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Sample records for spontaneous evaluation condition

  1. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.

    1982-01-01

    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  2. Group-theoretic condition for spontaneous CP violation

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    Haber, Howard E.; Surujon, Ze'ev

    2012-10-01

    We formulate the necessary conditions for a scalar potential to exhibit spontaneous CP violation. Associated with each complex scalar field is a U(1) symmetry that may be explicitly broken by terms in the scalar potential (called spurions). In order for CP-odd phases in the vacuum to be physical, these phases must be related to spontaneously broken U(1) generators that are also explicitly broken by a sufficient number of inequivalent spurions. In the case where the vacuum is characterized by a single complex phase, our result implies that the phase must be associated with a U(1) generator that is broken explicitly by at least two inequivalent spurions. A suitable generalization of this result to the case of multiple complex phases has also been obtained. These conditions may be used both to distinguish models capable of spontaneous CP violation and as a model building technique for obtaining spontaneously CP-violating deformations of CP-conserving models. As an example, we analyze the generic two Higgs doublet model, where we also carry out a complete spurion analysis. We also comment on other models with spontaneous CP violation, including the chiral Lagrangian, a minimal version of the Nelson-Barr model, and little Higgs models with spontaneous CP violation.

  3. Spontaneous decisions and operant conditioning in fruit flies.

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    Brembs, Björn

    2011-05-01

    Already in the 1930s Skinner, Konorski and colleagues debated the commonalities, differences and interactions among the processes underlying what was then known as "conditioned reflexes type I and II", but which is today more well-known as classical (Pavlovian) and operant (instrumental) conditioning. Subsequent decades of research have confirmed that the interactions between the various learning systems engaged during operant conditioning are complex and difficult to disentangle. Today, modern neurobiological tools allow us to dissect the biological processes underlying operant conditioning and study their interactions. These processes include initiating spontaneous behavioral variability, world-learning and self-learning. The data suggest that behavioral variability is generated actively by the brain, rather than as a by-product of a complex, noisy input-output system. The function of this variability, in part, is to detect how the environment responds to such actions. World-learning denotes the biological process by which value is assigned to environmental stimuli. Self-learning is the biological process which assigns value to a specific action or movement. In an operant learning situation using visual stimuli for flies, world-learning inhibits self-learning via a prominent neuropil region, the mushroom-bodies. Only extended training can overcome this inhibition and lead to habit formation by engaging the self-learning mechanism. Self-learning transforms spontaneous, flexible actions into stereotyped, habitual responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...... by the histamine content of the adhering basophils. The spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin was higher than to laminin and collagen type I. Both spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA...

  5. Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greyson, N.D.; Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using 99 /sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase

  6. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified by the...

  7. Evaluation of mass distribution data from 252Cf spontaneous fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    2003-01-01

    The mass distribution data of 252 Cf spontaneous fission were evaluated based on 7 sets of available experimental data. The measured data were corrected for the standards and γ intensity used by using the new evaluated ones. The errors were made necessary adjusting. The evaluated experimental data were fitted with spline function without any restriction and with symmetric restriction. These two sets of fit data were recommended as reference data of the mass distribution of 252 Cf spontaneous fission. The errors of the recommended data were considerably reduced comparing with the measured ones. The light and heavy peaks are not completely symmetric. Also there are fine structures on the right side of the light peak at A=109-111 and left side of the heavy peak at A=137-139. These should be paid attention and studied further. (author)

  8. EVALUATION OF BROWN COAL SPONTANEOUS COMBUSTION AND SOURCES GENESIS PROGNOSES

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    Vlastimil MONI

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents summarizing information about the solution of partial part of research problem of prognoses of deposited brown coal spontaneous combustion sources genesis as a part of project TA01020351 – program ALFA. We will gradually describe the results of long term measurements carried out on selected brown coal heaps realized from 2011 to 2013. The attention is devoted to characterization of key parameters. These parameters influence the genesis of combustion. The second problem is the comparison of results of thermal imaging with laboratory results of gas and coal samples sampled in situ, with the influence of atmospheric conditions (insolation, aeration, rainfall, atmospheric pressure changes etc., with influence of coal mass degradation, physical and chemical factors and another failure factors to brown coal spontaneous combustion processes.

  9. Factors that condition the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions among nurses: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Alessia; Colaceci, Sofia; Giusti, Angela; Vellone, Ercole; Alvaro, Rosaria

    2016-03-01

    To describe and synthesise previous research on factors conditioning the spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions among nurses. Spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions by health-care providers, are a main instrument for the continuous evaluation of the risk-benefit ratio of every drug. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions by all health-care providers, in particular by nurses, is a major limitation to this system. An integrated review of the literature was conducted using MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, Scopus databases and Google Scholar. After evaluation for appropriateness related to inclusion/exclusion criteria, 16 studies were included in the final analysis and synthesis. Two factors emerged from the study: (1) intrinsic factors related to nurses' knowledge and attitudes; (2) extrinsic factors related to nurses' interaction with health-care organisations and to the relationship between nurses and physicians. Nurses' attitudes that hinder reporting include ignorance, insecurity, fear and lethargy. Nurses are not fully aware of their role in adverse drug reaction reporting. Nurses must acquire greater knowledge to implement specific skills into their daily clinical practice. To improve nurses' reporting of adverse drug reactions, it is necessary to develop management approaches that modify both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of the implantation site morphology in spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolea, Maria Magdalena; Dijmărescu, Anda Lorena; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Novac, Marius Bogdan; DiŢescu, Damian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of the implantation site through histological and immunohistochemical exams and the evaluation of the changes that appear in the pregnancies ended by spontaneous abortion compared to normal pregnancies ended by requested abortion. One hundred eight patients were divided in two groups: the study group that included 58 patients with spontaneous abortion and the control group that included 50 patients with requested abortion. There has been made uterine curettage in all the cases after a complete preoperative evaluation and the obtained product was sent for histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical study using a VEGF antibody. Studying the histological sections, we noticed the vasculogenesis stages chronology and then according to the histological aspects of normal pregnancy we noticed the histological changes that occurred at the site of implantation in the cases with pathological pregnancies ended by miscarriage. Our results from this study seem to indicate a correlation between decidual vascular changes and the appearance of miscarriage. In pregnancies ended by miscarriage, we found delays in the trophoblast development according to the gestational age at which the event abortifacient happened. The study emphases the temporal differentiation of utero-placental angiogenesis comparing to villous vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the first trimester miscarriage and normal pregnancy. At the control group, VEGF expression was positive in 88% of cases, while in the study group, pregnancies ended by spontaneous abortion, positive expression of VEGF was present in only 31% of cases. Our data suggest vascular disorders and are in concordance with other histological and ultrasound studies postulating the idea of a link between miscarriage and placental vascular bed pattern changes.

  11. Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a Conditioned Flavor Preference Based on Calories

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    Tarner, Nina L.; Frieman, Jerome; Mehiel, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    After rats were conditioned to prefer a flavor (CS+) paired with sucrose over another flavor (CS-) paired with saccharin, this conditioned flavor preference was extinguished by presenting the CS+ flavor without sucrose. These results were replicated in a second experiment in which spontaneous recovery of the extinguished flavor preference was…

  12. Multivariate prediction of spontaneous repetitive responses in ventricular myocardium exposed in vitro to simulated ischemic conditions.

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    Schiariti, M; Puddu, P E; Rouet, R

    1994-06-01

    Guinea-pig ventricular myocardium was partly exposed to normal Tyrode's superfusion and partly to altered conditions (using modified Tyrode's solution) set to simulate acute myocardial ischemia (PO2 80 +/- 10 mmHg; no glucose; pH 7.00 +/- 0.05; K+ 12 mM). Using a double-chamber tissue bath and standard microelectrode technique, the occurrence of spontaneous repetitive responses was investigated during simulated ischemia (occlusion) and after reperfusing the previously ischemic superfused tissue with normal Tyrode's solution (reperfusion). In 62 experiments (42 animals) the effects of: (1) duration of simulated ischemia (1321 +/- 435 s), (2) stimulation rate (1002 +/- 549 ms) and (3) number of successive simulated ischemic periods (occlusions) (1.58 +/- 0.92) on: (1) resting membrane potential, (2) action potential amplitude, (3) duration of 50 and 90% action potentials and (4) maximal upstroke velocity of action potential were studied. All variables were considered as gradients (delta) between normal and ischemic tissue. Both during occlusion and upon reperfusion, spontaneous repetitive responses were coded as single, couplets, salvos (three to nine and > 10) or total spontaneous repetitive responses (coded present when at least one of the above-mentioned types was seen). The incidence of total spontaneous repetitive responses was 31% (19/62) on occlusion and 85% (53/62) upon reperfusion. Cox's models (forced and stepwise) were used to predict multivariately the occurrence of arrhythmic events considered as both total spontaneous repetitive responses and as separate entities. These models were applicable since continuous monitoring of the experiments enabled exact timing of spontaneous repetitive response onset during both occlusion and reperfusion. In predicting reperfusion spontaneous repetitive responses, total spontaneous repetitive responses and blocks observed during the occlusion period were also considered. Total occlusion spontaneous repetitive responses

  13. In vitro evaluation of heat and moisture exchangers designed for spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients.

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    Brusasco, Claudia; Corradi, Francesco; Vargas, Maria; Bona, Margherita; Bruno, Federica; Marsili, Maria; Simonassi, Francesca; Santori, Gregorio; Severgnini, Paolo; Kacmarek, Robert M; Pelosi, Paolo

    2013-11-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are commonly used in chronically tracheostomized spontaneously breathing patients, to condition inhaled air, maintain lower airway function, and minimize the viscosity of secretions. Supplemental oxygen (O2) can be added to most HMEs designed for spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients. We tested the efficiency of 7 HMEs designed for spontaneously breathing tracheostomized patients, in a normothermic model, at different minute ventilations (VE) and supplemental O2 flows. HME efficiency was evaluated using an in vitro lung model at 2 VE (5 and 15 L/min) and 4 supplemental O2 flows (0, 3, 6, and 12 L/min). Wet and dry temperatures of the inspiratory flow were measured, and absolute humidity was calculated. In addition, HME efficiency at 0, 12, and 24 h use was evaluated, as well as resistance to flow at 0 and 24 h. The progressive increase in O2 flow from 0 to 12 L/min was associated with a reduction in temperature and absolute humidity. Under the same conditions, this effect was greater at lower VE. The HME with the best performance provided an absolute humidity of 26 mg H2O/L and a temperature of 27.8 °C. No significant changes in efficiency or resistance were detected during the 24 h evaluation. The efficiency of HMEs in terms of temperature and absolute humidity is significantly affected by O2 supplementation and V(E).

  14. Evaluation of spontaneous renal extravasation during intravenous urography

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    Eggerath, A.; Friedrichs, R.

    1985-05-01

    Spontaneous renal extravasation is the term used to refer to the radiological demonstration of contrast medium outside the collecting system without previous trauma, ureter catheterization, operation on the kidney or its vicinity, and without external compression during urography. In a review of 1300 intravenous urograms, 13 cases of extravasation of contrast medium were found to satisfy the above criteria. Differences in the radiological appearance may cause problems with regard to evaluation and classification. From a therapeutic point of view it is important to distinguish between two forms: transient sinus extravasation due to minute tears in the calyceal fornix after an increase in intrapelvic pressure and persisting rutpure of the previously impaired renal pelvis, which may require surgical intervention.

  15. Evaluation of spontaneous renal extravasation during intravenous urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerath, A.; Friedrichs, R.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1985-01-01

    Spontaneous renal extravasation is the term used to refer to the radiological demonstration of contrast medium outside the collecting system without previous trauma, ureter catheterization, operation on the kidney or its vicinity, and without external compression during urography. In a review of 1300 intravenous urograms, 13 cases of extravasation of contrast medium were found to satisfy the above criteria. Differences in the radiological appearance may cause problems with regard to evaluation and classification. From a therapeutic point of view it is important to distinguish between two forms: transient sinus extravasation due to minute tears in the calyceal fornix after an increase in intrapelvic pressure and persisting rutpure of the previously impaired renal pelvis, which may require surgical intervention. (orig.) [de

  16. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD): The underdiagnosed cardiac condition that plagues women.

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    Lebrun, Sandrine; Bond, Rachel M

    2017-12-11

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) continues to be understudied, underdiagnosed, and undertreated in women. Gender and age bias complicate the evaluation of women with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). As a result, conditions like spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) are often missed. SCAD is an infrequent yet important cause of myocardial infarction (MI) with a predilection for young to middle aged women. The condition is thought to be under-reported, likely a result of both low index of suspicion as well as an unfamiliarity with SCAD's angiographic variants. Recently, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) detailed an assessment pathway for patients with myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA), a subset of which includes patients with SCAD. The pathway highlights the role of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in addition to intracoronary imaging for increased diagnostic yield. Early and proper diagnosis is crucial in SCAD given the potential for sudden cardiac death, as well as the increased risk for future cardiac events including recurrent dissection. In addition, SCAD has frequently been associated with underlying connective tissue disease and/or arteriopathy, most commonly fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD), which requires careful screening. The lack of consensus on investigation or treatment highlights the need for increased awareness and further research to better understand this challenging entity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction in spontaneous firing of mouse excitatory layer 4 cortical neurons following visual classical conditioning

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    Bekisz, Marek; Shendye, Ninad; Raciborska, Ida; Wróbel, Andrzej; Waleszczyk, Wioletta J.

    2017-08-01

    The process of learning induces plastic changes in neuronal network of the brain. Our earlier studies on mice showed that classical conditioning in which monocular visual stimulation was paired with an electric shock to the tail enhanced GABA immunoreactivity within layer 4 of the monocular part of the primary visual cortex (V1), contralaterally to the stimulated eye. In the present experiment we investigated whether the same classical conditioning paradigm induces changes of neuronal excitability in this cortical area. Two experimental groups were used: mice that underwent 7-day visual classical conditioning and controls. Patch-clamp whole-cell recordings were performed from ex vivo slices of mouse V1. The slices were perfused with the modified artificial cerebrospinal fluid, the composition of which better mimics the brain interstitial fluid in situ and induces spontaneous activity. The neuronal excitability was characterized by measuring the frequency of spontaneous action potentials. We found that layer 4 star pyramidal cells located in the monocular representation of the "trained" eye in V1 had lower frequency of spontaneous activity in comparison with neurons from the same cortical region of control animals. Weaker spontaneous firing indicates decreased general excitability of star pyramidal neurons within layer 4 of the monocular representation of the "trained" eye in V1. Such effect could result from enhanced inhibitory processes accompanying learning in this cortical area.

  18. Spontaneous trait inference and spontaneous trait transference are both unaffected by prior evaluations of informants.

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    Zengel, Bettina; Ambler, James K; McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J

    2017-01-01

    This article reports results from a study in which participants encountered either (a) previously known informants who were positive (e.g. Abraham Lincoln), neutral (e.g., Jay Leno), or negative (e.g., Adolf Hitler), or (b) previously unknown informants. The informants ostensibly described either a trait-implicative positive behavior, a trait-implicative negative behavior, or a neutral behavior. These descriptions were framed as either the behavior of the informant or the behavior of another person. Results yielded evidence of informant-trait linkages for both self-informants and for informants who described another person. These effects were not moderated by informant type, behavior valence, or the congruency or incongruency between the prior knowledge of the informant and the behavior valence. Results are discussed in terms of theories of Spontaneous Trait Inference and Spontaneous Trait Transference.

  19. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2015-01-01

    Consumer attitudes play an important role in the acceptance of new technologies. The success of food innovations depends on understanding how consumers form and change attitudes toward food technologies. Earlier post hoc explanations suggest that evaluative conditioning can change consumer...... attitudes toward food technologies. The present study tests how evaluative conditioning can affect consumer acceptance of new food technologies. Furthermore, authors investigate whether evaluative conditioning is resistant to extinction after a two-month period and whether the evaluative conditioning effect...... prevails in a product-related context. Within an evaluative conditioning paradigm including between-subjects control groups in addition to standard within-subjects control conditions, participants were presented with three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic technology) paired...

  20. Measurement of total risk of spontaneous abortion: the virtue of conditional risk estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modvig, J; Schmidt, L; Damsgaard, M T

    1990-01-01

    abortion risk include biochemical assays as well as life table technique, although the latter appears in two different forms. The consequences of using either of these are discussed. It is concluded that no study design so far is appropriate for measuring the total risk of spontaneous abortion from early...... conception to the end of the 27th week. It is proposed that pregnancy may be considered to consist of two or three specific periods and that different study designs should concentrate on measuring the conditional risk within each period. A careful estimate using this principle leads to an estimate of total...

  1. Evaluation of spontaneous intracranial hypotension using radionuclide cisternography

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    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan H.; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Seok Nam; Oh, Yun Min; Kim, Jang Sung [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-01

    We report four cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that were investigated by radionuclide cisternography. {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid radionuclide cisternography of all our patients showed direct sign of cerebrospinal fluid leakage as well as indirect signs of less activity than expected over the cerebral convexities and rapid appearance of bladder activity. The headache of all patients was eventually controlled with bed rest and hydration.

  2. Motivational condition in educational evaluation

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    Julio Fernando Acosta Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a reflection article, methodologically based on research into and theoretical and conceptual review of the motivational condition in educational evaluation. At the same time, some inquiries about the motivational problems in this education process are made. The objective is to examine what the motivational condition within the process ofeducational evaluation is. On the one hand, educational evaluation is a tool that attests to the knowledge, on the other hand, however, it prevents students from strengthening their interest both in the participation in the specific testing activity and in their learning, since it lays emphasis on extrinsic factors, such as grade, which make students lose and distort their intrinsic motivation to learn. Therefore, the evaluation proposal arisen from the construct of motivation is thought to generate in students positive sensations standing even after goals are obtained. Likewise, it must promote liveliness, integration and psychological health, in order to get students to fulfill their needs and obtain psychological welfare in the classroom.

  3. Deficient conditioned pain modulation after spinal cord injury correlates with clinical spontaneous pain measures.

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    Albu, Sergiu; Gómez-Soriano, Julio; Avila-Martin, Gerardo; Taylor, Julian

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of endogenous pain modulation dysfunction to clinical and sensory measures of neuropathic pain (NP) has not been fully explored. Habituation, temporal summation, and heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulus-induced modulation of tonic heat pain intensity were examined in healthy noninjured subjects (n = 10), and above the level of spinal cord injury (SCI) in individuals without (SCI-noNP, n = 10) and with NP (SCI-NP, n = 10). Thermoalgesic thresholds, Cz/AFz contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs), and phasic or tonic (30 seconds) heat pain intensity were assessed within the C6 dermatome. Although habituation to tonic heat pain intensity (0-10) was reported by the noninjured (10 s: 3.5 ± 0.3 vs 30 s: 2.2 ± 0.5 numerical rating scale; P = 0.003), loss of habituation was identified in both the SCI-noNP (3.8 ± 0.3 vs 3.6 ± 0.5) and SCI-NP group (4.2 ± 0.4 vs 4.9 ± 0.8). Significant temporal summation of tonic heat pain intensity was not observed in the 3 groups. Inhibition of tonic heat pain intensity induced by heterotopic noxious conditioning stimulus was identified in the noninjured (-29.7% ± 9.7%) and SCI-noNP groups (-19.6% ± 7.0%), but not in subjects with SCI-NP (+1.1% ± 8.0%; P P = 0.015) and evoked heat pain intensity (ρ = 0.8; P = 0.007) in the SCI-NP group. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the mean conditioned pain modulation (R = 0.72) correlated with pain severity and pressing spontaneous pain in the SCI-NP group. Comprehensive assessment of sensory dysfunction above the level of injury with tonic thermal test and conditioning stimuli revealed less-efficient endogenous pain modulation in subjects with SCI-NP.

  4. Relationships between Spontaneous Note-Taking, Self-Reported Strategies and Comprehension When Reading Multiple Texts in Different Task Conditions

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    Hagen, Åste M.; Braasch, Jason L. G.; Bråten, Ivar

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated note-taking during multiple-text reading across two different task conditions in relation to comprehension performance and self-reports of strategy use. Forty-four undergraduates read multiple texts about climate change to write an argument or a summary. Analysis of students' spontaneous note-taking during reading…

  5. METAPHORICAL EVALUATION IN SPONTANEOUS DIALOGUE (СOGNITIVE ASPECTS

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    BOYKO ANNA KONSTANTINOVNA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this publication is to explore the relationship between metaphor and comic effect in order to achieve the understanding of those cognitive processes that are updated during the implementation of evaluative meanings in dialogical discourse. Analysis of dialogical speech produced in the framework of this publication, indicated that the estimated metaphor acquires comic effect, causes laughter of the participants of communication, when their attention is focused on two concepts directly involved in the modeling metaphor. Speaking subject - intentionally or unintentionally - separates the domains that are relevant for the initiation of this metaphor, specially emphasizing the differences of these domains. This creates a voltage between the two input spaces are denoted by their borders, which, in turn, leads to comic effect.

  6. Explicit Disassociation of a Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus during Extinction Training Reduces Both Time to Asymptotic Extinction and Spontaneous Recovery of a Conditioned Taste Aversion

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    Mickley, G. Andrew; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N.; Huffman, Jennifer; Bacik, Stephanie; Hoxha, Zana; Biada, Jaclyn M.; Kim, Ye-Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned taste aversions (CTAs) may be acquired when an animal consumes a novel taste (CS) and then experiences the symptoms of poisoning (US). This aversion may be extinguished by repeated exposure to the CS alone. However, following a latency period in which the CS is not presented, the CTA will spontaneously recover (SR). In the current…

  7. Spontaneous cervical artery dissection is accompanied by a hypercoagulable state and simultaneous inflammatory condition.

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    Pelz, Johann Otto; Harms, Kristian; Metze, Michael; Michalski, Dominik

    2018-02-01

    Spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD) are often preceded by infections. However, existing data about inflammatory parameters remained inconsistent. Remarkably, concurrent information about the coagulation system, whose affection seems also reasonable to cause ischaemic events, are still lacking in sCAD patients. Thus, this study explores the association between the inflammatory and coagulation system in patients with sCAD. The parameters leukocyte and thrombocyte count, C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time were extracted from hospital-based medical records of patients (n = 60) with sCAD and compared with those of a control group (n = 97) from a prospective observational stroke study. Univariate analyses were added by multiple regression analyses. As compared with the control group, patients with sCAD had an increased leucocyte count (9.2 ± 3.2 vs. 7.9 ± 2.2 × 10 9 /l; p = 0.003), an increased thrombocyte count (252 ± 52 vs. 229 ± 64 × 10 9 /l; p = 0.021), a shortened aPTT 28.0 ± 3.5 vs. 29.9 ± 3.6 s; p = 0.001) and decreased D-dimer values (0.44 ± 0.29 vs. 0.76 ± 0.73 mg/l; p = 0.002). However, in multiple regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, initial stroke severity, arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and smoking only the shortened aPTT remained statistically significant (p = 0.045) between groups, while differences on leucocyte count (p = 0.087), thrombocyte count (p = 0.234) and D-dimer (p = 0.321) failed statistical significance. We found evidence for a hypercoagulable state in patients with sCAD as indicated by a shortened aPTT, which was associated with a trend to an increased leucocyte count at the same time. Our findings first strengthen the hypothesis that inflammation critically impacts on the occurrence of sCAD, and second linked this condition with a marked affection of the coagulation system.

  8. Negativity bias and instability in spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of others: The role of borderline personality features.

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    Gauthier Mongeon, Félix; Gagnon, Jean

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that borderline personality (BP) features are characterized by a negativity bias and instability in spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of others. Undergraduate women (N = 204) watched two movie clips depicting either positive or negative conjugal interactions. Spontaneous and deliberate evaluations of the male character were assessed after each clip with an Evaluative Priming Task and a self-report measure, respectively. Participants with high BP features showed unstable spontaneous evaluations. Results revealed a non-significant trend toward more negative spontaneous evaluations after the negative clip and less positive and more negative deliberate evaluations after watching the positive clip first relative to participants with low BP features. These results provide preliminary evidence that impression formation in borderline personality may be characterized by negative and unstable evaluations that are shaped at least in part at earlier processing stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Morphological and dynamic MR evaluation of a giant spontaneous vertebrovertebral fistula during endovascular therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGlade, C.; Lufkin, R.; Vinuela, F.; Dion, J.; Lylyck, P.; Bentson, J.; Martin, N.

    1989-01-01

    A case of verbro-vertebral fistula in a patient with neurofibromatosis is presented with emphasis on magnetic resonance (MR) evaluation and integration with endovascular therapy. Vascular involvement is a known complication of neurofibromatosis ranging from intimal proliferation causing arterial narrowing, development of small aneurysms, to spontaneous fistulas probably secondary to mesodermal dysplasia. This case report illustrates the latter and portrays a role for MR in diagnosis and follow-up during therapeutic measures. (author). 14 refs.; 3 figs

  10. Evaluation of spontaneous baroreflex response after 28 days head down tilt bedrest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughson, R. L.; Yamamoto, Y.; Butler, G. C.; Güell, A.; Gharib, C.

    The spontaneous baroreflex response was evaluated during supine rest and head up tilt (60°) before and immediately after a 28 day 6° HDT bedrest in 6 healthy adult men (age 30-42 years). Sequences of 3 or more beats where RR-interval and systolic blood pressure changed in the same direction were used to evaluate baroreflex response slope (BRS). Prior to bedrest, the mean BRS and RR-interval were 18.0 ± 3.9 ms/mm Hg and 926 ± 61 ms at rest and 10.5 ± 2.5 ms/mm Hg and 772 ± 63 ms during the first 10 min of 60° tilt. Following bedrest, these values changed to 15.6 ± 2.7 ms/mm Hg and 780 ± 53 ms at rest, and to 6.5 ± 1.2 ms/mm Hg and 636 ± 44 ms during tilt. Thus, (1) the spontaneous baroreflex can be evaluated in human subjects during experiments of orthostatic stress; (2) the baroreflex slope was reduced on going from supine to the head up tilt position; and (3) 28 days of bedrest reduced the spontaneous baroreflex slope.

  11. Evaluative Conditioning is Insensitive to Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Beckers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning has been claimed to have a number of functional characteristics that set it apart from other forms of associative learning in humans, such as insensitivity to extinction and contingency, independence of contingency awareness, and insensitivity to modulation. Despite its potential theoretical importance, until now few data are available concerning the susceptibility of evaluative conditioning to cue competition effects such as blocking. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibility of acquired preferences and evaluations to blocking in a candy game. Results suggest that evaluative conditioning is not susceptible to blocking. We discuss this observation in the light of theoretical accounts of evaluative conditioning and associative learning in humans.

  12. Project Evaluation under Inflation Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindy, M.; El Missiry, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of inflation in capital budgeting and attempts to introduce solutions to such implication in order to make the appropriate decision for the firm' stockholders under these circumstances. Inflation leads to biasness in evaluating the investment projects, due to its impact on the cash flow, the discount rate, the initial investment cost, and the depreciation. This paper has shown that the capital budgeting process is not neutral with respect to inflation, as the output prices will raise as well as the operating and capital expenditures will also be adjusted due to inflation. In addition, it has shown that it is reasonable to expect that the cost of capital will increase as a result of an increase in the real interest rate, the inflation premium, and the cost of equity. Of critical importance is the basis used in calculating the annual depreciation which may lead to the transfer of wealth from the investment projects to the government and will result in underestimating the net present value of the investment projects, if these depreciation charges is calculated based upon the historical values and not on the replacement cost of the fixed assets

  13. Changing CS Features Alters Evaluative Responses in Evaluative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkelbach, Christian; Stahl, Christoph; Forderer, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to changes in people's evaluative responses toward initially neutral stimuli (CSs) by mere spatial and temporal contiguity with other positive or negative stimuli (USs). We investigate whether changing CS features from conditioning to evaluation also changes people's evaluative response toward these CSs. We used…

  14. Exploring the linkage between spontaneous grass cover biodiversity and soil degradation in two olive orchard microcatchments with contrasting environmental and management conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, E. V.; Arroyo, C.; Lora, A.; Guzmán, G.; Vanderlinden, K.; Gómez, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    Spontaneous grass covers are an inexpensive soil erosion control measure in olive orchards. Olive farmers allow grass to grow on sloping terrain to comply with the basic environmental standards derived from the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, European Commission). However, to date there are few studies assessing the environmental quality considering such covers. In this study, we measured biodiversity indices for spontaneous grass cover in two olive orchards with contrasting site conditions and management regimes in order to evaluate the potential for biodiversity metrics to serve as an indicator of soil degradation. In addition, the differences and temporal variability of biodiversity indicators and their relationships with environmental factors such as soil type and properties, precipitation, topography and soil management were analysed. Different grass cover biodiversity indices were evaluated in two olive orchard catchments under conventional tillage and no tillage with grass cover, during 3 hydrological years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and photographs in a permanent grid (4 samples ha-1) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the number of species, frequency of life forms, diversity and modified Shannon and Pielou indices. Sorensen's index showed strong differences in species composition for the grass covers in the two olive orchard catchments, which are probably linked to the different site conditions. The catchment (CN) with the best site conditions (deeper soil and higher precipitation) and most intense management presented the highest biodiversity indices as well as the highest soil losses (over 10 t ha-1). In absolute terms, the diversity indices of vegetation were reasonably high for agricultural systems in both catchments, despite the fact that management activities usually severely limit the landscape and the variety of species. Finally, a significantly higher content of organic matter in the first 10 cm of soil

  15. Rigid pavements distresses - pavement condition index evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Tiago David da Costa Prudente

    2014-01-01

    Pavements require maintenance in order to provide good service levels during their life period. Because of the significant costs of this operation and the importance of a proper planning, a pavement evaluation methodology, named Pavement Condition Index (PCI), was created by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. This methodology allows for the evaluation of the pavement condition along the life period, generally yearly, with minimum costs and, in this way, it is possible to plan the maintenance a...

  16. CT evaluation of underlying cause in spontaneous subcapsular and perirenal hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastia, M.C. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain); Perez-Molina, M.O. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain); Alvarez-Castells, A. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain); Quiroga, S. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain); Pallisa, E. [Department of Radiology, IDI, Hospital General Universitari Vall d`Hebron, E-08 305 Barcelona (Spain)

    1997-06-01

    We evaluated the CT scans of 13 patients with spontaneous subcapsular or perinephric hemorrhage (SPH) associated with these underlying causes: 4 angiomyolipomas, 2 renal cell carcinomas, 1 renal metastatic malignant melanoma, 1 ruptured renal artery aneurysm, 1 adrenal myelolipoma, 1 ruptured renal abscess, 2 ruptured hemorrhagic cysts, and 1 patient with undiagnosed coagulation disorder. Our objective was to ascertain whether an underlying cause of SPH was identifiable by CT, and to determine the extension of the hematomas. Computed tomography identified the hematoma in all 13 cases (sensitivity 100 %). In all 12 cases in which there was a renal or adrenal anatomic lesion, the underlying cause was identified with CT (100 %), with correct diagnosis in 11 cases (91.6 %). The case in which no lesion was identified was the undiagnosed coagulation disorder. We conclude that CT is a useful technique for the initial evaluation of SPH, permitting diagnosis of hemorrhage and identification of the underlying cause. (orig.). With 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Building Condition and Suitability Evaluation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MGT of America, Inc., Tallahassee, FL.

    This educational facility evaluation manual contains the overall building condition rating form and the supporting check sheets which have been field tested in several states and, where appropriate, modified for use in the Idaho School Facilities Needs Assessment. The exterior building condition form examines the foundation, structure, walls,…

  18. Biomechanical Evaluation of Spontaneity Repair of Osteochondral Defects in Rabbit Knee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Kamali

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Full-thickness defects measuring 3 mm in diameter have been commonly used in studies of rabbits to evaluate new procedures designed to improve the quality of articular cartilage repair. These defects initially heal spontaneously. However, little information is available on the characteristics of repair of large defects. The aim of present study was to define the biomechanical characteristics of repair of 5x4 mm full- thickness osteochondral defects in the adolescent male rabbit. Materials & Methods: In a Quasi - Experimental study 5 millimeter diameter and 4 mm deep osteochondral defects were drilled in femoral patellar groove of twenty-one rabbits , and examined at 4 ,8 and 16 weeks. The left knee was kept intact as the normal control. . The knee joints were removed, and both legs were examined biomechanically by in situ indentation method at three time- intervals (4, 8, 16 weeks. The instantaneous and equilibrium elastic- modulus (after 900 second measured during the test. Results: There were no differences in cartilage mechanical properties (instantaneous and equilibrium elastic- modulus between weeks (4, 8, 16 weeks in two groups (P>0/05. Although Significant differences between experimental and control groups were seen in 16 weeks in instantaneous elastic- modulus (P<0/05. New tissue supported high stiffness than normal control in 16 weeks. Conclusion: Full-thickness osteochondral defects, measuring 5x4 mm in diameter and dept in patellar groove of adolescent rabbit knee heal spontaneously.

  19. Unusual spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination phenomenon in blood units stored under blood bank condition: A retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanmukh R Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cold agglutinins (CA are benign naturally occurring low titer autoantibodies present in most individuals. Those with moderate strength are found in infections, malignancies or autoimmune conditions with diagnostic importance. Aim: Present report deals with CA that brought spontaneous hemagglutination in blood units stored at 2-6°C. Study design: Over 32 months period between July 1993 and December 1995, blood units were inspected for spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination (SpCA phenomenon. The plasma from these units was separated and investigated for serological specificity using in house red cell panel and standard serological methods. Results: Among 51,671 blood units, 112 units showed SpCA phenomenon. A rising trend seen in first half of study period significantly fell in remaining half. Specificities of the antibodies detected include anti-I (27, anti-i (53, anti-Pr (21 with remaining few being undetermined specificity. Absorption of serum using enzyme-treated red cells revealed a presence of anti-Pr among the cases, the two of which with new specificities that reacted preferentially with red cells from either new-born or adults and were tentatively named as anti-Pr Fetal and anti-Pr adult , respectively. While 9 cases showed optimum reaction at neutral pH of 7, 68 (62% cases reacted at pH 5.8 through 8.0, 28 (26% cases preferred an acidic pH 5.8 and 4 cases opted an alkaline pH 8. Of 28 cases with antibodies preferentially reacting in acidic medium, 17 (60% cases were anti-i and 7 (25% cases were anti-Pr. Conclusion: Unique SpCA phenomenon observed in blood units stored under blood bank conditions seems to be due to CA developed in response to vector-borne infectious agents. Majority of the cases displayed their specificities, otherwise are rare to be encountered.

  20. Evaluation of induced and spontaneous contamination of ocular medications after first opening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Marchese

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate whether ophthalmic preparations can be safely used within 12 hours after first opening, four different sterile ocular medications,were opened and tested for spontaneous bacterial contamination after exposure to air. Samples (10ml were collected from 5 containers of each ophthalmic preparation after 0, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours. No viable microorganisms were found during and at the end of the evaluation time. In order to assess if the ocular bacterial population might contaminate the medications, about 105 microbial cells of different species (Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, S. haemolyticus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Candida albicans were added to the containers and incubated at 35°C or at room temperature. Samples were collected and the number of viable microrganisms was estimated.The medicaments showed a bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity (<100 survivors after 24 h of exposure against the majority of all relevant species, with the exception of E. coli, P. aeruginosa, and A. baumanii, which demonstrated to be able to grow in some of these ocular preparations.These data indicate that the risk of spontaneous contamination of the containers after first opening is low, and that all solutions do not offer a favourable substrate for the growth of the microrganisms showing in the great majority of the cases an antimicrobial activity. These results suggest that a safe usage of these ocular medications can be extended from the recommended 12 hours at least 24 hours after first opening.

  1. Evaluative conditioning induces changes in sound valence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C. Bolders

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative Conditioning (EC has hardly been tested in the auditory domain, but it is a potentially valuable research tool. In Experiment 1 we investigated whether the affective evaluation of short environmental sounds can be changed using affective words as unconditioned stimuli (US. Congruence effects on an affective priming task (APT for conditioned sounds demonstrated successful EC. Subjective ratings for sounds paired with negative words changed accordingly. In Experiment 2 we investigated whether the acquired valence remains stable after repeated presentation of the conditioned sound without the US or whether extinction occurs. The acquired affective value remained present, albeit weaker, even after 40 extinction trials. These results warrant the use of EC to study processing of short environmental sounds with acquired valence, even if this requires repeated stimulus presentations. This paves the way for studying processing of affective environmental sounds while effectively controlling low level-stimulus properties.

  2. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... and a combination of between-subjects control groups and within-subjects control conditions, participants considered three food technologies (conventional, enzyme, and genetic), paired with affectively positive, neutral, and negative images. Subsequent evaluative measurements revealed that EC can explain attitude...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...

  3. Evaluative conditioning of food technologies in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loebnitz, Natascha; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an initial examination of the evaluative conditioning (EC) of consumers’ attitudes toward food technologies in China, including how EC can affect consumer acceptance of new technology when participants possess different levels of social trust. In a study using the EC paradigm...... formation toward food technologies in China when consumers see affective images, but the strength of the effects varies at different levels of social trust. Participants with a high level of trust in the institutions that promote and regulate the technologies can be conditioned both positively...... and negatively, independent of food technology. Participants with a low level of trust can be conditioned too, but only when the technology is paired with negative unconditioned stimuli. If social trust is low, positive conditioning of food technologies is not demonstrated in this study....

  4. Community dynamics and metabolite target analysis of spontaneous, backslopped barley sourdough fermentations under laboratory and bakery conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harth, Henning; Van Kerrebroeck, Simon; De Vuyst, Luc

    2016-07-02

    Barley flour is not commonly used for baking because of its negative effects on bread dough rheology and loaf volume. However, barley sourdoughs are promising ingredients to produce improved barley-based breads. Spontaneous barley sourdough fermentations were performed through backslopping (every 24h, 10days) under laboratory (fermentors, controlled temperature of 30°C, high dough yield of 400) and bakery conditions (open vessels, ambient temperature of 17-22°C, low dough yield of 200), making use of the same batch of flour. They differed in pH evolution, microbial community dynamics, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species composition. After ten backsloppings, the barley sourdoughs were characterized by the presence of the LAB species Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus brevis in the case of the laboratory productions (fast pH decrease, pHbakery productions (slow pH decrease, pH4.0 after eight backslopping steps). In both sourdough productions, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the sole yeast species. Breads made with wheat flour supplemented with 20% (on flour basis) barley sourdough displayed a firmer texture, a smaller volume, and an acceptable flavour compared with all wheat-based reference breads. Hence, representative strains of the LAB species mentioned above, adapted to the environmental conditions they will be confronted with, may be selected as starter cultures for the production of stable barley sourdoughs and flavourful breads. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Disaster relief volunteerism: Evaluating cities' planning for the usage and management of spontaneous volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Jason David; Wood, Zachary David

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study sought to observe the perceptions, usage, and planned management of spontaneous volunteers in disaster planning and response within various urban environments. The authors discuss the perceptions of spontaneous volunteerism in America, specifically the challenges of using spontaneous volunteers in disaster response activities. A content analysis of the 50 largest cities in the US Office of Emergency Management Web sites and a survey instrument administered to emergency managers in these 50 cities were used to explore various questions raised throughout the discussion of the literature. The authors found significant discrepancies between what is stated in the disaster plans of cities and what emergency managers claim is covered in their plans. Of the managers surveyed, only a handful mention spontaneous volunteers in their plans at all, and even fewer cities discuss them extensively. In addition, stated perceptions of the value of spontaneous volunteers may impact both how we plan for them and the value they provide.

  6. Comparing different error conditions in filmdosemeter evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, H.; Figel, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: In the evaluation of a film used as a personal dosemeter it may be necessary to mark the dosemeters when possible error conditions are recognized. These are errors that might have an influence on the ability to make a correct evaluation of the dose value, and include broken, contaminated or improperly handled dosemeters. In this project we have examined how two services (NIRH, GSF), from two different countries within the EU, mark their dosemeters. The services have a large difference in size, customer composition and issuing period, but both use film as their primary dosemeters. The possible error conditions that are examined here are dosemeters being contaminated, dosemeters exposed to moisture or light, missing filters in the dosemeter badges among others. The data are collected for the year 2003 where NIRH evaluated approximately 50 thousand and GSF about one million filmdosemeters. For each error condition the percentage of filmdosemeters belonging hereto is calculated as well as the distribution among different employee categories, i.e. industry, medicine, research, veterinary and other. For some error conditions we see a common pattern, while for others there is a large discrepancy between the services. The differences and possible explanations are discussed. The results of the investigation may motivate further comparisons between the different monitoring services in Europe. (author)

  7. [Role of host in spontaneous recovery from viral hepatitis C: the body's condition at the moment of infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaguliants, M G; Ozeretskovskaia, N N; Znoĭko, O O; Tsyganova, E V

    2008-01-01

    The condition of the host at the moment of infection is that its immune competence largely determines the efficiency, kinetics, and profile (Thl/Th2) of a further specific immunity response and, accordingly, the outcome of penetration of hepatitis C virus (HCV) into the body and subsequent acute infection (if it occurs). The parameters determining immune competence may include age, traumatizing exposures (operations, burns, wounds, and fractures), immunosuppressive therapy, stresses, con-infections, and alcohol use. The highest rates of spontaneous convalescence from HCV infection are observed in children and adolescents. Other human conditions are much shorter, transient; their impact is difficult to determine in the retrospective review and therefore it has not been adequately studied. Previous operations, posttransplantation immune suppression, immune modulation after blood transfusion, alcohol-induced immune imbalance, drug and narcotic intoxication are poor predictors. Immunosuppression and immune imbalance caused by viral and parasitic infections are observed among the host's temporary conditions affecting the outcome of HCV infection. The authors have analyzed the sequels of superinfections in patients with chronic hepatitis C, other hepatotropic viruses and the common liver fluke Schistosoma mansoni. The interesting therapeutic activities against HCV and parasitic infection (contamination with Echinococcus granulosus in particular), which are shown in the treatment of co-infection patients with alpha-interferon preparations that ensure normalization of immune deficiency caused by each of the infections and their increased combination. A deeper insight into the correlation between the condition of the host and its ability to eliminate the virus may be one more step on the road to the prevention of the infection and to the designing an effective vaccine against HCV.

  8. Applying Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach to Evaluate and Classify the Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential in Eastern Alborz Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Saffari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Subject analysis of the potential of spontaneous combustion in coal layers with analytical and numerical methods has been always considered as a difficult task because of the complexity of the coal behavior and the number of factors influencing it. Empirical methods, due to accounting for certain and specific factors, have not accuracy and efficiency for all positions. The Rock Engineering Systems (RES approach as a systematic method for analyzing and classifying is proposed in engineering projects. The present study is concerned with employing the RES approach to categorize coal spontaneous combustion in coal regions. Using this approach, the interaction of parameters affecting each other in an equal scale on the coal spontaneous combustion was evaluated. The Intrinsic, geological and mining characteristics of coal seams were studied in order to identifying important parameters. Then, the main stages of implementation of the RES method i.e. interaction matrix formation, coding matrix and forming a list category were performed. Later, an index of Coal Spontaneous Combustion Potential (CSCPi was determined to format the mathematical equation. Then, the obtained data related to the intrinsic, geological and mining, and special index were calculated for each layer in the case study (Pashkalat coal region, Iran. So, the study offers a perfect and comprehensive classification of the layers. Finally, by using the event of spontaneous combustion occurred in Pashkalat coal region, an initial validation for this systematic approach in the study area was conducted, which suggested relatively good concordance in Pashkalat coal region.

  9. Evaluating the TD model of classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludvig, Elliot A; Sutton, Richard S; Kehoe, E James

    2012-09-01

    The temporal-difference (TD) algorithm from reinforcement learning provides a simple method for incrementally learning predictions of upcoming events. Applied to classical conditioning, TD models suppose that animals learn a real-time prediction of the unconditioned stimulus (US) on the basis of all available conditioned stimuli (CSs). In the TD model, similar to other error-correction models, learning is driven by prediction errors--the difference between the change in US prediction and the actual US. With the TD model, however, learning occurs continuously from moment to moment and is not artificially constrained to occur in trials. Accordingly, a key feature of any TD model is the assumption about the representation of a CS on a moment-to-moment basis. Here, we evaluate the performance of the TD model with a heretofore unexplored range of classical conditioning tasks. To do so, we consider three stimulus representations that vary in their degree of temporal generalization and evaluate how the representation influences the performance of the TD model on these conditioning tasks.

  10. Evaluation of Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks Disease by Computerized Image Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Mustafa S; Kara, Sadık; Albayram, Mehmet S; Okkesim, Şükrü

    2016-05-17

    Spontaneous Spinal Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks (SSCFL) is a disease based on tears on the dura mater. Due to widespread symptoms and low frequency of the disease, diagnosis is problematic. Diagnostic lumbar puncture is commonly used for diagnosing SSCFL, though it is invasive and may cause pain, inflammation or new leakages. T2-weighted MR imaging is also used for diagnosis; however, the literature on T2-weighted MRI states that findings for diagnosis of SSCFL could be erroneous when differentiating the diseased and control. One another technique for diagnosis is CT-myelography, but this has been suggested to be less successful than T2-weighted MRI and it needs an initial lumbar puncture. This study aimed to develop an objective, computerized numerical analysis method using noninvasive routine Magnetic Resonance Images that can be used in the evaluation and diagnosis of SSCFL disease. Brain boundaries were automatically detected using methods of mathematical morphology, and a distance transform was employed. According to normalized distances, average densities of certain sites were proportioned and a numerical criterion related to cerebrospinal fluid distribution was calculated. The developed method was able to differentiate between 14 patients and 14 control subjects significantly with p = 0.0088 and d = 0.958. Also, the pre and post-treatment MRI of four patients was obtained and analyzed. The results were differentiated statistically (p = 0.0320, d = 0.853). An original, noninvasive and objective diagnostic test based on computerized image processing has been developed for evaluation of SSCFL. To our knowledge, this is the first computerized image processing method for evaluation of the disease. Discrimination between patients and controls shows the validity of the method. Also, post-treatment changes observed in four patients support this verdict.

