisiae to outcompete other microbial species during alcoholic fermentation processes, such as winemaking, has traditionally been ascribed to its high fermentative power and capacity to withstand the harsh environmental conditions, i.e. high levels of ethanol and organic acids, low pH values, scarce oxygen availability and depletion of certain nutrients. However, in recent years, several studies have raised evidence that S. cerevisiae, beyond its remarkable fitness for alcoholic fermentation, also uses defensive strategies mediated by different mechanisms, such as cell-to-cell contact and secretion of antimicrobial peptides, to combat other microorganisms. In this paper, we review the main physiological features underlying the special aptitude of S. cerevisiae for alcoholic fermentation and discuss the role of microbial interactions in its dominance during alcoholic fermentation, as well as its relevance for winemaking.

  15. An untargeted metabolomic assessment of cocoa beans during fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga Gross, Ana Lucía; Quirós Guerrero, Luis Manuel; Fourny, G.; Vaillant Barka, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation is a critical step in the processing of high quality cocoa; however, the biochemistry behind is still not well understood at a molecular level. In this research, using a non-targeted approach, the main metabolomic changes that occur throughout the fermentation process were explored. Genetically undefined cocoa varieties from Trinidad and Tobago (n = 3), Costa Rica (n = 1) and one clone IMC-67 (n = 3) were subjected to spontaneous fermentation using farm-based and pilot plant cont...

  16. Biohydrogen production using sequential two-stage dark and photo fermentation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Yang, Mu-Hoe [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Kao Yuan University, Kaohsiung (China); Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Liu, Chien-Hung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China)

    2008-09-15

    A two-stage process combining dark/photo fermentation was used to increase the overall hydrogen yield from sucrose and also to reduce the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the effluent. Dark-H{sub 2} fermentation was conducted using Clostridium pasteurianum CH{sub 4}, giving a maximum H{sub 2} production yield of 3.80 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose. The soluble metabolites resulting from dark fermentation, consisting of butyric and acetic acid, were further used for H{sub 2} production in the subsequent photo fermentation. Using soluble products from dark fermentation as substrate, Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5 could produce H{sub 2} phototrophically, elevating the total hydrogen yield from 3.80 (dark fermentation) to 10.02 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose (dark/photo fermentation). Meanwhile, a 72.0% COD removal was also achieved. When the photobioreactor was illuminated with side-light optical fibers and was supplemented with 2.0% (w/v) of clay carriers, the overall H{sub 2} yield of the two-stage process was further enhanced to 14.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose with a nearly 90% COD removal. Continuous photo fermentation was also carried out at 96 h HRT using effluent from dark fermentation as the feed. The continuous culture maintained stable for nearly 10 days with an average H{sub 2} yield of 10.21 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose. This demonstrates the feasibility of using the two-stage process combining dark and photo fermentation for simultaneous hydrogen production and COD removal. (author)

  17. Study of the optimal production process and application of apple fruit (malus domestica (l.) borkh) fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Shao, W.; Ziang, R.

    2015-01-01

    In orchard production, fruit abscission is common due to insect damage, disease, crop thinning and natural dropping. However, the utilization of these discarded plant resources has received little research attention. In this study, we used apple fruit from such plant resources, mainly young and mature dropped fruit, as materials and mixed them with a fermentation agent, brown sugar and water. The effects of the proportion of fermentation agent and the fermentation conditions (O2, temperature, fermenting time and fruit crushing degree) were studied using an orthogonal experimental design. We discovered a novel fermented fertilizer, apple fruit fermentation nutrient solution (AFF), for which the optimal fermentation formula and conditions were comminuted young apples: fermentation agent: brown sugar: water weight ratio of 5:0.1:1:4 and 45 days of aerobic fermentation. Analysis of the fermentation solutions showed that the supernatant obtained using these optimized parameters had the highest mineral element content among the fermentation formulas and conditions studied. The results of a spraying experiment with 200-, 500- and 800-fold dilutions showed that AFF significantly promoted the net photosynthetic rate, leaf area and thickness, specific leaf weight, and chlorophyll and mineral element content in the leaves of young apple trees relative to the control treatment. The effects of 200-fold diluted AFF on the photosynthetic rate, the developmental quality and mineral element contents were greater than those of the 500- and 800-fold dilutions. The results of the spraying of adult trees with 200-fold diluted AFF compared to a water control demonstrated that AFF significantly enhanced the average weight of a single fruit, the shape index, hardness, content of soluble solids, titratable acid content, vitamin C content, and aroma compound content of the fruit of the adult trees. This evidence suggests that the AFF obtained using the optimal production process could

  18. Complex permittivity measurement at millimetre-wave frequencies during the fermentation process of Japanese sake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouzai, Masaki; Nishikata, Atsuhiro; Fukunaga, Kaori; Miyaoka, Shunsuke

    2007-01-01

    Various chemical reactions occur simultaneously in barrels during the fermentation processes of alcoholic beverages. Chemical analyses are employed to monitor the change in chemical components, such as glucose and ethyl alcohol. The tests are carried out with extracted specimens, are costly and require time. We have developed a permittivity measurement system for liquid specimens in the frequency range from 2.6 to 50 GHz, and applied the system to fermentation monitoring. Experimental results proved that the observed change in complex permittivity suggests a decrease in the amount of glucose and an increase in alcohol content, which are the key chemical components during the fermentation process

  19. Batch-batch stable microbial community in the traditional fermentation process of huyumei broad bean pastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Linjiang; Fan, Zihao; Kuai, Hui; Li, Qi

    2017-09-01

    During natural fermentation processes, a characteristic microbial community structure (MCS) is naturally formed, and it is interesting to know about its batch-batch stability. This issue was explored in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation process of huyumei, a Chinese broad bean paste product. The results showed that this MCS mainly contained four aerobic Bacillus species (8 log CFU per g), including B. subtilis, B. amyloliquefaciens, B. methylotrophicus, and B. tequilensis, and the facultative anaerobe B. cereus with a low concentration (4 log CFU per g), besides a very small amount of the yeast Zygosaccharomyces rouxii (2 log CFU per g). The dynamic change of the MCS in the brine fermentation process showed that the abundance of dominant species varied within a small range, and in the beginning of process the growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhibited and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability. Also, the MCS and its dynamic change were proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches of fermentation. Therefore, the MCS naturally and stably forms between different batches of the traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei. Revealing microbial community structure and its batch-batch stability is helpful for understanding the mechanisms of community formation and flavour production in a traditional fermentation. This issue in a traditional semi-solid-state fermentation of huyumei broad bean paste was firstly explored. This fermentation process was revealed to be dominated by a high concentration of four aerobic species of Bacillus, a low concentration of B. cereus and a small amount of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii. Lactic acid bacteria and Staphylococcus spp. lost its viability at the beginning of fermentation. Such the community structure was proved to be highly reproducible among seven batches. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Dynamics and Biodiversity of Populations of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Acetic Acid Bacteria Involved in Spontaneous Heap Fermentation of Cocoa Beans in Ghana▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S.; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as “Weissella ghanaensis,” was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named “Acetobacter senegalensis” (A. tropicalis-like) and

  1. Dynamics and biodiversity of populations of lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria involved in spontaneous heap fermentation of cocoa beans in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camu, Nicholas; De Winter, Tom; Verbrugghe, Kristof; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vandamme, Peter; Takrama, Jemmy S; Vancanneyt, Marc; De Vuyst, Luc

    2007-03-01

    The Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation process was studied through a multiphasic approach, encompassing both microbiological and metabolite target analyses. A culture-dependent (plating and incubation, followed by repetitive-sequence-based PCR analyses of picked-up colonies) and culture-independent (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE] of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, PCR-DGGE) approach revealed a limited biodiversity and targeted population dynamics of both lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) during fermentation. Four main clusters were identified among the LAB isolated: Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, and Enterococcus casseliflavus. Other taxa encompassed, for instance, Weissella. Only four clusters were found among the AAB identified: Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter syzygii-like bacteria, and two small clusters of Acetobacter tropicalis-like bacteria. Particular strains of L. plantarum, L. fermentum, and A. pasteurianus, originating from the environment, were well adapted to the environmental conditions prevailing during Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentation and apparently played a significant role in the cocoa bean fermentation process. Yeasts produced ethanol from sugars, and LAB produced lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol, and mannitol from sugars and/or citrate. Whereas L. plantarum strains were abundant in the beginning of the fermentation, L. fermentum strains converted fructose into mannitol upon prolonged fermentation. A. pasteurianus grew on ethanol, mannitol, and lactate and converted ethanol into acetic acid. A newly proposed Weissella sp., referred to as "Weissella ghanaensis," was detected through PCR-DGGE analysis in some of the fermentations and was only occasionally picked up through culture-based isolation. Two new species of Acetobacter were found as well, namely, the species tentatively named "Acetobacter senegalensis" (A. tropicalis-like) and "Acetobacter

  2. Fermented liquid feed - Feed processing has a big impact on microbial degradation of free lysine during fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the influence of feed processing on the microbial degradation of free lysine during fermentation of liquid feed, a study at laboratory scale was carried out. Based on a standard Danish grower diet with extra free amino acids added, two treatments were prepared: treatment 1......) pelleted (83 °C) diet; treatment 2) mash, non-heated diet. The feed was mixed with water (1:2.75, w/w) and incubated at  25 °C. The number of Enterobacteriaceae was higher in liquid feed prepared with the mash than with the pelleted feed immediately after feed and water were added to the mixture but after...... pelleted feed was used. This was specially observed in a more established FLF (after backslopping had been practiced for several days). In conclusion, the data showed that free lysine was degraded to a high extent when fermenting non-pelleted-non-heated feed, whereas a limited degradation occurred during...

  3. Process simulation of ethanol production from biomass gasification and syngas fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Planas, Oscar; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Phillips, John R; Aichele, Clint P; Mohammad, Sayeed

    2017-12-01

    The hybrid gasification-syngas fermentation platform can produce more bioethanol utilizing all biomass components compared to the biochemical conversion technology. Syngas fermentation operates at mild temperatures and pressures and avoids using expensive pretreatment processes and enzymes. This study presents a new process simulation model developed with Aspen Plus® of a biorefinery based on a hybrid conversion technology for the production of anhydrous ethanol using 1200tons per day (wb) of switchgrass. The simulation model consists of three modules: gasification, fermentation, and product recovery. The results revealed a potential production of about 36.5million gallons of anhydrous ethanol per year. Sensitivity analyses were also performed to investigate the effects of gasification and fermentation parameters that are keys for the development of an efficient process in terms of energy conservation and ethanol production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fermentation process for alcoholic beverage production from mahua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... content of blueberry wine and suggested that the maximum ethanol content and minimum volatile acid production of blueberry wine fermentation with. Saccharomyces cerevisiae AS2.316 commercial wine yeast could reach 7.63% and 0.34 g l-1 under the optimal condition of temperature, 22.65°C; pH, 3.53 ...

  5. Inhibitory Compounds in Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysates during Hydrolysate Fermentation Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zha, Y.; Muilwijk, B.; Coulier, L.C.; Punt, P.J.

    2012-01-01

    To compare the composition and performance of various lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates as fermentation media, 8 hydrolysates were generated from a grass-like and a wood biomass. The hydrolysate preparation methods used were 1) dilute acid, 2) mild alkaline, 3) alkaline/peracetic acid, and 4)

  6. Food Grade Ehanol Production With Fermentation And Distillation Process Using Stem Sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Setyowati

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available 10% -12% of sugar in its stem which is the optimum sugar concentration in fermentation process for bioethanol production. Sorghum has a high potential to be developed as a raw material for food-grade ethanol production which can be used to support food-grade ethanol demand in Indonesia through a fermentation process. This research focused on the effect of microorganism varieties in the fermentation process which are mutant Zymomonas mobilis (A3, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis mixture. The Research for purification process are separated into two parts, distillation with steel wool structured packing and dehydration process using molecular sieve and eliminating impurities using activated carbon. The research can be concluded that the best productivity shown in continuous fermentation in the amount of 84.049 (g / L.hr using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis. The highest percentage of ethanol yield produced in batch fermentation using the mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis that is equal to 51.269%. And for the adsorption, the best result shown in continuous fermentation by using Zymomonas Mobilis of 88.374%..

  7. On-line monitoring of fermentation processes using multi-wavelength fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odman, Peter; Petersen, Nanna; Johansen, Claus Lindvald

    2007-01-01

    Fermentation processes often suffer from a lack of real-time methods for on-line determination of variables like the concentrations of nutrients and products. This work aims at investigating the possibilities of implementing an on-line fermentation monitoring system based on multi....... The model system considered in this work is the antibiotic production by Streptomyces coelicolor, a filamentous bacterium. In addition to predicting concentrations of biomass in the fermentation broth, the data allowed detection of different physiological states, i.e. growth phase and phosphate limitation...

  8. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) Methyl bromide is used to fumigate corn grits and cracked rice in the production of fermented... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed grain...

  9. Signal Processing Methods for Liquid Rocket Engine Combustion Spontaneous Stability and Rough Combustion Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, R. Jeremy; Casiano, Matthew; Fischbach, Sean; Hulka, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid rocket engine combustion stability assessments are traditionally broken into three categories: dynamic stability, spontaneous stability, and rough combustion. This work focuses on comparing the spontaneous stability and rough combustion assessments for several liquid engine programs. The techniques used are those developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for the J-2X Workhorse Gas Generator program. Stability assessment data from the Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator (IPD), FASTRAC, and Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE) programs are compared against previously processed J-2X Gas Generator data. Prior metrics for spontaneous stability assessments are updated based on the compilation of all data sets.

  10. Determination of carbohydrates in fermentation processes by high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, A.; Stuempfel, J.; Fiedler, H.P. (Tuebingen Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Fakultaet fuer Biologie)

    1989-11-01

    HPLC is a universal, fast, accurate and selective method for the quantification of carbohydrates during fermentation processes. HPLC is not affected by complex constituents of fermentation media, such as meat extract, soybean meal or distillers solubles. The detection limit of the different investigated carbohydrates by refractive index monitoring ranges between 20 and 40 mg/l using a cation-exchange resin and between 50 and 100 mg/l using amino- or diol-bonded phases. (orig.).

  11. Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermentation by some incubation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintang I.A.B

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effect of fermented palm oil sludge (PaS incubated with different ways towards metabolic digestibility on dry matter,true metabolizable energy (TME and protein digestibilities. A completely randomized design was used. Treatments consisted of unfermented pas (control and fermented pas with and without enzymatic incubation proces, two levels of incubation temperatures (28°C and 32°C and three levels of incubation times (3, 4 and 5 days. The digestibility studies were carried out in 46 layer. The results showed that the dry matter digestibility of P_S was not significantly affected by fermentation process neither by incubation times. TME was not affected by fermentation process and incubation times, but it was significantly affected by incubation temperatures during fennentation (P<0,05. Incubation temperatures at 3rC more significant than 28°C. Enzimatic process was more significant than without enzimatic process. True metabolizable energy was highly significantly affected by enzimatic process (Pprocess (Pfermentation process could improve the digestibility of palm oil sludge (paS. The best result obtained from incubation at 32°C for 3 days and continued by enzimatic process.

  12. Toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    to be potentially pathogenic by harboring and expressing enterotoxin and emetic genes. Isolates from afiitin were the most cytotoxic as detected by a Vero-cell assay, while an isolate from sonru was a potent cereulide producer. Interestingly B. cereus food poisoning frm the consumption of the fermented condiments...

  13. Nonlinear analysis and control of a continuous fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szederkényi, G.; Kristensen, Niels Rode; Hangos, K.M

    2002-01-01

    Different types of nonlinear controllers are designed and compared for a simple continuous bioreactor operating near optimal productivity. This operating point is located close to a fold bifurcation point. Nonlinear analysis of stability, controllability and zero dynamics is used to investigate o...... are recommended for the simple fermenter. Passivity based controllers have been found to be globally stable, not very sensitive to the uncertainties in the reaction rate and controller parameter but they require full nonlinear state feedback....

  14. Exploring process dynamics by near infrared spectroscopy in lactic fermentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina; Cieplak, Tomasz; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J

    2016-01-01

    the chemical composition, physical/textural properties and/or microbial contamination. In this study lactic fermentation batches with the starter bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus are explored by in-line near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The dynamics obtained...... and absorption, where the scatter gives us information about the textural change happening, and the absorption gives us information about the biomass formation plus the conversion of sugar into lactic acid....

  15. [Analysis of changes in minerals contents during cider fermentation process by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Meng-qi; Yue, Tian-li; Gao, Zhen-peng; Yuan, Ya-hong; Nie, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The changes in mineral elements during cider fermentation process were determined using ICP-MS. The results showed that the main minerals in the fermentation liquor included K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Sr and B. The content of K was the highest in both the apple juice and the cider, being 1 853. 83 and 1 654. 38 mg . L-1 respectively. The content of minerals was in dynamic changes along with the fermentation process. As a whole, during 72-120 h and 144-216 h, most of the minerals contents underwent great fluctuation. Especially when fermented for 192 h, the content of most of the minerals reached peak value or valley value. The content of Fe and Zn achieved their peak value, while the content of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn and B achieved valley value. But during the following 24 h, the content of minerals underwent a sharp reversal. After fermentation, the content of K, Mg, Cu, Zn and B decreased significantly, while the content of Na, Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr did not change significantly. The correlational analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlation between the mineral elements, and the result showed that the correlation between Ca and Mn was the most significant, with the correlation index reaching 0. 924. The information of this study will supply sufficient data for the fermentation process control and quality improvement of cider.

  16. The water kefir grain inoculum determines the characteristics of the resulting water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, D; De Vuyst, L

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the influence of the water kefir grain inoculum on the characteristics of the water kefir fermentation process. Three water kefir fermentation processes were started with different water kefir grain inocula and followed as a function of time regarding microbial species diversity, community dynamics, substrate consumption profile and metabolite production course. The inoculum determined the water kefir grain growth, the viable counts on the grains, the time until total carbohydrate exhaustion, the final metabolite concentrations and the microbial species diversity. There were always 2-10 lactic acid bacterial cells for every yeast cell and the majority of these micro-organisms was always present on the grains. Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were always present and may be the key micro-organisms during water kefir fermentation. Low water kefir grain growth was associated with small grains with high viable counts of micro-organisms, fast fermentation and low pH values, and was not caused by the absence of exopolysaccharide-producing lactic acid bacteria. The water kefir grain inoculum influences the microbial species diversity and characteristics of the fermentation process. A select group of key micro-organisms was always present during fermentation. This study allows a rational selection of a water kefir grain inoculum. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Fermentation as a bio-process to obtain functional soybean flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Orozco, Rebeca; Frias, Juana; Muñoz, Rosario; Zielinski, Henryk; Piskula, Mariusz K; Kozlowska, Halina; Vidal-Valverde, Concepción

    2007-10-31

    The effect of fermentation on the antioxidant compounds [vitamins C and E, total phenolic compounds (TPC), and reduced glutathione (GSH)], and antioxidant capacity [superoxide anion scavenging activity (SOD-like activity), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), inhibition of phosphatidylcholine (PC) peroxidation, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)] of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) was studied. Fermentation was carried out in solid state in cracked seeds inoculated with Aspergillus oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, and Lactobacillus plantarum and in liquid state either in cracked seeds or milled soybean flours fermented naturally by only the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with L. plantarum. Vitamin C was not detected in the studied samples. Fermentation caused a decrease in vitamin E activity, except when cracked seed was fermented with A. oryzae, R. oryzae, or B. subtilis that increased 31, 30, and 89%, respectively. Fermentation produced an increase in TPC content and did not affect or reduce the GSH content. Fermentation decreased SOD-like activity drastically, while PRTC increased except when it was carried out naturally in cracked seed. TEAC values rose sharply when soybeans were fermented with B. subtilis. Processed soybean extracts inhibited PC peroxidation in comparison with the control assay. On the basis of the results obtained, the relative contributions of vitamin E, TPC, and GSH to antioxidant capacity were calculated and results showed a very high TPC contribution and a low contribution of GSH and vitamin E activity. Optimum results for functional soybean flours were achieved when fermentation was carried out with B. subtilis inoculum.

  18. Development of starter culture for improved processing of Lafun, an African fermented cassava food product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padonou, S.W.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Akissoe, N.H.

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: To select appropriate micro-organisms to be used as starter culture for reliable and reproducible fermentation of Lafun. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 22 cultures consisting of yeast, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bacillus cereus strains predominant in traditionally fermented cassava...... during Lafun processing were tested as potential starter cultures. In an initial screening, Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2Y48P22, Lactobacillus fermentum 2L48P21, Lactobacillus plantarum 1L48P35 and B. cereus 2B24P31 were found to be the most promising of the cultures and were subsequently tested...... in different combinations as mixed starter cultures to ferment submerged cassava roots. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, inoculated singly or combined with B. cereus, gave the softest cassava root after 48 h of fermentation according to determination of compression profile and stress at fracture. Overall, sensory...

  19. Industrial evaluation of a dynamic controller for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The dry grind corn industry is the largest ethanol producer in the US. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is one of the most critical process steps that determines the ethanol yields and conversion efficiency of the whole process. Due to its complexity, the SSF process is not compl...

  20. Effect of γ-aminobutyric acid and nattokinase-enriched fermented beans on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanintra Suwanmanon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have evaluated the changes in arterial blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR caused by the short-term intake of Bacillus subtilis B060-fermented beans with significant γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA and nattokinase activity. After being weaned, 7-week-old male SHR and 7-week-old male Wistar–Kyoto (WKY rats were randomized into seven groups. Until the 8th week of life, the rats in each group were given one of the following: Group 1, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SHD; Group 2, medium dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SMD; Group 3, low dose of GABA and nattokinase in the SHR (SLD; Group 4, negative control in the SHR (SD; Group 5, positive control in the SHR (SM; Group 6, high dose of GABA and nattokinase in the WKY (WHD; and Group 7, negative control in the WKY (WD. Distilled water served as the negative control, and captopril (50 mg/kg, a known ACE inhibitor, served as the positive control. Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure values were measured weekly from the 8th week to the 16th week of life using the tail-cuff method. A definite decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values could be observed in the rats treated with captopril and in the rats that received GABA and nattokinase. The greatest antihypertensive effect was observed when the pharmacological treatment was administered. The effect of the daily intake of fermented beans containing GABA and nattokinase may be helpful in controlling blood pressure levels in hypertensive model animals. The fermentation of beans with B. subtilis B060 may therefore constitute a successful strategy for producing a functional food with antihypertensive activity.

  1. The Performance of by Turns Fermentation- Dryer for Vanilla (Vanilla Planifolia Andrews Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haerani Haerani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The drying and fermentation are the processing steps which influence the quality of vanilla. Thus, an effort to produce instrument which can dry and ferment vanilla by turns automatically was done. Based on the test result on the instrument, it was known that the heater and heat-exchanger can function excellently. It can be seen from the increase of temperature after passing heater and heat-exchanger; and the decrease of air humidity in the drying chamber. The small differences of air flow speed between racks proved the uniformity of air flow speed in the drying chamber. The time and temperature control system showed temperature stability on drying process (i.e. 60°C and on fermentation process (i.e. 40°C; moreover, temperature response reached 60°C and did not exceed the setting time (maximum 30 minutes. The water percentage depletion from 88% to 55% is relatively slow (in 5 days fermentation-drying process. The depletion is appropriate with the recommendation for fermentation-drying vanilla processing.

  2. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah; Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits

  3. Stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for batch fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosli, Norhayati; Ayoubi, Tawfiqullah [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah; Rahman, Haliza Abdul [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In this paper, the stochastic growth logistic model with aftereffect for the cell growth of C. acetobutylicum P262 and Luedeking-Piret equations for solvent production in batch fermentation system is introduced. The parameters values of the mathematical models are estimated via Levenberg-Marquardt optimization method of non-linear least squares. We apply Milstein scheme for solving the stochastic models numerically. The effciency of mathematical models is measured by comparing the simulated result and the experimental data of the microbial growth and solvent production in batch system. Low values of Root Mean-Square Error (RMSE) of stochastic models with aftereffect indicate good fits.

  4. Spontaneous T Cell Proliferation: A Physiologic Process to Create and Maintain Homeostatic Balance and Diversity of the Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Booki

    2018-01-01

    Naive T lymphocytes undergo heterogeneous proliferative responses when introduced into lymphopenic hosts, referred to as “homeostatic proliferation” and “spontaneous proliferation.” Spontaneous proliferation is a unique process through which the immune system generates memory phenotype cells with increasing T cell receptors repertoire complexity. Here, the mechanisms that initiate and control spontaneous proliferation are discussed. PMID:29616038

  5. Extraction of glutathione from EFB fermentation waste using methanol with sonication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Alvin, Nurdin, Muhammad; Hanifah, Ummu; Sudiyani, Yanni

    2017-11-01

    Glutathione is important compound on the human body. Glutathione have a widely use at pharmacy and cosmetics as detoxification, skin whitening agent, antioxidant and many other. This study aims to obtain glutathione from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fermentation waste of second generation bioethanol. The remaining yeast in the empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermentation was separated from the fermentation solution use centrifugation process and then extracted using a methanol-water solution. The extraction process was done by maceration which was assisted by sonication process. Solvent concentration and time of sonication were varied to see its effect on glutathione concentration. The concentration of glutathione from the extraction process was analyzed using alloxan method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The results show that the highest glutathione concentration was approximately 1.32 g/L obtained with methanol solvent at 90 minutes of maceration following with 15 minutes sonication.

  6. Fermentation Process of Cocoa Based on Optimum Condition of Pulp PectinDepolymerization by Endogenous Pectolityc Enzymes

    OpenAIRE

    Ganda-Putra, G.P; Wrasiati, L.P; Wartini, N.M

    2010-01-01

    Pulp degradation during cocoa fermentation can be carried out by depolymerization process of pulp pectin using endogenous pectolytic enzymes at optimum condition. The objectives of this research were to study the effect of fermentation process based on optimum condition in terms of temperature and pH of pulp pectin depolymerization using endogenous pectolytic enzymes polygalakturonase (PG) and pectin metyl esterase (PME) and fermentation period in cocoa processing on quality characteristics o...

  7. Applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 as a starter culture to control vegetable fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Dorrit; Grosu-Tudor, Silvia; Zamfir, Medana; De Vuyst, Luc

    2013-10-01

    Fermentation of vegetables and fruits is a traditional preservation technique, e.g. in Eastern Europe. Although usually spontaneous fermentation processes are applied, the addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures could accelerate processing and improve the consistency and quality of the end-products. The application of Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 as a starter culture strain for cauliflower and mixed vegetable fermentations resulted in accelerated acidification as compared with the spontaneous fermentations. The strain dominated the background microbiota throughout the process, whereas the spontaneous fermentations were characterised by widely variable species diversity. During the spontaneous fermentations, almost all carbohydrates were converted into lactic acid, ethanol, mannitol and acetic acid, indicating the participation of both heterofermentative and homofermentative LAB species. During the starter culture-added fermentations, residual carbohydrates were found and lactic acid and ethanol were the main end-metabolites. Vegetable-associated aromas, ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate were produced during all fermentations. The high concentration of ethanol and the production of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate suggested the involvement of yeasts during all fermentations. Lactobacillus plantarum IMDO 788 was an adequate starter culture strain for vegetable fermentations, prevailing over endogenous LAB communities. Further optimisation of the starter culture formulation is necessary to avoid yeast growth. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Hydrogen bio-production of carbohydrate fermentation by anaerobic activated sludge process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, N.

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogen gas is expected to be one of the most important clean fuel. The production of hydrogen by biotechnology is one of the ways to obtain low-priced hydrogen gas. According to the types of microorganism, the process of hydrogen production could be divided into photosynthetic and fermentative methods. From the viewpoint of the feasibility of industrial production, the fermentative method of hydrogen production will be the main direction of development. The new type of hydrogen production technology of organic wastewater fermentation by anaerobic activated sludge process was advanced. By the use of the continuous hydrogen bio-production reactor developed by authors and the substrates such as molasses, corn starch and powdered sugar, the effects of some operational parameters such as organic loading rate on the hydrogen production rate were studied, and the ethanol type fermentation of carbohydrate in the process of H{sub 2}-producing acidogenic fermentation was discovered. Under optimal conditions, the gas yield was 0.3m{sup 3} gas/ kg influent COD, the H{sub 2} production rate was 0.42-0.47 L H{sub 2} / L - h, and the specific H{sub 2} production rate was 36-40 mL H{sub 2}/g MLVSS {circ} h. There were only H{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in fermentation gas that was of 45%-49% of H{sub 2} content. The H{sub 2} production process by use of ethanol type fermentation could obtain high-yield hydrogen gas. This hydrogen bio-production technology using anaerobic activated sludge as H{sub 2} producing bacterium was fast to start-up, easy to operate and cheep to produce hydrogen gas.

  9. On-Line Monitoring of Fermentation Processes by Near Infrared and Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Carina

    Monitoring and control of fermentation processes is important to ensure high product yield, product quality and product consistency. More knowledge on on-line analytical techniques such as near infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy is desired in the fermentation industry to increase the efficiency...... of on-line monitoring systems. The primary aim of this thesis is to elucidate and explore the dynamics in fermentation processes by spectroscopy. Though a number of successful on-line lab-scale monitoring systems have been reported, it seems that several challenges are still met, which limits the number......-time monitoring of bioprocesses and it also highlights that the applied techniques with different measurement orders deliver specific but also complementary sources of information. Furthermore, it was shown that valuable process information can be obtained both by near infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence...

  10. Spontaneous processing of functional and non-functional action sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Kristoffer Laigaard; Sørensen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    as sub-categories of non-functional behavior (i.e., actions lacking causal coherence and a necessary integration between subparts). New insights in human action processing can help us explain how cognition might vary depending on the type of behavior processed. Using an event segmentation paradigm, we...... conducted two experiments eliciting differences in participants' response patterns to functional and non-functional actions. Participants consistently segmented non-functional action sequences into smaller units indicating either an attentional shift to the level of gesture analysis or a problem...

  11. A review of control strategies for manipulating the feed rate in fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of industrial fermentation processes are operated in fed-batch mode. In this case, the rate of feed addition to the system is a focus for optimising the process operation, as it directly impacts metabolic activity, as well as directly affecting the volume dynamics in the system...

  12. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  13. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment] [and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  14. Changes of spontaneous parthenogenetic activation and development potential of golden hamster oocytes during the aging process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han; Wang, Ce; Guan, Jiyu; Wang, Lingyan; Li, Ziyi

    2015-01-01

    The golden hamster is an excellent animal experimental model for oocyte research. The hamster oocytes are very useful in clinical examination of human spermatozoan activity. Non-fertile oocytes can lead to time-dependent processes of aging, which will affect the results of human spermatozoa examination. As a consequence there is a need to investigate the aging and anti-aging processes of golden hamster oocytes. In order to study the aging processes and parthenogenetic activation of golden hamster oocytes, in vivo oocytes, oocytes cultured with or without cumulus cells, and oocytes treated with Trichostatin A (TSA) or caffeine were collected and investigated. We found that: (1) spontaneous parthenogenetic activation, developmental potential (cleavage rate), and zona pellucida (ZP) hardening undergo age-dependent changes in in vivo, in vitro, and after TSA or caffeine treatment; (2) in vivo, oocytes became spontaneously parthenogenetic 25 h post-hCG treatment; (3) in vitro, cumulus cells did not significantly increase the parthenogenetic activation rate of cultured hamster oocytes; and (4) TSA or caffeine could delay spontaneous oocyte parthenogenetic activation and the aging processes by at least 5h, but also accelerated the hardening of the ZP. These results define the conditions for the aging and anti-aging processes in golden hamster oocytes. TSA and caffeine play roles in controlling spontaneous activation, which could facilitate the storage and use of golden hamster oocytes for studying processes relevant to human reproduction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes...... integration shows the need for an additional pH controller in the fermenten A PI controller is implemented and tested. The complete control structure for the integrated system consists of this PI controller in the fermenter plus a previously developed (Prado-Rubio et al., 2010) input resetting control...

  16. [The optimization of guanosine fermentation based on process parameter correlation analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xianpeng; Chen, Shuangxi; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang; Wang, Huanzhang; Liu, Yongmei

    2002-04-01

    The characteristic of Bacillus subtilis fermentation process of guanosine on 50 L fermentor was analyzed. Based on determination of on-line and off-line parameter, using correlation analysis, the technology study of physiologic regulation was combined with the metabolic flux distribution of synthesis process. The metabolic flux shift from HMP to EMP and TCA cycle during fermentation was found. The reason of the flux shift was preliminary analyzed, based on which the procedure was optimized to increase the yield of guanosine to 30 g/L.

  17. Livestock Feed Production from Sago Solid Waste by Pretreatment and Anaerobic Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumardiono Siswo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Food needs in Indonesia is increasing, including beef. Today, Indonesia has problem to do self-sufficiency in beef. The cause of the problem is the quality of local beef is still lower compared with imported beef due to the quality of livestock feed consumed. To increase the quality of livestock is through pretreatment and fermentation. Source of livestock feed that processed is solid sago waste (Arenga microcarpa, because in Indonesia that is relatively abundant and not used optimally. Chemical pretreatment process for delignification is by using NaOH solution. The purposes of this research are to study NaOH pretreatment, the addition of Trichoderma sp, and fermentation time to improve the quality of sago solid waste as livestock feed through anaerobic fermentation. The variables used are addition or without addition (4%w NaOH solution and Trichoderma sp 1%w and fermentation time (7, 14 and 21 days, with the response of crude fiber and protein. The result of this research shows that the pretreatment with soaking of NaOH solution, addition of Trichoderma sp and 14 days of fermentation was more effective to improve the quality of solid sago waste with decrease of crude fiber from 33.37% to 17.36% and increase of crude protein from 4.00% to 7.96%.

  18. Efficient hydrogen gas production from cassava and food waste by a two-step process of dark fermentation and photo-fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zong, Wenming [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China); Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Ruisong; Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Zhihua [Key Laboratory of Synthetic Biology, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, 3 Chinese Academy of Sciences, 300 Fenglin Rd, Shanghai 200032 (China); Fan, Meizhen [Anhui Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Pest Control, Anhui Agricultural University, Hefei 230036 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A two-step process of sequential anaerobic (dark) and photo-heterotrophic fermentation was employed to produce hydrogen from cassava and food waste. In dark fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen was approximately 199 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 220 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. In subsequent photo-fermentation, the average yield of hydrogen from the effluent of dark fermentation was approximately 611 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 451 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. The total hydrogen yield in the two-step process was estimated as 810 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} cassava and 671 ml H{sub 2} g{sup -1} food waste. Meanwhile, the COD decreased greatly with a removal efficiency of 84.3% in cassava batch and 80.2% in food waste batch. These results demonstrate that cassava and food waste could be ideal substrates for bio-hydrogen production. And a two-step process combining dark fermentation and photo-fermentation was highly improving both bio-hydrogen production and removal of substrates and fatty acids. (author)

  19. Modelling of Fed-batch Fermentation Process with Droppings for L-lysine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velitchka Ivanova

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is the development of dynamic unstructured model of L-lysine fed-batch fermentation process with droppings. This approach includes the following procedures: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; identification of the specific rates (growth rate (mu , substrate utilization rate (nu, production rate (rho; establishment and optimization of the dynamic model of the process; simulation researches.

  20. Flavor impacts of glycerol in the processing of yeast fermented beverages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiangdong; Procopio, Susanne; Becker, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol contributes to the beverage body and fullness. Moreover, it also influences the flavor intensity. As a major byproduct, glycerol not only serves critical roles in yeast osmoregulation and redox balancing, but also acts as the carbon competitor against ethanol in alcoholic fermentation. Therefore, increasing glycerol yield benefits both the flavor and ethanol reduction for the fermented beverages. Glycerol yield has been elevated either by fermentation optimization or by yeast genetic modification. The fermentation optimizations reached maximum 14 g/L glycerol through screening yeast strains and optimizing fermentation parameters. Meanwhile the yeast overexpressing GPD1 (encoding glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) produced up to 6 folds more glycerol for beer and wine. Except for glycerol improvement, the genetically modified yeasts accumulated dramatically undesirable compounds such as acetaldehyde, acetate and acetoin which are detrimental for beverage flavor. In comparison, the natural high glycerol producers showed strain-specific manner on the yeast-derived aroma compounds like volatile acids, fusel alcohols, esters, and aldehydes. Temperature, sugar concentration, nitrogen composition, oxygen and pH-value, which influence glycerol biosynthesis, also obtained various effects on the production of aromatic compounds. In the current review, we firstly deliberate the organoleptic contributions of glycerol for fermented beverages. Furthermore, glycerol optimization strategies are discussed regarding to the yield improvement, the genes expressions, the overall flavor impacts and the feasibilities in beverage applications. Lastly, for improving beverage flavor by glycerol optimization, a high-throughput platform is proposed to increase the screening capacity of yeast strains and parameters in the processing of fermented beverages.

  1. Recent advances in electronic nose techniques for monitoring of fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Hang; Chen, Quansheng; Mei, Congli; Liu, Guohai

    2015-12-01

    Microbial fermentation process is often sensitive to even slight changes of conditions that may result in unacceptable end-product quality. Thus, the monitoring of the process is critical for discovering unfavorable deviations as early as possible and taking the appropriate measures. However, the use of traditional analytical techniques is often time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this sense, the most effective way of developing rapid, accurate and relatively economical method for quality assurance in microbial fermentation process is the use of novel chemical sensor systems. Electronic nose techniques have particular advantages in non-invasive monitoring of microbial fermentation process. Therefore, in this review, we present an overview of the most important contributions dealing with the quality control in microbial fermentation process using the electronic nose techniques. After a brief description of the fundamentals of the sensor techniques, some examples of potential applications of electronic nose techniques monitoring are provided, including the implementation of control strategies and the combination with other monitoring tools (i.e. sensor fusion). Finally, on the basis of the review, the electronic nose techniques are critically commented, and its strengths and weaknesses being highlighted. In addition, on the basis of the observed trends, we also propose the technical challenges and future outlook for the electronic nose techniques.

  2. Assessment of the contribution of cocoa-derived strains of Acetobacter ghanensis and Acetobacter senegalensis to the cocoa bean fermentation process through a genomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illeghems, Koen; Pelicaen, Rudy; De Vuyst, Luc; Weckx, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Acetobacter ghanensis LMG 23848(T) and Acetobacter senegalensis 108B are acetic acid bacteria that originate from a spontaneous cocoa bean heap fermentation process and that have been characterised as strains with interesting functionalities through metabolic and kinetic studies. As there is currently little genetic information available for these species, whole-genome sequencing of A. ghanensis LMG 23848(T) and A. senegalensis 108B and subsequent data analysis was performed. This approach not only revealed characteristics such as the metabolic potential and genomic architecture, but also allowed to indicate the genetic adaptations related to the cocoa bean fermentation process. Indeed, evidence was found that both species possessed the genetic ability to be involved in citrate assimilation and displayed adaptations in their respiratory chain that might improve their competitiveness during the cocoa bean fermentation process. In contrast, other properties such as the dependence on glycerol or mannitol and lactate as energy sources or a less efficient acid stress response may explain their low competitiveness. The presence of a gene coding for a proton-translocating transhydrogenase in A. ghanensis LMG 23848(T) and the genes involved in two aromatic compound degradation pathways in A. senegalensis 108B indicate that these strains have an extended functionality compared to Acetobacter species isolated from other ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Breeding Strategy To Generate Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for Cocoa Pulp Fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Paulus, Tinneke; Struyf, Nore; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Koffi, Jean; Vrancken, Gino; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2015-09-01

    Cocoa pulp fermentation is a spontaneous process during which the natural microbiota present at cocoa farms is allowed to ferment the pulp surrounding cocoa beans. Because such spontaneous fermentations are inconsistent and contribute to product variability, there is growing interest in a microbial starter culture that could be used to inoculate cocoa pulp fermentations. Previous studies have revealed that many different fungi are recovered from different batches of spontaneous cocoa pulp fermentations, whereas the variation in the prokaryotic microbiome is much more limited. In this study, therefore, we aimed to develop a suitable yeast starter culture that is able to outcompete wild contaminants and consistently produce high-quality chocolate. Starting from specifically selected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, we developed robust hybrids with characteristics that allow them to efficiently ferment cocoa pulp, including improved temperature tolerance and fermentation capacity. We conducted several laboratory and field trials to show that these new hybrids often outperform their parental strains and are able to dominate spontaneous pilot scale fermentations, which results in much more consistent microbial profiles. Moreover, analysis of the resulting chocolate showed that some of the cocoa batches that were fermented with specific starter cultures yielded superior chocolate. Taken together, these results describe the development of robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentations that can contribute to improving the consistency and quality of commercial chocolate production. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Effect of Agave tequilana age, cultivation field location and yeast strain on tequila fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinal, L; Cornejo, E; Arellano, M; Herrera, E; Nuñez, L; Arrizon, J; Gschaedler, A

    2009-05-01

    The effect of yeast strain, the agave age and the cultivation field location of agave were evaluated using kinetic parameters and volatile compound production in the tequila fermentation process. Fermentations were carried out with Agave juice obtained from two cultivation fields (CF1 and CF2), as well as two ages (4 and 8 years) and two Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strains (GU3 and AR5) isolated from tequila fermentation must. Sugar consumption and ethanol production varied as a function of cultivation field and agave age. The production of ethyl acetate, 1-propanol, isobutanol and amyl alcohols were influenced in varying degrees by yeast strain, agave age and cultivation field. Methanol production was only affected by the agave age and 2-phenylethanol was influenced only by yeast strain. This work showed that the use of younger Agave tequilana for tequila fermentation resulted in differences in sugar consumption, ethanol and volatile compounds production at the end of fermentation, which could affect the sensory quality of the final product.

  5. Improved Release and Metabolism of Flavonoids by Steered Fermentation Processes: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thai Huynh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview on steered fermentation processes to release phenolic compounds from plant-based matrices, as well as on their potential application to convert phenolic compounds into unique metabolites. The ability of fermentation to improve the yield and to change the profile of phenolic compounds is mainly due to the release of bound phenolic compounds, as a consequence of the degradation of the cell wall structure by microbial enzymes produced during fermentation. Moreover, the microbial metabolism of phenolic compounds results in a large array of new metabolites through different bioconversion pathways such as glycosylation, deglycosylation, ring cleavage, methylation, glucuronidation and sulfate conjugation, depending on the microbial strains and substrates used. A whole range of metabolites is produced, however metabolic pathways related to the formation and bioactivities, and often quantification of the metabolites are highly underinvestigated. This strategy could have potential to produce extracts with a high-added value from plant-based matrices.