  11. Evaluation of patients with headache due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension by RN cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Soo, Joo In; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Kim, Jang Sung

    1997-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) typically occurs without an obvious cause. However, it can be seen following the lumbar puncture, craniotomy, or spinal surgery. Also listed are contributing factors such as sneezing, coughing, intercourse or minor fall. Spontaneous spinal CSF leaks are not common, but are now increasingly recognized as a cause of postural headache associated with intracranial hypotension. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of RN cisternography in the diagnosis of SIH cuased by spinal CSF leakage. Four patients with clinical suspicion of SIH (Group I) and six patients as normal control (Group II) underwent RN cisternography. RN cisternography in Group II was done for various reasons, such as hydrocephalus, syringomyelia and memory loss. Group I consisted of the patients who presented with postural headache, as well as additional symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus and eyeball pain. The age range of these patients was 27 - 67 years. Lumbar puncture and CSF examinations were performed in Group I more than once and showed typical findings of low CSF pressure and slightly elevated protein level. Brain MRI (4/4), Cervico-thoracic spine MRI (3/4) were also performed. On gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI, enhancement of the meninges which is the most characteristic radiographic finding in intracranial hypotension was found in all patients of Group I. But, cervico-thoracic spin MRI was nonspecific. None of Group I had contrast myelography because of the patient's refusal. Group I and Group II underwent radionuclide cisternography following lumbar subarachnoid injection of 99mTc-DTPA (1-2mCi). The scans were taken in 2, 5, 24 hours later using single head gamma camera equipped with LEAP. Entire spinal region in posterior view and head in frontal and lateral views were obtained. The cisternography of Group I showed the CSF leakage or diverticulum at the level of cervico-thoracic junction(3/4) and mid-thoracic level (1

  12. Evaluation of patients with headache due to spontaneous intracranial hypotension by RN cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Zy; Park, Chan Hee; Soo, Joo In; Pai, Moon Sun; Yoon, Suk Nam; Kim, Jang Sung [College of Medicine, Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-07-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) typically occurs without an obvious cause. However, it can be seen following the lumbar puncture, craniotomy, or spinal surgery. Also listed are contributing factors such as sneezing, coughing, intercourse or minor fall. Spontaneous spinal CSF leaks are not common, but are now increasingly recognized as a cause of postural headache associated with intracranial hypotension. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the role of RN cisternography in the diagnosis of SIH cuased by spinal CSF leakage. Four patients with clinical suspicion of SIH (Group I) and six patients as normal control (Group II) underwent RN cisternography. RN cisternography in Group II was done for various reasons, such as hydrocephalus, syringomyelia and memory loss. Group I consisted of the patients who presented with postural headache, as well as additional symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, tinnitus and eyeball pain. The age range of these patients was 27 - 67 years. Lumbar puncture and CSF examinations were performed in Group I more than once and showed typical findings of low CSF pressure and slightly elevated protein level. Brain MRI (4/4), Cervico-thoracic spine MRI (3/4) were also performed. On gadolinium-enhanced brain MRI, enhancement of the meninges which is the most characteristic radiographic finding in intracranial hypotension was found in all patients of Group I. But, cervico-thoracic spin MRI was nonspecific. None of Group I had contrast myelography because of the patient's refusal. Group I and Group II underwent radionuclide cisternography following lumbar subarachnoid injection of 99mTc-DTPA (1-2mCi). The scans were taken in 2, 5, 24 hours later using single head gamma camera equipped with LEAP. Entire spinal region in posterior view and head in frontal and lateral views were obtained. The cisternography of Group I showed the CSF leakage or diverticulum at the level of cervico-thoracic junction(3/4) and mid

  13. CT evaluation of spontaneously ruptured renal angiomyolipomas with massive hemorrhage spreading into multi-retroperitoneal fascia and fascial spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yan Lu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Renal angiomyolipomas (RAMLs can spontaneously rupture and induce hemorrhage that is usually confined to the perirenal space (PS but may spread beyond the PS into other retroperitoneal fascia and fascial spaces, including up to the subdiaphramatic and down to pelvic extra-peritoneal regions. Purpose To evaluate the computed tomography (CT manifestations of renal angiomyolipoma (RAML associated with spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage spreading beyond the PS into other retroperitoneal fascia and fascial spaces, including up to the subdiaphramatic and down to pelvic extra-peritoneal regions. Material and Methods The CT scans of seven patients with spontaneously ruptured of RAMLs and massive hemorrhage (surgically and pathologically confirmed were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the CT signs of the RAML itself and the regions with extensive retroperitoneal spreading after RAML rupture. Results The CT manifestations of seven cases with RAML spontaneous rupture and massive hemorrhage included the following: (a RAML signs: size (>4.0 cm, five patients; <4.0 cm, two patients, location (periphery, six patients; central portion, one patient, component (fat tissue included, seven patients, and boundary (poorly revealed, seven patients; and (b signs of extensive retroperitoneal spreading after RAML rupture: involving the PS and extending beyond the PS (seven patients; spread to the pelvic extraperitoneal space (seven patients; attached to the subdiaphragmatic extraperitoneal region (four patients; and extended to the contralateral retroperitoneal spaces (six patients. Conclusion CT scans clearly depict both the primary tumor and complicated signs of a spontaneously ruptured RAML with massive hemorrhage, which can affect other fascial planes and retroperitoneal spaces and can extend upward to the subdiaphragmatic region and downward to the pelvic extraperitoneal region or communicate with the contralateral side.

  14. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte

    2017-10-01

    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Delivery of helium–oxygen mixture during spontaneous breathing: evaluation of three high-concentration face masks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Campo, Ferran; Vignaux, Laurence; Galia, Fabrice; Lyazidi, Aissam; Vargas, Frédéric; Texereau, Joëlle; Apiou-Sbirlea, Gabriela; Jolliet, Philippe; Brochard, Laurent

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of delivering a mixture of helium and oxygen gas (He–O2) in spontaneous ventilation. Three high oxygen flow reservoir masks were tested: the Heliox21, specifically designed for helium; the Hi-Ox80 mask, with an inspiratory and an expiratory valve; and a standard high-concentration face mask. This prospective randomized crossover study was performed in six healthy volunteers in a laboratory setting. Volunteers breathed a mixture of 78% He/22% O2 through each of the masks under two different breathing conditions (rest and hyperventilation: minute ventilation of 14.9 ± 6.1 and 26.7 ± 8.7 L min(−1), respectively) and four different He–O2 flow rates (7, 10, 12, and 15 L min(−1)). A nasopharyngeal catheter was used to estimate He pharyngeal concentration (Fp [He]) in the airways in order to determine the percentage of contamination with room air (% air cont) at end-expiration. Under all testing conditions, the Hi-Ox80 mask presented a significantly lower % air cont. During resting breathing pattern, a Fp [He] higher than 50% was achieved in 54% of the tests performed with the Hi-Ox80 mask compared to 29% for the Heliox21 mask and only 17% for the standard mask. At hyperventilation, a Fp [He] higher than 50% was achieved in 17% of the tests performed with the Hi-Ox mask compared to 4% for the other two masks. He–O2 administration via the usual high-concentration reservoir masks results in significant dilution by room air. The Hi-Ox80 mask minimized room air contamination and much more frequently achieved a pharyngeal He concentration higher than 50%.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snegirjovs, A.; Shipkovs, P.; Lebedeva, K.; Kashkarova, G.; Migla, L.; Gantenbein, P.; Omlin, L.

    2016-12-01

    Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC) is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC) systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average) systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW). In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  17. Performance Evaluation of Photovoltaic Solar Air Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snegirjovs A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Information on the electrical-driven solar air conditioning (SAC is rather scanty. A considerable body of technical data mostly concerns large-scale photo-voltaic solar air conditioning (PV-SAC systems. Reliable information about the energy output has arisen only in recent years; however, it is still not easily accessible, and sometimes its sources are closed. Despite these facts, solar energy researchers, observers and designers devote special attention to this type of SAC systems. In this study, performance evaluation is performed for the PV-SAC technology, in which low-power (up to 15 kWp of cooling power on average systems are used. Such a system contains a PV electric-driven compression chiller with cold and heat sensible thermal storage capacities, and a rejected energy unit used for preheating domestic hot water (DHW. In a non-cooling season, it is possible to partly employ the system in the reverse mode for DHW production. In this mode, the ambient air serves as a heat source. Besides, free cooling is integrated in the PV-SAC concept.

  18. Conditional firing probabilities in cultured neuronal networks: a stable underlying structure in widely varying spontaneous activity patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    le Feber, Jakob; Rutten, Wim; Stegenga, J.; Wolters, P.S.; Ramakers, G.J.A.; van Pelt, J.

    2007-01-01

    To properly observe induced connectivity changes after training sessions, one needs a network model that describes individual relationships in sufficient detail to enable observation of induced changes and yet reveals some kind of stability in these relationships. We analyzed spontaneous firing

  19. Evaluation of Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Paraoxonase 1 Levels, and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoklu Akkar, Ozlem; Sancakdar, Enver; Karakus, Savas; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ismail; Arslan, Murat; Sahin, Irfan Oguz; Imir Yenicesu, Ayse Gonca; Cetin, Ali

    2016-04-13

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, paraoxonase 1, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in women having early spontaneous preterm birth without clinical chorioamnionitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS This study was prospectively administered in women referred to our obstetrics service with preterm labor that resulted in preterm birth (n=35) and term labor that ended in term birth (n=44). The maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 were measured and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated. RESULTS The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels of the preterm group were significantly lower than those of the term group (pparaoxonase 1 in the preterm group (r=0.35; p=0.021). CONCLUSIONS Decreased maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may have a role in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth.

  20. Interactions of grass spontaneous cover in olive orchards with site conditions and management: a study case using biodiversity indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Carmen; Taguas, Encarnación; Lora, Ángel; Guzmán, Gema; Vanderlinden, Karl; Gómez, Jose A.

    2014-05-01

    Spontaneous herbaceous plants are an inexpensive control measure of soil erosion in olive orchards. Grass covers on steep areas are a requirement for compliance by farmers with basic standards concerning the environment, derived from Common Agricultural Policy (cross-compliances). In addition to ground cover, other aspects such as biodiversity and OC storage capacity of these systems are often not considered, despite the fact that the occupation of many ecological niches by different species might provide substantial environmental and landscape benefits. In this study, we evaluated different biodiversity indices on grass cover in two olive orchard catchments with different managements (conventional tillage and non-tillage with natural herbaceous plants) during 3 years (2011-2013). Seasonal samples of vegetal material and pictures in a permanent grid (4 samples/ha) were taken to characterize the temporal variations of the indicators: number of species, frequency, diversity and transformed Shanon's and Pielou's indices. The specific objectives of this work were: i) to describe and to compare the biodiversity indices in two contrasting olive orchard catchments of 6 and 9 ha with different soil types, precipitation, topography and management; ii) to explore possible relationships of these indexes with soil organic carbon content and soil loss. The results will allow improving our knowledge of environmental functions of this type of ground cover as well as factors determining its development. These features can be particularly interesting to enhance the environmental values of marginal olive orchards in steep locations. REFERENCES Aguilera L. 2012.Estudio de cubiertas vegetales para el control de la erosión en olivar Evolución espacio-temporal en dos fincas comerciales, y exploración de nuevas opciones de cubiertas. Master Thesis. University of Cordoba (Spain) Gimeno E. 2011. Análisis de la variabilidad de la cobertura vegetal en tres pequeñas cuencas de olivar

  1. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Silveira Salvadori

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractEpithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis.

  2. Spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma: pre- and post-rupture computed tomography evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, Priscila Silveira; Atzingen, Augusto Castelli von; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Bomfim, Lucas Novais [Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Maceio, AL, (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Epithelial ovarian tumors are the most common malignant ovarian neoplasms and, in most cases, eventual rupture of such tumors is associated with a surgical procedure. The authors report the case of a 54-year-old woman who presented with spontaneous rupture of ovarian cystadenocarcinoma documented by computed tomography, both before and after the event. In such cases, a post-rupture staging tends to be less favorable, compromising the prognosis. (author)

  3. Evaluation of spontaneous space closure and development of permanent dentition after extraction of hypomineralized permanent first molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jälevik, Birgitta; Möller, Marie

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate spontaneous space closure, development of the permanent dentition, and need for orthodontic treatment after extraction of permanent first molars due to severe molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH). Twenty-seven children aged 5.6-12.7 (median 8.2) years had one to four permanent first molars extracted due to severe MIH. Each case was followed up on individual indications 3.8-8.3 (median 5.7) years after extractions. The eruption of the permanent dentition, and space closure were documented by orthopantomograms, casts, photographs, and/or bitewings. Fifteen children were judged to have a favourable spontaneous development of their permanent dentition without any orthodontic intervention. Seven children were or should be subjected to orthodontic treatment for other reasons registered prior to the extraction. Five children were judged to have a treatment at least caused by the extractions, but three of them abstained because of no subjective treatment need. Extraction of permanent first molars severely affected by MIH is a good treatment alternative. Favourable spontaneous space reduction and development of the permanent dentition positioning can be expected without any intervention in the majority of cases extracted prior to the eruption of the second molar.

  4. Evaluation of Th1 and Th17 cells cytokines in cell culture stimulated in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Y Varghaiyan; H Hadi neduoshan; A Aflatoonian; A Mirghanizadeh; S Najafi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Various immunological abnormalities have been reported in women with RSA of unknown aetiologies including autoimmune abnormalities and increased cellular immunity such as elevated natural killer (NK) , Th1 and Th17 cell levels. Th17 and Th1 cells play a central role during inflammation. Th1 cells product cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2 and Th17 cells mainly cytokines IL-17A, F, IL-22. The aim of this study is evaluation of Th1 and Th17 activity in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion...

  5. Evaluation of leukocyte esterase and nitrite strip tests to detect spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torun, Serkan; Dolar, Enver; Yilmaz, Yusuf; Keskin, Murat; Kiyici, Murat; Sinirtas, Melda; Sarandol, Emre; Gurel, Selim; Nak, Selim-Giray; Gulten, Macit

    2007-12-07

    To investigate the diagnostic efficacy of leukocyte esterase and nitrite reagent strips for bedside diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP). A total of 63 consecutive patients with cirrhotic ascites (38 male, 25 female) tested between April 2005 and July 2006 were included in the study. Bedside reagent strip testing was performed on ascitic fluid and the results compared to manual cell counting and ascitic fluid culture. SBP was defined as having a polymorphonuclear ascites count of >or= 250/mm(3). Fifteen samples showed SBP. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the leukocyte esterase reagent strips were; 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of the nitrite reagent strips were 13%, 93%, 40%, and 77%, respectively. The combination of leukocyte esterase and nitrite reagents strips did not yield statistically significant effects on diagnostic accuracy. Leukocyte esterase reagent strips may provide a rapid, bedside diagnostic test for SBP.

  6. Role of Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography in the evaluation of traumatic and spontaneous oesophageal perforation. Our experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lutio di Castelguidone, Elisabetta; Pinto, Antonio; Merola, Stefanella; Stavolo, Ciro; Romano, Luigia

    2005-03-01

    To assess the role CT in the evaluation of traumatic and spontaneous oesophageal perforation. From March 2001 to May 2003, we studied 12 patients (7 males and 5 females; age range: 25-66 years, mean age: 43.5 years) with suspected oesophageal perforation due to motor-vehicle accidents (4 cases), stab wound (one case), post-intubation (2 cases), foreign body ingestion (2 cases) and spontaneous (3 cases). Five patients underwent standard chest and cervical radiography; two patients with suspected foreign body ingestion also underwent a gastrografin swallow study; all of the 12 patients underwent CT of the neck, chest and abdomen before and after intravenous, and in four cases oral, administration of contrast material. In 5 patients with cervical, thoracic and abdominal trauma, the CT examination showed the presence of pleuroparenchymal injury (pneumothorax, pleural effusion and subcutaneous emphysema) as well as findings suggestive of oesophageal perforation: peri-oesophageal air (5 cases), peri-oesophageal fluid (4 cases), oesophageal wall thickening (3 cases), oesophageal wall laceration (2 cases) with abnormal course of the nasogastric tube in one of them and extraluminal extravasation of oral contrast material (2 cases). In 2 patients with post-intubation complications, CT showed the presence of a small peri-oesophageal fluid collection containing small gas bubbles in one case, and a gross perioesophageal abscess-like collection in the second case. In the 2 patients with foreign body ingestion, the plain radiography associated with CT showed the presence of a thin metal object in the cervical region (fragment of a dental plate) and a small extraluminal extravasation of gastrografin in one case, whereas in the other case CT showed the presence of a foreign body (chicken bone) in the hypopharynx with oesophageal wall thickening and peri-oesophageal oedema. In the remaining three patients with suspected spontaneous oesophageal perforation, CT showed the presence of

  7. Role of Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography in the evaluation of traumatic and spontaneous oesophageal perforation. Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Lutio di Castelguidone, Elisabetta; Pinto, Antonio; Merola, Stefanella; Stavolo, Ciro; Romano, Luigia

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of CT in the evaluation of traumatic and spontaneous oesophageal perforation. Materials and methods: From March 2001 to May 2003, we studied 12 patients (7 males and 5 females; age range: 25-66 years, mean age: 43.5 years) with suspected oesophageal perforation due to motor-vehicle accidents (4 cases), stab wound (one case), post-intubation (2 cases), foreign body ingestion (2 cases) and spontaneous (3 cases). Five patients underwent standard chest and cervical radiography; two patients with suspected foreign body ingestion also underwent a gastrografin swallow study; all of the 12 patients underwent CT of the neck, chest and abdomen before and after intravenous, and in four cases oral, administration of contrast material. Results: In 5 patients with cervical, thoracic and abdominal trauma, the CT examination showed the presence of pleuroparenchymal injury (pneumothorax, pleural effusion and subcutaneous emphysema) as well as findings suggestive of oesophageal perforation: peri-oesophageal air (5 cases), peri-oesophageal fluid (4 cases), oesophageal wall thickening (3 cases), oesophageal wall laceration (2 cases) with abnormal course of the nasogastric tube in one of them and extraluminal extravasation of oral contrast material (2 cases). In two patients with post-intubation complications, CT showed the presence of a small peri-oesophageal fluid collection containing small gas bubbles in one case, and a gross peri-oesophageal abscess-like collection in the second case. In the 2 patients with foreign body ingestion, the plain radiography associated with CT showed the presence of a thin metal object in the cervical region (fragment of a dental plate) and a small extraluminal extravasation of gastrografin in one case, whereas in the other case CT showed the presence of a foreign body (chicken bone) in the hypopharynx with oesophageal wall thickening and peri-oesophageal oedema. In the remaining three patients with suspected spontaneous

  8. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, Aleš; Holečko, Peter; Gregor, Michal; Hruboš, Marián

    2017-12-01

    Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA) can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  9. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  10. Evaluation of proteomic biomarkers associated with circulating microparticles as an effective means to stratify the risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantonwine, David E; Zhang, Zhen; Rosenblatt, Kevin; Goudy, Kevin S; Doss, Robert C; Ezrin, Alan M; Page, Gail; Brohman, Brian; McElrath, Thomas F

    2016-05-01

    The analysis of circulating microparticles in pregnancy is of revolutionary potential because it represents an in vivo biopsy of active gestational tissues. We hypothesized that circulating microparticle signaling will differ in pregnancies that experience spontaneous preterm birth from those delivering at term and that these differences will be evident many weeks in advance of clinical presentation. Utilizing plasma specimens obtained between 10 and 12 weeks' gestation as part of a prospectively collected birth cohort in which pregnancy outcomes are independently validated by 2 board-certified maternal-fetal medicine physicians, 25 singleton cases of spontaneous preterm birth ≤ 34 weeks were matched by maternal age, race, and gestational age of sampling (±2 weeks) with 50 uncomplicated term deliveries. Circulating microparticles from these first-trimester specimens were isolated and analyzed by multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry for potential protein biomarkers following previous studies. Markers with robust univariate performance in correlating spontaneous preterm birth were further evaluated for their biological relevance via a combined functional profiling/pathway analysis and for multivariate performance. Among the 132 proteins evaluated, 62 demonstrated robust power of detecting spontaneous preterm birth in a bootstrap receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis at a false discovery rate of deliver spontaneously ≤ 34 weeks. These changes, with further validation, will allow the stratification of patients at risk of spontaneous preterm birth before clinical presentation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of a quantitative fetal fibronectin test for spontaneous preterm birth in symptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Danielle S; Radford, Samara K; Seed, Paul T; Tribe, Rachel M; Shennan, Andrew H

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether quantification of cervicovaginal fluid fetal fibronectin (fFN) improves diagnostic accuracy of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) in symptomatic women. A prospective blinded predefined secondary analysis of a larger study of cervicovaginal fluid fFN concentration (nanograms per milliliter) in women symptomatic of preterm labor (n =300 women; 22-35 weeks' gestation) with a Hologic 10Q system (Hologic, Marlborough, MA). Clinicians were blinded to the result until after the delivery, but the qualitative Hologic TLI(IQ) fFN result was made available. The positive predictive value for sPTB (<34 weeks' gestation) increased from 19%, 32%, 61%, and 75% with increasing thresholds (10, 50, 200, and 500 ng/mL, respectively). Compared with <10 ng/mL fFN, the relative risk of delivery was 5.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.05-29.57), 7.9 (95% CI, 1.38-45.0), 22.8 (95% CI, 3.84-135.5), and 51.3 (95% CI, 12.49-211.2; P < .01). Quantitative fFN provides thresholds (10 and 200 ng/mL) in addition to the qualitative method (50 ng/mL) to discriminate the risk of sPTB in symptomatic women. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [CT perfusion imaging evaluation on hemodynamic changes of acute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage surrounding tissues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Yi; Chen, Weijian; Zheng, Kuikui; Fu, Jun; Hu, Zilong; Yang, Yunjun; Dai, Yichuan

    2015-11-17

    To discuss the hemodynamic changes in patients with acute supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (within 72 hours) by using 320-slice of low-dose volume CT perfusion imaging. Twenty-six patients of The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University during December 2012 to December 2013 with acute supratentorial SICH diagnosed by plain CT scanning and clinic were enrolled. With hematoma maximum level for reference, the hematoma volume, edema area and perfusion defect area were measured, and the perfusion parameters values of the marginal area and outer area of the intracerebral hematoma and contralateral mirror area were measured, including cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean transit time (MTT) and time-to-peak (TTP), and rCBF, rCBV, rMTT and rTTP were calculated by ipsilateral/contralateral value. The CBF, CBV of the marginal area were lower than the contralateral mirror area (tCBF=-8.125, tCBV=-8.671, PCBF, CBVperfusion defect area showed a positive linear relation with the volume of acute hematoma (r=0.440, Pperfusion defect area (r=0.400, r=0.81, PCT perfusion imaging can perfectly reflect the hemodynamic changes in brain tissuse after acute supratentorial SICH. Hypoperfusion was appeared in perihematomal area of acute supratentorial SICH. The perihematomal brain tissue may exists ischemic injury associated with the size of hematoma.The hematoma place holder effect, ischemic injury are the important cause of acute brain edema formation.

  13. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  14. Evaluating Functional and Structural Condition Based Maintenances of Airfield Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarefder R.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates airfield pavements’ functional- and structural-condition to determine the most economical maintenance method. As a part of the analysis, Pavement Condition Index (PCI for several runways, taxiways, and aprons has been determined by MicroPAVER. Structural evaluation of airport pavements has been performed by Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD test. Evaluation of Layer Moduli and Overlay Design (ELMOD also determines the required overlay thickness based on the E-values, i.e. FWD data analysis. Damage analysis determines the time of repeated overlay application. In addition, functional parameters have been included to determine the time of functional maintenance. Maintenance and rehabilitation alternatives have been selected to develop different program strategies. Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA has been performed to determine the maintenance cost. Structural condition based maintenance cost is compared to functional condition based maintenance cost. Comparison shows that structural condition based approach yields cheaper maintenance strategies than functional condition based maintenance approach.

  15. Correlation properties of spontaneous motor activity in healthy infants: a new computer-assisted method to evaluate neurological maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmeier, Sandra; Grunt, Sebastian; Delgado-Eckert, Edgar; Latzin, Philipp; Steinlin, Maja; Fuhrer, Katharina; Frey, Urs

    2013-06-01

    Qualitative assessment of spontaneous motor activity in early infancy is widely used in clinical practice. It enables the description of maturational changes of motor behavior in both healthy infants and infants who are at risk for later neurological impairment. These assessments are, however, time-consuming and are dependent upon professional experience. Therefore, a simple physiological method that describes the complex behavior of spontaneous movements (SMs) in infants would be helpful. In this methodological study, we aimed to determine whether time series of motor acceleration measurements at 40-44 weeks and 50-55 weeks gestational age in healthy infants exhibit fractal-like properties and if this self-affinity of the acceleration signal is sensitive to maturation. Healthy motor state was ensured by General Movement assessment. We assessed statistical persistence in the acceleration time series by calculating the scaling exponent α via detrended fluctuation analysis of the time series. In hand trajectories of SMs in infants we found a mean α value of 1.198 (95 % CI 1.167-1.230) at 40-44 weeks. Alpha changed significantly (p = 0.001) at 50-55 weeks to a mean of 1.102 (1.055-1.149). Complementary multilevel regression analysis confirmed a decreasing trend of α with increasing age. Statistical persistence of fluctuation in hand trajectories of SMs is sensitive to neurological maturation and can be characterized by a simple parameter α in an automated and observer-independent fashion. Future studies including children at risk for neurological impairment should evaluate whether this method could be used as an early clinical screening tool for later neurological compromise.

  16. Health behaviors, periodontal conditions, and periodontal pathogens in spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae-In; Oh, Kyungjoon; Yang, Hyejin; Choi, Bong-Kyu; Ha, Jung-Eun; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2010-06-01

    This study aims to determine whether periodontal conditions or dental health behaviors are risk factors for preterm birth (PTB), and whether periodontal pathogens are risk indicators for PTB among Korean mothers. This study was designed as a hospital-based case-control study. Examiner masking was ensured for the validity of the examinations. The mothers included those who gave birth between November 2007 and July 2009 at the obstetrics clinic of a general hospital in Seoul, Korea. Information on demographic and health conditions, periodontal conditions, and microbacterial data was collected. A total of 172 women met the inclusion criteria, 59 mothers who delivered a preterm neonate were assigned to the case group while the other 113 were assigned to the control group. There were no significant differences in demographic information, oral health conditions, and obstetric characteristics. Among health-related behaviors, only scaling within 12 months before pregnancy showed a significant difference (P = 0.031). Even in the adjusted logistic model, only the difference in the experience of scaling before pregnancy was significant between the PTB cases and the controls (P = 0.039). Periodontal disease did not exhibit a significant relationship with PTB even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Among the microbacterial factors, only Porphyromonas gingivalis showed a slight difference (P = 0.060). There was a significant difference in scaling experience within 12 months before pregnancy and P. gingivalis showed a marginal difference between the PTB and the control groups but clinical periodontal conditions showed no association with PTB.

  17. Serum amyloid A isoforms in serum and synovial fluid from spontaneously diseased dogs with joint diseases or other conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads Jens; Christensen, Michelle B.; Lee, Marcel Huisung

    2007-01-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a major acute phase protein in dogs. However, knowledge of qualitative properties of canine SAA and extent of its synthesis in extrahepatic tissues is limited. The aim of the study was to investigate expression of different SAA isoforms in serum and synovial fluid...... in samples obtained from dogs (n = 16) suffering from different inflammatory or non-inflammatory conditions, which were either related or unrelated to joints. Expression of SAA isoforms was visualized by denaturing isoelectric focusing and Western blotting. Serum amyloid A was present in serum from all dogs...

  18. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  19. Methods for evaluating stream, riparian, and biotic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Platts; Walter F. Megahan; G. Wayne Minshall

    1983-01-01

    This report develops a standard way of measuring stream, riparian, and biotic conditions and evaluates the validity of the measurements recommended. Accuracy and precision of most measurements are defined. This report will be of value to those persons documenting, monitoring, or predicting stream conditions and their biotic resources, especially those related to...

  20. Evaluation of sorghum genotypes under drought stress conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven genotypes of sorghum (Sorghum bicolour (L.) Moench) were studied in both drought and normal conditions. In each condition, the genotypes were evaluated using a split plot based randomized complete block design with three replications. Drought tolerance indices including stability tolerance index (STI), mean ...

  1. Evaluation of prenatal corticosteroid use in spontaneous preterm labor in the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Tabata Z; Passini, Renato; Tedesco, Ricardo P; Lajos, Giuliane J; Rehder, Patricia M; Nomura, Marcelo L; Costa, Maria L; Oliveira, Paulo F; Sousa, Maria H; Cecatti, Jose G

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate prenatal corticosteroid use in women experiencing spontaneous preterm labor and preterm delivery. The present cross-sectional multicenter study analyzed interview data from patients attending 20 hospitals in Brazil owing to preterm delivery between April 1, 2011 and July 30, 2012. Patients were stratified based on preterm delivery occurring before 34 weeks or at 34-36 +6  weeks of pregnancy, and the frequency of prenatal corticosteroid use at admission was compared. Prenatal corticosteroid use, sociodemographic data, obstetric characteristics, and neonatal outcomes were examined. There were 1455 preterm deliveries included in the present study; 527 (36.2%) occurred before 34 weeks of pregnancy and prenatal corticosteroids were used in 285 (54.1%) of these pregnancies. Among neonates delivered at 32-33 +6  weeks, prenatal corticosteroid use was associated with lower pneumonia (P=0.026) and mortality (P=0.029) rates. Among neonates delivered at 34-36 +6  weeks, prenatal corticosteroid use was associated with longer neonatal hospital admission (Pprenatal corticosteroids. This could reflect a sub-optimal interval between administration and delivery. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  2. Flexoelectric instability and a spontaneous chiral-symmetry breaking in a nematic liquid crystal cell with asymmetric boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palto, S P; Mottram, N J; Osipov, M A

    2007-06-01

    Using both numerical simulations and an approximate analytical theory we describe a flexoelectric-induced instability in a thin nematic liquid crystal layer with asymmetric boundary conditions subjected to an applied electric field. The dependence of the threshold value of the electric field on principal material parameters of the nematic liquid crystal and the director distribution in different regions of the cell have been studied in detail numerically. The results have been compared with a simple analytical theory that enables us to obtain explicit expressions for the threshold electric field and the period of modulation above the threshold. It has been found that in the hybrid aligned nematic cell with homeotropic anchoring on one surface and planar homogeneous anchoring on the other surface, a periodic flexoelectric-induced domain structure appears, above a critical threshold, with a chiral director distribution. The director rotates about the alignment axis when moving along a perpendicular direction in the plane of the cell. The absolute value of the threshold field has been found to depend on the direction of the field due to the initial symmetry of the hybrid aligned cell and the presence of flexoelectricity.

  3. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  4. Influence of MBE growth modes and conditions on spontaneous formation of metallic In nanoparticles and electrical properties of InN matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarova, T. A.; Wang, P.; Paturi, P.; Wang, X.; Ivanov, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Influence of the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth conditions on the electrical properties of the InN epilayers in terms of minimization of the effect of spontaneously formed In nanoparticles was studied. A three-step growth sequence was used, including direct MBE growth of an InN nucleation layer, migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) of an InN buffer layer, and In-rich MBE growth of the main InN layer, utilizing the droplet elimination by radical-beam irradiation (DERI) technique. The three-step growth regime was found to lead to decreasing the relative amount of In nanoparticles to 4.8% and 3.8% in In-rich and near-stoichiometric conditions, respectively, whereas the transport properties are better for the In-rich growth. Further reduction of the metallic indium inclusions in the InN films, while keeping simultaneously satisfactory transport parameters, is hardly possible due to fundamental processes of InN thermal decomposition and formation of the nitrogen vacancy conglomerates in the InN matrix. The In inclusions are shown to dominate the electrical conductivity of the InN films even at their minimum amount.

  5. Development, implementation, and evaluation of an institutional daily awakening and spontaneous breathing trial protocol: a quality improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kher, Sucharita; Roberts, Russel J; Garpestad, Erik; Kunkel, Chris; Howard, William; Didominico, Dorothy; Fergusson, Anne; Devlin, John W

    2013-01-01

    While one controlled trial found that a daily awakening and spontaneous breathing trial (DA-SBT) decreases time on mechanical ventilation (MV), there is a paucity of real-world data surrounding the development, implementation, and impact of DA-SBT protocols. We describe a multidisciplinary process improvement effort in 2, 10-bed medical intensive care units (MICUs) at a 330-bed academic medical center that focused on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a new DA-SBT protocol. A DA-SBT protocol, developed using results from a nursing survey literature and available institutional resources, was implemented after extensive clinician education and institution of quality reminders to boost use. Postprotocol compliance was evaluated. Use of sedation, DA and SBT practices, and clinical outcomes were retrospectively compared between the before and after DA-SBT protocol groups (ie, consecutive MICU patients requiring a continuously infused sedative [CIS] ≥24 hours). In the after group (n = 32), the DA and SBT compliances were 44% and 84%, respectively. Compared with the before group (n = 33), after group patients received CIS on fewer days of MV (100% vs 67%, P = .003) and had their CIS down-titrated by ≥25% on more days of CIS (40% vs 71%, P = .006). Neither total CIS dose (P = .49), total MV days (P = .75), days of MV where a SBT occurred (P = .38), nor episodes of self-extubation (15% vs 6%, P = .43) differed between the 2 groups. Despite the implementation of a DA-SBT protocol that was individualized to clinician preferences and institutional resources and accompanied by substantial education and reminders for use, compliance to the DA component of this protocol was low and duration of MV remained unchanged. Additional quality improvement strategies are needed to overcome barriers to DA-SBT protocol use that may not exist in controlled clinical trials.

  6. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  7. EVALUATION OF LEUKOCYTE ESTERASE REAGENT STRIPS TEST IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS IN CHILDREN WITH CIRRHOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser HONAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundSpontaneous bacterial peritonitis is defined as an ascetic fluid infection without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is one of the severe complications in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. Without early antibiotic treatment, this complication is associated with high mortality rate; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is necessary for survival. Leukocyte esterase reagent can rapidly diagnose the spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.ObjectiveThis study aimed to find out the diagnostic accuracy of leukocyte esterase dipstick test for the diagnosis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.MethodsA single centered hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted during July 2013 to August 2014 on children with cirrhotic liver disease and ascites who were admitted in the Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology in Nemazee Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Iran. All patients underwent abdominal paracentesis, and the ascitic fluid was processed for cell count, leukocyte esterase reagent strip test (Combiscreen SL10 and culture. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis was defined as having a polymorphonuclear count (PMN ≥250/m3 in ascitic fluid. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of leukocyte esterase test were calculated according to the formula.ResultsTotally, 150 ascitic fluid sample of cirrhotic male patients (53.2% and their mean age (4.33±1.88 years were analyzed. Biliary atresia (n=44, 29.4% and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (n=29, 19.3% were the most frequent etiology of cirrhosis. Also, abdominal pain (68.6% and distension (64% were the most common presenting complaint. Of all cases, 41patients (27.35% were diagnosed to have spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (PMN ≥250/mm3. Sensitivity and specificity of leukocyte esterase reagent test according to PMNs ≥250mm3 were

  8. Spontaneous Involution of a Non-Optic Astrocytoma in Neurofibromatosis Type I: Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakirer, S. [Istanbul Sisli Etfal Hospital (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology; Karaarslan, E. [VKV American Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Radiology

    2004-10-01

    A patient with neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) was followed-up with serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies over a period of 6 years. A contrast-enhancing lesion of the internal capsule, histologically proven to be pilocytic astrocytoma through stereotactic brain biopsy with mass effect and associated edema, was detected to reveal spontaneous involution on follow-up MRI studies. Although spontaneous regression of gliomas of the optic pathway-hypothalamus in patients with NF1 is relatively common in the literature, spontaneous involution of non-optic (i.e. areas other than optic pathways and hypothalamus) gliomas is rarely reported. Conservative management with follow-up MRI studies should be considered for non-optic glial tumors and tumor-like masses in patients with NF1, and surgical treatment should not be considered unless the lesions exhibit a rapid or unrelenting growth on serial MRI studies or produce significant clinical deterioration.

  9. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in nuclear gauges fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Marcelo Ferreira; Borges, Jose Carlos

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the radioprotection conditions in the work place, of a industry that produces nuclear gauges. The survey was divided, basically, in two parts; first took place a physical monitoring area, individual and contamination and biological, through the analysis of excretes and cytogenetic dosimetry. (author)

  10. An evaluation of veld condition assessment techniques in Highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation of six methods used to index veld condition showed that the majority provided indices that were insensitive to long-term grazing impact. However, certain species were found to either increase or decrease in relative abundance with an increase in grazing intensity. A key species method is therefore suggested ...

  11. 128 EVALUATION OF RANGE CONDITION AND TREND OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-03-01

    Mar 1, 2010 ... ABSTRACT. The study was designed to evaluate the range condition and trend of Sambisa Game Reserve in. Borno State, Nigeria. Assessment of herbaceous cover and composition, woody plant density and plant vigor were carried out in randomly selected sample plots. Litter cover was determined by ...

  12. Evaluation of Range Condition and Trend of Sambisa Game ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was designed to evaluate the range condition and trend of Sambisa Game Reserve in Borno State, Nigeria. Assessment of herbaceous cover and composition, woody plant density and plant vigor were carried out in randomly selected sample plots. Litter cover was determined by step point transect method, while ...

  13. Geophysical and geotechnical evaluation of foundation conditions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical and geotechnical evaluation of foundation conditions of a site in Ago-Iwoye area, southwestern Nigeria. NO Adebisi, MO Oluruntola. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 42(1) 2006: 79-84. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Reducing automatically activated racial prejudice through implicit evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael A; Fazio, Russell H

    2006-04-01

    The authors report a set of experiments that use an implicit evaluative conditioning procedure to reduce automatically activated racial prejudice in White participants in a short period and with relatively few trials. Experiment 1 demonstrated that participants were unaware of the repeated conditioned stimulus-unconditioned stimulus (CS-US) pairings of Black-good and White-bad. In Experiment 2, the procedure was found to be effective in reducing prejudice as indicated by an evaluative priming measure of automatically activated racial attitudes. In Experiment 3, this reduction in prejudice was found to persist throughout a 2-day separation between the conditioning procedure and the administration of the dependent measure. The implications of the present findings for the persistence of automatically activated racial prejudice are discussed.

  15. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 28-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department (ED with three days of intermittent, epigastric abdominal pain and non-bloody, non-bilious emesis with occasional diarrhea. She had a history of gastric cancer complicated by gastric outlet obstruction requiring gastric stent, and was receiving treatment with chemotherapy. She was originally diagnosed two months prior to this visit, after an emergent right salpingo-oophorectomy for possible ovarian torsion revealed an ovarian mass consistent with a Krukenberg tumor. Upon presentation to the ED, her only complaints were of vomiting and abdominal pain, with no additional symptoms. Based on the initial clinical presentation, abdominal and pelvic computerized tomography (CT scans, surgical and gastrointestinal (GI consultations, and general labs were ordered for the patient. The initial CT scan found pneumomediastinum, which prompted a thoracic CT scan with contrast to determine the etiology and extent of the condition in the patient. The results of the scan prompted the treating ED physicians to consider esophageal perforation. Following consultation, the surgical and GI physicians did not recommend engaging acute intervention. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated mild hypokalemia and hyponatremia, both of which were addressed by administering intravenous (IV fluids. The patient was hospitalized for chemotherapy-induced nausea and received prophylactic IV piperacillin-tazobactam. She remained afebrile, hemodynamically stable with negative blood cultures, and was discharged to complete an additional seven-day course of amoxicillin-clavulanic acidwith scheduled ondansetron. Significant findings: The initial CT scans showed extraluminal gas surrounding the distal esophagus as it traversed the posterior mediastinum, concerning for possible distal esophageal perforation that prompted surgery and GI consultations. There was no evidence of a drainable collection or

  16. Conditioned pain modulation is minimally influenced by cognitive evaluation or imagery of the conditioning stimulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernaba M

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mario Bernaba, Kevin A Johnson, Jiang-Ti Kong, Sean MackeyStanford Systems Neuroscience and Pain Laboratory, Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USAPurpose: Conditioned pain modulation (CPM is an experimental approach for probing endogenous analgesia by which one painful stimulus (the conditioning stimulus may inhibit the perceived pain of a subsequent stimulus (the test stimulus. Animal studies suggest that CPM is mediated by a spino–bulbo–spinal loop using objective measures such as neuronal firing. In humans, pain ratings are often used as the end point. Because pain self-reports are subject to cognitive influences, we tested whether cognitive factors would impact on CPM results in healthy humans.Methods: We conducted a within-subject, crossover study of healthy adults to determine the extent to which CPM is affected by 1 threatening and reassuring evaluation and 2 imagery alone of a cold conditioning stimulus. We used a heat stimulus individualized to 5/10 on a visual analog scale as the testing stimulus and computed the magnitude of CPM by subtracting the postconditioning rating from the baseline pain rating of the heat stimulus.Results: We found that although evaluation can increase the pain rating of the conditioning stimulus, it did not significantly alter the magnitude of CPM. We also found that imagery of cold pain alone did not result in statistically significant CPM effect.Conclusion: Our results suggest that CPM is primarily dependent on sensory input, and that the cortical processes of evaluation and imagery have little impact on CPM. These findings lend support for CPM as a useful tool for probing endogenous analgesia through subcortical mechanisms.Keywords: conditioned pain modulation, endogenous analgesia, evaluation, imagery, cold presser test, CHEPS, contact heat-evoked potential stimulator

  17. A novel paradigm to evaluate conditioned pain modulation in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoen CJ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cynthia J Schoen,1,* Jacob N Ablin,2,* Eric Ichesco,1 Rupal J Bhavsar,3 Laura Kochlefl,1 Richard E Harris,1 Daniel J Clauw,1 Richard H Gracely,4 Steven E Harte1 1Department of Anesthesiology, Chronic Pain and Fatigue Research Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA; 2Institute of Rheumatology, Tel Aviv Suorasky Medical Center, and Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel; 3Department of Neurology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 4Department of Endodontics, University of North Carolina – Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Introduction: Application of noxious stimulation to one body area reduces pain sensitivity in a remote body area through activation of an endogenous pain-inhibitory network, a behavioral phenomenon referred to as conditioned pain modulation (CPM. The efficiency of CPM is predictive of a variety of health outcomes, while impaired CPM has been associated with various chronic pain conditions. Current methods used to assess CPM vary widely, and interest in CPM method development remains strong. Here, we evaluated a novel method for assessing CPM in healthy controls and fibromyalgia (FM patients using thumb pressure as both a test and conditioning stimulus.Methods: Sixteen female FM patients and 14 matched healthy controls underwent CPM testing with thumbnail pressure as the test stimulus, and either cold water or noxious pressure as the conditioning stimulus. CPM magnitude was evaluated as the difference in pain rating of the test stimulus applied before and during the conditioning stimulus.Results: In healthy controls, application of either pressure or cold water conditioning stimulation induced CPM as evidenced by a significant reduction in test stimulus pain rating during conditioning (P=0.007 and P=0.021, respectively. In contrast, in FM patients, neither conditioning stimulus induced a significant CPM effect P-values >0

  18. A nasal catheter for the measurement of end-tidal carbon dioxide in spontaneously breathing patients: a preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheem, Mohamed Samy Abdel; Wahba, Olaa M

    2010-04-01

    Several devices have been proposed to monitor end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (Petco(2)) in spontaneously breathing patients; however, many have been reported to be inaccurate. We designed this study to investigate the accuracy of a balloon-tipped nasal catheter in measuring Petco(2) in nontracheally intubated, spontaneously breathing patients. The catheter was assembled using a 14-F rubber Foley catheter, a tracheal tube pilot balloon, and the plastic sheath from an 18-gauge needle. The catheter was connected to the sampling tube of a gas analyzer. Petco(2) and Paco(2) were determined simultaneously in 20 otherwise healthy postsurgical patients while receiving oxygen. The mean Petco(2) - Paco(2) difference was -4.4 +/- 1.6 (SD) mm Hg with a correlation coefficient r = +0.87 (P breathing patients.

  19. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  20. Evaluation of nuclear plant cable aging through condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extending the lifetime of a nuclear power plant [(hereafter referred to simply as NPP)] is one of the most important concerns in the global nuclear industry. Cables are one of the long - life items that have not been considered for replacement during the design life of a NPP. To extend the cable life beyond the design life, it is first necessary to prove that the design life is too conservative compared with actual aging. Condition monitoring is useful means of evaluating the aging condition of cable. In order to simulate natural aging in a nuclear power plant, a study on accelerated aging must first be conducted. In this paper, evaluations of mechanical aging degradation for a neoprene cable jacket were performed after accelerated aging under continuous and intermittent heating conditions. Contrary to general expectations, intermittent heating to the neoprene cable jacket showed low aging degradation, 50% break-elongation, and 60% indenter modulus, compared with continuous heating. With a plant maintenance period of 1 month after every 12 or 18 months operation, we can easily deduce that the life time of the cable jacket of neoprene can be extended much longer than estimated through the general EQ test, which adopts continuous accelerated aging for determining cable life. Therefore, a systematic approach that considers the actual environment conditions of the nuclear power plant is required for determining cable life

  1. Evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, J.E.; Turcotte, R.P.; Chikalla, T.D.; Hench, L.L.

    1983-01-01

    The evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms requires an understanding of radiation and thermal effects, mechanical properties, volatility, and chemical durability. As a result of nuclear waste research and development programs in many countries, a good understanding of these factors is available for borosilicate glass containing high-level waste. The IAEA through its coordinated research program has contributed to this understanding. Methods used in the evaluation of conditioned high-level waste forms are reviewed. In the US, this evaluation has been facilitated by the definition of standard test methods by the Materials Characterization Center (MCC), which was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) in 1979. The DOE has also established a 20-member Materials Review Board to peer-review the activities of the MCC. In addition to comparing waste forms, testing must be done to evaluate the behavior of waste forms in geologic repositories. Such testing is complex; accelerated tests are required to predict expected behavior for thousands of years. The tests must be multicomponent tests to ensure that all potential interactions between waste form, canister/overpack and corrosion products, backfill, intruding ground water and the repository rock, are accounted for. An overview of the status of such multicomponent testing is presented

  2. Evaluation of radiation protection conditions in intraoral radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel, Cristiano; Barros, Frieda Saicla; Rocha, Anna Silvia Penteado Setti da, E-mail: miguel_cristianoch@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (PPGEB/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia Biomedica; Tilly Junior, Joao Gilberto [Universidade Federal do Parana (UNIR/UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Hospital de Clinicas. Unidade de Imagem e Radioterapia; Almeida, Claudio Domingues de [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Medica

    2016-04-15

    Introduction: The dental radiology represents about 20% of human exposure to radiation in radio diagnostic. Although the doses practiced in intraoral dentistry are considered low, they should not be ignored due to the volume of the performed procedures. This study presents the radiation protection conditions for intraoral radiology in Curitiba - PR. Methods: Data was collected through a quantitative field research of a descriptive nature during the period between September of 2013 and December of 2014. The survey sample consisted of 97 dentists and 130 intraoral equipment. The data related to the equipment was collected using structured questions and quality control evaluations. The evaluations of the entrance skin dose, the size of the radiation field and the total filtration were performed with dosimetry kits provided and evaluated by IRD/CNEN. The exposure time and voltage were measured using noninvasive detectors. The occupational dose was verified by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The existence of personal protection equipment, the type of image processing and knowledge of dentists about radiation protection were verified through the application of a questionnaire. Results: Among the survey's results, it is important to emphasize that 90% of the evaluated equipment do not meet all the requirements of the Brazilian radiation protection standards. Conclusion: The lack of knowledge about radiation protection, the poor operating conditions of the equipment, and the image processing through visual method are mainly responsible for the unnecessary exposure of patients to ionizing radiation. (author)

  3. Performance evaluation of Chrysopogon zizanoides under urban conditions of Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Majda Khalil; Bhat, Narayana Ramachandra; Jacob, Sheena; Al-Burais, Meali

    2018-02-01

    Plant physiological and morphological attributes should be critically evaluated for selecting any species for landscaping projects. The selection of a species should be based on the evaluation of its adaptability, noninvasiveness, growth potential, and performance under the prevailing local arid conditions for their aesthetic looks, soil stabilization, and afforestation values. Chrysopogon zizanoides (Vetiver), is suitable for Kuwait because it can withstand fluctuating temperatures ranging from -14 to 55 °C with unique physical and physiological characteristics. Despite the successful growth performance of Vetiver in landscaping projects mostly in several tropical countries, it has not been utilized and evaluated in the Arabian Gulf region. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the performance of selected ten cultivars of Vetiver (ODV-1, 8, 9, 13, 17, 21, 23, Silent Valley, Urlikal, and Pannimedu) in the deficient soil and environmental conditions of Kuwait in urban landscape at minimal maintenance. It is suggested that based on visual greenery effect and overall growth performance cultivars, Pannimedu, Silent Valley, ODV-13, ODV-8 and ODV-9 can be considered for landscaping projects in Kuwait. To obtain the superior crown volume (which considers height and canopy) cultivar Pannimedu is suggested and to get a bushy growth (considering the number of tillers) cultivar ODV-13 and ODV-8 is found to be suitable.

  4. Evaluating the validity of using unverified indices of body condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, J.L.; Esler, Daniel; Flint, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    Condition indices are commonly used in an attempt to link body condition of birds to ecological variables of interest, including demographic attributes such as survival and reproduction. Most indices are based on body mass adjusted for structural body size, calculated as simple ratios or residuals from regressions. However, condition indices are often applied without confirming their predictive value (i.e., without being validated against measured values of fat and protein), which we term 'unverified' use. We evaluated the ability of a number of unverified indices frequently found in the literature to predict absolute and proportional levels of fat and protein across five species of waterfowl. Among indices we considered, those accounting for body size never predicted absolute protein more precisely than body mass, however, some indices improved predictability of fat, although the form of the best index varied by species. Further, the gain in precision by using a condition index to predict either absolute or percent fat was minimal (rise in r2???0.13), and in many cases model fit was actually reduced. Our data agrees with previous assertions that the assumption that indices provide more precise indicators of body condition than body mass alone is often invalid. We strongly discourage the use of unverified indices, because subjectively selecting indices likely does little to improve precision and might in fact decrease predictability relative to using body mass alone. ?? 2009 The Authors.

  5. Aerosol delivery during spontaneous breathing with different types of nebulizers- in vitro/ex vivo models evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Ling; Fang, Tien-Pei; Cho, Hui-Sun; Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Hsieh, Meng-Jer; Fink, James B

    2018-02-01

    Nebulizers for spontaneous breathing have been evaluated through different study designs. There are limitations in simulated bench models related to patient and nebulizer factors. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation of inhaled drug mass between in vitro and ex vivo studies by testing aerosol deposition of various types of nebulizers. Ten healthy subjects were recruited to receive aerosol therapy with five nebulizers in random order: 1) a jet nebulizer (JN); 2) a breath-enhanced nebulizer (BEN); 3) a manually triggered nebulizer (MTN), 4) a breath-actuated nebulizer (BAN), and 5) a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN) with valved-adapter. A unit dose of salbutamol containing 5 mg in 2.5 mL was placed into the nebulizer and administered for 10 min. For the ex vivo study, minute ventilation of healthy subjects was recorded for 1 min. For the in vitro study a breathing simulator was utilized with adult breathing patterns. Aerosolized drug from the nebulizers and the accessory tubes was captured using inspiratory and expiratory collecting filters. Captured drug was eluted, measured and expressed as inhaled and exhaled mass using spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 276 nm. 10 healthy subjects were recruited, aged 20.8 ± 0.7 years old, with a mean height of 166.2 ± 9.2 cm and weight of 64.7 ± 12.4 kg. There was no significant difference in the inhaled drug dose between the JN and BEN (15.0 ± 1.94% and 17.74 ± 2.65%, respectively, p = .763), yet the inhaled doses were lower than the other three nebulizers (p vivo model (44.0 ± 0.9% and 35.5 ± 6.3% respectively, p = .003), whereas the JN in the ex vivo model resulted in a greater inhaled drug dose (15.0 ± 1.9% for ex vivo vs 11.6 ± 1.6% for in vitro, p = .008). These in vitro/ex vivo model comparisons of nebulizers performance indicated that breath-related nebulizers can be estimated using an in vitro model; however, the JN and VMN delivered

  6. Thermo economical evaluation of retrofitting strategies in air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tribess, Arlindo; Fiorelli, Flavio Augusto Sanzogo; Hernandez Neto, Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: atribess@usp.br; fiorelli@usp.br; ahneto@usp.br

    2000-07-01

    In a building project, several subsystems are designed, among them the air conditioning system. Electrical energy consumption profiles show that this subsystem is responsible for 40 to 50% of total consumption in a commercial building. Besides the study of technical aspects that should be considered in order to assure the thermal comfort of the occupants as well the temperature and humidity conditions for an efficient equipment operation, an economical evaluation of this subsystem should be also made. In retrofit projects, the economical aspect is also critical for such projects in order to assure bigger efficiency in an economically attractive way. This paper analyses some strategies that might be adopted in retrofitting an air conditioning system installed in a commercial building with mixed occupation. By mixed we mean that some floors have a typical office occupation profile and other floors are mainly occupied by electronic equipment. This analysis includes both technical and economical evaluation. The proposed solutions performance are compared to the old system, which allows to verify the retrofitting impact in energy consumption reduction and its economical feasibility. (author)

  7. Enhancement of wind stress evaluation method under storm conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingjian; Yu, Xiping

    2016-12-01

    Wind stress is an important driving force for many meteorological and oceanographical processes. However, most of the existing methods for evaluation of the wind stress, including various bulk formulas in terms of the wind speed at a given height and formulas relating the roughness height of the sea surface with wind conditions, predict an ever-increasing tendency of the wind stress coefficient as the wind speed increases, which is inconsistent with the field observations under storm conditions. The wave boundary layer model, which is based on the momentum and energy conservation, has the advantage to take into account the physical details of the air-sea interaction process, but is still invalid under storm conditions without a modification. By including the energy dissipation due to the presence of sea spray, which is speculated to be an important aspect of the air-sea interaction under storm conditions, the wave boundary layer model is improved in this study. The improved model is employed to estimate the wind stress caused by an idealized tropical cyclone motion. The computational results show that the wind stress coefficient reaches its maximal value at a wind speed of about 40 m/s and decreases as the wind speed further increases. This is in fairly good agreement with the field data.

  8. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  9. Phase I evaluation of STA-1474, a prodrug of the novel HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib, in dogs with spontaneous cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available The novel water soluble compound STA-1474 is metabolized to ganetespib (formerly STA-9090, a potent HSP90 inhibitor previously shown to kill canine tumor cell lines in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in the setting of murine xenografts. The purpose of the following study was to extend these observations and investigate the safety and efficacy of STA-1474 in dogs with spontaneous tumors.This was a Phase 1 trial in which dogs with spontaneous tumors received STA-1474 under one of three different dosing schemes. Pharmacokinetics, toxicities, biomarker changes, and tumor responses were assessed. Twenty-five dogs with a variety of cancers were enrolled. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal in nature consisting of diarrhea, vomiting, inappetence and lethargy. Upregulation of HSP70 protein expression was noted in both tumor specimens and PBMCs within 7 hours following drug administration. Measurable objective responses were observed in dogs with malignant mast cell disease (n = 3, osteosarcoma (n = 1, melanoma (n = 1 and thyroid carcinoma (n = 1, for a response rate of 24% (6/25. Stable disease (>10 weeks was seen in 3 dogs, for a resultant overall biological activity of 36% (9/25.This study provides evidence that STA-1474 exhibits biologic activity in a relevant large animal model of cancer. Given the similarities of canine and human cancers with respect to tumor biology and HSP90 activation, it is likely that STA-1474 and ganetespib will demonstrate comparable anti-cancer activity in human patients.

  10. Evaluation of Underwater Image Enhancement Algorithms under Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Mangeruga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater images usually suffer from poor visibility, lack of contrast and colour casting, mainly due to light absorption and scattering. In literature, there are many algorithms aimed to enhance the quality of underwater images through different approaches. Our purpose was to identify an algorithm that performs well in different environmental conditions. We have selected some algorithms from the state of the art and we have employed them to enhance a dataset of images produced in various underwater sites, representing different environmental and illumination conditions. These enhanced images have been evaluated through some quantitative metrics. By analysing the results of these metrics, we tried to understand which of the selected algorithms performed better than the others. Another purpose of our research was to establish if a quantitative metric was enough to judge the behaviour of an underwater image enhancement algorithm. We aim to demonstrate that, even if the metrics can provide an indicative estimation of image quality, they could lead to inconsistent or erroneous evaluations.

  11. Evaluation of vitamin B 12 deficiency in various clinical condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, J.A.; Alam, J.M.; Kazmi, T.; Waseem, S.; Hussain, A.; Arif, S.; Shaheen, R.; Sultana, I.

    2010-01-01

    Low levels of vitamin B 12 have been associated with several clinical conditions. However no single symptom or group of symptoms can be made responsible. Reported causes of deficiency among older population are hematologic or neurological, followed by gastrointestinal and possibly vascular symptoms. The present prospective observational study was, hence, initiated to evaluate the underlying clinical condition or symptoms associated with vitamin B12 deficiency. The study was prospective observational and carried out on 121 patients (males, n=63 and females, n=58) for the period from January 1, 2004 to January 24, 2007. Age ranges were between 16 - 70 years, and categorized as > 60 yrs and < 60 years. All blood parameters were analyzed by standardized methods on automated analyzers. The deficiency was found to be more prevalent in males and increased from 52.06% to 58.10% in individuals with vitamin B12 <150 pg/ml. Mal nourishment was noted among the most subjects and weakness and anemia were frequent clinical findings (35.55%, n=43, 14%, n=51). Other clinical conditions were neuropsychiatric. Whereas less frequent findings were paraesthesia and gastrointestinal symptoms. Hypertension was more prevalent in vitamin B12 deficient individuals followed by diabetes, dementia, stroke, ischemic heart disease and Parkinson's disease. (author)

  12. Implicit misattribution of evaluative responses: contingency-unaware evaluative conditioning requires simultaneous stimulus presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hütter, Mandy; Sweldens, Steven

    2013-08-01

    Recent research has shown that evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can change attitudes without participants' awareness of the contingencies between conditioned and unconditioned stimuli (Hütter, Sweldens, Stahl, Unkelbach, & Klauer, 2012). We present a theoretical explanation and boundary condition for the emergence of unaware EC effects based on the implicit misattribution of evaluative responses from unconditioned to conditioned stimuli. We hypothesize that such misattribution is only possible when conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are perceived simultaneously. Therefore we manipulate the simultaneity of the stimulus presentations and apply a process dissociation procedure to distinguish contingency-aware from contingency-unaware EC effects. A multinomial model indicates that with sequential presentations, EC effects do not occur without contingency awareness. However, unaware EC effects do occur with simultaneous presentations. The findings support dual-process theories of learning. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  14. Performance Evaluation of LoRa Considering Scenario Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Iborra, Ramon; Sanchez-Gomez, Jesus; Ballesta-Viñas, Juan; Cano, Maria-Dolores; Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2018-03-03

    New verticals within the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm such as smart cities, smart farming, or goods monitoring, among many others, are demanding strong requirements to the Radio Access Network (RAN) in terms of coverage, end-node's power consumption, and scalability. The technologies employed so far to provide IoT scenarios with connectivity, e.g., wireless sensor network and cellular technologies, are not able to simultaneously cope with these three requirements. Thus, a novel solution known as Low Power - Wide Area Network (LP-WAN) has emerged as a promising alternative to provide with low-cost and low-power-consumption connectivity to end-nodes spread in a wide area. Concretely, the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology is one of the LP-WAN platforms that is receiving greater attention from both the industry and the academia. For that reason, in this work, a comprehensive performance evaluation of LoRaWAN under different environmental conditions is presented. The results are obtained from three real scenarios, namely, urban, suburban, and rural, considering both dynamic and static conditions, hence a discussion about the most proper LoRaWAN physical-layer configuration for each scenario is provided. Besides, a theoretical coverage study is also conducted by the use of a radio planning tool considering topographic maps and a precise propagation model. From the attained results, it can be concluded that it is necessary to evaluate the propagation conditions of the deployment scenario prior to the system implantation in order to reach a compromise between the robustness of the network and the transmission data-rate.

  15. Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolick, Lance J.; Branning, Jeremy S.; Wade, Daniel R.; Dempsey, Paula J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Army is currently expanding its fleet of Health Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS) equipped aircraft at significant rates, to now include over 1,000 rotorcraft. Two different on-board HUMS, the Honeywell Modern Signal Processing Unit (MSPU) and the Goodrich Integrated Vehicle Health Management System (IVHMS), are collecting vibration health data on aircraft that include the Apache, Blackhawk, Chinook, and Kiowa Warrior. The objective of this paper is to recommend the most effective gear condition indicators for fleet use based on both a theoretical foundation and field data. Gear diagnostics with better performance will be recommended based on both a theoretical foundation and results of in-fleet use. In order to evaluate the gear condition indicator performance on rotorcraft fleets, results of more than five years of health monitoring for gear faults in the entire HUMS equipped Army helicopter fleet will be presented. More than ten examples of gear faults indicated by the gear CI have been compiled and each reviewed for accuracy. False alarms indications will also be discussed. Performance data from test rigs and seeded fault tests will also be presented. The results of the fleet analysis will be discussed, and a performance metric assigned to each of the competing algorithms. Gear fault diagnostic algorithms that are compliant with ADS-79A will be recommended for future use and development. The performance of gear algorithms used in the commercial units and the effectiveness of the gear CI as a fault identifier will be assessed using the criteria outlined in the standards in ADS-79A-HDBK, an Army handbook that outlines the conversion from Reliability Centered Maintenance to the On-Condition status of Condition Based Maintenance.

  16. Evaluation of the technical condition of medium-sized boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lošák Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent trend in the steam and electricity production has been both to increase the efficiency of the facility and to keep tightening legislation concerning emission limits. The lifetime of energy equipment is greatly influenced by the operating temperature, pressure and operating characteristics. The new conditions lead the operator to more often changes of these parameters, which has negative influence to the facility in terms of service life. Precise knowledge of the facility being operated and the ability to predict the residual life of its key parts in time is therefore necessary. A new methodology for determining the residual life and evaluating problematic situations of medium size boilers was developed at Brno University of Technology. Its approaches and advantages will be presented in this paper. The methodology provides the user with approaches for the lifetime evaluation of an equipment as a whole, based on detailed knowledge of the equipment being investigated and the ongoing damage. Additionally, if the equipment is continuously evaluated, it is possible to extend the inspection interval or to achieve a significantly higher lifetime of the entire equipment, thereby reducing the economic cost. If defined criteria are met, the methodology also allows inclusion of FEM and CFD simulations for achieving higher relevance of the results.

  17. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  18. CITRICULTURE ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL EVALUATION UNDER CONDITIONS OF UNCERTAINTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANILO SIMÕES

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The citriculture consists in several environmental risks, as weather changes and pests, and also consists in considerable financial risk, mainly due to the period ofreturn on the initial investment. This study was motivated by the need to assess the risks of a business activity such as citriculture. Our objective was to build a stochastic simulation model to achieve the economic and financial analysis of an orange producer in the Midwest region of the state of Sao Paulo, under conditions of uncertainty. The parameters used were the Net Present Value (NPV, the Modified Internal Rate of Return(MIRR, and the Discounted Payback. To evaluate the risk conditions we built a probabilistic model of pseudorandom numbers generated with Monte Carlo method. The results showed that the activity analyzed provides a risk of 42.8% to reach a NPV negative; however, the yield assessed by MIRR was 7.7%, higher than the yield from the reapplication of the positive cash flows. The financial investment pays itself after the fourteenth year of activity.

  19. Evaluation of corrosion inhibitor simulating conditions of operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, O.; Aponte, H.; Vera, E.; Pineda, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Operating conditions at the head of oil wells are critical, in addition to injecting water to increase the pressure while maintaining production cause deterioration in the metallic structures that transport fluids. One way to maintain integrity is the injection of inhibitors which plays an important role in protecting the pipes. In this study a molecule N-PHENYL NITRONE was obtained, which was evaluated by electrochemical tests (LPR) and Tafel Polarization Curves in a reactor controlling environments containing different dosages, pressure values, temperatures and flow velocity using working electrodes tubing API N 80, the reactor was connected to a potentiostat to determine corrosion rates, allowing the analysis of the influence of each variable on the protective behaviour of the inhibitor, and its efficiency against the decrease of the deterioration of the pipes. Corrosion products are analysed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Photographic records of the surface verify the formation of iron carbonate (FeCO3). In addition, a mathematical analysis of the independent variables is performed to evaluate the effect that it has on the efficiency of corrosion inhibition.

  20. Thermoeconomic evaluation of air conditioning system with chilled water storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hu; Li, Xin-hong; Cheng, Peng-sheng; Xu, Bu-gong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A new thermoeconomic evaluation methodology has been presented. • The relationship between thermodynamic and economic performances has been revealed. • A key point for thermal storage technology further application is discovered. • A system has been analyzed via the new method and EUD method. - Abstract: As a good load shifting technology for power grid, chilled energy storage has been paid more and more attention, but it always consumes more energy than traditional air conditioning system, and the performance analysis is mostly from the viewpoint of peak-valley power price to get cost saving. The paper presents a thermoeconomic evaluation methodology for the system with chilled energy storage, by which thermodynamic performance influence on cost saving has been revealed. And a system with chilled storage has been analyzed, which can save more than 15% of power cost with no energy consumption increment, and just certain difference between peak and valley power prices can make the technology for good economic application. The results show that difference between peak and valley power prices is not the only factor on economic performance, thermodynamic performance of the storage system is the more important factor, and too big price difference is a barrier for its application, instead of for more cost saving. All of these give a new direction for thermal storage technology application

  1. Spontaneous acroangiodermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipek Coban

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acroangiodermatitis is a rare self-limited angioproliferative lesion which can be associated with congenital vascular malformations or acquired venous insufficiency. Despite of its benign character, differential diagnosis of this lesion is very important because it closely resembles Kaposi sarcoma. Here we present a 26-year-old male patient with unilateral, purplish-red colored papules on his right ankle which diagnosed as acroangiodermatitis and discuss histopathological features, differential diagnosis and treatment of this unusual condition.

  2. Psychiatric conditions in worker fitness and risk evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, D B

    1988-01-01

    This chapter has reviewed the specific techniques of measuring fitness for work in individuals with psychiatric impairment. The discussion also considered the estimate of risk associated with various specific conditions and diagnoses. The use of psychiatric measures in work-fitness estimation is warranted in the following situations: 1. applicants with known or suspect history of psychiatric disorder; 2. employees returning to work after an episode of emotional illness or substance abuse; 3. employees referred to the medical department by management for evaluation of performance decrement, absence, abrupt indebtedness, unusual behavior, etc.; and 4. individuals evaluated for high stress or high risk jobs. Applicants' evaluations begin with a thorough medical history, a physical examination, a mental status examination, and basic laboratory studies. The personal history must include a complete work history, with particular attention paid to job duration and reasons for leaving employment. The mental status may be extended by specialized scales, e.g., the Griffiths work behavior rating scale. Unless an applicant has evidence of cognitive dysfunction, the usual battery of psychometric tests will not be helpful. Instruments that measure self-concept and ego strength, e.g., the Stotsky-Weinberg Sentence Completion Test and Miskimins Self-Goal-Other Test, may assist in resolving difficult questions about work fitness, especially in people with a history of schizophrenia. When an employee returns to work after an episode of psychiatric illness, the major questions for the occupational physician are: Is this person capable of returning to his current job? If not, what type of work is he capable of performing? In this instance, the fitness evaluation must add management data about the job to medical data about the patient. The patient-job fit is the crucial issue. For example, a socially-isolated, withdrawn paranoid schizophrenic functioned adequately for years as a third

  3. Combined nonlinear metrics to evaluate spontaneous EEG recordings from chronic spinal cord injury in a rat model: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jiangbo; Xu, Hanhui; Wang, Yazhou; Cui, Hongyan; Hu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a high-cost disability and may cause permanent loss of movement and sensation below the injury location. The chance of cure in human after SCI is extremely limited. Instead, neural regeneration could have been seen in animals after SCI, and such regeneration could be retarded by blocking neural plasticity pathways, showing the importance of neural plasticity in functional recovery. As an indicator of nonlinear dynamics in the brain, sample entropy was used here in combination with detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and Kolmogorov complexity to quantify functional plasticity changes in spontaneous EEG recordings of rats before and after SCI. The results showed that the sample entropy values were decreased at the first day following injury then gradually increased during recovery. DFA and Kolmogorov complexity results were in consistent with sample entropy, showing the complexity of the EEG time series was lost after injury and partially regained in 1 week. The tendency to regain complexity is in line with the observation of behavioral rehabilitation. A critical time point was found during the recovery process after SCI. Our preliminary results suggested that the combined use of these nonlinear dynamical metrics could provide a quantitative and predictive way to assess the change of neural plasticity in a spinal cord injury rat model.

  4. Histopathological and clinical evaluation of chronic spontaneous urticaria patients with neutrophilic and non-neutrophilic cutaneous infiltrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cíntia Freitas; Morais, Karina Lopes; Figueroa, Pamela; Dias, Natasha Favoretto; Valente, Neusa Sakai; Maruta, Celina Wakisaba; Criado, Paulo Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Chronic urticaria has an expressive prevalence in general population, especially in adults, and is defined by the presence of intermittent hives for six weeks or longer. Our study aims to characterize the histological patterns of chronic spontaneous urticaria, based on the inflammatory cell infiltrate, and correlate them to laboratory exams. It was performed a retrospective analysis of laboratory, histopathology and direct immunofluorescence data of 93 patients with chronic urticaria. For histopathological analysis, cell count was performed in four fields at high magnification (×400) for each specimen. The resulting cell count medians were submitted to statistical analysis and, then, were correlated to laboratorial findings. We found a female predominance (76.34%) of chronic urticaria cases, and an average age of 42.5 years (SD ± 15). Two histological groups were distinctive: 1) chronic urticaria with predominance of neutrophils or eosinophils - N (%) = 39 (42.4%) - and 2) chronic urticaria with predominance of lymphocytes - N (%) = 53 (57.6%). There was not significant correlation between histological groups and laboratorial tests. Moreover, direct immunofluorescence was positive in 21 (33,87%) from 62 patients. There is not enough scientific evidence to support neutrophilic urticaria as a solid, separate entity. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A novel test for evaluating horses' spontaneous visual attention is predictive of attention in operant learning tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, C; Sébilleau, M; Houdebine, M; Bec, P; Hausberger, M; Henry, S

    2017-08-01

    Attention is described as the ability to process selectively one aspect of the environment over others. In this study, we characterized horses' spontaneous attention by designing a novel visual attention test (VAT) that is easy to apply in the animal's home environment. The test was repeated over three consecutive days and repeated again 6 months later in order to assess inter-individual variations and intra-individual stability. Different patterns of attention have been revealed: 'overall' attention when the horse merely gazed at the stimulus and 'fixed' attention characterized by fixity and orientation of at least the visual and auditory organs towards the stimulus. The individual attention characteristics remained consistent over time (after 6 months, Spearman correlation test, P attentional skills was assessed by comparing the results, for the same horses, with those obtained in both a 'classical' experimental attention test the 'five-choice serial reaction time task' (5-CSRTT) and a work situation (lunge working context). Our results revealed that (i) individual variations remained consistent across tests and (ii) the VAT attention measures were not only predictive of attentional skills but also of learning abilities. Differences appeared however between the first day of testing and the following test days: attention structure on the second day was predictive of learning abilities, attention performances in the 5-CSRRT and at work. The VAT appears as a promising easy-to-use tool to assess animals' attention characteristics and the impact of different factors of variation on attention.

  6. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of combined calcitriol and cisplatin in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassnick, Kenneth M.; Muindi, Josephia R.; Johnson, Candace S.; Balkman, Cheryl E.; Ramnath, Nithya; Yu, Wei-Dong; Engler, Kristie L.; Page, Rodney L.; Trump, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Calcitriol potentiates cisplatin-mediated activity in a variety of tumor models. We examine here, the effect of calcitriol and cisplatin pre-clinically and clinically in canine spontaneous tumors through in vitro studies on tumor cells and through a phase I study of calcitriol and cisplatin to identify the maximum-tolerated dosage (MTD) of this combination in dogs with cancer and to characterize the pharmacokinetic disposition of calcitriol in dogs. Methods Canine tumor cells were investigated for calcitriol/cisplatin interactions on proliferation using an MTT assay in a median-dose effect analysis; data were used to derive a combination index (CI). Cisplatin was given at a fixed dosage of 60 mg/m2. Calcitriol was given i.v. and the dosage was escalated in cohorts of three dogs until the MTD was defined. Serum calcitriol concentrations were quantified by radioimmunoassay. Results In vitro, CIs1.5 μg/kg achieved Cmax ≥ 9.8 ng/mL and dosages >1.0 μg/kg achieved AUC ≥ 45 h ng/mL. Conclusions Calcitriol and cisplatin have synergistic antiproliferative effects on multiple canine tumor cells and high-dosages of i.v. calcitriol in combination with cisplatin can be safely administered to dogs. Cmax and AUC at the MTD 3.75 μg/kg calcitriol exceed concentrations associated with antitumor activity in a murine model, indicating this combination might have significant clinical utility in dogs. PMID:18246349

  7. A novel test for evaluating horses' spontaneous visual attention is predictive of attention in operant learning tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochais, C.; Sébilleau, M.; Houdebine, M.; Bec, P.; Hausberger, M.; Henry, S.

    2017-08-01

    Attention is described as the ability to process selectively one aspect of the environment over others. In this study, we characterized horses' spontaneous attention by designing a novel visual attention test (VAT) that is easy to apply in the animal's home environment. The test was repeated over three consecutive days and repeated again 6 months later in order to assess inter-individual variations and intra-individual stability. Different patterns of attention have been revealed: `overall' attention when the horse merely gazed at the stimulus and `fixed' attention characterized by fixity and orientation of at least the visual and auditory organs towards the stimulus. The individual attention characteristics remained consistent over time (after 6 months, Spearman correlation test, P VAT attention measures were not only predictive of attentional skills but also of learning abilities. Differences appeared however between the first day of testing and the following test days: attention structure on the second day was predictive of learning abilities, attention performances in the 5-CSRRT and at work. The VAT appears as a promising easy-to-use tool to assess animals' attention characteristics and the impact of different factors of variation on attention.

  8. Field study evaluation of diffuse ceiling ventilation in classroom during real operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Martin Heine; Jensen, Jakob Søland; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort.......Highlights •Field experimental measurements during real operating conditions. •Evaluation of pressure chamber effect. •Evaluation of displacement effect. •Evaluation of thermal comfort....

  9. Performance Evaluation of PV Panel Under Dusty Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Kumar Tripathi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The performance of PV panel depends on the incoming sunlight on its surface. The accumulated airborne dust particles on panel surface creates a barrier in the path of sunlight and panel surface, which significantly reduces the amount of solar radiation falling on the panel surface. The present study shows a significant reduction in short circuit current and power output of PV panel due to dust deposition on its surface, whereas the reduction in open circuit voltage is not much prominent. This study has been carried in the field as well as in the laboratory. The reduction in maximum power output of PV panel for both the studies ensures a linear relation with the dust deposition on its surface. In the field study, the reduction in the power output due to 12.86gm of dust deposition on the panel surface was 43.18%, whereas in the laboratory study it was 44.75% due to 11gm of dust deposition Article History: Received July 10th 2017; Received in revised form Sept 15th 2017x; Accepted 1st Oct 2017; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tripathi, A.K., Aruna, M. and Murthy, Ch.,S.N. (2017. Performance Evaluation of PV Panel Under Dusty Condition. International Journal of Renewable Energy Develeopment, 6(3, 225-233. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.6.3.225-233

  10. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.

    2006-01-01

    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  11. An Evaluation of Carbon Steel Corrosion Under Stagnant Seawater Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jason

    2004-01-01

    Corrosion, of 1020 carbon steel coupons in, natural seawater over a six-month period was more aggressive under stagnant anaerobic conditions than stagnant aerobic conditions as measured by weight loss...

  12. Evaluation of the Variability of the Precipitation under Orographic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onen, A.; Yucel, I.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the performance of the precipitation products derived from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the EUMETSAT Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimates (MPEs) over a region where orography is the dominant form of precipitation. WRF and MPE comparisons are made against 34 gauge-observed precipitation data obtained for 20 events that created floods over West Black Sea Region of Turkey. The stations are located at elevations range between 0 and 1270 m above mean sea level and stations have been grouped up based on elevation and distance from coastline to continent and their climatic precipitation response performance have been evaluated. Consistent with other studies, WRF model precipitation forecast errors related to model initial conditions are reduced when the three dimensional atmospheric data assimilation (3DVAR) scheme in the WRF model simulations is used. MPE and WRF precipitation estimates, both with and without data assimilation, are later validated using actual gauge-based observations. In the use of 3DVAR assimilation scheme improved WRF model precipitation estimates considerably. MPE precipitation estimates in general showed poor performance as a result of its dry bias. Maximum regional correlations have been estimated as 0.94 (WRF assimilated), 0.90 (WRF non-assimilated) and 0.63 (MPE) where the overall regional correlation means are 0.69 (WRF) and 0.49 (MPE). It has been also observed that on average WRF correlations decreased as the orographic effect of continental climate region getting more dominant over the study domain, where MPE correlations are increased and errors decreased as the sub-regions gets more continental at higher altitudes.

  13. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  14. Continued Evaluation of Gear Condition Indicator Performance on Rotorcraft Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Irebert R.; Dempsey, Paula J.; Antolick, Lance J.; Wade, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper details analyses of condition indicator performance for the helicopter nose gearbox within the U.S. Army's Condition-Based Maintenance Program. Ten nose gearbox data sets underwent two specific analyses. A mean condition indicator level analysis was performed where condition indicator performance was based on a 'batting average' measured before and after part replacement. Two specific condition indicators, Diagnostic Algorithm 1 and Sideband Index, were found to perform well for the data sets studied. A condition indicator versus gear wear analysis was also performed, where gear wear photographs and descriptions from Army tear-down analyses were categorized based on ANSI/AGMA 1010-E95 standards. Seven nose gearbox data sets were analyzed and correlated with condition indicators Diagnostic Algorithm 1 and Sideband Index. Both were found to be most responsive to gear wear cases of micropitting and spalling. Input pinion nose gear box condition indicators were found to be more responsive to part replacement during overhaul than their corresponding output gear nose gear box condition indicators.

  15. Spontaneous emission near non-trivial conducting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo e Souza, Reinaldo de; Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Taddei, M.M.; Farina, C.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: One of the remarkable phenomena associated with the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field is the spontaneous emission, which accounts for the emission of photons by an excited atom placed in vacuum. As discovered by Purcell in the 1940's, the spontaneous emission rate depends not only on the atomic properties but also on the nearby bodies. This should be expected once the electromagnetic field modes are affected by the boundary conditions imposed by these bodies. We begin our presentation reviewing a method which establishes a striking connection between the spontaneous emission of an excited atom and the classical radiation emitted by an oscillating real dipole. In fact, it can be shown, the influence of the neighbouring bodies is the same in both cases. We use this approach to evaluate the influence of an infinite conducting plane with a circular aperture on the spontaneous emission rate of the atom. This geometry will be particularly interesting if the atom is placed on the axis of symmetry of the hole and if it is predominantly polarizable in this axis, once this configuration is one of the those rare configurations that give rise to repulsive dispersive interactions. It would be very interesting to establish some connection between how the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom is influenced by the presence of material bodies and the attractive or repulsive character of the dispersive force between that atom (in its ground state) and those material bodies. (author)

  16. An evaluation of fresh gas flow rates for spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs on the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Elizabeth; Ticehurst, Kim E; Zaki, Sanaa

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the fresh gas flow (FGF) rate requirements for the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system in the Mapleson A mode; to determine the FGF at which rebreathing occurs, and compare the efficiency of this system to the Bain (Mapleson D) system in spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs. Prospective clinical study. Twenty-five healthy (ASA score I or II) client-owned cats and dogs (mean ± SD age 4.7 ± 5.0 years, and body weight 5.64 ± 3.26 kg) undergoing elective surgery or minor procedures. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane delivered via the Humphrey ADE system in the A mode using an oxygen FGF of 100 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The FGF was then reduced incrementally by 5-10 mL kg(-1) minute(-1) at approximately five-minute intervals, until rebreathing (inspired CO(2) >5 mmHg (0.7 kPa)) was observed, after which flow rates were increased. In six animals, once the minimum FGF at which rebreathing occurred was found, the breathing system was changed to the Bain, and the effects of this FGF delivery examined, before FGF was increased. Rebreathing did not occur at the FGF recommended by the manufacturer for the ADE. The mean ± SD FGF that resulted in rebreathing was 60 ± 20 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The mean minimum FGF at which rebreathing did not occur with the ADE was 87 ± 39 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). This FGF resulted in significant rebreathing (inspired CO(2) 8.8 ± 2.6 mmHg (1.2 ± 0.3 kPa)) on the Bain system. The FGF rates recommended for the Humphrey ADE are adequate to prevent rebreathing in spontaneously breathing cats and dogs cats and small dogs. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  17. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  18. Ginkgo biloba L. attenuates spontaneous recurrent seizures and associated neurological conditions in lithium-pilocarpine rat model of temporal lobe epilepsy through inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway hyperactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Arindam Ghosh; Sharma, Pallavi; Patial, Vikram; Singh, Damanpreet

    2017-05-23

    Ginkgo biloba L. (Ginkgoaceae) has been widely used in traditional medicine for variety of neurological conditions particularly behavioral and memory impairments. The present study was envisaged to explore the effect of a standardized fraction of Ginkgo biloba leaves (GBbf) in rat model of lithium-pilocarpine induced spontaneous recurrent seizures, and associated behavioral impairments and cognitive deficit. Rats showing appearance of spontaneous recurrent seizures following lithium pilocarpine (LiPc)-induced status epilepticus (SE) were treated with different doses of GBbf or vehicle for subsequent 4 weeks. The severity of seizures and aggression in rats were scored following treatment with GBbf. Further, open field, forced swim, novel object recognition and Morris water maze tests were conducted. Histopathological, protein levels and gene expression studies were performed in the isolated brains. Treatment with GBbf reduced seizure severity score and aggression in epileptic animals. Improved spatial cognitive functions and recognition memory, along with reduction in anxiety-like behavior were also observed in the treated animals. Histopathological examination by Nissl staining showed reduction in neuronal damage in the hippocampal pyramidal layer. The dentate gyrus and Cornu Ammonis 3 regions of the hippocampus showed reduction in mossy fiber sprouting. GBbf treatment attenuated ribosomal S6 and pS6 proteins, and hippocampal mTOR, Rps6 and Rps6kb1 mRNA levels. The results of present study concluded that GBbf treatment suppressed lithium-pilocarpine induced spontaneous recurrent seizures severity and incidence with improved cognitive functions, reduced anxiety-like behavior and aggression. The effect was found to be due to inhibition of mTOR pathway hyperactivation linked with recurrent seizures. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Evaluating indices of body condition in two cricket species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Clint D; Tawes, Brittany R; Worthington, Amy M

    2014-01-01

    Body mass components (dry mass, lean dry mass, water mass, fat mass) in each sex correlate strongly with body mass and pronotum length in Gryllus texensis and Acheta domesticus. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression underestimates the scaling relationship between body mass and structural size (i.e., pronotum length) in both cricket species compared with standard major axis (SMA) regression. Standardized mass components correlate more strongly with scaled mass index () than with residual body mass (R i). R i represents the residuals from an OLS regression of log body mass against log pronotum length. Neither condition index predicts energy stores (i.e., fat content) in G. texensis. R i is not correlated with energy stores in A. domesticus whereas is negatively correlated. A comparison of condition index methods using published data showed that neither sex nor diet quality affected body condition at adulthood in G. texensis when using the scaled mass index. However, the residual index suggested that sex had a significant effect on body condition. Further, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) suggested that diet quality significantly affects body mass while statistically controlling for body size (i.e., body condition). We conclude that the statistical assumptions of condition index methods must be met prior to use and urge caution when using methods that are based on least squares in the y -plane (i.e., residual index ANCOVA). PMID:25512844

  20. Exploring the Necessary Conditions for Evaluation Use in Program Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Research has identified a wide range of factors that affect evaluation use but continues to be inconclusive as to their relative importance. This article addresses the complex phenomenon of evaluation use in three ways: first, it draws on recent conceptual developments to delimitate the examined form of use; second, it aims at identifying…

  1. Evaluation of main control room habitability in Japanese LWR (1). Outline of evaluation method and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yuko; Yoneda, Jiro; Okabayashi, Kazuki; Fukuda, Ryo

    2009-01-01

    It has been recognized that main control room habitability (CRH) is very important safety item. Its evaluation method and conditions was recently updated as a common method both for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) in Japan. This paper describes the common procedure for CRH evaluation. Postulated accidents for CRH evaluation are Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) for BWR and PWR, Main Steam Line Break Accident(MSLBA) for BWR, and Steam Generator Tube Rupture(SGTR) for PWR. Evaluation period is thirty days after each accident occurs. Acceptable criterion for each operator is 100mSv as total effective dose equivalent for thirty days, considering the net staying period of an operator in a control room and frequency of alternation of working staff. Total effective dose equivalent is calculated not only for an operator in control room, but also for an operator outside a building for alternation, and then total effective dose is compared with the criterion. The routes for dose evaluation are classified into five patterns, covering three patterns of location of radioactive source (i.e. source inside a building, source released into air, and source leaked into a control room) and covering two patterns of location of an operator (i.e. in control room and outside a building for alternation). Total effective dose by a route for source which is released into air and leaked into a control room is typically the largest contributor, in case of PWR LOCA evaluation, as an example showing relatively severe result. Evaluated dose for this dominant route is significantly affected by two calculations. One is a source term for calculation of radioactive gas release and the other is dispersion calculation in the air for concentration of radioactive gas in the vicinity of a control room. For LOCA 100% Kr,Xe and 50% iodine of total core radionuclide inventory are assumed to be released immediately into containment vessel. This is the most conservative assumption

  2. Evaluation of 'SAEFVIC', A Pharmacovigilance Surveillance Scheme for the Spontaneous Reporting of Adverse Events Following Immunisation in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clothier, Hazel J; Crawford, Nigel W; Russell, Melissa; Kelly, Heath; Buttery, Jim P

    2017-06-01

    Australia is traditionally an early adopter of vaccines, therefore comprehensive and effective post-licensure vaccine pharmacovigilance is critical to maintain confidence in immunisation, both nationally and internationally. With adverse event following immunisation (AEFI) surveillance the responsibility of Australian jurisdictions, Victoria operates an enhanced passive AEFI surveillance system integrated with clinical services, called 'SAEFVIC' (Surveillance of Adverse Events Following Vaccination In the Community). The aim of this study was to evaluate Victoria's current AEFI surveillance system 'SAEFVIC' and inform ongoing quality improvement of vaccine pharmacovigilance in Victoria and Australia. We conducted a retrospective structured desktop evaluation of AEFI reporting received by SAEFVIC from 2007 to 2014, to evaluate the system according to its stated objectives, i.e. to improve AEFI reporting; provide AEFI signal detection; and to maintain consumer confidence in vaccination. AEFI reporting has tripled since SAEFVIC commenced (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.35-3.93), raising Victoria to be the lead jurisdiction by AEFI reporting volume and to rank third by population reporting rate nationally. The largest increase was observed in children. Data were utilised to investigate potential signal events and inform vaccine policy. Signal detection required clinical suspicion by surveillance nurses, or prior vaccine-specific concerns. Subsequent vaccination post-AEFI was documented for 56.2% (95% CI 54.1-58.4) of reports, and the proportion of children due or overdue for vaccination was 2.3% higher for those reporting AEFI compared with the general population. SAEFVIC has improved AEFI surveillance, facilitates signal investigation and validation, and supports consumer confidence in immunisation. Expansion of the system nationally has the potential to improve capacity and capability of vaccine pharmacovigilance, particularly

  3. Evaluation of uncertainty and detection limits in 210Pb and 210Po measurement in water by alpha spectrometry using 210Po spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández, Pedro L.; Gómez, José; Ródenas, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    An easy and accurate method for the determination of 210 Pb and 210 Po in water using 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto a silver disk is proposed and assessed for its detection capabilities according to the ISO Guide for the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) and ISO Standard 11929-7 concerning the evaluation of the characteristic limits for ionizing radiation measurements. The method makes no assumption on the initial values of the activity concentrations of 210 Pb, 210 Bi and 210 Po in the sample to be analyzed, and is based on the alpha spectrometric measurement of 210 Po in two different aliquots: the first one measured five weeks after the sampling date to ensure radioactive equilibrium between 210 Pb and 210 Bi and the second after a sufficient time for the ingrowth of 210 Po from 210 Pb to be significant. As shown, for a recommended time interval of seven months between 210 Po measurements, the applicability of the proposed method is limited to water samples with a 226 Ra to 210 Pb activity ratio C Ra /C Pb ≤4, as usual in natural waters. Using sample and background counting times of 24 h and 240 h, respectively, the detection limit of the activity concentration of each radionuclide at the sampling time for a 1 L sample typically varies between 0.7 and 16 mBq L −1 for 210 Pb in water samples with an initial activity of 210 Po in the range 0–200 mBq L −1 , and between 0.6 and 8.5 mBq L −1 for 210 Po in water samples with an initial activity of 210 Pb in the same range. - Highlights: ► 210 Pb and 210 Po measurement in water by 210 Po spontaneous deposition onto silver disks. ► 210 Pb and 210 Po determination based on 210 Po measurement in two different aliquots. ► Evaluation of characteristic limits in radioactivity measurements using ISO 11929-7. ► 10 Pb - 210 Po detection limits decrease with time elapsed between 210 Po measurements.

  4. Preclinical evaluation of the novel, orally bioavailable Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE KPT-335 in spontaneous canine cancer: results of a phase I study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE compounds that inhibit the function of the nuclear export protein Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1 against canine tumor cell lines and perform a Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 in dogs with spontaneous cancer to provide a preliminary assessment of biologic activity and tolerability.Canine tumor cell lines derived from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, mast cell tumor, melanoma and osteosarcoma exhibited growth inhibition and apoptosis in response to nanomolar concentrations of SINE compounds; NHL cells were particularly sensitive with IC50 concentrations ranging from 2-42 nM. A Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 was performed in 17 dogs with NHL (naive or relapsed, mast cell tumor or osteosarcoma. The maximum tolerated dose was 1.75 mg/kg given orally twice/week (Monday/Thursday although biologic activity was observed at 1 mg/kg. Clinical benefit (CB including partial response to therapy (PR, n = 2 and stable disease (SD, n = 7 was observed in 9/14 dogs with NHL with a median time to progression (TTP for responders of 66 days (range 35-256 days. A dose expansion study was performed in 6 dogs with NHL given 1.5 mg/kg KPT-335 Monday/Wednesday/Friday; CB was observed in 4/6 dogs with a median TTP for responders of 83 days (range 35-354 days. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal consisting of anorexia, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea and were manageable with supportive care, dose modulation and administration of low dose prednisone; hepatotoxicity, anorexia and weight loss were the dose limiting toxicities.This study provides evidence that the novel orally bioavailable XPO1 inhibitor KPT-335 is safe and exhibits activity in a relevant, spontaneous large animal model of cancer. Data from this study provides critical new information that lays the groundwork for evaluation of SINE compounds in human cancer.

  5. Invasive and non-invasive evaluation of spontaneous arteriogenesis in a novel porcine model for peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Ivo R; Voskuil, Michiel; van Royen, Niels; Hoefer, Imo E; Scheffler, Klaus; Grundmann, Sebastian; Hennig, Jürgen; Schaper, Wolfgang; Bode, Christoph; Piek, Jan J

    2003-03-01

    Our current knowledge regarding the efficacy of factors stimulating collateral artery growth in the peripheral circulation primarily stems from models in small animals. However, experimental models in large sized animals are a prerequisite for extrapolation of growth factor therapy to patients with peripheral atherosclerotic obstructive disease. Therefore, we have developed a novel porcine femoral artery ligation model using non-invasive and invasive evaluation techniques. In 12 young farm pigs and nine older minipigs, a ligation of the superficial femoral artery was performed. Using an intra-arterial catheter, phosphate buffered saline (PBS) was administered with a first-pass over the collateral vascular bed. Directly after ligation as well as after 2 weeks of continuous infusion of PBS, perfusion of the leg was measured using various flow and pressure parameters. Using a pump driven extracorporal system, collateral conductance was determined under maximal vasodilatation. Conductance decreased after acute ligation to similar levels in both young farm pigs as well as the older minipigs (both 9.3% of normal perfusion) and recovered after 2 weeks to a higher value in farm pigs compared with minipigs (22.4 vs. 12.7% of normal; Parteries. To the best of our knowledge this is the first in vivo pig model for hemodynamic assessment of growth of collateral arteries in the peripheral circulation, that is suitable for evaluation of arteriogenic effects of growth factors or genes.

  6. Two-dimensional hydrologic modeling to evaluate aquatic habitat conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela Edwards; Frederica Wood; Michael Little; Peter Vila; Peter Vila

    2006-01-01

    We describe the modeling and mapping procedures used to examine aquatic habitat conditions and habitat suitability of a small river in north- central West Virginia where fish survival and reproduction in specific reaches are poor. The study includes: (1) surveying cross sections of streambed reaches and measuring discharges and corresponding water-surface elevations,...

  7. An Evaluation of a Combat Conditioning Trial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-20

    functional fitness concept include:  Fitness follows combat function.  Physical training must develop power, strength , flexibility, speed...for these activities must be learned and practiced to perform these activities efficiently. Traditional training methods, such as weightlifting , are...conditioning approach consists of seven general types of activity: core-specific strength training , body weight exercises, buddy exercises, movement

  8. Evaluation of the Environmental Health Conditions of Qom Hotels & Inns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Farzinnia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesTourism is one of the three major global industries with 4 percent annual economic growth. Qom with roughly 17 million tourists in 2005 was the second religious tourism center in Iran. This study was designed to determine the environmental health criteria of Qom hotels and inns in 2007.MethodsThis descriptive - cross sectional study was carried out based on a standard check list of substance of edible, drinkable, cosmetic and hygienic products law from ministry of health and medical sciences. The checklist included 73 questions which were completed by face to face interviews and sanitary inspections. After analyzing the results of each residential center, the questionnaires were classified into three categories: hygienic (over 80 score, sanitary (40-79 and unacceptable centers (less than 40. The data were presented and analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods such as X 2 and Fisher exact test.ResultsThe percentages of hygienic, sanitary and unacceptable conditions of hotels and inns were 35.5, 54.8 and 9.7, respectively. There was a direct relationship between academic degree of residential managers and the validity of employees health card (P=0.042 ConclusionBased on this the research, the environmental status of Qom hotels and inns was in relatively desirable conditions. Residential places with unacceptable condition were almost located in the old region of the city (e.g. around the Holly Shrine. Due to the structural failures, architectural problems and tremendous cost for repairs, it’s better that their activities be stopped and banned by government. With regard to the high percentage of hotels with sanitary conditions, at least improvements in health conditions accompanied by training and supervision are recommended. Keywords: Environmental Health; Environment and Public Health; Hotel; Inn; Qom, Iran.

  9. Cancer rehabilitation: outcome evaluation of a strengthening and conditioning program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Karen K; Nissen, Mary Jo; Knippenberg, Kathryn; Sistermans, Annemiek; Spilde, Paul; Bell, Elaine M; Nissen, Julia; Chen, Cathleen; Tsai, Michaela L

    2014-01-01

    Cancer treatments can lead to detriments in patients' health and declines in quality of life (QOL). Cancer rehabilitation programs may improve functional status, symptom control, and QOL. The objective of this study was to determine if an outpatient, physical therapy-supervised Cancer Rehabilitation Strengthening and Conditioning (CRSC) program improved patients' conditioning level, functional status, QOL, and symptoms. This was a prospective study of oncology patients participating in CRSC program. Measurements included conditioning level (6-minute walk test [SMWT], metabolic equivalent level, grip strength), functional status (Physical Component Summary of Short Form 36), QOL (Mental Component Summary of Short Form 36), and symptoms (M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory). Paired t tests were conducted to determine significant changes between pre- and post-CRSC program measures, and regression methods identified predictors of change from baseline. One hundred fifteen patients with cancer were enrolled in the study; 75 patients completed pre- and post-CRSC program measures. Significant improvements were noted in SMWT by 186.4 ft, SMWT speed by 0.35 mph, treadmill time (3.5 minutes longer), metabolic equivalent level (by 0.87 units), QOL, symptom severity, symptom interference with daily life, fatigue, shortness of breath, and sadness. In a pretest-posttest design, significant improvements were noted in conditioning level, functional status, QOL, and symptoms. Greater improvements were noted in participants who were most deconditioned at baseline. Further research should be conducted to provide additional support for CRSC programs. Cancer rehabilitation strengthening and condition programs may benefit patients across the continuum of care, including deconditioned patients.