  6. Improved process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose...

  7. A process for producing a fermentation product from a lignocellulose-containing material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates to the production of hydrolyzates from a lignocellulose-containing material, and to fermentation of the hydrolyzates. More specifically, the present invention relates to the detoxification of phenolic inhibitors and toxins formed during the processing of lignocellulose...

  8. Development of a lipase fermentation process that uses a recombinant Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritse, G; Hommes, R.W J; Quax, Wim

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes M-l secretes an alkaline lipase, which has excellent characteristics for the removal of fatty stains under modern washing conditions. A fed-batch fermentation process based on the secretion of the alkaline lipase from P. alcaligenes was developed. Due to the inability of P.

  9. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélafi-Bakó, K.; Búcsú, D.; Pientka, Z.; Bálint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovács, K.I.; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    An integrated system for biohydrogen production and separation was designed, constructed and operated where biohydrogen was fermented by Thermococcus litoralis, a heterotrophic archaebacterium, and a two-step gas separation process was coupled to recover and concentrate hydrogen. A special liquid

  10. Biogas Production Based On Miscanthus × Giganteus (Miscanthus Sinensis Anderss. Within Dry Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porvaz Pavol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available “Dry fermentation“ technology may be used for energy recovery of phytomass substrate which has dry matter content from 20 to 60%. In agriculture sector, while only rarely used, it is a very perspective technology at such types of biomass – phytomass which is not recommended to be processed within “wet fermentation” (process is energetically and operationally very costly. For detecting the suitability of Miscanthus × giganteus phytomass to biogas for production through dry fermentation process, as well as determining the biogas yield, at the Slovak university of Agriculture (SUA there has been developed an experimental device enabling the pilot plant trials, which is installed at the biogas station within the area of the VPP SPU Ltd. in Kolíňany. A pilot plant experiment of biogas production based on Miscanthus × giganteus (Miscanthus sinensis Anderss. phytomass within dry fermentation process was carried out at the period from 25 February to 25 March 2013. The monitored production of biogas was based on the substrate mixture of components formed as follows: the biomass from preceding cycle (farmyard manure and ensilage from Miscanthus phytomass. In these experiments the amount of produced biogas, analysis of biogas and the input substrate were materialized by standard methodology. On base of the obtained results, we can formulate the conclusion: the tested substrate mainly consists of Miscanthus phytomass and manure was suitable for biogas production technology and anaerobic dry fermentation process. The yield of Miscanthus substrate in our experiments was around 117 litres of biogas per 1 kg of dry matter silage. For assurance of the continuity and uniformity in the production of biogas by dry fermentation process, the multiple-fermentation chamber is needed, which must be saturated gradually with dosing interval. This dosing interval is caused by residence time and the number of chambers. For example, at the residence time of 28

  11. Metabolic and microbial community dynamics during the hydrolytic and acidogenic fermentation in a leach-bed process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straeuber, Heike; Kleinsteuber, Sabine [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioenergy; UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Microbiology; Schroeder, Martina [UFZ - Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany). Dept. of Bioenergy

    2012-12-15

    Biogas production from lignocellulosic feedstock not competing with food production can contribute to a sustainable bioenergy system. The hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the anaerobic digestion of solid substrates such as straw. Hence, a detailed understanding of the metabolic processes during the steps of hydrolysis and acidogenesis is required to improve process control strategies. The fermentation products formed during the acidogenic fermentation of maize silage as a model substrate in a leach-bed process were determined by gas and liquid chromatography. The bacterial community dynamics was monitored by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The community profiles were correlated with the process data using multivariate statistics. The batch process comprised three metabolic phases characterized by different fermentation products. The bacterial community dynamics correlated with the production of the respective metabolites. In phase 1, lactic and acetic acid fermentations dominated. Accordingly, bacteria of the genera Lactobacillus and Acetobacter were detected. In phase 2, the metabolic pathways shifted to butyric acid fermentation, accompanied by the production of hydrogen and carbon dioxide and a dominance of the genus Clostridium. In phase 3, phylotypes affiliated with Ruminococcaceae and Lachnospiraceae prevailed, accompanied by the formation of caproic and acetic acids, and a high gas production rate. A clostridial butyric type of fermentation was predominant in the acidogenic fermentation of maize silage, whereas propionic-type fermentation was marginal. As the metabolite composition resulting from acidogenesis affects the subsequent methanogenic performance, process control should focus on hydrolysis/acidogenesis when solid substrates are digested. (orig.)

  12. Beer fermentation: monitoring of process parameters by FT-NIR and multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Silvia; Amigo, José Manuel; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Foschino, Roberto; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2014-07-15

    This work investigates the capability of Fourier-Transform near infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to monitor and assess process parameters in beer fermentation at different operative conditions. For this purpose, the fermentation of wort with two different yeast strains and at different temperatures was monitored for nine days by FT-NIR. To correlate the collected spectra with °Brix, pH and biomass, different multivariate data methodologies were applied. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares (PLS) and locally weighted regression (LWR) were used to assess the relationship between FT-NIR spectra and the abovementioned process parameters that define the beer fermentation. The accuracy and robustness of the obtained results clearly show the suitability of FT-NIR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate data analysis, to be used as a quality control tool in the beer fermentation process. FT-NIR spectroscopy, when combined with LWR, demonstrates to be a perfectly suitable quantitative method to be implemented in the production of beer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coupling of Spinosad Fermentation and Separation Process via Two-Step Macroporous Resin Adsorption Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fanglong; Zhang, Chuanbo; Yin, Jing; Shen, Yueqi; Lu, Wenyu

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a two-step resin adsorption technology was investigated for spinosad production and separation as follows: the first step resin addition into the fermentor at early cultivation period to decrease the timely product concentration in the broth; the second step of resin addition was used after fermentation to adsorb and extract the spinosad. Based on this, a two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process for spinosad fermentation, separation, and purification was established. Spinosad concentration in 5-L fermentor increased by 14.45 % after adding 50 g/L macroporous at the beginning of fermentation. The established two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process got the 95.43 % purity and 87 % yield for spinosad, which were both higher than that of the conventional crystallization of spinosad from aqueous phase that were 93.23 and 79.15 % separately. The two-step macroporous resin adsorption method has not only carried out the coupling of spinosad fermentation and separation but also increased spinosad productivity. In addition, the two-step macroporous resin adsorption-membrane separation process performs better in spinosad yield and purity.

  14. Microbiological characterization and probiotic potential of koko and koko sour water, African spontaneously fermented millet porridge and drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, V; Jakobsen, M

    2004-01-01

    To identify and examine the diversity of predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in koko and koko sour water (KSW) from different Ghanaian production sites with regard to pattern of fermentation (API 50 CHL), genotype, antimicrobial activity, and resistance to low pH and bile salts. In total 215 LAB were isolated from koko and KSW. The isolates were identified using intergenic transcribed spacers (ITS)-PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), API 50 CHL, restriction enzyme analysis with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (REA-PFGE) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The dominating micro-organisms in koko was found to be Weisella confusa and Lactobacillus fermentum, followed by Lact. salivarius and Pediococcus spp. Chemometric data analysis were used to link the LAB species to the different production stages and production sites. At intra-species level the isolates were found to have a great diversity. The isolates were investigated for antimicrobial activity using agar diffusion assays, and acid and bile tolerance. Most isolates showed low levels of antimicrobial activity towards the indicator strain Listeria innocua, but not towards the bacteriocin-sensitive Lact. sakei. Growth of all LAB isolates was unaffected by the presence of 0.3% (v/v) oxgall bile. The isolates were able to survive, but were not able to grow in growth medium adjusted to pH 2.5. The dominating LAB of koko and KSW were W. confusa and Lact. fermentum showing a pronounced taxonomic biodiversity at sub-species level between stages within the production as well as between production sites. Other species observed in KSW were Lact. salivarius, Ped. pentosaceus, Ped. acidilactici and Lact. paraplantarum. They occurred in levels of 108 CFU ml-1 in fresh KSW and showed uniform antimicrobial activity, and acid and bile tolerance. The present study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of LAB in an African-fermented millet product that may have potential as a probiotic product

  15. Comparative sensory and proximate evaluation of spontaneously fermenting kunu-zaki made from germinated and ungerminated composite cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwajoba, Solakunmi O; Akinyosoye, Felix A; Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the sensory properties, proximate composition, and overall consumer acceptability of kunu-zaki using germinated and ungerminated Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Pennisetum americanum (millet), and Digitaria exilis (acha) cereal grains. The three cereal grains were used in nongerminated and germinated composite and noncomposite proportions coded A (Acha), S (Sorghum), M (Millet), AS (Acha-Sorghum), AM (Acha-Millet), SM (Sorghum-Millet), ASG (Acha-Sorghum Germinated), AMG (Acha-Millet Germinated), and SMG (Sorghum-Millet Germinated). Proximate analysis determined the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, and crude protein content of the fermented grains. The 9-point hedonic scale was used to judge the sensory parameters of taste, color, and aroma. The paired comparison test was used to judge consumer preference between kunu-zaki made from germinated grains and the ungerminated counterpart. Scores were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test in the SPSS analytical software package. Panelists ranked the ASG-coded drink highest in terms of taste and aroma, the AMG-coded drink highest in terms of color. SM ranked least in terms of taste; SMG ranked least in terms of aroma; and AM ranked the least in terms of color. Preference for each parameter was significantly different (P drinks from the most liked to the least liked in the order ASG>AMG>A>AS>S>M>SMG>AM>SM. The overall preference for the drinks was also significantly different (P drinks with the germinated drinks ranked the ungerminated drink AS as most preferred in terms of taste, color, and aroma above its germinated counterpart ASG with preference not significantly dependent on the parameters (P = 0.065 > 0.05). Ungerminated AM was also preferred above the germinated counterpart AMG in terms of taste, color, and aroma with preference not significantly dependent on parameters (P = 0.055 > 0.05). However, panelists showed preference for the taste and aroma of the germinated drink SMG

  16. Evaluation of different fermentation processes for use by small cocoa growers in mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Hernández, C; López-Andrade, Procopio Alejandro; Ramírez-Guillermo, Miguel A; Guerra Ramírez, Diana; Caballero Pérez, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate four different cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) fermentation conditions and their effect on fermented bean quality, in order to be able to recommend the most suitable condition to producers in the municipality of Huimanguillo, Tabasco, Mexico. Fermentations were carried out in square wooden boxes with capacity for 1000, 300, and 100 kg of fresh beans, as well as a rotary drum with capacity for 500 kg thereof. The fermentation process was carried out for 7 days, and the response variables measured were mass temperature, total soluble solids (TSS), pH, and acidity. The TSS were totally depleted after 2 days, during which time the yeasts transformed them into ethanol at temperatures of 25-35°C. The most notable temperature increase in the four treatments was 49°C on the third day, corresponding to a decrease in pH from 6.31 ± 0.40 to 4.76 ± 0.03 and an increase in acidity from 0.38 ± 0.04 to 1.17 ± 0.25 g kg(-1), due to the formation of organic acids. There were no significant differences among the four treatments (Tukey α = 0.05). The cut test showed that fermentation in 300- and 100-kg boxes and in the 500-kg rotary drum produced the same effect on fermentation quality, but the 1000-kg boxes exhibited lower quality (Tukey α = 0.05).

  17. Comprehensive assessment of the L-lysine production process from fermentation of sugarcane molasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya-Reza, Omar; Lopez-Arenas, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    L-Lysine is an essential amino acid that can be produced by chemical processes from fossil raw materials, as well as by microbial fermentation, the latter being a more efficient and environmentally friendly procedure. In this work, the production process of L-lysine-HCl is studied using a systematic approach based on modeling and simulation, which supports decision making in the early stage of process design. The study considers two analysis stages: first, the dynamic analysis of the fermentation reactor, where the conversion of sugars from sugarcane molasses to L-lysine with a strain of Corynebacterium glutamicum is carried out. In this stage, the operation mode (either batch or fed batch) and operating conditions of the fermentation reactor are defined to reach the maximum technical criteria. Afterwards, the second analysis stage relates to the industrial production process of L-lysine-HCl, where the fermentation reactor, upstream processing, and downstream processing are included. In this stage, the influence of key parameters on the overall process performance is scrutinized through the evaluation of several technical, economic, and environmental criteria, to determine a profitable and sustainable design of the L-lysine production process. The main results show how the operating conditions, process design, and selection of evaluation criteria can influence in the conceptual design. The best plant design shows maximum product yield (0.31 g L-lysine/g glucose) and productivity (1.99 g/L/h), achieving 26.5% return on investment (ROI) with a payback period (PBP) of 3.8 years, decreasing water and energy consumption, and with a low potential environmental impact (PEI) index.

  18. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Roberta Oliveira; Magalhães-Guedes, Karina Teixeira; Braga, Roberto Alves; Dias, Disney Ribeiro; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41gL -1 , reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid). Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains) providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  19. Fermentation process for production of apple-based kefir vinegar: microbiological, chemical and sensory analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Oliveira Viana

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a kefir apple-based vinegar and evaluate this fermentation process using new methodology with Biospeckle Laser. Brazilian kefir grains were inoculated in apple must for vinegar production. In this study, the microbial community present in kefir, and correspondent vinegar, was investigated using Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS technique. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter pasteurianus and Acetobacter syzygii were the microbial species identified. S. cerevisiae, L. plantarum, A. pasteurianus and A. syzygii were found in smaller quantities at the beginning of the alcoholic fermentation, but were found throughout the alcoholic and acetic fermentation. Kefir grains were able to utilize apple must as substrate to produce ethanol, and acetic acid. Acetate, volatile alcohols and aldehydes in the vinegar-based kefir were also produced. The yield of acetic acid in the kefir vinegars was ∼79%. The acetic acid concentration was ∼41 g L-1, reaching the required standard for the Brazilian legislation accepts it as vinegar (4.0% acetic acid. Kefir vinegar showed good acceptance in the sensory analysis. The technology proposed here is novel by the application of immobilized-cell biomass (kefir grains providing a mixed inocula and eliminating the use of centrifuge at the end of the fermentative process. This step will save energy demand and investment. This is the first study to produce apple vinegar using kefir grains.

  20. Effect of Germination and Fermentation Process on the Antioxidant Compounds of Quinoa Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carciochi, Ramiro Ariel; Galván-D'Alessandro, Leandro; Vandendriessche, Pierre; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-12-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) seed has gained a great interest in the last years, mainly due to its nutritional properties and its content of antioxidant substances with health-promoting properties in humans. In this work, the effect of germination time and fermentation on the levels of antioxidant compounds (ascorbic acid, tocopherol isomers and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant activity of quinoa seeds was evaluated. Fermentation was carried out naturally by the microorganisms present in the seeds or by inoculation with two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (used for baking and brewing). Ascorbic acid and total tocopherols were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.05) after 72 h of germination process in comparison with raw quinoa seeds, whilst fermentation caused a decrease in both types of compounds. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity were improved using both bioprocesses, being this effect more noticeable for germination process (101 % of increase after three days of germination). Germination and fermentation proved to be desirable procedures for producing enriched ingredients with health-promoting antioxidant compounds in a natural way.

  1. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S; Rønsbo, Mie H; Abban, Stephen; Hamad, Siddig H; Nielsen, Dennis S; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-04-29

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200 °C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a traditional production site in Khartoum, Sudan in 2006 and 2009, respectively. In 2006 four different milk/legume based primary starters (faba bean, chick pea, lentil and white bean) were sampled in order to enumerate and identify the Bacillus at species or group level. In 2009 specific focus was on the enumeration and safety evaluation of the dominant Bacillus cereus group species occurring during various Gergoush productions (including the three fermentations steps and after baking). In 2006, the primary starters contained Bacillus spp. in the order of between 7.7 and 8.1 log(10) CFU/g. Species identifications were performed by M13-PCR typing using the Escherichia coli phage M13 derived primer PM13 combined with internally transcribed 16-23S rRNA PCR, 16S rRNA gene and gyrA or gyrB gene sequencing, and selected phenotypic tests. Depending on the legume used, 40-68% of the isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato, 16-27% as Bacillus licheniformis, 8-32% as Bacillus subtilis and 4-20% as Bacillus sonorensis. During the second set of fermentation trials performed in 2009, the Bacillus spp. and B. cereus occurred in numbers of between 7.7-9.9 and 6.1-7.8 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, while no bacteria were detected after baking. A total of 180 B. cereus sensu lato isolates from four different primary starters, adapted starters and final doughs were further identified as B. cereus sensu stricto (118 isolates) and Bacillus thuringiensis (62 isolates). The safety of Gergoush was evaluated based on the counts and toxin gene profiles of the dominant B. cereus species. Considering that no bacteria survived the baking process, and that the cereulide synthetase gene ces

  2. Optimal Control of a Fed-batch Fermentation Process by Neuro-Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ilkova

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method for optimal control of a fermentation process is presented, that is based on an approach for optimal control - Neuro-Dynamic programming. For this aim the approximation neural network is developed and the decision of the optimization problem is improved by an iteration mode founded on the Bellman equation. With this approach computing time and procedure are decreased and quality of the biomass at the end of the process is increased.

  3. Alcoholic fermentation with flocculant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in fed-batch process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidini, Carla Zanella; Marquez, Líbia Diniz Santos; de Almeida Silva, Helisângela; de Resende, Miriam Maria; Cardoso, Vicelma Luiz; Ribeiro, Eloízio Júlio

    2014-02-01

    Studies have been conducted on selecting yeast strains for use in fermentation for ethanol production to improve the performance of industrial plants and decrease production costs. In this paper, we study alcoholic fermentation in a fed-batch process using a Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast strain with flocculant characteristics. Central composite design (CCD) was used to determine the optimal combination of the variables involved, with the sucrose concentration of 170 g/L, a cellular concentration in the inoculum of 40% (v/v), and a filling time of 6 h, which resulted in a 92.20% yield relative to the theoretical maximum yield, a productivity of 6.01 g/L h and a residual sucrose concentration of 44.33 g/L. With some changes in the process such as recirculation of medium during the fermentation process and increase in cellular concentration in the inoculum after use of the CCD was possible to reduce the residual sucrose concentration to 2.8 g/L in 9 h of fermentation and increase yield and productivity for 92.75% and 9.26 g/L h, respectively. A model was developed to describe the inhibition of alcoholic fermentation kinetics by the substrate and the product. The maximum specific growth rate was 0.103 h(-1), with K(I) and K(s) values of 109.86 and 30.24 g/L, respectively. The experimental results from the fed-batch reactor show a good fit with the proposed model, resulting in a maximum growth rate of 0.080 h(-1).

  4. Novel two-stage fermentation process for bioethanol production using Saccharomyces pastorianus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowtham, Yogender Kumar; Miller, Kristen P; Hodge, David B; Henson, J Michael; Harcum, Sarah W

    2014-01-01

    Bioethanol produced from lignocellulosic materials has the potential to be economically feasible, if both glucose and xylose released from cellulose and hemicellulose can be efficiently converted to ethanol. Saccharomyces spp. can efficiently convert glucose to ethanol; however, xylose conversion to ethanol is a major hurdle due to lack of xylose-metabolizing pathways. In this study, a novel two-stage fermentation process was investigated to improve bioethanol productivity. In this process, xylose is converted into biomass via non-Saccharomyces microorganism and coupled to a glucose-utilizing Saccharomyces fermentation. Escherichia coli was determined to efficiently convert xylose to biomass, which was then killed to produce E. coli extract. Since earlier studies with Saccharomyces pastorianus demonstrated that xylose isomerase increased ethanol productivities on pure sugars, the addition of both E. coli extract and xylose isomerase to S. pastorianus fermentations on pure sugars and corn stover hydrolysates were investigated. It was determined that the xylose isomerase addition increased ethanol productivities on pure sugars but was not as effective alone on the corn stover hydrolysates. It was observed that the E. coli extract addition increased ethanol productivities on both corn stover hydrolysates and pure sugars. The ethanol productivities observed on the corn stover hydrolysates with the E. coli extract addition was the same as observed on pure sugars with both E. coli extract and xylose isomerase additions. These results indicate that the two-stage fermentation process has the capability to be a competitive alternative to recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based fermentations. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  5. Comparative analysis of intracellular metabolites of Cephalosporium acremonium in pilot and industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Lu, Hua; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Jiang, Jing; Chen, Yao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2012-01-01

    To get a better understanding of the characteristics of Cephalosporium acremonium with higher productivity, C. acremonium cells in pilot and industrial fermentation processes were analyzed using the profiles of metabolites. The different metabolic features of cells in pilot and industrial processes were caused by the different fermentation environments. The hierarchical cluster analysis of the data of metabolic profiling revealed that the concentrations of most of the metabolites were higher in the industrial process than in the pilot one, especially at the cephalosporin C accumulation stage. The analysis of important metabolites of primary metabolism indicated that the ability of the cephalosporin C biosynthesis was higher in the industrial process than that in the pilot one in C. acremonium. The analysis of the variations of cephalosporin C precursors and amino acids that were related to these precursors suggested that the metabolic flux changes of α-aminoadipic acid and cysteine between the primary metabolism and cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway in the industrial process. Furthermore, metabolites of C. acremonium, such as proline, spermine, inositol phosphate, and glycerol, were shown to respond to the fermentation environmental stress. These findings provide insights into the intracellular metabolite characteristics and feasible regulation scheme to improve the titer of cephalosporin C in the industrial process. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Systematic Procedure for Integrated Process Operation: Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) during Lactic Acid Fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado Rubio, Oscar Andres; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2011-01-01

    structure in the REED module. The integrated system design and operation is investigated through batch production of a starter culture. Substantial productivity improvements are predicted using the REED process compared to other systems. Insights are obtained for improving the integrated design......The integration of lactic acid fermentation and Reverse Electro-Enhanced Dialysis (REED) is investigated based upon previously developed mathematical models. A goal driven process and operation design procedure is proposed and partially investigated. The conceptual analysis of the processes...... integration shows the need for an additional pH controller in the fermenten A PI controller is implemented and tested. The complete control structure for the integrated system consists of this PI controller in the fermenter plus a previously developed (Prado-Rubio et al., 2010) input resetting control...

  7. Biotechnological process for obtaining new fermented products from cashew apple fruit by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Suzane Macêdo; Silva, Cristina Ferraz; Moreira, Jane Jesus Silveira; Narain, Narendra; Souza, Roberto Rodrigues

    2011-09-01

    In Brazil, the use of cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) to obtain new products by biotechnological process represents an important alternative to avoid wastage of a large quantity of this fruit, which reaches about 85% of the annual production of 1 million tons. This work focuses on the development of an alcoholic product obtained by the fermentation of cashew apple juice. The inoculation with two different strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae viz. SCP and SCT, were standardized to a concentration of 10(7 )cells ml(-1). Each inoculum was added to 1,500 ml of cashew must. Fermentation was performed at 28 ± 3°C and aliquots were withdrawn every 24 h to monitor soluble sugar concentrations, pH, and dry matter contents. The volatile compounds in fermented products were analyzed using the gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) system. After 6 days, the fermentation process was completed, cells removed by filtration and centrifugation, and the products were stabilized under refrigeration for a period of 20 days. The stabilized products were stored in glass bottles and pasteurized at 60 ± 5°C/30 min. Both fermented products contained ethanol concentration above 6% (v v(-1)) while methanol was not detected and total acidity was below 90 mEq l(-1), representing a pH of 3.8-3.9. The volatile compounds were characterized by the presence of aldehyde (butyl aldehyde diethyl acetal, 2,4-dimethyl-hepta-2,4-dienal, and 2-methyl-2-pentenal) and ester (ethyl α-methylbutyrate) representing fruity aroma. The strain SCT was found to be better and efficient and this produced 10% more alcohol over that of strain SCP.

  8. Nuclear and related techniques in the improvement of traditional fermentation processing of cassava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    Cassava, a starchy, cyanide-containing tuber root grown throughout the tropical areas, is one of the world's important food staples. The cassava root is very low in protein: its typical content for many cultivars is around one or two percent and thus is completely unable to provide the consumer with sufficient protein. The main goal of the Agency's Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on ''Nuclear Techniques in the Improvement of Traditional Fermentation Practice in Developing Countries with Particular Emphasis on Cassava'' was to assist researchers from the tropical countries in the development of the techniques utilizing ionizing radiation for producing genetically improved mutants of the cassava-fermenting microorganisms with high abilities to eliminate poisonous glucosides and to increase the yield of desired nutrients to the fermented end-product. This document consists of fourteen final reports submitted by the scientists concerned to the final RCM as well as discussion materials covering main approaches to the problem of the improvement of traditional reprocessing of cassava, such as general microbiological aspects of the fermentation process and the genetic improvement of the selected specific microorganisms with the help of classical microbial mutagenesis methods and modern molecular gene-engineering techniques and tools. Refs, figs and tabs

  9. Influence of Process Parameters on the Production of Metabolites in Solid-State Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manpreet, S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermentation (SSF involves the growth of microorganisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free water. This low moisture content makes the SSF different from submerged fermentation. Unlike the situation in submerged fermentation there is no systematic study guiding the design and operation of large scale SSF with propercontrols. The understanding and modeling of microbial growth kinetics and transport phenomena play important roles in the SSF. The design of bioreactors from tray type to stirred tank is discussed. The packed bed, rotating drum, rocking drum, fluidized bed and stirred tank reactors are used in SSF with and without modifications. The parameters like pH, temperature, agitation and aeration also need to be controlled. There is a large gradient of temperature throughout thetrays. By manipulating the nitrogen source requirement, the pH of the system is generally controlled. The different factors that control the agitation and aeration in the SSF are discussed. Finally the advantages and disadvantages of SSF compared to submerged fermentation were mentioned. Moreover, such understanding is very much required in the design, scale up and process control in SSF. This paper deals with the influence of environmental parameters such as airflow rate, temperature, pH, substrate concentration and other physico-chemical parameters on the production of specific metabolites.

  10. The microbial fermentation characteristics depend on both carbohydrate source and heat processing: a model experiment with ileo-cannulated pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2017-01-01

    The effects of carbohydrate (CHO) source and processing (extrusion cooking) on large intestinal fermentation products were studied in ileo-cannulated pigs as a model for humans. Pigs were fed diets containing barley, pea or a mixture of potato starch:wheat bran (PSWB) either raw or extrusion cooked....... Extrusion cooking reduced the amount of starch fermented in the large intestine by 52–96% depending on the CHO source and the total pool of butyrate in the distal small intestine + large intestine by on average 60% across diets. Overall, extrusion cooking caused a shift in the composition of short......-chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced towards more acetate and less propionate and butyrate. The CHO source and processing highly affected the fermentation characteristics and extrusion cooking generally reduced large intestinal fermentation and resulted in a less desirable composition of the fermentation...

  11. Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds is conducted in close cooperation of specialized bacteria of different types, including mostly hydrolyzing, digestive, acetogenic, homoacetogenic, sulfate-reducing (VI) and methanogenic bacteria. A great interest in the anaerobic digestion process results mainly from its ...

  12. Taming wild yeast: potential of conventional and nonconventional yeasts in industrial fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steensels, Jan; Verstrepen, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    Yeasts are the main driving force behind several industrial food fermentation processes, including the production of beer, wine, sake, bread, and chocolate. Historically, these processes developed from uncontrolled, spontaneous fermentation reactions that rely on a complex mixture of microbes present in the environment. Because such spontaneous processes are generally inconsistent and inefficient and often lead to the formation of off-flavors, most of today's industrial production utilizes defined starter cultures, often consisting of a specific domesticated strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, S. bayanus, or S. pastorianus. Although this practice greatly improved process consistency, efficiency, and overall quality, it also limited the sensorial complexity of the end product. In this review, we discuss how Saccharomyces yeasts were domesticated to become the main workhorse of food fermentations, and we investigate the potential and selection of nonconventional yeasts that are often found in spontaneous fermentations, such as Brettanomyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia spp.

  13. [Performance optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with butanol extractive fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Longyun; Yang, Ying; Shi, Zhongping

    2008-11-01

    The products concentrations in traditional acetone-butanol (AB) fermentation are too low that large amount of energy has to be consumed in the distillation and product recovery process. Aiming at direct utilization of the fermentation products, in this study, optimization of property-improved biodiesel manufacturing process coupled with AB extractive fermentation was conducted, under the condition of using the biodiesel originated from waste cooking oil as the extractant and high concentrated corn flour medium. The effect of biodiesel/broth volume ratio, waste supernatant recycle ratio, and electronic carrier addition on the major process performance index was carefully investigated. Under the optimized condition, the biodiesel quality was improved with the cetane value increased from 51.4 to 54.4; "actual butanol yield" reached to a level of 18%, and waste supernatant recycle ratio exceeded 50%. In this way, elimination of energy-consuming product recovery process and realization of "energy-saving & waste minimization" industrial production target advocated by the state government, could be potentially expected.

  14. Hybrid intelligent control of substrate feeding for industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huaiping; Chen, Xiangguang; Yang, Jianwen; Wu, Lei; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The lack of accurate process models and reliable online sensors for substrate measurements poses significant challenges for controlling substrate feeding accurately, automatically and optimally in fed-batch fermentation industries. It is still a common practice to regulate the feeding rate based upon manual operations. To address this issue, a hybrid intelligent control method is proposed to enable automatic substrate feeding. The resulting control system consists of three modules: a presetting module for providing initial set-points; a predictive module for estimating substrate concentration online based on a new time interval-varying soft sensing algorithm; and a feedback compensator using expert rules. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is demonstrated through its successful applications to the industrial fed-batch chlortetracycline fermentation process. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of fungal morphology on the performance of industrial fermentation processes for enzyme production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintanilla Hernandez, Daniela Alejandra

    at predicting mycelial fragmentation across scales, compared to the EDCF. Furthermore, the morphological development of an industrial strain of T. reesei was monitored in pilot scale fermentations. This study showed that the morphology monitored with laser diffraction also granted the possibility to study......Production of industrial enzymes is usually carried out as submerged aerobic fermentations. Filamentous microorganisms are widely used as hosts in these processes due to multiple advantages. Nevertheless, they also present major drawbacks, due to the unavoidable oxygen transfer limitations...... in this work, along with its correlation to viscosity and other process variables. Considerable research work has been conducted through the years to study fungal morphology and its relation to productivity. However, the work reported in the literature lacks relevant industrial data. In this work, a platform...

  16. Modeling of an industrial process of pleuromutilin fermentation using feed-forward neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Khaouane,L.; Benkortbi,O.; Hanini,S.; Si-Moussa,C.

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the use of artificial neural networks in modeling an industrial fermentation process of Pleuromutilin produced by Pleurotus mutilus in a fed-batch mode. Three feed-forward neural network models characterized by a similar structure (five neurons in the input layer, one hidden layer and one neuron in the output layer) are constructed and optimized with the aim to predict the evolution of three main bioprocess variables: biomass, substrate and product. Results show a good ...

  17. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The process of transformation of table olives from tree to table is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions between the indigenous microflora of the olives, together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources [fiber-glass fermenters, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tanks, pipelines, pumps, and water], with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterized collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeast) that can be isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit) will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and will guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage, and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008, also through organoleptic evaluation (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives). This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives, which can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the system for commercial classification, through assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived.

  18. Abnormal fermentations in table-olive processing: microbial origin and sensory evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara eLanza

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The process of transformation of table olives is the result of complex biochemical reactions that are determined by the interactions of the indigenous microflora of the olives together with a variety of contaminating microrganisms from different sources (fiber-glass fermenters, PVC tanks, pipelines, pumps and water with the compositional characteristics of the fruit. One of the most important aspects of improving the quality of table olives is the use of selected microorganisms to drive the fermentation. These can supplant the indigenous microflora and, in particular, the complementary microflora that are responsible for spoilage of canned olives. In this context, from a technological point of view, a well-characterised collection of microrganisms (lactic acid bacteria, yeasts that is possibly isolated from the matrix to be processed (the olive fruit will provide the basis for the development of starter culture systems. These cultures can be fully compatible with the typical products and guarantee high quality standards. Inoculation of the brine with such selected starter cultures will reduce the probability of spoilage and help to achieve an improved and more predictable fermentation process. Control of the fermentation processes can thus occur through chemical, chemico-physical and microbiological approaches, and since 2008 (COI/OT/MO/Doc. No 1. Method for the sensory analysis of table olives, also through organoleptic evaluation. This last has established the necessary criteria and procedures for sensory analysis of the negative, gustatory and kinaesthetic sensations of table olives that can also be attributed to abnormal proliferation of microrganisms. It also sets out the systematics for commercial classification, through the assessment of the median of the defect predominantly perceived.

  19. Possibility of using apple pomaces in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Piwowarek

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Utilization of by-products is a significant challenge for manufacturing sites and the natural environment. The solution to this problem may involve the use of pomace as a medium component for microorganism cultivation, which is a source of industrially useful metabolites. This study examined the possibility of using apple pomace as a carbon source in the process of propionic-acetic fermentation via wild strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii T82 bacteria.

  20. Insights into nuclear structure and the fission process from spontaneous fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.H.; Butler-Moore, K.; Ramayya, A.V. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    The {gamma}-rays emitted following spontaneous and induced fission are rich sources of information about the structure of neutron-rich nuclei and about the fission process itself. The study of spontaneous fissioning isotopes with large Ge detector arrays are providing a wealth of such information as seen, for example, in recent reports. In this paper we present some of our most recent results on nuclear structure studies and conclusions on the fission process itself. In our work, we have employed in spontaneous fission, a triple gamma coincidence study for the first time and a high resolution, X-ray detector-{gamma}-coincidence study. These data provide powerful ways of separating the gamma rays which belong to a particular nucleus. The triple coincidence technique was used to uniquely identify the levels in {sup 136}Te and higher spin states in its N=84 isotones, {sup 138}Xe and {sup 140}Ba{sup 171}. Some other examples of the level structures observed in the low and high mass partners are presented, including a detailed analysis of the backbending of the moment of inertia in {sup 112,114,116}Pd. Finally, we present the first examples of how our analysis allows one to extract a detailed picture of the dependence of the angular momentum on the mass and atomic numbers of the fission fragments and of the long-sought neutron multiplicity distribution from zero-n to ten-n as a function of the charge and mass asymmetry.

  1. Optimization of the integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process by air stripping and glucoamylase addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Wang, Ke; Tang, Lei; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2015-03-01

    To solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed. In the integrated process, extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then reused to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. In this study, an Aspergillus niger mutant strain exhibiting resistance to high metal ions concentration was used to eliminate the inhibition of 200 mg/L Na(+) and 300 mg/L K(+) in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) and citric acid production increased by 25.0 %. Air stripping was used to remove ammonium, alkalinity, and part of metal ions in ADE before making mash. In consequence, citric acid production was significantly improved but still lower by 6.1 % than the control. Results indicated that metal ions in ADE synergistically inhibited the activity of glucoamylase, thus reducing citric acid production. When 130 U/g glucoamylase was added before fermentation, citric acid production was 141.5 g/L, which was even higher than the control (140.4 g/L). This process could completely eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  2. Processed milk waste recycling via thermal pretreatment and lactic acid bacteria fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-05-01

    Processed milk waste (MW) presents a serious problem within the dairy industries due to its high polluting load. Its chemical oxygen demand (COD) can reach values as high as 80,000 mg O 2  L -1 . This study proposes to reduce the organic load of those wastes using thermal coagulation and recover residual valuable components via fermentation. Thermal process results showed that the COD removal rates exceeded 40% when samples were treated at temperature above 60 °C to reach 72% at 100 °C. Clarified supernatants resulting from thermal treatment of the samples at the temperatures of 60 (MW 60 ), 80 (MW 80 ), and 100 °C (MW 100 ) were fermented using lactic acid bacteria strains without pH control. Lactic strains recorded important final cell yields (5-7 g L -1 ). Growth mediums prepared using the thermally treated MW produced 73% of the bacterial biomass recorded with a conventional culture medium. At the end of fermentation, mediums were found exhausted from several valuable components. Industrial scale implementation of the proposed process for the recycling of industrial MWs is described and discussed.

  3. Effect of fermentation and subsequent pasteurization processes on amino acids composition of orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrillo, I; Fernández-Pachón, M S; Collado-González, J; Escudero-López, B; Berná, G; Herrero-Martín, G; Martín, F; Ferreres, F; Gil-Izquierdo, A

    2015-06-01

    The fermentation of fruit produces significant changes in their nutritional composition. An orange beverage has been obtained from the controlled alcoholic fermentation and thermal pasteurization of orange juice. A study was performed to determine the influence of both processes on its amino acid profile. UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS was used for the first time for analysis of orange juice samples. Out of 29 amino acids and derivatives identified, eight (ethanolamine, ornithine, phosphoethanolamine, α-amino-n-butyric acid, hydroxyproline, methylhistidine, citrulline, and cystathionine) have not previously been detected in orange juice. The amino acid profile of the orange juice was not modified by its processing, but total amino acid content of the juice (8194 mg/L) was significantly increased at 9 days of fermentation (13,324 mg/L). Although the pasteurization process produced partial amino acid degradation, the total amino acid content was higher in the final product (9265 mg/L) than in the original juice, enhancing its nutritional value.

  4. Optimum Fermentation Process for Red Macroalgae Gelidium latifolium and Gracillaria verrucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujizat Kawaroe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Red macroalgae have the potential to be processed into bioethanol due to their high carbohydrate and low lignin content. Gelidium latifolium and Gracilaria verrucosa are red macroalgae commonly found in Indonesian seas. Sometimes an over-supply of red macroalgae is rejected by the food industry, which opens up opportunities for others uses, e.g. for producing bioethanol. The objectives of this research were to analyze the influence of sulfuric acid concentration on hydrolysis of G. latifolium and G. verrucosa and to calculate the optimum fermentation process to produce bioethanol. G. latifolium and G. verrucosa were hydrolyzed using H2SO4 at concentrations of 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, at a temperature of 121 °C and a pressure of 1.5 bar for 45 minutes. The process of fermentation was done using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in anaerobic conditions for 4, 5, 6 and 7 days. The results show that the optimum H2SO4 concentrations to hydrolyze G. latifolium and G. verrucosa were 1% and 2% respectively. The number of S. cerevisiae cells in hydrolysate G. latifolium and G. verrucosa increased in the third adaptation. S. cerevisiae can convert sugar from G. latifolium and G. verrucosa into bioethanol through fermentation. The highest bioethanol yields were achieved on days five and six. Therefore, red macroalgae can be seen as a potential raw material for bioethanol production.

  5. Hydrogen production from cellulose in a two-stage process combining fermentation and electrohydrogenesis

    KAUST Repository

    Lalaurette, Elodie

    2009-08-01

    A two-stage dark-fermentation and electrohydrogenesis process was used to convert the recalcitrant lignocellulosic materials into hydrogen gas at high yields and rates. Fermentation using Clostridium thermocellum produced 1.67 mol H2/mol-glucose at a rate of 0.25 L H2/L-d with a corn stover lignocellulose feed, and 1.64 mol H2/mol-glucose and 1.65 L H2/L-d with a cellobiose feed. The lignocelluose and cellobiose fermentation effluent consisted primarily of: acetic, lactic, succinic, and formic acids and ethanol. An additional 800 ± 290 mL H2/g-COD was produced from a synthetic effluent with a wastewater inoculum (fermentation effluent inoculum; FEI) by electrohydrogensis using microbial electrolysis cells (MECs). Hydrogen yields were increased to 980 ± 110 mL H2/g-COD with the synthetic effluent by combining in the inoculum samples from multiple microbial fuel cells (MFCs) each pre-acclimated to a single substrate (single substrate inocula; SSI). Hydrogen yields and production rates with SSI and the actual fermentation effluents were 980 ± 110 mL/g-COD and 1.11 ± 0.13 L/L-d (synthetic); 900 ± 140 mL/g-COD and 0.96 ± 0.16 L/L-d (cellobiose); and 750 ± 180 mL/g-COD and 1.00 ± 0.19 L/L-d (lignocellulose). A maximum hydrogen production rate of 1.11 ± 0.13 L H2/L reactor/d was produced with synthetic effluent. Energy efficiencies based on electricity needed for the MEC using SSI were 270 ± 20% for the synthetic effluent, 230 ± 50% for lignocellulose effluent and 220 ± 30% for the cellobiose effluent. COD removals were ∼90% for the synthetic effluents, and 70-85% based on VFA removal (65% COD removal) with the cellobiose and lignocellulose effluent. The overall hydrogen yield was 9.95 mol-H2/mol-glucose for the cellobiose. These results show that pre-acclimation of MFCs to single substrates improves performance with a complex mixture of substrates, and that high hydrogen yields and gas production rates can be achieved using a two-stage fermentation and MEC

  6. Of enzyme use in cost-effective high solid simultaneous saccharification and fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sóti, Valentin; Lenaerts, Silvia; Cornet, Iris

    2018-03-20

    Enzyme cost is considered to be one of the most significant factors defining the final product price in lignocellulose hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzyme immobilization and recycling can be a tool to decrease costs. However, high solid loading is a key factor towards high product titers, and recovery of immobilized enzymes from this thick liquid is often overlooked. This paper aims to evaluate the economic feasibility of immobilized enzymes in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of lignocellulose biomass in general, as well as the recuperation of magnetic immobilized enzymes (m-CLEAs) during high solid loading in simultaneous saccharification, detoxification and fermentation processes (SSDF) of lignocellulose biomass. Enzyme prices were obtained from general cost estimations by Klein-Marcuschamer et al. [Klein-Marcuschamer et al. (2012) Biotechnol. Bioeng. 109, 1083-1087]. During enzyme cost analysis, the influence of inoculum recirculation as well as a shortened fermentation time was explored. Both resulted in 15% decrease of final enzyme product price. Enzyme recuperation was investigated experimentally and 99.5 m/m% of m-CLEAs was recovered from liquid medium in one step, while 88 m/m% could still be recycled from a thick liquid with high solid concentrations (SSF fermentation broth). A mathematical model was constructed to calculate the cost of immobilized and free enzyme utilization and showed that, with current process efficiencies and commercial enzyme prices, the cost reduction obtained by enzyme immobilization can reach around 60% compared to free enzyme utilization, while lower enzyme prices will result in a lower percentage of immobilization related savings, but overall enzyme costs will decrease significantly. These results are applied in a case study, estimating the viability of shifting from sugar to lignocellulose substrate for a 100 t lactic acid fermentation batch. It was concluded that it will only be economically feasible

  7. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  8. Comparison of biochemical changes during alcoholic fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whatever the type of fermentation, yields of ethanol was highest at 30°C. Fermentation conducted with controlled yeast gave a better yield of ethanol with 8.4 % than spontaneous fermentation that yielded only 4.3 %. There were significant differences (p<0.05) between both alcohol productivity and yield at spontaneous and ...