  10. Abordagem citogenética e molecular em material de abortos espontâneos Cytogenetic and molecular evaluation of spontaneous abortion samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Cristina de Moraes

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da citogenética e das técnicas de hibridização in situ fluorescente (FISH e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR no estudo das aneuploidias cromossômicas numéricas e na determinação do sexo fetal em amostras de abortos espontâneos. MÉTODOS: duzentos e dezenove amostras de produtos de abortos espontâneos foram submetidas a estudo citogenético. Deste total, 40 amostras foram também submetidas à técnica de PCR-nested para a determinação do sexo fetal: 32 foram selecionadas devido à falha de crescimento no estudo citogenético e oito foram escolhidas ao acaso. Vinte amostras foram selecionadas para detecção de aneuploidias cromossômicas pela técnica de FISH, utilizando-se sondas para os cromossomos 13, 18, 21, X e Y: 13 casos foram submetidos a FISH devido à falha de crescimento no estudo citogenético e sete foram escolhidos ao acaso. Foi calculada a taxa de sucesso (obtenção de cariótipo de cada técnica. Para comparação das taxas de sucesso foi utilizado o teste de chi2, sendo considerados significantes resultados com pPURPOSE: to evaluate the performance of cytogenetic analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the study of numerical chromosomal anomalies and in fetal sex determination of spontaneous abortion material. METHODS: cytogenetic analysis was performed on 219 spontaneous abortion specimens. Forty of these cases were also submitted to fetal sex determination using nested-PCR. Thirty-two of these cases were selected due to failed cytogenetic culture and the other eight were selected randomly. Twenty samples were submitted to the FISH technique, using probes for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. Thirteen of these samples were selected due to failed cytogenetic culture and the other seven were randomly selected. The success rates of each technique were compared using the chi2 test and an established p<0.05 level of significance. The

  11. Structural Evaluation on HIC Transport Packaging under Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Sung Hwan; Kim, Duck Hoi; Jung, Jin Se; Yang, Ke Hyung; Lee, Heung Young

    2005-01-01

    HIC transport packaging to transport a high integrity container(HIC) containing dry spent resin generated from nuclear power plants is to comply with the regulatory requirements of Korea and IAEA for Type B packaging due to the high radioactivity of the content, and to maintain the structural integrity under normal and accident conditions. It must withstand 9 m free drop impact onto an unyielding surface and 1 m drop impact onto a mild steel bar in a position causing maximum damage. For the conceptual design of a cylindrical HIC transport package, three dimensional dynamic structural analysis to ensure that the integrity of the package is maintained under all credible loads for 9 m free drop and 1 m puncture conditions were carried out using ABAQUS code.

  12. Evaluation of inflammation and immunity in cats with spontaneous parvovirus infection: consequences of recombinant feline interferon-omega administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltrinieri, Saverio; Crippa, Alessia; Comerio, Teodora; Angioletti, Andrea; Roccabianca, Paola

    2007-07-15

    Administration of recombinant feline interferon-omega (rFeIFN) has been proposed for the prophylaxis of canine and feline parvovirosis. In the present study, the influence of the administration of rFeIFN on blood markers of inflammation (alpha-globulins, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein) and immune system activation (gamma-globulins, IgG, IgM, specific anti-feline parvovirus IgG or IgM) was evaluated in a cattery developing an outbreak of feline panleukopenia due to feline parvovirus (FPV) infection few days after initial administration of rFeIFN. Kittens (n=23) were injected with rFeIFN (1MU/kg subcutaneously, once a day for 3 days) and their blood parameters were compared with those of 17 untreated cats. Cats that survived the outbreak were vaccinated and re-sampled 1 month after the last rFeIFN administration. Time of emergence of clinical signs and survival rate were not significantly different between the two groups. Controls and treated cats surviving the infection had high levels of gamma-globulins, total- and anti-FPV specific IgGs, likely due to passive transfer of maternal immunity. Compared to controls, treated kittens had lower levels of alpha(1)-globulins and higher mean values of gamma-globulins and immunoglobulins. Data from samples collected after vaccination revealed a higher level of gamma-globulins, total- and anti-FPV specific IgGs in treated kittens, compared with controls, suggesting that rFeIFN stimulates antibody production. Based on this results, rFeIFN should be administered to the queen, to increase passive maternal immunity, or to kittens before introduction in a potentially contaminated environment.

  13. Evaluation of national cements for the conditioning of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallaupoma, M.; Soriano, A.; Rodriguez, G.; Cruz, W.

    1996-01-01

    The preliminary research studies carried out to implement the liquid radioactive waste conditioning by cementation are described. First of all, different kind of commercial cements in Peru are analyzed. In the first step, the analysis were made without using the radioactive material. The analyzed parameters were density, porosity, setting time and mechanical strength of a cement type called 'Atlas'. Samples of two geometries were used. One of them was a cylindrical sample (48mm diameter and 48mm height) and the another one was a prismatic sample (40x40x160mm). The results of the different kind of analysis are presented in this paper. (authors). 2 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Anterior process calcaneal fractures: a systematic evaluation of associated conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrover, David [NYU Hospital for Joint Disease, Radiology Department, New York, NY (United States); Hopital Beaujon, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France); Schweitzer, Mark E. [NYU Hospital for Joint Disease, Radiology Department, New York, NY (United States); Laredo, J.D. [Hopital Lariboisiere, Service de Radiologie, Paris (France)

    2007-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the association, by MRI, of anterior calcaneal process fractures with tarsal coalitions, ankle sprains, and bifurcate ligament abnormalities. A retrospective review of 1,479 foot and ankle MR images was performed, over a period of 5 years, for isolated anterior process fractures of the calcaneus. Fifteen 1.5-T MR examinations were systematically evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Marrow edema patterns, presence of a calcaneonavicular coalition, as well as bifurcate and anterior talofibular ligaments, were evaluated. There were 15 fractures of the anterior calcaneal process with an incidence of 1%. The average patient age was 51 years (range 25-82). Twelve patients were women and 3 were men. The majority of the fractures (14 out of 15) presented as an edema pattern on T2-weighted images, either diffuse (9 out of 15), or vertical (5 out of 15). One case did not show marrow edema, but rather a hypointense line. Nine patients (60%) demonstrated calcaneonavicular coalition and anterior calcaneal process fracture. In 6 patients (50%) the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) was thickened. Three patients did not have axial images, and were classified as non-conclusive for the ATFL evaluation. The bifurcate ligament was thickened with hyperintense signal demonstrating a sprain in 9 out of 13 (69%). Only 2 patients (16.5%) had an anterior calcaneal process fracture without any associated abnormality. We believe that there is a probable association of anterior process fractures and calcaneonavicular coalitions. We also feel, based on our results and the prior literature that there is likely also an association with both ATFL injuries and bifurcate ligament injuries. (orig.)

  15. Anterior process calcaneal fractures: a systematic evaluation of associated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrover, David; Schweitzer, Mark E.; Laredo, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the association, by MRI, of anterior calcaneal process fractures with tarsal coalitions, ankle sprains, and bifurcate ligament abnormalities. A retrospective review of 1,479 foot and ankle MR images was performed, over a period of 5 years, for isolated anterior process fractures of the calcaneus. Fifteen 1.5-T MR examinations were systematically evaluated by two radiologists in consensus. Marrow edema patterns, presence of a calcaneonavicular coalition, as well as bifurcate and anterior talofibular ligaments, were evaluated. There were 15 fractures of the anterior calcaneal process with an incidence of 1%. The average patient age was 51 years (range 25-82). Twelve patients were women and 3 were men. The majority of the fractures (14 out of 15) presented as an edema pattern on T2-weighted images, either diffuse (9 out of 15), or vertical (5 out of 15). One case did not show marrow edema, but rather a hypointense line. Nine patients (60%) demonstrated calcaneonavicular coalition and anterior calcaneal process fracture. In 6 patients (50%) the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) was thickened. Three patients did not have axial images, and were classified as non-conclusive for the ATFL evaluation. The bifurcate ligament was thickened with hyperintense signal demonstrating a sprain in 9 out of 13 (69%). Only 2 patients (16.5%) had an anterior calcaneal process fracture without any associated abnormality. We believe that there is a probable association of anterior process fractures and calcaneonavicular coalitions. We also feel, based on our results and the prior literature that there is likely also an association with both ATFL injuries and bifurcate ligament injuries. (orig.)

  16. Evaluation of working conditions of workers engaged in tending horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Nowakowicz-Dębek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. A growing interest in the horse business has resulted in the increased engagement of many people in this area, and the health problems occurring among workers create the need to search for prophylactic measures. [b]objective[/b]. The objective of the study was evaluation of the level of exposure to air pollution in a stable, and estimation of the degree of work load among workers engaged in tending horses. [b]material and methods[/b]. The study was conducted twice, during the winter season, in a stable maintaining race horses, and in a social room. In order to evaluate workers’ exposure, air samples were collected by the aspiration method. After the incubation of material, the total number of bacteria and fungi in the air was determined, as well as the number of aerobic mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, expressed as the number of colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m[sup]3[/sup]. The measurement of total dust concentration in the air was also performed, simultaneously with the measurement of microclimatic parameters. The study of work load also covered the measurement of energy expenditure, evaluation of static physical load, and monotony of movements performed. [b]conclusions[/b]. The stable may be considered as a workplace with considerable risk of the occurrence of unfavourable health effects.

  17. Comparative sensory and proximate evaluation of spontaneously fermenting kunu-zaki made from germinated and ungerminated composite cereal grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwajoba, Solakunmi O; Akinyosoye, Felix A; Oyetayo, Olusegun V

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the sensory properties, proximate composition, and overall consumer acceptability of kunu-zaki using germinated and ungerminated Sorghum bicolor (sorghum), Pennisetum americanum (millet), and Digitaria exilis (acha) cereal grains. The three cereal grains were used in nongerminated and germinated composite and noncomposite proportions coded A (Acha), S (Sorghum), M (Millet), AS (Acha-Sorghum), AM (Acha-Millet), SM (Sorghum-Millet), ASG (Acha-Sorghum Germinated), AMG (Acha-Millet Germinated), and SMG (Sorghum-Millet Germinated). Proximate analysis determined the moisture content, ash, crude fiber, fat, and crude protein content of the fermented grains. The 9-point hedonic scale was used to judge the sensory parameters of taste, color, and aroma. The paired comparison test was used to judge consumer preference between kunu-zaki made from germinated grains and the ungerminated counterpart. Scores were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test in the SPSS analytical software package. Panelists ranked the ASG-coded drink highest in terms of taste and aroma, the AMG-coded drink highest in terms of color. SM ranked least in terms of taste; SMG ranked least in terms of aroma; and AM ranked the least in terms of color. Preference for each parameter was significantly different (P drinks from the most liked to the least liked in the order ASG>AMG>A>AS>S>M>SMG>AM>SM. The overall preference for the drinks was also significantly different (P drinks with the germinated drinks ranked the ungerminated drink AS as most preferred in terms of taste, color, and aroma above its germinated counterpart ASG with preference not significantly dependent on the parameters (P = 0.065 > 0.05). Ungerminated AM was also preferred above the germinated counterpart AMG in terms of taste, color, and aroma with preference not significantly dependent on parameters (P = 0.055 > 0.05). However, panelists showed preference for the taste and aroma of the germinated drink SMG

  18. Evaluation of conditions of SNCR in small boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, A.; Lorentzon, K.

    1996-04-01

    The report describes the first part of a project 'SNCR for small boilers', supported by Vaermeforsk (Thermal Engineering Research Institute), with the purpose of assessing the potential for SNCR in small boilers. Given favourable conditions, the project was to be continued in a second part with the demonstration of a SNCR system in a small boiler (or several boilers). During the base establishment, the temperatures in four locations per boiler, in a couple of horizontal or vertical levels and at 2-3 thermal outputs, were measured. Out of the four locations two showed temperatures mainly within the theoretical temperature window for SNCR. These locations were used during the try-out tests to inject urea and ammonia. The locations and the equipment used during the try-out tests together with existing operation strategies seem to limit the reduction levels to approximately 10-20% at acceptable levels of ammonia slip. The measurements and try-out tests carried out does not provide enough basis for forming any general conclusions concerning SNCR in small boilers. Neither the base establishment nor the try-out tests included any optimisation of the boilers regarding the operation strategy or, for the try-out tests, locations and equipment (drop size, flow shape and direction). Therefore, it is likely to believe that better results can be obtained, given other conditions of operation and using well established SNCR technology, adapted to the circumstances. 2 refs, 27 figs, 5 tabs

  19. EVALUATION OF COMPETITION CONDITIONS IN THE HOTEL SECTOR IN ISTANBUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazım Ozan ÖZER

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The various dimensions of the concept of the competitiveness in service sectors have drawn attention of many researchers. Discipline of business concerns firm, sector and the international dimensions of national level competition. This study focus on explaining the competitiveness of Istanbul Hotel Sector by considering the dynamics connected to the sectoral competitiveness of Tourism. For the analysis, different data collection techniques have been used. As for the secondary data, literature review has been done about Michael Porter’s Five Forces Model that is mostly prefered for this kind of researches. For the primary data, senior managers of hotels in Istanbul Hotel Sector were applied to the interviews and formal interviews. As a result of this study it’s seen that Istanbul Hotel Sector has profitability rates that attract new entrants and the competition conditions are available for new entrants to the Istanbul Hotel Sector.

  20. Evaluation of PBL schemes in WRF for high Arctic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirova-Galabova, Hristina; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2015-01-01

    We examined the features of the Arctic boundary layer during winter (land and sea covered by snow/ice) and summer (sea covered by sea ice) using Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.4.1 and radiosounding data collected at Station Nord (81.65N, 16.65W) . The dataset consist...... was examined through two configurations (25 vertical levels and 4km grid step, 42 vertical levels and 1.33 km grid step). WRF was run with two planetary boundary layer schemes: Mellor –Yamada – Janjic with local vertical closure and non – local Yonsei University scheme. Temporal evolution of planetary boundary...... for temperature, above 150 m for relative humidity and for all levels for wind speed. Direct comparison of model and measured data showed that vertical profiles of studied parameters were reconstructed by the model relatively better in cloudy sky conditions, compared to clear skies....

  1. Evaluating how variants of floristic quality assessment indicate wetland condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Thomas E; Forrester, Graham E

    2018-03-28

    Biological indicators are useful tools for the assessment of ecosystem condition. Multi-metric and multi-taxa indicators may respond to a broader range of disturbances than simpler indicators, but their complexity can make them difficult to interpret, which is critical to indicator utility for ecosystem management. Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is an example of a biological assessment approach that has been widely tested for indicating freshwater wetland condition, but less attention has been given to clarifying the factors controlling its response. FQA quantifies the aggregate of vascular plant species tolerance to habitat degradation (conservatism), and model variants have incorporated species richness, abundance, and indigenity (native or non-native). To assess bias, we tested FQA variants in open-canopy freshwater wetlands against three independent reference measures, using practical vegetation sampling methods. FQA variants incorporating species richness did not correlate with our reference measures and were influenced by wetland size and hydrogeomorphic class. In contrast, FQA variants lacking measures of species richness responded linearly to reference measures quantifying individual and aggregate stresses, suggesting a broad response to cumulative degradation. FQA variants incorporating non-native species, and a variant additionally incorporating relative species abundance, improved performance over using only native species. We relate our empirical findings to ecological theory to clarify the functional properties and implications of the FQA variants. Our analysis indicates that (1) aggregate conservatism reliably declines with increased disturbance; (2) species richness has varying relationships with disturbance and increases with site area, confounding FQA response; and (3) non-native species signal human disturbance. We propose that incorporating species abundance can improve FQA site-level relevance with little extra sampling effort. Using our

  2. Evaluating road surface conditions using dynamic tire pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yubo; Wu, H. Felix; McDaniel, J. Gregory; Wang, Ming L.

    2014-03-01

    In order to best prioritize road maintenance, the level of deterioration must be known for all roads in a city's network. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and International Roughness Index (IRI) are two standard methods for obtaining this information. However, IRI is substantially easier to measure. Significant time and money could be saved if a method were developed to estimate PCI from IRI. This research introduces a new method to estimate IRI and correlate IRI with PCI. A vehicle-mounted dynamic tire pressure sensor (DTPS) system is used. The DTPS measures the signals generated from the tire/road interaction while driving. The tire/road interaction excites surface waves that travel through the road. DTPS, which is mounted on the tire's valve stem, measures tire/road interaction by analyzing the pressure change inside the tire due to the road vibration, road geometry and tire wall vibration. The road conditions are sensible to sensors in a similar way to human beings in a car. When driving on a smooth road, tire pressure stays almost constant and there are minimal changes in the DTPS data. When driving on a rough road, DTPS data changes drastically. IRI is estimated from the reconstructed road profile using DTPS data. In order to correlate IRI with PCI, field tests were conducted on roads with known PCI values in the city of Brockton, MA. Results show a high correlation between the estimated IRI values and the known PCI values, which suggests that DTPS-based IRI can provide accurate predictions of PCI.

  3. Both Trace and Delay Conditioning of Evaluative Responses Depend on Contingency Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattner, Florian; Ellermeier, Wolfgang; Tavakoli, Paniz

    2012-01-01

    Whereas previous evaluative conditioning (EC) studies produced inconsistent results concerning the role of contingency knowledge, there are classical eye-blink conditioning studies suggesting that declarative processes are involved in trace conditioning but not in delay conditioning. In two EC experiments pairing neutral sounds (conditioned…

  4. Conditional cash transfer impact evaluation: an evaluation of the costa rican secondary education program Avancemos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of Avancemos, a conditional cash transfer program in Costa Rica. Specifically, this paper measures the impact on student desertion for the first year of the program using a panel created with the Household Surveys for Multiple Purposes for the years 2006 and 2007, elaborated by the National Institute of Statistics and Census. Using econometric tools and quasi-experimental methodologies such as Propensity Score Matching and difference-in-differences, we find a positive impact associated to the program for desertion and reinsertion. Specifically, for between 10 and 16 percent of the students who did not leave high school, it was only due to Avancemos, meaning that without the program they would have abandoned their studies. This is why we can conclude that Avancemos had a positive impact according to its planned objectives of preventing dropouts and ensuring their reinsertion.

  5. Phase I clinical trial and pharmacodynamic evaluation of combination hydroxychloroquine and doxorubicin treatment in pet dogs treated for spontaneously occurring lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Rebecca A; Wittenburg, Luke A; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Gustafson, Daniel L; Thorburn, Andrew; Thamm, Douglas H

    2014-08-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process that may act as a mechanism of survival in a variety of cancers. While pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently being explored in human clinical trials, it has never been evaluated in canine cancers. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most prevalent tumor types in dogs and has similar pathogenesis and response to treatment as human NHL. Clinical trials in canine patients are conducted in the same way as in human patients, thus, to determine a maximum dose of HCQ that can be combined with a standard chemotherapy, a Phase I, single arm, dose escalation trial was conducted in dogs with spontaneous NHL presenting as patients to an academic, tertiary-care veterinary teaching hospital. HCQ was administered daily by mouth throughout the trial, beginning 72 h prior to doxorubicin (DOX), which was given intravenously on a 21-d cycle. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and biopsies were collected before and 3 d after HCQ treatment and assessed for autophagy inhibition and HCQ concentration. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the trial. HCQ alone was well tolerated with only mild lethargy and gastrointestinal-related adverse events. The overall response rate (ORR) for dogs with lymphoma was 93.3%, with median progression-free interval (PFI) of 5 mo. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a 100-fold increase in HCQ in tumors compared with plasma. There was a trend that supported therapy-induced increase in LC3-II (the cleaved and lipidated form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3/LC3, which serves as a maker for autophagosomes) and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) after treatment. The superior ORR and comparable PFI to single-agent DOX provide strong support for further evaluation via randomized, placebo-controlled trials in canine and human NHL.

  6. An integrated pavement data management and feedback system (PAMS) : evaluation of pavement condition rating procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    This report describes an evaluation of a method for use in the Highway Needs Study pavement condition rating. The methods by which the Department generates and manages pavement condition data in the overall process of providing a network of highways ...

  7. Evaluation of supercapacitors for space applications under thermal vacuum conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Keith C.; Green, Nelson W.; Brandon, Erik J.

    2018-03-01

    Commercially available supercapacitor cells from three separate vendors were evaluated for use in a space environment using thermal vacuum (Tvac) testing. Standard commercial cells are not hermetically sealed, but feature crimp or double seam seals between the header and the can, which may not maintain an adequate seal under vacuum. Cells were placed in a small vacuum chamber, and cycled between three separate temperature set points. Charging and discharging of cells was executed following each temperature soak, to confirm there was no significant impact on performance. A final electrical performance check, visual inspection and mass check following testing were also performed, to confirm the integrity of the cells had not been compromised during exposure to thermal cycling under vacuum. All cells tested were found to survive this testing protocol and exhibited no significant impact on electrical performance.

  8. Evaluation of three biostimulants in lettuce under parcel conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Jiménez Arteaga

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The work was developed in the parcel Ñico López. The valued cultivation was the lettuce variety Black simpson, with the objective of evaluating the goods of three (3 bioestimulantes (Biobras 16, Biobras plus and Quitosana, about the yield and quality of the crop. The biostimulants was applied, to three stonemasons (one for biostimulant to the six days after transplant (DDT and three parcel to the seven DDT, leaving one stonemasons that as control, for an total seven (7 treatments. The main components of yield were measured and some components of the quality of the plant were determined in the Soils Province Laboratory The data were processed by the statistical package of the Statitic version 8 on Windows. One could observe that the three biostimulants has an effect positive on the mass and quality of the studied crop.

  9. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  10. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  11. Theoretical evaluation of radon emanation under a variety of conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, J.C.; Bates, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    A cylindrical coordinate mathematical model to calculate 222 Rn flux and movement was developed considering 222 Rn production, decay, and diffusion in a multilayered, porous, permeable matrix. Air movement, transporting radon through the media, satisfies Darcy's law and is influenced by the air (barometric) pressure applied at the surface. Two zones of porous material have been defined, one with a 222 Rn production term (the uranium ore zone) and the other without this term to simulate shotcrete or concrete ground support. A provision is made to evaluate the effect of a pinhole in an otherwise impermeable sealant. Comparisons are made between field measurements and predicted values. Specific examples are given of 222 Rn flux from a finite ore-body model versus steady and periodic changes in barometric pressure. Also examined are 222 Rn losses through pinholes for cases of linearly varying and static barometric pressures. The results suggest factors to consider in uranium mine radon control. For example, pinholes are not a serious problem since it appears that several thousand, 2 mm diameter pinholes per square meter are required to cause a significant loss of a barrier coating's effectiveness. (author)

  12. A prospective evaluation of ventilator-associated conditions and infection-related ventilator-associated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Anthony F; Schoenberg, Noah; Babcock, Hilary; McMullen, Kathleen M; Micek, Scott T; Kollef, Marin H

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has shifted policy away from using ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and toward using ventilator-associated conditions (VACs) as a marker of ICU quality. To date, limited prospective data regarding the incidence of VAC among medical and surgical ICU patients, the ability of VAC criteria to capture patients with VAP, and the potential clinical preventability of VACs are available. This study was a prospective 12-month cohort study (January 2013 to December 2013). We prospectively surveyed 1,209 patients ventilated for ≥ 2 calendar days. Sixty-seven VACs were identified (5.5%), of which 34 (50.7%) were classified as an infection-related VAC (IVAC) with corresponding rates of 7.0 and 3.6 per 1,000 ventilator days, respectively. The mortality rate of patients having a VAC was significantly greater than that of patients without a VAC (65.7% vs 14.4%, P VACs included IVACs (50.7%), ARDS (16.4%), pulmonary edema (14.9%), and atelectasis (9.0%). Among IVACs, 44.1% were probable VAP and 17.6% were possible VAP. Twenty-five VACs (37.3%) were adjudicated to represent potentially preventable events. Eighty-six episodes of VAP occurred in 84 patients (10.0 of 1,000 ventilator days) during the study period. The sensitivity of the VAC criteria for the detection of VAP was 25.9% (95% CI, 16.7%-34.5%). Although relatively uncommon, VACs are associated with greater mortality and morbidity when they occur. Most VACs represent nonpreventable events, and the VAC criteria capture a minority of VAP episodes.

  13. Evaluation of organic Substrates for wheat production under rainfed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, S.; Tanveer, S.K.; Anjum, A.S.; Javed, A.; Ullah, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    A study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different organic amendments and bio-fertilisers on organic wheat crop at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad during the year 2008-2009. Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications was used. The soil at NARC is slightly alkaline. Organic matter ranges from 0.31-2.50 % in the surface soils and 0.15-2.50 % in sub-soils. Most soils at NARC have low soil organic matter content. The treatments included (a) organic fertilizers 3: 16:1.5 (N:P:K), 15kg N, 85kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/and 7kg K per acre),(b) organic fertilizers (NPK),15kg N, 85kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5/and 7gK+ Humic acid (8/acre as basel dose and foliar spray), (c) compost (well decomposed and fermented with yeast mixed with molasses) 1000kg/acre (1.5% N,1.2% P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/ and 0.8% K), (d) a control. Different organic products including bio-trace, humic acid (granulated form, i.e. lignatic coal treated with 10% potassium hydroxide) and humic acid alkaline solution in water were applied in the form of foliar spray on the crop (treatments 1 and 3) at six leaves stage, after 1.5 months and at spike emergence stage. The use of organic fertiliser with compost alone or in combination increased growth parameters as well as wheat yield, with maximum biomass (5,788kg/ha). Minimum biomass was recorded in the control treatment. The soil chemical, physical and biological properties were improved with addition of all types of organic substrates. The soil quality relates with its characteristics and microbial dynamism. (author)

  14. Spontaneous Movements of a Computer Mouse Reveal Egoism and In-group Favoritism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski, Norbert; Wojciechowski, Łukasz; Suszek, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to assess whether the first spontaneous movements of a computer mouse, when making an assessment on a scale presented on the screen, may express a respondent's implicit attitudes. In Study 1, the altruistic behaviors of 66 students were assessed. The students were led to believe that the task they were performing was also being performed by another person and they were asked to distribute earnings between themselves and the partner. The participants performed the tasks under conditions with and without distractors. With the distractors, in the first few seconds spontaneous mouse movements on the scale expressed a selfish distribution of money, while later the movements gravitated toward more altruism. In Study 2, 77 Polish students evaluated a painting by a Polish/Jewish painter on a scale. They evaluated it under conditions of full or distracted cognitive abilities. Spontaneous movements of the mouse on the scale were analyzed. In addition, implicit attitudes toward both Poles and Jews were measured with the Implicit Association Test (IAT). A significant association between implicit attitudes (IAT) and spontaneous evaluation of images using a computer mouse was observed in the group with the distractor. The participants with strong implicit in-group favoritism of Poles revealed stronger preference for the Polish painter's work in the first few seconds of mouse movement. Taken together, these results suggest that spontaneous mouse movements may reveal egoism (in-group favoritism), i.e., processes that were not observed in the participants' final decisions (clicking on the scale).

  15. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  16. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  17. conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkatesulu

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Solutions of initial value problems associated with a pair of ordinary differential systems (L1,L2 defined on two adjacent intervals I1 and I2 and satisfying certain interface-spatial conditions at the common end (interface point are studied.

  18. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja

    2017-01-01

    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  19. Evaluation of postural balance control in patients with multiple sclerosis - effect of different sensory conditions and arithmetic task execution. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porosińska, Aleksandra; Pierzchała, Krystyna; Mentel, Marzena; Karpe, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of concomitant cognitive task execution and different sensory conditions on balance control in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thirty-two subjects with MS and 30 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were included in the study. Balance Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment was performed in all subjects. Their spontaneous sway characteristics while standing with different sensory conditions and during execution of a simple arithmetic task were analysed. Mean sway in the coronary and sagittal plane, as well as sway velocity, were measured. The values of all evaluated variables obtained in all tests were significantly higher in the MS group than in controls. In the MS group, more pronounced progression of changes in response to increased difficulty of the test was also observed. Analysis of risk of falls in MS revealed a significant increase of sway velocity and mean sway in the mediolateral and anteroposterior plane in the majority of tests. Postural stability in patients with MS is significantly decreased in comparison with the control group in all evaluated conditions. Stability deficit is enhanced in response to more difficult conditions of evaluation. Increased risk of falls is related to the increased postural sway velocity and length of mean sway; this association is most pronounced in the coronary plane.

  20. Transgenic mice exhibiting inducible and spontaneous Cre activities driven by a bovine keratin 5 promoter that can be used for the conditional analysis of basal epithelial cells in multiple organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; You, Li-Ru; Chang, Junn-Liang; Tsai, Ting-Fen; Chen, Chun-Ming

    2009-01-08

    Cre/loxP-mediated genetic modification is the most widely used conditional genetic approach used in the mouse. Engineered Cre and the mutated ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor fusion recombinase (CreERT) allow temporal control of Cre activity. In this study, we have generated two distinct transgenic mouse lines expressing CreERT, which show 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT)-inducible and spontaneous (4-OHT-independent) Cre activities, referred to Tg(BK5-CreERT)I and Tg(BK5-CreERT)S, respectively. The transgenic construct is driven by the bovine Keratin 5 promoter, which is active in the basal epithelial lineage of stratified and pseudo-stratified epithelium across multiple organs. Despite the difference in 4-OHT dependency, the Tg(BK5-CreERT)I and Tg(BK5-CreERT)S mouse lines shared similar Cre-mediated recombination among various organs, except for unique mammary epithelial Cre activity in Tg(BK5-CreERT)S females. These two new transgenic mouse lines for the analysis of basal epithelial function and for the genetic modification have been created allowing the identification of these cell lineages and analysis of their differentiation during embryogenesis, during perinatal development and in adult mice.

  1. Transgenic mice exhibiting inducible and spontaneous Cre activities driven by a bovine keratin 5 promoter that can be used for the conditional analysis of basal epithelial cells in multiple organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chih-Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cre/loxP-mediated genetic modification is the most widely used conditional genetic approach used in the mouse. Engineered Cre and the mutated ligand-binding domain of estrogen receptor fusion recombinase (CreERT allow temporal control of Cre activity. Results In this study, we have generated two distinct transgenic mouse lines expressing CreERT, which show 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT-inducible and spontaneous (4-OHT-independent Cre activities, referred to Tg(BK5-CreERTI and Tg(BK5-CreERTS, respectively. The transgenic construct is driven by the bovine Keratin 5 promoter, which is active in the basal epithelial lineage of stratified and pseudo-stratified epithelium across multiple organs. Despite the difference in 4-OHT dependency, the Tg(BK5-CreERTI and Tg(BK5-CreERTS mouse lines shared similar Cre-mediated recombination among various organs, except for unique mammary epithelial Cre activity in Tg(BK5-CreERTS females. Conclusion These two new transgenic mouse lines for the analysis of basal epithelial function and for the genetic modification have been created allowing the identification of these cell lineages and analysis of their differentiation during embryogenesis, during perinatal development and in adult mice.

  2. Subliminal influence on preferences? A test of evaluative conditioning for brief visual conditioned stimuli using auditory unconditioned stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heycke, Tobias; Aust, Frederik; Stahl, Christoph

    2017-09-01

    In the field of evaluative conditioning (EC), two opposing theories-propositional single-process theory versus dual-process theory-are currently being discussed in the literature. The present set of experiments test a crucial prediction to adjudicate between these two theories: Dual-process theory postulates that evaluative conditioning can occur without awareness of the contingency between conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US); in contrast, single-process propositional theory postulates that EC requires CS-US contingency awareness. In a set of three studies, we experimentally manipulate contingency awareness by presenting the CSs very briefly, thereby rendering it unlikely to be processed consciously. We address potential issues with previous studies on EC with subliminal or near-threshold CSs that limited their interpretation. Across two experiments, we consistently found an EC effect for CSs presented for 1000 ms and consistently failed to find an EC effect for briefly presented CSs. In a third pre-registered experiment, we again found evidence for an EC effect with CSs presented for 1000 ms, and we found some indication for an EC effect for CSs presented for 20 ms.

  3. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF CARCINOMA OF BUCCAL MUCOSA: ULTRASOUND TECHNIQUE AND EVALUATION OF NEOPLASTIC CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamsundar K

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Ultrasound in head and neck region is mainly used to evaluate salivary glands, thyroid glands, and cervical lymph nodes. Being a versatile imaging modality, its use can be extended to evaluate maxillofacial region. Buccal mucosa is an important structure in the maxillofacial region as malignancy in this region is on the alarming rise in both developing and developed countries. Diagnosing malignancy at an early stage yields good prognosis. In this study, we discuss: 1 Ultrasound anatomy of buccal mucosa and evaluation techniques. 2 Evaluation of early buccal mucosal cancer on ultrasound. 3 Evaluate the extent of reliability of ultrasound, and its limitations in buccal mucosal cancers.

  4. The Spontaneous Combustion of Railway Ties and Asphalt Shingles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Geoffrey

    Many Low Carbon Fuels (LCFs) present unknown spontaneous combustion risks, which must be quantified before their use as fossil fuel replacements. Wood and coal spontaneous combustion is well understood; however, LCFs weather, and subsequent chemical changes could affect their spontaneous combustion properties. LCF spontaneous combustion could lead to accidental fires with possible loss of life, limb and property. The spontaneous combustion risks of two LCFs, discarded creosote-treated wooden railway ties and roofing asphalt shingles, were investigated with calorimetry and heat transfer experiments. Chemical changes due to weathering were studied with pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (py-GC/MS). Creosote-treated wooden railway tie dust, roofing asphalt shingle particles, poplar wood pellets, and petroleum coke self-heating were studied with isothermal calorimetry. Railway tie dust and asphalt shingle heat transfer were characterized with a guarded hot plate. Petroleum coke self-heating was consistent with coal, while both poplar pellets and railway tie dust were found to be more reactive compared to oven test results of similar materials. The observed increase in reactivity was probably a result of significant moisture contenint in the pellet and railway tie dust. Critical conditions for spontaneous combustion were evaluated with the Frank-Kamenetskii parameter, assuming an ambient temperature of 40°C and constant moisture content. Kamenetskii calculations indicate that a 1.6 m cube of railway tie dust, or a 58 m cube of asphalt particles, would be unstable and combust. LCF chemistry may have been affected by weathering, which would cause chemical changes that affect their spontaneous combustion properties. Therefore, railway tie wood and roofing asphalt shingle chemistry were investigated by identifying products of 250° and 550°C pyrolysis with py-GC/MS. Railway tie wood pyrolyzates did not show signs of weathering; in contrast, asphalt pyrolysis

  5. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.

    2002-01-01

    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  6. Condition Monitoring for Roller Bearings of Wind Turbines Based on Health Evaluation under Variable Operating States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Fu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Condition monitoring (CM is used to assess the health status of wind turbines (WT by detecting turbine failure and predicting maintenance needs. However, fluctuating operating conditions cause variations in monitored features, therefore increasing the difficulty of CM, for example, the frequency-domain analysis may lead to an inaccurate or even incorrect prediction when evaluating the health of the WT components. In light of this challenge, this paper proposed a method for the health evaluation of WT components based on vibration signals. The proposed approach aimed to reduce the evaluation error caused by the impact of the variable operating condition. First, the vibration signal was decomposed into a set of sub-signals using variational mode decomposition (VMD. Next, the sub-signal energy and the probability distribution were obtained and normalized. Finally, the concept of entropy was introduced to evaluate the health condition of a monitored object to provide an effective guide for maintenance. In particular, the health evaluation for CM was based on a performance review over a range of operating conditions, rather than at a certain single operating condition. Experimental investigations were performed which verified the efficiency of the evaluation method, as well as a comparison with the previous method.

  7. When Two Paradigms Meet: Does Evaluative Learning Extinguish in Differential Fear Conditioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Michael, Tanja; Williams, S. Lloyd; Purkis, Helena M.; Wilhelm, Frank H.

    2008-01-01

    Contemporary theories of Pavlovian conditioning propose a distinction between signal learning (SL), in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) becomes a predictor for a biologically significant unconditioned stimulus (US), and evaluative learning (EL), in which the valence of the US is transferred to the CS. This distinction is based largely on the…

  8. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous globe luxation is a rarely reported condition which can lead to complications like optic neuropathy. Common causes are thyroid eye disease, shallow orbit and floppy eyelid syndrome. We report a case of spontaneous globe luxation with the onset and severity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous globe luxation associated with COPD.

  9. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  10. 42 CFR 485.641 - Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and quality assurance review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... participation: Periodic evaluation and quality assurance review. (a) Standard: Periodic evaluation—(1) The CAH... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition of participation: Periodic evaluation and quality assurance review. 485.641 Section 485.641 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES...

  11. The Road Pavement Condition Index (PCI Evaluation and Maintenance: A Case Study of Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Fareed M. A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The pavement condition index (PCI is a simple, convenient and inexpensive way to monitor the condition of the surface of roads, identify maintenance and rehabilitation (M-and-R needs as well as ensure that road maintenance budgets are spent wisely. In this research, the pavement condition was evaluated in terms of the surface distresses existing at the time of the field evaluation. The PCI procedure was used in this research because it deals with the subject of pavement distress identification most comprehensively and is based on a sound statistical technique of pavement sampling.

  12. Quantitative evaluation methods of skin condition based on texture feature parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to quantitatively evaluate the improvement of the skin condition after using skin care products and beauty, a quantitative evaluation method for skin surface state and texture is presented, which is convenient, fast and non-destructive. Human skin images were collected by image sensors. Firstly, the median filter of the 3 × 3 window is used and then the location of the hairy pixels on the skin is accurately detected according to the gray mean value and color information. The bilinear interpolation is used to modify the gray value of the hairy pixels in order to eliminate the negative effect of noise and tiny hairs on the texture. After the above pretreatment, the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM is calculated. On the basis of this, the four characteristic parameters, including the second moment, contrast, entropy and correlation, and their mean value are calculated at 45 ° intervals. The quantitative evaluation model of skin texture based on GLCM is established, which can calculate the comprehensive parameters of skin condition. Experiments show that using this method evaluates the skin condition, both based on biochemical indicators of skin evaluation methods in line, but also fully consistent with the human visual experience. This method overcomes the shortcomings of the biochemical evaluation method of skin damage and long waiting time, also the subjectivity and fuzziness of the visual evaluation, which achieves the non-destructive, rapid and quantitative evaluation of skin condition. It can be used for health assessment or classification of the skin condition, also can quantitatively evaluate the subtle improvement of skin condition after using skin care products or stage beauty.

  13. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  14. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  15. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  16. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  17. Spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture: imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Glaucia Andrade e Silva; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous hepatic bleeding is a rare condition. Our aim was to describe the imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment using transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture. Three patients presented acute hemoperitoneum dur to hepatic rupture caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma, HELLP syndrome and a blunt hepatic trauma. The patients were submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen and subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. All patients underwent helical computed tomography before and after treatments. Computed tomography played an important role in the evaluation and follow-up in the therapeutic intervention. Different types of liver injuries were identified. Transcatheter arterial embolization blocked arterial hemorrhage in the patients who were hemodynamically unstable. The conclusion was: transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and well-tolerated treatment method for the management of hepatic rupture and computed tomography is an excellent method for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  18. Evaluation of agricultural residues pyrolysis under non-isothermal conditions: Thermal behaviors, kinetics, and thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbiao; Wang, Yanhong; Lang, Xuemei; Ren, Xiu'e; Fan, Shuanshi

    2017-10-01

    The thermal conversion characteristics, kinetics, and thermodynamics of agricultural residues, rape straw (RS) and wheat bran (WB), were investigated under non-isothermal conditions. TGA experiments showed that the pyrolysis characteristics of RS were quite different from those of WB. As reflected by the comprehensive devolatilization index, when the heating rate increased from 10 to 30Kmin -1 , the pyrolysis performance of RS and WB were improved 5.27 and 5.96 times, respectively. The kinetic triplets of the main pyrolysis process of agricultural residues were calculated by the Starink method and the integral master-plots method. Kinetic analysis results indicated that the most potential kinetic models for the pyrolysis of RS and WB were D 2 and F 2.7 , respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔH, ΔG, and ΔS) were determined by the activated complex theory. The positive ΔH, positive ΔG, and negative ΔS at characteristic temperatures validated that the pyrolysis of agricultural residues was endothermic and non-spontaneous. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Computed tomographic findings of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Young Chul [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-10-15

    Computed tomography (CT) was a reliable technique to evaluate the exact size and location of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and to predict it's prognosis. Fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and reviewed by CT scan. The following results were obtained. 1. The sex ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4, The highest incidence was in 6th and 7th decades. 2. The most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage was hypertension (74.6%), followed by the aneurysm (13.5%), arteriovenous malformation (5.1%), occlusive vascular disease (3.4%), and blood dyscrasia (3.4%). 3. The most common location was basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage (37.3%), followed by lobar hemorrhage (27.1%), cerebellar hemorrhage (13.5%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11.9%). 4. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage carried the highest mortality. 5. The larger volume of hematoma, the higher the mortality rate.

  20. Spontaneous ignition of biodiesel: A potential fire risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibata Yasuhito

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The spontaneous ignition of biodiesel was for the first time suspected to be the cause of a recent fire in Japan. We herein present experimental evidence implying this potential risk of biodiesel. Thus, three independent biodiesel samples were subjected to a series of experiments, including a thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis, a differential scanning calorimetry analysis and a modified wire basket test. The results were comparatively evaluated with reference to vegetable oils, of which spontaneous ignition has been well reported as a cause of fires. The heat onset temperature of biodiesel samples was determined to be ~100 °C, which was ~45 °C lower than those of vegetable oils. Furthermore, under the isothermal condition at 100 °C, the inner temperature of biodiesel samples rose rapidly with the generation of smoke after short induction periods owing to their exothermal decomposition, whereas for vegetable oils neither change in the inside temperature nor generation of smoke was observed even after 10 hours. It was therefore concluded that biodiesel possesses the higher risk of spontaneous ignition than vegetable oils. This is very important information to minimize the fire risk in biodiesel production facilities and so on. .

  1. MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sam Soo [Seoul City Boramae Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Moon Hee; Kim, Hyun Beom [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    2000-01-01

    To describe the MR imaging and clinical findings of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. The MR and clinical findings in six patients (M:F=3D4:2;adult:child=3D3:3) with spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma were reviewed. Five patients without any predisposing factor which might cause the condition and one with acute myelogenous leukemia were included. Emergency surgery was performed in two patients, and the other four were managed conservatively. The epidural lesion involved between three and seven vertebrae (mean:4.5), and relative to the spinal cord was located in the posterior-lateral (n=3D4), anterior (n=3D1), or right lateral (n=3D1) area. The hematoma was isointense (n=3D1) or hyperintense (n=3D5) with spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and hypointense (n=3D2) or hyperintense (n=3D4) on T2-weighted images. It was completely absorbed in four of five patients who underwent follow-up MR imaging, but not changed in one. The clinical outcome of these patients was complete recovery (n=3D4), spastic cerebral palsy (n=3D1), or unknown (n=3D1). Because of the lesion's characteristic signal intensity; MR imaging is very useful in the diagnosis and evaluation of spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma. (author)

  2. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptug Tokatli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a very rare clinical condition. Physiopathology of SCAD is still mostly unclear. Clinical presentation of SCAD ranges from atypical symptoms to sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of dissection is generally made by using conventional coronary angiography. Invasive or conservative treatment is reasonable.

  3. Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy: a case report | Makwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy is a rare condition, associated with very high maternal mortality rate and fetal wastage. It is frequently misdiagnosed at presentation. We report a case of a 33-year-old, gravida 2, para 1 lady at 29 weeks' gestation with spontaneous splenic rupture, which was initially diagnosed as ...

  4. Spontaneity and Equilibrium III: A History of Misinformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.

    2014-01-01

    Necessary and sufficient criteria for reaction spontaneity in a given direction and for spontaneity of finite transformations in single-reaction, closed systems are developed. The criteria are general in that they hold for reactions conducted under either conditions of constant T and p or constant T and V. These results are illustrated using a…

  5. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T

    2012-02-03

    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  6. Two Cases of Subdural Hematoma in Spontaneous CSF Hypovolemia

    OpenAIRE

    島谷, 佳光; 井戸川, 美帆; 阿部, 剛典; 仁平, 敦子; 溝渕, 雅広; 佐光, 一也; 田中, 千春

    2007-01-01

    Two cases of subdural hematoma in spontaneous CSF hypovolemia. The typical orthostatic features were replaced by continuous, nonpositional headache. MEI showed subdural hematoma. These cases emphasize that spontaneous CSF hypovolemia is not an entirely benign condition and that subudural hematoma may accompany persistent intracranial hypotension.

  7. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  8. Using progressive ratio schedules to evaluate tokens as generalized conditioned reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Danielle; Ingvarsson, Einar T; Haggar, Jennifer L; Jessel, Joshua

    2018-01-01

    The properties of operant reinforcers are dynamic and dependent on a number of variables, such as schedule and effort. There has been sparse research on the generalized conditioned properties of token reinforcement. We evaluated leisure items, edible items, and tokens using a progressive ratio schedule with three children with diagnoses of ASD and developmental delays. The highest break points occurred during the token reinforcement condition for two out of three participants, but response rates tended to be higher with edibles. We then evaluated the effects of presession access to edibles on the break points of edible items and tokens with two participants. Break points decreased only in the edible reinforcement condition, and the participants chose to work for leisure items rather than edibles when presession access to edibles was in place. These findings suggest that the tokens functioned as generalized conditioned reinforcers. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  9. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  10. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  11. Performance Evaluation of Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Under Semiconductor-Failure Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates and proposes various compensation methods for three-level Z-source inverters under semiconductor-failure conditions. Unlike the fault-tolerant techniques used in traditional three-level inverters, where either an extra phase-leg or collective switching states are used...... under semiconductor-failure conditions. For verifying these described performance features, PLECS simulation and experimental testing were performed with some results captured and shown in a later section for visual confirmation....

  12. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  13. Spontaneous hemothorax: primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Panjwani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition seen in coagulation and vascular disorders. Uncommonly, malignant neoplasms may cause spontaneous hemothorax. Primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas (excluding the cases with pleuropulmonary or chest wall involvement are extremely rare pleural tumors, which may be mistaken for mesothelioma or adenocarcinoma, and only 19 cases (one of them from India have been reported in the English literature, to date. It commonly occurs in older men, has a nonspecific clinicoradiological presentation, and carries a poor prognosis with no survivors beyond a year of establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma presenting as a life-threatening spontaneous hemothorax. We also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  14. Spontaneous swallowing frequency has potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

  15. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  16. A New Method of Reliability Evaluation Based on Wavelet Information Entropy for Equipment Condition Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Z J; Zhang, X L; Chen, X F

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at reliability evaluation of condition identification of mechanical equipment, it is necessary to analyze condition monitoring information. A new method of reliability evaluation based on wavelet information entropy extracted from vibration signals of mechanical equipment is proposed. The method is quite different from traditional reliability evaluation models that are dependent on probability statistics analysis of large number sample data. The vibration signals of mechanical equipment were analyzed by means of second generation wavelet package (SGWP). We take relative energy in each frequency band of decomposed signal that equals a percentage of the whole signal energy as probability. Normalized information entropy (IE) is obtained based on the relative energy to describe uncertainty of a system instead of probability. The reliability degree is transformed by the normalized wavelet information entropy. A successful application has been achieved to evaluate the assembled quality reliability for a kind of dismountable disk-drum aero-engine. The reliability degree indicates the assembled quality satisfactorily.