  9. Effects of Mead Wort Heat Treatment on the Mead Fermentation Process and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Czabaj

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effects of mead wort heat treatment on the mead fermentation process and antioxidant activity were tested. The experiment was conducted with the use of two different honeys (multiflorous and honeydew collected from the Lower Silesia region (Poland. Heat treatment was performed with the use of a traditional technique (gently boiling, the more commonly used pasteurization, and without heat treatment (control. During the experiment fermentation dynamics were monitored using high performance liquid chromatography with refractive index detection (HPLC-RID. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total phenolic content (TPC were estimated for worts and meads using UV/Vis spectrophotometric analysis. The formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF was monitored by HPLC analyses. Heat treatment had a great impact on the final antioxidant capacity of meads.

  10. Dynamics of chemical elements in the fermentation process of ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepomuceno, N.; Fernandes, E.A.N.; Bacchi, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Brazil has become the largest producer of biomass ethanol derived from sugar cane. The industrial production is based on the fermentation of sugar cane juice by yeast, inside of large volume vats, in a fed-batch process that recycles yeast cells. To study the dynamics of chemical elements in each operating cycle, five stages of the fermentation process were considered: must, yeast suspension, wine, non-yeast wine and yeast cream. For this, a mass balance of the terrigenous elements, Ce, Co, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, La, Na, Sc, Sm, and Th, and the sugar cane plant elements, Br, K, Rb, and Zn, were established in fermentation vats of an industrial scale unit, with sampling undertaken during different climatic conditions (dry and rainy periods). A similar distribution of the sugar cane characteristics elements was found for the stages analysed, while for the terrigenous elements a trend of accumulation in the yeast cream was observed. Preferential absorption of Br, K, Rb, and Zn by yeast cells was indicated by the smaller concentrations observed in yeast suspension than in yeast cream. (author)

  11. The Design and Scale-Up of Multiple-Impeller Fermenters for Liquid Film Controlled Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labík, L.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mechanically agitated gas-liquid contactors are frequently used in the chemical, food and biochemical industries as fermenters and as hydrogenation or chlorination reactors. However wide is the usage of such vessels, their design is not based on chemical engineering data, but is still rather empirical. Thus, it is highly desirable to have a tool for the rational design of agitated gas-liquid contactors that is based on fundamental chemical engineering parameters that are transferable to other systems and operating conditions. Focusing on liquid film-controlled processes and using the data from fermenters of different scales, we develop kLa correlations that are suitable for scale-up. First, we discuss how to determine the proper experimental kLa values, which are not distorted by other equipment parameters as is the gas residence time. We demonstrate the possible kLa distortion on the pilot-plant experimental data by comparing the results obtained by two different experimental techniques. Further, we present physically correct kLa data for fully non-coalescent (sodium sulphate solution batch. The data are presented both for laboratory and pilot-plant fermenters. We identify the process parameters, the values of which are dependent on the vessel scale when operated under the same power input per volume, and, using these parameters, we develop common kLa correlations suitable to describe the data for various scales of the vessel. The correlations developed reduce the uncertainty in predicting the volume of industrial scale fermenters from almost 1/2 to 1/4 of their total volume, thereby enabling significant reductions in both the initial costs, and operating costs.

  12. Artificial neural network approach to modeling of alcoholic fermentation of thick juice from sugar beet processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Aleksandar I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the bioethanol production in batch culture by free Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells from thick juice as intermediate product of sugar beet processing was examined. The obtained results suggest that it is possible to decrease fermentation time for the cultivation medium based on thick juice with starting sugar content of 5-15 g kg-1. For the fermentation of cultivation medium based on thick juice with starting sugar content of 20 and 25 g kg-1 significant increase in ethanol content was attained during the whole fermentation process, resulting in 12.51 and 10.95 dm3 m-3 ethanol contents after 48 h, respectively. Other goals of this work were to investigate the possibilities for experimental results prediction using artificial neural networks (ANNs and to find its optimal topology. A feed-forward back-propagation artificial neural network was used to test the hypothesis. As input variables fermentation time and starting sugar content were used. Neural networks had one output value, ethanol content, yeast cell number or sugar content. There was one hidden layer and the optimal number of neurons was found to be nine for all selected network outputs. In this study transfer function was tansig and the selected learning rule was Levenberg-Marquardt. Results suggest that artificial neural networks are good prediction tool for selected network outputs. It was found that experimental results are in very good agreement with computed ones. The coefficient of determination (the R-squared was found to be 0.9997, 0.9997 and 0.9999 for ethanol content, yeast cell number and sugar content, respectively.

  13. Ethanol production from residual wood chips of cellulose industry: acid pretreatment investigation, hemicellulosic hydrolysate fermentation, and remaining solid fraction fermentation by SSF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Neumara Luci Conceição; Betancur, Gabriel Jaime Vargas; Vasquez, Mariana Peñuela; Gomes, Edelvio de Barros; Pereira, Nei

    2011-04-01

    Current research indicates the ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic materials, such as residual wood chips from the cellulose industry, as new emerging technology. This work aimed at evaluating the ethanol production from hemicellulose of eucalyptus chips by diluted acid pretreatment and the subsequent fermentation of the generated hydrolysate by a flocculating strain of Pichia stipitis. The remaining solid fraction generated after pretreatment was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis, which was carried out simultaneously with glucose fermentation [saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process] using a strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The acid pretreatment was evaluated using a central composite design for sulfuric acid concentration (1.0-4.0 v/v) and solid to liquid ratio (1:2-1:4, grams to milliliter) as independent variables. A maximum xylose concentration of 50 g/L was obtained in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate. The fermentation of hemicellulosic hydrolysate and the SSF process were performed in bioreactors and the final ethanol concentrations of 15.3 g/L and 28.7 g/L were obtained, respectively.

  14. A modified indirect mathematical model for evaluation of ethanol production efficiency in industrial-scale continuous fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canseco Grellet, M A; Castagnaro, A; Dantur, K I; De Boeck, G; Ahmed, P M; Cárdenas, G J; Welin, B; Ruiz, R M

    2016-10-01

    To calculate fermentation efficiency in a continuous ethanol production process, we aimed to develop a robust mathematical method based on the analysis of metabolic by-product formation. This method is in contrast to the traditional way of calculating ethanol fermentation efficiency, where the ratio between the ethanol produced and the sugar consumed is expressed as a percentage of the theoretical conversion yield. Comparison between the two methods, at industrial scale and in sensitivity studies, showed that the indirect method was more robust and gave slightly higher fermentation efficiency values, although fermentation efficiency of the industrial process was found to be low (~75%). The traditional calculation method is simpler than the indirect method as it only requires a few chemical determinations in samples collected. However, a minor error in any measured parameter will have an important impact on the calculated efficiency. In contrast, the indirect method of calculation requires a greater number of determinations but is much more robust since an error in any parameter will only have a minor effect on the fermentation efficiency value. The application of the indirect calculation methodology in order to evaluate the real situation of the process and to reach an optimum fermentation yield for an industrial-scale ethanol production is recommended. Once a high fermentation yield has been reached the traditional method should be used to maintain the control of the process. Upon detection of lower yields in an optimized process the indirect method should be employed as it permits a more accurate diagnosis of causes of yield losses in order to correct the problem rapidly. The low fermentation efficiency obtained in this study shows an urgent need for industrial process optimization where the indirect calculation methodology will be an important tool to determine process losses. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. A combined approach of generalized additive model and bootstrap with small sample sets for fault diagnosis in fermentation process of glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunbo; Pan, Feng; Li, Yun

    2016-07-29

    Glutamate is of great importance in food and pharmaceutical industries. There is still lack of effective statistical approaches for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. To date, the statistical approach based on generalized additive model (GAM) and bootstrap has not been used for fault diagnosis in fermentation processes, much less the fermentation process of glutamate with small samples sets. A combined approach of GAM and bootstrap was developed for the online fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets. GAM was first used to model the relationship between glutamate production and different fermentation parameters using online data from four normal fermentation experiments of glutamate. The fitted GAM with fermentation time, dissolved oxygen, oxygen uptake rate and carbon dioxide evolution rate captured 99.6 % variance of glutamate production during fermentation process. Bootstrap was then used to quantify the uncertainty of the estimated production of glutamate from the fitted GAM using 95 % confidence interval. The proposed approach was then used for the online fault diagnosis in the abnormal fermentation processes of glutamate, and a fault was defined as the estimated production of glutamate fell outside the 95 % confidence interval. The online fault diagnosis based on the proposed approach identified not only the start of the fault in the fermentation process, but also the end of the fault when the fermentation conditions were back to normal. The proposed approach only used a small sample sets from normal fermentations excitements to establish the approach, and then only required online recorded data on fermentation parameters for fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate. The proposed approach based on GAM and bootstrap provides a new and effective way for the fault diagnosis in the fermentation process of glutamate with small sample sets.

  16. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed......, the results indicate, that Gergoush produced at the traditional production site is safe for human consumption. This study is the first to identify the Bacillus of Gergoush to species level, and it is the first to perform a safety evaluation of the product, based on the dominant B. cereus species....

  17. Optimizing of Arabica Coffee Bean Fermentation Process Using a Controlled Fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One  of  primary  coffee  processing  steps  which  affect  the  end  quality  isfermentation.  Fermentation  using  a  controlled  fermentor  might  be  usefulbecause  all  of  parameters  which  influence  coffee  quality  can  be  controlled.The  aim of this  research is to evaluate  performance  of  controlled fermentor forfermentation  process  of  Arabica  coffee  beans.  Main  material  of  this  researchwas ripe Arabica coffee cherries from Andungsari Research Station in Bondowoso district.  Research  parameters  were  temperature  with  four  levels  i.e.:  ambient temperature,  30o C,  35oC  and  40oC,  and  fermentation  time  with  three  levels  i.e.: 6  hours,  12  hours,  and  18  hours.  A  horizontal  type  of  modified  fermentor  has been  tested  with  20  kg/batch  or  50%  of  maximum  loading  capacity.  The  result showed  that  an  electric  heater  as  energy  source  can  raise  temperature  duringfermentation  processFermentation  process  using  fermentor  at  30-40oC had  not  significant  effect  on  physical  properties  change  such  as  density,  beancount  per  100  g  and  distribution  of  beans.  Optimum  condition  for  Arabica fermentation  process  in  a  modified  fermentor  reactor  was  25oC  temperature, and  12  hours  fermentation  time.  By  this  condition,  green  beans  have  good organoleptic  score  than  other  fermentation  process  treatments. Key words: Fermentor, fermentation, coffee, quality, organoleptic, horizontal cylinder.

  18. Batch Fermentative Biohydrogen Production Process Using Immobilized Anaerobic Sludge from Organic Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick T. Sekoai

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the potential of organic solid waste for biohydrogen production using immobilized anaerobic sludge. Biohydrogen was produced under batch mode at process conditions of 7.9, 30.3 °C and 90 h for pH, temperature and fermentation time, respectively. A maximum biohydrogen fraction of 48.67%, which corresponded to a biohydrogen yield of 215.39 mL H2/g Total Volatile Solids (TVS, was achieved. Therefore, the utilization of immobilized cells could pave the way for a large-scale biohydrogen production process.

  19. [Controlling the morphology of filamentous fungi for optimization of fermentation process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qiang; Xu, Qing; Gu, Shuai; Li, Shuang

    2012-02-01

    Filamentous fungi have been extensively used in industrial fermentation processes. One of the most interesting topics of filamentous fungi is their bothersome morphology, which closely correlates with the productivity and broth rheology. Aiming at the optimization of the microbial process, works mainly focused on the relationships between morphology, productivity and environment in the last decades. Based on those works, we tried to interpret the mechanism of filamentous fungi growth from physiological aspects, and reviewed the mathematical models describing the hyphal growth, differentiation during the formation of target products. Above all, efficient and effective morphology controlling strategies were addressed from the engineering view.

  20. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified othe...

  1. Operation of a two-stage continuous fermentation process producing hydrogen and methane from artificial food wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, Kohki; Mizuno, Shiho; Umeda, Yoshito; Sakka, Makiko [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Osaka, Noriko [Tokyo Gas Co. Ltd. (Japan); Sakka, Kazuo [Mie Univ. (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    An anaerobic two-stage continuous fermentation process with combined thermophilic hydrogenogenic and methanogenic stages (two-stage fermentation process) was applied to artificial food wastes on a laboratory scale. In this report, organic loading rate (OLR) conditions for hydrogen fermentation were optimized before operating the two-stage fermentation process. The OLR was set at 11.2, 24.3, 35.2, 45.6, 56.1, and 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} with a temperature of 60 C, pH5.5 and 5.0% total solids. As a result, approximately 1.8-2.0 mol-H{sub 2} mol-hexose{sup -1} was obtained at the OLR of 11.2-56.1 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}. In contrast, it was inferred that the hydrogen yield at the OLR of 67.3 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} decreased because of an increase in lactate concentration in the culture medium. The performance of the two-stage fermentation process was also evaluated over three months. The hydraulic retention time (HRT) of methane fermentation was able to be shortened 5.0 days (under OLR 12.4 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1} conditions) when the OLR of hydrogen fermentation was 44.0 g-COD{sub cr} L{sup -1} day{sup -1}, and the average gasification efficiency of the two-stage fermentation process was 81% at the time. (orig.)

  2. Dynamics of microbial community during the extremely long-term fermentation process of a traditional soy sauce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Deng, Yue; Jin, Yulan; Liu, Yanxi; Xia, Baixue; Sun, Qun

    2017-08-01

    Soy sauce produced by long-term natural fermentation is a traditional specialty in Asia, with a reputation for superior quality and rich flavour. In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to investigate the microbial diversity and community dynamics during an extremely long-term (up to 4 years) natural fermentation of Xianshi Soy Sauce, a national intangible cultural heritage. Genera of Bacillus, Aspergillus and Cladosporium were detected by both methods above. The relative abundance of the genera Bacillus and Weissella was significantly higher in the late stage than in the early one, while the genera Klebsiella and Shimwellia were opposite (P fermentation time, while there was a fair homogeneousness among samples of the same year, especially during the late fermentation stage. The clustering analysis tended to separate the fermented mashes of the 4th year from the earlier stages, suggesting the necessity of the long fermentation period for developing distinctive microbiota and characteristic quality-related compounds. This is the first report to explore the temporal changes in microbial dynamics over a period of 4 years in traditional fermentation of soy sauce, and this work illustrated the importance of isolation of appropriate strains to be used as starter cultures in brewing processes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. High-temperature fermentation. How can processes for ethanol production at high temperatures become superior to the traditional process using mesophilic yeast?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Banat, Babiker M.A.; Hoshida, Hisashi; Nonklang, Sanom; Akada, Rinji [Yamaguchi Univ. Graduate School of Medicine, Ube (Japan). Dept. of Applied Molecular Bioscience; Ano, Akihiko [Iwata Chemical Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    2010-01-15

    The process of ethanol fermentation has a long history in the production of alcoholic drinks, but much larger scale production of ethanol is now required to enable its use as a substituent of gasoline fuels at 3%, 10%, or 85% (referred to as E3, E10, and E85, respectively). Compared with fossil fuels, the production costs are a major issue for the production of fuel ethanol. There are a number of possible approaches to delivering cost-effective fuel ethanol production from different biomass sources, but we focus in our current report on high-temperature fermentation using a newly isolated thermotolerant strain of the yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus. We demonstrate that a 5 C increase only in the fermentation temperature can greatly affect the fuel ethanol production costs. We contend that this approach may also be applicable to the other microbial fermentations systems and propose that thermotolerant mesophilic microorganisms have considerable potential for the development of future fermentation technologies. (orig.)

  4. Implementation and process analysis of pilot scale multi-phase anaerobic fermentation and digestion of faecal sludge in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Justin; Fanyin-Martin, Ato; Taher, Edris; Chandran, Kartik

    2017-11-06

    Background.  In Ghana, faecal sludge (FS) from on-site sanitation facilities is often discharged untreated into the environment, leading to significant insults to environmental and human health. Anaerobic digestion offers an attractive pathway for FS treatment with the concomitant production of energy in the form of methane. Another innovative option includes separating digestion into acidogenesis (production of volatile fatty acids (VFA)) and methanogenesis (production of methane), which could ultimately facilitate the production of an array of biofuels and biochemicals from the VFA. This work describes the development, implementation and modeling based analysis of a novel multiphase anaerobic fermentation-digestion process aimed at FS treatment in Kumasi, Ghana.  Methods.  A pilot-scale anaerobic fermentation process was implemented at the Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly's Oti Sanitary Landfill Site at Adanse Dompoase.  The process consisted of six 10 m reactors in series, which were inoculated with bovine rumen and fed with fecal sludge obtained from public toilets.  The performance of the fermentation process was characterized in terms of both aqueous and gaseous variables representing the conversion of influent organic carbon to VFA as well as CH 4 .  Using the operating data, the first-ever process model for FS fermentation and digestion was developed and calibrated, based on the activated sludge model framework. Results and Conclusions.  This work represents one of the first systematic efforts at integrated FS characterization and process modeling to enable anaerobic fermentation and digestion of FS. It is shown that owing to pre-fermentation of FS in public septage holding tanks, one could employ significantly smaller digesters (lower capital costs) or increased loading capabilities for FS conversion to biogas or VFA. Further, using the first-ever calibrated process model for FS fermentation and digestion presented herein, we expect improved and more

  5. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albaek, Mads O.

    2017-01-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved...... in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen...... limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes...

  6. Monitoring of the cellulosic ethanol fermentation process by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ariane S S; Pereira, Sandra C; Ribeiro, Marcelo P A; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-03-01

    Rapid, efficient, and low-cost technologies for monitoring the fermentation process during second generation (2G) or cellulosic ethanol production are essential for the successful implementation of this process at the commercial scale. Here, the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy associated with partial least squares (PLS) regression was investigated as a tool for monitoring the production of 2G ethanol from lignocellulosic sugarcane residues including bagasse, straw, and tops. The spectral data was based on a set of 103 alcoholic fermentation samples. Models based on different pre-processing techniques were evaluated. The best root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) values obtained in the external validation were around 3.02 g/L for ethanol and 6.60 g/L for glucose. The findings showed that the PLS-NIR methodology was efficient in accurately predicting the glucose and ethanol concentrations during the production of 2G ethanol, demonstrating potential for use in monitoring and control of large-scale industrial processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  8. Acid Fermentation Process Combined with Post Denitrification for the Treatment of Primary Sludge and Wastewater with High Strength Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Kurniawan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR, combined with a post denitrification process, was applied to treat primary sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant and wastewater with a high concentration of nitrate. The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs was maximized with a short hydraulic retention time in the acid fermentation of the ABR process, and then the produced VFAs were supplied as an external carbon source for the post denitrification process. The laboratory scale experiment was operated for 160 days to evaluate the VFAs’ production rate, sludge reduction in the ABR type-acid fermentation process, and the specific denitrification rate of the post denitrification process. As results, the overall removal rate of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD, total suspended solids (TSS, and total nitrogen (TN were found to be 97%, 92%, 73%, respectively, when considering the influent into ABR type-acid fermentation and effluent from post denitrification. We observed the specific VFAs production rate of 0.074 gVFAs/gVSS/day for the ABR type-acid fermentation, and an average specific denitrification rate of 0.166 gNO3−-N/gVSS/day for the post denitrification. Consequently, we observed that a high production of VFAs from a primary sludge, using application of the ABR type acid fermentation process and the produced VFAs were then successfully utilized as an external carbon source for the post denitrification process, with a high removal rate of nitrogen.

  9. Estimation of Temperature Dependent Parameters of a Batch Alcoholic Fermentation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Rafael Ramos; Rivera, Elmer Ccopa; Costa, Aline C.; Atala, Daniel I. P.; Filho, Francisco Maugeri; Filho, Rubens Maciel

    In this work, a procedure was established to develop a mathematical model considering the effect of temperature on reaction kinetics. Experiments were performed in batch mode in temperatures from 30 to 38°C. The microorganism used was Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the culture media, sugarcane molasses. The objective is to assess the difficulty in updating the kinetic parameters when there are changes in fermentation conditions. We conclude that, although the re-estimation is a time-consuming task, it is possible to accurately describe the process when there are changes in raw material composition if a re-estimation of parameters is performed.

  10. Integration of biohydrogen fermentation and gas separation processes to recover and enrich hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belafi-Bako, K.; Bucsu, D. [Research Institute of Chemical and Process Engineering, University of Veszprem, Egyetem u. 2., 8200 Veszprem (Hungary); Pientka, Z. [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Czech Academy of Sciences, Heyrovsky sq. 2., Prague (Czech Republic); Balint, B.; Herbel, Z.; Kovacs, K.L. [Department of Biotechnology and Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Center, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, University of Szeged, Temesvari krt. 62., 6726 Szeged (Hungary); Wessling, M. [Membrane Technology Group, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2006-09-15

    An integrated system for biohydrogen production and separation was designed, constructed and operated where biohydrogen was fermented by Thermococcus litoralis, a heterotrophic archaebacterium, and a two-step gas separation process was coupled to recover and concentrate hydrogen. A special liquid seal system was built to deliver, compress and collect the laboratory scale, low volume gas mixtures consisting of hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. As a result, gas mixture with 73% high hydrogen content was produced by a combination of a porous and a non-porous gas separation membrane. (author)

  11. Process optimization of continuous gluconic acid fermentation by isolated yeast-like strains of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Aivasidis, Alexander; Wandrey, Christian; Rehm, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-08-20

    This study was focused on the optimization of a new fermentation process for continuous gluconic acid production by the isolated yeast-like strain Aureobasidium pullulans DSM 7085 (isolate 70). Operational fermentation parameters were optimized in chemostat cultures, using a defined glucose medium. Different optima were found for growth and gluconic acid production for each set of operation parameters. Highest productivity was recorded at pH values between 6.5 and 7.0 and temperatures between 29 and 31 degrees C. A gluconic acid concentration higher than 230 g/L was continuously produced at residence times of 12 h. A steady state extracellular gluconic acid concentration of 234 g/L was measured at pH 6.5. 122% air saturation yielded the highest volumetric productivity and product concentration. The biomass-specific productivity increased steadily upon raising air saturation. An intracellular gluconic acid concentration of about 159 g/L (0.83 mol) was determined at 31 degrees C. This is to be compared with an extracellular concentration of 223 g/L (1.16 mol), which indicates the possible existence of an active transport system for gluconic acid secretion, or the presence of extracellular glucose oxidizing enzymes. The new process provides significant advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi operations. The process control becomes easier, thus offering stable product quality and quantity. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Screening of penicillium species and optimisation of culture conditions for the production of ergot alkaloids using surface culture fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. The present study deals with the screening of fungal species and suitable fermentation medium for the production of ergot alkaloids. Various species of genus Penicillium were grown on different fermentation media by employing surface culture fermentation technique to achieve the most suitable medium and the best Penicillium sp. The results showed that medium M5 gave maximum yield with Penicillium commune. Different culture conditions such as effect of different carbon and nitrogen sources, their concentration levels, different pH values and sizes of inoculum on the production of ergot alkaloids were also studied to improve the yield. Maximum production of ergot alkaloids (4.32 mg/L) was achieved with 15 mL spore suspension at pH 5 in fermentation medium containing 35% (w/v) sucrose. All these results indicate that culture conditions are very much crucial to improve the yield of ergot alkaloids produced by Penicillium commune through surface culture process. (author)

  13. Biohydrogen production from purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater by anaerobic fermentation using mixed microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Ge-Fu; Wu, Peng; Wei, Qun-Shan; Lin, Jian-yi; Liu, Hai-Ning [Key Lab of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); Gao, Yan-Li [China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Purified terephthalic acid (PTA) processing wastewater was evaluated as a fermentable substrate for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production with simultaneous wastewater treatment by dark-fermentation process in a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) with selectively enriched acidogenic mixed consortia under continuous flow condition in this paper. The inoculated sludge used in the reactor was excess sludge taken from a second settling tank in a local wastewater treatment plant. Under the conditions of the inoculants not less than 6.3 gVSS/L, the organic loading rate (OLR) of 16 kgCOD/m{sup 3} d, hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 6 h and temperature of (35 {+-} 1) C, when the pH value, alkalinity and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the effluent ranged from 4.2 to 4.4, 280 to 350 mg CaCO{sub 3}/L, and -220 to -250 mV respectively, soluble metabolites were predominated by acetate and ethanol, with smaller quantities of propionate, butyrate and valerate. Stable ethanol-type fermentation was formed with the sum of ethanol and acetate concentration ratio of 70.31% to the total liquid products after 25 days operation. The H{sub 2} volume content was estimated to be 48-53% of the total biogas and the biogas was free of methane throughout the study. The average biomass concentration was estimated to be 10.82 gVSS/L, which favored H{sub 2} production efficiently. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached at about 45% and a specific H{sub 2} production rate achieved 0.073 L/gMLVSS d in the study. This CSTR system showed a promising high-efficient bioprocess for H{sub 2} production from high-strength chemical wastewater. (author)

  14. Structures and processes in spontaneous ADR reporting systems: a comparative study of Australia and Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aagaard, Lise; Stenver, Doris Irene; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-10-01

    To explore the organisational structure and processes of the Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems with a view to how information is generated about new ADRs. The Danish and Australian spontaneous ADR reporting systems. Qualitative analyses of documentary material, descriptive interviews with key informants, and observations were made. We analysed the organisational structure of the Danish and Australian ADR reporting systems with respect to structures and processes, including information flow and exchange of ADR data. The analysis was made based on Scott's adapted version of Leavitt's diamond model, with the components: goals/tasks, social structure, technology and participants, within a surrounding environment. The main differences between the systems were: (1) PARTICIPANTS: Outsourcing of ADR assessments to the pharmaceutical companies complicates maintenance of scientific skills within the Danish Medicines Agency (DKMA), as it leaves the handling of spontaneous ADR reports purely administrative within the DKMA, and the knowledge creation process remains with the pharmaceutical companies, while in Australia senior scientific staff work with evaluation of the ADR report; (2) Goals/tasks: In Denmark, resources are targeted at evaluating Periodic Safety Update Reports (PSUR) submitted by the companies, while the resources in Australia are focused on single case assessment resulting in faster and more proactive medicine surveillance; (3) Social structure: Discussions between scientific staff about ADRs take place in Australia, while the Danish system primarily focuses on entering and forwarding ADR data to the relevant pharmaceutical companies; (4) Technology: The Danish system exchanges ADR data electronically with pharmaceutical companies and the other EU countries, while Australia does not have a system for electronic exchange of ADR data; and (5) ENVIRONMENT: The Danish ADR system is embedded in the routines of cooperation within European

  15. Scale Up of Malonic Acid Fermentation Process: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-16-612

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, Daniel J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-16

    The goal of this work is to use the large fermentation vessels in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Integrated Biorefinery Research Facility (IBRF) to scale-up Lygos' biological-based process for producing malonic acid and to generate performance data. Initially, work at the 1 L scale validated successful transfer of Lygos' fermentation protocols to NREL using a glucose substrate. Outside of the scope of the CRADA with NREL, Lygos tested their process on lignocellulosic sugars produced by NREL at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's (LBNL) Advanced Biofuels Process Development Unit (ABPDU). NREL produced these cellulosic sugar solutions from corn stover using a separate cellulose/hemicellulose process configuration. Finally, NREL performed fermentations using glucose in large fermentors (1,500- and 9,000-L vessels) to intermediate product and to demonstrate successful performance of Lygos' technology at larger scales.

  16. Comparison of experimental methods for determination of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient in fermentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobajas, M.; García-Calvo, E.

    Mass transfer in bioreactors has been examined. In the present work, dynamic methods are used for the determination of KLa values for water, model media and a fermentation broth (Candida utilis) in an airlift reactor. The conventional dynamic method is applied at the end of the microbial process in order to avoid an alteration in the metabolism of the microorganisms. New dynamic methods are used to determine KLa in an airlift reactor during the microbial growth of Candida utilis on glucose. One of the methods is based on the continuous measurement of carbon dioxide production while the other method is based on the relationship between the oxygen transfer and biomass growth rates. These methods of determining KLa does not interfere with the microorganisms action. A theoretical mass transfer model has been used for KLa estimation for the systems described above. Some differences between calculated and measured values are found for fermentation processes due to the model is developed for two-phase air-water systems. Nevertheless, the average deviation between the predicted values and those obtained from the relationship between oxygen transfer and biomass production rates are lower than 25% in any case.

  17. Cider fermentation process monitoring by Vis-NIR sensor system and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Alberto; Vadillo, Julen; Santos, Jose I; Gorritxategi, Eneko; Mabe, Jon; Arnaiz, Aitor; Fernández, Luis A

    2017-04-15

    Optimization of a multivariate calibration process has been undertaken for a Visible-Near Infrared (400-1100nm) sensor system, applied in the monitoring of the fermentation process of the cider produced in the Basque Country (Spain). The main parameters that were monitored included alcoholic proof, l-lactic acid content, glucose+fructose and acetic acid content. The multivariate calibration was carried out using a combination of different variable selection techniques and the most suitable pre-processing strategies were selected based on the spectra characteristics obtained by the sensor system. The variable selection techniques studied in this work include Martens Uncertainty test, interval Partial Least Square Regression (iPLS) and Genetic Algorithm (GA). This procedure arises from the need to improve the calibration models prediction ability for cider monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time Series Analysis of Fed-batch Fermentation Process for L-valine Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzanko Georgiev

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Fed-batch fermentation processes are some of the most efficient and wildly applied types of cultivation for industrial production of most amino acids including L-valine. Time series analysis is an important tool for description of the experimental data. This article deals with statistical inference from the time series analysis of generalised stoichiometric equations as a hypothesis for modelling and optimisation. The aim of the article is to develop some time series models of generalized stoichiometric equations. The identification procedure includes the following steps: description of the process by generalized stoichiometric equations; preliminary data processing; model structure selection for each stoichiometric equation; estimation of the model's parameters; verification of the derived models.

  19. The potential for upgrading traditional fermented foods through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These include the use of starter cultures, stabilization of spontaneous fermentations, and production of food processing enzymes. In view of the considerable range of technologies for improving traditional bioprocessing, the challenges and potential application of biotechnology in upgrading these foods will be discussed.

  20. The Application of State-of-the-Art Analytic Tools (Biosensors and Spectroscopy in Beverage and Food Fermentation Process Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaneel Chandra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The production of several agricultural products and foods are linked with fermentation. Traditional methods used to control and monitor the quality of the products and processes are based on the use of simple chemical analysis. However, these methods are time-consuming and do not provide sufficient relevant information to guarantee the chemical changes during the process. Commonly used methods applied in the agriculture and food industries to monitor fermentation are those based on simple or single-point sensors, where only one parameter is measured (e.g., temperature or density. These sensors are used several times per day and are often the only source of data available from which the conditions and rate of fermentation are monitored. In the modern food industry, an ideal method to control and monitor the fermentation process should enable a direct, rapid, precise, and accurate determination of several target compounds, with minimal to no sample preparation or reagent consumption. Here, state-of-the-art advancements in both the application of sensors and analytical tools to monitor beverage and food fermentation processes will be discussed.

  1. Comparative antioxidant potential of Withania somnifera based herbal formulation prepared by traditional and non-traditional fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwar, Jagdish; Mahadik, Kakasaheb; Sathiyanarayanan, L; Paradkar, Anant; Patil, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Ashwagandharishtha is a liquid polyherbal formulation traditionally prepared by fermentation process using the flowers of Woodfordia fruticosa. It contains roots of Withania somnifera as a major crude drug. Alcohol generated during the fermentation causes the extraction of water insoluble phytoconstituents. Yeasts present on the flowers are responsible for this fermentation. Total nine formulations of ashwagandharishtha were prepared by fermentation process using traditional Woodfordia fruticosa flowers (ASG-WFS) and using yeasts isolated from the same flowers. During fermentation, kinetic of alcohol generation, sugar consumption, changes in pH and withanolides extraction were studied. All the formulations were tested for in vitro antioxidant potential by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and total reducing power assay. The results were compared with standard ascorbic acid. Traditional formulation (ASG-WFS) showed the highest activity (p < 0.001) relative to other formulations and standard ascorbic acid. ASG-WFS showed significant (DPPH) free radical scavenging (78.75%) and hydrogen peroxide scavenging (69.62%) at the concentration of 1000 μg/mL and 100 μg/mL, respectively. Traditional process is the best process for preparing ashwagandharishtha to obtain significant antioxidant activity.

  2. Conversion efficiency in the process of copolarized spontaneous four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Rangel-Rojo, Raul

    2010-01-01

    We study the process of copolarized spontaneous four-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers, with an emphasis on an analysis of the conversion efficiency. We consider both the monochromatic-pump and pulsed-pump regimes, as well as both the degenerate-pump and nondegenerate-pump configurations. We present analytical expressions for the conversion efficiency, which are given in terms of double integrals. In the case of pulsed pumps we take these expressions to closed analytical form with the help of certain approximations. We present results of numerical simulations, and compare them to values obtained from our analytical expressions, for the conversion efficiency as a function of several key experimental parameters.

  3. Two phases fermentative process for hydrogen and methane production from cassava wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryane Mota Oliveira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hydrogen and methane production was investigated in two phases of fermentative process. Objective: At the acidogenic phase, an anaerobic fluidized bed reactor was fed with cassava wastewater producing hydrogen. Methods: Expanded clay was used as a support material for biomass immobilization. The reactor was operated with HRT ranging from 8-1 h. Results: The best hydrogen yield production was 1.91 mol H2/mol glucose at HRT of 2 h. At the methanogenic phase, the acidogenic process effluent fed a fixed-bed reactor producing methane. Conclusion: Sururu (Mytella falcata shells was used as support acted as pH neutralizer in the fixed-bed reactor, yielding best (0.430±0.150 Lmethane/gCOD with 12h HRT phase.

  4. SIMULATION OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS TO OBTAIN BIOETHANOL FROM RICE RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Capdevila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper presents a simulation model of the fermentation/separation process of bioethanol from hydrolyzed pretreated rice husk, using Aspen HYSYS simulator. Sensitivity studies performed on the developed model indicated levels for selected variables: biomass/water ratio of 1:2,89 ; biomass flow of 50 t/h and inlet temperature separator of 30°C, leading to maximize the yield of bioethanol. From these variables, a bioethanol production of 8,81 t/h with a purity of 65,51% w/w is obtained, corresponding to a flow of hydrolyzed treated biomass of 50 t/h. This work represents an advance in the development of the simulation model of the complete process to obtain second generation of bioethanol from rice husks.

  5. Hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste in the two-stage fermentation process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lui, D.; Liu, D.; Zeng, Raymond Jianxiong

    2006-01-01

    A two-stage process combined hydrogen and methane production from household solid waste was demonstrated working successfully. The yield of 43 mL H-2/g volatile solid (VS) added was generated in the first hydrogen production stage and the methane production in the second stage was 500 mL CH4/g VS...... added. This figure was 21% higher than the methane yield from the one-stage process, which was run as control. Sparging of the hydrogen reactor with methane gas resulted in doubling of the hydrogen production. PH was observed as a key factor affecting fermentation pathway in hydrogen production stage....... The optimum PH range for hydrogen production in this system was in the range from 5 to 5.5. The short hydraulic retention time (2 days) applied in the first stage was enough to separate acidogenesis from methanogenesis. No additional control for preventing methanogenesis in the first stage was necessary...

  6. Modeling of an industrial process of pleuromutilin fermentation using feed-forward neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khaouane

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the use of artificial neural networks in modeling an industrial fermentation process of Pleuromutilin produced by Pleurotus mutilus in a fed-batch mode. Three feed-forward neural network models characterized by a similar structure (five neurons in the input layer, one hidden layer and one neuron in the output layer are constructed and optimized with the aim to predict the evolution of three main bioprocess variables: biomass, substrate and product. Results show a good fit between the predicted and experimental values for each model (the root mean squared errors were 0.4624% - 0.1234 g/L and 0.0016 mg/g respectively. Furthermore, the comparison between the optimized models and the unstructured kinetic models in terms of simulation results shows that neural network models gave more significant results. These results encourage further studies to integrate the mathematical formulae extracted from these models into an industrial control loop of the process.

  7. Supervisory System and Multivariable Control Applying Weighted Fuzzy-PID Logic in an Alcoholic Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Mendonça

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, it is analyzed a multivariate system control of an alcoholic fermentation process with no minimum phase. The control is made with PID classic controllers associated with a supervisory system based on Fuzzy Systems. The Fuzzy system, a priori, send set-points to PID controllers, but also adds protection functions, such as if the biomass valued is at zero or very close. The Fuzzy controller changes the campaign to prevent or mitigate the paralyzation of the process. Three control architectures based on Fuzzy Control Systems are presented and compared in performance with classic control in different campaigns. The third architecture, in particular, adds an adaptive function. A brief summary of Fuzzy theory and correlated works will be presented. And, finally simulations results, conclusions and future works end the article.

  8. Conversion of steam-exploded cedar into ethanol using simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Chikako; Sasaki, Chizuru; Takamatsu, Tomoki; Nakamura, Yoshitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the simultaneous saccharification, fermentation and detoxification SSDF process of steam-exploded cedar using a detoxification microorganism, Ureibacillus thermosphaericus A1, to facilitate efficient ethanol production. Steam explosion was applied as a pretreatment before enzymatic saccharification followed by alcohol fermentation. The highest glucose conversion rate was observed in the sample pretreated with a steam pressure of 45atm for 5min. Alcohol production by a heat-tolerant yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae BA11, was inhibited strongly by inhibitory materials present in the steam-exploded cedar, such as formic acid, furfural, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. The maximum amount of ethanol, i.e., 0.155g ethanol/g dry steam-exploded cedar, which corresponded to 74% of the theoretical ethanol yield, was obtained using the SSDF when U. thermosphaericus A1 degraded the inhibitory materials. A fed batch SSDF culture, in which U. thermosphaericus A1 was used to maintain low concentrations of inhibitory materials, was effective for increasing the ethanol concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Vinasse organic matter quality and mineralization potential, as influenced by raw material, fermentation and concentration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnaudeau, V; Condom, N; Oliver, R; Cazevieille, P; Recous, S

    2008-04-01

    Both dilute and concentrated vinasse can be spread on agricultural fields or used as organic fertilizer. The effects of different characteristics of the original raw material on the biochemical composition of vinasse and their C and N mineralization in soil were investigated. Vinasse samples were obtained from similar industrial fermentation processes based on the growth of microorganisms on molasses from different raw material (sugar beet or sugar cane) and vinasse concentration (dilute or concentrated). The nature of the raw material used for fermentation had the greatest effect on the nature and size of the resistant organic pool. This fraction included aromatic compounds originating from the raw material or from complex molecules and seemed to be quantitatively related to acid-insoluble N. Samples derived from sugar beet were richer in N compounds and induced greater net N mineralization. The effect of evaporation varied with the nature of the raw material. Concentration led to a slight increase in the abundance of phenolic compounds, acid-insoluble fraction, and a slight decrease in the labile fraction of vinasses partly or totally derived from sugar beet. The effect of the dilute vinasse from sugar cane was greater. The concentrated vinasse had a smaller labile fraction, induced N immobilization at the beginning of incubation, and exhibited greater N concentration in the acid-insoluble fraction than the dilute vinasse.

  10. Industrial yogurt manufacture: monitoring of fermentation process and improvement of final product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, C; Panagiotidis, P; Koureli, R; Tzia, C

    2007-06-01

    Lactic acid fermentation during the production of skim milk and whole fat set-style yogurt was continuously monitored by measuring pH. The modified Gompertz model was successfully applied to describe the pH decline and viscosity development during the fermentation process. The viscosity and incubation time data were also fitted to linear models against ln(pH). The investigation of the yogurt quality improvement practices included 2 different heat treatments (80 degrees C for 30 min and 95 degrees C for 10 min), 3 milk protein fortifying agents (skim milk powder, whey powder, and milk protein concentrate) added at 2.0%, and 4 hydrocolloids (kappa-carrageenan, xanthan, guar gum, and pectin) added at 0.01% to whole fat and skim yogurts. Heat treatment significantly affected viscosity and acetaldehyde development without influencing incubation time and acidity. The addition of whey powder shortened the incubation time but had a detrimental effect on consistency, firmness, and overall acceptance of yogurts. On the other hand, addition of skim milk powder improved the textural quality and decreased the vulnerability of yogurts to syneresis. Anionic stabilizers (kappa-carrageenan and pectin) had a poor effect on the texture and palatability of yogurts. However, neutral gums (xanthan and guar gum) improved texture and prevented the wheying-off defect. Skim milk yogurts exhibited longer incubation times and higher viscosities, whereas they were rated higher during sensory evaluation than whole fat yogurts.

  11. Downstream extraction process development for recovery of organic acids from a fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekatorou, Argyro; Dima, Agapi; Tsafrakidou, Panagiotia; Boura, Konstantina; Lappa, Katerina; Kandylis, Panagiotis; Pissaridi, Katerina; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2016-11-01

    The present study focused on organic acids (OAs) recovery from an acidogenic fermentation broth, which is the main problem regarding the use of OAs for production of ester-based new generation biofuels or other applications. Specifically, 10 solvents were evaluated for OAs recovery from aqueous media and fermentation broths. The effects of pH, solvent/OAs solution ratios and application of successive extractions were studied. The 1:1 solvent/OAs ratio showed the best recovery rates in most cases. Butyric and isobutyric acids showed the highest recovery rates (80-90%), while lactic, succinic, and acetic acids were poorly recovered (up to 45%). The OAs recovery was significantly improved by successive 10-min extractions. Alcohols presented the best extraction performance. The process using repeated extractions with 3-methyl-1-butanol led to the highest OAs recovery. However, 1-butanol can be considered as the most cost-effective option taking into account its price and availability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Codonopsis lanceolata with Steamed and Fermented Process on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Jin Bae; Yun, Bo-Ra; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Park, Dong-Sik; Chung, Hee-Chul; Chung, Jae Youn; Ma, Choong Je

    2013-09-30

    Codonopsis lanceolata (Campanulaceae) traditionally have been used as a tonic and to treat patients with lung abscesses. Recently, it was proposed that the extract and some compounds isolated from C. lanceolata reversed scopolamine-induced memory and learning deficits. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the improvement of cognitive enhancing effect of C. lanceolata by steam and fermentation process in scopolamine-induced memory impairment mice models by passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test. The extract of C. lanceolata or the extract of steamed and fermented C. lanceolata (SFCE) was orally administered to male mice at the doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg body weight. As a result, mice treated with steamed and fermented C. lanceolata extract (SFCE) (300 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) showed shorter escape latencies than those with C. lanceolata extract or the scopolamine-administered group in Morris water maze test. Also, it exerted longer step-through latency time than scopolamine treated group in passive avoidance test. Furthermore, neuroprotective effect of SFCE on glutamate-induced cytotoxicity was assessed in HT22 cells. Only SFCE-treated cells showed significant protection at 500 μg/ml. Interestingly, steamed C. lanceolata with fermentation contained more phenolic acid including gallic acid and vanillic acid than original C. lanceolata. Collectively, these results suggest that steam and fermentation process of C. lanceolata increased cognitive enhancing activity related to the memory processes and neuroprotective effect than original C. lanceolata.

  13. Intrinsic default mode network connectivity predicts spontaneous verbal descriptions of autobiographical memories during social processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei eYang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN, also support autobiographical memory (AM retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity. Here we examined 18 participants’ spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a two-hour, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people’s social situations and responded to the prompt, how does this person’s story make you feel? We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information (semantic AMs or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events (episodic AMs. We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants’ intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest.

  14. Intrinsic Default Mode Network Connectivity Predicts Spontaneous Verbal Descriptions of Autobiographical Memories during Social Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao-Fei; Bossmann, Julia; Schiffhauer, Birte; Jordan, Matthew; Immordino-Yang, Mary Helen

    2012-01-01

    Neural systems activated in a coordinated way during rest, known as the default mode network (DMN), also support autobiographical memory (AM) retrieval and social processing/mentalizing. However, little is known about how individual variability in reliance on personal memories during social processing relates to individual differences in DMN functioning during rest (intrinsic functional connectivity). Here we examined 18 participants' spontaneous descriptions of autobiographical memories during a 2 h, private, open-ended interview in which they reacted to a series of true stories about real people's social situations and responded to the prompt, "how does this person's story make you feel?" We classified these descriptions as either containing factual information ("semantic" AMs) or more elaborate descriptions of emotionally meaningful events ("episodic" AMs). We also collected resting state fMRI scans from the participants and related individual differences in frequency of described AMs to participants' intrinsic functional connectivity within regions of the DMN. We found that producing more descriptions of either memory type correlated with stronger intrinsic connectivity in the parahippocampal and middle temporal gyri. Additionally, episodic AM descriptions correlated with connectivity in the bilateral hippocampi and medial prefrontal cortex, and semantic memory descriptions correlated with connectivity in right inferior lateral parietal cortex. These findings suggest that in individuals who naturally invoke more memories during social processing, brain regions involved in memory retrieval and self/social processing are more strongly coupled to the DMN during rest.

  15. Bacterial community dynamics, lactic acid bacteria species diversity and metabolite kinetics of traditional Romanian vegetable fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Dorrit; Grosu-Tudor, Silvia; Zamfir, Medana; De Vuyst, Luc

    2013-03-15

    Artisanal vegetable fermentations are very popular in Eastern European countries. Fresh vegetables undergo a spontaneous fermentation in the presence of salt, which is mainly carried out by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses of end-samples of various spontaneous vegetable fermentations carried out in houses of the Chiodju region (central Romania) revealed Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus brevis as the most frequently isolated LAB species. Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Leuconostoc citreum were also found. Furthermore, the community dynamics of spontaneous cauliflower and mixed-vegetable (green tomatoes, carrots and cauliflower) fermentations revealed three steps: an initial phase characterised by the presence of Enterobacteriaceae and a wide LAB species diversity, encompassing Weissella species; a second phase from day 3 onwards wherein L. citreum and Lb. brevis occurred; and a final phase characterised by the prevalence of Lb. brevis and Lb. plantarum. Metabolite target analysis revealed that glucose and fructose were mostly depleted at the end of fermentation. The main products of carbohydrate metabolism were lactic acid, acetic acid, ethanol and small amounts of mannitol, indicating heterolactate fermentation. Given their prevalence at the end of vegetable fermentations, Lb. brevis and Lb. plantarum appear to be good candidate starter cultures for controlled vegetable fermentation processes. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Copper stressed anaerobic fermentation: biogas properties, process stability, biodegradation and enzyme responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, He; Tian, Yonglan; Zhang, Huayong; Chai, Yang

    2017-12-01

    The effect of copper (added as CuCl 2 ) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied in pilot experiments by investigating the biogas properties, process stability, substrate degradation and enzyme activities at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that 30 and 100 mg/L Cu 2+ addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by up to 43.62 and 20.77% respectively, and brought forward the daily biogas yield peak, while 500 mg/L Cu 2+ addition inhibited biogas production. Meanwhile, the CH 4 content in the 30 and 100 mg/L Cu 2+ -added groups was higher than that in the control group. Higher pH values (close to pH 7) and lower oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) values in the Cu 2+ -added groups after the 8th day indicated better process stability compared to the control group. In the presence of Cu 2+ , the degradation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and other organic molecules (represented by chemical oxygen demand, COD) generated from hydrolysis was enhanced, and the ammonia nitrogen (NH 4 + -N) concentrations were more stable than in the control group. The contents of lignin and hemicellulose in the substrate declined in the Cu 2+ -added groups while the cellulose contents did not. Neither the cellulase nor the coenzyme F 420 activities could determine the biogas producing efficiency. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Cu 2+ addition on biogas yields was mainly attributable to better process stability, the enhanced degradation of lignin and hemicellulose, the transformation of intermediates into VFA, and the generation of CH 4 from VFA.

  17. Change of Monascus pigment metabolism and secretion in different extractive fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gong; Tang, Rui; Tian, Xiaofei; Qin, Peng; Wu, Zhenqiang

    2017-06-01

    Monascus pigments that were generally produced intracellularly from Monascus spp. are important natural colorants in food industry. In this study, change of pigment metabolism and secretion was investigated through fed-batch extractive fermentation and continuous extractive fermentation. The biomass, secreting rate of pigment and total pigment yield closely correlated with the activated time of extractive fermentation as well as the composition of feeding nutrients. Metal ions played a key role in both the cell growth and pigment metabolism. Nitrogen source was necessary for a high productivity of biomass but not for high pigment yield. Furthermore, fermentation period for the fed-batch extractive fermentation could be reduced by 18.75% with a nitrogen source free feeding medium. Through a 30-day continuous extractive fermentation, the average daily productivity for total pigments reached 74.9 AU day -1 with an increase by 32.6 and 296.3% compared to that in a 6-day conventional batch fermentation and a 16-day fed-batch extractive fermentation, respectively. At the meantime, proportions of extracellular pigments increased gradually from 2.7 to 71.3%, and yellow pigments gradually became dominated in both intracellular and extracellular pigments in the end of continuous extractive fermentation. This findings showed that either fed-batch or continuous extractive fermentation acted as a promising method in the efficient production of Monascus pigments.

  18. Laminar Profile of Spontaneous and Evoked Theta: Rhythmic Modulation of Cortical Processing During Word Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgren, Eric; Kaestner, Erik; Marinkovic, Ksenija; Cash, Sydney S.; Wang, Chunmao; Schomer, Donald L.; Madsen, Joseph R.; Ulbert, Istvan

    2015-01-01

    Theta may play a central role during language understanding and other extended cognitive processing, providing an envelope for widespread integration of participating cortical areas. We used linear microelectrode arrays in epileptics to define the circuits generating theta in inferotemporal, perirhinal, entorhinal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. In all locations, theta was generated by excitatory current sinks in middle layers which receive predominantly feedforward inputs, alternating with sinks in superficial layers which receive mainly feedback/associative inputs. Baseline and event-related theta were generated by indistinguishable laminar profiles of transmembrane currents and unit-firing. Word presentation could reset theta phase, permitting theta to contribute to late event-related potentials, even when theta power decreases relative to baseline. Limited recordings during sentence reading are consistent with rhythmic theta activity entrained by a given word modulating the neural background for the following word. These findings show that theta occurs spontaneously, and can be momentarily suppressed, reset and synchronized by words. Theta represents an alternation between feedforward/divergent and associative/convergent processing modes that may temporally organize sustained processing and optimize the timing of memory formation. We suggest that words are initially encoded via a ventral feedforward stream which is lexicosemantic in the anteroventral temporal lobe; its arrival may trigger a widespread theta rhythm which integrates the word within a larger context. PMID:25801916

  19. New kinetic insight into the spontaneous oxidation process of lithium in air by EPMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otero, Manuel [IFEG, Facultad de Matemáticas, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina); INFICQ, Departamento de Matemáticas y Física, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina); Lener, German [INFAP, Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Trincavelli, Jorge, E-mail: trincavelli@famaf.unc.edu.ar [IFEG, Facultad de Matemáticas, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina); Barraco, Daniel [IFEG, Facultad de Matemáticas, Astronomía y Física, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina); Nazzarro, Marcelo Sandro; Furlong, Octavio [INFAP, Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Leiva, Ezequiel Pedro Marcos [INFICQ, Departamento de Matemáticas y Física, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Córdoba (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • EPMA measurements and Monte Carlo simulations were applied to study the corrosion process of Li in air. • The kinetic mechanism of corrosion was discussed. • A diffusion process of water through LiOH was found and quantitatively studied. - Abstract: The exposure of metallic lithium to ambient air produces a fast corrosion reaction of the surface that continues to the bulk of the material. This spontaneous process was explored by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Electron Probe Micro-Analysis (EPMA). The combination of these techniques and Monte Carlo simulations allowed observing the formation of a film of lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and studying the growth within the material during the first 300 s. The corrosion is mainly due to the reaction of lithium with water and the diffusion of water through the growing LiOH film is the rate determining step. On the basis of a kinetic analysis we studied the mechanism of reaction and inferred a diffusion coefficient of D = (5.1 ± 0.4) × 10{sup −12} cm{sup 2}/s in agreement with results from the literature obtained using different techniques.

  20. Optimization and scale-up of fermentation process for production of microbial polysaccharide. Final technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buller, C.S.

    1994-12-21

    This grant was awarded to provide for the scale-up of the process of production of a (1 {r_arrow})-{beta}-D-glucan which is produced by Cellulomonas flavigena. One of the goals was to provide sufficient amounts of the polysaccharide polymer to conduct a field test of its usefulness in subterranean permeability modification procedures of enhanced oil recovery. During September and October, 1994, fermentations and recoveries were done by Abbott Laboratories, to develop a process to provide at least 400 lbs of the glucan polymer for field testing. Shake flask runs and four fermentation runs were completed. A summary of the fourth fermentation run, conducted in a 40,000 liter fermentor, follows.

  1. Production of fuel ethanol and methane from garbage by high-efficiency two-stage fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Yoji; An, Ming-Zhe; Tang, Yue-Qin; Syo, Tomohiro; Osaka, Noriko; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2009-12-01

    A two-stage fermentation process, consisting of a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) stage and a dry methane fermentation stage, was developed to utilize garbage for the production of fuel ethanol and methane. Garbage from families, canteens and concessionaires was used for the study. Saccharification method was studied and the results indicated that the liquefaction pretreatment and the combination of cellulase and glucoamylase was effective for polysaccharide hydrolysis of family garbage with a high content of holocellulose and that SSF was suitable for ethanol fermentation of garbage. Ethanol productivity could be markedly increased from 1.7 to 7.0 g/l/h by repeated-batch SSF of family garbage. A high ethanol productivity of 17.7 g/l/h was achieved when canteen garbage was used. The stillage after distillation was treated by dry methane fermentation and the results indicated that the stillage was almost fully digested and that about 850 ml of biogas was recovered from 1 g of volatile total solid (VTS). Approximately 85% of the energy of the garbage was converted to fuels, ethanol and methane by this process.

  2. Eco-friendly process combining physical-chemical and biological technics for the fermented dairy products waste pretreatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Mariam; Hamdi, Moktar; Trabelsi, Ismail

    2017-01-01

    Residual fermented dairy products resulting from process defects or from expired shelf life products are considered as waste. Thus, dairies wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) suffer high input effluents polluting load. In this study, fermented residuals separation from the plant wastewater is proposed. In the aim to meet the municipal WWTP input limits, a pretreatment combining physical-chemical and biological processes was investigated to reduce residual fermented dairy products polluting effect. Yoghurt (Y) and fermented milk products (RL) were considered. Raw samples chemical oxygen demand (COD) values were assessed at 152 and 246 g.L -1 for Y and RL products, respectively. Following the thermal coagulation, maximum removal rates were recorded at 80 °C. Resulting whey stabilization contributed to the removal rates enhance to reach 72% and 87% for Y and RL samples; respectively. Residual whey sugar content was fermented using Candida strains. Bacterial growth and strains degrading potential were discussed. C. krusei strain achieved the most important removal rates of 78% and 85% with Y and RL medium, respectively. Global COD removal rates exceeded 93%.

  3. Investigation of the instability and low water kefir grain growth during an industrial water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Van Jean, Amandine; Dumont, Jean; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-04-01

    A poorly performing industrial water kefir production process consisting of a first fermentation process, a rest period at low temperature, and a second fermentation process was characterized to elucidate the causes of its low water kefir grain growth and instability. The frozen-stored water kefir grain inoculum was thawed and reactivated during three consecutive prefermentations before the water kefir production process was started. Freezing and thawing damaged the water kefir grains irreversibly, as their structure did not restore during the prefermentations nor the production process. The viable counts of the lactic acid bacteria and yeasts on the water kefir grains and in the liquors were as expected, whereas those of the acetic acid bacteria were high, due to the aerobic fermentation conditions. Nevertheless, the fermentations progressed slowly, which was caused by excessive substrate concentrations resulting in a high osmotic stress. Lactobacillus nagelii, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus hilgardii, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Bifidobacterium aquikefiri, Gluconobacter roseus/oxydans, Gluconobacter cerinus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Zygotorulaspora florentina were the most prevalent microorganisms. Lb. hilgardii, the microorganism thought to be responsible for water kefir grain growth, was not found culture-dependently, which could explain the low water kefir grain growth of this industrial process.

  4. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P<.05 reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  5. IMPROVEMENT OF BORASSUS AKEASSII WINES QUALITY BY CONTROLLED FERMENTATION USING SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAPSOBA François

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Palm wine produced traditionally and consumed by many people around the world and specifically in Burkina Faso posed health risks because of questionable quality of wine produced by mix culture fermentation and the use of antiseptics for the stabilization. In order to improve its quality, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from Borassus akeassii wines and identified by amplification and RFLP analysis of the 5-8S-ITS region were used for in vitro fermentation of unfermented palm sap. The physicochemical characteristics of the sap were measured before and after fermentation process by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC and the microbiological quality were also performed. HPLC analysis showed that glucose and fructose concentration in palm sap were 37.0 and 27.6 g/L respectively, ethanol content was ranged between 2.76 and 5.31 % (g/mL for controlled fermentation and 2.20 % (g/mL for spontaneous fermentation. Lactic and acetic acids were ranged between 0.1 and 0.3 g/L and 1.5 and 1.6 g/L for controlled fermentation versus 2.5 and 3.1 g/L and the spontaneous fermentation respectively. Coliforms and Staphylococcus aureus were detected only in the unfermented palm sap and the wine fermented spontaneously. Principal component analysis showed a good separation between spontaneous and controlled fermentation. Sterilization and controlled fermentation of the unfermented sap with palm wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains led to the improvement of palm wine quality.

  6. THE STUDY OF DIRECTED FERMENTATION PROCESS USING STRAINS OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA FOR OBTAINING VEGETABLE PRODUCTS OF STABLE QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kondratenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the process of directed fermentation of whitehead cabbage variety ‘Slava’, using strains of lactic acid bacteria and their consortium with the degree of their mutual influence. As strains of lactic acid bacteria, we have chosen the following: VCR 536 Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum VKM V-578. To obtain comparable results, all experiments were performed on model mediums. For the first time we studied the dynamics of changes in quality indicators at the process of directed fermentation using strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB including their consortiums. The mathematical model developed adequately describes the degree of destruction of glucose and fructose in the fermentation process. The raw material was undergone to homogenization and sterilization with the aim to create optimal conditionsfor the development of the target microorganisms and to detect the degree of  restruction of fructose and glucose by different strains of microorganisms. The mathematical model developed adequately described the degree of destruction of fructose and glucose in the treatment process. The use of a consortium of lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum+L. casei to this culture medium is shown to be impractical. The addition of fructose in quantity 0.5% to weight of the model medium enabled to intensify significantly the process of white cabbage fermentation.

  7. The production of hydrogen by dark fermentation of municipal solid wastes and slaughterhouse waste: A two-phase process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, X.; Moran, A.; Cuetos, M.J.; Sanchez, M.E. [Institute of Natural Resources, Avda de Portugal 41, University of Leon, Leon 24071 (Spain)

    2006-07-03

    A two-phase fermentation process for the treatment of waste, intended for the recovery of hydrogen for energy use, was investigated in its initial fermentation phase. Hydrogen production was obtained from a mixed culture based on an active mesophilic inoculum without any selective treatment being applied. The liquid stream generated by the hydrogen fermentation process was stabilized in the following, methanogenic, phase for the recovery of methane and further breaking down of the waste stream. The whole process was carried out at a temperature in the mesophilic range (34{sup o}C). The substrate used was an unsterilized mixture of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSW) and slaughterhouse waste from a poultry-processing plant. The hydrogen-producing phase was capable of stable performance under the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) evaluated (3 and 5 days). No methane was detected in the first phase at any point during the whole period of the experiment and the hydrogen yield showed no symptoms of declining as time elapsed. The amount of hydrogen obtained from the fermentation process was in the range of 52.5-71.3NLkg{sup -1}VS{sub rem}. (author)

  8. Alveolar bone healing process in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A radiographic densitometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Natalia; Pereira, Cassiano Costa Silva; Garcia, Lourdes Maria Gonzáles; Micaroni, Samuel; Carvalho, Antonio Augusto Ferreira de; Perri, Sílvia Helena Venturoli; Okamoto, Roberta; Sumida, Doris Hissako; Antoniali, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most important public health problems worldwide. If undiagnosed or untreated, this pathology represents a systemic risk factor and offers unfavorable conditions for dental treatments, especially those requiring bone healing. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate, by analysis of bone mineral density (BMD), that the alveolar bone healing process is altered in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Wistar rats and SHRs were submitted to extraction of the upper right incisor and were euthanized 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after surgery. Right maxillae were collected, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. BMD was expressed as minimum (min), middle (med) and maximum (max) in the medium (MT) and apical (AT) thirds of the dental alveolus. The results were compared across days and groups. Wistar showed difference in med and max BMD in the MT between 7 and 28 and also between 14 and 28 days. The AT exhibited significant difference in med and min BMD between 7 and 28 days, as well as difference in min BMD between 28 and 42 days. SHRs showed lower med BMD in the MT at 28 days when compared to 21 and 42 days. Differences were observed across groups in med and min BMD at day 28 in the MT and AT; and in max BMD at 14, 21 and 42 days in the MT. These results suggest that the alveolar bone healing process is delayed in SHRs comparing with Wistar rats.

  9. Effect of curing agents on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2014-07-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of curing agents, ascorbate (0, 250, and 500 ppm), and nitrite (0, 75, and 150 ppm), on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins during processing of fermented sausages was studied. The potential influence of these reactions on color and texture of the fermented sausages was also addressed. Nitrite had a pro-oxidant effect on tryptophan depletion and promoted the formation of protein carbonyls and Schiff bases. The nitration degree in the fermented sausages was also dependent on nitrite concentration. On the other hand, ascorbate acted as an efficient inhibitor of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins. As expected, nitrite clearly favored the formation of the cured red color and ascorbate acted as an enhancer of color formation. Nitrite content was positively correlated with hardness. The chemistry behind the action of nitrite and ascorbate on muscle proteins during meat fermentation is thoroughly discussed. The results suggest that ascorbate (500 ppm) may be required to compensate the pro-oxidant impact of nitrite on meat proteins. This study provides insight on the action of curing agents on meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages. This chemistry background provides understanding of the potential influence of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins on the quality of processed muscle foods. The study provides novel information on the impact of the combination of nitrite and ascorbate on the chemical deterioration of proteins and the influence on particular quality traits of fermented sausages. These data may be of interest for the design of cured muscle foods of enhanced quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Waktu Optimum Biokonversi Spontan Biji Asam Guna Meningkatkan Kandungan Nilai Gizinya Sebagai Pakan Ternak Alternatif (OPTIMUM TIME OF SPONTANEOUS FERMENTATION TO NUTRIENT VALUE OF TAMARIND SEED AS ALTERNATIF FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redempta Wea

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to evaluate nutrition value and optimum time of spontaneous bioconversionof tamarind seed. This research was conducted using complete random design experimental methodswith five bioconversion time treatments ie R0 0 hour; R1 24 hours; R2 48 hours; R3 72 hours; and R4 96hours respectively and each treatment consist of four replications. The data were then analysis usingvariants analysis and Duncan’s test. The research variable was nutrition value of tamarind seed spontaneousbioconversion. Results showed that spontaneous bioconvertion was not effecting to dry matter, crude fiber,and crude fat but effected to ash, crude protein, and metabolism energy and the best treatment wasspontaneous bio-conversion until 72 hours and make decreasing at 96 hours treatment Based on thoseresult, for getting the best result,it is suggesting to use spontaneous bioconversion until 72 hours.

  11. Enhancing phosphorus release from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum phosphates by EDTA addition during anaerobic fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinte; Zhang, Lili; Wang, Lin; Li, Yongmei

    2017-03-01

    The effect of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition on phosphorus release from biosolids and phosphate precipitates during anaerobic fermentation was investigated. Meanwhile, the impact of EDTA addition on the anaerobic fermentation process was revealed. The results indicate that EDTA addition significantly enhanced the release of phosphorus from biosolids, ferric phosphate precipitate and aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation, which is attributed to the complexation of metal ions and damage of cell membrane caused by EDTA. With the optimal EDTA addition of 19.5 mM (0.41 gEDTA/gSS), phosphorus release efficiency from biosolids was 82%, which was much higher than that (40%) without EDTA addition. Meanwhile, with 19.5 mM EDTA addition, almost all the phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was released, while only 57% of phosphorus in aluminum phosphate precipitate was released. This indicates that phosphorus in ferric phosphate precipitate was much easier to be released than that in aluminum phosphate precipitate during anaerobic fermentation of sludge. In addition, proper EDTA addition facilitated the production of soluble total organic carbon and volatile fatty acids, as well as solid reduction during sludge fermentation, although methane production could be inhibited. Therefore, EDTA addition can be used as an alternative method for recovering phosphorus from waste activated sludge containing ferric or aluminum precipitates, as well as recovery of soluble carbon source. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of alcoholic fermentation in the content of phenolic compounds in cider processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nogueira

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of alcoholic fermentation on the content of phenol compounds of five cider apple varieties. The initial content in the apple juice samples, as determined by HPLC, varied from 188.4 to 2776.17 m mg.L-1. In three of them (DC, PJ, GU, the total phenol compounds remained unaffected by fermentation. However, in two (DM, KE, the final values were lower (55 and 313 mg.L-1. In these apple cider, the values of caffeic acid increased from 6.6 mg.L-1 to 41.8 mg.L-1. The catechin content increased during the process, approximately 13 mg.L-1 independent of the variety. The other phenols class did not present any modifications due to the alcoholic fermentation, maintaining the phenolic compounds of original clarified apple juice in the cider.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da fermentação alcoólica no teor de compostos fenólicos de cinco mostos de maçãs industriais. Os compostos fenólicos foram analisados por HPLC. Os mostos apresentaram fenóis totais entre 188,4 a 2776,17 mg.L-1. Os teores de fenóis durante a fermentação permaneceram os mesmos para as variedades DC, PJ e GU, entretanto, em DM e KE foi observada uma diminuição dos teores de fenóis (55 e 313 mg.L-1, respectivamente. Em KE o teor do ácido caféico aumentou de 6,6 mg.L-1 para 41,8 mg.L-1. O teor de catequinas aumentou cerca de 13 mg.L-1 durante o processo, independente da variedade. As outras classes de fenóis não apresentaram modificações com a fermentação alcoólica, permanecendo na sidra os compostos fenólicos do suco de maçã clarificado.

  13. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid Traete

    2007-01-01

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  14. Sequential processing with fermentative Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis and chemolithoautotrophic Cupriavidus necator for converting rice straw and CO2to polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaowei; Kelly, Robert M; Han, Yejun

    2018-02-24

    Unpretreated rice straw was fermented by the extremely thermophilic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor kronotskyensis, generating solubilized carbohydrates, organic acids, lignin-derived aromatics, H 2 , and CO 2 , which were subsequently used to produce polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) by the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Cupriavidus necator. The fermented liquid significantly enhanced the growth of C. necator, leading to a five-fold cell biomass yield, and a nine-fold PHB yield compared to what was obtained from conventional mineral media. This integrated process utilized all products of lignocellulose fermentation without H (electron) loss and carbon emission, while concomitantly enhancing CO 2 fixation by C. necator for PHB production. The sequential coupling of C. kronotskyensis and C. necator provides not only a new biorefinery paradigm characterized by reduced pretreatment and saccharification requirements but also an efficient way for enhancing CO 2 fixation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Recent advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for the production of butyric acid by microbial fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hongzhen; Yang, Rongling; Zhao, Yuping; Wang, Zhaoyu; Liu, Zheng; Huang, Mengyu; Zeng, Qingwei

    2018-04-01

    Butyric acid is an important platform chemical, which is widely used in the fields of food, pharmaceutical, energy, etc. Microbial fermentation as an alternative approach for butyric acid production is attracting great attention as it is an environmentally friendly bioprocessing. However, traditional fermentative butyric acid production is still not economically competitive compared to chemical synthesis route, due to the low titer, low productivity, and high production cost. Therefore, reduction of butyric acid production cost by utilization of alternative inexpensive feedstock, and improvement of butyric acid production and productivity has become an important target. Recently, several advanced strategies have been developed for enhanced butyric acid production, including bioprocess techniques and metabolic engineering methods. This review provides an overview of advances and strategies in process and strain engineering for butyric acid production by microbial fermentation. Additionally, future perspectives on improvement of butyric acid production are also proposed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fermentation dynamics with different quantitative correlation of fallen leaves and cattle manure in the process of Eisenia foetida Verma cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    SKIP O.S.; BUTSYAK V.I.; PECHAR N.P.

    2011-01-01

    Was defined optimal mass fraction correlation of fallen leaves and cattle manure compost as a substrate for red Californian worm Eisenia foetida hybrid cultivation. To research the important role of microorganisms in the process of substrate fermentation and in power populations oligochaetes.

  17. Effect of processed and fermented soyabeans on net absorption in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli-infected piglet small intestine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, J.L.; Nout, M.J.R.; Rombouts, F.M.; Andel, van E.E.; Nabuurs, M.J.A.; Meulen, van der J.

    2006-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a major problem in both children and piglets. Infection of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) results in fluid secretion and electrolyte losses in the small intestine. In the present study the effect of processed and fermented soyabean products on net absorption during

  18. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of ...

  19. A review of control strategies for manipulating the feed rate in fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-03-10

    A majority of industrial fermentation processes are operated in fed-batch mode. In this case, the rate of feed addition to the system is a focus for optimising the process operation, as it directly impacts metabolic activity, as well as directly affecting the volume dynamics in the system. This review covers a range of strategies which have been employed to use the feed rate as a manipulated variable in a control strategy. The feed rate is chosen as the focus for this review, as it is seen that this variable may be used towards many different objectives depending on the process of interest, the characteristics of the strain, or the product being produced, which leads to different drivers for process optimisation. This review summarises the methods, as well as focusing on the different objectives for the controllers, and the choice of measured variables involved in the strategy. The discussion includes a summary of considerations for control strategy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Potency of microfiltration membrane process in purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as functional food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Maryati, Yati; Melanie, Hakiki; Lotulung, Puspa D.

    2017-01-01

    Purifying broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.) fermented by Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) using mixture of L. bulgaricus, S. thermopillus, L. acidophillusand Bifidobacteriumbifidum and fructooligosaccharides (FOS) as carbon source have been performed to recover biomass concentrate for probiotic and antioxidant. Purification of fermented broccoli was conducted through microfiltration (MF) membrane of 0.15 µm at stirrer rotation speed 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure 40 psia for 30 minutes. Fermented broccoli produced via fermentation process with fermentation time 0 (initial) and 48 hours, and LAB concentration 10% and 20% (v/v) represented as biomass of A, B, C and D. The experimental result showed that based on selectivity of total organic acids, separating optimization was achieved at biomass D (fermentation time 48 hours and mixed LAB culture concentration 20%). Concentrate composition produced in this condition were total acids 6.04%, total solids 24.31%, total polyphenol 0.0252%, reducing sugar 68.25 mg/mL, total sugars 30.89 mg/mL, and dissolved protein 28.54 mg/mL with pH 3.94. In this condition, recovery of biomass concentrate of D for total acids 5.64 folds, total solids 1.82 folds, total polyphenol 3.03 folds, reducing sugar 1.16 folds, total sugars 1.19 folds, and dissolved protein 0.67 folds compared with feed (initial process). Identification of monomer of biomass concentrate D as polyphenol derivatives at T2,01 and T3.01 gave monomer with molecular weight (MW) 192.78 Dalton (Da.), and monomer with MW 191.08, 191.49 and 192.07 Da., while lactic acid derivatives showed MW 251.13, 251.6 and 252.14, and monomer with MW 250.63, 252.14 and 254.22 Da.

  1. Selective suppression of bacterial contaminants by process conditions during lignocellulose based yeast fermentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Eva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contamination of bacteria in large-scale yeast fermentations is a serious problem and a threat to the development of successful biofuel production plants. Huge research efforts have been spent in order to solve this problem, but additional ways must still be found to keep bacterial contaminants from thriving in these environments. The aim of this project was to develop process conditions that would inhibit bacterial growth while giving yeast a competitive advantage. Results Lactic acid bacteria are usually considered to be the most common contaminants in industrial yeast fermentations. Our observations support this view but also suggest that acetic acid bacteria, although not so numerous, could be a much more problematic obstacle to overcome. Acetic acid bacteria showed a capacity to drastically reduce the viability of yeast. In addition, they consumed the previously formed ethanol. Lactic acid bacteria did not show this detrimental effect on yeast viability. It was possible to combat both types of bacteria by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol to the wood hydrolysate medium used. As a result of NaCl + ethanol additions the amount of viable bacteria decreased and yeast viability was enhanced concomitantly with an increase in ethanol concentration. The successful result obtained via addition of NaCl and ethanol was also confirmed in a real industrial ethanol production plant with its natural inherent yeast/bacterial community. Conclusions It is possible to reduce the number of bacteria and offer a selective advantage to yeast by a combined addition of NaCl and ethanol when cultivated in lignocellulosic medium such as wood hydrolysate. However, for optimal results, the concentrations of NaCl + ethanol must be adjusted to suit the challenges offered by each hydrolysate.

  2. Use of liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction process for butanol recovery from fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order for butanol fermentation to be a viable option, it is essential to recover it from fermentation broth using economical alternate in-situ product recovery techniques such as liquid/supercritical CO2 extraction as compared to distillation. This technique (liquid CO2 extraction & supercritical...

  3. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2017-09-12

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  4. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Due to the substrate inhibition that takes place at high levels of carbon source, fed-batch fermentation was proposed as a better alternative for BLM production. The combined effects of batch and fed-batch fermentation and various pH profiles on BLM production in a bioreactor were evaluated. The tested pH profiles included ...

  5. Process control of solid-state fermentation : simultaneous control of temperature and moisture content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagel, F.J.I.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-state fermentation (SSF), i.e. cultivation of micro-organisms on moist solid substrates in the absence of free-flowing water, is an alternative for submerged fermentation (SmF) for the production of biotechnological products. In recent years, research on SSF has led to a

  6. Solid-substrate fermentation of soya beans to tempe : process innovations and product characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reu, de J.C.

    1995-01-01

    Solid-substrate fermentations (SSF) are restricted by heat- and mass transfer limitations, which might result in unfavourable growth conditions. One way to prevent such conditions is by agitation of the substrate. In this study a Rotating Drum Reactor (RDR) was designed for the fermentation of soya

  7. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2016-08-09

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  8. Genetically modified yeast species and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2011-05-17

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications', include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  9. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet [Kingsport, TN; Koivuranta, Kari [Helsinki, FI; Penttila, Merja [Helsinki, FI; Ilmen, Marja [Helsinki, FI; Suominen, Pirkko [Maple Grove, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Miller, Christopher Kenneth [Cottage Grove, MN; Olson, Stacey [St. Bonifacius, MN; Ruohonen, Laura [Helsinki, FI

    2014-01-07

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  10. Genetically modified yeast species, and fermentation processes using genetically modified yeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajgarhia, Vineet; Koivuranta, Kari; Penttila, Merja; Ilmen, Marja; Suominen, Pirkko; Aristidou, Aristos; Miller, Christopher Kenneth; Olson, Stacey; Ruohonen, Laura

    2013-05-14

    Yeast cells are transformed with an exogenous xylose isomerase gene. Additional genetic modifications enhance the ability of the transformed cells to ferment xylose to ethanol or other desired fermentation products. Those modifications include deletion of non-specific or specific aldose reductase gene(s), deletion of xylitol dehydrogenase gene(s) and/or overexpression of xylulokinase.

  11. Dark fermentation process as pretreatment for a sustainable denaturation of asbestos containing wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasiano, Danilo

    2018-05-05

    A cement asbestos compound (CAC) sample was detoxified by a treatment train based on a dark fermentation (DF) process followed by a hydrothermal phase, which led to the complete degradation of the chrysotile fibers. During the biological pretreatment, the glucose was converted in biogas rich in H 2 and volatile fatty acids (VFA). The latter caused the dissolution of all the Ca-based compounds and the solubilisation of 50% brucite-like layers of chrysotile fibers contained in the CAC suspended in the bioreactor (5 g/L). XRD analysis of the solids contained in the effluents of the DF process highlighted the disappearance of the chrysotile fiber peaks. However, a complete destruction of all the asbestos fibers is hard to prove and a hydrothermal treatment was carried out to dissolve the "brucite" layers still present in solution. Due to the presence of the VFA produced during the DF, a complete destruction of chrysotile fibers was achieved by a 24 h hydrothermal process performed with a [H 2 SO 4 ]/[CAC] ratio 50% lower than that adopted in a previous finding. Consequently, the DF pre-treatment can contribute to lower the H 2 SO 4 and the energy consumption of a CAC hydrothermal treatment, due to the production of VFA and H 2 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks Disease by Computerized Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Mustafa S; Kara, Sadık; Albayram, Mehmet S; Okkesim, Şükrü

    2016-05-17

    Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks (SSCFL) is a disease based on tears on the dura mater. Due to widespread symptoms and low frequency of the disease, diagnosis is problematic. Diagnostic lumbar puncture is commonly used for diagnosing SSCFL, though it is invasive and may cause pain, inflammation or new leakages. T2-weighted MR imaging is also used for diagnosis; however, the literature on T2-weighted MRI states that findings for diagnosis of SSCFL could be erroneous when differentiating the diseased and control. One another technique for diagnosis is CT-myelography, but this has been suggested to be less successful than T2-weighted MRI and it needs an initial lumbar puncture. This study aimed to develop an objective, computerized numerical analysis method using noninvasive routine Magnetic Resonance Images that can be used in the evaluation and diagnosis of SSCFL disease. Brain boundaries were automatically detected using methods of mathematical morphology, and a distance transform was employed. According to normalized distances, average densities of certain sites were proportioned and a numerical criterion related to cerebrospinal fluid distribution was calculated. The developed method was able to differentiate between 14 patients and 14 control subjects significantly with p = 0.0088 and d = 0.958. Also, the pre and post-treatment MRI of four patients was obtained and analyzed. The results were differentiated statistically (p = 0.0320, d = 0.853). An original, noninvasive and objective diagnostic test based on computerized image processing has been developed for evaluation of SSCFL. To our knowledge, this is the first computerized image processing method for evaluation of the disease. Discrimination between patients and controls shows the validity of the method. Also, post-treatment changes observed in four patients support this verdict.

  13. Thermal nociceptive threshold testing detects altered sensory processing in broiler chickens with spontaneous lameness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky Hothersall

    Full Text Available Lameness is common in commercially reared broiler chickens but relationships between lameness and pain (and thus bird welfare have proved complex, partly because lameness is often partially confounded with factors such as bodyweight, sex and pathology. Thermal nociceptive threshold (TNT testing explores the neural processing of noxious stimuli, and so can contribute to our understanding of pain. Using an acute model of experimentally induced articular pain, we recently demonstrated that TNT was reduced in lame broiler chickens, and was subsequently attenuated by administration of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs. This study extended these findings to a large sample of commercial broilers. It examined factors affecting thermal threshold (Part 1 and the effect of an NSAID drug (meloxicam, 5 mg/kg and of an opioid (butorphanol; 4 mg/kg (Part 2. Spontaneously lame and matched non-lame birds (n=167 from commercial farms were exposed to ramped thermal stimulations via a probe attached to the lateral aspect of the tarsometatarsus. Baseline skin temperature and temperature at which a behavioural avoidance response occurred (threshold were recorded. In Part 1 bird characteristics influencing threshold were modelled; In Part 2 the effect of subcutaneous administration of meloxicam or butorphanol was investigated. Unexpectedly, after accounting for other influences, lameness increased threshold significantly (Part 1. In Part 2, meloxicam affected threshold differentially: it increased further in lame birds and decreased in non-lame birds. No effect of butorphanol was detected. Baseline skin temperature was also consistently a significant predictor of threshold. Overall, lameness significantly influenced threshold after other bird characteristics were taken into account. This, and a differential effect of meloxicam on lame birds, suggests that nociceptive processing may be altered in lame birds, though mechanisms for this require further

  14. Traditional fermented foods and beverages of Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Misihairabgwi

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Fermented foods and beverages play a major role in the diet, socioeconomic, and cultural activities of the Namibian population. Most are spontaneously fermented. Research is scarce and should be conducted on the microbiology, biochemistry, nutritional value, and safety of the fermented foods and beverages to ensure the health of the population.

  15. Fermentative utilization of coffee mucilage using Bacillus coagulans and investigation of down-stream processing of fermentation broth for optically pure l(+)-lactic acid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Anna-Katrin; Pleissner, Daniel; Mehlmann, Kerstin; Schneider, Roland; Puerta-Quintero, Gloria Inés; Venus, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    In this study, mucilage, a residue from coffee production, was investigated as substrate in fermentative l(+)-lactic acid production. Mucilage was provided as liquid suspension consisting glucose, galactose, fructose, xylose and sucrose as free sugars (up to 60gL(-1)), and used directly as medium in Bacillus coagulans batch fermentations carried out at 2 and 50L scales. Using mucilage and 5gL(-1) yeast extract as additional nitrogen source, more than 40gL(-1) lactic acid was obtained. Productivity and yield were 4-5gL(-1)h(-1) and 0.70-0.77g lactic acid per g of free sugars, respectively, irrespective the scale. Similar yield was found when no yeast extract was supplied, the productivity, however, was 1.5gL(-1)h(-1). Down-stream processing of culture broth, including filtration, electrodialysis, ion exchange chromatography and distillation, resulted in a pure lactic acid formulation containing 930gL(-1)l(+)-lactic acid. Optical purity was 99.8%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimization of process variables for minimization of byproduct formation during fermentation of blackstrap molasses to ethanol at industrial scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, M; Khan, Z M; Khalil-ur-Rehman; Shah, F A; Rajoka, M I

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effect of molasses concentration, initial pH of molasses medium, and inoculum's size to maximize ethanol and minimize methanol, fusel alcohols, acetic acid and aldehydes in the fermentation mash in industrial fermentors. Initial studies to optimize temperature, nitrogen source, phosphorous source, sulfur supplement and minerals were performed. The essential nutrients were urea (2 kg in 60 m(3)), 0.5 l each of commercial phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid (for pH control) added at the inoculum preparation stage only. Yields of ethanol, methanol, fusel alcohols, total acids and aldehydes per 100-l fermentation broth were monitored. Molasses at 29 degrees Brix (degree of dissolved sugars in water), initial pH 4.5, inoculum size 30% (v/v) and anaerobic fermentation supported maximum ethanol (7.8%) with Y(P/S) = 238 l ethanol per tonne molasses (96.5% yield) (8.2% increase in yield), and had significantly lower values of byproducts than those in control experiments. Optimization of process variables resulted in higher ethanol yield (8.2%) and reduced yield of methanol, fusel alcohols, acids and aldehydes. More than 5% substrate is converted into byproducts. Eliminating or reducing their formation can increase ethanol yield by Saccharomyces cerevisiae, decrease the overall cost of fermentation process and improve the quality of ethanol.

  18. Fermentation characteristics of some assamica clones and process optimization of black tea manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Ananta Madhab; Mahanta, Pradip Kumar

    2003-10-22

    Changes in the specific activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), and protease and in the relative amounts of flavan-3-ols for eight genetically derived cultivated teas at various stages of leaf maturity and in four succescive seasons were examined. A series of investigations were carried out to study the cross-reactivity of complex polyphenols and PPO-generated orange-yellow theaflavins, as well as of POD oxidized substrates, producing brown so-called thearubigins during fermented tea processing. From the estimation of five major catechins, PPO activities in young shoots, and theaflavin and thearubigin contents of crushed, torn, and curled (CTC) black teas, the superior variety and flavorful flush characteristics were refined. Notable protein hydrolysis by endogenous protease as measured from free amino acids and formation of tannin-protein complex (browning products) was obtained for cultivar character and product quality. Results showed that process optimization with respect to time, temperature, moisture, and pH maximizes PPO-catalyzed desirable theaflavin pigments, whereas POD-mediated chemical reaction produces dull color.

  19. Optimization of high cell density fermentation process for recombinant nitrilase production in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohoni, Sujata Vijay; Nelapati, Dhanaraj; Sathe, Sneha; Javadekar-Subhedar, Vaishali; Gaikaiwari, Raghavendra P; Wangikar, Pramod P

    2015-01-01

    Nitrilases constitute an important class of biocatalysts for chiral synthesis. This work was undertaken with the aim to optimize nitrilase production in a host that is well-studied for protein production. Process parameters were optimized for high cell density fermentation, in batch and fed-batch modes, of Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expressing Pseudomonas fluorescens nitrilase with a T7 promoter based expression system. Effects of different substrates, temperature and isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction on nitrilase production were studied. Super optimal broth containing glycerol but without an inducer gave best results in batch mode with 32 °C as the optimal temperature. Use of IPTG led to insoluble protein and lower enzyme activity. Optimized fed-batch strategy resulted in significant improvement in specific activity as well as volumetric productivity of the enzyme. On a volumetric basis, the activity improved 40-fold compared to the unoptimized batch process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Validation of a manufacturing process for fermented, semidry Turkish soudjouk to control Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calicioglu, M; Faith, N G; Buege, D R; Luchansky, J B

    2001-08-01

    Two soudjouk batters were prepared from ground beef (20% fat) and nonmeat ingredients and inoculated with a five-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to yield an initial inoculum of 7.65 log10 CFU/g. One batter contained a commercial-starter culture mixture (approximately 8.0 log10 CFU/g) and dextrose (1.5%), while the other batter relied upon a natural fermentation with no added carbohydrate. Following mixing, sausage batters were held at 4 degrees C for 24 h prior to stuffing into natural beef round casings. Stuffed soudjouk sticks were fermented and dried at 24 degrees C with 90 to 95% relative humidity (RH) for 3 days and then at 22 degrees C with 80 to 85% RH until achieving a product moisture level of approximately 40%. After fermentation and drying with an airflow of 1 to 1.5 m/s, the sticks were either not cooked or cooked to an instantaneous internal temperature of 54.4 degrees C (130 degrees F) and held for 0, 30, or 60 min. The sticks were then vacuum packaged and stored at either 4 or 21 degrees C. For each of three trials, three sticks for each treatment/batter were analyzed for numbers of E. coli O157:H7 after inoculation, after fermentation, after cooking, and after storage for 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Reductions in numbers of E. coli O157:H7 after fermentation and drying for sticks fermented by the starter culture (pH 4.6) and for sticks naturally fermented (pH 5.5) were 1.96 and 0.28 log10 CFU/g, respectively. However, cooking soudjouk sticks produced with a starter culture and holding at 54.4 degrees C for 0, 30, or 60 min reduced pathogen numbers from an initial level after fermentation and drying of 5.69 log10 CFU/g to below a detectable level by either direct plating (sausage of ethnic origin, including soudjouk, to assess the safety of their processes for control of E. coli O157:H7.