  17. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  18. The multipurpose industrial company’s competitiveness evaluation method for instable environmental conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kuchina E.V.; Baeva D.A.

    2017-01-01

    The competitiveness evaluation method for industrial companies was created by authors and described in the article. This method allows considering specific features of contemporary economic conditions. There are two main features: Russian economy is under the external pressure, it instable and needs structural changes. The main advantage of the method is following: it can evaluate both the current and the perspective competitiveness of company considering the aim of increasing competitiveness...

  19. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  20. Evaluating indices that measure departure of current landscape composition from historical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons

    2011-01-01

    A measure of the degree of departure of a landscape from its range of historical conditions can provide a means for prioritizing and planning areas for restoration treatments. There are few statistics or indices that provide a quantitative context for measuring departure across landscapes. This study evaluated a set of five similarity indices commonly used in...

  1. Evaluating transmission electron microscopy as a method for assessing the condition of archaeological wool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharff, Annemette Bruselius; Jørgensen, Lise Bolt

    2017-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was investigated to clarify the applicability of the method for assessing the condition of archaeological textiles from waterlogged environments. A description and evaluation of the TEM protocol is presented and the method was tested on new and artificially...

  2. Evaluation of Next Generation Nuclear Power Plant (NGNP) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. A. Harvego

    2006-04-01

    This report summarizes results of a preliminary evaluation to determine the operating conditions for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) that will transfer heat from the reactor primary system to the demonstration hydrogen production plant(s). The Department of Energy is currently investigating two primary options for the production of hydrogen using a high temperature reactor as the power source. These options are the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) and Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical hydrogen production processes. However, since the SI process relies entirely on process heat from the reactor, while the HTE process relies primarily on electrical energy with only a small amount of process heat required, the design of the IHX is dictated by the SI process heat requirements. Therefore, the IHX operating conditions were defined assuming 50 MWt is available for the production of hydrogen using the SI process. Three configurations for the intermediate loop were evaluated, including configurations for both direct and indirect power conversion systems. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to perform sensitivity studies to determine the influence of reactor outlet temperatures, intermediate loop working fluids (helium and molten salt), intermediate loop pressures, and intermediate loop piping lengths on NGNP performance and IHX operating conditions. The evaluation of NGNP performance included assessments of overall electric power conversion efficiency and estimated hydrogen production efficiency. Based on these evaluations, recommended IHX operating conditions are defined.

  3. Condition assessment of timber bridges. 2, Evaluation of several stress-wave tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Vatalaro; James P. Wacker; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of several stress-wave devices widely used for locating deteriorated areas in timber bridge members. Bridge components containing different levels of natural decay were tested using various devices. The specimens were then sawn (along their length) into slabs to expose their interior condition. The...

  4. An Evaluation of Specialist Mentoring for University Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Rebecca; James, Alana I.

    2018-01-01

    Mentoring is often recommended to universities as a way of supporting students with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and/or mental health conditions (MHC), but there is little literature on optimising this support. We used mixed-methods to evaluate mentees' and mentors' experiences of a specialist mentoring programme. Mentees experienced academic,…

  5. Preliminary evaluation of working conditions of in a module of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merayo Rodriguez, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, N.; Hernandez Perez, A.

    1998-01-01

    The assessment of radiological protection conditions is carried out in a hospital from the eastern part of Cuba. The work employed a method simulating operations carried out by technicians. Those making the largest contribution to dose are shown. Besides their main causes are also given while evaluating

  6. Performance evaluation of NCDOT w-beam guardrails under MASH TL-2 conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report summarizes the research efforts of using finite element modeling and simulations to evaluate the performance : of W-beam guardrails for different heights under MASH Test Level 2 (TL-2) and Test Level 3 (TL-3) impact conditions. A : litera...

  7. Adhesion of resin composites to biomaterials in dentistry : an evaluation of surface conditioning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, Mutlu

    2003-01-01

    Since previous investigations revealed that most clinical failures in adhesively luted ceramic restorations initiate from the cementation or internal surfaces, the study presented in Chapter II evaluated the effect of three different surface conditioning methods on the bond strength of a Bis-GMA

  8. Laboratory evaluation of 10 heat and moisture exchangers using simulated aeromedical evacuation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Huda S; Fecura, Stephen E; Baskin, Jonathan; Kalns, John E

    2011-06-01

    Heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs) are used for airway humidification in mechanically ventilated patients and have been evaluated only under hospital conditions. U.S. Air Force aeromedical evacuation transports are performed under rugged conditions further complicated by the cold and dry environment in military aircrafts, and HMEs are used to provide airway humidification for patients. This study evaluated 10 commercial HMEs using a test system that simulated aeromedical evacuation conditions. Although the American National Standards Institute recommends inspired air to be at an absolute humidity value of > or = 30 mg/L for mechanically ventilated patients, the highest absolute humidity by any HME was approximately 20 mg/L. Although none of the HMEs were able to maintain a temperature high enough to achieve the humidity standard of the American National Standards Institute, the clinical significance of this standard may be less important than the relative humidity maintained in the respired air, especially on evacuation flights of short duration.

  9. Evaluation Framework and Analyses for Thermal Energy Storage Integrated with Packaged Air Conditioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kung, F.; Deru, M.; Bonnema, E.

    2013-10-01

    Few third-party guidance documents or tools are available for evaluating thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with packaged air conditioning (AC), as this type of TES is relatively new compared to TES integrated with chillers or hot water systems. To address this gap, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a project to improve the ability of potential technology adopters to evaluate TES technologies. Major project outcomes included: development of an evaluation framework to describe key metrics, methodologies, and issues to consider when assessing the performance of TES systems integrated with packaged AC; application of multiple concepts from the evaluation framework to analyze performance data from four demonstration sites; and production of a new simulation capability that enables modeling of TES integrated with packaged AC in EnergyPlus. This report includes the evaluation framework and analysis results from the project.

  10. Aircraft Abnormal Conditions Detection, Identification, and Evaluation Using Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Azzawi, Dia

    Abnormal flight conditions play a major role in aircraft accidents frequently causing loss of control. To ensure aircraft operation safety in all situations, intelligent system monitoring and adaptation must rely on accurately detecting the presence of abnormal conditions as soon as they take place, identifying their root cause(s), estimating their nature and severity, and predicting their impact on the flight envelope. Due to the complexity and multidimensionality of the aircraft system under abnormal conditions, these requirements are extremely difficult to satisfy using existing analytical and/or statistical approaches. Moreover, current methodologies have addressed only isolated classes of abnormal conditions and a reduced number of aircraft dynamic parameters within a limited region of the flight envelope. This research effort aims at developing an integrated and comprehensive framework for the aircraft abnormal conditions detection, identification, and evaluation based on the artificial immune systems paradigm, which has the capability to address the complexity and multidimensionality issues related to aircraft systems. Within the proposed framework, a novel algorithm was developed for the abnormal conditions detection problem and extended to the abnormal conditions identification and evaluation. The algorithm and its extensions were inspired from the functionality of the biological dendritic cells (an important part of the innate immune system) and their interaction with the different components of the adaptive immune system. Immunity-based methodologies for re-assessing the flight envelope at post-failure and predicting the impact of the abnormal conditions on the performance and handling qualities are also proposed and investigated in this study. The generality of the approach makes it applicable to any system. Data for artificial immune system development were collected from flight tests of a supersonic research aircraft within a motion-based flight

  11. Evaluating Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Conditioned Office in a Temperate Climate Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Gallardo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in an office that uses natural ventilation as the main conditioning strategy; the office is located in Quito-Ecuador. The performance of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 and the traditional PMV model are compared with reports of thermal environment satisfaction surveys presented simultaneously to all occupants of the office to determine which of the two comfort models is most suitable to evaluate the thermal environment. The results indicate that office occupants have developed some degree of adaptation to the climatic conditions of the city where the office is located (which only demands heating operation, and tend to accept and even prefer lower operative temperatures than those considered optimum by applying the PMV model. This is an indication that occupants of naturally conditioned buildings are usually able to match their comfort temperature to their normal environment. Therefore, the application of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 seems like the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in naturally conditioned buildings, because it takes into consideration the adaptive principle that indicates that if a change occurs such as to produce discomfort, people tend to react in ways which restore their comfort.

  12. Affective learning in adults with intellectual disability: an experiment using evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, I; Treillet, V; Davies, S R

    2016-03-01

    Evaluative conditioning is a form of affective learning in which initially neutral stimuli acquire an affective value through association with negative or positive stimuli. Recent research shows an important role for cognitive resources in this type of learning. This form of affective learning has rarely been studied in intellectual disability (ID). We examined evaluative conditioning in 16 adults with mild to moderate ID compared to age- and gender-matched control participants. Neutral shapes and symbols were repeatedly paired with positive, neutral or negative unconditioned stimuli (faces or International Affective Picture System images). There was also an extinction phase. There was significant acquisition of conditioning in both groups. Stimuli paired with positive images were evaluated more positively, and stimuli paired with negative images were evaluated more negatively. Post-extinction ratings however show that these novel affective associations were not maintained by individuals with ID as much as by individuals in the control group. We conclude that ID modulates some aspects of affective learning but not necessarily initial preference acquisition. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A structural evaluation of the Shippingport reactor pressure vessel for transport impact conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witte, M.C.; Chou, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, is being decommissioned and dismantled. This government-leased property will be returned, in a radiologically safe condition, to its owner. All radioactive material is being removed from the Shippingport Station and transported for burial to the DOE Hanford Reservation in Richland, Washington. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) will be transported by barge to Hanford. This paper describes an evaluation of the structural response of the RPV to the normal and accident impact test conditions as required by the Code of Federal Regulations. 3 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  15. Multiple determinants of transfer of evaluative function after conditioning with free-operant schedules of reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dack, Charlotte; Reed, Phil; McHugh, Louise

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the four present experiments was to explore how different schedules of reinforcement influence schedule-induced behavior, their impact on evaluative ratings given to conditioned stimuli associated with each schedule through evaluative conditioning, and the transfer of these evaluations through derived stimulus networks. Experiment 1 compared two contrasting response reinforcement rules (variable ratio [VR], variable interval [VI]). Experiment 2 varied the response to reinforcement rule between two schedules but equated the outcome to response rate (differential reinforcement of high rate [DRH] vs. VR). Experiment 3 compared molar and molecular aspects of contingencies of reinforcement (tandem VIVR vs. tandem VRVI). Finally, Experiment 4 employed schedules that induced low rates of responding to determine whether, under these circumstances, responses were more sensitive to the molecular aspects of a schedule (differential reinforcement of low rate [DRL] vs. VI). The findings suggest that the transfer of evaluative functions is determined mainly by differences in response rate between the schedules and the molar aspects of the schedules. However, when neither schedule was based on a strong response reinforcement rule, the transfer of evaluative judgments came under the control of the molecular aspects of the schedule.

  16. Evaluation of Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L. Genotypes for Their Trait Associations under Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bashiri

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate sugar-beet genotypes for their trait associations, two separate RCBD experiments with three replications were conducted both under non-saline (normal and saline conditions at the Agricultural Research of Miandoab. Analysis of variance of the data collected showed that there were significant differences among genotypes for all traits studied under non-saline condition. But, differences of genotypes under saline condition were significant only for root yield, root potassium content, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Salinity stress, in this study, reduced root potassium content, root yield, sugar extraction coefficient, impure and pure (white sugar yields. Mean comparisons of genotypes indicated that root yield of all genotypes, under non-saline condition, were higher than those of under saline one. As whole, genotypes number 1 and 2 produced higher root yields, impure and pure sugar yields respectively, under both saline and non-saline conditions. Based on the results obtained it was revealed that regression coefficients for the traits under study were significant. Step-wise regression and path coefficient analyses also indicated that traits like root yield, pure sugar and root nitrogen contents highly affected white sugar yield under non-saline conditions.

  17. Development of a Visual Inspection Data Collection Tool for Evaluation of Fielded PV Module Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packard, C. E.; Wohlgemuth, J. H.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-08-01

    A visual inspection data collection tool for the evaluation of fielded photovoltaic (PV) modules has been developed to facilitate describing the condition of PV modules with regard to field performance. The proposed data collection tool consists of 14 sections, each documenting the appearance or properties of a part of the module. This report instructs on how to use the collection tool and defines each attribute to ensure reliable and valid data collection. This tool has been evaluated through the inspection of over 60 PV modules produced by more than 20 manufacturers and fielded at two different sites for varying periods of time. Aggregated data from such a single data collection tool has the potential to enable longitudinal studies of module condition over time, technology evolution, and field location for the enhancement of module reliability models.

  18. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.

    2012-01-01

    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  19. Startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations dissociate during backward fear conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Camilla C; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2017-05-01

    Blink startle magnitude is linearly modulated by affect such that, relative to neutral stimuli, startle magnitude is inhibited during pleasant stimuli and potentiated during unpleasant stimuli. Andreatta, Mühlberger, Yarali, Gerber, and Pauli (2010), however, report a dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations during backward conditioning, a procedure in which the unconditional stimulus precedes the conditional stimulus (CS). Relative to controls, startles elicited during the CS were inhibited, suggesting that the CS had acquired positive valence, but participants still evaluated the CS as unpleasant after the experiment. In Experiment 1, we aimed to replicate this dissociation using a trial-by-trial measure of CS valence to measure startle modulation and CS valence simultaneously during forward and backward differential fear conditioning. In Experiment 2, we examined whether early and late portions of the CS could acquire differential valence by presenting startle probes at early and late probe positions during the CS. In both experiments, the dissociation between startle modulation and explicit valence evaluations in backward conditioning replicated, with CS+ evaluated as less pleasant than CS-, but startles elicited during CS+ inhibited relative to CS-. In Experiment 2, we provide preliminary evidence that this inhibition was present early, but not late, during the CS+. The results replicate the dissociation between implicit and explicit CS valence reported by Andreatta et al. (2010) using a trial-by-trial measure of valence. We also provide preliminary evidence that this dissociation may occur because the implicit and explicit measures are recorded at different times during the CS presentation. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Spontaneous massive hemopneumothorax: Double trouble with a twist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milta Kuriakose

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemopneumothorax (SHP is observed in 3%–7% cases of spontaneous pneumothorax where the tear of an adhesion can lead to bleeding with associated hemothorax. This condition has been reported in patients with hemophilia, sarcoidosis, congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, systemic lupus erythematosus, etc., Here, we describe an unusual case of acute massive SHP in a 62-year-old male who underwent a percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA and presented with worsening dyspnea over the next 3 days. On evaluation, he had a massive hemopneumothorax which was considered to be secondary to the use of anticoagulants during the PTCA procedure. Pleural fluid analysis revealed frank blood and was consistent with the diagnosis of hemothorax. Surprisingly, the pleural fluid cytology revealed malignant cells. As the patient had a normal chest X-ray 3 days ago, thoracoscopic pleural biopsy was taken which confirmed the diagnosis of an epithelioid mesothelioma. Although post-PTCA or mesothelioma-associated hemothorax has been rarely reported, these two conditions have not been associated with SHP. Since the patient had no prior clinicoradiological features of mesothelioma, the procedure, and the anticoagulants probably contributed to the massive and rapid accumulation of blood. The presence of small amount of air added further confusion to the dual etiology and has not been described earlier.

  1. AN EVALUATION OF CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES FOR LOW-VOLTAGE ELECTRIC CABLES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LOFARO, R.J.; GROVE, E.; SOO, P.

    2000-01-01

    Aging of systems and components in nuclear power plants is a well known occurrence that must be managed to ensure the continued safe operation of these plants. Much of the degradation due to aging is controlled through periodic maintenance and/or component replacement. However, there are components that do not receive periodic maintenance or monitoring once they are installed; electric cables are such a component. To provide a means of monitoring the condition of electric cables, research is ongoing to evaluate promising condition monitoring (CM) techniques that can be used in situ to monitor cable condition and predict remaining life. While several techniques are promising, each has limitations that must be considered in its application. This paper discusses the theory behind several of the promising cable CM techniques being studied, along with their effectiveness for monitoring aging degradation in typical cable insulation materials, such as cross-linked polyethylene and ethylene propylene rubber. Successes and limitations of each technique are also presented

  2. Spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, ZhiRui; Zhang, ZhenWei; Xu, DaZhi; Zhao, Nan; Sun, ChangPu

    2018-04-01

    We study the spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the gauge couplings between the center-of-mass and the relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originate from the symmetries of the ring geometry and the corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. In particular, such spontaneous decoherence does not occur at all at the thermodynamic limit because the nontrivial boundary conditions become the trivial Born-von Karman boundary conditions when the perimeter of the ring container tends to infinity. Our investigation shows that a thermal macroscopic object with certain symmetries has a chance for its quantum properties to degrade even without applying an external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment.

  3. Drug-induced taste and smell alterations: a case/non-case evaluation of an italian database of spontaneous adverse drug reaction reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuccori, Marco; Lapi, Francesco; Testi, Arianna; Ruggiero, Elisa; Moretti, Ugo; Vannacci, Alfredo; Bonaiuti, Roberto; Antonioli, Luca; Fornai, Matteo; Giustarini, Giulio; Scollo, Carla; Corona, Tiberio; Ferrazin, Fernanda; Sottosanti, Laura; Blandizzi, Corrado

    2011-10-01

    The frequency and clinical features of drug-related taste and/or smell impairments are currently unclear. The aim of this study was to identify major drug classes associated with taste and smell alterations reported to the Italian spontaneous adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting database. The association between drug and altered taste or smell was investigated by case/non-case methodology. The reporting odds ratio (ROR) was used as a measure of disproportionality. Cases were defined as patients with at least one ADR related to taste or smell impairments. The non-cases included all patients without any ADRs related to taste or smell alterations. According to the selection criteria, 52 166 reports were included in the analysis. Overall, 182 cases of drug-related taste and/or smell dysfunctions were identified. Statistically significant unadjusted RORs were reported for macrolides (n = 31; 7.1; 95% CI 4.8, 10.5), terbinafine (the only drug reported within the group of antimycotics belonging to the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical class D01AE) [n = 17; 76.4; 95% CI 44.0, 132.6], fluoroquinolones (n = 15; 1.7; 95% CI 1.0, 2.8) and protein kinase inhibitors (n = 10; 4.0; 95% CI 2.1, 7.7). When RORs were adjusted for sex and age category, the disproportion remained statistically significant for all of the previously mentioned drug classes. Taste and/or smell abnormalities are common, sometimes unexpected and often persistent complaints of patients during pharmacological treatments. Physicians should be aware of the impact of these ADRs on patients' quality of life.

  4. Condition Evaluation of Storage Equipment Based on Improved D-S Evidence Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiao-yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment and prediction of the storage equipment’s condition is always a difficult aspect in PHM technology. The current Condition evaluation of equipment lacks of the state level, and a single test data can’t reflect the change of equipment’s state. To solve the problem, this paper proposes an evaluation method based on improved D-S evidence theory. Firstly, use analytic hierarchy process (AHP to establish a hierarchical structure model of equipment and divide the qualified state into 4 grades. Then respectively compare the test data with the last test value, historical test mean value and standard value. And the triangular fuzzy function to calculate the index membership degree, combined with D-S evidence theory to fuse information from multiple sources, to achieve such equipment real-time state assessment. Finally, the model is used to a servo mechanism. The result shows that this method has a good performance in condition evaluation for the storage equipment

  5. Radiation resistance of polymer materials. Degradation evaluation by accelerated testing for application condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguchi, Tadao; Tamura, Kiyotoshi; Sorimachi, Masami

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents re-evaluated radiation resistance property data of polymer materials, which had been tested in past times in TAKASAKI Quantum Beam Science Directorate, for the future study of ageing evaluation of low voltage electric cable insulation materials used in light-water nuclear reactors. The radiation resistance of 25 types of plastics and rubbers materials applied in practical environments was evaluated by the accelerated testing of gamma-ray irradiation under oxygen pressure, and was compared with the radiation resistance determined from the traditional testing by irradiation with a high dose rate in air. The polymer materials were formulated to be similar or equivalent to practical materials, and the most of formulation (chemical compounds and quantities) were described. For all materials, the tensile properties (elongation at break, ultimate strength, 100% or 200% modulus), electric resistivity, gel-fraction, and density were measured after irradiation in oxidation conditions and irradiation in air with a high dose rate (non-oxidation conditions). The data of relations between each properties and total dose at various conditions were compiled, and the relations among the changes of mechanical properties, electrical properties, and radiation induced chemical reactions were discussed. (author)

  6. Evaluation and visualization of multiaxial fatigue behavior under random non-proportional loading condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Morishita

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In cyclic multiaxial stress/strain condition under nonproportional loading in which principal direction of stress/strain are changed in a cycle, it becomes difficult to analyze stress/strain ranges because of complexity of multiaxial stress/strain states depending on time in cycles. In order to evaluate stress/strain simply and suitably under non-proportional loading, Itoh and Sakane have proposed a method called as IS-method and a strain parameter for life evaluation under non-proportional loading NP. In the method, 6-components of stress/strain are converted to an equivalent stress/strain indicating the amplitude and the direction of principal stress/strain as a function of time as well as an intensity of loading nonproportionality fNP. Based on IS-method, the authors also have developed a tool which enables to analyze multiaxial stress/strain condition with the nonproportionality of loading history and evaluate failure life under nonproportional multiaxial loading. The tool indicates the analyzed results on monitor and users can understand visually not only variation of the stress/strain conditions but also non-proportionality during the cycle, which helps the design of material strength.

  7. Evaluating the performance of ENVI-met model in diurnal cycles for different meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Juan A.; Arrizabalaga, Jon

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas are known to modify meteorological variables producing important differences in small spatial scales (i.e. microscale). These affect human thermal comfort conditions and the dispersion of pollutants, especially those emitted inside the urban area, which finally influence quality of life and the use of public open spaces. In this study, the diurnal evolution of meteorological variables measured in four urban spaces is compared with the results provided by ENVI-met (v 4.0). Measurements were carried out during 3 days with different meteorological conditions in Bilbao in the north of the Iberian Peninsula. The evaluation of the model accuracy (i.e. the degree to which modelled values approach measured values) was carried out with several quantitative difference metrics. The results for air temperature and humidity show a good agreement of measured and modelled values independently of the regional meteorological conditions. However, in the case of mean radiant temperature and wind speed, relevant differences are encountered highlighting the limitation of the model to estimate these meteorological variables precisely during diurnal cycles, in the considered evaluation conditions (sites and weather).

  8. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martin, Gregory D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hurtt, James [Florida Power and Light Company

    2017-10-03

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and voltage/frequency ride-through, among others. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental evaluation on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and its effect on abnormal grid condition response. The evaluation examined the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. Testing results indicated a wide variance in the performance of GSF enabled inverters to various test cases.

  9. Performance evaluation of polycrystalline solar photovoltaic module in weather conditions of Maiduguri, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Mustapha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Many Solar PV modules exhibit significant loss in their expected performance due to variations in weather conditions such as ambient temperature and solar irradiance which result in inaccurate prediction of the module performance in the field. Obviously, the Standard Test Conditions (STC and the Nominal Operating Cell Temperatures (NOCT do not represent real operating conditions of PV module at the site of installation. This paper evaluates the performance of commercially used polycrystalline solar photovoltaic module KD 315 under Maiduguri-Nigeria weather conditions. The model of the PV module was implemented using a MATLAB program and the model parameters are evaluated using daily data of temperature and solar irradiance obtained from Maiduguri for a period of one year. Simulation results confirm that current generated is directly proportional to solar irradiance and is almost independent of temperature. The voltage of the module decreases by about 0.5% per degree centigrade temperature increase. It was found that the power produced by the panel is dependent on the solar irradiance and ambient temperature. The manufacturer’s maximum power of 315 W was achieved during the sunniest month. Thus the photovoltaic module exhibited good performance in the region under study.

  10. Model development to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Tamotsu; Miki, Takahito; Inagaki, Manabu; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yui, Mikazu

    1999-02-01

    Deep underground is thought to be a potential place for high level radioactive waste repository. It is believed that the chemical condition of deep groundwater is generally anoxic and reducing. However, during construction and operation phase of repository, oxygen will diffuse some distance into the surrounding rock mass, and diffused oxygen may remain in the surrounding rock mass even after repository closure. In such a case, the transitional redox condition around the drift is not preferable in view point of safety assessment for HLW disposal. Hence, it is very important to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. This report describes the status of model development to evaluate evolution of redox conditions in the near field. We use the commercial solver to equate the mathematical equations which mean evolution of redox condition in the near field. The target area modeled in this report are near field rock mass and engineered barrier (buffer). In case of near field rock mass, we consider the following two geological media: (1) porous media for sedimentary rock, (2) fractured media for crystalline rock. In case of the engineered barrier, we regard the buffer as porous media. We simulate the behavior of dissolved oxygen and Fe 2+ in groundwater during evolution of redox condition in the near field rock mass and the buffer. In case of the porous media, we consider diffusion of chemical species as dominant transport mechanism. On the other hand, in case of the fractured media, we consider diffusion of chemical species in rock matrix and advection of that (only dissolved oxygen considered in this model) in fracture as transport mechanism. We also use the rate law of iron oxidation reaction and dissolution of Fe-bearing minerals in this model besides. (author)

  11. Surgical Outcome in Patients with Spontaneous Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rendevski Vladimir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was to evaluate the surgical outcome in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH after surgical intervention, in respect to the initial clinical conditions, age, sex, hemispheric side and anatomic localization of ICH. Thirty-eight surgically treated patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage were included in the study. The surgical outcome was evaluated three months after the initial admission, according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS. The surgical treatment was successful in 14 patients (37%, whereas it was unsuccessful in 24 patients (63%. We have detected a significant negative correlation between the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS scores on admission and the GOS scores after three months, suggesting worse neurological outcome in patients with initially lower GCS scores. The surgical outcome in patients with ICH was not affected by the sex, the hemispheric side and the anatomic localization of ICH, but the age of the patients was estimated as a significant factor for their functional outcome, with younger patients being more likely to be treated successfully. The surgical outcome is affected from the initial clinical state of the patients and their age. The treatment of ICH is still an unsolved clinical problem and the development of new surgical techniques with larger efficiency in the evacuation of the hematoma is necessary, thus making a minimal damage to the normal brain tissue, as well as decreasing the possibility of postoperative bleeding.

  12. Individual differences in spontaneous analogical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J

    2017-05-01

    Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. In two experiments, we systematically compared the effect of augmenting verbal descriptions of the source with animations or static diagrams. Solution rates to Duncker's radiation problem were measured across varying source presentation conditions, and participants' understanding of the relevant source material was assessed. The pattern of transfer was best fit by a moderated mediation model: the positive impact of fluid intelligence on spontaneous transfer was mediated by its influence on source comprehension; however, this path was in turn modulated by provision of a supplemental animation via its influence on comprehension of the source. Animated source depictions were most beneficial in facilitating spontaneous transfer for those participants with low scores on the fluid intelligence measure.

  13. The results of the Campaign for evaluating sphygmomanometers accuracy and their physical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mion Jr Décio

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the sphygmomanometers calibration accuracy and the physical conditions of the cuff-bladder, bulb, pump, and valve. METHODS: Sixty hundred and forty five aneroid sphygmomanometers were evaluated, 521 used in private practice and 124 used in hospitals. Aneroid manometers were tested against a properly calibrated mercury manometer and were considered calibrated when the error was <=3mm Hg. The physical conditions of the cuffs-bladder, bulb, pump, and valve were also evaluated. RESULTS: Of the aneroid sphygmomanometers tested, 51% of those used in private practice and 56% of those used in hospitals were found to be not accurately calibrated. Of these, the magnitude of inaccuracy ranged from 4 to 8mm Hg in 70% and 51% of the devices, respectively. The problems found in the cuffs - bladders, bulbs, pumps, and valves of the private practice and hospital devices were bladder damage (34% vs. 21%, respectively, holes/leaks in the bulbs (22% vs. 4%, respectively, and rubber aging (15% vs. 12%, respectively. Of the devices tested, 72% revealed at least one problem interfering with blood pressure measurement accuracy. CONCLUSION: Most of the manometers evaluated, whether used in private practice or in hospitals, were found to be inaccurate and unreliable, and their use may jeopardize the diagnosis and treatment of arterial hypertension.

  14. Neural network ensemble based supplier evaluation model in line with nuclear safety conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yonggang; Chang Baosheng

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear safety is the most critical target for nuclear power plant operation. Besides the rigid operation procedures established, evaluation of suppliers working with plants can be another important aspects. Selection and evaluation of suppliers can be classified with qualitative analysis and quantitative management. The indicators involved are coupled with each other in a very complicated manner, therefore the relevant data show the strong characteristic of non-linearity. The article is based on the research and analysis of the real conditions of the Daya Bay nuclear power plant operation management. Through study and analysis of the information home and abroad, and with reference to the neural network ensemble technology, the supplier evaluation system and model are established as illustrated within the paper, thus to heighten objectivity of the supplier selection. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iriya, K.; Fujii, K.; Kubo, H.

    2002-02-01

    The chemical conditions of TRU waste repository were estimated as alkaline conditions effected by cementitious materials. And, some TRU wastes include soluble nitrate salt, we have to consider the repository conditions might be high ionic strength condition leaching of nitrate salt. In this study, experimental studies were carried out to evaluate hydraulic conductivities of bentonite and rock under hyper alkaline and nitrate conditions. The followings results were obtained for bentonite. 1) In the immersion experiments of bentonite in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, the disappearance of montmorillonite of bentonite was observed and CSH formation was found after 30 days. In hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate, minerals at θ=37 nm by XRD was identified. 2) Significant effects of hyper alkaline on hydraulic conductivity of compacted bentonite were not observed. However, hydraulic conductivities of hyper alkaline fluid with nitrate and ion exchanged bentonite increased. In hyper alkaline with nitrate, more higher hydraulic conductivities of exchanged bentonite were measured. The followings results were obtained for rock. 1) In the immersion experiments of crushed tuff in hyper alkaline fluids with and without nitrate, CSH and CASH phases were observed. 2) The hydraulic conductivity of tuff in hyper alkaline fluids decreased gradually. Finally, hyper alkaline flow in tuff stopped after 2 months and hyper alkaline flow with nitrate stopped shorter than without nitrate. In the results of analysis of tuff after experiment, we could identified secondary minerals, but we couldn't find the clogging evidence of pores in tuff by secondary minerals. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Cichoric Acid of Echinacea purpurea Extract under Different Ecological Conditions in Semnan Province Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elahe Rostami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Echinacea purpurea is an herbaceous perennial plant as members of the Asteraceae family. It is one the important medicinal plant in pharmacy industrial. Active substances of Echinaceae are amplifier of body's immune system and antivirus. Echinacea is not native to Iran. The phytochemical traits of medicinal plants depend on ecological conditions involving growing areas, climate conditions; various grow stages and genetic modifications. The aim of this study was the evaluation of cichoric acid of E. purpurea extract in different ecological conditions in Semnan, Iran. Dormancy in seeds was broken by treating them with strafication in 4 °C for 48 h, was grown in nursery beds for autumn and early winter and transfered to four areas with different ecological conditions in late winter. Chashm, Ahuvan, Semnan and Foladmahale were chosen for this experiment. The spacing of plantlet was about 25 × 45 cm in the field. After 2- 3 months, aerial parts of the plants collected in all areas and extract samples were prepared and characterized using high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The components of a basic HPLC system were shown significant values of the cichoric acid in plants under four habitats. The level of cichoric acid in one condition was more than standards level that reported in another references. In addition, ecological diversities have significant impacts the quantity of cichoric acid in E. purpurea.   

  17. Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation associated with tonsillitis

    OpenAIRE

    Shunmugam, Meenalochani; Poonnoose, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Atlantoaxial subluxation is a rare condition and requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose and treat in order to avoid long-term sequelae. Here, we present a case of late presentation of a nontraumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint or atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. A 17-year-old girl presented 3 months after the onset of nonspecific upper limb sensory symptoms which eventually settled spontaneously. Initial conservative management by the general practitioner had no e...

  18. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  19. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  20. Identification of Pavement Distress Types and Pavement Condition Evaluation Based on Network Level Inspection for Jazan City Road Network

    OpenAIRE

    M Mubaraki

    2014-01-01

    The first step in establishing a pavement management system (PMS) is road network identification. An important feature of a PMS is the ability to determine the current condition of a road network and predict its future condition. Pavement condition evaluation may involve structure, roughness, surface distress, and safety evaluation. In this study, a pavement distress condition rating procedure was used to achieve the objectives of this study. The main objectives of this study were to identify...

  1. A probability evaluation method of early deterioration condition for the critical components of wind turbine generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y.; Li, H.; Liao, X

    2016-01-01

    This study determines the early deterioration condition of critical components for a wind turbine generator system (WTGS). Due to the uncertainty nature of the fluctuation and intermittence of wind, early deterioration condition evaluation poses a challenge to the traditional vibration...... method of early deterioration condition for critical components based only on temperature characteristic parameters. First, the dynamic threshold of deterioration degree function was proposed by analyzing the operational data between temperature and rotor speed. Second, a probability evaluation method...... of early deterioration condition was presented. Finally, two cases showed the validity of the proposed probability evaluation method in detecting early deterioration condition and in tracking their further deterioration for the critical components....

  2. Spontaneous mutation rates and the rate-doubling dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Borstel, R.C.; Moustaccki, E.; Latarjet, R.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of radiation required to double the frequency of mutations or tumours over the rate of those that occur spontaneously is called the rate-doubling dose. An equivalent concept has been proposed for exposure to other environmental mutagens. The doubling dose concept is predicated on the assumption that all human populations have the same spontaneous mutation rate, and that this spontaneous mutation rate is known. It is now established for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that numerous genes control the spontaneous mutation rate, and it is likely that the same is true for human cells as well. Given that the accepted mode of evolution of human populatons is from small, isolated groups of individuals, it seems likely that each population would have a different spontaneous mutation rate. Given that a minimum of twenty genes control or affect the spontaneous mutation rate, and that each of these in turn is susceptible to spontaneously arising or environmentally induced mutations, it seems likely that every individual within a population (except for siblings from identical multiple births) will have a unique spontaneous mutation rate. If each individual in a population does have a different spontaneous mutation rate, the doubling dose concept, in rigorous terms, is fallacious. Therefore, as with other concepts of risk evaluation, the doubling dose concept is subject to criticism. Nevertheless, until we know individual spontaneous mutation rates with precision, and can evaluate risks based on this information, the doubling dose concept has a heuristic value and is needed for practical assessment of risks for defined populations. (author)

  3. Systematic mapping review about costs and economic evaluations of skin conditions and diseases in the aged.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichterfeld-Kottner, Andrea; Hahnel, Elisabeth; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2017-02-01

    Skin conditions and dermatological diseases associated with advanced age (e.g. fungal infection, dry skin and itch) receive increasingly attention in clinical practice and research. Cost and economic evaluations are important sources to inform priority setting and ressource allocation decisions in healthcare. The economics of skin conditions in aged populations has not been systematically reviewed so far. The aim of this mapping review was to summarize the economic evidence of selected skin conditions in the aged (65 + years). A mapping literature review and evidence summary was conducted. Searches were conducted in data bases Medline and Embase via OVID. Cinahl was searched using EBSCO. References lists of potential eligible studies, reviews, guidelines or other sources were screened for additional literature. For evaluation of methodological quality of full economic analyses the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria (CHEC) checklist was used. Database searches resulted in 1388 records. A total of 270 articles were read in full-text. Thirty-five publications were finally included in the data analysis reporting 38 economic analyses. Ten cost of illness analyses and 26 cost-effectiveness analyses reporting about pressure ulcers, skin tears, pressure ulcers, incontinence associated dermatitis and intertrigo/contact dermatitis/candidiasis treatment and prevention and onychomycosis testing were identified. Limited evidence indicated that low air loss beds were more cost effective than standard beds for prevention of pressure ulcers. Standardized skin care regimens seem to lower the incidence of pressure ulcers, skin tears and IAD but a cost saving effect was not always observed. Findings of this mapping review indicate that there is a paucity of high quality evidence regarding the economic impact of age-associated skin conditions and diseases. Substantial heterogeneity in terms of study design, evaluation perspective, time period, and way of cost estimation was

  4. Degradation and performance evaluation of PV module in desert climate conditions with estimate uncertainty in measuring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezzani Amor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of photovoltaic (PV module is affected by outdoor conditions. Outdoor testing consists installing a module, and collecting electrical performance data and climatic data over a certain period of time. It can also include the study of long-term performance under real work conditions. Tests are operated in URAER located in desert region of Ghardaïa (Algeria characterized by high irradiation and temperature levels. The degradation of PV module with temperature and time exposure to sunlight contributes significantly to the final output from the module, as the output reduces each year. This paper presents a comparative study of different methods to evaluate the degradation of PV module after a long term exposure of more than 12 years in desert region and calculates uncertainties in measuring. Firstly, this evaluation uses three methods: Visual inspection, data given by Solmetric PVA-600 Analyzer translated at Standard Test Condition (STC and based on the investigation results of the translation equations as ICE 60891. Secondly, the degradation rates calculated for all methods. Finally, a comparison between a degradation rates given by Solmetric PVA-600 analyzer, calculated by simulation model and calculated by two methods (ICE 60891 procedures 1, 2. We achieved a detailed uncertainty study in order to improve the procedure and measurement instrument.

  5. Kinetics of Uranium(VI) Desorption from Contaminated Sediments: Effect of Geochemical Conditions and Model Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shi, Zhenqing; Zachara, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Stirred-flow cell experiments were performed to investigate the kinetics of uranyl (U(VI)) desorption from a contaminated sediment collected from the Hanford 300 Area at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site, Washington. Three influent solutions of variable pH, Ca and carbonate concentrations that affected U(VI) aqueous and surface speciation were used under dynamic flow conditions to evaluate the effect of geochemical conditions on the rate of U(VI) desorption. The measured rate of U(VI) desorption varied with solution chemical composition that evolved as a result of thermodynamic and kinetic interactions between the influent solutions and sediment. The solution chemical composition that led to a lower equilibrium U(VI) sorption to the solid phase yielded a faster desorption rate. The experimental results were used to evaluate a multi-rate, surface complexation model (SCM) that has been proposed to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in the Hanford sediment that contained complex sorbed U(VI) species in mass transfer limited domains. The model was modified and supplemented by including multi-rate, ion exchange reactions to describe the geochemical interactions between the solutions and sediment. With the same set of model parameters, the modified model reasonably well described the evolution of major ions and the rates of U(VI) desorption under variable geochemical and flow conditions, implying that the multi-rate SCM is an effective way to describe U(VI) desorption kinetics in subsurface sediments

  6. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  7. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  8. Sustainability Of Electricity Supply Technologies under German Conditions: A Comparative Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S; Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Burgherr, P.; Schenler, W.; Bauer, C.

    2004-12-01

    On behalf of the International Committee on Nuclear Technology (ILK) the Paul Scherrer Institut carried out a comparative study addressing the sustainability of electricity supply technologies operating under German-specific conditions. The general objective of this analysis was to provide a support for the formulation of ILK position on the sustainability of various electricity supply technologies, with special emphasis on nuclear energy. The evaluation covers selected current fossil, nuclear and renewable technologies, which are representative for the average conditions in Germany. Two methods of indicator aggregation were employed, i.e. estimation of total (internal and extemal) costs and Multi-criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Use of MCDA is motivated by acknowledgement of the role of value judgements in decision-making. Both total costs and MCDA-based technology-specific total scores are useful comparative indicators of sustainability. Sustainability perspective implies a balanced (equal) importance assignment to economic, ecological and social aspects. In summary, this study provides a framework for systematic evaluation of sustainability of energy systems. Refinements of the methodology and specific indicators are feasible. Options for future applications include direct involvement of stakeholders, and evaluations of future technologies and of supply scenarios combining the various candidate technologies. Tools supporting such analyses have been developed by PSI and can be adjusted to the needs of country-specific applications. (author)

  9. Evaluation of new reference genes in papaya for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Zhu

    Full Text Available Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR is a preferred method for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression studies. Appropriate application of RT-qPCR requires accurate normalization though the use of reference genes. As no single reference gene is universally suitable for all experiments, thus reference gene(s validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. To date, only a few studies on reference genes have been done in other plants but none in papaya. In the present work, we selected 21 candidate reference genes, and evaluated their expression stability in 246 papaya fruit samples using three algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. The samples consisted of 13 sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, different storage temperatures, different cultivars, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, modified atmosphere packaging, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP treatment, hot water treatment, biotic stress and hormone treatment. Our results demonstrated that expression stability varied greatly between reference genes and that different suitable reference gene(s or combination of reference genes for normalization should be validated according to the experimental conditions. In general, the internal reference genes EIF (Eukaryotic initiation factor 4A, TBP1 (TATA binding protein 1 and TBP2 (TATA binding protein 2 genes had a good performance under most experimental conditions, whereas the most widely present used reference genes, ACTIN (Actin 2, 18S rRNA (18S ribosomal RNA and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were not suitable in many experimental conditions. In addition, two commonly used programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were proved sufficient for the validation. This work provides the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for accurate transcript normalization in papaya under different experimental

  10. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Low Impact Development Practices (LIDs) under Various Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, M.; Jaber, F. H.

    2014-12-01

    Stormwater problems from urban development have been occurring in recent years in the United States. Low Impact Development practices (LIDs) have been used as an alternative stormwater management approach in urban areas. The effects of LIDs on hydrology and water quality have been indicated to be positive through much of research, showing the decrease of surface runoff volumes and pollutant loadings. However, LIDs can cause different effectiveness under a variety of conditions. In this study, the effectiveness of LIDs was assessed under various urban planning (a compact high-density urban type (UHD), a conventional medium-density urban type (UMD), and a conservational medium-density urban type (UMC)) and under various LIDs conditions (types, locations, and percent allocations of LIDs) for surface runoff, nitrate, and total phosphorus to evaluate the effectiveness of LIDs for these conditions at a development scale. Rain gardens, rainwater harvesting systems, and permeable pavements were considered for simulations. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used and model development was performed to simulate the LIDs considered. A manual optimization was used to identify the LIDs conditions that meet both targeted reduction amounts and minimal cost. The effectiveness of LIDs was evaluated for the three urban land uses and for the optimized LIDs conditions. The study demonstrated different effectiveness of LIDs under various conditions considered. Under the condition of the urban land uses, the largest reduction by LIDs occurred in the order of following land uses for all variables: in UMD land use > in UMC land use > in UHD land use. Among post-LIDs scenarios, the UHD land use represented low values for surface runoff and nitrate and the UMD land use for TP. For the LIDs optimization, the various combinations of type, location, and percent allocation for each variable changed the effectiveness of LIDs and/or caused the same effectiveness of LIDs. This study can

  11. Distributed practice can boost evaluative conditioning by increasing memory for the stimulus pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Jasmin; Gast, Anne

    2017-09-01

    When presenting a neutral stimulus (CS) in close temporal and spatial proximity to a positive or negative stimulus (US) the former is often observed to adopt the valence of the latter, a phenomenon named evaluative conditioning (EC). It is already well established that under most conditions, contingency awareness is important for an EC effect to occur. In addition to that, some findings suggest that awareness of the stimulus pairs is not only relevant during the learning phase, but that it is also relevant whether memory for the pairings is still available during the measurement phase. As previous research has shown that memory is better after temporally distributed than after contiguous (massed) repetitions, it seems plausible that also EC effects are moderated by distributed practice manipulations. This was tested in the current studies. In two experiments with successful distributed practice manipulations on memory, we show that also the magnitude of the EC effect was larger for pairs learned under spaced compared to massed conditions. Both effects, on memory and on EC, are found after a within-participant and after a between-participant manipulation. However, we did not find significant differences in the EC effect for different conditions of spaced practice. These findings are in line with the assumption that EC is based on similar processes as memory for the pairings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Study on the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation applied in wind turbine farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Qian, Zheng; Tian, Shuangshu

    2016-01-01

    The condition detection of wind turbine is always an important issue which attract more and more attentions because of the rapid development of wind farm. And the on-line data analysis is also difficult since a lot of measured data is collected. In this paper, the abnormal data rejection and normal condition evaluation of wind turbine is processed. At first, since there are large amounts of abnormal data in the normal operation of wind turbine, which is probably caused by fault, maintenance downtime, power-limited operation and failure of wind speed sensor, a novel method is proposed to reject abnormal data in order to make more accurate analysis for the wind turbine condition. The core principle of this method is to fit the wind power curves by using the scatter diagram. The data outside the area covered by wind power curves is the abnormal data. The calculation shows that the abnormal data is rejected effectively. After the rejection, the vibration signals of wind turbine bearing which is a critical component are analyzed and the relationship between the vibration characteristic value and the operating condition of wind turbine is discussed. It will provide powerful support for the accurate fault analysis of wind turbine.

  13. Experimental Evaluation of Grid Support Enabled PV Inverter Response to Abnormal Grid Conditions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Austin; Martin, Gregory; Hurtt, James

    2017-05-08

    As revised interconnection standards for grid-tied photovoltaic (PV) inverters address new advanced grid support functions (GSFs), there is increasing interest in inverter performance in the case of abnormal grid conditions. The growth of GSF-enabled inverters has outpaced the industry standards that define their operation, although recently published updates to UL1741 with Supplement SA define test conditions for GSFs such as volt-var control, frequency-watt control, and volt-age/frequency ride-through, among others. A comparative experimental evaluation has been completed on four commercially available, three-phase PV inverters in the 24.0-39.8 kVA power range on their GSF capability and the effect on abnormal grid condition response. This study examines the impact particular GSF implementations have on run-on times during islanding conditions, peak voltages in load rejection overvoltage scenarios, and peak currents during single-phase and three-phase fault events for individual inverters. This report reviews comparative test data, which shows that GSFs have little impact on the metrics of interest in most tests cases.

  14. Evaluation of steam sterilization conditions for [{sup 18}F]fludeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Priscilla F.; Nascimento, Leonardo T.; Valente, Eduardo S.; Silva, Juliana B.; Silveira, Marina B.; Ferreira, Soraya Z., E-mail: somafe@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Pesquisa e Producao de Radiofarmacos

    2011-07-01

    [{sup 18}F]Flu deoxyglucose ({sup 18}FDG) is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography. Sterile filtration of the final product into sterile vials using 0.22 {mu}m filter membrane is usually adopted for {sup 18}FDG. However, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines recommend heat sterilization as the method of choice to ensure sterility of pharmaceutical preparations. The aim of this study was to essay different steam sterilization conditions in order to choose the best one for {sup 18}FDG. Three different sterilization conditions were essayed. The first one at 121 deg C for 15 minutes, the second one at 135 deg C for 3.5 minutes and the third one at 133 deg C for 2 minutes. {sup 18}FDG pH-formulation was kept around 6.0. At the end of autoclave cycles, {sup 18}FDG sterility was evaluated by direct inoculation of {sup 18}FDG in culture media and radiochemical purity was determined by TLC and HPLC. Results demonstrated that all essayed conditions were able to ensure {sup 18}FDG sterility, but caused a decrease in radiochemical purity of {sup 18}FDG. Autoclave cycle at 133 deg C for 2 minutes was the best essayed condition for {sup 18}FDG terminal sterilization, once it provided the greater radiochemical purity value and took less time. {sup 18}FDG was able to meet specifications after autoclave cycles, what supports the application of steam sterilization in routine {sup 18}FDG production, in compliance with GMP. (author)

  15. An Evaluation of Respondent Conditioning Procedures to Decrease Barking in an Animal Shelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Wade Payne

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A common problem behavior in animal shelters is excessive noise from barking, which can regularly exceed 100dBs. Noise levels in animal shelters are correlated with increased stress in dogs, which may lead to increased problem behavior and a decrease in adoption. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the use of respondent conditioning procedures to reduce barking noise level in an animal shelter by pairing a door chime with edible items. Following a baseline and neutral stimulus phase, the door chime was paired with edible items over a period of three weeks. Following this pairing phase, the pairing was stopped to determine if the door chime would act as a conditioned stimulus and reduce barking. These procedures were replicated following an additional baseline phase. Overall, the procedure was effective in reducing the noise level of the kennel area as compared to baseline levels. Implications and future research areas are discussed

  16. Evaluation of Endocrine Disrupting Compounds Migration in Household Food Containers under Domestic Use Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Gómara, Belén

    2017-08-09

    Plasticizers and plastic monomers are commonly used in packaging. Most of them act as endocrine disrupters and are susceptible to migrate from the packaging to the food. We evaluated the migration of endocrine disrupting compounds from three different household food containers to four food simulants under different domestic treatments and for different periods of time, with the aim of reproducing real domestic conditions. The results showed that the migration to the simulants increased with the storage time, up to more than 50 times in certain cases. The heating power seemed to increase the migration processes (up to more than 30 times), and reusing containers produced an increase or decrease of the concentrations depending on the container type and the simulant. The concentrations found were lower than other concentrations reported (always less than 4000 pg/mL, down to less than 20 pg/mL), which might be a consequence of the domestic conditions used.

  17. Evaluation of power conditioning architectures for energy production enhancement in thermoelectric generator systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min

    2014-01-01

    of implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A 50-W TEG system composed of two TEG modules is built and tested. Experimental results show that the proposed hybrid power conditioning architecture generates up to 5% more energy for a temperature difference between the two......A large-scale thermoelectric generator (TEG) system has an unbalanced temperature distribution among the TEG modules, which leads to power mismatch among the modules and decreases the power output of the TEG system. To maximize the power output and minimize the power conversion loss, a centralized......- distributed hybrid power conditioning architecture is presented, analyzed, and evaluated for a TEG system. The novel architecture is a combination of a conventional centralized architecture and a fully distributed architecture. By using the proposed architecture, most of the harvested power is processed...

  18. Evaluation of need for ontologies to manage domain content for the Reportable Conditions Knowledge Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilbeck, Karen L; Lipstein, Julie; McGarvey, Sunanda; Staes, Catherine J

    2014-01-01

    The Reportable Condition Knowledge Management System (RCKMS) is envisioned to be a single, comprehensive, authoritative, real-time portal to author, view and access computable information about reportable conditions. The system is designed for use by hospitals, laboratories, health information exchanges, and providers to meet public health reporting requirements. The RCKMS Knowledge Representation Workgroup was tasked to explore the need for ontologies to support RCKMS functionality. The workgroup reviewed relevant projects and defined criteria to evaluate candidate knowledge domain areas for ontology development. The use of ontologies is justified for this project to unify the semantics used to describe similar reportable events and concepts between different jurisdictions and over time, to aid data integration, and to manage large, unwieldy datasets that evolve, and are sometimes externally managed.

  19. Evaluation of work capacity of laboratory animals under the conditions of toxicologic experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedotov, V.P.; Moskalev, O.S.; Il'in, B.N.

    1989-01-01

    Experimental data on the effect of different doses of X-radiation on the behaviour of mongrel male rats in an alternative labyrinth and on the heart rythnic activity are presented. It is ascertained that X-irradiation of rates leads to a change of rat behaviour stereotype, accompanies by increased values of cardiovascular activity which conditions thereduction of the number of paces per a unit of time. It is possible to perform comparative analysis of available data on the level of integral work capacity of man and animals, using unified criteria for evaluating the organism functional state

  20. Evaluation of the corrosion of aluminum tubes under conditions of natural imersion in aqueous medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.F. de

    1985-01-01

    This work evaluates the corrosion of aluminum tubes under conditions of natural immersion in aqueous medium. Local attack was observed on the surface of the tubes for all temperatures studied. It was found that the mass flucturation of the samples tested in deionized water at room temperatures is practically inexistent. However, at temperatures of 45 and 60 0 C the aluminum react rapidly with water forming a film of hydrated oxide of aluminum known as bayerite. It was verified that the contact of graphite and particles containing high content of Cu with aluminum forms a galvanic couple which should be avoided. (Author) [pt

  1. Crocin loaded nano-emulsions: Factors affecting emulsion properties in spontaneous emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnia, Mohammad-Amin; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Makhmal-Zadeh, Behzad S; Maghsoudlou, Yahya

    2016-03-01

    Spontaneous emulsification may be used for encapsulating bioactive compounds in food and pharmaceutical industry. It has several advantages over high energy and other low energy methods including, protecting sensitive compounds against severe conditions of high energy method and its ability to minimize surfactant, removal of cosurfactant and thermal stability compared with other low energy methods. In this study, we examined possibility of encapsulating highly soluble crocin in W/O micro-emulsions using spontaneous method which further could be used for making double emulsions. Nonionic surfactants of Span 80 and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) were used for making micro-emulsions that showed the high potential of PGPR for spontaneous method. Surfactant to water ratio (SWR%) was evaluated to find the highest amount of aqueous phase which can be dispersed in organic phase. Droplet size decreased by increasing SWR toward the SWR=100% which had the smallest droplet size and then increased at higher levels of surfactant. By increasing SWR, shear viscosity increased which showed the high effect of PGPR on rheological properties. This study shows in addition to W/O micro-emulsions, spontaneous method could be used for preparing stable O/W micro-emulsions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluating the fakability of a conditional reasoning test of addiction proneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Jennifer L; Bowler, Mark C

    2014-10-01

    The quest to assess personality objectively is riddled with challenges. However, conditional reasoning (CR) methodology takes an innovative approach to personality measurement by indirectly evaluating the cognitive biases associated with specific dispositional traits. In addition to demonstrating strong criterion-related validities, the CR format has been shown to be more resistant to response distortion than traditional self-report measures so long as indirect measurement is maintained. The present study evaluated the necessity of maintaining the indirect nature of a CR-based measure of addiction proneness. Results indicated that disclosing the purpose of assessment yielded significant mean shifts on a CR-based measure of addiction proneness compared to those of an uninformed group. Specifically, when the construct of interest was made explicit, participants could identify the keyed response options when instructed to do so. These findings further underscore the necessity of maintaining indirect measurement when administering CR measures. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  3. Evaluation of SCC susceptibility of alloy 800 under CANDU SG secondary-side conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, S.; Lu, Y.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a coordinated program, AECL is developing a set of tools to aid with the prediction and management of steam generator performance. Although stress corrosion cracking (of Alloy 800) has not been detected in any operating steam generator, for life management it is necessary to develop mechanistic models to predict the conditions under which stress corrosion cracking is plausible. Therefore, constant extension rate tests were carried out for Alloy 800 under various steam generator crevice chemistry conditions at applied potentials. These tests were designed to evaluate the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 under CANDU( steam generator operating conditions. Based on the experimental results, the recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zone for Alloy 800 determined by electrochemical polarization measurements was verified with the respect of stress corrosion cracking susceptibility. The effects of lead contamination on the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800 tubing were also evaluated. The experimental results from constant extension rate tests obtained under applied potentials suggest that Alloy 800 has good performance inside much of a previously recommended electrochemical corrosion potential/pH zone determined by electrochemical analysis. Alloy 800 is not susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under normal CANDU steam generator operating conditions. However, Alloy 800 may be susceptible to stress corrosion cracking under near-neutral crevice chemistry conditions in the presence of oxidants. In addition, stress corrosion cracking susceptibility is increased by lead contamination. This observation suggests that the previously defined electrochemical corrosion potential limit under near-neutral crevice conditions could be modified to minimize stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 800. The test results from this work also suggest that the pH dependency of the stress corrosion cracking susceptibility of Alloy 800

  4. Performance evaluation of a solar adsorption chiller under different climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alahmer, Ali; Wang, Xiaolin; Al-Rbaihat, Raed; Amanul Alam, K.C.; Saha, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar adsorption cooling system was studied at different climatic conditions. • Effect of hot water temperature and flow rate on system performance was evaluated. • Solar collector area and tilting angle largely affected the system performance. • Economics of the solar adsorption cooling was analysed at real weather conditions. • Adsorption cooling could be potentially applied in cities with good solar radiation. - Abstract: Performance of an adsorption cooling system driven by solar thermal energy was studied under different climatic conditions. The effects of solar collector area, collector slope, hot water temperature and flow rate on the system performance were investigated using the real-time weather data of two cities: Perth, Australia (a representative city in the southern hemisphere) and Amman, Jordan (a representative city in the northern hemisphere). The simulation results showed that the two cities had similar solar radiation during the summer period and that the solar adsorption chiller could reliably provide cooling at a reasonably high system COP. For residential cooling with a total CPC (Compound Parabolic Collector) solar collector area of 36.22 m 2 , the average system COP was 0.491 for Perth weather conditions and 0.467 for Amman weather conditions, respectively while the cooling capacity was 10.3 kW for Perth and 8.46 kW for Amman, respectively at peak times. Optimum performance occurred when the system run with the CPC collector slope of around 30°, the solar water storage tank volume of 1.4 m 3 , inlet hot water temperature of 80 °C, and a hot water flow rate of 0.33 kg/s. An economic analysis was further investigated and the results showed that the solar driven adsorption cooling system could reduce the electricity consumption for Perth and Amman cities by 34% and 28%, respectively in comparison to a conventional vapour compression cooling system.

  5. Representation of Health Conditions on Facebook: Content Analysis and Evaluation of User Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Zan, Shiyi; Jethwani, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Background A sizable majority of adult Internet users report looking for health information online. Social networking sites (SNS) like Facebook represent a common place to seek information, but very little is known about the representation and use of health content on SNS. Objective Our goal in this study was to understand the role of SNS in health information seeking. More specifically, we aimed to describe how health conditions are represented on Facebook Pages and how users interact with these different conditions. Methods We used Google Insights to identify the 20 most searched for health conditions on Google and then searched each of the resulting terms on Facebook. We compiled a list of the first 50 Facebook “Pages” results for each health condition. After filtering results to identify pages relevant to our research, we categorized pages into one of seven categories based on the page’s primary purpose. We then measured user engagement by evaluating the number of “Likes” for different conditions and types of pages. Results The search returned 50 pages for 18 of the health conditions, but only 48 pages were found for “anemia” and 5 pages were found for “flu symptoms”, yielding a total of 953 pages. A large number of pages (29.4%, 280/953) were irrelevant to the health condition searched. Of the 673 relevant pages, 151 were not in English or originated outside the United States, leaving 522 pages to be coded for content. The most common type of page was marketing/promotion (32.2%, 168/522) followed by information/awareness (20.7%, 108/522), Wikipedia-type pages (15.5%, 81/522), patient support (9.4%, 49/522), and general support (3.6%, 19/522). Health conditions varied greatly by the primary page type. All health conditions had some marketing/promotion pages and this made up 76% (29/38) of pages on acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The largest percentage of general support pages were cancer (19%, 6/32) and stomach (16%, 4/25). For

  6. Evaluative conditioning of high-novelty stimuli does not seem to be based on an automatic form of associative learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dedonder, Jonathan; Corneille, Olivier; Yzerbyt, Vincent; Kuppens, Toon

    2010-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to the change in valence of initially neutral stimuli (conditioned stimuli, or CSs) as a result of their pairing with positive or negative stimuli (unconditioned stimuli, or USs). EC is critical to dual-attitudes models as it is often presented as an evaluative

  7. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  8. [Spontaneous renal artery dissection: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maehana, Takeshi; Nishida, Sachiyo; Shindo, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Muranaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Yanase, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    A 65-year-old female was admitted to our hospital complaining of left upper abdominal pain. Although the symptom improved with observation, serum creatinine rose to 2.0 mg/dl. Slight atrophy of the left kidney was seen on abdominal plain computed tomography. In order to examine the possibility of renal infarction from thrombosis with angiography, we consulted the department of cardiovascular medicine. Even though we did not detect thrombosis with left renal angiography or intravascular ultrasound, there was a dissection finding localized at the left renal artery. Based on this finding, we made a diagnosis of spontaneous renal artery dissection and performed stent placement. Spontaneous renal artery dissection is extremely rare and the frequency of occurrence is reported to be less than 0.05%. Recently, however the frequency of detection has risen with the development of clinical imaging. We must keep in mind that the condition has the possibility of leading to renal blood circulation disorders.

  9. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.

    2018-01-01

    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  10. Performance Based Evaluation of Concrete Strength under Various Curing Conditions to Investigate Climate Change Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Kyun Kim

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the manifestation of global warming-induced climate change has been observed through super typhoons, heavy snowfalls, torrential rains, and extended heat waves. These climate changes have been occurring all over the world and natural disasters have caused severe damage and deterioration of concrete structures and infrastructure. In an effort to deal with these problems due to extreme and abnormal climate changes, studies have been conducted to develop construction technologies and design guidelines. Nevertheless, study results applicable to construction sites continue to be ineffective and insufficient. Therefore, this study proposes ways to cope with climate change by considering the effect of concrete curing condition variations on concrete material performance. More specifically, the 3-, 7- and 28-day compressive and split tensile strength properties of concrete mix cured under various climatic factors including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunlight exposure time were evaluated to determine whether the concrete meets the current design requirements. Thereafter, a performance based evaluation (PBE was performed using satisfaction probabilities based on the test values to understand the problems associated with the current mix proportion design practice and to identify countermeasures to deal with climate change-induced curing conditions.

  11. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique for evaluation of hip joint conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Diana; Komistek, Richard D; Cates, Harold E; Mahfouz, Mohamed R

    2010-02-10

    The performance evaluation of THA outcome is difficult and surgeons often use invasive methods to investigate effectiveness. A non-invasive acoustic and vibration analysis technique has recently been developed for more-in-depth evaluation of in vivo hip conditions. Gait kinematics, corresponding vibration and sound measurement of five THA subjects were analyzed post-operatively using video-fluoroscopy, sound and accelerometer measurements while walking on a treadmill. The sound sensor and a pair of tri-axial accelerometers, externally attached to the pelvic and femoral bone prominences, detected frequencies that are propagated through the femoral head and acetabular cup interactions. A data acquisition system was used to amplify the signal and filter out noise generated by undesired frequencies. In vivo kinematics and femoral head sliding quantified using video fluoroscopy were correlated to the sound and acceleration measurements. Distinct variations between the different subjects were identified. A correlation of sound and acceleration impulses with separation has been achieved. Although, in vivo sounds are quite variable in nature and all correlated well with the visual images. This is the first study to document and correlate visual and audible effects of THA under in-vivo conditions. This study has shown that the development of the acoustic and vibration technique provides a practical method and generates new possibilities for a better understanding of THA performance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R

    2016-09-01

    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  14. Evaluation of growth and flowering potential of rosa hybrida cultivars under Faisalabad climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, M.; Khan, M.A.; Riaz, A.

    2011-01-01

    Exotic cultivars of hybrid roses respond uncertainly to new habitat. It is necessary to explore the potential of the introduced cultivars to judge the suitability in a new habitat. In the present study, nine Rosa hybrida cultivars including Autumn Sunset, Ice Berg, Paradise, Angel Face, Louise Odier, Casino, Grand Margina, Handel and Gruss-an-Teplitz were evaluated for growth and yield attributed under the climatic conditions of Faisalabad. Results indicated that there was decreasing trend in the growth and flowering of the bushes as the temperature increased above 32 degree C and humidity decreased to 29 %. Number of flowers per bush and diameter of flower decreased as the temperature increased and humidity decreased in contrast to increment in height of the plant and num ber of primary branches per plant in succeeding months. Interaction between yield traits and months was also significant. Overall, significant variations were observed in each cultivar for length and number of petals per flower, number of prickles, fragrance, flower persistence life and color, bush shape and overall performance with respect to climatic conditions of Faisalabad. It is concluded that the cultivars 'Autumn Sunset' and Gruss-an-Teplitz performed better in climatic conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  15. Evaluating stress analysis and failure criteria for offshore structures for Pechora Sea conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesic, S.; Donskoy, Y.; Zolotukhin, A.

    2017-12-01

    Development of Arctic hydrocarbon resources has faced many challenges due to sensitive environmental conditions including low temperatures, ice cover and terrestrial permafrost and extreme seasonal variation in sunlight. Russian offshore field development in Arctic region is usually associated with annual ice cover, which can cause serious damage on the offshore platforms. The Pechora Sea has claimed as one of the most perspective oil and gas region of the Russian Arctic with seven discovered oil and gas fields and several dozens of structures. Our rough assessment, based on in-place hydrocarbon volumes and recovery factor evaluation concept, indicates that Pechora Sea alone has in-place volumes amounting to ca. 20 billion barrel oil equivalent (BOE). This quantity is enough to secure produced volumes by 2040 exceeding 3 billion BOE [1] that indicates huge resource potential of the region. The environmental conditions are primarily function of water dynamics and ice cover. The sea is covered by the ice for greatest part of the year. In this article, the ice load simulations were performed using explicit dynamic analysis system in ANSYS software to determine best shape and size of an offshore platform for the Pechora Sea ice conditions. Different gravity based structures (GBS) were analyzed: artificial island, hollow cylindrical and conical concrete structures and four-leg GBS. Relationships between the stress, deformations and time were analyzed and important observations from the simulation results were a basis for selecting the most preferable structures.

  16. Evaluation of some advanced wheat lines (F7 in normal and drought stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nikseresht

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available For assessment of drought stress effects on agro characteristics of 30 lines and 6 wheat cultivars and for introducing of drought tolerant and susceptible ones one trial were established using split plot base of randomized complete block design with two replications, main plots were stress and non-stress condition and sub plots contain 30 lines and six wheat cultivars in the check trial, irrigation the farm was done with the normal regime, but in stress trial for germination of seeds and one irrigation in Isfand to the end of rooting the farm was irrigated. Within and end of growth season we measured some agronomic and morphological characters such as yield and its component, height, peduncle length, and etc. Responses of cultivars under stress and non-stress conditions were' different, for example drought stress reduced yield. In spite of this general yield reducing, we found some line, such as 2, 29, 23 had relatively high yield (in tree levels. In order to final evaluate using Factor Analysis, Principal Component, Cluster Analysis .Factor Analysis indicated that four important factors accounted for about 80.245 and 79.624 percent of the total variation among traits in normal and drought stress conditions. With cluster analysis of 36 lines and cultivar using Ward procedure based on Euclidean distance were grouped in 4 distance cluster.

  17. Performance evaluation of free piston compressor coupling organic Rankine cycle under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Yongqiang; Kang, Jianjian; Zhang, Guangpan; Liu, Zhongchang; Tian, Jing; Chai, Jiahong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An ORC-FPC is proposed to recover the waste heat of exhaust gas. • The simulation model has been established in GT-Suite ver. 7.0. • Performances of ORC-FPC under different operating conditions have been evaluated. • Performances prediction of the ORC-FPC for real application has been made in the paper. - Abstract: An organic Rankine cycle coupling free piston compressor (ORC-FPC) system has been proposed, which is used in recovering the waste heat of exhaust gas from the stationary compressed nature gas (CNG) fueled internal combustion compressor. The free piston compressor functions as an expander in ORC and operates reciprocally to compress natural gas in compression cylinders to demanded pressure. After capturing the waste heat available and turning into vapor in evaporator, the working fluid R245ca can provide power to drive the free piston moving reciprocally in expander. The model of ORC-FPC built up in the GT-suite ver. 7.0 assists evaluating performances of this system under different operating conditions. In this paper, the operating condition includes two aspects: thermodynamic state of working fluid and input power. The purpose of simulation based on the model is to specify appropriate thermodynamic states of working fluid which yield high value of η (the ratio of work produced by the power piston to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) and k (the ratio of output CNG’s mass to enthalpy reduction of working fluid in the power cylinder) value. Performances of the ORC-FPC under different input power, which determined by the operating frequency and injection quantity of the heated working fluid, have also been evaluated. Results show that when the heated working fluid is at 11.5 bar and 383 K, the system achieves better performances than other thermodynamic states, of which k is 601.1 mg/kJ and η is 44.3%. Based on the optimum thermodynamic state and the principle of obtaining the maximum k, the specific input

  18. Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to Monitor Forest Health Conditions in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.; Winton, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating the capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS, "drone" informally) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. On July 17-20 2017, FHP and ACUASI deployed two different UAS at permanent forest inventory plots managed by the UAF programs Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI). The purpose of the mission was to explore capabilities of UAS for evaluating aspen tree mortality at inaccessible locations and at a scale and precision not generally achievable with currently used ground- or air-based methods. Drawing from experience gained during the initial 2016 campaign, this year emphasized the efficient use of UAS to accomplish practical field research in a variety of realistic situations. The vehicles selected for this years' effort included the DJI Matrice quadcopter with the Zenmuse-X3 camera to quickly capture initial video of the site and tree conditions; followed by the ING Responder (single rotor electric helicopter based on the Gaui X7 airframe) outfitted with a Nikon D810 camera to collect high-resolution stills suitable for construction of orthomosaic models. A total of 12 flights were conducted over the campaign, with two full days dedicated to the Delta Junction Gerstle River Intermediate (GRI) sites and the remaining day at the Bonanza Creek site. In addition to demonstrating the ability of UAS to operate safely and effectively in various canopy conditions, the effort also validated the ability of teams to deliver UAS and scientific payloads into challenging terrain using all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and foot traffic. Analysis of data from the campaign is underway. Because the permanent plots have been recently evaluated it is known that nearly all aspen mortality is caused by an aggressive canker

  19. Evaluation of Fibrin Clot Attachment on Titanium Laser-Conditioned Surface Using Scanning Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinjari, Bruna; Traini, Tonino; Caputi, Sergio; Mortellaro, Carmen; Scarano, Antonio

    2018-03-22

    The study aimed to evaluate the effects of different titanium surface treatments on blood clot extension (bce). A total of 54 titanium disks with machined surface (M), laser-conditioned surface (L), and grit-blasted surface (S) were used in the present study. The surface characteristics such as contact angles and the microroughness were determined on each group (n = 4). To evaluate the bce, 0.1 mL of human blood was dropped onto the surface of each specimen and left for 7 minutes at room temperature. After fixation, dehydration, and gold sputtering treatments, the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope. The bce values were expressed as percentage of specimen surface covered by blood clot. The surface roughness (Ra ± standard deviation [SD]) was 0.75 ± 0.02 μm for M, 0.25 ± 0.02 μm for L, and 1.30 ± 0.03 μm for S. The contact angles measured in static conditions (WCA ± SD) were 71 ± 5.4° for M, 107 ± 6.6° for L, and 91 ± 7.2° for S. Regarding the bce (bce ± SD) of M samples (65.5 ± 4.3%) was statistically lower compared with both L (83.4 ± 5.1%) and S samples (72.4 ± 4.7%) (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the L group showed the higher bce value. The present results suggest that the laser-conditioned surface may increase the wettability and bce.

  20. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  1. Performance Evaluation of a Solar-Powered Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle in Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Spayde

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A model to evaluate the performance of a solar powered regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle (R-ORC using five dry organic fluids: RC318, R227ea, R236ea, R236fa, and R218, is presented in this paper. The system is evaluated in two locations in the U.S.: Jackson, MS and Tucson, AZ. The weather data for each location is used to determine the heat available from the solar collector that could be used by the R-ORC to generate power. Results from the R-ORC performance are compared with a basic ORC using first and second law criteria as well as primary energy consumption (PEC and carbon dioxide emission (CDE savings for both locations. An economic analysis to determine the maximum capital cost for a desired payback period is presented in this paper. A parametric analysis is also performed to study the effect of the turbine efficiency as well as the open feed organic fluid heater intermediate pressure on the system performance. Results indicate that the R-ORC is able to generate more power than the basic ORC for some of the selected working fluids. For the R-ORC, R236ea is the working fluid that show the best performance among the evaluated fluids under the modeled conditions. On the other hand, the basic ORC with R236ea as the working fluid outperformed three of the fluids in the R-ORC. Also, the R-ORC evaluated in Tucson, AZ is able to generate more power, to provide more PEC and CDE savings, and had a higher available capital cost than the R-ORC evaluated in in Jackson, MS.

  2. Evaluation of the migration of chemicals from baby bottles under standardised and duration testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; Van Hoeck, Els; Negreira, Noelia; Quirynen, Laurent; Van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    After the prohibition of bisphenol-A-containing polycarbonate baby bottles in the European Union (EU), alternative materials, such as polypropylene, polyethersulphone, Tritan™ copolyester, etc., have appeared on the market. Based on an initial screening and in vitro toxicity assessment, the most toxic migrating compounds were selected to be monitored and quantified using validated GC- and LC-QqQ-MS methods. The effect of several 'real-life-use conditions', such as microwave, sterilisation and dishwasher, on the migration of different contaminants was evaluated by means of duration tests. These results were compared with a reference treatment (filling five times with pre-heated simulant at 40°C) and with the legal EU 'repetitive-use conditions' (three migrations, 2 h at 70°C). Analysis of the third migration step of the EU repetitive-use conditions (which has to comply with the EU legislative migration limits) showed that several non-authorised compounds were observed in some baby bottles exceeding 10 µg kg(-1). However, all authorised compounds were detected well below their respective specific migration limits (SMLs). The reference experiment confirmed the migration of some of the compounds previously detected in the EU repetitive-use experiment, though at lower concentrations. Analysis of extracts from the microwave and dishwasher experiments showed a reduction in the migration during the duration tests. In general, the concentrations found were low and comparable with the reference experiment. Similar observations were made for the two sterilisation types: steam and cooking sterilisation. However, steam sterilisation seems to be more recommended for daily use of baby bottles, since it resulted in a lower release of substances afterwards. Repeated use of baby bottles under 'real-life' conditions showed no increase in the migration of investigated compounds and, after some time, the migration of these compounds even became negligible.

  3. Evaluation of Rapid Dual-Tracer 62Cu-PTSM + 62Cu-ATSM PET in Dogs with Spontaneously-Occurring Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Rust, Thomas C.; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing methods for imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan with staggered injections, where imaging measures for each tracer are separated and recovered using differences in tracer kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, signal-separation performance for rapid dual-tracer 62Cu-PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging was evaluated in a large animal model. Four dogs with pre-existing tumors received a series of dynamic PET scans with 62Cu-PTSM and 62Cu-ATSM,...

  4. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  5. Conditions for the realization of the social technology of inclusive education’s evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Zdrahat

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The arrangement of optimal conditions for the successful social integration of individuals with disabilities is one of the important social tasks. The relevance of the topic is also growing due to the fact that in recent times there is a tendency of increase of people with functional health limitations all over the world and, particularly, in Ukraine. The absence of the enabling environment for the satisfaction of untypical children’s special needs and the limitation of their socio-cultural mobility and life chances makes the issue of development, education, social integration and adaptation of children with special needs actual. Therefore, the society must be ready now to offer the special programs of integration and self-fulfillment through education to this category of children. The objective of the article is to develop the model of evaluation being a social technology which will conceptualize the evaluation of the inclusive education for the efficient management of its quality. The areas of the educational system’s improvement for the successful realization of the social technology of the inclusive education’s evaluation have been identified. The aspects of the grounds of the inclusive education, such as the grounds of educational, social and economic nature have been defined. The purposes of the successful realization of inclusion have been described. The sociological approaches to the study of the quality of education have been pointed out: identification of the social communities which set their requirements to the quality and what these requirements are; the ways and the degree of influence of the identified interest groups on the process and the result of education, the relationship between the requirements of these groups. The social effectiveness as a complex characteristic of the school work, such as the level of interaction between educational establishments, administrating authorities and social institutions and social

  6. Conditions for production of interdisciplinary teamwork outcomes in oncology teams: protocol for a realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Dominique; Touati, Nassera; Roberge, Danièle; Denis, Jean-Louis; Turcotte, Annie; Samson, Benoît

    2014-06-17

    Interdisciplinary teamwork (ITW) is designed to promote the active participation of several disciplines in delivering comprehensive cancer care to patients. ITW provides mechanisms to support continuous communication among care providers, optimize professionals' participation in clinical decision-making within and across disciplines, and foster care coordination along the cancer trajectory. However, ITW mechanisms are not activated optimally by all teams, resulting in a gap between desired outcomes of ITW and actual outcomes observed. The aim of the present study is to identify the conditions underlying outcome production by ITW in local oncology teams. This retrospective multiple case study will draw upon realist evaluation principles to explore associations among context, mechanisms and outcomes (CMO). The cases are nine interdisciplinary cancer teams that participated in a previous study evaluating ITW outcomes. Qualitative data sources will be used to construct a picture of CMO associations in each case. For data collection, reflexive focus groups will be held to capture patients' and professionals' perspectives on ITW, using the guiding question, 'What works, for whom, and under what circumstances?' Intra-case analysis will be used to trace associations between context, ITW mechanisms, and patient outcomes. Inter-case analysis will be used to compare the different cases' CMO associations for a better understanding of the phenomenon under study. This multiple case study will use realist evaluation principles to draw lessons about how certain contexts are more or less likely to produce particular outcomes. The results will make it possible to target more specifically the actions required to optimize structures and to activate the best mechanisms to meet the needs of cancer patients. This project could also contribute significantly to the development of improved research methods for conducting realist evaluations of complex healthcare interventions. To our

  7. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S; Rønsbo, Mie H; Abban, Stephen; Hamad, Siddig H; Nielsen, Dennis S; Jakobsen, Mogens

    2011-04-29

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200 °C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a traditional production site in Khartoum, Sudan in 2006 and 2009, respectively. In 2006 four different milk/legume based primary starters (faba bean, chick pea, lentil and white bean) were sampled in order to enumerate and identify the Bacillus at species or group level. In 2009 specific focus was on the enumeration and safety evaluation of the dominant Bacillus cereus group species occurring during various Gergoush productions (including the three fermentations steps and after baking). In 2006, the primary starters contained Bacillus spp. in the order of between 7.7 and 8.1 log(10) CFU/g. Species identifications were performed by M13-PCR typing using the Escherichia coli phage M13 derived primer PM13 combined with internally transcribed 16-23S rRNA PCR, 16S rRNA gene and gyrA or gyrB gene sequencing, and selected phenotypic tests. Depending on the legume used, 40-68% of the isolates were identified as B. cereus sensu lato, 16-27% as Bacillus licheniformis, 8-32% as Bacillus subtilis and 4-20% as Bacillus sonorensis. During the second set of fermentation trials performed in 2009, the Bacillus spp. and B. cereus occurred in numbers of between 7.7-9.9 and 6.1-7.8 log(10) CFU/g, respectively, while no bacteria were detected after baking. A total of 180 B. cereus sensu lato isolates from four different primary starters, adapted starters and final doughs were further identified as B. cereus sensu stricto (118 isolates) and Bacillus thuringiensis (62 isolates). The safety of Gergoush was evaluated based on the counts and toxin gene profiles of the dominant B. cereus species. Considering that no bacteria survived the baking process, and that the cereulide synthetase gene ces

  8. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  9. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  10. Simulation of groundwater conditions and streamflow depletion to evaluate water availability in a Freeport, Maine, watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Locke, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    , the public-supply withdrawals (105.5 million gallons per year (Mgal/yr)) were much greater than those for any other category, being almost 7 times greater than all domestic well withdrawals (15.3 Mgal/yr). Industrial withdrawals in the study area (2.0 Mgal/yr) are mostly by a company that withdraws from an aquifer at the edge of the Merrill Brook watershed. Commercial withdrawals are very small (1.0 Mgal/yr), and no irrigation or other agricultural withdrawals were identified in this study area. A three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed to evaluate stream-aquifer interactions and streamflow depletion from pumping, to help refine the conceptual model, and to predict changes in streamflow resulting from changes in pumping and recharge. Groundwater levels and flow in the Freeport aquifer study area were simulated with the three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater-flow modeling code, MODFLOW-2005. Study area hydrology was simulated with a 3-layer model, under steady-state conditions. The groundwater model was used to evaluate changes that could occur in the water budgets of three parts of the local hydrologic system (the Harvey Brook watershed, the Merrill Brook watershed, and the buried aquifer from which pumping occurs) under several different climatic and pumping scenarios. The scenarios were (1) no pumping well withdrawals; (2) current (2009) pumping, but simulated drought conditions (20-percent reduction in recharge); (3) current (2009) recharge, but a 50-percent increase in pumping well withdrawals for public supply; and (4) drought conditions and increased pumping combined. In simulated drought situations, the overall recharge to the buried valley is about 15 percent less and the total amount of streamflow in the model area is reduced by about 19 percent. Without pumping, infiltration to the buried valley aquifer around the confining unit decreased by a small amount (0.05 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)), and discharge to the

  11. Identification and safety evaluation of Bacillus species occurring in high numbers during spontaneous fermentations to produce Gergoush, a traditional Sudanese bread snack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Line; Abdelgadir, Warda S.; Rønsbo, Mie Hvillum

    2011-01-01

    Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed at a trad......Gergoush is a naturally fermented Sudanese Bread snack produced in three fermentation steps (primary starter, adapted starter and final dough), followed by three baking steps for a half to one hour at above 200°C. This study examines the microbiota of two sets of fermentations performed......, the results indicate, that Gergoush produced at the traditional production site is safe for human consumption. This study is the first to identify the Bacillus of Gergoush to species level, and it is the first to perform a safety evaluation of the product, based on the dominant B. cereus species....

  12. Evaluation of rapid dual-tracer (62)Cu-PTSM + (62)Cu-ATSM PET in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Noel F; McJames, Scott; Rust, Thomas C; Kadrmas, Dan J

    2008-01-07

    We are developing methods for imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan with staggered injections, where imaging measures for each tracer are separated and recovered using differences in tracer kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, signal separation performance for rapid dual-tracer (62)Cu-PTSM (blood flow) + (62)Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging was evaluated in a large animal model. Four dogs with pre-existing tumors received a series of dynamic PET scans with (62)Cu-PTSM and (62)Cu-ATSM, permitting evaluation of a rapid dual-tracer protocol designed by previous simulation work. Several imaging measures were computed from the dual-tracer data and compared with those from separate, single-tracer imaging. Static imaging measures (e.g. SUV) for each tracer were accurately recovered from dual-tracer data. The wash-in (k(1)) and wash-out (k(2)) rate parameters for both tracers were likewise well recovered (r = 0.87-0.99), but k(3) was not accurately recovered for PTSM (r = 0.19) and moderately well recovered for ATSM (r = 0.70). Some degree of bias was noted, however, which may potentially be overcome through further refinement of the signal separation algorithms. This work demonstrates that complementary information regarding tumor blood flow and hypoxia can be acquired by a single dual-tracer PET scan, and also that the signal separation procedure works effectively for real physiologic data with realistic levels of kinetic model mismatch. Rapid multi-tracer PET has the potential to improve tumor assessment for image-guide therapy and monitoring, and further investigation with these and other tracers is warranted.

  13. Evaluation of Rapid Dual-Tracer 62Cu-PTSM + 62Cu-ATSM PET in Dogs with Spontaneously-Occurring Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Rust, Thomas C.; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2013-01-01

    We are developing methods for imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan with staggered injections, where imaging measures for each tracer are separated and recovered using differences in tracer kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, signal-separation performance for rapid dual-tracer 62Cu-PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging was evaluated in a large animal model. Four dogs with pre-existing tumors received a series of dynamic PET scans with 62Cu-PTSM and 62Cu-ATSM, permitting evaluation of a rapid dual-tracer protocol designed by previous simulation work. Several imaging measures were computed from the dual-tracer data and compared with those from separate, single-tracer imaging. Static imaging measures (e.g. SUV) for each tracer were accurately recovered from dual-tracer data. The wash-in (k1) and wash-out (k2) rate parameters for both tracers were likewise well recovered (r = 0.87 – 0.99), but k3 was not accurately recovered for PTSM (r = 0.19) and moderately well recovered for ATSM (r = 0.70). Some degree of bias was noted, however, which may potentially be overcome through further refinement of the signal-separation algorithms. This work demonstrates that complementary information regarding tumor blood flow and hypoxia can be acquired by a single dual-tracer PET scan, and also that the signal-separation procedure works effectively for real physiologic data with realistic levels of kinetic model-mismatch. Rapid multi-tracer PET has the potential to improve tumor assessment for image-guide therapy and monitoring, and further investigation with these and other tracers is warranted. PMID:18182698

  14. Evaluation of rapid dual-tracer 62Cu-PTSM + 62Cu-ATSM PET in dogs with spontaneously occurring tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Noel F.; McJames, Scott; Rust, Thomas C.; Kadrmas, Dan J.

    2008-01-01

    We are developing methods for imaging multiple PET tracers in a single scan with staggered injections, where imaging measures for each tracer are separated and recovered using differences in tracer kinetics and radioactive decay. In this work, signal separation performance for rapid dual-tracer 62Cu-PTSM (blood flow) + 62Cu-ATSM (hypoxia) tumor imaging was evaluated in a large animal model. Four dogs with pre-existing tumors received a series of dynamic PET scans with 62Cu-PTSM and 62Cu-ATSM, permitting evaluation of a rapid dual-tracer protocol designed by previous simulation work. Several imaging measures were computed from the dual-tracer data and compared with those from separate, single-tracer imaging. Static imaging measures (e.g. SUV) for each tracer were accurately recovered from dual-tracer data. The wash-in (k1) and wash-out (k2) rate parameters for both tracers were likewise well recovered (r = 0.87-0.99), but k3 was not accurately recovered for PTSM (r = 0.19) and moderately well recovered for ATSM (r = 0.70). Some degree of bias was noted, however, which may potentially be overcome through further refinement of the signal separation algorithms. This work demonstrates that complementary information regarding tumor blood flow and hypoxia can be acquired by a single dual-tracer PET scan, and also that the signal separation procedure works effectively for real physiologic data with realistic levels of kinetic model mismatch. Rapid multi-tracer PET has the potential to improve tumor assessment for image-guide therapy and monitoring, and further investigation with these and other tracers is warranted.

  15. Retroperitoneal space abscess with spontaneous drainage out of the flank: report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masayuki; Takeda, Masao.

    1983-01-01

    A 59-year-old female, who had an episode of fever and easy-fatiguability for a month prior to her visit to our clinic, was refered for evaluation of left flank pain and tumor. As retroperitoneal space abscess or left renal tumor was suspected by RP, renal scintigram and CT, angiography was scheduled, but spontaneous abscess drainage out of the left flank was seen on May 29, 1982. Immediately after spontaneous drainage the retroperitoneal space was washed out and drained under local anesthesia. After operation, in spite of good general condition, wound healing was delayed because of the large dead space. Discussion was made on the classification, symptoms and CT findings of retroperitoneal space abscess. (author)

  16. IT-based soil quality evaluation for agroecologically smart land-use planning in RF conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan

    2016-04-01

    Activated in the first decades of XXI century global climate, economy and farming changes sharply actualized novel IT-based approaches in soil quality evaluation to address modern agricultural issues with agroecologically smart land-use planning. Despite global projected climate changes will affect a general decline of crop yields (IPCC 2014), RF boreal and subboreal regions will benefit from predicted and already particularly verified temperature warming and increased precipitation (Valentini, Vasenev, 2015) due to essential increasing of growing season length and mild climate conditions favorable for most prospective crops and best available agrotechnologies. However, the essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central European region of Russia which is one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF. In these conditions potentially favorable climate circumstances will increase not only soil fertility and workability features but also their dynamics and spatial variability that determine crucial issues of IT-based soil quality evaluation systems development and agroecologically smart farming planning. Developed and verified within the LAMP project (RF Governmental projects #11.G34.31.0079 and #14.120.14.4266) regionally adapted DSS (ACORD-R - RF #2012612944) gives effective informational and methodological support for smart farming agroecological optimization in global climate and farming changes challenges. Information basis for agroecologically smart land-use planning consists of crops and agrotechnologies requirements, regional and local systems of agroecological zoning, local landscape and soil cover patterns, land quality and degradation risk assessments, current and previous farming practices results, agroclimatic predictions and production agroecological models, environmental limitations and planned profitability, fertilizing efficiency DSS ACORD-R. Smart land-use practice refers to sustainable balance

  17. [Hygienic evaluation of educational conditions and health status in junior pupils from rural schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, I K; Sergeeva, A A; Chubarovskiĭ, V V

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiological examinations were made in rural junior (8-10-year-old) schoolchildren from the Vyazma District, Smolensk Region. The clinical findings were compared with the results of evaluation of sanitary-and-hygienic school welfare (SGW), made by the regional branch of the Russian Inspectorate for the Protection of Consumer Rights and Human Welfare, and with those of a sociological survey of school directors and teachers. In the rural schools referred to as Group III morbidity, the incidence of diseases was ascertained to be significantly higher and their patterns had its peculiarities as compared to good hygienic and social educational institutions. There was evidence that the worse schooling conditions, the more children suffered from chronic diseases, chronic mental diseases and physical malformations in particular.

  18. Evaluation of Analysis Conditions for Laser-Pulsed Atom Probe Tomography: Example of Cemented Tungsten Carbide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zirong; Choi, Pyuck-Pa; Gault, Baptiste; Raabe, Dierk

    2017-04-01

    Cemented tungsten carbide has been analyzed using laser-pulsed atom probe tomography (APT). The influence of experimental parameters, including laser pulse energy, pulse repetition rate, and specimen base temperature, on the acquired data were evaluated from different aspects, such as mass spectrum, chemical composition, noise-to-signal ratio, and multiple events. Within all the applied analysis conditions, only 1 MHz pulse repetition rate led to a strong detector saturation effect, resulting in a largely biased chemical composition. A comparative study of the laser energy settings showed that an ~12 times higher energy was required for the less focused green laser of the LEAPTM 3000X HR system to achieve a similar evaporation field as the finer spot ultraviolet laser of the LEAPTM 5000 XS system.

  19. Burr Hole Drainage for Complicated Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Fang Liu

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is a potentially severe condition that is caused by continuous cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Clinically, most patients have a benign course and the condition remits after conservative management. We report two consecutive patients who presented with acute expansion of subdural collection and disturbed consciousness. Both patients recovered completely after undergoing burr hole drainage.

  20. Spontaneous prediction error generation in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Yamashita

    Full Text Available Goal-directed human behavior is enabled by hierarchically-organized neural systems that process executive commands associated with higher brain areas in response to sensory and motor signals from lower brain areas. Psychiatric diseases and psychotic conditions are postulated to involve disturbances in these hierarchical network interactions, but the mechanism for how aberrant disease signals are generated in networks, and a systems-level framework linking disease signals to specific psychiatric symptoms remains undetermined. In this study, we show that neural networks containing schizophrenia-like deficits can spontaneously generate uncompensated error signals with properties that explain psychiatric disease symptoms, including fictive perception, altered sense of self, and unpredictable behavior. To distinguish dysfunction at the behavioral versus network level, we monitored the interactive behavior of a humanoid robot driven by the network. Mild perturbations in network connectivity resulted in the spontaneous appearance of uncompensated prediction errors and altered interactions within the network without external changes in behavior, correlating to the fictive sensations and agency experienced by episodic disease patients. In contrast, more severe deficits resulted in unstable network dynamics resulting in overt changes in behavior similar to those observed in chronic disease patients. These findings demonstrate that prediction error disequilibrium may represent an intrinsic property of schizophrenic brain networks reporting the severity and variability of disease symptoms. Moreover, these results support a systems-level model for psychiatric disease that features the spontaneous generation of maladaptive signals in hierarchical neural networks.

  1. Resource allocation in offspring provisioning: an evaluation of the conditions favoring the evolution of matrotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trexler, Joel C; DeAngelis, Donald L

    2003-11-01

    We used analytic and simulation models to determine the ecological conditions favoring evolution of a matrotrophic fish from a lecithotrophic ancestor given a complex set of trade-offs. Matrotrophy is the nourishment of viviparous embryos by resources provided between fertilization and parturition, while lecithotrophy describes embryo nourishment provided before fertilization. In fishes and reptiles, embryo nourishment encompasses a continuum from solely lecithotrophic to primarily matrotrophic. Matrotrophy has evolved independently from lecithotrophic ancestors many times in many groups. We assumed matrotrophy increased the number of offspring a viviparous female could gestate and evaluated conditions of food availability favoring lecithotrophy or matrotrophy. The matrotrophic strategy was superior when food resources exceeded demand during gestation but at a risk of overproduction and reproductive failure if food intake was limited. Matrotrophic females were leaner during gestation than lecithotrophic females, yielding shorter life spans. Our models suggest that matrotrophic embryo nourishment evolved in environments with high food availability, consistently exceeding energy requirements for maintaining relatively large broods. Embryo abortion with some resorption of invested energy is a necessary preadaptation to the evolution of matrotrophy. Future work should explore trade-offs of age-specific mortality and reproductive output for females maintaining different levels of fat storage during gestation.

  2. Comparative evaluation of piggery wastewater treatment in algal-bacterial photobioreactors under indoor and outdoor conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Dimas; Posadas, Esther; Grajeda, Carlos; Blanco, Saúl; Martínez-Páramo, Sonia; Acién, Gabriel; García-Encina, Pedro; Bolado, Silvia; Muñoz, Raúl

    2017-12-01

    This work evaluated the performance of four open algal-bacterial photobioreactors operated at ≈26days of hydraulic retention time during the treatment of 10 (×10) and 20 (×20) times diluted piggery wastewater (PWW) under indoor (I) and outdoor (O) conditions for four months. The removal efficiencies (REs) of organic matter, nutrients and zinc from PWW, along with the dynamics of biomass concentration and structure of algal-bacterial population were assessed. The highest TOC-RE, TP-RE and Zn-RE (94±1%, 100% and 83±2%, respectively) were achieved indoors in ×10 PWW, while the highest TN-RE (72±8%) was recorded outdoors in ×10 PWW. Chlorella vulgaris was the dominant species regardless of the ambient conditions and PWW dilution. Finally, DGGE-sequencing of the bacterial community revealed the occurrence of four phyla, Proteobacteria being the dominant phylum with 15 out of the 23 most intense bands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. ANN based Performance Evaluation of BDI for Condition Monitoring of Induction Motor Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Raj Kumar; Giri, V. K.

    2017-06-01

    One of the critical parts in rotating machines is bearings and most of the failure arises from the defective bearings. Bearing failure leads to failure of a machine and the unpredicted productivity loss in the performance. Therefore, bearing fault detection and prognosis is an integral part of the preventive maintenance procedures. In this paper vibration signal for four conditions of a deep groove ball bearing; normal (N), inner race defect (IRD), ball defect (BD) and outer race defect (ORD) were acquired from a customized bearing test rig, under four different conditions and three different fault sizes. Two approaches have been opted for statistical feature extraction from the vibration signal. In the first approach, raw signal is used for statistical feature extraction and in the second approach statistical features extracted are based on bearing damage index (BDI). The proposed BDI technique uses wavelet packet node energy coefficients analysis method. Both the features are used as inputs to an ANN classifier to evaluate its performance. A comparison of ANN performance is made based on raw vibration data and data chosen by using BDI. The ANN performance has been found to be fairly higher when BDI based signals were used as inputs to the classifier.

  4. Evaluation of Power Conditioning Architectures for Energy Production Enhancement in Thermoelectric Generator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongfei; Sun, Kai; Chen, Min; Xing, Yan

    2014-06-01

    A large-scale thermoelectric generator (TEG) system has an unbalanced temperature distribution among the TEG modules, which leads to power mismatch among the modules and decreases the power output of the TEG system. To maximize the power output and minimize the power conversion loss, a centralized-distributed hybrid power conditioning architecture is presented, analyzed, and evaluated for a TEG system. The novel architecture is a combination of a conventional centralized architecture and a fully distributed architecture. By using the proposed architecture, most of the harvested power is processed by the centralized stage while only the mismatched power among the TEG modules is processed by the distributed stages. As a result, accurate and distributed maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) for each TEG module and single-stage power conversion between the modules and load can be achieved. It offers the benefit of implementing high MPPT efficiency and high conversion efficiency simultaneously. A 50-W TEG system composed of two TEG modules is built and tested. Experimental results show that the proposed hybrid power conditioning architecture generates up to 5% more energy for a temperature difference between the two modules of only 10°C.