  1. KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN KRISTALINITAS TEPUNG PISANG TERMODIFIKASI SECARA FERMENTASI SPONTAN DAN SIKLUS PEMANASAN BERTEKANAN-PENDINGINAN (Chemical Composition and Crystallinity of Modified Banana Flour by Spontaneous Fermentation and Autoclaving-Cooling Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhayati Nurhayati

    2014-07-01

    (39,13 – 42,68% bk dibandingkan dengan yang satu siklus (29,34 – 35,93% bk. Proses pemanasan bertekananpendinginan menurunkan kristalinitas tepung pisang dari 18,74-20,08% menjadi 6,98-9,52%. Difraksi sinar X menunjukkan granula pati pisang adalah granula tipe C yang merupakan campuran dari granula tipe A dan tipe B. Kata kunci: Tepung pisang termodifikasi, fermentasi spontan, autoclaving-cooling cycles

  2. The Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria Starter Cultures during the Processing of Fermented Cereal-based Foods in West Africa: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soro-Yao, Amenan Anastasie; Brou, Kouakou; Amani, Georges; Thonart, Philippe; Djè, Koffi Marcelin

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are the primary microorganisms used to ferment maize-, sorghum- or millet-based foods that are processed in West Africa. Fermentation contributes to desirable changes in taste, flavour, acidity, digestibility and texture in gruels (ogi, baca, dalaki), doughs (agidi, banku, komé) or steam-cooked granulated products (arraw, ciacry, dégué). Similar to other fermented cereal foods that are available in Africa, these products suffer from inconsistent quality. The use of LAB starter cultures during cereal dough fermentation is a subject of increasing interest in efforts to standardise this step and guaranty product uniformity. However, their use by small-scale processing units or small agro-food industrial enterprises is still limited. This review aims to illustrate and discuss major issues that influence the use of LAB starter cultures during the processing of fermented cereal foods in West Africa. PMID:27073601

  3. Performance comparison of differential evolution techniques on optimization of feeding profile for an industrial scale baker's yeast fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüzgeç, Uğur

    2010-01-01

    Differential evolution (DE) is one of the novel evolutionary optimization methods used for solving the problems that consist of nondifferentiable, nonlinear and multi-objective functions. In this presented work, the classical DE technique and its various versions, such as opposition based on differential evolution (ODE), adaptive differential evolution (ADE), adaptive opposition based on differential evolution (AODE) which is an advanced version of ODE, are presented to determine the optimal feeding flow profile of an industrial scale fed-batch baker's yeast fermentation process. The main objective in any fed-batch fermentation process optimization is both to maximize the amount of the biomass at the end of the process and to minimize the ethanol formation during the process. Four different cases regarding the initial condition of the fermentation process were considered so as to evaluate the performances of proposed algorithms. Besides, two strategies of mutation and crossover operators, which are the most popular in DE's applications, were utilized for performance comparison tests. The influence of initial seed value, initial condition of the process, and both of the mutation and crossover strategies have been investigated for all the different classic, opposition-based, self-adaptive and adaptive opposition-based mechanisms. To demonstrate the performance comparison of the of DE's techniques, the experimental data collected from the fermentor with volume of 100 m(3) are presented with the optimization results obtained by using all the interested DE techniques for the same initial conditions. 2009 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of process factors of dry fermented salami to control Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenge tests are a clear opportunity for manufacturers interested in the evaluation of their management system with the aim to reduce the spread of foodborne pathogens. This is a main concern especially in ready-to-eat food in relation to the risk associated with Listeria monocytogenes. For small and medium-scale food industry the manufacturing practices and products formulation are characterised by a wider variability and poor repeatability. The use of ad hoc challenge test and the comparison among different processing systems are strongly required. This paper reports a preliminary comparison among different challenge tests (n=12 commissioned by three manufacturers of raw-fermented salami during a period of three years (2013-2016. The challenge tests were designed to evaluate the growth potential (δ of L. monocytogenes during the whole processing period of the salami. The doughs were prepared according to different formulations: the simplest formulation was represented by the use of salt, potassium nitrate, black pepper and starter cultures, while the most composited formulations also included the use of sugars and ascorbic acid in addition to nitrite salt. All the processing steps were conducted within an experimental laboratory dedicated for the processing of meat. After stuffing, the salami were dried and ripened under temperature and relative humidity control. The sugar inclusion can be considered as a protective factor, while the drying step at high temperature (above 20°C was associated with higher δ values (δ>0.5 log10 cfu/g. The addition of starter cultures, and the subsequent acidification highlighted the importance of pH as the parameter able to affect the L. monocytogenes growth.

  5. Process combination of thermo pressure hydrolysis and fermentation for innovative processing of residual biogenous mass; Verfahrenskombination aus Thermodruckhydrolyse und Vergaerung zur innovativen Verwertung biogener Restmassen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prechtl, S.; Merkl, M.; Schieder, D.; Schneider, R.; Bischof, F. [Applikations- und Technikzentrum fuer Energieverfahrens-, Umwelt- und Stroemungstechnik (ATZ-EVUS), Sulzbach-Rosenberg (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The described processing technique consisting of topped thermal hydrolysis and downstream fermentation is particularly suitable for wet, low-structure organic waste. High turnover rates at short treatment times permit to minimize residues effectively, yield a fair amount of biogas and allow compact design because of low fermenter volumes, which has a positive impact on investment cost. (orig.) [German] Das vorgestellt Verwertungsverfahren bestehend aus vorgeschalteter thermischer Hydrolyse und nachgeschalteter Vergaerung eignet sich besonders fuer nasse, strukturarme organische Abfaelle. Hohe Umsatzraten bei kurzen Behandlungszeiten ermoeglichen eine gute Reststoffminimierung und Biogasausbeute sowie eine kompakte Bauweise durch kleine Fermentervolumina, was sich positiv auf die Investitionskosten auswirkt. (orig.)

  6. Comparative technoeconomic analysis of a softwood ethanol process featuring posthydrolysis sugars concentration operations and continuous fermentation with cell recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Steven J; Gurram, Raghu N; Menkhaus, Todd J; Gilcrease, Patrick C

    2015-01-01

    Economical production of second generation ethanol from Ponderosa pine is of interest due to widespread mountain pine beetle infestation in the western United States and Canada. The conversion process is limited by low glucose and high inhibitor concentrations resulting from conventional low-solids dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis. Inhibited fermentations require larger fermentors (due to reduced volumetric productivity) and low sugars lead to low ethanol titers, increasing distillation costs. In this work, multiple effect evaporation (MEE) and nanofiltration (NF) were evaluated to concentrate the hydrolysate from 30 g/l to 100, 150, or 200 g/l glucose. To ferment this high gravity, inhibitor containing stream, traditional batch fermentation was compared with continuous stirred tank fermentation (CSTF) and continuous fermentation with cell recycle (CSTF-CR). Equivalent annual operating cost (EAOC = amortized capital + yearly operating expenses) was used to compare these potential improvements for a local-scale 5 MGY ethanol production facility. Hydrolysate concentration via evaporation increased EAOC over the base process due to the capital and energy intensive nature of evaporating a very dilute sugar stream; however, concentration via NF decreased EAOC for several of the cases (by 2 to 15%). NF concentration to 100 g/l glucose with a CSTF-CR was the most economical option, reducing EAOC by $0.15 per gallon ethanol produced. Sensitivity analyses on NF options showed that EAOC improvement over the base case could still be realized for even higher solids removal requirements (up to two times higher centrifuge requirement for the best case) or decreased NF performance. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  7. Amino Acid and Mineral Supplementation in Fermentation Process of Concentrate Protein of Jatropha Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Widiyastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the optimization of fermentation process by adding a minerals and amino acids so that the potential of protein  of Concentrate Protein-Jatropha seed cake (CP-JSC can be optimally used as a substitute for soybean meal. The method used was completely randomized design. The treatment consisted of F1: Fermentation CP-BBJ + methionine-lysine (0.25%: 0.25%, F2: Fermentation CP-JSC + methionine-lysine (0.5%: 0.5%, F3: F1 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate, F4: F2 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate. Each treatment was repeated four times, When treatment significantly continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD, variables observed are the levels of antinutrients (phorbolester, antitrypsin, the levels of nutrients (fat, protein, crude fiber, Ca, P and gross energy and amino acid. Results of analysis of variance showed that the addition of amino acids and minerals Ca, P in the fermentation process was highly significant effect on the levels of crude fiber and phosphorus (P 0.05. While the levels obtained phorbolester range of 0.055% - 0.08%. It was concluded that the optimization of fermentation can be done without adding the amino acid supplementation of minerals calcium and phosphorus. Supplementation significantly affect a significant increase or decrease in some nutrients (crude fiber, gross energy, phosphor and capable of suppressing a decrease in amino acids. Supplementation of amino acids Lysine and Methionin 0.05% is the best treatment.

  8. Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermentation by some incubation process

    OpenAIRE

    Bintang I.A.B; A.P Sinurat; T Purwadaria; T Pasaribu

    2000-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of fermented palm oil sludge (PaS) incubated with different ways towards metabolic digestibility on dry matter,true metabolizable energy (TME) and protein digestibilities. A completely randomized design was used. Treatments consisted of unfermented pas (control) and fermented pas with and without enzymatic incubation proces, two levels of incubation temperatures (28°C and 32°C) and three levels of incubation times (3, 4 and 5 days). The digestib...

  9. Integrated hydrogen production process from cellulose by combining dark fermentation, microbial fuel cells, and a microbial electrolysis cell

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Aijie

    2011-03-01

    Hydrogen gas production from cellulose was investigated using an integrated hydrogen production process consisting of a dark fermentation reactor and microbial fuel cells (MFCs) as power sources for a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). Two MFCs (each 25mL) connected in series to an MEC (72mL) produced a maximum of 0.43V using fermentation effluent as a feed, achieving a hydrogen production rate from the MEC of 0.48m 3 H 2/m 3/d (based on the MEC volume), and a yield of 33.2mmol H 2/g COD removed in the MEC. The overall hydrogen production for the integrated system (fermentation, MFC and MEC) was increased by 41% compared with fermentation alone to 14.3mmol H 2/g cellulose, with a total hydrogen production rate of 0.24m 3 H 2/m 3/d and an overall energy recovery efficiency of 23% (based on cellulose removed) without the need for any external electrical energy input. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Utilization of residue from cassava starch processing for production of fermentable sugar by enzymatic hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Reis Fontinelle SOUTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to characterize and perform enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peeling residue (peel and inner peel, mainly composed of peels and small pieces. Residue was sanitized, dried at 55 °C for 24 hours and ground. The obtained flour showed pH of 4.85; 72.53 g 100 g–1 moisture; 5.18 mL 1M NaOH 100 g–1 acidity; 60.68 g 100 g–1 starch; 1.08 g 100 g–1 reducing sugar; 1.63 g 100g–1 ash; 0.86 g 100 g–1 lipid and 3.97 g 100 g–1 protein. Enzymatic hydrolysis was carried out by means of rotational central composite design, analyzing the effects of concentrations of α-amylase enzyme (10 to 50 U g starch–1, and the amyloglucosidase enzyme (80 to 400 U g starch–1 on variable responses: percent conversion of starch into reducing sugars (RSC and soluble solid content (SS. Highest values of RSC (110% and SS (12 °Brix were observed when using the maximum concentration of amyloglucosidase and throughout the concentration range of α-amylase. Enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava peel is feasible and allows the use of hydrolysate in fermentation processes for the production of various products, such as alcoholic drinks, vinegar, among others.

  11. [Optimization of synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Bei-Bei; Liu, Yi; Shi, Ming-Yu; Xiao, Dong-Guang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Dai, Zhu-Bo; Zhang, Xue-Li

    2014-07-01

    To optimize the synthetic pathway and fermentation process of yeast cell factories for production of oleanoic acid. Using the DNA assembler method, one copy of Glycyrrhiza glabra beta-amyrin synthase (GgbAS), Medicago truncatula oleanolic acid synthase (MtOAS) and Arabidopsis thaliana cytochrome P450 reductase 1 (AtCPR1) genes were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain BY-OA, resulting in strain BY-20A. YPD medium with different glucose concentration were then used to cultivate strain BY-2OA. Increasing gene copies of GgbAS, MtOAS and AtCPR1 resulted in increased beta-amyrin and oleanolic acid production. The strain BY-2OA produced 136.5 mg x L(-1) beta-amyrin and 92.5 mg x L(-1) oleanolic acid, which were 54% and 30% higher than the parent strain BY-OA. Finally, the titer of oleanolic acid increased to 165.7 mg x L(-1) when cultivated in YPD medium with 40 mg x L(-1) glucose. Production of oleanoic acid increased significantly in the yeast strain BY-2OA, which can provide the basis for creating an alternative way for production of oleanoic acid in place of extraction from plant sources.

  12. Short-time fourth-order squeezing effects in spontaneous and stimulated four- and six-wave mixing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giri, Dilip Kumar; Gupta, P S

    2003-01-01

    The concept of fourth-order squeezing of the electromagnetic field is investigated in the fundamental mode in spontaneous and stimulated four- and six-wave mixing processes under the short-time approximation based on a fully quantum mechanical approach. The coupled Heisenberg equations of motion involving real and imaginary parts of the quadrature operators are established. The possibility of obtaining fourth-order squeezing is studied. The dependence of fourth-order squeezing on the number of photons is also investigated. It is shown that fourth-order squeezing, which is a higher-order squeezing, allows a much larger fractional noise reduction than lower-order squeezing. It is shown that squeezing is greater in a stimulated process than the corresponding squeezing in spontaneous interaction. The conditions for obtaining maximum and minimum squeezing are obtained. We have also established the non-classical nature of squeezed radiation using the Glauber-Sudarshan representation

  13. Phase of Spontaneous Slow Oscillations during Sleep Influences Memory-Related Processing of Auditory Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Creery, Jessica D; Paller, Ken A

    2016-01-27

    Slow oscillations during slow-wave sleep (SWS) may facilitate memory consolidation by regulating interactions between hippocampal and cortical networks. Slow oscillations appear as high-amplitude, synchronized EEG activity, corresponding to upstates of neuronal depolarization and downstates of hyperpolarization. Memory reactivations occur spontaneously during SWS, and can also be induced by presenting learning-related cues associated with a prior learning episode during sleep. This technique, targeted memory reactivation (TMR), selectively enhances memory consolidation. Given that memory reactivation is thought to occur preferentially during the slow-oscillation upstate, we hypothesized that TMR stimulation effects would depend on the phase of the slow oscillation. Participants learned arbitrary spatial locations for objects that were each paired with a characteristic sound (eg, cat-meow). Then, during SWS periods of an afternoon nap, one-half of the sounds were presented at low intensity. When object location memory was subsequently tested, recall accuracy was significantly better for those objects cued during sleep. We report here for the first time that this memory benefit was predicted by slow-wave phase at the time of stimulation. For cued objects, location memories were categorized according to amount of forgetting from pre- to post-nap. Conditions of high versus low forgetting corresponded to stimulation timing at different slow-oscillation phases, suggesting that learning-related stimuli were more likely to be processed and trigger memory reactivation when they occurred at the optimal phase of a slow oscillation. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of memory reactivation during sleep, supporting the idea that reactivation is most likely during cortical upstates. Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is characterized by synchronized neural activity alternating between active upstates and quiet downstates. The slow-oscillation upstates are thought to provide a

  14. A novel model-based control strategy for aerobic filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M; Albaek, Mads O; Cassells, Benny; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist V

    2017-07-01

    A novel model-based control strategy has been developed for filamentous fungal fed-batch fermentation processes. The system of interest is a pilot scale (550 L) filamentous fungus process operating at Novozymes A/S. In such processes, it is desirable to maximize the total product achieved in a batch in a defined process time. In order to achieve this goal, it is important to maximize both the product concentration, and also the total final mass in the fed-batch system. To this end, we describe the development of a control strategy which aims to achieve maximum tank fill, while avoiding oxygen limited conditions. This requires a two stage approach: (i) calculation of the tank start fill; and (ii) on-line control in order to maximize fill subject to oxygen transfer limitations. First, a mechanistic model was applied off-line in order to determine the appropriate start fill for processes with four different sets of process operating conditions for the stirrer speed, headspace pressure, and aeration rate. The start fills were tested with eight pilot scale experiments using a reference process operation. An on-line control strategy was then developed, utilizing the mechanistic model which is recursively updated using on-line measurements. The model was applied in order to predict the current system states, including the biomass concentration, and to simulate the expected future trajectory of the system until a specified end time. In this way, the desired feed rate is updated along the progress of the batch taking into account the oxygen mass transfer conditions and the expected future trajectory of the mass. The final results show that the target fill was achieved to within 5% under the maximum fill when tested using eight pilot scale batches, and over filling was avoided. The results were reproducible, unlike the reference experiments which show over 10% variation in the final tank fill, and this also includes over filling. The variance of the final tank fill is

  15. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

  16. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller Kenneth B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with (--epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin, but also the formation of (--catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (--epicatechin and (+-catechin and an increase in (--catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (--epicatechin and (+-catechin with lesser losses of (--catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (--catechin exceeds the level of (--epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (--catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (--epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (--epicatechin > (+-catechin > (--catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  17. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Krake, Susann H; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

    2011-09-14

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  18. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  19. Effect of phytase application during high gravity (HG) maize mashes preparation on the availability of starch and yield of the ethanol fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulski, D; Kłosowski, G; Rolbiecka, A

    2014-10-01

    Phytic acid present in raw materials used in distilling industry can form complexes with starch and divalent cations and thus limit their biological availability. The influence of the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate complexes on starch availability during the alcoholic fermentation process using high gravity (HG) maize mashes was analyzed. Indicators of the alcoholic fermentation as well as the fermentation activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae D-2 strain were statistically evaluated. Phytate hydrolysis improved the course of the alcoholic fermentation of HG maize mashes. The final ethanol concentration in the media supplemented with phytase applied either before or after the starch hydrolysis increased by 1.0 and 0.6 % v/v, respectively, as compared to the control experiments. This increase was correlated with an elevated fermentation yield that was higher by 5.5 and 2.0 L EtOH/100 kg of starch, respectively. Phytate hydrolysis resulted also in a statistically significant increase in the initial concentration of fermenting sugars by 14.9 mg/mL of mash, on average, which was a consequence of a better availability of starch for enzymatic hydrolysis. The application of phytase increased the attenuation of HG media fermentation thus improving the economical aspect of the ethanol fermentation process.

  20. Nitrogen compounds in must and volatile profile of white wine: Influence of clarification process before alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Vívian Maria; Caliari, Vinícius; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding a fining agent to the must in relation to the fermentation kinetics and the volatile composition of the wine produced. Three fining agents, bentonite, pectinolytic enzyme and silica were applied, separately, to samples of Chardonnay must. It was observed that the addition of a fining agent had a significant influence on the must and wine composition. The must clarified with bentonite showed the lowest nitrogen content and the enzyme addition led to the highest nitrogen content. During the fermentation process, a difference in the consumption rate was observed for each amino acid in relation to the fining agent used in the process. In relation to the volatile composition, the wine produced had different characteristics according to the fining agent added to the must, which was confirmed by separation of the samples using principal component analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Synthesis and Application of Amine Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Menaquinone-7 Fermentation: A Step towards Process Intensification

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahiminezhad, Alireza; Varma, Vikas; Yang, Shuyi; Ghasemi, Younes; Berenjian, Aydin

    2015-01-01

    Industrial production of menaquione-7 by Bacillus subtilis natto is associated with major drawbacks. To address the current challenges in menaquione-7 fermentation, studying the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the bacterial cells can open up a new domain for intensified menqainone-7 process. This article introduces the new concept of production and application of l-lysine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (l-Lys@IONs) as a novel tool for menaquinone-7 biosynthesis. l-Lys@IONs with the avera...

  2. Noteworthy Facts about a Methane-Producing Microbial Community Processing Acidic Effluent from Sugar Beet Molasses Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacka, Aleksandra; Szczęsny, Paweł; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław K.; Zielenkiewicz, Urszula; Detman, Anna; Salamon, Agnieszka; Sikora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a complex process involving hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The separation of the hydrogen-yielding (dark fermentation) and methane-yielding steps under controlled conditions permits the production of hydrogen and methane from biomass. The characterization of microbial communities developed in bioreactors is crucial for the understanding and optimization of fermentation processes. Previously we developed an effective system for hydrogen production based on long-term continuous microbial cultures grown on sugar beet molasses. Here, the acidic effluent from molasses fermentation was used as the substrate for methanogenesis in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket bioreactor. This study focused on the molecular analysis of the methane-yielding community processing the non-gaseous products of molasses fermentation. The substrate for methanogenesis produces conditions that favor the hydrogenotrophic pathway of methane synthesis. Methane production results from syntrophic metabolism whose key process is hydrogen transfer between bacteria and methanogenic Archaea. High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing of total DNA isolated from the methanogenic microbial community and bioinformatic sequence analysis revealed that the domain Bacteria was dominated by Firmicutes (mainly Clostridia), Bacteroidetes, δ- and γ-Proteobacteria, Cloacimonetes and Spirochaetes. In the domain Archaea, the order Methanomicrobiales was predominant, with Methanoculleus as the most abundant genus. The second and third most abundant members of the Archaeal community were representatives of the Methanomassiliicoccales and the Methanosarcinales. Analysis of the methanogenic sludge by scanning electron microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that it was composed of small highly heterogeneous mineral-rich granules. Mineral components of methanogenic granules probably modulate syntrophic metabolism and methanogenic

  3. Non-linear multivariable predictive control of an alcoholic fermentation process using functional link networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto da Cruz Meleiro

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work a MIMO non-linear predictive controller was developed for an extractive alcoholic fermentation process. The internal model of the controller was represented by two MISO Functional Link Networks (FLNs, identified using simulated data generated from a deterministic mathematical model whose kinetic parameters were determined experimentally. The FLN structure presents as advantages fast training and guaranteed convergence, since the estimation of the weights is a linear optimization problem. Besides, the elimination of non-significant weights generates parsimonious models, which allows for fast execution in an MPC-based algorithm. The proposed algorithm showed good potential in identification and control of non-linear processes.Neste trabalho um controlador preditivo não linear multivariável foi desenvolvido para um processo de fermentação alcoólica extrativa. O modelo interno do controlador foi representado por duas redes do tipo Functional Link (FLN, identificadas usando dados de simulação gerados a partir de um modelo validado experimentalmente. A estrutura FLN apresenta como vantagem o treinamento rápido e convergência garantida, já que a estimação dos seus pesos é um problema de otimização linear. Além disso, a eliminação de pesos não significativos gera modelos parsimoniosos, o que permite a rápida execução em algoritmos de controle preditivo baseado em modelo. Os resultados mostram que o algoritmo proposto tem grande potencial para identificação e controle de processos não lineares.

  4. Monitoring of protein profiles for the optimization of recombinant fermentation processes using public domain databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrschmid, Karin; Marzban, Gorji; Dürrschmid, Eberhard; Striedner, Gerald; Clementschitsch, Franz; Cserjan-Puschmann, Monika; Bayer, Karl

    2003-01-01

    The expression of human superoxide dismutase in fed-batch fermentation of E. coli HMS174(DE3)(pET3ahSOD) was studied as model system. Due to the frequently used strong T7 promoter system a high metabolic load is exerted, which triggers stress response mechanisms and finally leads to the differentiation of the host cell. As a consequence, host cell metabolism is partly shifted from growth to survival accompanied by significant alterations of the protein pattern. In terms of process optimization two-dimensional electrophoresis deserves as a powerful tool to monitor these changes on protein level. For the analysis of samples derived from different states of recombinant protein production wide-range Immobiline Dry Strips pH 3-10 were used. In order to establish an efficient procedure for accelerated process optimization and to avoid costly and time-consuming analysis like mass spectrometry (MS), a database approach for the identification of significant changes of the protein pattern was evaluated. On average, 935 spots per gel were detected, whereby 50 are presumably stress-relevant. Out of these, 24 proteins could be identified by using the SWISS-2DPAGE database (www.expasy.ch/ch2d/). The identified proteins are involved in regulatory networks, energy metabolism, purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and translation. By this database approach, significant fluctuations of individual proteins in relation to recombinant protein production could be identified. Seven proteins show strong alterations (>100%) directly after induction and can therefore be stated as reliable marker proteins for the assessment of stress response. For distinctive interpretation of this highly specific information, a bioinformatic and statistic tool would be essential in order to perceive the role and contribution of individual proteins in stress response.

  5. Synthesis and Application of Amine Functionalized Iron Oxide Nanoparticles on Menaquinone-7 Fermentation: A Step towards Process Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ebrahiminezhad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production of menaquione-7 by Bacillus subtilis natto is associated with major drawbacks. To address the current challenges in menaquione-7 fermentation, studying the effect of magnetic nanoparticles on the bacterial cells can open up a new domain for intensified menqainone-7 process. This article introduces the new concept of production and application of l-lysine coated iron oxide nanoparticles (l-Lys@IONs as a novel tool for menaquinone-7 biosynthesis. l-Lys@IONs with the average size of 7 nm were successfully fabricated and were examined in a fermentation process of l-Lys@IONs decorated Bacillus subtilis natto. Based on the results, higher menaquinone-7 specific yield was observed for l-Lys@IONs decorated bacterial cells as compared to untreated bacteria. In addition, more than 92% removal efficacy was achieved by using integrated magnetic separation process. The present study demonstrates that l-Lys@IONs can be successfully applied during a fermentation of menaquinone-7 without any negative consequences on the culture conditions. This study provides a novel biotechnological application for IONs and their future role in bioprocess intensification.

  6. Influence of thermally processed carbohydrate/amino acid mixtures on the fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauer, Andreas; Elss, Sandra; Frischmann, Matthias; Tellez, Patricia; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2004-04-07

    The production of alcoholic beverages such as Tequila, Mezcal, whiskey, or beer includes the fermentation of a mash containing Maillard reaction products. Because excessive heating of the mash can lead to complications during the following fermentation step, the impact of Maillard products on the metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. For this purpose, fermentation was carried out in a model system in the presence and absence of Maillard reaction products and formation of ethanol served as a marker for the progression of fermentation. We found that increasing amounts of Maillard products reduced the formation of ethanol up to 80%. This effect was dependent on the pH value during the Maillard reaction, reaction time, as well as the carbohydrate and amino acid component used for the generation of Maillard reaction products. Another important factor is the pH value during fermentation: The inhibitory effect of Maillard products was not detectable at a pH of 4 and increased with higher pH-values. These findings might be of relevance for the production of above-mentioned beverages.

  7. Butanol production from wood pulping hydrolysate in an integrated fermentation-gas stripping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Congcong; Dong, Jie; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2013-09-01

    Wood pulping hydrolysate (WPH) containing mainly xylose and glucose as a potential substrate for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied. Due to the inhibitors present in the hydrolysate, several dilution levels and detoxification treatments, including overliming, activated charcoal adsorption, and resin adsorption, were evaluated for their effectiveness in relieving the inhibition on fermentation. Detoxification using resin and evaporation was found to be the most effective method in reducing the toxicity of WPH. ABE production in batch fermentation by Clostridium beijerinckii increased 68%, from 6.73 g/L in the non-treated and non-diluted WPH to 11.35 g/L in the resin treated WPH. With gas stripping for in situ product removal, ABE production from WPH increased to 17.73 g/L, demonstrating that gas stripping was effective in alleviating butanol toxicity by selectively separating butanol from the fermentation broth, which greatly improved solvents production and sugar conversion in the fermentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Drying process of fermented inulin fiber concentrate by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a dietary fiber source for cholesterol binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Ghozali, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation on inulin hydrolysate as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a result of hydrolysis by inulase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi has been performed to bind cholesterol. Their applications on preparation of fermented pour beverages was conducted via a series of concentration process using dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at stirrer rotation of 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure of 40 psia for 0 minute (pre-concentration process) as concentrate (A) and 45 minutes as concentrate (B), and drying process using vacuum dryer at 30 °C and 22 cm Hg for 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 hours. Based on optimization of Total Dietary Fiber (TDF), the best time of drying process was achieved for 40 hours. Long time of drying process would increase TDF and total solids, decreased total acids, and fluctuated dissolved protein and Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC). At the optimum condition of drying process was get fermented inulin fiber powder from concentration processes using both UF as pre process (0 minute) as concentrate (A) and UF for 45 minutes as concentrate (B) with compositions of total solids of 92.31 % and 93.67 %, TDF of 59.07 % (dry weight) and 69.28 %, total acids of 7.03 % and 7.5 %, dissolved protein of 3.95 mg/mL and 3.05 mg/mL, and CBC pH 2 15.71 mg/g and 16.8 mg/g, respectively. Concentration process through dead-end SUFC mode gave distribution of particles with better smoothness level than without through dead-end SUFC mode.

  9. Effect of longwall face advance rate on spontaneous heating process in the gob area - CFD modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taraba, B.; Michalec, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2011), s. 2790-2797 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0630 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA105/08/1414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : coal oxidation * spontaneous heating * CFD modelling * Fluent Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236111001724

  10. Toxin profiles of Bacillus cereus occurring in high numbers in spontaneously fermented African locust beans (Parkia biglobosa)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Azokpota, Paulin; Hansen, Bjarne Munk

    of toxin genes related to food poisoning using PCR. Isolates harboring the emetic specific gene fragment EM1 where highly representative, being one out of ten isolates from afitin, one of one isolate from iru and five of eight isolates from sonru. Three of the isolates from afitin harbored the cytotoxin K...... gene. The non hemolytic enterotoxin complex genes were present in all isolates, while the hemolytic enterotoxin complex genes were present in only one isolate from afitin. Food poisoning potential was evaluated using a Vero-cell assay measuring cytotoxity, and the toxin titers ranged between 80...... fermentation of locust beans has not been demonstrated. Interestingly afitin, iru and sonru are considered safe food products, and as far as is known there has been no reports on diarrhea or vomiting due to the consumption of the three condiments....

  11. Probiotic fermented milk consumption modulates the allergic process induced by ovoalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velez, Eva M M; Maldonado Galdeano, Carolina; Carmuega, Esteban; Weill, Ricardo; Bibas Bonet, María E; Perdigón, Gabriela

    2015-08-28

    Orally administered probiotic micro-organisms are able to regulate the exacerbated immune response during the antigenic sensitisation process. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of probiotic fermented milk (PFM) in preventing or treating allergy in an experimental model, and to investigate its underlying mechanisms. Ovoalbumin (OVA)-sensitised BALB/c mice were fed with PFM before the sensitisation procedure or fed continuously with PFM. At 7 and 15 d post-sensitisation, anti-OVA-specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a concentrations were measured in the serum and broncho-alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Concentrations of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), IL-4, IL-10 and total secretory IgA (S-IgA) were measured in the supernatants of macerated lungs or in the BALF. The levels of IgA+, CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes and F4/80+ cells were measured in the lungs by immunofluorescence. Inducible CD4+/CD25/Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells were evaluated in the lungs. PFM shifted the T helper (Th)2 profile response towards a Th1 response that led to the production of IgG instead of IgE, with increasing levels of IL-10 and IFN-γ that play an important role in immunomodulation exerted by PFM administration in sensitised mice. Anti-OVA-specific IgE levels were significantly decreased; however, there was no modification in the levels of anti-OVA-specific IgG and total S-IgA. PFM did not influence Treg cells in treated mice. Consumption of PFM could be a promising strategy in the amelioration of airway allergies, considering that the effect is mediated by the production of IgG through the activation of Th1 instead of the direct activation of Th2 cells to produce IgE.

  12. Ultrasound-assisted dilute acid hydrolysis of tea processing waste for production of fermentable sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germec, Mustafa; Tarhan, Kübra; Yatmaz, Ercan; Tetik, Nedim; Karhan, Mustafa; Demirci, Ali; Turhan, Irfan

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic materials that are the most abundant plant biomass in the world have the potential to become sustainable sources of the produced value added products. Tea processing waste (TPW) is a good lignocellulosic source to produce the value added products from fermentable sugars (FSs). Therefore, the present study is undertaken to produce FSs by using ultrasound-assisted dilute acid (UADA) and dilute acid (DA) hydrolysis of TPW followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. UADA hydrolysis of TPW was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) at maximum power (900 W) for 2 h. The optimum conditions were determined as 50°C, 1:6 (w/v) solid:liquid ratio, and 1% (w/v) DA concentration, which yielded 20.34 g/L FS concentration. Furthermore, its DA hydrolysis was also optimized by using RSM for comparison and the optimized conditions were found as 120°C, 1:8 solid:liquid ratio, and 1% acid concentration, which produced 25.3 g/L FS yield. Even though the produced sugars with UADA hydrolysis are slightly less, but it can provide significant cost saving due to the lower temperature requirement and less liquid consumption. Besides, enzymatic hydrolysis applied after pretreatments of TPW were very more economic than the conventional enzymatic hydrolysis in the literature due to shorter time requiring. In conclusion, ultrasound-assisted is a promising technology that can be successfully applied for hydrolysis of biomass and can be an alternative to the other hydrolysis procedures and also TPW can be considered as suitable carbon source for the production of value-added products like biofuels, organic acids, and polysaccharides. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:393-403, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Control of continuous fed-batch fermentation process using neural network based model predictive controller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, A Uma Maheshwar; Jana, Asim Kumar

    2009-10-01

    Cell growth and metabolite production greatly depend on the feeding of the nutrients in fed-batch fermentations. A strategy for controlling the glucose feed rate in fed-batch baker's yeast fermentation and a novel controller was studied. The difference between the specific carbon dioxide evolution rate and oxygen uptake rate (Qc - Qo) was used as controller variable. The controller evaluated was neural network based model predictive controller and optimizer. The performance of the controller was evaluated by the set point tracking. Results showed good performance of the controller.

  14. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p sausages made with lyophilised celery juice were characterised by higher lightness and lower hardness than those made with the addition of other vegetable products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Effect of acetic acid in recycling water on ethanol production for cassava in an integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinchao; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jianhua; Tang, Lei; Mao, Zhonggui

    2016-11-01

    Recently, the integrated ethanol-methane fermentation process has been studied to prevent wastewater pollution. However, when the anaerobic digestion reaction runs poorly, acetic acid will accumulate in the recycling water. In this paper, we studied the effect of low concentration of acetic acid (≤25 mM) on ethanol fermentation at different initial pH values (4.2, 5.2 or 6.2). At an initial pH of 4.2, ethanol yields increased by 3.0% and glycerol yields decreased by 33.6% as the acetic acid concentration was increased from 0 to 25 mM. Raising the concentration of acetic acid to 25 mM increased the buffering capacity of the medium without obvious effects on biomass production in the cassava medium. Acetic acid was metabolized by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the reason that the final concentration of acetic acid was 38.17% lower than initial concentration at pH 5.2 when 25 mM acetic acid was added. These results confirmed that a low concentration of acetic acid in the process stimulated ethanol fermentation. Thus, reducing the acetic acid concentration to a controlled low level is more advantageous than completely removing it.

  16. What does the hydrolysis perform in the fermentation of biogas? Biogas, hydrolysis, fermenter biology, multistage process operation; Was kann die Hydrolyse bei der Biogasvergaerung leisten? Biogas, Hydrolyse, Fermenterbiologie, mehrphasige Prozessfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechsner, H.; Lemmer, A. [Landesanstalt fuer Agrartechnik und Bioenergie, Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays renewable primary products are normally favored for fermentation in agricultural biogas plants. Since this substrate has to be cultivated for biogas fermentation in particular and hence causes production costs, the energy content of the material should be dissipated in biogas completely. For this the fermentation process has to run as efficient as possible. In case of one-phase process management with high space loading there is a risk of imbalance and maybe even collapse of process biology in the fermenter. In case of high space loading and short retention time the substrate won't be fermented completely. The aim is to create good conditions for microorganism participating in the process by a two-phase process management which integrates a stage of hydrolysis. In the stage of hydrolysis the microorganisms and enzymes metabolize the organic matter into readily biodegradable carbonic acids, which can be supplied targeted in the following methanisation as substrate for methanogenic bacteria. The hydrolysis proceeds under various terms and conditions (aerobic/anaerobic, different pH-value, different temperature level). This necessitates a safe control of operation and process parameters, which is often difficult to ensure in practice. In a malfunctioning hydrolysis also methane can be produced, that causes energy losses and environmental damage when emitted in atmosphere. Hydrogen can be produced in the hydrolysis as well what can involve a safety risk. Urgent need for research exists concerning the two-phase fermentation of renewable primary products. By systematic laboratory analysis the knowledge should be expanded, to improve the planning reliability in this field. (orig.)

  17. Detailed analyses of the bacterial populations in processed cocoa beans of different geographic origin, subject to varied fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolini, Cristian; Patrone, Vania; Puglisi, Edoardo; Morelli, Lorenzo

    2016-11-07

    The quality of chocolate is influenced by several parameters, one of which is bacterial diversity during fermentation and drying; a crucial factor for the generation of the optimal cocoa flavor precursors. Our understanding of the bacterial populations involved in chocolate fermentation can be improved by the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies (HTS), combined with PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA subunit. Here, we have conducted a high-throughput assessment of bacterial diversity in four processed samples of cocoa beans from different geographic origins. As part of this study, we also assessed whether different DNA extraction methods could affect the quality of our data. The dynamics of microbial populations were analyzed postharvest (fermentation and sun drying) and shipment, before entry to the industrial process. A total of 691,867 high quality sequences were obtained by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the two bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable regions, V3 and V4, following paired-read assembly of the raw reads. Manual curation of the 16S database allowed us to assign the correct taxonomic classifications, at species level, for 83.8% of those reads. This approach revealed a limited biodiversity and population dynamics for both the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), both of which are key players during the acetification and lactic acid fermentation phases. Among the LAB, the most abundant species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Weissella paramesenteroides, and Lactobacillus plantarum/paraplantarum. Among the AAB, Acetobacter syzygii, was most abundant, then Acetobacter senegalensis and Acetobacter pasteriuanus. Our results indicate that HTS approach has the ability to provide a comprehensive view of the cocoa bean microbiota at the species level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A lab-scale model system for cocoa bean fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanens, Edwina; Näf, Rebecca; Lobmaier, Tobias; Pedan, Vasilisa; Leischtfeld, Susette Freimüller; Meile, Leo; Schwenninger, Susanne Miescher

    2018-04-01

    Lab-scale systems modelling the spontaneous cocoa bean fermentation process are useful tools to research the influence of process parameters on the fermentation and the final bean quality. In this study in Honduras, a 1-kg lab-scale fermentation (LS-F) was compared to a 300-kg on-farm fermentation (OF-F) in a multiphasic approach, analysing microbial counts, microbial species diversity, physico-chemical parameters, and final dried bean quality. Yeast and total aerobic counts of up to 8 log CFU/g during the LS-F were comparable to the OF-F, while counts for lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria were up to 3 log CFU/g lower during the LS-F than during the OF-F. While species of the genera Hansenia, Saccharomyces, and Acetobacter dominated most of the fermentation processes, the genera dominating the drying phases were Pichia, Trichosporon, Pediococcus, and Acetobacter. Dried beans resulting from the LS-F, compared to the OF-F, were similar in contents of acetic acid, 6 times lower in lactic acid, up to 4 times higher in residual sugars, and 3-12 times higher in polyphenols. Dried beans processed at LS showed a similar flavour profile in terms of astringency, bitterness, acidity, and brown, fine, and cocoa flavours, but 2 units higher off-flavours than OF processed beans. With 81%, the share of well-fermented beans from the LS-F complied with industrial standards, whereas 7% over-fermented beans were above the threshold. Conclusively, the 5-day model fermentation and subsequent drying successfully mimicked the on-farm process, providing a high-throughput method to screen microbial strains to be used as starter cultures.

  19. New fermentation processes for producing itaconic acid and citric acid for industrial uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itaconic acid is an important industrial chemical that we have produced by fermentation of simple sugars using the yeast Pseudozyma antarctica. Itaconic acid is priced at ~$4 per kg and has an annual market volume of about 15,000 metric tons. Itaconic acid is used in the polymer industry and for m...

  20. Optimization of a fed-batch fermentation process for production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... ments, limitations and objectives of the operator (Hewitt and Nienow, 2007). Bleomycin (BLM) belongs to a general group of medi- .... Actual pH profiles of BLM fermentation by S. mobaraensis when using: (a) profile 1; (b) profile 2;. (c) profile 3. size from regular 10 to 30% (v/v) level (data not shown).

  1. Fermentation cover brine reformulation for cucumber processing with low salt to reduce bloater defect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reformulation of calcium chloride cover brine for cucumber fermentation was explored as a mean to minimize the incidence of bloater defect. This study particularly focused on cover brine supplementation with calcium hydroxide, sodium chloride (NaCl), and acids to enhance buffer capacity, inhibit the...

  2. Influence of fungal fermentation on the development of volatile compounds in the Puer tea manufacturing process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xu, X.; Yan, M.; Yang Zhu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    Puer tea is a unique Chinese fermented tea with natural flora manufactured in Yunnan Province of China. Very complex changes take place to form special quality and flavor characteristics in Puer tea due to the coordination of microbial metabolic action and natural oxidation. This paper investigates

  3. Process Analytical Technology (PAT): batch-to-batch reproducibility of fermentation processes by robust process operational design and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnoth, S; Jenzsch, M; Simutis, R; Lübbert, A

    2007-10-31

    The Process Analytical Technology (PAT) initiative of the FDA is a reaction on the increasing discrepancy between current possibilities in process supervision and control of pharmaceutical production processes and its current application in industrial manufacturing processes. With rigid approval practices based on standard operational procedures, adaptations of production reactors towards the state of the art were more or less inhibited for long years. Now PAT paves the way for continuous process and product improvements through improved process supervision based on knowledge-based data analysis, "Quality-by-Design"-concepts, and, finally, through feedback control. Examples of up-to-date implementations of this concept are presented. They are taken from one key group of processes in recombinant pharmaceutical protein manufacturing, the cultivations of genetically modified Escherichia coli bacteria.