  5. Optimization of Preparation Conditions for Lysozyme Nanoliposomes Using Response Surface Methodology and Evaluation of Their Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhipan Wu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to optimize the preparation of lysozyme nanoliposomes using response surface methodology and measure their stability. The stabilities of lysozyme nanoliposomes in simulated gastrointestinal fluid (SGF, simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, as well as pH, temperature and sonication treatment time were evaluated. Reverse-phase evaporation method is an easy, speedy, and beneficial approach for nanoliposomes’ preparation and optimization. The optimal preparative conditions were as follows: phosphatidylcholine-to-cholesterol ratio of 3.86, lysozyme concentration of 1.96 mg/mL, magnetic stirring time of 40.61 min, and ultrasound time of 14.15 min. At the optimal point, encapsulation efficiency and particle size were found to be 75.36% ± 3.20% and 245.6 nm ± 5.2 nm, respectively. The lysozyme nanoliposomes demonstrated certain stability in SGF and SIF at a temperature of 37 °C for 4 h, and short sonication handling times were required to attain nano-scaled liposomes. Under conditions of high temperature, acidity and alkalinity, lysozyme nanoliposomes are unstable.

  6. When congruence breeds preference: the influence of selective attention processes on evaluative conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blask, Katarina; Walther, Eva; Frings, Christian

    2017-09-01

    We investigated in two experiments whether selective attention processes modulate evaluative conditioning (EC). Based on the fact that the typical stimuli in an EC paradigm involve an affect-laden unconditioned stimulus (US) and a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS), we started from the assumption that learning might depend in part upon selective attention to the US. Attention to the US was manipulated by including a variant of the Eriksen flanker task in the EC paradigm. Similarly to the original Flanker paradigm, we implemented a target-distracter logic by introducing the CS as the task-relevant stimulus (i.e. the target) to which the participants had to respond and the US as a task-irrelevant distracter. Experiment 1 showed that CS-US congruence modulated EC if the CS had to be selected against the US. Specifically, EC was more pronounced for congruent CS-US pairs as compared to incongruent CS-US pairs. Experiment 2 disentangled CS-US congruence and CS-US compatibility and suggested that it is indeed CS-US stimulus congruence rather than CS-US response compatibility that modulates EC.

  7. New Methods for Evaluation of Spent Fuel Condition during Long-Term Storage in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mikloš

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiences with an advanced spent nuclear fuel management in Slovakia are presented in this paper. The evaluation and monitoring procedures are based on practices at the Slovak wet interim spent fuel storage facility in NPP Jaslovské Bohunice. Since 1999, leak testing of WWER-440 fuel assemblies are provided by special leak tightness detection system “Sipping in pool” delivered by Framatomeanp with external heating for the precise defects determination. In 2006, a new inspection stand “SVYP-440” for monitoring of spent nuclear fuel condition was inserted. This stand has the possibility to open WWER-440 fuel assemblies and examine fuel elements. Optimal ways of spent fuel disposal and monitoring of nuclear fuel condition were designed. With appropriate approach of conservativeness, new factor for specifying spent fuel leak tightness is introduced in the paper. By using computer simulations (based on SCALE 4.4a code for fission products creation and measurements by system “Sipping in pool,” the limit values of leak tightness were established.

  8. Converging evidence that subliminal evaluative conditioning does not affect self‐esteem or cardiovascular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Self‐esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self‐esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self‐esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self‐words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self‐esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self‐esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self‐esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self‐esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost‐effective and evidence‐based interventions. PMID:28795525

  9. Converging evidence that subliminal evaluative conditioning does not affect self-esteem or cardiovascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versluis, Anke; Verkuil, Bart; Brosschot, Jos F

    2018-04-01

    Self-esteem moderates the relationship between stress and (cardiovascular) health, with low self-esteem potentially exacerbating the impact of stressors. Boosting self-esteem may therefore help to buffer against stress. Subliminal evaluative conditioning (SEC), which subliminally couples self-words with positive words, has previously been successfully used to boost self-esteem, but the existing studies are in need of replication. In this article, we aimed to replicate and extend previous SEC studies. The first 2 experiments simultaneously examined whether SEC increased self-esteem (Experiment 1, n = 84) and reduced cardiovascular reactivity to a stressor in high worriers (Experiment 2, n = 77). On the basis of these results, the 3rd experiment was set up to examine whether an adjusted personalized SEC task increased self-esteem and reduced cardiac activity in high worriers (n = 81). Across the 3 experiments, no effects were found of SEC on implicit or explicit self-esteem or affect or on cardiovascular (re)activity compared to a control condition in which the self was coupled with neutral words. The results do not support the use of the subliminal intervention in its current format. As stress is highly prevalent, future studies should focus on developing other cost-effective and evidence-based interventions. © 2017 The Authors. Stress and Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. An in-well heat-tracer-test method for evaluating borehole flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellwood, Stephen M.; Hart, David J.; Bahr, Jean M.

    2015-12-01

    An improved method is presented for characterizing vertical borehole flow conditions in open boreholes using in-well heat tracer tests monitored by a distributed temperature sensing (DTS) system. This flow logging method uses an electrical resistance heater to warm slugs of water within bedrock boreholes and DTS monitoring of subsequent heat migration to measure borehole flow characteristics. Use of an electrical resistance heater allows for controlled test initiation, while the DTS allows for detailed monitoring of heat movement within the borehole. The method was evaluated in bedrock boreholes open to Cambrian sandstone formations in south-central Wisconsin (USA). The method was successfully used to measure upward flow, downward flow, and zero flow, and to identify changes in borehole flow rates associated with fracture flow and porous media flow. The main benefits of the DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer test method of borehole flow logging are (1) borehole flow direction and changes in borehole fluid velocity are readily apparent from a simple plot of the field data, (2) the case of zero vertical borehole flow is easily and confidently identified, and (3) the ability to monitor temperatures over the full borehole length simultaneously and in rapid succession provides detailed flow data with minimal disturbance of the borehole flow. The results of this study indicate that DTS-monitored in-well heat tracer tests are an effective method of characterizing borehole flow conditions.

  11. Evaluating sociodemographic and medical conditions of patients under home care service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Önder

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In our study, we aimed to reveal medical conditions and the sociodemographic conditions of patients under home care service. Methods: Our study is planned on 52 patients who are under home care service at Sarıkamış State Hospital between June 2013 and May 2014. Patients' sex, education, social security status, comorbid diseases and general health status were recorded. Results: Fifty-two patients enrolled. 21 of them (40.4% were men, 31 of them (59.6 % were women. It is revealed that In 36 patients (69.2% did not receive formal education throughout their lives, while16 (30.8% of them had only primary education. All female patients were housewives. The most frequent diseases in home care patients were cerebrovascular disease in 18 (34.6% subjects, Alzheimer's disease in 9 (17.3%, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 4 (7.7% d. 38 patients (73.1% needed routine follow-up. Most of the patients (61.5% had green card health insurance. Only 6 patients (11.5% were in need of narcotic analgesics. Thirteen patients had pressure ulcers due to immobilization. Evaluating the exercise capacity of the patients; 43 (82.7% could not dressed themselves, 38 (73.1% could not use phone. Thirty-two patients had urinary incontinence and 31 had fecal incontinence. Conclusion: Today, population of patients who need home care service is increasing due to ease access to home care service and increase in survival. For a better care of patients, home care providers should be well educated and differences on features of patients and medical conditions it should be taken into consideration.

  12. Clinical studies with disposable diapers containing absorbent gelling materials: evaluation of effects on infant skin condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R L; Seymour, J L; Stone, L C; Milligan, M C

    1987-12-01

    Disposable infant diapers with absorbent gelling material (cross-linked sodium polyacrylates) incorporated into the core were clinically evaluated for their effect on infant skin condition. Absorbent gelling materials tightly hold water and provide pH control by a buffering capacity as well as by helping to segregate urine apart from feces. Four clinical studies were conducted with each following a rigid protocol that controlled for variables of diet and age in addition to the diaper material that may influence the development of diaper dermatitis and helped to control for any inherent bias in the study. This allowed for the controlled assessment of skin condition with respect to diaper type. Absorbent gelling material-containing disposable, conventional (100% cellulose core) disposable, and home-laundered cloth diapers were test products. In these studies 1614 infants were initially enrolled with 522 of them assigned to absorbent gelling material disposable, 738 to conventional disposable, and 354 to home-laundered cloth diapers. Objective measurements of skin wetness (transepidermal water loss) and skin pH, as well as double-blind grading of diaper dermatitis, were the measures of skin condition. Absorbent gelling material disposable diapers were associated with significantly reduced skin wetness, closer to normal skin pH, and lower degrees of diaper dermatitis when compared to conventional disposable or home-laundered cloth diapers. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that better control in the diaper area of skin wetness, skin pH, and the prevention of the mixing of urine and feces produces a better diaper environment.

  13. Evaluation of Environmental Conditions on the Curing Of Commercial Fixative and Intumescent Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-01-10

    Performance metrics for evaluating commercial fixatives are often not readily available for important parameters that must be considered per the facility safety basis and the facility Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). One such parameter is the behavior of such materials in varied, “non-ideal” conditions where ideal is defined as 75 °F, 40% RH. Coupled with the inherent flammable nature of the fixative materials that can act to propagate flame along surfaces that are otherwise fireproof (concrete, sheet metal), much is left unknown when considering the safety basis implications for introducing these materials into nuclear facilities. Through SRNL’s efforts, three (3) fixatives, one (1) decontamination gel, and six (6) intumescent coatings were examined for their responses to environmental conditions to determine whether these materials were impervious to non-nominal temperatures and humidities that may be found in nuclear facilities. Characteristics that were examined included set-to-touch time, dust free time, and adhesion testing of the fully cured compounds. Of these ten materials, three were two-part epoxy materials while the other seven consisted of only one constituent. The results show that the epoxies tested are unable to cure in sub-freezing temperatures, with the low temperatures inhibiting crosslinking to a very significant degree. These efforts show significant inhibiting of performance for non-nominal environmental conditions, something that must be addressed both in the decision process for a fixative material to apply and per the safety basis to ensure the accurate flammability and material at risk is calculated.

  14. Evaluation of Environmental Conditions on the Curing Of Commercial Fixative and Intumescent Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholson, J. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-26

    Performance metrics for evaluating commercial fixatives are often not readily available for important parameters that must be considered per the facility safety basis and the facility Basis for Interim Operations (BIO). One such parameter is the behavior of such materials in varied, “non-ideal” conditions where ideal is defined as 75 °F, 40% RH. Coupled with the inherent flammable nature of the fixative materials that can act to propagate flame along surfaces that are otherwise fireproof (concrete, sheet metal), much is left unknown when considering the safety basis implications for introducing these materials into nuclear facilities. Through SRNL’s efforts, three (3) fixatives, one (1) decontamination gel, and six (6) intumescent coatings were examined for their responses to environmental conditions to determine whether these materials were impervious to non-nominal temperatures and humidities that may be found in nuclear facilities. Characteristics that were examined included set-to-touch time, dust free time, and adhesion testing of the fully cured compounds. Of these ten materials, three were two-part epoxy materials while the other seven consisted of only one constituent. The results show that the epoxies tested are unable to cure in sub-freezing temperatures, with the low temperatures inhibiting crosslinking to a very significant degree. These efforts show significant inhibiting of performance for non-nominal environmental conditions, something that must be addressed both in the decision process for a fixative material to apply and per the safety basis to ensure the accurate flammability and material at risk is calculated.

  15. Evaluation of Image According to Exposure Conditions using Contrast-Detail Phantom for Chest Digital Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, In Ja [Dept. of Radiologic Tecnology, Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, You Hyun; Kim, Chang Nam [Dept. of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Nam; Lee, Chang Yeob; Park, Kye Yeon [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    To find out proper photographing conditions in the chest DR imaging, the evaluation of images using the C-D phantom was carried out on relationship of identification capability, graininess, and exposure ratio. The conclusions were obtained as follows. 1. The patient's entrance skin Exposure (ESE) was decreased as tube voltage was increased. 2. According to the tube voltage change, the C-D phantom's identification capability of the exposure conditions was most visible at 110 kVp. 3. The identification capability according to the exposure ratio (mAs) change was most visible at 90 kVp for 0.5 times of low exposure ratio and at 110 kVp for 1.5 times. Therefore, it is known that the images were able to be better identified at a high exposure than a low exposure. 4. The graininess according to the exposure ratio at tube voltage of 110 kVp resulted in the best thing at 1.5 times of ratio when the exposure ratio was 1.5 times increased and the tube voltage was changed, the graininess showed the best result at 110 kVp. Therefore, the patient's exposure dose was low when kVp was increased and the adequate kVp was found to be 110. The image was better identified when exposure ratio was 1.5 times compared to 1.0 times. The graininess was also good when the exposure ratio became 1.5 times. The tube voltage was good at 110 kVp. However, once the exposure ratio is increased, the amount of radiation dose that the patients received get increased, so that the exposure condition has to be thoroughly considered.

  16. Preliminary development of flaw evaluation procedures for delayed hydride cracking initiation under hydride non-ratcheting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, S.; Cui, J.; Kawa, D.; Shek, G.K.; Scarth, D.A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The flaw evaluation procedure for Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) initiation currently provided in the CSA Standard N285.8 was developed for hydride ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides do not completely dissolve at peak temperature. Test results have shown that hydrided regions formed under non-ratcheting conditions, in which flaw-tip hydrides completely dissolve at peak temperature, have significantly higher resistance to cracking than those formed under ratcheting conditions. This paper presents some preliminary work on the development of a procedure for the evaluation of DHC initiation for flaws under hydride non-ratcheting conditions. (author)

  17. Neutronics and Fuel Performance Evaluation of Accident Tolerant Fuel under Normal Operation Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Wu; Piyush Sabharwall; Jason Hales

    2014-07-01

    This report details the analysis of neutronics and fuel performance analysis for enhanced accident tolerance fuel, with Monte Carlo reactor physics code Serpent and INL’s fuel performance code BISON, respectively. The purpose is to evaluate two of the most promising candidate materials, FeCrAl and Silicon Carbide (SiC), as the fuel cladding under normal operating conditions. Substantial neutron penalty is identified when FeCrAl is used as monolithic cladding for current oxide fuel. From the reactor physics standpoint, application of the FeCrAl alloy as coating layer on surface of zircaloy cladding is possible without increasing fuel enrichment. Meanwhile, SiC brings extra reactivity and the neutron penalty is of no concern. Application of either FeCrAl or SiC could be favorable from the fuel performance standpoint. Detailed comparison between monolithic cladding and hybrid cladding (cladding + coating) is discussed. Hybrid cladding is more practical based on the economics evaluation during the transition from current UO2/zircaloy to Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) system. However, a few issues remain to be resolved, such as the creep behavior of FeCrAl, coating spallation, inter diffusion with zirconium, etc. For SiC, its high thermal conductivity, excellent creep resistance, low thermal neutron absorption cross section, irradiation stability (minimal swelling) make it an excellent candidate materials for future nuclear fuel/cladding system.

  18. Agronomic Evaluation of Sorghum Hybrids for Silage Production Cultivated in Semiarid Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Alexandre F; Carvalho, Gleidson G P; Santos, Edson M; Bezerra, Higor F C; Silva, Thiago C; Pereira, Gildenia A; Ramos, Rosângela C S; Rodrigues, José A S

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the agronomic traits of different Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench hybrids for silage productionin semiarid conditions. It was a 1-year evaluation conducted in a randomized block design with 24 treatments and three replicates. The treatments were sorghum hybrids developed by the breeding program of "Embrapa Milho e Sorgo" (Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation). The fresh matter yield (FMY) in the first cut varied from 22,643.56 to 44,033.15 kg/ha, with an average of 32,607.37 kg/ha, leading to the formation of two groups. Similar results were observed for the dry matter yield (DMY), in which the highest group yielded from 9,471.32 to 14,540.23 kg/ha dry matter (DM). For plant regrowth, there was an increase in the number of stems and a decrease in the amount of panicles. Two groups were formed for the accumulated dry matter yield (ADMY), averaging 14,217.91 kg/ha; the highest group showed mean values of 18,003.00 to 14,221.94 kg/ha. The evaluated sorghum hybrids exhibited satisfactory accumulated forage yields due to their high yield in regrowth, which indicates that they are suitable for use in animal production systems in semi-arid regions.

  19. Neural network model for evaluation of seedling vigour under clinostated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, M.; Murase, H.

    A hierarchical neural net can be applied to simulate nonlinear phenomena found in biological systems. The learning process of the hierarchical neural net can be used as an algorithm for nonlinear multivariate analysis. The non- invasive technique for monitoring the plant's growth stage is one part of the required technology of the bio-response feedback control system. The stage of a plant's growth can be identified or quantified by measuring physical indices. Automated monitoring is also necessary in the clinostat experiment and neural networks are used for the calibration of lettuce plant growth. A back propagation neural network was trained to evaluate the plant growth in terms of plant growth characteristics, with a network consisting of 4, 8 and 1 processing units in the input, hidden and output layers, respectively. Sixteen sets of training data were used. The training was terminated after 800 times of iterative calculations at the RMS error value equal to 3.35x10-3 . Four sets of validation data were used to calculate the prediction error. The ability of the neural network models to predict the required information is very accurate. As a result, there is potential for the present technique to be applied to seedling vigour evaluating system under the clinostated conditions.

  20. Thermographic evaluation of climatic conditions on lambs from different genetic groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado Paim, Tiago; Borges, Bárbara Oliveira; de Mello Tavares Lima, Paulo; Gomes, Edgard Franco; Dallago, Bruno Stéfano Lima; Fadel, Rossala; de Menezes, Adriana Morato; Louvandini, Helder; Canozzi, Maria Eugênia Andrighetto; Barcellos, Júlio Otavio Jardim; McManus, Concepta

    2013-01-01

    In production systems the characterization of genetic resources in relation to their capacity to respond to environmental conditions is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of infrared thermography for separation of animals from different genetic groups and determine which phenotypic traits are important for climatic adaptation. A total of 126 suckling lambs from four different genetic groups (Santa Inês - SI, Bergamasca - B, Bergamasca X Santa Inês - BS, and Ile de France X Santa Inês - IL) were used. The animals were divided into two groups, one housed and another in an outside paddock. Thermograph photographs were taken at four-hour intervals over three full days. Temperatures of the nose, skull, neck, fore and rear flanks and rump were measured, as well as coat depth, the density and length of hairs, reflectance and color. The daily temperature range during the experimental period was more than 20°C, with animals experiencing heat (12 h to 15 h) and cold (24 h to 4 h) stress. The three main phenotypic traits that influenced genetic group separation were hair density, height of coat, and length of hairs. Thermograph temperatures were able to detect different responses of the genetic groups to the environment. Therefore, infrared thermography is a promising technique to evaluate the response of animals to the environment and to differentiate between genetic groups.

  1. Seismic Design Value Evaluation Based on Checking Records and Site Geological Conditions Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tienfuan Kerh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an improved computational neural network model that uses three seismic parameters (i.e., local magnitude, epicentral distance, and epicenter depth and two geological conditions (i.e., shear wave velocity and standard penetration test value as the inputs for predicting peak ground acceleration—the key element for evaluating earthquake response. Initial comparison results show that a neural network model with three neurons in the hidden layer can achieve relatively better performance based on the evaluation index of correlation coefficient or mean square error. This study further develops a new weight-based neural network model for estimating peak ground acceleration at unchecked sites. Four locations identified to have higher estimated peak ground accelerations than that of the seismic design value in the 24 subdivision zones are investigated in Taiwan. Finally, this study develops a new equation for the relationship of horizontal peak ground acceleration and focal distance by the curve fitting method. This equation represents seismic characteristics in Taiwan region more reliably and reasonably. The results of this study provide an insight into this type of nonlinear problem, and the proposed method may be applicable to other areas of interest around the world.

  2. Morphological evaluation of buffelgrass cultivar “Lucero INTA-PEMAN” in drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIFFA, S.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In searching for new cultivars that are better adapted to edapho-climatic constraints existing in northwestern Argentina, mainly drought and salinity stress, a hybrid of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. named Lucero INTA PEMAN was obtained by controlled crosses at the Instituto de Fitopatología y Fisiología Vegetal, INTA. The objective was to morphologically evaluate and compare Cenchrus ciliaris cv Lucero with Texas-4464, Biloela and Molopo cultivars in Dean Funes (North of the Province of Córdoba, Argentina under drought field conditions using a randomized complete block design with three replications in two crop cycles (2006/2007 and 2007/2008 considering one-year plant and re-growth as ontogenic stages of the plant, respectively. Thirteen morphological characters were analyzed by ANOVA and DGC testing (p <0.05. Although most of the thirteen morphological characters evaluated showed decreased re-growth over one-year plants, Lucero was least affected by low water availability, showed highest values for seed production components in both ontogenic stages and was superior to Texas-4464 in biomass production characters and to Biloela and Molopo cultivars in most of them. Lucero showed a promising and considerable forage value for drought-affected regions, such as northwestern Argentina.

  3. Relationship between self-assessment and clinical evaluation of dental plaque and gingival condition in Japanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizuma, Y; Zaitsu, T; Ueno, M; Ohnuki, M; Kawaguchi, Y

    2018-02-01

    To apply a self-administered assessment form about dental plaque level and gingival condition to Japanese adolescents and to examine the extent to which they can evaluate their own dental plaque and gingivae by comparing with dentists' clinical evaluation. Participants were 151 senior high school students (adolescents) who observed their own mouths and recorded dental plaque seen on their 12 anterior teeth, and gingival inflammation condition of 10 anterior interdental papillae, on a self-assessment form. Dentists clinically evaluated dental plaque using the, modified Debris Index (modified DI) and gingival condition, modified PMA index (P-index). "Recognition score" of dental plaque and gingival condition was the total number of agreement between the adolescents' self-assessment and dentists' evaluation. Proportion of agreement on dental plaque between the adolescents' self-assessment and dentists' evaluation with modified DI was 37.4%, and agreement on modified DI score 1, 2 or 3 was significantly lower than that on score 0 (Pplaque or gingival condition were significantly lower in adolescents with fair or poor modified DI or P-index than in those with good condition (Pplaque and gingival condition. Adolescents with poorer dental plaque level or gingival condition had lower recognition scores compared to those with better oral health. Improving oral health self-assessment skills could help adolescents achieve better oral health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Heterogeneity of chromosome damage in [beta]-thalassaemia traits. An evaluation of spontaneous and [gamma]-ray-induced micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes in vitro after G[sub 0] and G[sub 2] phase irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaja, A.P.; Sharma, N.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Molecular Biology and Agriculture Div.)

    1994-07-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the chromosomal radiosensitivity of [beta]-thalassaemia traits compared with healthy individuals from the general population, necessitated by the fact that [beta]-thalassaemia trait is present in 1-17% of different population groups in India and the chances of encountering them in radiation and chemical related industries do exist. Spontaneous chromosome aberration frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes from [beta]-thalassaemia traits were found to be in the normal range, whereas significantly higher frequencies of micronuclei (MN) were observed in thalassaemia traits. Based on MN frequency at 2 Gy, [beta]-thalassaemia traits fall into two distinct categories. A hypersensitive group with significant increase in radiation-induced MN over the control group, and a second group with MN frequency slightly above normal individuals. Even when compared with the fitted data at 2 Gy obtained from the pooled results of extensive dose-response investigations from 0.5-5 Gy [gamma]-rays with normal donors for MN, dicentrics and total aberrations, the difference between the means of MN frequencies in [beta]-thalassaemia traits and normals is significant. (author).

  5. Sustainability Of Electricity Supply Technologies Under German Conditions: A Comparative Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Burgherr, P.; Schenler, W.; Bauer, C.

    2005-01-01

    The study reported here is intended to provide a framework for a systematic comparative evaluation of the sustainability of energy systems. The existing, representative evaluation criteria and indicators, recently proposed by competent international organisations, have first been reviewed. Based on this survey, and the experience gained at PSI from previous evaluation studies, a set of criteria and indicators for use in the present project have been established. Main efforts have focussed on the generation of quantitative, technology-specific, economic, environmental and social indicators. A number of methods have been employed, including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), Risk Assessment (RA), and the Impact Pathway Approach (IPA). Some new, advanced methodologies have also been implemented, in particular an improved link between LCA and impact estimation, and an enhanced treatment of site-dependent effects. Two methods of indicator aggregation were employed: namely, the estimation of total (internal and external) costs, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA). Use of MCDA is motivated principally by the acknowledgement of the role of value judgments in decision-making. In terms of total costs, nuclear power displays top performance under German conditions, superior to all other currently implemented technologies. Evaluations employing a variety of sustainability criteria result in a fragmented picture of the merits and drawbacks of the currently available electricity supply options. No single system exhibits superior performance on the basis of all criteria. MCDA ranking based on the three pillars of sustainability of economy, ecology and social, is relatively robust if the pillars are considered to be equally important, and the weighting of lower-level criteria (e.g. financial requirements or employment effects) is subject to variation. Placing emphasis on economy penalizes renewables, while emphasis on the environment penalizes fossil systems, and emphasis on

  6. Evaluation of the oil Produced from lettuce crop cultivated under three irrigation conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan El-Mallah, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Three oil lettuce seed samples (lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 were cultivated under three irrigation conditions (well, normal and water deficient conditions, after 10, 20 and 30 days respectively to evaluate their oils and to see to what extent the oil lettuce plant resists draught conditions. The oils extracted from the three seed samples were evaluated by determining eight lipid profiles using HPLC in conjunction with capillary GLC. Lettuce seed oils are characterized by high contents of linoleic and oleic acids. Of the triacyl glycerols determined, those containing linoleyl and oleyl acyles are the major ones. The whole sterol profiles include β-sitosterol (as major component followed by 7-stigmasterol, campesterol and 5-stigmasterol, which were found in all the lettuce seed oil samples but with slight differences. Furthermore, sterol patterns of the free and acylated sterols, free and acylated sterylglycosides were determined. It was found that LS30 oil has the highest tocopherol content and α-tocopherol is the only constituent in all the lettuce seed oil samples. On the other hand, the 2-position in the lettuce seed oil samples is mainly acylated by unsaturated fatty acids (98.6% namely, oleic and linoleic acids. According to these results, it can be concluded that irrigation conditions do not affect the lipid constituents of the oil and the oil lettuce plant resists draught and its lipid profiles are in agreement with those of conventional vegetable oils.

    Tres muestras de semillas de lechuga (Lactuca Sativa LS10, LS20, LS30 se cultivaron bajo tres condiciones de riego (bien regado, normal y con deficiencia de agua, después de 10, 20 y 30 días, respectivamente para evaluar sus aceites y ver hasta qué punto el aceite de la planta de lechuga resiste las condiciones de riego. Los aceites extraídos de las tres muestras de semillas se evaluó mediante la determinación de ocho perfiles de lípidos usando cromatograf

  7. A FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION AS A CONDITION OF CORPORATE MANAGEMENT DECISIONS MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia Bieliaieva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to substantiate, on the real figures, the need for enterprise’s financial and economic activities analysis as a condition of management decisions making to achieve the success of the company. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison and analysis of data from the organization top management. So using matrix analysis in the paper, the financial and economic activities effectiveness is evaluated. Based on these calculations, it is possible to make conclusions about the necessity of an identified management decisions regarding the future activity of the company. Results. Daily managers of various function levels accept hundreds and thousands of decisions regarding seemingly slight problems of the organization in general. At the same time, every such a decision, especially relating to the activity of the whole structure, should be clearly justified. Such a need stems from the fact that every decision leads to certain consequences. If there is a need to make a decision relating to the future of the enterprise (e.g., embodiment, reorganization, etc., it should be based on the data of the entire structure. And that is generally very difficult to do. Many factors complicate the possibility of comprehensive evaluation of the company’s activity. At the same time, analysis of basic indicators will provide the specialist with some directions according to which the priority of the analysis can be indicated and appropriate management decision can be made. Practical implications. It is built an effectiveness matrix of financial and economic activities of the enterprise. Analysis of financial and economic activities makes it possible to design necessary strategic and tactical plan for the enterprise development, revealing its reserves of production efficiency increasing. So the aim of the paper is the assessment of the effectiveness of financial and economic activities of the company on the base of matrix analysis as a

  8. Evaluation of permeable and non-permeable tritium in normal condition in a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, V; Manuel, P J [Instituto de Fusion Nuclear (DENIM)/ETSII, Universidad Politecnica Madrid (UPM) (Spain); Sedano Luis, A [Ministerio de Educacion y Ciencia, Ciemat (Spain)], E-mail: marta@denim.upm.es

    2008-05-15

    The tritium cycle, technologies of process and control of the tritium in the plant will constitute a fraction of the environmental impact of the first generation of DT fusion reactors. The efforts of conceptual development of the tritium cycle are centered in the Internal Regenerator Cycle. The tritium could be recovered from a flow of He gas, or directly from solid breeder. The limits of transfers to the atmosphere are assumed {approx} 1 gr-T/a ({approx}20 Ci/a) (without species distinction). In the case of ITER, for example, we have global demands of control of 5 orders of magnitude have been demonstrated at experimental level. The transfer limits determine the key parameters in tritium Cycle (HT, HTO, as dominant, and T2, T2O as marginal). Presently, the transfer from the cycle to the environment is assumed through the exchange system of the power plant (primary to secondary). That transport is due to the permeation through HT, T2, or leakage to the coolant in the primary system. It is key the chemical optimization in the primary system, that needs to be reanalyzed in terms of radiological impact both for permeable, HT, T2, and non-permeable HTO, T2O. It is necessary considered the pathway of tritium from the reactor to the atmosphere, these processes are modelled adequately. Results of the assessments were early and chronic doses which have been evaluated for the Most Exposed Individual at particular distance bands from the release point. The impact evaluations will be performed with the computational tools (NORMTRI), besides national regulatory models, internationally accepted computer these code for dosimetric evaluations of tritiated effluents in operational conditions.

  9. Evaluation of the optimal condition for transabdominal US in diagnosis of esophageal varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung Shin; Shin, Jung Hee; Baek, Seung Yon [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-15

    To evaluate whether there is any difference in thickness of the distal esophageal wall in various examination conditions including at rest, during Valsalva maneuver and after drinking cold water and to search the optimal condition for transabdominal US examination in diagnosis for esophageal varix. Transabdominal ultrasonography was prospectively performed in forty one patients with esophageal varix confirmed by endoscopy and underlying liver. The thickness of the anterior distal esophageal wall was measured three times consecutively and calculated the mean thickness at rest, during Valsalva maneuver and following drinking cold water. At the same time, the normal control group consisted of forty four normal patients, and the mean thickness wa calculated in the same method to established the normal value. Data obtained by both measures were compared and analyzed ANOVA and Tuckey multiple comparison. The mean thickness of the distal esophageal wall in variceal group was 5.20 {+-} 1.82 mm at rest, 6.07 {+-} 2.01 mm during Valsalva maneuver, 4.07 {+-} 1.61 mm following drinking cold water. The mean thickness of the esophageal wall increased during Valsalva maneuver and decreased following drinking cold water when compared to the mean thickness at rest. There was a statistically significant difference in the mean thickness measured at rest, during Valsalva maneuver and following drinking clod water among each grade of esophageal varix, grade I (n=19), grade II (n=10), grade III (n=12) (p=0.00, p=0.01, and p=0.01, respectively) Meanwhile, the mean thickness of the normal control group was 2.74 {+-} 0.74 mm at rest, 3.46 {+-} 1.00 mm during Valsalva maneuver, and 2.29 {+-} 0.65 mm following drinking cold water (p=0.00). In order to accurately diagnose esophageal varix and to estimate grade using transabdominal ultrasonography, the maintenance of the same examining condition is essential, and the measurement done at rest appears to be the optimal condition for the

  10. Efficiency Evaluation of Open-Loop GHPS Operation Under Various Hydrogeological Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S.; Kim, S.; Bae, G.; Lee, K.

    2008-12-01

    Geothermal heat pump system (GHPS) can be cost-effective renewable energy sources. In order to develop the GHPS which has certain hydrogeological characteristics, understanding the thermohydraulic process of an aquifer is necessary for effective usage of open-loop GHPS. Experimental and numerical tests are performed for two concepts of open-loop GHPS: simple open-loop and energy storage concept. In simple open-loop sets, tests were performed fixing the locations of pumping and injection wells. In contrast, tests in energy storage sets were conducted by changing the locations of wells in a seasonal cycle. Experimental test using sand tank was performed only for the simple open-loop concept, while numerical tests were performed for the both concepts. Numerical modeling results using FEFLOW were compatible with the experimental results. In the simple open-loop sets, the temporal temperature change in a pumping well was measured. Effective operation conditions are obtained with high hydraulic conductivity (3X10-3 m/s) and long distance (60 cm) between wells on hydraulic gradient 0.025 because the effect of injected water temperature must be minimized. In the energy storage sets, thermal recovery factors (R) under various conditions were calculated to evaluate the efficiency. Low hydraulic conductivity (3X10-5 m/s), hydraulic gradient 0.0 and long well distance (more than 20 m) are the best conditions for operation efficiency (R=37.92) because faster groundwater flow lead to advection or down-gradient `drift' of stored energy beyond potential recovery regions. In the case of two-layered aquifer, the porosity and groundwater flow characteristics of each layer sensitively affected the migration of thermal plume. Two-layered aquifer with the top-layer of low hydraulic conductivity (3X10-5 m/s) and porosity (0.2) is profitable for the effective open-loop GHPS operation under hydraulic gradient 0.0 and well distance (20 m). The results from experimental and numerical tests

  11. Spontaneous Regression of a Cervical Disk Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Delen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A 54 years old female patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a two months history of muscle spasms of her neck and pain radiating to the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging had shown a large left-sided paracentral disk herniation at the C6-C7 disk space (Figure 1. Neurological examination showed no obvious neurological deficit. She received conservative treatment including bed rest, rehabilitation, and analgesic drugs. After 13 months, requested by the patient, a second magnetic resonance imaging study showed resolution of the disc herniation.(Figure 2 Although the literature contains several reports about spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar disc without surgical intervention, that of phenomenon reported for herniated cervical level is rare, and such reports are few[1]. In conclusion, herniated intervertebral disc have the potential to spontaneously regress independently from the spine level. With further studies, determining the predictive signs for prognostic evaluation for spontaneous regression which would yield to conservative treatment would be beneficial.

  12. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part Two: Yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of Chenopodium quinoa cultivation effects in Poland has been compared with European research results. It was found that the conditions in Europe are favorable to Chenopodium quinoa cultivation. Poland has the mean length of the vegetation period. The maximum value of this trait was found in Sweden. The conditions in Bydgoszcz (Poland are very favorable to the cultivation for green matter and favorable as far as the seed yield is concerned. The most favorable seed yield was recorded in Greece.

  13. Travelers' use of the WSDOT traffic conditions web site : customer satisfaction evaluation -- Metropolitan Model Deployment Initiative : Seattle, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-28

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of public use of the Washington State Department of Transportation's (WSDOT) traffic conditions web site. This research was sponsored by the US Department of Transportation to assess customer satisfac...

  14. Evaluation of video detection systems, volume 4 : effects of adverse weather conditions in the performance of video detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    The performance of three video detection systems (VDS): Iteris, Autoscope, and Peek, was evaluated : using a side-by-side installation at a signalized intersection under various adverse weather conditions including : rain and snow in both day and nig...

  15. Evaluation of resilient abutment components on measured strain using dynamic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D; Stanford, C M; Aquilino, S A

    1998-07-01

    Complete abutments for the crosshead speed and ultimate loads evaluated. Results indicate the cadaver bone behaved in an elastic manner within the load range evaluated, and as such represents a viable in vitro experimental model. Under these conditions, polyoxymethylene abutment components do not affect measurable bone strain in response to variable loading when compared with titanium.

  16. Evaluation of Landslide Mapping Techniques and LiDAR-based Conditioning Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalingam, R.; Olsen, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Landslides are a major geohazard, which result in significant human, infrastructure, and economic losses. Landslide susceptibility mapping can help communities to plan and prepare for these damaging events. Mapping landslide susceptible locations using GIS and remote sensing techniques is gaining popularity in the past three decades. These efforts use a wide variety of procedures and consider a wide range of factors. Unfortunately, each study is often completed differently and independently of others. Further, the quality of the datasets used varies in terms of source, data collection, and generation, which can propagate errors or inconsistencies into the resulting output maps. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) has proved to have higher accuracy in representing the continuous topographic surface, which can help minimize this uncertainty. The primary objectives of this paper are to investigate the applicability and performance of terrain factors in landslide hazard mapping, determine if LiDAR-derived datasets (slope, slope roughness, terrain roughness, stream power index and compound topographic index) can be used for predictive mapping without data representing other common landslide conditioning factors, and evaluate the differences in landslide susceptibility mapping using widely-used statistical approaches. The aforementioned factors were used to produce landslide susceptibility maps for a 140 km2 study area in northwest Oregon using six representative techniques: frequency ratio, weights of evidence, logistic regression, discriminant analysis, artificial neural network, and support vector machine. Most notably, the research showed an advantage in selecting fewer critical conditioning factors. The most reliable factors all could be derived from a single LiDAR DEM, reducing the need for laborious and costly data gathering. Most of the six techniques showed similar statistical results; however, ANN showed less accuracy for predictive mapping. Keywords : Li

  17. Analysis and evaluation of (neuro)peptides in honey bees exposed to pesticides in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ramos, María Del Mar; Gómez Ramos, María José; Martínez Galera, María; Gil García, María Dolores; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2018-04-01

    During the last years, declines in honey bee colonies are being registered worldwide. Cholinergic pesticides and their extensive use have been correlated to the decline of pollinators and there is evidence that pesticides act as neuroendocrine disruptors affecting the metabolism of neuropeptides. However, there is a big absence of studies with quantitative results correlating the effect of pesticide exposure with changes on neuropeptides insects, and most of them are conducted under laboratory conditions, typically with individual active ingredients. In this study, we present an analytical workflow to evaluate pesticide effects on honey bees through the analysis of (neuro)peptides. The workflow consists of a rapid extraction method and liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole for preselected neuropeptides. For non-target analysis, high resolution mass spectrometry, multivariate analysis and automatic identification of discriminated peptides using a specific software and protein sequence databases. The analytical method was applied to the analysis of target and non-target (neuro)peptides in honey bees with low and high content of a wide range of pesticides to which have been exposed in field conditions. Our findings show that the identification frequency of target neuropeptides decreases significantly in honey bees with high concentration of pesticides (pesticide concentrations ≥ 500 μg kg -1 ) in comparison with the honey bees with low content of pesticides (pesticide concentrations ≤ 20 μg kg -1 ). Moreover, the principal component analysis in non-target search shows a clear distinction between peptide concentration in honey bees with high level of pesticides and honey bees with low level. The use of high resolution mass spectrometry has allowed the identification of 25 non-redundant peptides responsible for discrimination between the two groups, derived from 18 precursor proteins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the shear bond strength of the Orthobond composite under different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos de Oliveira Ruellas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the shear bond strength of metal brackets bonded with Orthobond composite (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil under different enamel surface conditions. Methods: Ninety bovine mandibular permanent incisors were divided into six groups (n = 15. In Group 1 (control and Group 2 the bonding procedures were performed by using Transbond XT (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA and Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil composites,respectively, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. In the other groups brackets were bonded with Orthobond composite (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil as follows: Group 3 – dental surface conditioned with Transbond Plus Self-Etching Primer (3M Unitek, Monrovia, USA; Group 4 – bonding procedure without application of Orthoprimer (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil; Group 5 - Eagle Bond applied on saliva/blood-contaminated dental surface; and Group 6 – use of homogenized Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil. After bonding the brackets, all the samples were submitted to shear bond strength tests by means of an Emic Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The results obtained in mega Pascal (MPa were submitted to the analysis of variance (ANOVA and then to the Tukey test. Results: The results in mega Pascal showed statistically significant differences between Groups 1 and 2 (p= 0.041, 1 and 5 (p=0.000 and between 4 and 5 (p=0.016. The ARI (Adhesive Remnant Index scores showed evidence of a higher number of fractures at the bracket/composite interface. Conclusion: In all tested situations the Orthobond (Dental Morelli Ltda, Sorocaba, Brazil was shown to be apt for bracket bonding.

  19. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  20. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  1. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  2. Evaluation of the development and yielding potential of Chenopodium quinoa Willd. under the climatic conditions of Europe. Part one: accomodation of Chenopodium quinoa (Willd. to different conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gęsiński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evaluation of selected varieties of Chenopodium quinoa, their requirements were identified; it was shown which varieties demonstrated the best effects in what conditions. It was found that the best varieties for Europe's conditions were E-DK-4-PQCIP and RU-5-PQCIP. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety showed the best effects under the conditions of cluster II which included e.g. Bydgoszcz (Poland and cluster IV which included Southern European countries (Greece and Italy, while the best effects found in RU-5-PQCIP variety were identified in cluster I which included Sweden. E-DK-4-PQCIP variety in cluster II showed a very high yield of green matter and a mean seed yield, and in cluster IV - a very high seed yield and a high yield of green matter.

  3. Availability analysis of mechanical systems with condition-based maintenance using semi-Markov and evaluation of optimal condition monitoring interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Girish; Jain, Vipul; Gandhi, O. P.

    2018-03-01

    Maintenance helps to extend equipment life by improving its condition and avoiding catastrophic failures. Appropriate model or mechanism is, thus, needed to quantify system availability vis-a-vis a given maintenance strategy, which will assist in decision-making for optimal utilization of maintenance resources. This paper deals with semi-Markov process (SMP) modeling for steady state availability analysis of mechanical systems that follow condition-based maintenance (CBM) and evaluation of optimal condition monitoring interval. The developed SMP model is solved using two-stage analytical approach for steady-state availability analysis of the system. Also, CBM interval is decided for maximizing system availability using Genetic Algorithm approach. The main contribution of the paper is in the form of a predictive tool for system availability that will help in deciding the optimum CBM policy. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for a centrifugal pump.

  4. Capability of multiple selection criteria to evaluate contrasting spring wheat germplasms under arid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Suhaibani, N. A.; SALAH, E.; El-Hendawy, S. E.; Al-Gaadi, K.; Rehman, S. U.

    2015-01-01

    Selection criteria that would evaluate a large number of germplasm in a rapid and non-destructive manner would be considered advantageous in plant breeding programs. Trade-off between traditional and non-destructive screening criteria in evaluating 90 wheat accessions under water shortage was tested using multivariate statistical techniques. Only three irrigations during the growing cycle of germplasm were applied with the amount of water totalling 2550 m /sup 3/ ha /sup -1/. Sequential path analysis identified one traditional trait (grain weight per plant) and two non-destructive traits (leaf area index and stomatal conductance) as important first-order traits that influenced final grain yield. The three traits, taken together, explained 96.8 percentage of the total variation in grain yield. Total dry weight per plant, green leaf area per plant, harvest index, grain number per plant, leaf water content and canopy temperature were identified as important second-order traits that influenced grain yield. Although canopy temperature was ranked as a second-order trait, it explained 64.4 percentage of the total variation in stomatal conductance. Approximately 78.0 percentage of the total variation in grain weight or leaf area index was explained by the leaf water content (66.2 percentage) and total dry weight (11.5 percentage). The 90 examined spring wheat germplasms were grouped into five clusters based on all agro-physiological traits using the centroid linkage method. The tested wheat germplasm that produce high grain yield under water shortage were characterised by good performance of certain rapid, easy and non-destructive physiological traits such as high leaf area index, high stomatal conductance and low canopy temperature. Therefore, these three traits could be used in combination as quick and easy screening criteria to select suitable genotypes for water-limiting conditions. (author)

  5. Express-evaluation of the psycho-physiological condition of Paralympic athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozdovski A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Alexander Drozdovski,1 Irina Gromova,2 Konstantin Korotkov,1 Oleg Shelkov,1 Femi Akinnagbe31Saint Petersburg Federal Research Institute of Physical Culture and Sport, St Petersburg, Russia; 2Paralympic Team of Russia, Moscow, Russia; 3Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USAObjective: Evaluation of elite athletes’ psycho-physiological condition at various stages of preparation and in international competition.Design: Athletes were tested during training and participation in international competition using methods of galvanic skin response (GSR and gas discharge visualization (GDV.Setting: Saint Petersburg Federal Research Institute of Physical Culture and Sport, Russia and Paralympic athletic training camp, Norway.Participants: Eighteen athletes from Russia’s Skiing and Biathlon Paralympic Team. All athletes had some level of damage to their musculoskeletal system.Main outcome measures: Stress level (SL, energy potential (EP, and psycho-emotional tension (PET.Results: It was found that the higher the level of EP achieved by the athlete in the training period, the lower the SL in the competition time. The SL of an athlete recorded in the training period significantly correlates with the SL both before and at the time of competition. The PET and SL before the World Cup was negatively correlated to the results of skiing competitions.Conclusion: Evaluation of PET, EP, and SL through GSR and GDV offers a fast, highly precise, non-invasive method to assess an athlete’s level of readiness during both training and at the time of competition.Keywords: paralympic sport, express-analysis, galvanic skin response (GSR, gas discharge visualization (GDV

  6. Evaluation Of Oxidative Stress And Some Antioxidant Markers In Pregnant Cows Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEAMA, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the heat stress and the decrease of antioxidants, the oxidative stress is produced which has a negative impact on the efficiency of productive and reproductive functions in cows. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the status of some antioxidant markers as well as measuring the level of progesterone as a criterion essential for duration of pregnancy besides the stress hormone cortisol in heat stressed pregnant and non-pregnant cows under hot summer conditions. Twelve healthy Brown Swiss cows with average body weight 350 kg were divided into two groups, six cows in each according to pregnancy status. The 1 st group consisted of 6 pregnant cows while the 2 nd included 6 non-pregnant cows. The rectal temperature (RT) was measured and blood samples were collected during three months to determine total antioxidant (TA), catalase (CAT) enzyme, malondialdehyde (MDA), cortisol and progesterone hormones.The result showed that there was an increase of rectal temperature for pregnant cows than in non-pregnant but didn't reach the critical value. In addition, there were significant increases in total antioxidant, progesterone and cortisol as compared with non-pregnant heat stressed cows while non-significant decrease in catalase enzyme in pregnant cows and non-significant increase in malondialdehyde in pregnant cows were observed. It could be concluded that total antioxidants, progesterone and cortisol hormones are a good biomarkers for oxidative stress in pregnant heat stressed cows while the non-significant changes in catalase and malondialdehyde may attributed to the small number of animals used and further studies on large number are recommended to evaluate the validity of those markers.

  7. From the new Austrian tunneling method to the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Shang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The new Austrian tunneling method (NATM is widely applied in design and construction of underground engineering projects. When the type and distribution of unfavorable geological bodies (UGBs associated with their influences on geoengineering are complicated or unfortunately are overlooked, we should pay more attentions to internal features of rocks grades IV and V (even in local but mostly controlling zones. With increasing attentions to the characteristics, mechanism and influences of engineering construction-triggered geohazards, it is crucial to fully understand the disturbance of these geohazards on project construction. A reasonable determination method in construction procedure, i.e. the shape of working face, the type of engineering support and the choice of feasible procedure, should be considered in order to mitigate the construction-triggered geohazards. Due to their high sensitivity to groundwater and in-situ stress, various UGBs exhibit hysteretic nature and failure modes. To give a complete understanding on the internal causes, the emphasis on advanced comprehensive geological forecasting and overall reinforcement treatment is therefore of more practical significance. Comprehensive evaluation of influential factors, identification of UGB, and measures of discontinuity dynamic controlling comprises the geoengineering condition evaluation and dynamic controlling method. In a case of a cut slope, the variations of UGBs and the impacts of key environmental factors are presented, where more severe construction-triggered geohazards emerged in construction stage than those predicted in design and field investigation stages. As a result, the weight ratios of different influential factors with respect to field investigation, design and construction are obtained.