  4. Effect of Soaking, Cooking, Germination and Fermentation Processing on Physical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Sorghum Biscuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Moneim M. R. AFIFY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Three white sorghum varieties (named ‘Dorado’,‘Shandaweel-6’ and ‘Giza-15’ were investigated for grain characteristics and processed whole meal flour (via soaking, cooked, germinated and fermented sorghum. ‘Giza-15’ variety was the highest one in 1,000 kernel weight and hectolitre, followed by ‘Dorado’ and ‘Shandaweel-6’ that were significant lower. Sorghum varieties were non-significant different in L scales. ‘Giza-15’ was the highest variety in a and b scales. Sorghum varieties were significant different in c scales and non-significant different in h scales. Shandaweel-6 recorded the highest value in water holding capacity (WHC.‘Giza-15’recorded the highest variety in oil holding capacity (OHC. The most significant increase in WHO was after fermentation treatment, followed by cooking treatment. Regarding OHC, the most significant increase was after germination treatment. Biscuits prepared from 50% whole meal flour of raw, soaked, cooked, germinated and fermented sorghum were evaluated for sensory and physical characteristics. The sensory results showed that 50% sorghum whole meal flour could be incorporated to prepare acceptable quality biscuits. The diameter of sorghum biscuits increased, while the diameter of wheat biscuits decreased. Hardness of sorghum biscuits was significant decreased in all treatments compared with wheat biscuits. Hardness of germinated sorghum biscuits was close to wheat biscuits values.

  5. Improvement of the digestibility of the proteins of the red alga Palmaria palmata by physical processes and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrion, Olivier; Schwertz, Annie; Fleurence, Joël; Guéant, Jean Louis; Villaume, Christian

    2003-10-01

    Palmaria palmata (dulse) is an edible red alga constituting a potential protein source in human diet. However, previous studies showed that the digestibility of dulse proteins is bad because of the cell-wall encapsulating cytoplasmic proteins and the presence of fibers. The water-soluble xylan, present in high proportions in dulse, could be involved to explain the weak digestibility of proteins. To limit the influence of fibers and to improve the nutritional quality of these proteins, we have treated dulse by physical processes or by fermentation by moulds. After a 30 min predigestion by pepsin followed by a 6 h digestion into a cell dialysis containing porcine pancreatin, the corrected in vitro digestibility of crude dulse was very low (about 1.5% after correction by digestibility blank). The in vitro protein digestibility was estimated to 58% of that of casein for dulse samples obtained after washing in demineralized water and grinding in liquid nitrogen. The in vitro protein digestibility of fermented samples was 45%-65% of that of casein. After physical treatment, the digestibility improvement was related to the elimination of soluble molecules such as xylan and mineral salts. The improvement observed after fermentations seemed due to the degradation of insoluble fibers.

  6. The production of chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator. Annual progress report, January 1993--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, H.; Salicetti-Piazza, L.; Borgos-Rubio, N.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1994-03-15

    The basic objective of this project is to convert waste streams from the food processing industry to usable fuels and chemicals using novel bioreactors. These bioreactors should allow economical utilization of waste (whey, waste sugars, waste starch, bottling wastes, candy wastes, molasses, and cellulosic wastes) by the production of ethanol, acetone/butanol, organic acids (acetic, lactic, and gluconic), yeast diacetyl flavor, and antifungal compounds. Continuous processes incorporating various processing improvements such as simultaneous product separation and immobilized cells are being developed to allow commercial scale utilization of waste stream. The production of ethanol by a continuous reactor-separator is the process closest to commercialization with a 7,500 liter pilot plant presently sited at an Iowa site to convert whey lactose to ethanol. Accomplishments during 1993 include installation and start-up of a 7,500 liter ICRS for ethanol production at an industry site in Iowa; Donation and installation of a 200 liter yeast pilot Plant to the project from Kenyon Enterprises; Modeling and testing of a low energy system for recovery of ethanol from vapor is using a solvent absorption/extractive distillation system; Simultaneous saccharification/fermentation of raw corn grits and starch in a stirred reactor/separator; Testing of the ability of `koji` process to ferment raw corn grits in a `no-cook` process.

  7. Characterization of the Fermentation Process and the Inhibition Effect of Lactobacillus lactis in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jurado-Gámez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The fermentative process and in vitro inhibition of L. lactis in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis were assessed. The growth of L. lactis at three pH (2.5, 4.5 and 7, bile salts (0.5, 1 and 2 %, bovine bile (1 and 1.2 % and two temperatures (38 and 45 °C were evaluated. Peptides and organic acids in supernatant of L. lactis by HPLC were determined. Fermentation kinetics was carried out, evaluating: pH, total sugar, protein and lactic acid. An antibiogram of dicloxacilin, cefepime, penilicin and cefalotin was made. The inhibition of L. lactis and its supernatant were defined in pathogenic strains. The best growth was at a pH of 2.5 (3 × 1012 UFC/ml; of 1 × 1010 and 4 × 109 UFC/ml for 0.5 % of bile salts and 1.2 % of bovine bile, respectively; of 3.5 × 1013 and 3.4 × 1013 UFC/ml for 38 and 45 °C, respectively. The HPLC determined the peptides VAR-TIR-VAR and lactic acid (83.11 %. The fermentation kinetics determined the exponential phase at 14:24 h with a value of 77 × 1010 UFC/ ml, pH values of 4.284, 2.33 mg/ml sugar, 1.44 mg/ml protein and acidity of 0.79 %. It was found that S. aureus and S. epidermidis were sensitive to all antibiotics. The pathogenic bacteria were resistant to the lactic strain, but S. epidermidis was sensitive to the supernatant of L. lactis. The conclusion is that Lactobacillus lactis showed adequate growth capacity, good fermentation parameters and inhibitory effect in strains of S. aureus and S. epidermidis in in vitro conditions.

  8. Zurek–Kibble Symmetry Breaking Process in Superconducting Rings; Spontaneous Fluxon Formation in Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, Roberto; Dmitriev, P

    2007-01-01

    We report on new investigations of spontaneous symmetry breaking in non-adiabatic phase transitions. This Zurek-Kibble (ZK) process is mimicked in solid state systems by trapping of magnetic flux quanta, fluxons, in a long annular Josephson tunnel junction quenched through the normal.......5 for the ZK critical scaling exponent sigma, which does not agree with an earlier theoretical prediction of sigma = 0.25. A novel theory based on the proximity effect leading to sigma = 0.50 has been proposed. The dependence of the gap voltage on temperature is measured and used for precise monitoring...

  9. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of processing parameters on the structure of fermented milk products with transglutaminase addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iličić Mirela D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the effect of concentration of transglutaminase (TG, content of milk fat and starter culture type (probiotic and kombucha on the structure of fermented milk products. The application of TG significantly improved textural characteristics of the fermented milk products. The firmness of the samples produced from milk with 0.1g100g-1 and 0.9g100g-1 fat content with probiotic starter were by 33% and 17.6% higher, respectively, compared to the control samples. During ten days of storage, the value of the hysteresis loop area of all samples produced from milk with 0.9g100g-1 fat content with TG addition, decreased by 14%. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46009

  11. Selection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains for efficient very high gravity bio-ethanol fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Francisco B; Guimarães, Pedro M R; Teixeira, José A; Domingues, Lucília

    2010-11-01

    An optimized very high gravity (VHG) glucose medium supplemented with low cost nutrient sources was used to evaluate bio-ethanol production by 11 Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The industrial strains PE-2 and CA1185 exhibited the best overall fermentation performance, producing an ethanol titre of 19.2% (v/v) corresponding to a batch productivity of 2.5 g l(-1) h(-1), while the best laboratory strain (CEN.PK 113-7D) produced 17.5% (v/v) ethanol with a productivity of 1.7 g l(-1) h(-1). The results presented here emphasize the biodiversity found within S. cerevisiae species and that naturally adapted strains, such as PE-2 and CA1185, are likely to play a key role in facilitating the transition from laboratory technological breakthroughs to industrial-scale bio-ethanol fermentations.

  12. Fermentation Process and Metabolic Flux of Ethanol Production from the Detoxified Hydrolyzate of Cassava Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingjiang Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of the world population, energy problems are becoming increasingly severe; therefore, sustainable energy sources have gained enormous importance. With respect to ethanol fuel production, biomass is gradually replacing grain as the main raw material. In this study, we explored the fermentation of five- and six-carbon sugars, the main biomass degradation products, into alcohol. We conducted mutagenic screening specifically for Candida tropicalis CICC1779 to obtain a strain that effectively used xylose (Candida tropicalis CICC1779-Dyd. By subsequently studying fermentation conditions under different initial liquid volume oxygen transfer coefficients (kLα, and coupling control of the aeration rate and agitation speed under optimal conditions, the optimal dissolved oxygen change curve was obtained. In addition, we constructed metabolic flow charts and equations to obtain a better understanding of the fermentation mechanism and to improve the ethanol yield. In our experiment, the ethanol production of the wild type stain was 17.58 g·L−1 at a kLα of 120. The highest ethanol yield of the mutagenic strains was 24.85 g·L−1. The ethanol yield increased to 26.56 g·L−1 when the dissolved oxygen content was optimized, and the conversion of sugar into alcohol reached 0.447 g·g−1 glucose (the theoretical titer of yeast-metabolized xylose was 0.46 g ethanol/g xylose and the glucose ethanol fermentation titer was 0.51 g ethanol/g glucose. Finally, the detected activity of xylose reductase and xylose dehydrogenase was higher in the mutant strain than in the original, which indicated that the mutant strain (CICC1779-Dyd could effectively utilize xylose for metabolism.

  13. Fermentation processes in yeast technology - some manufacturing, development and optimization problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pis, E.

    Supplementation of beet molasses with biotin rich sugarcane molasses was not sufficient to permit fermentation of the beet molasses. An additional biotin supplement was needed. The sugarcane molasses, in addition to its biotin, also contained less than or equal to 14% CaO and less than or equal to 12% SiO/sub 2/ by dry weight, which adsorbed and neutralized the biotin.

  14. Phage Biodiversity in Artisanal Cheese Wheys Reflects the Complexity of the Fermentation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahony, Jennifer; Moscarelli, Angelo; Kelleher, Philip; Lugli, Gabriele A; Ventura, Marco; Settanni, Luca; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2017-03-16

    Dairy fermentations constitute a perfect "breeding ground" for bacteriophages infecting starter cultures, particularly strains of Lactococcus lactis. In modern fermentations, these phages typically belong to one of three groups, i.e., the 936, P335, and c2 phage groups. Traditional production methods present fewer chemical and physical barriers to phage proliferation compared to modern production systems, while the starter cultures used are typically complex, variable, and undefined. In the current study, a variety of cheese whey, animal-derived rennet, and vat swab samples from artisanal cheeses produced in Sicily were analysed for the presence of lactococcal phages to assess phage diversity in such environments. The complete genomes of 18 representative phage isolates were sequenced, allowing the identification of 10 lactococcal 949 group phages, six P087 group phages, and two members of the 936 group phages. The genetic diversity of these isolates was examined using phylogenetic analysis as well as a focused analysis of the receptor binding proteins, which dictate specific interactions with the host-encoded receptor. Thermal treatments at 63 °C and 83 °C indicate that the 949 phages are particularly sensitive to thermal treatments, followed by the P087 and 936 isolates, which were shown to be much less sensitive to such treatments. This difference may explain the relatively low frequency of isolation of the so-called "rare" 949 and P087 group phages in modern fermentations.

  15. Phage Biodiversity in Artisanal Cheese Wheys Reflects the Complexity of the Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mahony

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Dairy fermentations constitute a perfect “breeding ground” for bacteriophages infecting starter cultures, particularly strains of Lactococcus lactis. In modern fermentations, these phages typically belong to one of three groups, i.e., the 936, P335, and c2 phage groups. Traditional production methods present fewer chemical and physical barriers to phage proliferation compared to modern production systems, while the starter cultures used are typically complex, variable, and undefined. In the current study, a variety of cheese whey, animal-derived rennet, and vat swab samples from artisanal cheeses produced in Sicily were analysed for the presence of lactococcal phages to assess phage diversity in such environments. The complete genomes of 18 representative phage isolates were sequenced, allowing the identification of 10 lactococcal 949 group phages, six P087 group phages, and two members of the 936 group phages. The genetic diversity of these isolates was examined using phylogenetic analysis as well as a focused analysis of the receptor binding proteins, which dictate specific interactions with the host-encoded receptor. Thermal treatments at 63 °C and 83 °C indicate that the 949 phages are particularly sensitive to thermal treatments, followed by the P087 and 936 isolates, which were shown to be much less sensitive to such treatments. This difference may explain the relatively low frequency of isolation of the so-called “rare” 949 and P087 group phages in modern fermentations.

  16. Automated chromatographic system with polarimetric detection laser applied in the control of fermentation processes and seaweed extracts characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajer, V.; Naranjo, S.; Mora, W.; Patinno, R.; Coba, E.; Michelena, G.

    2012-01-01

    There are presented applications and innovations of chromatographic and polarimetric systems in which develop methodologies for measuring the input molasses and the resulting product of a fermentation process of alcohol from a rich honey and evaluation of the fermentation process honey servery in obtaining a drink native to the Yucatan region. Composition was assessed optically active substances in seaweed, of interest to the pharmaceutical industry. The findings provide measurements alternative raw materials and products of the sugar industry, beekeeping and pharmaceutical liquid chromatography with automated polarimetric detection reduces measurement times up to 15 min, making it comparable to the times of high chromatography resolution, significantly reducing operating costs. By chromatography system with polarimetric detection (SCDP) is new columns have included standard size designed by the authors, which allow process samples with volumes up to 1 ml and reduce measurement time to 15 min, decreasing to 5 times the volume sample and halving the time of measurement. Was evaluated determining the concentration of substances using the peaks of the chromatograms obtained for the different columns and calculate the uncertainty of measurements. The results relating to the improvement of a data acquisition program (ADQUIPOL v.2.0) and new programs for the preparation of chromatograms (CROMAPOL CROMAPOL V.1.0 and V.1.2) provide important benefits, which allow a considerable saving of time the processing of the results and can be applied in other chromatography systems with the appropriate adjustments. (Author)

  17. Successive membrane separation processes simplify concentration of lipases produced by Aspergillus niger by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, Christian Oliveira; Treichel, Helen; Tres, Marcus Vinicius; Steffens, Juliana; Brião, Vandré Barbosa; Colla, Luciane Maria

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we developed a simplified method for producing, separating, and concentrating lipases derived from solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues by filamentous fungi. First, we used Aspergillus niger to produce lipases with hydrolytic activity. We analyzed the separation and concentration of enzymes using membrane separation processes. The sequential use of microfiltration and ultrafiltration processes made it possible to obtain concentrates with enzymatic activities much higher than those in the initial extract. The permeate flux was higher than 60 L/m 2 h during microfiltration using 20- and 0.45-µm membranes and during ultrafiltration using 100- and 50-kDa membranes, where fouling was reversible during the filtration steps, thereby indicating that the fouling may be removed by cleaning processes. These results demonstrate the feasibility of lipase production using A. niger by solid-state fermentation of agro-industrial residues, followed by successive tangential filtration with membranes, which simplify the separation and concentration steps that are typically required in downstream processes.

  18. Presence and molecular characterization of the major serovars of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico; Consolati, Simonetta Gianna; Mazza, Roberta; Mureddu, Anna; Fois, Federica; Piras, Francesca; Mazzette, Rina

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in ten Sardinian fermented sausage processing plants. A total of 230 samples were collected and 40 L. monocytogenes isolates were obtained and subjected to serotyping and investigated for the presence of ten virulence-associated genes using multiplex PCR assays. The isolates were further subjected to PFGE and investigated for their adhesion abilities in polystyrene microtiter plates. L. monocytogenes was found in 6% of food contact surfaces, in sausages at the end of acidification (3%) and ripening (8%). Serotyping revealed the presence of four serovars: 1/2c (37.5%), 1/2b (27.5%), 4b (22.5%) and 1/2a (12.5%). All virulence-associated genes were detected in 67.5% of the isolates. Isolates from processing environment, semi-processed and finished products showed high pulsotype diversity and the majority of isolates presented weak adhesion capability. The detection of the pathogen in fermented sausages confirms the ability of L. monocytogenes to overcome the hurdles of the manufacturing process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Optimization of soybean processing into kinema, a Bacillus-fermented alkaline food, with respect to a minimum level of antinutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Kumari, S; Wongputtisin, P; Nout, M J R; Sarkar, P K

    2015-07-01

    Optimization of traditional processing of soybeans using response surface methodology (RSM) to achieve a minimum level of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in kinema. Central composite rotatable designs were used to optimize the processing stages of kinema preparation. In each stage, the linear or quadratic effects of independent variables were significant in minimizing ANF levels. The predicted optimum condition for soaking was when the raw beans-water ratio was 1 : 10, and the soaking temperature, time and pH were 10°C, 20 h and 8·0 respectively. Here, tannins content (TC), phytic acid content (PAC) and trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA) decreased (P < 0·05). While haemagglutinating activity (HA) level remained unchanged (P < 0·05), total biogenic amines content (TBAC) increased. The optimum condition for cooking was optimally soaked beans-water ratio of 1 : 5, and cooking pressure and time were 1·10 kg cm(-2) and 20 min respectively. Here, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P < 0·05), but TBAC remained unchanged compared to optimally soaked beans. TC and HA went below the level of detection. The optimum condition for fermentation was obtained when inoculum load was 10(3) total cells g(-1) grits, and fermentation temperature and time were 37°C and 48 h respectively. Fermentation of optimally cooked beans caused a reduction (P < 0·05) of PAC. While TIA remained unchanged (P < 0·05), TBAC increased. In kinema, TC, PAC, TIA and HA decreased (P < 0·05) over raw beans by 100, 61, 71 and 100% respectively. Good agreement was observed between predicted values and experimental values. The processing treatments significantly minimized the level of ANFs in soybeans. RSM was successfully deployed to obtain the optimum condition for kinema-making with a minimum level of ANFs without impairing sensory attributes of the product. The results are useful for commercial production of kinema. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Acetate and butyrate as substrates for hydrogen production through photo-fermentation: Process optimization and combined performance evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srikanth, S.; Venkata Mohan, S.; Prathima Devi, M.; Peri, Dinakar; Sarma, P.N. [Bioengineering and Environmental Centre, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, Tarnaka, Hyderabad, AP 500 007 (India)

    2009-09-15

    Organic acids viz., acetate and butyrate were evaluated as primary substrates for the production of biohydrogen (H{sub 2}) through photo-fermentation process using mixed culture at mesophilic temperature (34 C). Experiments were performed by varying parameters like operating pH, presence/absence of initiator substrate (glucose) and vitamin solution, type of nitrogen source (mono sodium salt of glutamic acid and amino glutamic acid) and gas (nitrogen/argon) used to create anaerobic microenvironment. Experimental data showed the feasibility of H{sub 2} production along with substrate degradation utilizing organic acids as metabolic substrate but was found to be dependent on the process parameters evaluated. Maximum specific H{sub 2} production and substrate degradation were observed with acetic acid [3.51 mol/Kg COD{sub R}-day; 1.22 Kg COD{sub R}/m{sup 3}-day (92.96%)] compared to butyric acid [3.33 mol/Kg COD{sub R}-day; 1.19 Kg COD{sub R}/m{sup 3}-day (88%)]. Higher H{sub 2} yield was observed under acidophilic microenvironment in the presence of glucose (co-substrate), mono sodium salt of glutamic acid (nitrogen source) and vitamins. Argon induced microenvironment was observed to be effective compared to nitrogen induced microenvironment. Combined process efficiency viz., H{sub 2} production and substrate degradation was evaluated employing data enveloping analysis (DEA) methodology based on the relative efficiency. Integration of dark fermentation with photo-fermentation appears to be an economically viable route for sustainable biohydrogen production if wastewater is used as substrate. (author)

  1. The effect silage aditives supplementation on dynamic fermentation process, quality and aerobic stability of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Pyrochta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of additives supplementation on the fermentation quality of corn silage was examined, compared with the untreated control (K. The aditive „A“ contained bacterial component of (Propionibactrium acidipropionici – MA126/4U 3*1010 and Lactobacillus plantarum – MA18/5U. The effective substances of bacterial inoculants „B“, selected were bacterial strains of (Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus LC – 705 DSM 7061 4*1011, Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS DSM 6067 2-4*1011. There were used as effective substances of bacterial inoculants „C“ lactic bacteria and enzyme (Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3769 1.67*1010, Lactococcus lactis CCM 4754 1.67*1010, Enterococcus faecium CCM 6226 1.67*1010, Pediococcus pentosaceus CCM 3770 1,67*1010, cellulase, hemicellulase, sodium benzoate. They were applied in the dose of prescript by producer. At conservations with all aditivum were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase of lactic acid formation from 55.31±9.72 g/kg DM of control silage to 59.60±10.84 g/kg DM aditivum „A“, 59.36±10.04 g/ kg DM aditivum „B“ rather to 60.74±9.90 g/kg DM aditivum „C“. Aditives „A“ and „B“ were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase propoinic acid and total fermentation acid content in silages occured. The fermentation characteristics in the microbial aditivum silages by us were more favourable. The date of fermentation was statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase the contents of acetic acid from 45.49±2.83 g/kg DM of 4st day to 63.07±4.25 g/kg DM of 32ndday rather to 67.70±2.94 g/kg DM of 64st day. There were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase contents of acetic acid and total acid content. The date of fermentation was statistically significant (P < 0.01 degressive of pH.

  2. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in encoding and consolidation, but not retrieval, processes of spontaneous object location memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Arai, Misaki; Suenaga, Toshiko; Ichitani, Yukio

    2017-07-28

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in object location recognition memory, yet the contribution of hippocampal NMDA receptors to the memory processes, such as encoding, retention and retrieval, is unknown. First, we confirmed that hippocampal infusion of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20-40nmol), impaired performance of spontaneous object location recognition test but not that of novel object recognition test in Wistar rats. Next, the effects of hippocampal AP5 treatment on each process of object location recognition memory were examined with three different injection times using a 120min delay-interposed test: 15min before the sample phase (Time I), immediately after the sample phase (Time II), and 15min before the test phase (Time III). The blockade of hippocampal NMDA receptors before and immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, markedly impaired performance of object location recognition test, suggesting that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in encoding and consolidation/retention, but not retrieval, of spontaneous object location memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Production of a potential liquid plant bio-stimulant by immobilized Piriformospora indica in repeated-batch fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilev, Nikolay; Eichler-Löbermann, Bettina; Flor-Peregrin, Elena; Martos, Vanessa; Reyes, Antonia; Vassileva, Maria

    2017-12-01

    Piriformospora indica, a mycorrhizal-like fungus able to establish associations with roots of a wide range of plants, supporting plant nutrition and increasing plant resistance and tolerance to stress, was shown to solubilise phosphate applied in the form of animal bone char (HABO) in fermentation systems. The process of P solubilisation was caused most likely by proton extrusion and medium pH lowering. The fungal mycelium was successfully immobilized/retained in a polyurethane foam carrier. Further employment of the immobilized mycelium in repeated-batch fermentation process resulted in at least 5 cycles of P solubilization. The concentration of soluble P increased during the experiment with 1.0 and 3.0 g HABO l -1 and at the end of the 5th batch cycle reached 40.8 and 120 mg l -1 , respectively. The resulting final liquid product, without or with solubilized phosphate, was found to significantly increase plant growth and P plant uptake. It can be used as a biostimulant containing microbial plant growth-promoting substances and soluble P derived from renewable sources (HABO) thus supporting the development of sustainable agro-ecosystems.

  4. Simultaneous or separated; comparison approach for saccharification and fermentation process in producing bio-ethanol from EFB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardant, Teuku Beuna; Dahnum, Deliana; Amaliyah, Nur

    2017-11-01

    Simultaneous Saccharification Fermentation (SSF) of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) empty fruit bunch (EFB) pulp were investigated as a part of ethanol production process. SSF was investigated by observing the effect of substrate loading variation in range 10-20%w, cellulase loading 5-30 FPU/gr substrate and yeast addition 1-2%v to the ethanol yield. Mathematical model for describing the effects of these three variables to the ethanol yield were developed using Response Surface Methodology-Cheminformatics (RSM-CI). The model gave acceptable accuracy in predicting ethanol yield for Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) with coefficient of determination (R2) 0.8899. Model validation based on data from previous study gave (R2) 0.7942 which was acceptable for using this model for trend prediction analysis. Trend prediction analysis based on model prediction yield showed that SSF gave trend for higher yield when the process was operated in high enzyme concentration and low substrate concentration. On the other hand, even SHF model showed better yield will be obtained if operated in lower substrate concentration, it still possible to operate in higher substrate concentration with slightly lower yield. Opportunity provided by SHF to operate in high loading substrate make it preferable option for application in commercial scale.

  5. Changes in the Concentration of Carbonyl Compounds during the Alcoholic Fermentation Process Carried out with Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Mikulski, Dawid; Rolbiecka, Aleksandra; Czupryński, Bogusław

    2017-09-27

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the source material and the applied S. cerevisiae strain on the concentrations of carbonyl fractions in raw spirits. Acetaldehyde was the most common aldehyde found, as it accounted for 88-92% of the total amount of aldehydes. The concentration of acetaldehyde in maize, rye and amaranth mashes was highly correlated with fermentation productivity at a given phase of the process, and reached its highest value of 193.5 mg/l EtOH in the first hours of the fermentation, regardless of the yeast strain applied. The acetaldehyde concentration decreased over the time with the decreasing productivity, reaching its lowest value at the 72nd hour of the process. The final concentration of acetaldehyde depended on the raw material used (ca 28.0 mg/l EtOH for maize mashes, 40.3 mg/l EtOH for rye mashes, and 74.4 mg/l EtOH for amaranth mashes). The effect of the used yeast strain was negligible. The overall concentration of the analyzed aldehydes was only slightly higher: ca 30.3 mg/l EtOH for maize mashes, 47.8 mg/l EtOH for rye mashes, and 83.1 mg/l EtOH for amaranth mashes.

  6. Direct and efficient xylitol production from xylan by Saccharomyces cerevisiae through transcriptional level and fermentation processing optimizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhe; Qu, Hongnan; Li, Chun; Zhou, Xiaohong

    2013-12-01

    In this study, four engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae carrying xylanase, β-xylosidase and xylose reductase genes by different transcriptional regulations were constructed to directly convert xylan to xylitol. According to the results, the high-copy number plasmid required a rigid selection for promoter characteristics, on the contrast, the selection of promoters could be more flexible for low-copy number plasmid. For cell growth and xylitol production, glucose and galactose were found more efficient than other sugars. The semi-aerobic condition and feeding of co-substrates were taken to improve the yield of xylitol. It was found that the strain containing high-copy number plasmid had the highest xylitol yield, but it was sensitive to the change of fermentation. However, the strain carrying low-copy number plasmid was more adaptable to different processes. By optimization of the transcriptional regulation and fermentation processes, the xylitol concentration could be increased of 1.7 folds and the yield was 0.71 g xylitol/g xylan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Process of spontaneous resolution in the conservative management of congenital dacryocystocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimura M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Masashi Mimura,1,2 Mari Ueki,1 Hidehiro Oku,1 Bunpei Sato,2 Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Kaisei Hospital, Osaka, JapanPurpose: To assess efficacy of the conservative management of patients with congenital dacryocystocele.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective case series involving six sides of five infants with a dacryocystocele treated at Osaka Kaisei Hospital, Osaka, Japan. The conservative management protocol consisted of the application of warm compresses and massage over the mass, with the addition of antibiotics when dacryocystitis developed. Patient age at the time of resolution, presence of retrograde outflow of contents of dacryocystoceles from the puncta, and development of dacryocystitis were recorded.Results: The dacryocystocele was unilateral in four patients and bilateral in one patient. A nasal cyst was present in four patients without respiratory distress. The median patient age at the time of the diagnosis was 7 days (range 2–10 days. Conservative management was selected in all patients, and the dacryocystocele was resolved in all patients at a median patient age of 14.5 days (range 11–105 days. Two sides developed dacryocystitis, which resolved in a few days with antibiotic treatment. In those two sides, rupture of the dacryocystoceles to the common canaliculus with retrograde discharge of the contents from the puncta before the dacryocystitis developed was noted. For the other four treated sides, no such discharge or development of dacryocystitis was observed.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that a dacryocystocele has a good chance of resolving spontaneously with conservative management and careful observation, and that rupture of the dacryocystocele to the common canaliculus might be an important precursor of dacryocystitis.Keywords: dacryocystitis, congenital lacrimal obstruction, remnant, precursor, retrograde

  8. Ethanol production from cotton gin trash using optimised dilute acid pretreatment and whole slurry fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, S; Vancov, T; Palmer, J; Morris, S

    2014-12-01

    Cotton ginning trash (CGT) collected from Australian cotton gins was evaluated for bioethanol production. CGT composition varied between ginning operations and contained high levels of extractives (26-28%), acid-insoluble material (17-22%) and holocellulose (42-50%). Pretreatment conditions of time (4-20 min), temperature (160-220 °C) and sulfuric acid concentration (0-2%) were optimised using a central composite design. Response surface modelling revealed that CGT fibre pretreated at 180 °C in 0.8% H2SO4 for 12 min was optimal for maximising enzymatic glucose recoveries and achieved yields of 89% theoretical, whilst the total accumulated levels of furans and acetic acid remained relatively low at <1 and 2 g/L respectively. Response surface modelling also estimated maximum xylose recovery in pretreated liquors (87% theoretical) under the set conditions of 150 °C in 1.9% H2SO4 for 23.8 min. Yeast fermentations yielded high ethanol titres of 85%, 88% and 70% theoretical from glucose generated from: (a) enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated fibres, (b) enzymatic hydrolysis of whole pretreated slurries and (c) simultaneous saccharification fermentations, respectively. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Algorithms for a Parameter Estimation of a Fermentation Process Model: A Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olympia Roeva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the problem of a parameter estimation using genetic algorithms is examined. A case study considering the estimation of 6 parameters of a nonlinear dynamic model of E. coli fermentation is presented as a test problem. The parameter estimation problem is stated as a nonlinear programming problem subject to nonlinear differential-algebraic constraints. This problem is known to be frequently ill-conditioned and multimodal. Thus, traditional (gradient-based local optimization methods fail to arrive satisfied solutions. To overcome their limitations, the use of different genetic algorithms as stochastic global optimization methods is explored. These algorithms are proved to be very suitable for the optimization of highly non-linear problems with many variables. Genetic algorithms can guarantee global optimality and robustness. These facts make them advantageous in use for parameter identification of fermentation models. A comparison between simple, modified and multi-population genetic algorithms is presented. The best result is obtained using the modified genetic algorithm. The considered algorithms converged very closely to the cost value but the modified algorithm is in times faster than other two.

  10. Production of citric acid using its extraction wastewater treated by anaerobic digestion and ion exchange in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-08-01

    In order to solve the problem of extraction wastewater pollution in citric acid industry, an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process is proposed in this study. Extraction wastewater was treated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion and then used to make mash for the next batch of citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was done for seven batches. Citric acid production (82.4 g/L on average) decreased by 34.1 % in the recycling batches (2nd-7th) compared with the first batch. And the residual reducing sugar exceeded 40 g/L on average in the recycling batches. Pigment substances, acetic acid, ammonium, and metal ions in anaerobic digestion effluent (ADE) were considered to be the inhibitors, and their effects on the fermentation were studied. Results indicated that ammonium, Na(+) and K(+) in the ADE significantly inhibited citric acid fermentation. Therefore, the ADE was treated by acidic cation exchange resin prior to reuse to make mash for citric acid fermentation. The recycling process was performed for ten batches, and citric acid productions in the recycling batches were 126.6 g/L on average, increasing by 1.7 % compared with the first batch. This process could eliminate extraction wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption.

  11. Production of ethanol from a mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste via a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroto; Tan, Li; Kira, Noriko; Tomiyama, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuo; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji

    2017-09-01

    Efficient ethanol production from waste paper requires the addition of expensive nutrients. To reduce the production cost of ethanol from waste paper, a study on how to produce ethanol efficiently by adding kitchen waste (potentially as a carbon source, nutrient source, and acidity regulator) to waste paper was performed and a process of successive liquefaction, presaccharification, and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (L+PSSF) was developed. The individual saccharification performances of waste paper and kitchen waste were not influenced by their mixture. Liquefaction of kitchen waste at 90°C prior to presaccharification and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (PSSF) was essential for efficient ethanol fermentation. Ethanol at concentrations of 46.6 or 43.6g/l was obtained at the laboratory scale after fermentation for 96h, even without pH adjustment and/or the addition of extra nutrients. Similarly, ethanol at a concentration of 45.5g/l was obtained at the pilot scale after fermentation for 48h. The ethanol concentration of L+PSSF of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste was comparable to that of PSSF of waste paper with added nutrients (yeast extract and peptone) and pH adjustment using H 2 SO 4 , indicating that kitchen waste is not only a carbon source but also an excellent nutrient source and acidity regulator for fermentation of the mixture of waste paper and kitchen waste. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Microbiota of sausages obtained by spontaneous fermentation produced in the South of Brazil Microbiota de salames obtidos por fermentação espontânea produzidos no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ecology of fermented sausage is fundamental to understand the physical and chemical changes that happen during fermentation and maturation. The aim of the present study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation. Fifty samples of sausages produced in the South of Brazil by different small manufacturers were analyzed for the following microbiota: aerobic mesophilic bacteria; Micrococcaceae; mold and yeast; lactic acid bacteria; total and fecal coliforms; coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. In most samples (72%, the count of lactic bacteria was higher than 6 log10 cfu.g-1, and the samples with the highest counts were above 8 log10 cfu.g-1. The counts of Micrococcaceae in most samples were between 5 log10 and 7 log10 cfu.g-1. With respect to the presence of molds and yeasts, there was a significant variation among the samples with counts ranging from 2 log10 cfu.g-1 and 6 log10 cfu.g-1. From the data obtained, it was possible to conclude that 24% of the analyzed samples did not comply with the current law in Brazil since the levels of fecal coliforms or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus exceeded the maximum limit allowed.O estudo da ecologia de salames fermentados faz-se necessário para entender as mudanças físicas e químicas que ocorrem durante a fermentação e maturação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as características microbiológicas de salames produzidos por fermentação espontânea. Foram analisadas cinquenta amostras de salames de diferentes pequenas indústrias em relação à seguinte microbiota: bactérias aeróbias mesófilas; Micrococcaceae; bolores e leveduras; bactérias lácticas; coliformes totais e fecais; Staphylococcus coagulase positiva; e Salmonella. Na grande maioria das amostras (72%, a presença de bactérias lácticas foi superior a 10(6 ufc.g-1, sendo que as amostras com as maiores contagens tiveram quantidades

  13. Unconsciously induced song recall: the process of unintentional rather than so-called spontaneous evocations of music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz de Chumaceiro, C L

    1996-03-01

    This paper has presented the basis for a reformulation of the traditional psychoanalytic usage of the term spontaneous evocations. Illustrated with a supervisory example, I have argued for a return to Freud's original use of the word unintentional or to equivalent synonyms. The process whereby such unexpected music evocations appear in consciousness has been termed "unconsciously induced song recall." The role of serendipity in this theoretical reformulation will be addressed separately (see Díaz de Chumaceiro, 1995; Díaz de Chumaceiro and Yáber, 1994). Like dreams, music evocations can be subjected to analysis and interpretation, if when recalled by indirect or direct induction in treatment they are mentioned to the therapist. This basic principle of induced recall can be generalized to evocations of the art world at large.

  14. Production of poly(malic acid) from sugarcane juice in fermentation by Aureobasidium pullulans: Kinetics and process economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Peilian; Cheng, Chi; Lin, Meng; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2017-01-01

    Poly(β-l-malic acid) (PMA) is a biodegradable polymer with many potential biomedical applications. PMA can be readily hydrolyzed to malic acid (MA), which is widely used as an acidulant in foods and pharmaceuticals. PMA production from sucrose and sugarcane juice by Aureobasidium pullulans ZX-10 was studied in shake-flasks and bioreactors, confirming that sugarcane juice can be used as an economical substrate without any pretreatment or nutrients supplementation. A high PMA titer of 116.3g/L and yield of 0.41g/g were achieved in fed-batch fermentation. A high productivity of 0.66g/L·h was achieved in repeated-batch fermentation with cell recycle. These results compared favorably with those obtained from glucose and other biomass feedstocks. A process economic analysis showed that PMA could be produced from sugarcane juice at a cost of $1.33/kg, offering a cost-competitive bio-based PMA for industrial applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Ionic Liquid Pretreatment on the Bioconversion of Tomato Processing Waste to Fermentable Sugars and Biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Brittany J; Cádiz, Juan Canales; Karuna, Nardrapee; Jeoh, Tina; Simmons, Christopher W

    2016-08-01

    Tomato pomace is an abundant lignocellulosic waste stream from industrial tomato processing and therefore a potential feedstock for production of renewable biofuels. However, little research has been conducted to determine if pretreatment can enhance release of fermentable sugars from tomato pomace. Ionic liquids (ILs) are an emerging pretreatment technology for lignocellulosic biomass to increase enzymatic digestibility and biofuel yield while utilizing recyclable chemicals with low toxicity. In this study, pretreatment of tomato pomace with the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]) was investigated. Changes in pomace enzymatic digestibility were affected by pretreatment time and temperature. Certain pretreatment conditions significantly improved reducing sugar yield and hydrolysis time compared to untreated pomace. Compositional analyses suggested that pretreatment primarily removed water-soluble compounds and enriched for lignocellulose in pomace, with only subtle changes to the composition of the lignocellulose. While tomato pomace was effectively pretreated with [C2mim][OAc] to improve enzymatic digestibility, as of yet, unknown factors in the pomace caused ionic liquid pretreatment to negatively affect anaerobic digestion of pretreated material. This result, which is unique compared to similar studies on IL pretreatment of grasses and woody biomass, highlights the need for additional research to determine how the unique chemical composition of tomato pomace and other lignocellulosic fruit residues may interact with ionic liquids to generate inhibitors for downstream fermentation to biofuels.

  16. Process integration for simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR): production of butanol from corn stover using Clostridium beijerinckii P260.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, N; Singh, V; Liu, S; Ezeji, T C; Saha, B C; Cotta, M A

    2014-02-01

    A simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and recovery (SSFR) process was developed for the production of acetone-butanol-ethanol (AB or ABE), of which butanol is the main product, from corn stover employing Clostridium beijerinckii P260. Of the 86 g L(-1) corn stover provided, over 97% of the sugars were released during hydrolysis and these were fermented completely with an ABE productivity of 0.34 g L(-1)h(-1) and yield of 0.39. This productivity is higher than 0.31 g L(-1)h(-1) when using glucose as a substrate demonstrating that AB could be produced efficiently from lignocellulosic biomass. Acetic acid that was released from the biomass during pretreatment and hydrolysis was also used by the culture to produce AB. An average rate of generation of sugars during corn stover hydrolysis was 0.98 g L(-1)h(-1). In this system AB was recovered using vacuum, and as a result of this (simultaneous product recovery), 100% sugars were used by the culture. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. A Genetic Algorithm for Feeding Trajectory Optimisation of Fed-batch Fermentation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoyan Tzonkov

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work a genetic algorithm is proposed with the purpose of the feeding trajectory optimization during a fed-batch fermentation of E. coli. The feed rate profiles are evaluated based on a number of objective functions. Optimization results obtained for different feeding trajectories demonstrate that the genetic algorithm works well and shows good computational performance. Developed optimal feed profiles meet the defined criteria. The ration of the substrate concentration and the difference between actual cell concentration and theoretical maximum cell concentration is defined as the most appropriate objective function. In this case the final cell concentration of 43 g·l-1 and final product concentration of 125 g·l-1 are achieved and there is not significant excess of substrate.

  18. Table Olive Fermentation Using Starter Cultures with Multifunctional Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatoula Bonatsou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Table olives are one of the most popular plant-derived fermented products. Their enhanced nutritional value due to the presence of phenolic compounds and monounsaturated fatty acids makes olives an important food commodity of the Mediterranean diet. However, despite its economic significance, table olive fermentation is mainly craft-based and empirically driven by the autochthonous microbiota of the olives depending on various intrinsic and extrinsic factors, leading to a spontaneous process and a final product of variable quality. The use of microorganisms previously isolated from olive fermentations and studied for their probiotic potential and technological characteristics as starter cultures may contribute to the reduction of spoilage risk resulting in a controlled fermentation process. This review focuses on the importance of the development and implementation of multifunctional starter cultures related to olives with desirable probiotic and technological characteristics for possible application on table olive fermentation with the main purpose being the production of a health promoting and sensory improved functional food.

  19. Microbial fermented tea - a potential source of natural food preservatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mo, H.Z.; Yang Zhu, Yang; Chen, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial activities of microbial fermented tea are much less known than its health beneficial properties. These antimicrobial activities are generated in natural microbial fermentation process with tea leaves as substrates. The antimicrobial components produced during the fermentation process

  20. Growth of non-Saccharomyces yeasts affects nutrient availability for Saccharomyces cerevisiae during wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Karina; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Carrau, Francisco

    2012-07-02

    Yeast produces numerous secondary metabolites during fermentation that impact final wine quality. Although it is widely recognized that growth of diverse non-Saccharomyces (NS) yeast can positively affect flavor complexity during Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine fermentation, the inability to control spontaneous or co-fermentation processes by NS yeast has restricted their use in winemaking. We selected two NS yeasts from our Uruguayan native collection to study NS-S. cerevisiae interactions during wine fermentation. The selected strains of Hanseniaspora vineae and Metschnikowia pulcherrima had different yeast assimilable nitrogen consumption profiles and had different effects on S. cerevisiae fermentation and growth kinetics. Studies in which we varied inoculum size and using either simultaneous or sequential inoculation of NS yeast and S. cerevisiae suggested that competition for nutrients had a significant effect on fermentation kinetics. Sluggish fermentations were more pronounced when S. cerevisiae was inoculated 24h after the initial stage of fermentation with a NS strain compared to co-inoculation. Monitoring strain populations using differential WL nutrient agar medium and fermentation kinetics of mixed cultures allowed for a better understanding of strain interactions and nutrient addition effects. Limitation of nutrient availability for S. cerevisiae was shown to result in stuck fermentations as well as to reduce sensory desirability of the resulting wine. Addition of diammonium phosphate (DAP) and a vitamin mix to a defined medium allowed for a comparison of nutrient competition between strains. Addition of DAP and the vitamin mix was most effective in preventing stuck fermentations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Visual Search in ASD: Instructed versus Spontaneous Local and Global Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Hallen, Ruth; Evers, Kris; Boets, Bart; Steyaert, Jean; Noens, Ilse; Wagemans, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Visual search has been used extensively to investigate differences in mid-level visual processing between individuals with ASD and TD individuals. The current study employed two visual search paradigms with Gaborized stimuli to assess the impact of task distractors (Experiment 1) and task instruction (Experiment 2) on local-global visual…

  2. Obtaining edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers from sewage sludge using fermentative processes. Short-time effects on soil biochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Morgado, Bruno; Caballero, Pablo; Paneque, Patricia; Gómez, Isidoro; Parrado, Juan; Tejada, Manuel

    2017-10-28

    In this manuscript, we study the manufacture and effect on soils of different edaphic biostimulants/biofertilizers (BS) obtained from sewage sludge using Bacillus licheniformis as biological tool. These BS consist of different combinations of organic matter, bacteria and enzymes that were subjected to several treatments. These BS were applied in soil in order to observe their influence on the biochemical properties (enzymatic activities and ergosterol content). Dehydrogenase, urease, β-glucosidase, phosphatase activities and ergosterol content were measured at different incubation days. Only dehydrogenase activity and ergosterol content were significantly stimulated after the application of BS1 and BS4. Rest of the extracellular activities were not stimulated probably because B. licheniformis practically has digested all organic substrates during fermentation process.

  3. Purification and substrate specificities of a fructanase from Kluyveromyces marxianus isolated from the fermentation process of Mezcal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2011-02-01

    A fructanase, produced by a Kluyveromyces marxianus strain isolated during the fermentation step of the elaboration process of "Mezcal de Guerrero" was purified and biochemically characterized. The active protein was a glycosylated dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 250 kDa. The specific enzymatic activity of the protein was determined for different substrates: sucrose, inulin, Agave tequilana fructan, levan and Actilight® and compared with the activity of Fructozyme®. The hydrolysis profile of the different substrates analyzed by HPAEC-PAD showed that the enzyme has different affinities over the substrates tested with a sucrose/inulin enzymatic activity ratio (S/I) of 125. For the hydrolysis of Agave tequilana fructans, the enzyme also showed a higher enzymatic activity and specificity than Fructozyme®, which is important for its potential application in the tequila industry. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Pretreatment Methods on Vetiver Leaves for Efficient Processes of Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation by Neurospora sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Dewi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential raw material for bioethanol production. Neurospora sp. can be used to convert lignocellulosic biomass into bioethanol because of its ability to perform simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. However, lignin content, degree of polymerization, and crystallinity of cellulose contained in lignocellulosic biomass can inhibit cellulosic-biomass digestion by Neurospora sp, so that a suitable pretreatment method of lignocellulosic biomass is needed. The focus of this research was to investigate the suitable pretreatment method for vetiver leaves (Vetiveria zizanioides L. Nash) used as a raw material producing bioethanol in the process of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) by Neurospora sp.. Vetiver plants obtained from Garut are deliberately cultivated to produce essential oils extracted from the roots of this plant. Since the vetiver leaves do not contain oil, some of harvested leaves are usually used for crafts and cattle feed, and the rest are burned. This study intended to look at other potential of vetiver leaves as a source of renewable energy. Pretreatments of the vetiver leaves were conducted using hot water, dilute acid, alkaline & dilute acid, and alkaline peroxide, in which each method was accompanied by thermal treatment. The results showed that the alkaline peroxide treatment is a suitable for vetiver leaves as indicated by the increase of cellulose content up to 65.1%, while the contents of hot water soluble, hemicellulose, lignin, and ash are 8.7%, 18.3%, 6.8%, and 1.1%, respectively. Using this pretreatment method, the vetiver leaves can be converted into bioethanol by SSF process using Neurospora sp. with a concentration of bioethanol of 6.7 g/L operated at room temperature.

  5. Relating physicochemical and microbiological safety indicators during processing of linguiça, a Portuguese traditional dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Barron, U; Cadavez, V; Pereira, A P; Gomes, A; Araújo, J P; Saavedra, M J; Estevinho, L; Butler, F; Pires, P; Dias, T

    2015-12-01

    Linguiça is a Portuguese traditional fermented sausage whose microbiological quality and safety can be highly variable. In order to elucidate risk factors and the particularities of the manufacturing technology that explain the between-batch variability in total viable counts (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in the product; microbiological and physicochemical characterisation of linguiça at five stages of production (i.e., raw pork meat, mixed with ingredients, macerated, smoked and ripened) was carried out. A total of six production batches were surveyed from two factories; one utilised curing salts and polyphosphate in their formulation (Factory II). The delayed fermentation in the nitrite-formulated sausages was partly responsible for the increase (psausages (Factory I) led to lower counts of S. aureus (2.64logCFU/g) and L. monocytogenes (10CFU/g) in the finished products. In Factory II, although L. monocytogenes entered the chain at the point of mixing, it became steadily inactivated during smoking and ripening (casings (p=0.094), and less contamination during mixing (p=0.199). In the case of L. monocytogenes, at least three hurdles hinder its development in linguiça: low a w (p=0.004), low pH (p=0.040) and nitrite (p=0.060), and other factors contributing to its control are: longer ripening (p=0.072) and maceration (p=0.106) periods, lower a w at the end of smoking (p=0.076) and properly-washed casings (p=0.099). Results have shown that there is a need to standardise the productive process of linguiça, to optimise the initial acidification process, and to reinforce proper programmes of quality control of ingredients and good hygiene practices, so as to minimise the introduction of Enterobacteriaceae and pathogens from external sources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fermentation process optimization and chemical constituent analysis on longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoming; Sun, Jian; He, Xuemei; Tang, Yayuan; Li, Jiemin; Ling, Dongning; Li, Changbao; Li, Li; Zheng, Fengjin; Sheng, Jingfeng; Wei, Ping; Xin, Ming

    2018-08-01

    Based on single factor and orthogonal experiments, optimal fermentation conditions for longan wine were Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain of Lalvin K D , juice content of 70% and alcohol content of 10°. Sixteen amino acids were detected. Proline, alanine, glutamic acid and aspartic acid contents were relatively high. Sixty-three volatile aroma compounds were identified using solid-phase micro extraction and gas chromatography (SPME-GC). Ethyl lactate content was the highest, followed by octanoic acid ethyl ester, isoamyl alcohol and decanoic acid ethyl ester. Main functional components were polysaccharides. Longan wine polysaccharide (LWP) with molecular weight 10-30 kDa exhibited the highest hypoglycemic and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activities. 10-30 kDa polysaccharides mainly consisted of glucose, mannose, galactose, arabinose, galacturonic acid and glucuronic acid in molar ratio of 167.72:3.38:3.13:3.46:2.33:1. Infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra confirmed that the sugar ring of 10-30 kDa polysaccharides was in the 〈beta〉-configuration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of acids and alcohols from syngas in a two-stage continuous fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2018-04-01

    A two-stage continuous system with two stirred tank reactors in series was utilized to perform syngas fermentation using Clostridium carboxidivorans. The first bioreactor (bioreactor 1) was maintained at pH 6 to promote acidogenesis and the second one (bioreactor 2) at pH 5 to stimulate solventogenesis. Both reactors were operated in continuous mode by feeding syngas (CO:CO 2 :H 2 :N 2 ; 30:10:20:40; vol%) at a constant flow rate while supplying a nutrient medium at different flow rates of 8.1, 15, 22 and 30 ml/h. A cell recycling unit was added to bioreactor 2 in order to recycle the cells back to the reactor, maintaining the OD 600 around 1 in bioreactor 2 throughout the experimental run. When comparing the flow rates, the best results in terms of solvent production were obtained with a flow rate of 22 ml/h, reaching the highest average outlet concentration for alcohols (1.51 g/L) and the most favorable alcohol/acid ratio of 0.32. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical Simulation of Aerogasdynamics Processes in A Longwall Panel for Estimation of Spontaneous Combustion Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, Sergey; Sidorenko, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The relevance of a solution of the problem of endogenous fire safety in seams liable to self-ignition is shown. The possibilities of numerical methods of researches of gasdynamic processes are considered. The analysis of methodical approaches with the purpose to create models and carry out numerical researches of aerogasdynamic processes in longwall panels of gas mines is made. Parameters of the gob for longwall mining are considered. The significant influence of geological and mining conditions of conducting mining operations on distribution of air streams on longwall panels and effective management of gas emission is shown. The aerogasdynamic model of longwall panels for further research of influence of parameters of ventilation and properties of gob is presented. The results of numerical researches including distribution of air streams, fields of concentration of methane and oxygen at application of various schemes of airing for conditions of perspective mines of the Pechora basin and Kuzbass are given. Recommendations for increase of efficiency of the coal seams mining liable to selfignition are made. The directions of further researches are defined.

  9. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  10. Spontaneous fluctuations in sensory processing predict within-subject reaction time variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Ribeiro

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available When engaged in a repetitive task our performance fluctuates from trial-to-trial. In particular, inter-trial reaction time variability has been the subject of considerable research. It has been claimed to be a strong biomarker of attention deficits, increases with frontal dysfunction, and predicts age-related cognitive decline. Thus, rather than being just a consequence of noise in the system, it appears to be under the control of a mechanism that breaks down under certain pathological conditions. Although the underlying mechanism is still an open question, consensual hypotheses are emerging regarding the neural correlates of reaction time inter-trial intra-individual variability. Sensory processing, in particular, has been shown to covary with reaction time, yet the spatio-temporal profile of the moment-to-moment variability in sensory processing is still poorly characterized. The goal of this study was to characterize the intra-individual variability in the time course of single-trial visual evoked potentials and its relationship with inter-trial reaction time variability. For this, we chose to take advantage of the high temporal resolution of the electroencephalogram (EEG acquired while participants were engaged in a 2-choice reaction time task. We studied the link between single trial event-related potentials (ERPs and reaction time using two different analyses: 1 time point by time point correlation analyses thereby identifying time windows of interest, and 2 correlation analyses between single trial measures of peak latency and amplitude and reaction time. To improve extraction of single trial ERP measures related with activation of the visual cortex, we used an independent component analysis procedure.Our ERP analysis revealed a relationship between the N1 visual evoked potential and reaction time. The earliest time point presenting a significant correlation of its respective amplitude with reaction time occurred 175 ms after stimulus

  11. Effect of CuO addition on microstructure and properties of aluminum composites produced by quick spontaneous infiltration process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jingjing

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Al matrix composites with a high volume fraction of reinforcements were fabricated with a compact of Al-Ti-B4C powder mixtures by quick spontaneous infiltration (QSI process in an aluminum melt. Given the exothermal nature of the reaction between CuO and Al, a certain amount of CuO addition to the Al-Ti-B4C system dramatically increases the adiabatic temperature and thereby enables the complete combustion reaction in an aluminum melt (about 1,173 K. After the QSI process, the compact fabricated with CuO retains its original shape and the obtained composite exhibits sound microstructure containing reaction products of TiB2, Al3BC and B4C. The formation of such reinforcements when adding CuO contributes to enhancing the properties of the composites that show far superior hardness and elastic modulus of 3.03 GPa and 158.9 GPa, respectively, with lower coefficient of thermal expansion (9.44 ppm-1 compared to those with no CuO addition.

  12. Comparative evaluation of microbial diversity and metabolite profiles in doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, during the two different industrial manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Lee, Sarah; Singh, Digar; Oh, Ji Young; Jeon, Eun Jung; Ryu, Hyung SeoK; Lee, Dong Wan; Kim, Beom Seok; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-04-15

    Two different doenjang manufacturing processes, the industrial process (IP) and the modified industrial process (mIP) with specific microbial assortments, were subjected to metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS). The multivariate analyses indicated that both primary and secondary metabolites exhibited distinct patterns according to the fermentation processes (IP and mIP). Microbial community analysis for doenjang using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), exhibited that both bacteria and fungi contributed proportionally for each step in the process viz., soybean, steaming, drying, meju fermentation, cooling, brining, and aging. Further, correlation analysis indicated that Aspergillus population was linked to sugar metabolism, Bacillus spp. with that of fatty acids, whereas Tetragenococcus and Zygosaccharomyces were found associated with amino acids. These results suggest that the components and quality of doenjang are critically influenced by the microbial assortments in each process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of isolated biomass of the fermentation processes for ethanol production for use as biofuels; Caracterizacao da biomassa isolada de processos fermentativos de producao de etanol para uso como biocombustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckelberg, Claudia; Andrietta, Maria da Graca Stupiello; Andrietta, Silvio Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CPQBA/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Centro Pluridisciplinar de Pesquisas Quimicas, Biologicas e Agricolas. Div. de Biotecnologia e Processos], Email: claudia@cpqba.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This study has had the purpose of enhancing the knowledge on the dominant strains of ethanol fermentation process biomass to use as bio fuel. The attributes studied were: numerical taxonomy (Griffits, 1981) and fermentative performance. The results have showed that all strains have presented good fermentative characteristics. All strains have been classified as Saccharomyces. In this genus were found the follow species: chevalieri, coreanus cerevisiae. If the classification according Barnet (1992) is considered, all of them are representative of S. cerevisiae. (author)

  14. The effect of anaerobic fermentation processing of cattle waste for biogas as a renewable energy resources on the number of contaminant microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnani, Tb. Benito A.; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Harlia, Ellin

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle waste has a positive potential that can be exploited, as well as a negative potential that must be controlled so as not to pollute the environment. Beef cattle waste can be processed into an alternative energy, namely biogas. Anaerobic treatment of livestock waste to produce gas can be a solution in providing optional energy, while the resulted sludge as the fermentation residue can be used as organic fertilizer for crops. However, this sludge may containt patogenic microorganism that will damage human and environmet healt. Therefor, this study was aimed to know the potency of beef cattle waste to produce biogas and the decrease of the microorganism's number by using fixed dome digester. Beef cattle waste was processed into biogas using fixed dome digester with a capacity of 12 m3. Biogas composition was measured using Gas Cromatografi, will microorganism species was identified using Total plate Count Methode. The result of this study shows that the produced biogas contains of 75.77% Mol (CH4), 13.28% Mol (N), and 6.96% Mol (CO2). Furthermor, this study show that the anaerobic fermrntation process is capable of reducing microorganisms that could potentially pollute the environment. The number of Escherichia coli and Samonella sp. were environment. This process can reduce 84.70% the amount of molds. The only molds still existed after fermentation was A.fumigatus. The number of protozoa can be reduced in order of 94.73%. Protozoa that can be identified in cattle waste before, and after anaerobic fermentation was merely Eimeria sp.. The process also reduced the yeast of 86.11%. The remaining yeast after fermentation was Candida sp. Finally, about 93.7% of endoparasites was reduced by this process. In this case, every trematode and cestoda were 100% reduced, while the nematode only 75%. Reducing some microorganisms that have the potential to pollute the environment signifies sludge anaerobic fermentation residue is safe to be applied as organic fertilizer

  15. Lipase Production in Solid-State Fermentation Monitoring Biomass Growth of Aspergillus niger Using Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Julio C. V.; da Terzi, Selma C.; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C. T.; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A. P.; Senna, Lilian F.

    The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

  16. Effects of fermentation time and low temperature during the production process of Thai pickled fish (pla-som) on the viability and infectivity of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onsurathum, Sudarat; Pinlaor, Porntip; Haonon, Ornuma; Chaidee, Apisit; Charoensuk, Lakhanawan; Intuyod, Kitti; Boonmars, Thidarut; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Pinlaor, Somchai

    2016-02-02

    Contamination of a popular fermented fish dish, pla-som, by Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae (OVMC) is a possible cause of carcinogenic liver fluke infection in Thailand. Affected individuals are at risk of bile duct cancer, which is a major health problem for people in the Greater Mekong Subregion. In order to investigate concerns about food safety, we studied the effects of fermentation time and low temperature on the viability and infectivity of OVMC during the pla-som production process. Pla-som was prepared at room temperature for up to 1 week in duplicate experiments using cyprinid freshwater fish obtained from an O. viverrini-endemic area. OVMC were then isolated and identified under a stereomicroscope. Complete and viable OVMC were found on days 1-4 of fermentation, while their morphology was degenerated thereafter. After OVMC were fed to hamsters, the percentage of the worm recovery after 1 to 2 months of infection was 52%, 44.7%, 11.3% and 1% for days 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. In order to measure the effect of low temperature on OVMC, fish were kept in a refrigerator (4 °C) for up to five days and then subsequently fermented for three days. In fish stored in a refrigerator for 1 and 2 days, viable OVMC were clearly observed and were able to infect hamsters, a worm-recovery percentage of 3.3% and 12.7%, respectively. By contrast, in pla-som prepared from fish stored for 3 to 5 days, OVMC were degenerated and could not infect the host. In conclusion, pla-som fermentation for more than four days and refrigerating fish for three days before pla-som processing can prevent O. viverrini infection. This study may increase awareness of fermented-fish dish preparation to prevent liver fluke infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhonny E. Alba-Mejía

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1 without additives, used as a control; 2 with bacterial inoculants; and 3 with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013 influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA and acetic acid (AA in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2% in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process.

  18. The effect of biological and chemical additives on the chemical composition and fermentation process of Dactylis glomerata silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Mejía, J.E.; Skladanka, J.; Hilger-Delgado, A.; Klíma, M.; Knot, P.; Doležal, P.; Horky, P.

    2016-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the chemical composition, silage quality and ensilability of ten cocksfoot cultivars using biological and chemical silage additives. The plant material was harvested from the first and second cut, cultivated at the Research Station of Fodder Crops in Vatín, Czech Republic. Wilted forage was chopped and ensiled in mini-silos with 3 replicates per treatment. The treatments were: 1) without additives, used as a control; 2) with bacterial inoculants; and 3) with chemical preservatives. The results indicated that the year factor (2012-2013) influenced significantly the chemical composition of the silage in both cuts. The use of biological inoculants reduced the content of crude fibre and acid detergent fibre; but it did not influence the content of neutral detergent fibre, in comparison with the control silage in both cuts. Furthermore, the application of biological inoculants reduced the concentration of lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) in contrast to the control silage in the first cut. Moreover, in the second cut the same values tended to be the opposite. Interestingly, ‘Amera’ was the unique variety that presented a high concentration of butyric acid (0.2%) in comparison with other varieties in the first cut. In conclusion, the biological inoculants had a favourable effect on silage fermentation. Notably, only ‘Greenly’ and ‘Starly’ varieties from the first cut; and ‘Greenly’, ‘Sw-Luxor’, and ‘Otello’ varieties from the second cut were appropriate for ensiling because their pH-values; LA and AA concentrations were ideal according to the parameters of the fermentation process. (Author)

  19. Information processing, attention and visual-motor function of adolescents born after in vitro fertilization compared with spontaneous conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, K; van Weissenbruch, M M; Knol, D L; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Delemarre-van de Waal, H A; Huisman, J

    2009-04-01

    Adverse conditions during prenatal life are associated with changes in physical and mental functioning in later life, as shown in children born preterm or small for gestational age. While recently in IVF children cardiometabolic differences have been demonstrated, there might also be risks for disturbance in cognitive functions. Therefore, this study examined information processing, attention and visual-motor function in pubertal IVF children compared with spontaneously conceived controls from subfertile parents. Results of these cognitive functions were then related to cardiometabolic measures to explore whether both can be explained by changes in fetal programming due to IVF. A total of 139 IVF and 143 control adolescents underwent various neuropsychological tests to measure information processing, attention and visual-motor function. The results were then related to data on blood pressure and glucose levels previously obtained from the same groups. No differences between IVF and control adolescents were found in the various test results for information processing and attention. A slight difference was found between the groups for motor speed, but these scores were within the normal range for the test. No direct relation was found between cognitive measures and cardiometabolic outcome. Comparison of IVF adolescents and controls revealed no disturbances in information processing, attention and visual-motor function. In addition, these cognitive functions were not directly related to cardiometabolic outcome. Therefore, these results do not support the hypothesis that cognition is influenced by IVF conception or an altered programming of metabolic systems due to IVF, and indicate that cognitive abilities in IVF children, as measured by the tasks assessed, appear to develop normally.

  20. THE ISOLATION OF COMPOUND POLYPHENOL FROM WAJO DISTRICT CACAO BEAN AND CACAO WASTE THROUGH FERMENTATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Wijaya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to utilize the liquid smoke, charcoal, oil and gas that have been produced from cocoa waste shell from fast pyrolysis technology at 125-500 oC. The charcoal of the cocoa waste was analyzed using a bomb calorimeter at 5925 cal/g showed that it contains 52.02% of lignin; 17.27% of alpha cellulose and 19.56% of hemicellulose, respectively. The HPLC analysis of Wajo district cacao bean resulted in polyphenol compound as 308.35. GC-MS analysis of cocoa shell liquid smoke that pyrolized at 125-500 oC produces severals compounds such as acetic acid, n-buthane, methyl esther, propanoac acid, butanoac acid, methyl pyridine, 1-hydroxy-2-propanone, and mequinol. The FTIR analysis of cocoa bean showed a hydroxyl group at 3450.65 cm-1, carbonyl group at 1730.15 cm-1, CH group at 719.45-607.58 cm-1. The crystallinity degree of Wajo District cocoa shell analyzed using XRD was 26,50%. The existence of chemical compounds in liquid smoke products have been found as raw chemicals.  Content of biomass carbon at these cacao waste increased according to the increase of pyrolisis temperature, while the carbon emission of these three materials decreased as the temperature increased. Compound polyphenol from cacao bean has a potent as anti oxidant that is friendly  for environmental and healthy.   Keywords: cacao  bean, fermentation,  polyphenol,  and  chemical

  1. Fermentative alcohol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Charles R.; Maiorella, Brian L.; Blanch, Harvey W.; Cysewski, Gerald R.

    1982-01-01

    An improved fermentation process for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using "water load balancing" (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  2. Comparisons of in vitro fermentation and high moisture forage processing methods for determination of neutral detergent fiber digestibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    In vitro fermentation systems are widely used to measure fiber digestibility of feedstuffs in order to assess feeding values for use in diet formulation and feed valuation. In this study, an in vitro fermentation method with the potential to improve sample throughput and ease of handling was investi...

  3. Identification of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tarhana, a traditional Turkish fermented food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengun, Ilkin Yucel; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris; Karapinar, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Tarhana is a traditional fermented product produced from a mixture of spontaneously fermented yogurt and wheat flour in Turkey. The aims of the present study were to enumerate and identify for the first time by molecular biology-based methods predominant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated during...... processing of Tarhana. Samples were collected from eight different regions of Turkey. In order to explore the relationship between raw material and the microbiology of Tarhana, yogurt and wheat flour were also analyzed. A total of 226 Gram-positive and catalase-negative isolates were obtained from MRS, M17...... and S. thermophilus was found to be the yogurt....

  4. Improving properties of sweet potato composite flour: Influence of lactic fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliana, Neti; Nurdjanah, Siti; Setyani, Sri; Novianti, Dini

    2017-06-01

    The use of locally grown crops such as sweet potato as raw material for composite flour is considered advantageous as it reduces the importation of wheat flour. However the use of native sweetpotato flour has drawback properties when applied in the food. This study was aimed to modify sweet potato flour through six methods of lactic fermentation (spontaneous, pickle brine, Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides, a mixed of Lb plantarum and Lc mesentereoides, and mixed of Lb plantarum, Lc mesentereoides and yeast) to increase its properties in composite flour. Composite flours were obtained after fermentation of sweet potato slices for 48h in the proportion of 50% sweet potatoes flour and 50% wheat flour. pH, moisture content, swelling power, solubility, and pasting properties were determined for the fermented and unfermented composite flours. The results indicated that the composite fermented flours had better properties than those of non fermented flour. Fermentation increased swelling power, moisture content, meanwhile, solubility, and pH, deacresed. Amylose leaching, however, was not significantly affected by the fermentation process.

  5. Development of an integrated pretreatment fractionation process for fermentable sugars and lignin: Application to almond (Prunus dulcis) shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Dachun; Holtman, Kevin M.; Franqui-Espiet, Diana; Orts, William J.; Zhao, Ruming

    2011-01-01

    An environmentally friendly pretreatment process was developed to fractionate cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from almond (Prunus dulcis) shells, consisting of hot water pretreatment (HWP) coupled with organic solvent (organosolv) pretreatment of water/ethanol (OWEP). This integrated pretreatment process proved more effective on the basis of yield of fermentable sugar and lignin separation compared with HWP alone, dilute acid pretreatment (DAP), ammonia pretreatment (AP), lime pretreatment LP, organosolv water/ethanol pretreatment (OWEP), and organosolv water/acetone pretreatment (OWAP). In the coupled hot water-organosolv process, hemicellulose sugars were recovered in the first residual liquid while varying amounts of cellulose was retained in the residual solid. The lignin fraction was obtained by simply adjusting the pH from the second liquid. The optimal two-stage process consisted of first HWP stage at 195 o C for 30 min, resulting in w glucose = 95.4% glucose recovery yield and w xylose = 92.2% xylose removal. The second organosolv OWEP stage was operated at 195 o C for 20 min, in ethanol in water mixtures of ethanol = 50% and resulted in nearly w glucose = 100% glucose recovery yield, w xylose = 90% xylose and w lignin = 61% lignin removal. After enzymatic hydrolysis, glucose yield was up to w glucose = 95%, compared to 61% yield from untreated almond. Images obtained via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) highlighted the differences in almond structure from the varying pretreatment methods during biomass fractionation. -- Highlights: → Almond shells are an under-utilized agriculture byproduct available in the world. → Almond shells are particularly attractive as bioenergy feedstock. → We have developed a new fractionation process for the almond shell. → The new process combined the HWP with OWEP. → The fractionation process has potential in the utilization of almond shell.

  6. Mathematical modeling of a continuous alcoholic fermentation process in a two-stage tower reactor cascade with flocculating yeast recycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Samuel Conceição; de Castro, Heizir Ferreira; Visconti, Alexandre Eliseu Stourdze; Giudici, Reinaldo

    2015-03-01

    Experiments of continuous alcoholic fermentation of sugarcane juice with flocculating yeast recycle were conducted in a system of two 0.22-L tower bioreactors in series, operated at a range of dilution rates (D 1 = D 2 = 0.27-0.95 h(-1)), constant recycle ratio (α = F R /F = 4.0) and a sugar concentration in the feed stream (S 0) around 150 g/L. The data obtained in these experimental conditions were used to adjust the parameters of a mathematical model previously developed for the single-stage process. This model considers each of the tower bioreactors as a perfectly mixed continuous reactor and the kinetics of cell growth and product formation takes into account the limitation by substrate and the inhibition by ethanol and biomass, as well as the substrate consumption for cellular maintenance. The model predictions agreed satisfactorily with the measurements taken in both stages of the cascade. The major differences with respect to the kinetic parameters previously estimated for a single-stage system were observed for the maximum specific growth rate, for the inhibition constants of cell growth and for the specific rate of substrate consumption for cell maintenance. Mathematical models were validated and used to simulate alternative operating conditions as well as to analyze the performance of the two-stage process against that of the single-stage process.

  7. Recovery of Fermented Spinach (Amaranthus sp. Concentrate Through Ultrafiltration Membrane Process as Source of Folic Acid for Smart Food Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aspiyanto Aspiyanto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation process on spinach (Amaranthus sp. by Kombucha culture was done as an effort to recover naturally folic acid as bioactive components to increase smartness. The experimental activity was done by means of UF membrane (100,000 MWCO fitted in Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC at stirrer rotation speed 200 and 400 rpm, room temperature, pressure 20 and 40 Psi for 30 min. Result of experimental activity showed that based on both selectivity and recovery of folic acid, process optimization of UF was reached at stirrer rotation speed 200 rpm and pressure 40 Psi. In the optimum condition, SUFC technique was able to recover folic acid in retentate 67.75% and in permeate 97.27% (63.19 µg/mL. Identification of monomer in permeate from the optimum process treatment was find out folic acid monomer with molecular weight (MW 441.39 and relative intensity 93% at mass spectra T2.32 between m/z 257–304 and glutamic acids monomer with MW 148.57 and relative intensity 0.22% at mass spectra T2.82 between m/z 415–470. Other dominant monomer were folic acid fraction.

  8. Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli show strain dependent reductions under dry-fermented sausage production and post-processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Tone Mari; Holck, Askild; Axelsson, Lars; Høy, Martin; Heir, Even

    2012-04-16

    Dry-fermented sausages (DFS) are considered possible risk products regarding Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC). We have compared the reduction of 11 E. coli isolates of various serogroups in salami during the sausage production process and during post-process measures including storage, heating and freezing. The 11 E. coli isolates, mainly STEC, included enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) outbreak strains linked to DFS along with apathogenic E. coli. During sausage production, there was a statistically significant difference in reduction between the E. coli strains ranging from 1.3 to 2.4 log₁₀ (p0.1) between the reductions of E. coli in salami and in the TSB broth model. Results based on broth models and/or single or surrogate strains must therefore be interpreted with caution. The EHEC reducing post-processing measures tested can easily be implemented in DFS production with marginal influence on the quality of the sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The environmental and intrinsic yeast diversity of Cuban cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Maura, Yurelkys; Balzarini, Tom; Clapé Borges, Pablo; Evrard, Pierre; De Vuyst, Luc; Daniel, H-M

    2016-09-16

    The environmental yeast diversity of spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations in east Cuba was investigated. Seven fermentations, 25 equipment- and handling-related samples, and 115 environmental samples, such as flowers, leaf and cocoa pod surfaces, as well as drosophilid insects, were analysed. The basic fermentation parameters temperature and pH were recorded during five fermentations for at least six days. A total of 435 yeast isolates were identified by a combination of PCR-fingerprinting of genomic DNA with the M13 primer and sequence analysis of DNA from representative isolates, using the internal transcribed spacer region, the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, and an actin gene-encoding fragment, as required. Among 65 yeast species detected, Pichia manshurica and Hanseniaspora opuntiae were the most frequently isolated species, obtained from five and four fermentations, followed in frequency by Pichia kudriavzevii from two fermentations. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated only occasionally. Cocoa fermentation yeast species were also present on processing equipment. The repeated isolation of a preliminarily as Yamadazyma sp. classified species, a group of strains similar to Saccharomycopsis crataegensis from fermentations and equipment, and the isolation of fifteen other potentially novel yeast species in low numbers provides material for further studies. Environmental samples showed higher yeast diversity compared to the fermentations, included the most frequent fermentation species, whereas the most frequently isolated environmental species were Candida carpophila, Candida conglobata, and Candida quercitrusa. Potential selective advantages of the most frequently isolated species were only partly explained by the physiological traits tested. For instance, tolerance to higher ethanol concentrations was more frequent in strains of Pichia spp. and S. cerevisiae compared to Hanseniaspora spp.; the ability to also assimilate ethanol might have

  10. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia ePinto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Grapes and wine musts harbour a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Must (IM, and Start and End of alcoholic fermentation (SF and EF, respectively.The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p<0.05 were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF and EF, and in the bacterial population between MI and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the initial musts, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida and Schizosaccharomyces. Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of

  11. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Cardoso, Remy; Custódio, Valéria; Fernandes, Joana; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C

    2015-01-01

    Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation - Initial Musts (IM), and Start and End of alcoholic fermentations (SF and EF, respectively). The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the IM, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida, and Schizosaccharomyces). Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of regional wines.

  12. Vegetable Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Eifert, Joell

    2014-01-01

    People have been fermenting vegetables for centuries to increase the stability of fresh foods, to make the foods safer to eat in the absence of refrigeration and to enhance their flavor. Today, vegetable fermentation is done on a large-scale setting in factories as well as in households across the world. In the United States, the primary vegetables fermented are cucumbers (pickles), cabbage (sauerkraut and Kimchi) and olives. In many parts of the world, especially in developing countries wher...

  13. Selection and use of indigenous mixed starter cultures for mustard leaves fermentation and the improvement of cuocai characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuan; Zheng, Miao; Liu, Jia; Deng, Zeyuan; Zhang, Bing; Li, Hongyan

    2018-03-01

    To improve the characteristics and safety of traditional cuocai, the selection and use of mixed starter cultures is important. This study aimed to isolate the main indigenous lactic acid bacteria (LABs) and yeast species from spontaneous fermented mustard leaves, and they were used as starter cultures to ferment mustard leaves. Five predominant LABs, namely Q-1 (Enterococcus faecalis), G-1 (Lactobacillus plantarum), G-3 (Lactobacillus pentosus), and G-2 and G-4 (Lactobacillus buchneri) strains, and the two yeast strains J-1 (Issatchenkia orientalis) and J-2 (Issatchenkia occidentalis) were isolated from cuocai. From the results, Lb. plantarum and I. orientalis strains exhibited strong growth ability, fast acidification, and potent low-pH tolerance. Therefore, they were chosen as the mixed starter cultures to ferment mustard leaves. During the process of culture-dependent fermented mustard leaves, the changes of acidity, total crude protein, and total sugar were similar to those of culture-independent fermented mustard leaves, while the nitrite content of culture-dependent fermented mustard leaves was significantly lower than that of culture-independent fermented cuocai. According to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the main volatile flavor compounds of fermented mustard leaves were alcohols, aldehydes, esters, and sulfides. There was no significant difference of volatile flavor compounds between the processes of culture-dependent and culture-independent fermentations. Therefore, it was suggested that Lb. plantarum and I. orientalis strains could be used to ferment cuocai instead of the traditional ferment method to control the quality and shelf safety of cuocai. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The Influenced of Lactobacillus plantarum Starter Addition and The Length Time of Fermentation Process on The Activity of Seaweed Antioxidant Ulva lactuca from Krakal Beach, Yogyakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarsari, N. D.; Rushanti, I. R. P. A.; Setyaji, A.; Ningsih, T. R.; Nurhana, N.; Subekhi, I.; Dewi, E. N.

    2018-02-01

    Seaweed contains phenol compound functioning as antioxidant. Lactobacillus plantarum starter addition in a fermentation process was expected will increase the activity of antioxidant. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of L. plantarum addition and the length of fermentation on the activity of antioxidant in U. lactuca. The experiment was conducted with factorial design. The first treatment consisted 2 different factors namely without L. plantarum addition and L. plantarum addition. While the second treatment were the different length fermentation time: 0, 12, 24, and 36 hours. Each treatment were done in thriplicate. The data was analyzed using ANOVA and BNJ test was applied if there any differences betweenthe treatments. The results showed that the fresh U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition for 36 hours fermentation had TPC BAL 9,83 CFU/ml, pH 4,26, phenol 231 ppm and antioxidant activity IC501375,12 ppm. Dried U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition that was fermentized for 36 hours had TPC BAL 9,10 CFU/ml, pH 4,75, phenol 166,24 ppm and antioxidant activity IC504070,32 ppm. The fresh U. lactuca with L. plantarum addition for 36 hours fermentation was the best treatment since the antioxidant activity is IC501375,12 ppm. Although the antioxidant activity was categorized as weak but it was still showed an increase compared to the result of antioxidant activity with maceration method using n-hexana dissolver which was 11213,76 ppm, ethyl acetate 9770,285 ppm, and ethanol extact 4921,79 ppm.

  15. Impact of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii starter cultures on cocoa beans fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visintin, Simonetta; Ramos, Lacerda; Batista, Nara; Dolci, Paola; Schwan, Freitas; Cocolin, Luca

    2017-09-18

    Aim of this work was to study the impact of mixed cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Torulaspora delbrueckii and T. delbrueckii monoculture on the fermentation process conducted on two different cocoa hybrids, PS1319 and SJ02, in Bahia, Brazil. This was performed throughout studying physico-chemical changes during the fermentation process and analyzing volatile compounds and sensory analysis of chocolates. (GTG) 5 -PCR fingerprinting was used to type isolates at strain level allowing to assess the implantation of the starter cultures added. Resulted clusters were composed by T. delbrueckii strains isolated during the first 24h of fermentation. On the contrary, S. cerevisiae, the most strongly fermenting ethanol-tolerant species, took over the fermentation at a second stage. Quantification data of T. delbrueckii during spontaneous fermentation confirm the attitude of this species of not being so commonly involved in this process. This study also showed that the inoculum influenced the PS1319 hybrid end-product quality, changing analytic profile and sensory perception of chocolates. No big influences were recorded for SJ02 hybrid, but this may be improved. In combination with S. cerevisiae, T. delbrueckii had a positive influence on the analytical profile of chocolates. The application of starter cultures did change the aroma profile of the resulting chocolate as determined by GC-MS; in some case the differences observed had a significantly impact on the consumer perception of the chocolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Formation of lactic acid bacteria-yeasts communities on the olive surface during Spanish-style Manzanilla fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Domínguez-Manzano, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodriguez-Gómez, F; García-García, P; Garrido-Fernández, A; Jiménez-Díaz, R

    2012-12-01

    This work examines the formation of poly-microbial communities adhered to the surface of Manzanilla olive fruits processed according to the Spanish style. The experimental design consisted of four pilot fermenters inoculated with four Lactobacillus pentosus strains, plus another fermenter which was not inoculated and fermented spontaneously. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were analysed in depth on olive epidermis throughout fermentation by plate count, molecular techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Data show that in all cases high population levels (above 8 log(10) CFU per olive) were reached for both groups of microorganisms at the second week of fermentation and that these counts never fell below 6 log(10) CFU per olive during the 3 months that fermenters were monitored. In situ observation of olive epidermis slices revealed a strong aggregation and adhesion between bacteria and yeasts by the formation of a matrix which embedded the microorganisms. Geotrichum candidum, Pichia galeiformis and Candida sorbosa were the main yeast species isolated from these biofilms at the end of fermentation (confirmed by RFLP analysis of the 5.8S-ITS region), while molecular characterization of lactobacilli isolates by means of RAPD-PCR with primer OPL(5) showed in many cases a high similarity in their banding profiles with the inoculated strains. Results obtained in this survey show the importance of studying the olive epidermis throughout fermentation, because ultimately, olives are ingested by consumers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Process optimization and analysis of product inhibition kinetics of crude glycerol fermentation for 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikshit, Pritam Kumar; Padhi, Susant Kumar; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2017-11-01

    In present study, statistical optimization of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol fermentation to DHA by immobilized G. oxydans cells over polyurethane foam is reported. Effect of DHA (product) inhibition on crude glycerol fermentation was analyzed using conventional biokinetic models and new model that accounts for both substrate and product inhibition. Optimum values of fermentation parameters were: pH=4.7, temperature=31°C, initial substrate concentration=20g/L. At optimum conditions, DHA yield was 89% (17.83g/L). Effect of product inhibition on fermentation was trivial for DHA concentrations ≤30g/L. At higher concentrations (≥50g/L), kinetics and yield of fermentation showed marked reduction with sharp drop in V max and K S values. Inhibition effect was more pronounced for immobilized cells due to restricted transport of fermentation mixture across polyurethane foam. Retention of fermentation mixture in immobilized matrix resulted in higher localized DHA concentration that possibly enhanced inhibition effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enzymatic activity of proteases and its isoenzymes in fermentation process in cultivars of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. produced in southern Bahia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Santos SOUSA

    Full Text Available Abstract The fermentation of cocoa seeds envolves microbial processes and the action of enzymes. To identify the possible differences in the cocoa fermentation process, with regards to proteolysis, this study has the objective of determining protease activity (under predetermined conditions and its isoenzymes in two cocoa cultivars (PH-16 and HRT-1188 in different cocoa fermentation times, in addition to establishing the microbial load (molds and yeasts and aerobic mesophilic. Protease and its isoenzymes were extracted and partially purified and the enzymatic activities determined by spectrophotometry. The results showed that the proteases activity was higher at 66h of fermentation for both cultivars. When the isoenzymes activity was evaluated, the results demonstrated similar activity behavior for both cultivars, with regards to the isoenzymes aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase, although the behavior of the endoprotease isoenzyme activity proved to be a little different for TSH-1188 cultivar. Concerning microbiological analyses, the results indicate that the period after molds and yeast counting reduction is consistent with the period of protease activity increase.

  19. Determination of sulfur and nitrogen compounds during the processing of dry fermented sausages and their relation to amino acid generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sara; Leitner, Erich; Siegmund, Barbara; Flores, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    The identification of odor-active sulfur and nitrogen compounds formed during the processing of dry fermented sausages was the objective of this study. In order to elucidate their possible origin, free amino acids (FAAs) were also determined. The volatile compounds present in the dry sausages were extracted using solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and monitored by one and two-dimensional gas chromatography with different detectors: mass spectrometry (MS), nitrogen phosphorous (NPD), flame photometric (FPD) detectors, as well as gas chromatography-olfactometry. A total of seventeen sulfur and nitrogen compounds were identified and quantified. Among them, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline was the most potent odor active compound, followed by methional, ethylpyrazine and 2,3-dihydrothiophene characterized by toasted, cooked potato, and nutty notes. The degradation of FAAs, generated during processing, was related to the production of aroma compounds, such as methionine forming methional and benzothiazole while ornithine was the precursor compound for 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and glycine for ethylpyrazine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Brain activation for spontaneous and explicit false belief tasks overlaps: new fMRI evidence on belief processing and violation of expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Desmet, Charlotte; Nijhof, Annabel; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2017-03-01

    There is extensive discussion on whether spontaneous and explicit forms of ToM are based on the same cognitive/neural mechanisms or rather reflect qualitatively different processes. For the first time, we analyzed the BOLD signal for false belief processing by directly comparing spontaneous and explicit ToM task versions. In both versions, participants watched videos of a scene including an agent who acquires a true or false belief about the location of an object (belief formation phase). At the end of the movies (outcome phase), participants had to react to the presence of the object. During the belief formation phase, greater activity was found for false vs true belief trials in the right posterior parietal cortex. The ROI analysis of the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), confirmed this observation. Moreover, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC) was active during the outcome phase, being sensitive to violation of both the participant's and agent's expectations about the location of the object. Activity in the TPJ and aMPFC was not modulated by the spontaneous/explicit task. Overall, these data show that neural mechanisms for spontaneous and explicit ToM overlap. Interestingly, a dissociation between TPJ and aMPFC for belief tracking and outcome evaluation, respectively, was also found. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mechanistic Models for Process Development and Optimization of Fed-batch Fermentation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mears, Lisa; Stocks, Stuart M.; Albæk, Mads O.

    2016-01-01

    . This is based on on-line gas measurements and ammonia addition flow rate measurements. Additionally, a mechanistic model is applied offline as a tool for batch planning, based on definition of the process back pressure, aeration rate and stirrer speed. This allows the batch starting fill to be planned, taking...... into account the oxygen transfer conditions, as well as the evaporation rates of the system. Mechanistic models are valuable tools which are applicable for both process development and optimization. The state estimator described will be a valuable tool for future work as part of control strategy development...... for on-line process control and optimization....

  2. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane separati...

  3. Efficient ethanol recovery from yeast fermentation broth with integrated distillation-membrane process

    Science.gov (United States)

    A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillatio...

  4. Environmental potential of the use of CO2 from alcoholic fermentation processes. The CO2-AFP strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Moreno, Carlos; García-Yuste, Santiago

    2016-10-15

    A novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) approach from a relatively minor CO2 emission source, i.e., alcoholic fermentation processes (AFP), is presented. The CO2 produced as a by-product from the AFP is estimated by examining the EtOH consumed per year reported by the World Health Organization in 2014. It is proposed that the extremely pure CO2 from the AFP is captured in NaOH solutions to produce one of the Top 10 commodities in the chemical industry, Na2CO3, as a good example of an atomic economy process. The novel CDU strategy could yield over 30.6Mt of Na2CO3 in oversaturated aqueous solution on using ca. 12.7Mt of captured CO2 and this process would consume less energy than the synthetic methodology (Solvay ammonia soda process) and would not produce low-value by-products. The quantity of Na2CO3 obtained by this strategy could represent ca. 50% of the world Na2CO3 production in one year. In terms of the green economy, the viability of the strategy is discussed according to the recommendations of the CO2Chem network, and an estimation of the CO2negative emission achieved suggests a capture of around 280.0Mt of CO2 from now to 2020 or ca. 1.9Gt from now to 2050. Finally, the results obtained for this new CDU proposal are discussed by considering different scenarios; the CO2 production in a typical winemaking corporation, the CO2 released in the most relevant wine-producing countries, and the use of CO2 from AFP as an alternative for the top Na2CO3-producing countries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Soybean bio-refinery platform: enzymatic process for production of soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate and fermentable sugar syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, Abdullah Al; Islam, S M Mahfuzul; Li, Qian; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-10-01

    Soybean carbohydrate is often found to limit the use of protein in soy flour as food and animal feed due to its indigestibility to monogastric animal. In the current study, an enzymatic process was developed to produce not only soy protein concentrate and soy protein isolate without indigestible carbohydrate but also soluble reducing sugar as potential fermentation feedstock. For increasing protein content in the product and maximizing protein recovery, the process was optimized to include the following steps: hydrolysis of soy flour using an Aspergillus niger enzyme system; separation of the solid and liquid by centrifugation (10 min at 7500×g); an optional step of washing to remove entrapped hydrolysate from the protein-rich wet solid stream by ethanol (at an ethanol-to-wet-solid ratio (v/w) of 10, resulting in a liquid phase of approximately 60 % ethanol); and a final precipitation of residual protein from the sugar-rich liquid stream by heat treatment (30 min at 95 °C). Starting from 100 g soy flour, this process would produce approximately 54 g soy protein concentrate with 70 % protein (or, including the optional solid wash, 43 g with 80 % protein), 9 g soy protein isolate with 89 % protein, and 280 ml syrup of 60 g/l reducing sugar. The amino acid composition of the soy protein concentrate produced was comparable to that of the starting soy flour. Enzymes produced by three fungal species, A. niger, Trichoderma reesei, and Aspergillus aculeatus, were also evaluated for effectiveness to use in this process.

  6. Characterization and single-stage denitrification anaerobic digestion of spent stream from the hydrolysis-fermentation-combustion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramnik

    The demand for ethanol as an oxygenate and octane booster in automobile fuel is growing. A number of processes are being investigated for conversion of biomass to ethanol. The Hydrolysis-Fermentation-Combustion (HFC) process for fuel ethanol production developed at the University of California Forest Products Laboratory, Richmond, California is at the stage of technology transfer following over two decades of research and development. This study addresses the technology to be used in treatment of spent streams to be discharged from this process. The treatment design combines a single stage denitrification and anaerobic digestion (SSDAD) for the biological treatment of a representative stream from this process. A typical spent stream contained a wide range of soluble organic materials including: unfermented sugars, components of the feedstocks solubilized in the hydrolysis, acid degradation products of carbohydrates, cleavage products of lignin, water-soluble extractives and phenolics, terpenes and other unfermented organic material, and nitrate ion from the nitric acid used as a catalyst in the hydrolysis reaction. Three sets of experiments were conducted in laboratory scale anaerobic digesters. Commonly available anaerobic sludge from local sewage treatment plants was used as a starter seed and was successfully acclimated to the high nitrate substrate leading to enrichment of denitrifiers. Necessary nutrients and trace elements were identified and supplied to satisfy the obligatory requirements of different groups of bacterial groups present. A major finding was the unique role of ammonium hydroxide in controlling pH leading to steady-state operation of the digester. At steady state operation the reduction in COD was 65%, the nitrate reduction was 88% and the nitrite reduction was 100%. Nitrate was reduced to safe nitrogen gas without buildup of any intermediate products. Organic material was converted to useful methane gas and carbon dioxide. The SSDAD system was

  7. Process kinetics and digestion efficiency of anaerobic batch fermentation of brewer`s spent grains (BSG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeonu, F.C.; Okaka, A.N.C. [Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka (Nigeria). Dept. of Applied Biochemistry

    1996-12-31

    The process kinetics of optimized anaerobic batch digestion of brewer`s spent grains (BSG) reveal that biomethanation is essentially a first order reaction interrupted intermittently by mixed order reactions. An apparent cellulose degradation efficiency of approximately 60% and a lignin degradation efficiency of about 40% was observed in the optimized process. Using the Ken and Hashimoto model, the operational efficiency of the digester was determined to be 26%. (author)

  8. Does Lactobacillus plantarum or ultrafiltration process improve Ca, Mg, Zn and P bioavailability from fermented goats' milk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergillos-Meca, Triana; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Artacho, Reyes; Moreno-Montoro, Miriam; Navarro-Alarcón, Miguel; Olalla, Manuel; Giménez, Rafael; Seiquer, Isabel; Ruiz-López, Maria Dolores

    2015-11-15

    Ca, Mg, Zn and P bioavailability from two experimental ultrafiltered fermented goats' milks (one of them with the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum and another one without it), and fermented goats' milk samples available in the market were evaluated. Solubility, dialysability and a model combining simulated gastrointestinal digestion and mineral retention, transport and uptake by Caco-2 cells were used to assess bioavailability. The highest Ca, Mg, Zn and P bioavailability values always corresponded to the fermented milk developed by our research group, which could be explained by the effect of milk ultrafiltration. The fermented milk with L. plantarum showed higher Ca retention than the ones without the microorganism, and major Ca uptake when compared to commercial products. This fact could be attributed to a positive effect exerted by the probiotic strain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual effect of soluble materials in pretreated lignocellulose on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation process for the bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Li, Xia; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Guan, Qi-Man; Zhang, Man-Tong; Li, Wen-Chao; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2017-01-01

    In this study, wash liquors isolated from ethylenediamine and dry dilute acid pretreated corn stover were used to evaluate the effect of soluble materials in pretreated biomass on simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) for ethanol production, respectively. Both of the wash liquors had different impacts on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. Enzymatic conversions of glucan and xylan monotonically decreased as wash liquor concentration increased. Whereas, with low wash liquor concentrations, xylose consumption rate, cell viability and ethanol yield were maximally stimulated in fermentation without nutrient supplementary. Soluble lignins were found as the key composition which promoted sugars utilization and cell viability without nutrient supplementary. The dual effects of soluble materials on enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation resulted in the reduction of ethanol yield as soluble materials increased in SSCF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improvement of the energy conversion efficiency of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass by a three-stage process comprising dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ao; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Lin, Richen; Huang, Rui; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2013-10-01

    The effects of pre-treatment methods on saccharification and hydrogen fermentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa biomass were investigated. When raw biomass and biomass pre-treated by steam heating, by microwave heating, and by ultrasonication were used as feedstock, the hydrogen yields were only 8.8-12.7 ml/g total volatile solids (TVS) during dark fermentation. When biomass was pre-treated by steam heating with diluted acid and by microwave heating with diluted acid, the dark hydrogen yields significantly increased to 75.6 ml/g TVS and 83.3 ml/g TVS, respectively. Steam heating with diluted acid is the preferred pre-treatment method of C. pyrenoidosa biomass to improve hydrogen yield during dark fermentation and photofermentation, which is followed by methanogenesis to increase energy conversion efficiency (ECE). A total hydrogen yield of 198.3 ml/g TVS and a methane yield of 186.2 ml/g TVS corresponding to an overall ECE of 34.0% were obtained through the three-stage process (dark fermentation, photofermentation, and methanogenesis). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. New process controls in the co-fermentation of organic waste and municipal sewage sludge; Neue Verfahrensfuehrungen bei der Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und kommunalen Klaerschlaemmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaepers, D.; Schierholt, M.; Buer, T.; Risse, H. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Siedlungswasserwirtschaft (ISA)

    1999-07-01

    For the co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge in digester towers at municipal sewage treatment plant, mainly single-stage processes have so far been studied or are in use in part. Within the framework of a project sponsored by the foundation Oswald-Schulze-Stiftung, the use of a two-stage mode of operation (thermophilic/mesophilic) for co-fermenting organic waste and sewage sludge was investigated. By adding organic waste to the digester content, biogas production per reactor volume was more than doubled in comparison with exclusive sewage sludge fermentation. Because of the thermophilic stage for the conditioning of organic waste, specific biogas yield for an organic load of 1.5 kg organic dry residue TR/m{sup 3*}d was slightly enhanced in comparison with single-stage co-fermentation. (orig.) [German] Zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm in Faultuermen kommunaler Klaeranlagen werden bislang hauptsaechlich einstufige Verfahren untersucht und teilweise eingesetzt. Im Rahmen eines von der Oswald-Schulze-Stiftung gefoerderten Projektes wurde der Einsatz einer 2-stufigen Betriebsweise (thermophil/mesophil) bei der Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm untersucht. Die Biogasproduktion pro Reaktorvolumen konnte durch die Zugabe von Bioabfall in die Faulbehaelter gegenueber der reinen Klaerschlammfaulung mehr als verdoppelt werden. Durch die thermophile Stufe zur Vorbehandlung der Bioabfaelle konnte die spezifische Biogasausbeute bei einer organischen Raumbelastung von 1,5 kg o TR/m{sup 3*}d gegenueber der 1-stufigen Co-Vergaerung leicht erhoeht werden. (orig.)

  12. Fermentation du citron par inoculation microbienne | Bousmaha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work attempts to replace the traditional process known in Morocco by a controlled process allowing the fermentation and the preservation of lemon. We isolated and selected lactic bacteria and yeasts with big acidifying capacity and with high fermentative potential able to preserve and to ferment in a natural way ...

  13. Fermented Nut-Based Vegan Food: Characterization of a Home made Product and Scale-Up to an Industrial Pilot-Scale Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabanelli, Giulia; Pasini, Federica; Riciputi, Ylenia; Vannini, Lucia; Gozzi, Giorgia; Balestra, Federica; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza; Gardini, Fausto; Montanari, Chiara

    2018-03-01

    Because of the impossibility to consume food of animal origin, vegan consumers are looking for substitutes that could enrich their diet. Among many substitutes, fermented nut products are made from different nut types and obtained after soaking, grinding, and fermentation. Although other fermented vegetable products have been deeply investigated, there are few data about the fermentative processes of nut-based products and the microbial consortia able to colonize these products are not yet studied. This study characterized a hand-made vegan product obtained from cashew nut. Lactic acid bacteria responsible for fermentation were identified, revealing a succession of hetero- and homo-fermentative species during process. Successively, some lactic acid bacteria isolates from the home-made vegan product were used for a pilot-scale fermentation. The products obtained were characterized and showed features similar to the home-made one, although the microbiological hazards have been prevented through proper and rapid acidification, enhancing their safety features. Spontaneous fermented products are valuable sources of microorganisms that can be used in many food processes as starter cultures. The lactic acid bacteria isolated in this research can be exploited by industries to develop new foods and therefore to enter new markets. The use of selected starter cultures guarantees good organoleptic characteristics and food safety (no growth of pathogens). © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  14. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Rosario del P., E-mail: rosariocastillo@udec.cl [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Araya, Juan [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Troncoso, Eduardo [Consorcio Bioenercel S.A, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita [Biotechnology Center, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile); Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of Concepcion, Concepcion (Chile)

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required.

  15. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Rosario del P.; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) – Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required

  16. On the catabolism of amino acids in the yeast Dekkera bruxellensis and the implications for industrial fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Denise Castro; Cajueiro, Danielli Batista Bezerra; Moreno, Irina Charlot Peña; Leite, Fernanda Cristina Bezerra; De Barros Pita, Will; De Morais, Marcos Antonio

    2018-03-01

    In the last years several reports have reported the capacity of the yeast Dekkera (Brettanomyces) bruxellensis to survive and adapt to the industrial process of alcoholic fermentation. Much of this feature seems to relate to the ability to assimilate limiting sources of nutrients, or somehow some that are inaccessible to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in particular the sources of nitrogen. Among them, amino acids (AA) are relevant in terms of beverage musts, and could also be important for bioethanol. In view of the limited knowledge on the control of AA, the present work combines physiological and genetic studies to understand how it operates in D. bruxellensis in response to oxygen availibility. The results allowed separation of the AA in three groups of preferentiality and showed that glutamine is the preferred AA irrespective of the presence of oxygen. Glutamate and aspartate were also preferred AA in anaerobiosis, as indicated by the physiological data. Gene expression experiments showed that, apart from the conventional nitrogen catabolic repression mechanism that is operating in aerobiosis, there seems to be an oxygen-independent mechanism acting to overexpress key genes like GAP1, GDH1, GDH2 and GLT1 to ensure adequate anaerobic growth even in the presence of non-preferential nitrogen source. This could be of major importance for the industrial fitness of this yeast species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Homogenization of Cocoa Beans Fermentation to Upgrade Quality Using an Original Improved Fermenter

    OpenAIRE

    Aka S. Koffi; N'Goran Yao; Philippe Bastide; Denis Bruneau; Diby Kadjo

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cocoa L.) are the main components for chocolate manufacturing. The beans must be correctly fermented at first. Traditional process to perform the first fermentation (lactic fermentation) often consists in confining cacao beans using banana leaves or a fermentation basket, both of them leading to a poor product thermal insulation and to an inability to mix the product. Box fermenter reduces this loss by using a wood with large thickness (e>3cm), but mixing to homogenize ...

  18. Electro-Fermentation - Merging Electrochemistry with Fermentation in Industrial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schievano, Andrea; Pepé Sciarria, Tommy; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien; De Wever, Heleen; Puig, Sebastià; Andersen, Stephen J; Rabaey, Korneel; Pant, Deepak

    2016-11-01

    Electro-fermentation (EF) merges traditional industrial fermentation with electrochemistry. An imposed electrical field influences the fermentation environment and microbial metabolism in either a reductive or oxidative manner. The benefit of this approach is to produce target biochemicals with improved selectivity, increase carbon efficiency, limit the use of additives for redox balance or pH control, enhance microbial growth, or in some cases enhance product recovery. We discuss the principles of electrically driven fermentations and how EF can be used to steer both pure culture and microbiota-based fermentations. An overview is given on which advantages EF may bring to both existing and innovative industrial fermentation processes, and which doors might be opened in waste biomass utilization towards added-value biorefineries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Improvement of gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse by dark fermentation followed by biomethanation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sinu; Das, Debabrata

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to enhance the gaseous energy recovery from sugarcane bagasse. The two stage (biohydrogen and biomethanation) batch process was considered under mesophilic condition. Alkali pretreatment (ALP) was used to remove lignin from sugarcane bagasse. This enhanced the enzymatic digestibility of bagasse to a great extent. The maximum lignin removal of 60% w/w was achieved at 0.25 N NaOH concentration (50°C, 30 min). The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency was increased to about 2.6-folds with alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse as compared to untreated one. The maximum hydrogen and methane yields from the treated sugarcane bagasse by biohydrogen and biomethanation processes were 93.4 mL/g-VS and 221.8 mL/g-VS respectively. This process resulted in significant increase in energy conversion efficiency (44.8%) as compared to single stage hydrogen production process (5.4%). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficient ethanol recovery from fermentation broths with integrated distillation-vapor permeation hybrid process

    Science.gov (United States)

    The energy demand of distillation-molecular sieve systems for ethanol recovery/dehydration can be significant, particularly for dilute solutions. An alternative hybrid process integrating vapor stripping (like a beer still) with vapor compression and a vapor permeation membrane s...

  1. Secretome analysis of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger cultivated by submerged and sequential fermentation processes: Enzyme production for sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florencio, Camila; Cunha, Fernanda M; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S; Ximenes, Eduardo; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-08-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger have been shown to be powerful enzymes for biomass conversion to sugars, but the production costs are still relatively high for commercial application. The choice of an effective microbial cultivation process employed for enzyme production is important, since it may affect titers and the profile of protein secretion. We used proteomic analysis to characterize the secretome of T. reesei and A. niger cultivated in submerged and sequential fermentation processes. The information gained was key to understand differences in hydrolysis of steam exploded sugarcane bagasse for enzyme cocktails obtained from two different cultivation processes. The sequential process for cultivating A. niger gave xylanase and β-glucosidase activities 3- and 8-fold higher, respectively, than corresponding activities from the submerged process. A greater protein diversity of critical cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes were also observed through secretome analyses. These results helped to explain the 3-fold higher yield for hydrolysis of non-washed pretreated bagasse when combined T. reesei and A. niger enzyme extracts from sequential fermentation were used in place of enzymes obtained from submerged fermentation. An enzyme loading of 0.7 FPU cellulase activity/g glucan was surprisingly effective when compared to the 5-15 times more enzyme loadings commonly reported for other cellulose hydrolysis studies. Analyses showed that more than 80% consisted of proteins other than cellulases whose role is important to the hydrolysis of a lignocellulose substrate. Our work combined proteomic analyses and enzymology studies to show that sequential and submerged cultivation methods differently influence both titers and secretion profile of key enzymes required for the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse. The higher diversity of feruloyl esterases, xylanases and other auxiliary hemicellulolytic enzymes observed in the enzyme

  2. The design and characterisation of miniature bioreactors for microbial fermentation process development.

    OpenAIRE

    Betts, J. I.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the design and characterisation of miniature bioreactors and evaluates their potential as a scale-down device for microbial cultivation processes. Miniature bioreactors, such as the one detailed in this work, have been developed by many research groups and companies, and seek to increase throughput at the early stages of bioprocess development. Power input was measured in two prototype stirred-tank miniature bioreactors (10 ml and 25 ml) as a function of impeller speed ...

  3. Novel micronized woody biomass process for production of cost-effective clean fermentable sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu; Gu, Bon-Jae; Wang, Jinwu; Gao, Johnway; Ganjyal, Girish M; Wolcott, Michael P

    2018-03-29

    Thermo-chemical pretreatments of biomass typically result in environmental impacts from water use and emission. The degradation byproducts in the resulting sugars can be inhibitory to the activities of enzymes and yeasts. The results of this study showed that combining existing commercial comminution technology can reduce total energy consumption with improved saccharification yield while eliminating chemical use. Impact mill was found to be the most efficient milling for size reduction of forest residual chips from ca. 2 mm to a specific value below 100 µm. The further micronization effectively disrupted the recalcitrance of the woody biomass and produced the highly saccharifiable substrates for downstream processing. In addition, extrusion can be integrated into a clean cellulosic sugar process for further fibrillation in place of the conventional mixing processing. The highest energy efficiency was observed on the impact-milled samples with 0.515 kg sugars kWh -1 . Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ethanol addition enhances acid treatment to eliminate Lactobacillus fermentum from the fermentation process for fuel ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M A S; Cerri, B C; Ceccato-Antonini, S R

    2018-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the most critical steps of the fuel ethanol production and it is directly influenced by the fermentation system, selected yeast, and bacterial contamination, especially from the genus Lactobacillus. To control the contamination, the industry applies antibiotics and biocides; however, these substances can result in an increased cost and environmental problems. The use of the acid treatment of cells (water-diluted sulphuric acid, adjusted to pH 2·0-2·5) between the fermentation cycles is not always effective to combat the bacterial contamination. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of ethanol addition to the acid treatment to control the bacterial growth in a fed-batch system with cell recycling, using the industrial yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae PE-2. When only the acid treatment was used, the population of Lactobacillus fermentum had a 3-log reduction at the end of the sixth fermentation cycle; however, when 5% of ethanol was added to the acid solution, the viability of the bacterium was completely lost even after the first round of cell treatment. The acid treatment +5% ethanol was able to kill L. fermentum cells without affecting the ethanol yield and with a low residual sugar concentration in the fermented must. In Brazilian ethanol-producing industry, water-diluted sulphuric acid is used to treat the cell mass at low pH (2·0) between the fermentative cycles. This procedure reduces the number of Lactobacillus fermentum from 10 7 to 10 4  CFU per ml. However, the addition of 5% ethanol to the acid treatment causes the complete loss of bacterial cell viability in fed-batch fermentation with six cell recycles. The ethanol yield and yeast cell viability are not affected. These data indicate the feasibility of adding ethanol to the acid solution replacing the antibiotic use, offering a low cost and a low amount of residue in the biomass. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  5. Recombinant Zymomonas for pentose fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  6. Pentose fermentation by recombinant zymomonas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picataggio, Stephen K.; Zhang, Min; Eddy, Christina K.; Deanda, Kristine A.; Finkelstein, Mark; Mohagheghi, Ali; Newman, Mildred M.; McMillan, James D.

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to microorganisms which normally do not ferment pentose sugar and which are genetically altered to ferment pentose sugar to produce ethanol, and fermentation processes utilizing the same. Examples include Zymomonas mobilis which has been transformed with combinations of E. coli genes for xylose isomerase, xylulokinase, transaldolase, transketolase, L-arabinose isomerase, L-ribulokinase, and L-ribulose 5-phosphate 4-epimerase. Expression of the added genes are under the control of Zymomonas mobilis promoters. These newly created microorganisms are useful for fermenting pentoses and glucose, produced by hydrolysis of hemicellulose and cellulose, to produce ethanol.

  7. The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes using a novel fermenter separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, M.C.; Venkatesh, K.V.; Choi, Hojoon; Moelhman, M.; Saliceti, L.; Okos, M.R.; Wankat, P.C.

    1991-12-01

    During 1991, considerable progress was made on the waste utilization project. Two small Wisconsin companies have expressed an interest in promoting and developing the ICRS technology. Pilot plant sites at (1) Hopkinton, IA, for a sweet whey plant, and Beaver Dam WI, for an acid whey site have been under development siting ICRS operations. The Hopkinton, IA site is owned and operated by Permeate Refining Inc., who have built a batch ethanol plant across the street from Swiss Valley Farms cheddar cheese operations. Permeate from Swiss Valley is piped across to PRI. PRI has signed a contract to site a 300--500,000 gallon/yr to ICRS pilot plant. They feel that the lower labor, lower energy, continuous process offered by the ICRS will substantially improve their profitability. Catalytics, Inc, is involved with converting whey from a Kraft cream cheese operation to ethanol and yeast. A complete project including whey concentration, sterilization, and yeast growth has been designed for this site. Process design improvements with the ICRS focussed on ethanol recovery techniques during this year's project. A solvent absorption/extractive distillation (SAED) process has been developed which offers the capability of obtaining an anhydrous ethanol product from vapors off 3 to 9% ethanol solutions using very little energy for distillation. Work on products from waste streams was also performed. a. Diacetyl as a high value flavor compound was very successfully produced in a Stirred Tank Reactor w/Separation. b. Yeast production from secondary carbohydrates in the whey, lactic acid, and glycerol was studied. c. Lactic acid production from cellulose and lactose studies continued. d. Production of anti-fungal reagents by immobilized plant cells; Gossypol has antifungal properties and is produced by G. arboretum.

  8. Microbial Protein Production from Candida tropicalis ATCC13803 in a Submerged Batch Fermentation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Golaghaiee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Microbial protein production can resolve one of the major world challenges, i.e. lack of protein sources. Candida tropicalis growth was investigated to specify a medium to reach the highest cell proliferation and protein production.Material and Methods: Fractional factorial design and the index of signal to noise ratio were applied for optimization of microbial protein production. Optimization process was conducted based on the experimental results of Taguchi approach designs. Fermentationwas performed at 25oC and the agitation speed of 300 rpm for 70 h. Ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose concentrations were considered as process variables. Optimization of the culture medium composition was conducted in order to obtain the highest cell biomass concentration and protein content. Experiment design was performed based on the Taguchi approach and L-16 orthogonal arrays using Qualitek-4 software.Results and Conclusion: Maximum biomass of 8.72 log (CFU ml-1 was obtained using the optimized medium with 0.3, 0.15, 2 and 80 g l-1 of ammonium sulfate, iron sulfate, glycine and glucose, respectively. Iron sulfate and ammonium sulfate with 41.76% (w w-1 and 35.27% (w w-1 contributions, respectively, were recognized as the main components for cell growth. Glucose and glycine with 17.12% and 5.86% (w w-1 contributions,respectively, also affected cell production. The highest interaction severity index of +54.16% was observed between glycine and glucose while the least one of +0.43% was recorded for ammonium sulfate and glycine. A deviation of 7% between the highestpredicted cell numbers and the experimented count confirms the suitability of the applied statistical method. High protein content of 52.16% (w w-1 as well as low fat and nucleic acids content suggest that Candida tropicalis is a suitable case for commercial processes.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  9. Real-time economic optimization for a fermentation process using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Jørgensen, John Bagterp

    2014-01-01

    and demonstrate its usefulness in economic optimization. The model is formulated as an index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE), which guarantees conservation of mass and energy in discrete form. The optimization is based on recent advances within Economic Nonlinear Model Predictive Control (E......-NMPC), and also utilizes the index-1 DAE model. The E-NMPC uses the single-shooting method and the adjoint method for computation of the optimization gradients. The process constraints are relaxed to soft-constraints on the outputs. Finally we derive the analytical solution to the economic optimization problem...

  10. Ethanol production from ensiled rice straw and whole-crop silage by the simultaneous enzymatic saccharification and fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinozaki, Yukiko; Kitamoto, Hiroko K

    2011-03-01

    Silage production from rice straw and whole-plant forage paddy rice is increasing in Japan because of decrease in rice consumption. One potential use for this silage is bioethanol production. In this study, we analyzed the effectiveness of three different commercially available cellulases at saccharification of sun-dried rice straw, ensiled rice straw, and rice whole-crop silage (WCS). Furthermore, the ethanol productivity of the simultaneous saccharification and ethanol fermentation process (SSF) from the same plant substrates was analyzed. Among the three kinds of cellulases tested (Novozymes NS50013, Genencor GC220, and Acremonium cellulase), Acremonium cellulase showed the highest ethanol production for the three plant substrates, and the WCS produced the highest ethanol level. Analysis of the enzymatic degradation activity of the cellulases revealed that Acremonium cellulase contained remarkably high glucoamylase and pectinase side activities relative to the other cellulase preparations. The addition of glucoamylase and pectinase to the other two cellulases significantly increased ethanol productivity to levels observed for the Acremonium cellulase preparation, which showed little enhanced performance with the addition of the same enzymes. Finally, we tested whether milling and sterilization had an effect on ethanol production and found that sterilized silage produced higher ethanol levels but that the milling process had no significant effect. These results show that (i) silage made from whole-plant rice can be used for bioethanol production and (ii) the proper selection and combination of commercially available enzymes can make SSF more cost efficient by removing the need for a pre-treatment step. Copyright © 2010 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen and methane production, energy recovery, and organic matter removal from effluents in a two-stage fermentative process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Guilherme; Pantoja-Filho, Jorge Luis Rodrigues; Agnelli, José Augusto Bolzan; Barboza, Marlei; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluates the potential for using different effluents for simultaneous H(2) and CH(4) production in a two-stage batch fermentation process with mixed microflora. An appreciable amount of H(2) was produced from parboiled rice wastewater (23.9 mL g(-1) chemical oxygen demand [COD]) and vinasse (20.8 mL g(-1) COD), while other effluents supported CH(4) generation. The amount of CH(4) produced was minimum for sewage (46.3 mL g(-1) COD), followed by parboiled rice wastewater (115.5 mL g(-1) COD) and glycerol (180.1 mL g(-1) COD). The maximum amount of CH(4) was observed for vinasse (255.4 mL g(-1) COD). The total energy recovery from vinasse (10.4 kJ g(-1) COD) corresponded to the maximum COD reduction (74.7 %), followed by glycerol (70.38 %, 7.20 kJ g(-1) COD), parboiled rice wastewater (63.91 %, 4.92 kJ g(-1) COD), and sewage (51.11 %, 1.85 kJ g(-1) COD). The relatively high performance of vinasse in such comparisons could be attributed to the elevated concentrations of macronutrients contained in raw vinasse. The observations are based on kinetic parameters of H(2) and CH(4) production and global energy recovery of the process. These observations collectively suggest that organic-rich effluents can be deployed for energy recovery with sequential generation of H(2) and CH(4).

  12. Disturbances of spontaneous empathic processing relate with the severity of the negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia: a behavioural pilot-study using virtual reality technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirioux, Bérangère; Tandonnet, Louis; Jaafari, Nematollah; Berthoz, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Behavioural and neuroimaging data have recently pointed out that empathy (feeling into someone else) is associated with mental imagery and transformation related to one's and other's visuo-spatial perspectives. Impairments of both empathic and visuo-spatial abilities have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Especially, it has been suggested that schizophrenics are altered in spontaneously simulating another individual's first-person experience. However, there is so far only little evidence regarding the relationship between deficits in empathy and disturbances in spontaneous heterocentered coding in schizophrenia. In the present pilot-study, we tested with schizophrenic patients our behavioural paradigm that enables to measure from the bodily postures and movements whether individuals in ecologically more valid conditions are interacting with another individual by using egocentered - as in sympathy (feeling with someone else) - or heterocentered - as in empathy - visuo-spatial mechanisms. For that, ten patients and ten controls, standing and moving, interacted with a virtual tightrope walker, displayed life-sized, standing and moving as well. We show that patients with higher negative symptoms had, in most cases, deficits in spontaneously using heterocentered visuo-spatial mechanisms and employed preferentially an egocentered referencing to interact with the avatar. In contrast, preserved spontaneous heterocentered visuo-spatial strategies were not linked to a prevailing negative or positive symptomatology. Our data suggest that the severity of the negative symptoms in schizophrenia relates with disturbances of spontaneous ("on-line") empathic processing in association with lower scoring self-reported trait cognitive empathy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Health benefits of fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şanlier, Nevin; Gökcen, Büşra Başar; Sezgin, Aybüke Ceyhun

    2017-09-25

    In the past, the beneficial effects of fermented foods on health were unknown, and so people primarily used fermentation to preserve foods, enhance shelf life, and improve flavour. Fermented foods became an important part of the diet in many cultures, and over time fermentation has been associated with many health benefits. Because of this, the fermentation process and the resulting fermented products have recently attracted scientific interest. In addition, microorganisms contributing to the fermentation process have recently been associated with many health benefits, and so these microorganisms have become another focus of attention. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been some of the most studied microorganisms. During fermentation, these bacteria synthesize vitamins and minerals, produce biologically active peptides with enzymes such as proteinase and peptidase, and remove some non-nutrients. Compounds known as biologically active peptides, which are produced by the bacteria responsible for fermentation, are also well known for their health benefits. Among these peptides, conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have a blood pressure lowering effect, exopolysaccharides exhibit prebiotic properties, bacteriocins show anti-microbial effects, sphingolipids have anti-carcinogenic and anti-microbial properties, and bioactive peptides exhibit anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, opioid antagonist, anti-allergenic, and blood pressure lowering effects. As a result, fermented foods provide many health benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, some studies have shown no relationship between fermented foods and health benefits. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the health effects of fermented foods.

  14. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  15. Scale-up fermentation of oil palm empty fruit bunch to produce ruminant feed by radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awang, M.R.; Mutaat, H.H.; Deres, R.M.; Kume, Tamikazu.

    1992-01-01

    Scale-up fermentation and irradiation conditions of empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm were examined to produce a large amount of fermented products for animal feeds. The EFB substrates pasteurized by irradiation were inoculated with Coprinus cinereus. After 1 month incubation, the crude fiber contents decreased to 20 - 38% and crude protein contents increased to 9 - 13% in small scale fermentation using conical flask (6 - 20 g EFB). In the case of fermentation using polypropylene bags with 400 g EFB, crude fiber and protein contents were 32 - 34% and 11 - 14%, respectively. A larger plastic container packed with 1.5 kg EFB fiber of 10cm thickness was used for mushroom cultivation. After harvest of mushroom (yields were about 250 g per container), the quality of residual substrates improved further as reflected by its crude fiber content of only 16 - 20%, crude protein content of 6 - 8%. These results show that a large volume of products are available under the good aeration by increasing the number of plastic bags or containers. For the irradiation of a lot of fermentation substrates, the advantage of 60 Co gamma-ray and electron beam irradiator was also discussed. (author)

  16. Prompt Gamma-Ray Spectroscopy of Neutron-Rich Nuclides Produced in the Spontaneous Fission Process of CALIFORNIUM-252

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Moore, S. Kyle

    Nuclear spectroscopy was performed on neutron -rich nuclides produced by the spontaneous fission process of ^{252}Cf. The data were taken with the Compton-suppressed Ge-detector spectrometer at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. The prompt gamma-ray transitions were isolated by using gamma-gamma and gamma-gamma -gamma coincidence techniques. Nine new states were observed in ^ {110}Ru, four of which constitute a gamma band structure up to J^pi = 7^+, and an additional J ^pi = 12^+ state which was assigned to the yrast band. The level scheme of ^{110}Ru is compared to ^{104}Ru and ^{192}Os, the latter of which shares with ^{110}Ru the distinction of having the lowest gamma-bandhead. Calculations with both the gamma-rigid triaxial nuclear model and the IBA O(6) Hamiltonian gave acceptable fits for the yrast band, but predicted a doublet clustering of states for the gamma-band, which was not observed experimentally. Studies of nuclei around doubly magic ^{132}Sn revealed for the first time energy levels of ^{136}Te and new high spin states in ^{134} Te, ^{138,140}Xe, and ^{140}Ba. The states in the yrast band of the N = 84 isotones ^ {136}Te, ^{138} Xe, and ^{140}Ba were determined up to 12^+, 12 ^+ and 8^+, respectively. The discovery of the 6^+ states provided an almost complete energy level systematics for the N = 84 isotones in the pseudo-spin f_{7/2 } shell. The energy levels of the isotopes ^{136}Te and ^{138}Xe were shown to exhibit remarkable similarities to the isotopes ^ {204}Po and ^{206 }Rn. This approximate symmetry was ascribed to the underlying shell model structure. Based upon the shell model calculations for ^{204 }Po, the 8^+, 10 ^+, and 12^+ states of ^{136}Te were hypothesized to involve core excitations of ^{134 }Sn. The higher spin states of the neutron-rich Pd isotopes ^{110,112,114}Pd were identified. Their moments of inertia exhibit backbending above spin 6^+. Cranked shell model calculations indicated that the backbendings observed at

  17. Impact of pre-selected autochthonous starter cultures on the flavor quality of Iberian dry-fermented "salchichón" sausage with different ripening processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquete, Rocío; Martín, Alberto; Benito, María José; Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Nevado, Francisco Pérez; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact on flavor quality of 2 autochthonous starter cultures in the manufacture of Iberian dry-fermented "sálchichón." A total of 2 strains of Pediococcus acidilactici (MS200 and MS198) were combined individually with a strain of Staphylococcus vitulus (RS34) to obtain 2 starter cultures: P200S34 and P198S34. The ability of both starter cultures to implant during 2 different manufacturing procedures of "salchichón" was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Changes due to starter culture inoculations on volatile compounds were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and the impact on flavor quality evaluated by sensorial analysis. The implantation of starter cultures was adequate and did not significantly modify the flavor of the traditional Iberian dry-fermented "salchichón," while modulating the volatile compound profile with respect to that found in sausages with wild microbial populations. The influence of the starter cultures studied was more evident in the shorter sausage processing time. P198S34 was related with the increase in some volatile compounds deriving from lipid degradation. P200S34 contributed to the formation of several volatile compounds arising from lipid degradation, amino acid catabolism, and microbial esterase activity. P200S34 and P198S34 are autochthonous starter cultures for specific use in the processing of Iberian dry-fermented sausages. The application of these starters allows obtaining Iberian dry-fermented sausages with sensorial characteristics standardized. It is greatly interesting for processing and marketing industry of these high-quality meat products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Production of exopolysaccharides by Acinetobacter strains in a controlled fed-batch fermentation process using soap stock oil (SSO) as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Y

    1990-04-01

    The production of two extracellular capsular heteropolysaccharides by two different Acinetobacter strains has been studied in separate controlled fermentation processes with a view to their industrial applications as specific dispersing agents. The first, emulsan, is an extracellular polyanionic amphipathic heteropolysaccharide (MW 10(6) D) made by A. calcoaceticus RAG-1. It forms and stabilizes oil in water emulsions. The other, biodispersan (PS-A2), is another extracellular zwitterionic heteropolysaccharide (MW 51 kD) made by A. calcoaceticus A2. This polysaccharide disperses big solid limestone granules forming micron-size water suspension. Both polysaccharides are synthesized within the cells, exported to their outer surface to form an extracellular cell-associated capsule and released subsequently into the growth medium. The polymers were produced in a computer-controlled fed-batch intensively aerated fermentation process. A commercially available and cheap fatty acids mixture (soap stock oil) served as the carbon source, and was fed in coordination with the required nitrogen. The coordinated feed of carbon and nitrogen was operated on the basis of two metabolic correlations: The first correlation related the cell protein produced and the ammonium nitrogen consumed with the outcoming coeffients of 24 and 21 mM NH3/g protein for the emulsan and the biodispersan fermentations respectively. The second correlation linked the consumption of the fatty acids with that of the nitrogen source dictating the appropriate C/N ratio of the feed into the operating fermentor. These ratios were 7.7 g C/g N for the emulsan fermentation and 8.5 gC/g N in the case of the biodispersan production process.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Enhanced dark fermentative biohydrogen production from marine macroalgae Padina tetrastromatica by different pretreatment processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine macroalgae are promising substrates for biofuel production. Pretreating macroalgae with chemicals could remove microbial inhibitors and enhance the accessibility of the microorganisms involved in the process to the substrates leading to increased product yield. In the present study, Padina tetrastromatica a seaweed species was subjected to different chemical pretreatment in order to remove phenolic content and to enhance biohydrogen production. Different mineral acids (i.e., HCl, H2SO4, and HNO3 and bases (NaOH and KOH were applied for effective pretreatment of the seaweed. Dilute sulphuric acid treatment of seaweed resulted in the highest cumulative biohydrogen production of 78 ± 2.9 mL/0.05 g VS and reduced phenolic content to 1.6 ±0.072 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g. Optimization of three variables for pretreatment (i.e., substrate concentration, acid concentration, and reaction time was examined by Response Surface Methodology. After the optimization of the pretreatment conditions, phenolic content was decreased to 0.06 mg GAE/g. and enhanced biohydrogen production was observed. Structural changes due to pretreatment was studied by FTIR and XRD analyses. The results clearly indicated that the dilute sulphuric acid pretreatment was effective in removing phenolic content and enhancing biohydrogen production.

  20. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Dragiša S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The baking of sourdough breads represents one of the oldest biotechnological processes. Despite traditionality, sourdough bread has great potential because of its benefits. Sourdough is a mixture of flour and water that is dominated by a complex microflora composed of yeasts and lactic acid bacteria that are crucial in the preparation of bread dough. Lactic acid bacteria cause acidification by producing lactic acid that increases the shelf life of bread by preventing the growth of undesirable microorganisms and affects the nutritional value of bread by increasing the availability of minerals. In addition to these advantages, the use of sourdough fermentation also improves dough machinability, breadcrumb structure and the characteristic flavour of bread. Lactic acid bacteria in sourdough fermentation are well known representing both homofermentative and heterofermentative bacteria. They may originate from selected natural contaminants in the flour or from a starter culture containing one or more known species of lactic acid bacteria. Sourdough can be cultivated in bakeries or obtained from commercial suppliers. However, many bakeries in Europe still use spontaneously fermented sourdoughs, which have been kept metabolically active for decades by the addition of flour and water at regular intervals. The impact of lactic acid bacteria on sourdough fermentation and their influence on dough and bread quality was discussed on the basis of research and literature data.

  1. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  2. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Sójka, Michał; Jurgoński, Adam; Zduńczyk, Zenon

    2015-12-21

    Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs) with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2) characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively) and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively). Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  3. Ellagitannins and Flavan-3-ols from Raspberry Pomace Modulate Caecal Fermentation Processes and Plasma Lipid Parameters in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Fotschki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Raspberry pomace is a source of polyphenols, which nutritional and health promoting properties are not sufficiently known. The aim of this 8-weeks study was to scrutinize if raspberry extracts (REs with different ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratios might favorably affect the caecal fermentation processes and blood lipid profile in rats. Forty male Wistar rats were fed with a standard diet or its modification with two types of REs (E1 and E2 characterized by different ratios of ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols (7.7 and 3.1 for E1 and E2, respectively and added to a diet at two dosages of polyphenolic compounds (0.15 and 0.30% of a diet; L and H treatments, respectively. Irrespective of polyphenols dietary level, both REs reduced the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase, increased production of butyric acid in the caecum and reduced triacylglycerols in blood plasma. The E1 treatment at both dosages caused more effective reduction in the concentration of ammonia and elevated acetate level in the caecal digesta than E2. On the other hand, only the E2 treatment lowered value of the atherogenic index when compared with control group. When comparing dosages of REs, a higher one was more potent to reduce the activity of bacterial β-glucosidase, β-, α-galactosidase and lowered value of the HDL profile in plasma. To conclude, REs may favorably modulate the activity of the caecal microbiota and blood lipid profile in rats; however, the intensity of these effects may be related to the dosages of dietary polyphenols and to their profile, e.g., ellagitannins to flavan-3-ols ratio.

  4. Optimization and microbial community analysis for production of biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent by thermophilic fermentative process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasertsan, Poonsuk [Department of Industrial Biotechnology, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); Palm Oil Product and Technology Research Center, Faculty of Agro-Industry, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90112 (Thailand); O-Thong, Sompong [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Thaksin University, Phatthalung 93110 (Thailand); Birkeland, Nils-Kaare [Department of Biology and Centre for Geobiology, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7800