  8. Evaluation of periodontal condition of menopause women with osteoporosis and osteopenia and comparison with control group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorsand A.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Several risk factors directly affect the development of periodontal diseases. Also some systemic diseases act indirectly as predisposing and aggrevating factors. Osteoporosis is one of these factors and one of its main causes is lack of physical activity in postmenopause period. The incidence of osteoporosis is increasing in our country. The goal of this study was to evaluate the periodontal condition of women with osteoporosis and osteopenia referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital in 2003 and compare to control group. Materials and Methods: In this case control study based on BMD (Bone Mineral Density measurement of back and thigh using DEXA method, 60 patients referred to bone densitometric division of Loghman hospital, were randomly selected. Cases were divided into three groups, 20 with osteoporosis, 20 with osteopenia and 20 normal cases. Periodontal indices consisting of plaque index (PI, tooth loss (TL, gingival recession (GR, probing pocket depth (PPD and papilla bleeding index (PBI were evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination. Data were analyzed by Kruskall Wallis and Dunn tests with p<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: PBI, PI and TL were significantly higher in osteoporotic group than osteopenic and normal group. PPD was not different in the three groups. Due to the low prevalence of recession in our study, this parameter was not included in the statistical analysis. Conclusion: It seems that osteoporosis does not increase the incidence of periodontal diseases because it affects bone quality rather than quantity. In osteoporosis calcium deficiency and increasing age lead to decreased physical activity and ultimately affect the patient's oral hygiene performance. Thus, periodontal manifestations are presented as gingival bleeding and gingivitis.

  9. EVALUATION OF SURFACE CONDITION AFTER FINISHING AND POLISHING OF A FLOWABLE COMPOSITE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MUNTEANU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the surface condition, after finishing and polishing with 3 different systems, of a flowable composite material, starting from the microstructure experimentally analyzed by atomic force microscopy. Materials and method. The material tested in the present study was Filtek Ultimate Flowable Restorative (3M ESPE composite. 20 cylindrical samples, 5 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were prepared by using metallic molds. The samples were randomly divided into 4 groups: a group containing 5 control samples, not subjected to finishing and 3 groups formed, each, of 5 samples for each of the three finishing and polishing systems, respectively system 1: the two-step Sof-Lex (3M ESPE, system 2: multistep Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan and system 3: multi-step OptiDisc (KerrHawe SA, Switzerland. The surfaces of the samples were analyzed by atomic force microscopy. For quantitative evaluations, the rugosity parameter (Ra, and the mean deviation of the determined profile were calculated. Results. All 3 polishing systems determined an increase of the Ra parameter, comparatively with the control samples; the highest mean Ra value, of 1.19 µm, was recorded for system 3, followed by system 2 (mean Ra value = 1.12 µm, while the lowest mean value, of 1.10 µm, was registered for system 1. Conclusions. All three systems under investigation induced increased rugosity on the surfaces of the samples prepared from the Filtek Ultimate Flowable Restorative (3M ESPE composite resin. The most abrasive system appears to be OptiDisc (KerrHawe SA, Switzerland, followed by the Super Snap (Shofu, Inc. Kyoto, Japan system, the one recording the lowest abrasion being SofLex (3M ESPE.

  10. 42 CFR 486.344 - Condition: Evaluation and management of potential donors and organ placement and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... donors and organ placement and recovery. 486.344 Section 486.344 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Process Performance Measures § 486.344 Condition: Evaluation and management of potential donors and organ placement and recovery. The OPO must have written protocols for donor evaluation and management and organ...

  11. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  12. Methane production from acid hydrolysates of Agave tequilana bagasse: evaluation of hydrolysis conditions and methane yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arreola-Vargas, Jorge; Ojeda-Castillo, Valeria; Snell-Castro, Raúl; Corona-González, Rosa Isela; Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Méndez-Acosta, Hugo O

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of diluted acid hydrolysis for sugar extraction from cooked and uncooked Agave tequilana bagasse and feasibility of using the hydrolysates as substrate for methane production, with and without nutrient addition, in anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBR) were studied. Results showed that the hydrolysis over the cooked bagasse was more effective for sugar extraction at the studied conditions. Total sugars concentration in the cooked and uncooked bagasse hydrolysates were 27.9 g/L and 18.7 g/L, respectively. However, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural was detected in the cooked bagasse hydrolysate, and therefore, the uncooked bagasse hydrolysate was selected as substrate for methane production. Interestingly, results showed that the AnSBR operated without nutrient addition obtained a constant methane production (0.26 L CH4/g COD), whereas the AnSBR operated with nutrient addition presented a gradual methane suppression. Molecular analyses suggested that methane suppression in the experiment with nutrient addition was due to a negative effect over the archaeal/bacterial ratio. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Testing and evaluation of different energy storage devices for piezoelectric energy harvesting under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Pratheek

    The increasing needs in green technology have propelled the rapid development in energy conversion and the advancement of electric energy storage systems. A viable storage technology is needed to store intermittent electrical energy in different electronic applications. In this thesis, recent progress on the chemistry and design of batteries is summarized with their challenges and improvements. Along with that, electrolytic capacitors are also reviewed with their types, advantages and disadvantages of each in short. Super capacitors having higher surface area and thinner dielectrics than conventional capacitors along with hybrid capacitors, are discussed in detail. The potential of a hybrid capacitor, Ni(OH)2/ Active Carbon, compared with Ni-Cd batteries and electrolytic capacitors in the application of energy storage for high way energy harvesting has been explored in this work. Both the battery and the hybrid capacitor has been tested under various experimental conditions and their properties in relation to their chemical compositions are compared. The results obtained from the experiments have been analyzed and the most suitable energy storage devices have been selected with their application potential evaluated before drawing conclusion reported in this thesis.

  14. Evaluation of comfort conditions in urban open spaces. Application in the island of Crete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsitoura, Marianna; Tsoutsos, Theocharis; Daras, Tryfon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Outdoor spaces field surveys carried out in four different urban open spaces. • A strong connection between the microclimate and the use of open space. • Human physical and psychological factors can optimize the urban space design. - Abstract: The thermal environment in outdoor public spaces and their level of use are strongly connected. The design of outdoor spaces, especially in urban areas, is very critical in Southern Europe due to their extended use during summertime where the urban heat island phenomenon deteriorates the microclimatic conditions. In this paper the main outcomes of outdoor spaces field surveys are presented, which were carried out in four different urban open spaces in Crete. On site measurements were implemented and a questionnaire was used in order to estimate the thermal comfort of visitors. Thermal indices like Predicted Mean Vote, Physiologically Equivalent Temperature, Standard Effective Temperature, Wet Bulb Globe Temperature are used to evaluate the features of urban microclimate and then are being compared in order to find the most suitable for the Mediterranean microclimate. This suggests another way of approach to the researcher and provides essential tools to the designer

  15. Evaluation of the Sanitary Conditions of Head Meat, Esophagus, Diaphragm Meat, and Boning Scrap Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Caroline Celestina dos Santos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli counts are important hygiene indicators and may be pathogenic. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine microbiological contamination in head meat, the esophagus, diaphragm, and boning scraps and evaluate the hygienic conditions of the processing of these products. The Petrifilm® (3M method for determining Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, and E. coli was applied for 104 samples. APHA, European Union, PAHO/WHO, and Brazil/MAPA recommendations were followed. Bleeding and skinning knives were contaminated with E. coli (61.5%. Regarding the meat cuts, 30.76% samples from head meat, the esophagus and the boning flap showed the presence of E. coli in counts up to 2 log CFU/g, while 15.3% of the diaphragm samples showed up to 1.85 log CFU/g. The analyzed comminuted meat was, therefore, shown to be contaminated with E. coli during processing, indicating that end-products from this raw material can offer biological risks.

  16. A probabilistic evaluation of temporarily extending the diesel generator limiting condition for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukielka, C.A.; Detamore, M.B.

    1986-01-01

    Pennsylvania Power and Light Company is installing a fifth diesel generator at its Susquehanna Steam Electric Station. This new diesel generator will serve as a ''swing'' diesel generator, i.e., perform the function of any of the existing diesel generators. The addition of this diesel generator avoids a dual unit shutdown should a diesel generator outage for maintenance or repair exceed the three day Technical Specification Limiting Condition for Operation (LCO). It is estimated that up to fifteen days per diesel generator will be required to complete the tie-in. In accordance with the existing three day LCO, a dual unit shutdown would then result. To preclude such a shutdown, a one time temporary extension to the three day LCO was requested of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper presents a probabilistic evaluation that was used to estimate the increased risk due to extending the LCO to a cumulative sixty days to allow the tie-in of the fifth diesel generator

  17. Experimental evaluation of automotive air-conditioning using HFC-134a and HC-134a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, Henry; Zainudin, Muhammad Amir; Aziz, Azhar Abdul; Latiff, Zulkarnain Abdul; Perang, Mohd Rozi Mohd; Rahman, Abd Halim Abdul

    2012-06-01

    An experimental study to evaluate the energy consumption of an automotive air conditioning is presented. In this study, these refrigerants will be tested using the experimental rig which simulated the actual cars as a cabin complete with a cooling system component of the actual car that is as the blower, evaporator, condenser, radiators, electric motor, which acts as a vehicle engine, and then the electric motor will operate the compressor using a belt and pulley system, as well as to the alternator will recharge the battery. The compressor working with the fluids HFC-134a and HC-134a and has been tested varying the speed in the range 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 rpm. The measurements taken during the one hour experimental periods at 2-minutes interval times for temperature setpoint of 20°C with internal heat loads 0, 500, 700 and 1000 W. The final results of this study show an overall better energy consumption of the HFC-134a compared with the HC-134a.

  18. Evaluation of antibiotic mobility in soil associated with swine-slurry soil amendment under cropping conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, C; Flores, C; Caixach, J; Mita, L; Piña, B; Comas, J; Bayona, J M

    2014-11-01

    Interest in identifying pools of antibacterial-resistance genes has grown over the last decade, with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) receiving particular attention. In this paper, a mesoscale study aimed at evaluating the vertical transport of common VAs-namely, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and lincosamides in agricultural soil subjected to drip irrigation-was performed under greenhouse conditions. Accordingly, leachates of cropped and uncropped soil, amended with swine-slurry leading to 19-38 μg kg(-1) (dry mass) antibiotics in the soil, were analyzed over the course of the productive cycle of a lettuce (42 days) with three sampling campaigns (N = 24). High lincomycin (LCM) concentrations (30-39 μg L(-1)) were detected in the leachates collected from the swine-slurry-amended soil. The highest LCM mass recovered in the leachates (30.1 ± 1.63 %) was obtained from cropped experimental units. In addition, the LCM leaching constant and its leaching potential as obtained from the first-order model were higher in the leachates from the cropped experimental units. Lower concentrations of sulfadimethoxine were also detected in leachates and in soil. Enrofloxacin and oxytetracycline occurred only in soil, which is consistent with high soil interaction.

  19. Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicles in Real Traffic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Susumu; Mizushima, Norifumi [National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory (NTSEL) (Japan); Saito, Akira; Takada, Yutaka [Organization for the Promotion of Low Emission Vehicles (LEVO)(Japan

    2012-01-15

    This report focuses on the comparison of the real-world emissions between the case of using diesel oil and BDF (biodiesel fuel) for fuel. For this purpose, the on-road driving tests were made, by applying BDF, with the latest diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission regulations while avoiding any particular modification to them. For measurement, a PEMS (Portable Emission Measurement System) was used. Note that the heavy diesel vehicles complying with the latest emission gas regulations of Japan also meet the heavy vehicle fuel economy regulations introduced by Japan ahead of other countries of the world. Since application of BDF presents problems not only for the emission gas, but also has non-negligible influence on the fuel economy, the survey was also made for the real-world fuel economy. This report has been produced as the final version deliverable from the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Advanced Motor Fuels (AMF) Implementing Agreement (Annex XXXVIII - Evaluation of Environmental Impact of Biodiesel Vehicle in Real Traffic Conditions).

  20. Limnological state index (LSI) to evaluate ecological conditions of the Canal del Dique wetlands, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinilla A, Gabriel A; Duarte Coy, Juliana; Vega Mora, Leonel

    2010-01-01

    Determining the ecological state or health of an ecosystem offers useful tools for its management and conservation. In Colombia, indexes of aquatic systems that combine in a single parameter the physical, chemical and biological variables have not been published, and the evaluation of water bodies' ecological state has been fragmentary or incomplete. In this work a limnological state index (LSI) for wetlands of the Canal del Dique, ecosystems under constant pressure by the human communities, is presented. For the construction of this multi-metric index, graphs of quality of the selected variables were constructed and values of importance were assigned to them. The theory of the multi-attributes was used to construct the LSI, which considers 12 variables. A principal components analysis was realized with these chosen parameters. A simplified version was designed (partial LSI - PLSI) in which four of the biological variables were excluded. Finally, an interpretation scale of the values obtained with these indices was built. The LSI and the PLSI were applied to wetlands of the Canal del Dique to establish their current ecological condition. Data show that the limnological state of most wetlands is acceptable, which suggests that these lentic ecosystems are within tolerable limits of function, although they are not exempt from deterioration processes.

  1. Productive and qualitative evaluation of onion cultivars under agro-climatic conditions of faisalabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mushtaq, S.; Amjad, M.; Ziaf, K.; Cheema, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    Onion varieties are very specific in their photoperiod and vernalization requirements and therefore vary for yield, yield related traits and bolting in a specific agro-climate. Therefore, performance of nineteen onion varieties for these traits was evaluated at Vegetable Research Institute, Faisalabad. The maximum bolting percentage was recorded in Desi Red (46.67%) that indicates less vernalization requirement of this variety while it was the minimum in Faisal Red and VRIO-6 (13.33%). The cultivar Phulkara produced larger size bulbs (73.22 mm diameter) as well as highest yield (21.90 t ha/sup -1/) and bulb to neck diameter ratio (6.75). Similarly, minimum weight loss during curing was observed in Desi Red (4.64%), Pusa Red (4.76%) and Phulkara (4.83%), indicating higher dry matter contents while maximum weight loss (6%) was recorded in VRIO-6. Overall results revealed that both Phulkara and Desi Red are excellent for processing while Dark Red for cooking purpose under agro-climatic conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  2. Qualitative Evaluation of a Liquid-Vapor Separator Concept in Micro-Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elston, Levi J.; Yerkes, Kirk L.; Thomas, Scott K.; McQuillen, John

    2009-03-01

    An innovative liquid-vapor separator design has been incorporated into a spray cooling experiment, which was flown recently on the NASA C-9 reduced gravity aircraft. This design is the latest in a series of designs that have been flown in microgravity and elevated gravity in relation to an experimental investigation into spray cooling performance with regard to possible application to high-performance aircraft undergoing combat maneuvers. Initially, significant problems occurred during flight testing due to the inability of the reservoir to separate the liquid coolant from the vapor under microgravity conditions, which resulted in a loss of coolant to the simulated electronic device that was being spray cooled. Improvements in the design of the liquid-vapor separator are described in this paper, and experimental data showing the performance of several generations of liquid-vapor separators are presented. The final separator design went through more rigorous evaluation to compare performance at multiple fill levels, each with a higher percentage of vapor space within the reservoir. It was found that, using the final reservoir design, stable flow operation was achieved in micro-gravity for mass flowrates of m = 14, 17.5, and 21 [g/s].

  3. Spontaneous Hepatic Rupture Associated with Preeclampsia: Treatment with Hepatic Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Yong Jae; Hwang, In Cheol; Han, Hyo Sang; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Lee, Tae Il [Soonchunhyang University Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Spontaneous rupture of the liver due to preeclampsia is a rare condition of pregnant women, and it can be very dangerous if not treated. We report here on a case of successfully treating spontaneous liver rupture associated with preeclampsia by performing transcatheter hepatic arterial embolization. A 41-year-old woman with spontaneous rupture of the liver associated with preeclampsia was treated by hepatic arterial embolization

  4. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  5. Building condition assessment: a performance evaluation tool towards sustainable asset management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abbott, GR

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available has been developed and refined through experience gained during the initial and follow-up assessments and sustained research and development. Value addition include converting condition assessments into condition-based maintenance budgets, eradication...

  6. Demonstration and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Wastewater Collection Systems Condition Assessment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  7. 76 FR 80448 - VASRD Forum-Improving VA's Disability Evaluation Criteria for Neurological Conditions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... p.m., will cover skin conditions. The Neurology Work Group meeting will take place from 9 a.m.-4:30... Group will also meet at the Manhattan Campus. The Neurology, Opthomamology and Skin Conditions Work...

  8. Role of Spiral and Multislice Computed Tomography in the evaluation of traumatic and spontaneous oesophageal perforation. Our experience; Ruolo della Tomografia Computerizzata Spirale e Multistrato nello studio delle lesioni traumatiche e spontanee dell'esofago: nostra esperienza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lutio di Castelguidone, Elisabetta; Pinto, Antonio; Merola, Stefanella; Stavolo, Ciro; Romano, Luigia [Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale A. Cardarelli, Napoli (Italy). Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini

    2005-03-01

    Purpose: To assess the role of CT in the evaluation of traumatic and spontaneous oesophageal perforation. Materials and methods: From March 2001 to May 2003, we studied 12 patients (7 males and 5 females; age range: 25-66 years, mean age: 43.5 years) with suspected oesophageal perforation due to motor-vehicle accidents (4 cases), stab wound (one case), post-intubation (2 cases), foreign body ingestion (2 cases) and spontaneous (3 cases). Five patients underwent standard chest and cervical radiography; two patients with suspected foreign body ingestion also underwent a gastrografin swallow study; all of the 12 patients underwent CT of the neck, chest and abdomen before and after intravenous, and in four cases oral, administration of contrast material. Results: In 5 patients with cervical, thoracic and abdominal trauma, the CT examination showed the presence of pleuroparenchymal injury (pneumothorax, pleural effusion and subcutaneous emphysema) as well as findings suggestive of oesophageal perforation: peri-oesophageal air (5 cases), peri-oesophageal fluid (4 cases), oesophageal wall thickening (3 cases), oesophageal wall laceration (2 cases) with abnormal course of the nasogastric tube in one of them and extraluminal extravasation of oral contrast material (2 cases). In two patients with post-intubation complications, CT showed the presence of a small peri-oesophageal fluid collection containing small gas bubbles in one case, and a gross peri-oesophageal abscess-like collection in the second case. In the 2 patients with foreign body ingestion, the plain radiography associated with CT showed the presence of a thin metal object in the cervical region (fragment of a dental plate) and a small extraluminal extravasation of gastrografin in one case, whereas in the other case CT showed the presence of a foreign body (chicken bone) in the hypopharynx with oesophageal wall thickening and peri-oesophageal oedema. In the remaining three patients with suspected spontaneous

  9. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  10. Spontaneous circumferential esophageal dissection in a young man with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Jorge; Prim, José María G; Moldes, Milagros; Ledo, Ramiro

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous esophageal dissection is a rare condition that may happen in patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. Conservative management is an important therapeutic option to be considered. We describe an unusual case of a young man with eosinophilic esophagitis who presented complaining of acute retrosternal pain, fever and vomiting. After a thorough evaluation including CT-scan and esophagogram, circumferential esophageal dissection and mediastinal abscess without visible perforation was observed. Abscess resolution and oral nutrition reintroduction was achieved with non-surgical management. Corticoid therapy was initiated for esophagitis treatment.

  11. Evaluation of the mobility of an organic pollutant in triphasic conditions; Evaluation de la mobilite d'un polluant organique en conditions triphasiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardi, C

    2006-10-15

    Soil contamination by liquid organic pollutants represents a serious threat to phreatic ground water. These organic liquids get into the ground and migrate through the porous medium until they finally reach the aquifer. After a critical study of the literature, we listed various existing multiple displacements under three-phase conditions of a disconnected polluting phase that may or not spread over water. The aim of this thesis is to model (at pore scale level) and integrate in the pore network model the various flows that occur when three phases (gas, pollutant and air) are present in a porous medium. The porous medium is supposed completely water-wet. The polluting phase may be connected or not, and the spreading coefficient of the pollutant over water may either be positive or negative. The goal of our study is to obtain macroscopic parameters such as relative permeabilities and capillary pressure. These parameters can be then incorporated in a larger-scale simulator in order to optimise the predictions of the contaminations of soils and to improve techniques of depollution. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Freeze Tolerance in Lancelot Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. Ecotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Janalizadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Lancelot Plantain (Ribwort, narrow-leaf or English plantain is a deep-rooted, short-lived perennial herb from Plantaginaceae family which has been used for various medicinal purposes for centuries, especially in Europe and only more recently has been proposed as a forage plant. The leaf of plantain is highly palatable for grazing animals, providing mineral-rich forage. Recently two productive upright cultivars of plantain have been bred and introduced, Grasslands Lancelot and the more erect winter active Ceres Tonic. Plantain grows moderately in winter but its main growth periods beings in spring and autumn with opportunistic summer growth. Although it reveals suitable winter survival in natural conditions, but there is not a lot of information about cold tolerance of this plant. So it is important to recognize the freeze tolerance of narrow leaf plantain for successful planting and utilization in cold regions such as Mashhad in Khorasan Razavi Province (Northeast of Iran. Determining LT50 point or critical temperature for survival of plant is the most reliable and simple method for evaluating cold tolerance of plants. Another reliable method for freeze tolerance of plants is estimation of temperature at which 50 % of dry matter reduces (RDMT50. This experiment was carried out to evaluate freeze tolerance of five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain according to the LT50su and RDMT50 indices. Materials and Methods In order to evaluate freeze tolerance of Lancelot plantain, a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications was carried out under controlled conditions at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. Five ecotypes of Lancelot plantain (Bojnourd, Kalat, Mashhad, Ghayen and Birjand after three months growth and hardening in natural environment were transferred to a Thermo gradient freezer on January 20th, 2012 and exposed to eight freezing temperatures (Zero, -3, -6, -9, -12, -15, -18

  13. EVALUATION OF RANGE ESTIMATES FOR TOYOTA FCHV-ADV UNDER OPEN ROAD DRIVING CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anton, D.; Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.

    2009-07-10

    The objective of this evaluation was to independently and objectively verify driving ranges of >400 miles announced by Toyota for its new advanced Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV-adv) utilizing 70 MPa compressed hydrogen. To accomplish this, participants from both Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) witnessed and participated in a 2-vehicle evaluation with Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc. (TEMA) over a typical open road route for over 11 hours in one day with all relevant data recorded. SRNL and TEMA first entered into discussions of verifying the range of the advanced Toyota Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV-adv) in August 2008 resulting from reported 400+ mile range by Toyota. After extended negotiations, a CRADA agreement, SRNS CRADA No. CR-04-003, was signed on May 6, 2009. Subsequently, on June 30, 2009 SRNL and NREL participated in an all-day evaluation of the FCHV-adv with TEMA to determine the real-world driving range of this vehicle through on-road driving on an extended round-trip drive between Torrance and San Diego, California. SRNL and NREL observed the vehicles being refueled at Toyota's headquarters the day before the evaluation in Torrance, CA on June 29. At 8:00 AM on June 30, the vehicles departed Torrance north toward downtown Los Angeles, then west to the Pacific Coast Highway, and down to San Diego. After lunch the vehicles retraced their route back to Torrance. The traffic encountered was much heavier than anticipated, causing the vehicles to not return to Torrance until 9 PM. Each vehicle was driven by the same Toyota driver all day, with one SRNL/NREL observer in each vehicle the entire route. Data was logged by Toyota and analyzed by NREL. The maximum range of the FCHV-adv vehicles was calculated to be 431 miles under these driving conditions. This distance was calculated from the actual range of 331.5 miles during over 11 hours driving, plus 99.5 miles

  14. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen

    2016-01-01

    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  15. Intercomparison and evaluation of cumulus parametrizations under summertime midlatitude continental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shaocheng; Xu, Kuan-Man; Cederwall, Richard T.; Bechtold, Peter; del Genio, Anthony D.; Klein, Stephen A.; Cripe, Douglas G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Gregory, David; Iacobellis, Sam F.; Krueger, Steven K.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Petch, Jon C.; Randall, David A.; Rotstayn, Leon D.; Somerville, Richard C. J.; Sud, Yogesh C.; von Salzen, Knut; Walker, Gregory K.; Wolf, Audrey; Yio, J. John; Zhang, Guang Jun; Zhang, Minghua

    2002-04-01

    This study reports the Single-Column Model (SCM) part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)/the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Cloud System Study (GCSS) joint SCM and Cloud-Resolving Model (CRM) Case 3 intercomparison study, with a focus on evaluation of cumulus parametrizations used in SCMs. Fifteen SCMs are evaluated under summertime midlatitude continental conditions using data collected at the ARM Southern Great Plains site during the summer 1997 Intensive Observing Period. Results from ten CRMs are also used to diagnose problems in the SCMs. It is shown that most SCMs can generally capture well the convective events that were well-developed within the SCM domain, while most of them have difficulties in simulating the occurrence of those convective events that only occurred within a small part of the domain. All models significantly underestimate the surface stratiform precipitation. A third of them produce large errors in surface precipitation and thermodynamic structures. Deficiencies in convective triggering mechanisms are thought to be one of the major reasons. Using a triggering mechanism that is based on the vertical integral of parcel buoyant energy without additional appropriate constraints results in overactive convection, which in turn leads to large systematic warm/dry biases in the troposphere. It is also shown that a non-penetrative convection scheme can underestimate the depth of instability for midlatitude convection, which leads to large systematic cold/moist biases in the troposphere. SCMs agree well quantitatively with CRMs in the updraught mass fluxes, while most models significantly underestimate the downdraught mass fluxes. Neglect of mesoscale updraught and downdraught mass fluxes in the SCMs contributes considerably to the discrepancies between the SCMs and the CRMs. In addition, uncertainties in the diagnosed mass fluxes in the CRMs and deficiencies with cumulus parametrizations are not negligible. Similar

  16. Evaluating the effect of neighbourhood weight matrices on smoothing properties of Conditional Autoregressive (CAR models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Louise

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Conditional Autoregressive (CAR model is widely used in many small-area ecological studies to analyse outcomes measured at an areal level. There has been little evaluation of the influence of different neighbourhood weight matrix structures on the amount of smoothing performed by the CAR model. We examined this issue in detail. Methods We created several neighbourhood weight matrices and applied them to a large dataset of births and birth defects in New South Wales (NSW, Australia within 198 Statistical Local Areas. Between the years 1995–2003, there were 17,595 geocoded birth defects and 770,638 geocoded birth records with available data. Spatio-temporal models were developed with data from 1995–2000 and their fit evaluated within the following time period: 2001–2003. Results We were able to create four adjacency-based weight matrices, seven distance-based weight matrices and one matrix based on similarity in terms of a key covariate (i.e. maternal age. In terms of agreement between observed and predicted relative risks, categorised in epidemiologically relevant groups, generally the distance-based matrices performed better than the adjacency-based neighbourhoods. In terms of recovering the underlying risk structure, the weight-7 model (smoothing by maternal-age 'Covariate model' was able to correctly classify 35/47 high-risk areas (sensitivity 74% with a specificity of 47%, and the 'Gravity' model had sensitivity and specificity values of 74% and 39% respectively. Conclusion We found considerable differences in the smoothing properties of the CAR model, depending on the type of neighbours specified. This in turn had an effect on the models' ability to recover the observed risk in an area. Prior to risk mapping or ecological modelling, an exploratory analysis of the neighbourhood weight matrix to guide the choice of a suitable weight matrix is recommended. Alternatively, the weight matrix can be chosen a priori

  17. Evaluation of Freezing Tolerance of Hexaploid Triticale Genotypes under Controlled Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, NEZAMI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate freezing tolerance of different triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack genotypes, an experiment was carried out under controlled conditions in 2007 and 2008 at college of agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad. In this study seeven triticale genotypes (Juanilo-92, ET-82-15, ET-82-8, ET-83-20, ET-83-19, ET-83-18 and ET-79-17, across six temperatures (0C, -4C, -8C, -12C, -16C and -20C were evaluated within a factorial-completely randomized design with three replications. Plants were kept until 2 leaf stage in chamber with temperature of 20/15C (day/night and 12.5 h photoperiod. At the end of this stage, plants were under acclimation for three weeks. After exposing to acclimation freezing the cell membrane integrity was measured through electrolyte leakage (EL and the lethal temperature (LT50 of samples was measured. After the exposure to freezing temperatures the samples were transferred to the greenhouse. Survival percentage, plant height, leaf area and number, chlorophyll content, and plant dry weight were determined after 3 weeks. Results showed that the effect of different freezing temperature and genotypes were significant on all plant characteristics. As temperature decreased, %EL of all genotypes was increased. Minimum and Maximum EL % in leaf and crown were observed at 0C (21% and -20C (88.5%. ET-79-17 and Juanilo-92 genotypes showed the highest EL% (55.5% and 44.8% and ET-83-20 the lowest EL% (47.3% and 41.2% in leaf and crown. Dry weight and leaf area decreased by 48% and 42% respectively compared to non frozen control plants. ET-79-17 and ET-82-15 genotypes showed the highest dry weight (83.8 mg and highest leaf area (14.3 cm2 respectively and ET-83-20 cultivar showed the lowest dry weight and leaf area (58.2 mg and 8.7 cm2.

  18. Determination and evaluation of the best conditions for the production of a vaccine against Clostridium chauvoei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Humberto Ossa

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium chauvoei is responsible for a number of diseases such as symptomatic coal (blackleg and malignant oedema in cattle, sheep and many other domestic and wild animals. Vaccines for the control of this and other livestock diseases caused by various species of clostridia are widely used. For vaccine production it is desirable that high cellular density cultures with high immunogenic power are obtained, mainly because immunity to Clostridium chauvoei is generally considered to be antibacterial rather than antitoxic. Consequently, culture conditions have to be adequately monitored and controlled. The aim of this work was to optimise the production of a vaccine against Clostridium chauvoei based on strains IRP-434, IRP 206, ATCC 10092, ATCC 11957 and LANIP, used by “Empresa Colombiana de Productos Veterinarios”, VECOL, S.A., to determine the culture medium that allows the highest cellular density. Results show that modified clostridium medium allows the highest cellular density production with average values of 31,5X108 cell/ml for the stock IRP 434 and 31,8X108 cell/ml for the stock IRP 206. Once defined the modified clostridium medium, the stock IRP 434,IRP 206 and growth time as the most suitable for optimal biomass production ( 16 – 48 hours, the lethal activity of the stock (LD50 = 106.6 , 106.8 was determined, the immunogenicity was evaluated through a potency test carried out in guinea-pigs. The presence of the flagellar protein was confirmed through the SDS-PAGE electrophoresis technique.

  19. Evaluation of Skid Resistance of Wearing Course Made Of Stone Mastic Asphalt Mixture in Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewska, Marta

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents the comparison of skid resistance of wearing course made of SMA (Stone Mastic Asphalt) mixtures which differ in resistance to polishing of coarse aggregate. Dolomite, limestone, granite and trachybasalt were taken for investigation. SMA mixtures have the same nominal size of aggregate (11 mm) and very similar aggregate particle-size distribution in mineral mixtures. Tested SMA11 mixtures were designed according to EN 13108-5 and Polish National Specification WT-2: 2014. Evaluation of the skid resistance has been performed using the FAP (Friction After Polishing) test equipment also known as the Wehner/Schulze machine. Laboratory method enables to compare the skid resistance of different types of mixtures under specified conditions simulating polishing processes. Tests were performed on both the specimens made of each coarse aggregate and SMA11 mixtures containing these aggregates. Measuring of friction coefficient μm was conducted before and during polishing process up to 180 0000 passes of polishing head. Comparison of the results showed differences in sensitivity to polishing among particular mixtures which depend on the petrographic properties of rock used to produce aggregate. Limestone and dolomite tend to have a fairly uniform texture with low hardness which makes these rock types susceptible to rapid polishing. This caused lower coefficient of friction for SMA11 mixtures with limestone and dolomite in comparison with other test mixtures. These significant differences were already registered at the beginning of the polishing process. Limestone aggregate had lower value of μm before starting the process than trachybasalt and granite aggregate after its completion. Despite the differences in structure and mineralogical composition between the granite and trachybasalt, slightly different values of the friction coefficient at the end of polishing were obtained. Images of the surface were taken with the optical microscope for better

  20. Experimental evaluation of insecticidal paints against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under natural climatic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelotti, Ivana; Catalá, Silvia S; Gorla, David E

    2009-07-08

    Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. The traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides has shown low efficiency in the elimination of the vector species populations occupying peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic area of Argentina. As part of studies looking for better alternatives, we evaluated the residual effect of insecticidal paints on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T. infestans. The study was based on an experimental design that included two groups treated with an organophosphate (Inesfly 5A IGR) and a pyrethroid (Inesfly 5A IGR NG) formulations of the paint, that were applied on wood, cement blocks and adobe bricks under natural climatic conditions. A third group was an untreated control. Both paint formulations showed very long residual activity, producing mortality of 84% and 98% (pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations, respectively) after 12 months of the paint application. After eight months, nymphs exposed during 6 hours to the painted surfaces with the pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations showed 81.33% and 100% mortality, respectively. The organophosphate- and pyrethroid-based insecticidal paints showed a very long residual activity on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T infestans, compared with the traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides in peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic region for Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. The application of the paints by trained personnel of the vector control programmes could be considered as an alternative control tool in areas where the traditional methods have failed or showed low efficacy.

  1. Experimental evaluation of insecticidal paints against Triatoma infestans (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, under natural climatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorla David E

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triatoma infestans is the main vector of Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco region of South America. The traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides has shown low efficiency in the elimination of the vector species populations occupying peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic area of Argentina. As part of studies looking for better alternatives, we evaluated the residual effect of insecticidal paints on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T. infestans. Results The study was based on an experimental design that included two groups treated with an organophosphate (Inesfly 5A IGR™ and a pyrethroid (Inesfly 5A IGR NG™ formulations of the paint, that were applied on wood, cement blocks and adobe bricks under natural climatic conditions. A third group was an untreated control. Both paint formulations showed very long residual activity, producing mortality of 84% and 98% (pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations, respectively after 12 months of the paint application. After eight months, nymphs exposed during 6 hours to the painted surfaces with the pyrethroid and organophosphate formulations showed 81.33% and 100% mortality, respectively. Conclusion The organophosphate- and pyrethroid-based insecticidal paints showed a very long residual activity on the mortality of fourth instar nymphs of T infestans, compared with the traditional spraying technique used for the application of pyrethroid insecticides in peridomestic structures of rural houses in the endemic region for Chagas disease in the Gran Chaco of Argentina. The application of the paints by trained personnel of the vector control programmes could be considered as an alternative control tool in areas where the traditional methods have failed or showed low efficacy.

  2. ENERGY STAR® Retail Products Platform (RPP): Conditions and Considerations in Evaluating Market Transformation Programs and Evaluation Guidance for RPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [U.S. Department of Energy; Banwell, Peter [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2018-01-09

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a resource for state utility regulators, utilities, the evaluation community and regulatory stakeholders on methods to measure energy savings from the ENERGY STAR Retail Products Platform (link is external). The guidelines outlined in this document were developed by evaluation experts.

  3. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  4. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  5. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  6. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  7. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  8. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  9. Spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture: imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment; Ruptura hepatica espontanea e traumatica: aspectos tomograficos e do tratamento minimamente invasivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio, Glaucia Andrade e Silva; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Disgnostico por Imagem]. E-mail: gl.palacio@bol.com.br; Farias, Andre P. [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Tomografia Computadorizada e Ressonancia Magnetica; Carnevale, Francisco Cesar [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Radiologia Intervencionista; Salem, Marcelo Zindel [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Setor de Gastroenterologia Cirurgica; Ricca, Artur Berti [Hospital Sao Luis, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-12-01

    Spontaneous hepatic bleeding is a rare condition. Our aim was to describe the imaging findings and minimally invasive treatment using transcatheter arterial embolization in patients with spontaneous and traumatic hepatic rupture. Three patients presented acute hemoperitoneum dur to hepatic rupture caused by spontaneous rupture of hepatocellular carcinoma, HELLP syndrome and a blunt hepatic trauma. The patients were submitted to ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen and subsequently treated by transcatheter arterial embolization. All patients underwent helical computed tomography before and after treatments. Computed tomography played an important role in the evaluation and follow-up in the therapeutic intervention. Different types of liver injuries were identified. Transcatheter arterial embolization blocked arterial hemorrhage in the patients who were hemodynamically unstable. The conclusion was: transcatheter arterial embolization is an effective and well-tolerated treatment method for the management of hepatic rupture and computed tomography is an excellent method for the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  10. Coapplication of lidocaine and membrane-impermeable lidocaine derivative QX-222 produces divergent effects on evoked and spontaneous nociceptive behaviors in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Si-Ping; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Wang, Wei-Xing; Liu, Yang; Wu, He-Fen; Chen, Chao; Yu, Liang; Gui, Jing-Bing

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the analgesic properties of a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 and its effects on evoked pain behavior (complete Freund's adjuvant-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia in inflammatory condition) and spontaneous pain behavior (formalin-induced acute pain) in mice. Drugs were injected adjacent to sciatic nerve or into plantar. Motor function, thermal withdrawal latency, mechanical withdrawal threshold, and licking/biting were evaluated by behavioral tests. A combination of lidocaine and QX-222 adjacent sciatic nerve injection produced the long-lasting sensory-specific nerve block, and intraplantar injection inhibited spontaneous pain in the formalin-treated mice but did not detectably attenuated hyperalgesia and allodynia in the complete Freund's adjuvant- (CFA-) treated mice. Our results suggest that a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 achieves a long-lasting differential block (sensory selective) and produces divergent effects on evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors in mice.

  11. Coapplication of Lidocaine and Membrane-Impermeable Lidocaine Derivative QX-222 Produces Divergent Effects on Evoked and Spontaneous Nociceptive Behaviors in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Ping Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed at investigating the analgesic properties of a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 and its effects on evoked pain behavior (complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia in inflammatory condition and spontaneous pain behavior (formalin-induced acute pain in mice. Drugs were injected adjacent to sciatic nerve or into plantar. Motor function, thermal withdrawal latency, mechanical withdrawal threshold, and licking/biting were evaluated by behavioral tests. A combination of lidocaine and QX-222 adjacent sciatic nerve injection produced the long-lasting sensory-specific nerve block, and intraplantar injection inhibited spontaneous pain in the formalin-treated mice but did not detectably attenuated hyperalgesia and allodynia in the complete Freund’s adjuvant- (CFA- treated mice. Our results suggest that a combination of lidocaine and QX-222 achieves a long-lasting differential block (sensory selective and produces divergent effects on evoked and spontaneous pain behaviors in mice.

  12. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveshnikov, Konstantin; Tolokonnikov, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The most novel and nontrivial result, which has not been reported previously, is that such an effect takes place not only for attractive, but also for repulsive interactions of atomic electrons with the cavity environment. Moreover, in the limit of a large box size R ≫ aB the regime of an atom, soaring over a plane with boundary condition of "not going out", is reproduced, rather than a spherically symmetric configuration, which would be expected on the basis of the initial SO(3) symmetry of the problem.

  13. Spatiotemporal stability of neonatal rat cardiomyocyte monolayers spontaneous activity is dependent on the culture substrate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Boudreau-Béland

    Full Text Available In native conditions, cardiac cells must continuously comply with diverse stimuli necessitating a perpetual adaptation. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is commonly used in cell culture to study cellular response to changes in the mechanical environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using PDMS substrates on the properties of spontaneous activity of cardiomyocyte monolayer cultures. We compared PDMS to the gold standard normally used in culture: a glass substrate. Although mean frequency of spontaneous activity remained unaltered, incidence of reentrant activity was significantly higher in samples cultured on glass compared to PDMS substrates. Higher spatial and temporal instability of the spontaneous rate activation was found when cardiomyocytes were cultured on PDMS, and correlated with decreased connexin-43 and increased CaV3.1 and HCN2 mRNA levels. Compared to cultures on glass, cultures on PDMS were associated with the strongest response to isoproterenol and acetylcholine. These results reveal the importance of carefully selecting the culture substrate for studies involving mechanical stimulation, especially for tissue engineering or pharmacological high-throughput screening of cardiac tissue analog.

  14. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity estimates during graded bicycle exercise: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallais, Frederic; Baselli, Giuseppe; Lucini, Daniela; Pagani, Massimo; Porta, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    In the literature, several methods have been proposed for the assessment of the baroreflex sensitivity from spontaneous variability of heart period and systolic arterial pressure. The present study compares the most utilized approaches for the evaluation of the spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity (i.e. sequence-based, spectral, cross-spectral and model-based techniques) over a protocol capable of inducing a progressive decrease of the baroreflex sensitivity in the presence of a relevant respiratory drive (i.e. a stepwise dynamic bicycle exercise at 10%, 20% and 30% of the maximum nominal individual effort) in 16 healthy humans. Results demonstrated that the degree of correlation among the estimates is related to the structure of the model explicitly or implicitly assumed by the method and depends on the experimental condition (i.e. on the physiological mechanisms contemporaneously active with baroreflex, e.g. cardiopulmonary reflexes). However, even in the presence of a significant correlation, proportional and/or constant biases can be present, thus rendering spontaneous baroreflex estimates not interchangeable. We suggest that the comparison among different baroreflex sensitivity estimates might elucidate physiological mechanisms responsible for the relationship between heart period and systolic arterial pressure

  15. Evaluation of natural illumination and thermal comfort conditions in the Ribeirao Preto's Technological Village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, A.; Caram, R.M. [Department of Architecture and Urbanism, EESC University of Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The results of post-occupancy surveys of the 11 different construction systems used in the dwellings of the Technological Village of Ribeirao Preto, Brazil are analysed. The analyses focus on evaluating the natural illumination and thermal comfort conditions in selected habitation units after 2 years of use. All systems were devised to provide living conditions to low-income families with low purchasing power and, most importantly, to disseminate construction technologies adapted to, and appropriate for, this specific region of the country. The results indicate that the methodology employed is not appropriate using only classical factors to assess the illumination conditions, i.e. illuminance level and daylight factor, for a direct quantification of the illumination. The isolated use of these factors can result in distortions. The evaluation of the environmental conditions is relevant to observe that there can be differences between theoretical thermo-physical properties and actual features of the materials and construction systems analyzed. (author)

  16. Spontaneous rupture of incisional hernia- a case report | Nwashilli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous rupture of an abdominal hernia is rare and usually occurs in incisional or recurrent groin hernias. The rupture requires an emergency surgery to prevent obstruction, strangulation and to cover the herniated contents. The herniated contents can be covered primarily by mesh repair if the general condition of the ...

  17. Paediatric infant presenting with an atypical spontaneous biliary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous biliary perforation (SBP) is a life-threatening condition. Although rare, it is the second most common surgical cause of jaundice in infancy after biliary atresia. SBP is theorized to occur due to a localized injury to the embryological developing biliary tree, predominantly at the junction of the cystic and the ...

  18. Spontaneous liver rupture in pregnancy complicating HELLP syndrome: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sariyeh Golmahammadlou

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Spontaneous liver rupture associated with HELLP syndrome is a rare and life-threatening complication of pregnancy. Unruptured liver hematoma is also a rare condition during pregnancy with a very difficult diagnosis. Using clinical diagnostic tests such as CT scan or MRI would be helpful to improve clinical outcomes.

  19. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection. Case report and literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elming, H; Køber, L

    1999-01-01

    to patient characteristics, patient treatment, and prognosis. Primary spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition but one that must be considered when young people, especially post partum women, present an acute ischaemic syndrome. Thrombolytic therapy may be a two-edged sword and therefore...

  20. [Spontaneous bilateral chylothorax revealing a mediastinal and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hammoumi, M M; Drissi, G; Achir, A; Benchekroun, A; Kabiri, E H; Benosman, A

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous chylothorax is a rare condition, lymph node tuberculosis is an exceptional etiology of chylothorax, we report an exceptional case of a patient with mediastinal and abdominal lymph node tuberculosis presenting with spontaneous bilateral chylothorax treated successfully by symptomatic medical treatment and antibacillary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Spontaneous rupture of the spleen – a rare and potentially fatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous (non-traumatic) rupture of the normal spleen in pregnancy is a rare clinical event that can endanger the lives of both mother and baby. The aetiology of the condition is unknown, but it occurs most commonly in multiple pregnancies and in the third trimester. We present a case of a spontaneous splenic rupture ...

  2. The veld condition score: An evaluation in situations of known past ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... relation to their agricultural value for grazing animals. There are still, however, aspects which give rise to concern and it would be advisable to develop the method further before its adaptation for general use. Keywords: grazing; method; natal; south africa; stocking rate; technique; veld; veld condition; veld condition score ...

  3. Labor conditions of university teachers on Belgrade University: The problem of evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Ana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Current process of the reform of higher education system in Serbia emphasize the issue of standardization of different aspects of teachers' work. Bologna reform introduces certain innovations in the process of evaluation of teachers work - obligatory self-evaluation and student evaluations. First reactions on these innovations stressing the question of ambiguity in interpretations of the results of this kind of evaluations. The empirical analysis of the collected interviews on five faculties of Belgrade University chart some of the symbolic points of resistance, as well as the points of symbolic identification and acceptance related to the process of evaluation. Careful analysis of the ways in which interviewees construct their narratives about the idea of evaluation of their own teaching skills and practices shows numerous defects of current evaluation procedures, as well as the concrete possibilities for their improvements and adjustments to the changed requirements of teaching process in higher education institutions.

  4. Evaluation of external exposure during building and operation of concrete bridges constructions that reuse the conditionally released steels - 59120

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panik, Michal; Necas, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents ongoing results of the project presented at ICEM'10 [1] related to the topics of reusing the conditionally released materials from decommissioning. The subject of the reuse of conditionally released materials in this case is modeling of bridge constructions which reuse the conditionally released steel in the form of reinforcement bars for the concrete bridges. A general approach for the project was presented at ICEM'10. The activities of the project continue in evaluating the individual effective doses from the external exposure based on reused conditionally released steels separately for public and for professionals (the internal exposure will be evaluated in next stages of the project). Evaluated scenarios are related to critical groups of professionals constructing the bridges (worker's scenarios). The computer code VISIPLAN 3D ALARA 4.0 planning tool was used for the calculation of the individual effective dose for professionals. Various limits of the annual individual effective dose are used for the evaluation of calculation results. The aim of the ongoing modeling is to develop a set of data of maximal radioactivity concentration for individual radionuclides in the conditionally released steel used in the bridges model constructions in order not to exceed the limits for the individual effective dose. (authors)

  5. Evaluation of radiological safety conditions of panoramic portable irradiators of industrial radiography used in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Josilto Oliveira de

    2003-08-01

    In Brazil, the applications of ionizing radiation in industrial area are performed in about 900 installations, in which around 3000 radioactive sources are handled. Industrial radiography represents 14 % of this total, with 217 X rays equipment and 287 gamma radiography apparatus, according to a survey conducted in the present work. From these gamma apparatus, 90 % employ 192 Ir sources, followed by 60 Co and 75 Se, with 5 % each. The great majority of the 192 Ir apparatus have been in continuous usage in Brazil for more than 20 years, which means that they are old equipment. The totality of the 11 models of 192 Ir apparatus used in Brazil is imported from abroad. Those apparatus are portable, and almost all operate according to category II, i.e., the source assembly is mechanically projected out of the container. This last characteristic, besides the fact that the apparatus are already old-fashioned and worn-out, raises concerns about their radiological safety. The main objective of this work was to develop a specific methodology for inspection, testing and assessment of the radiological safety devices and state of maintenance of the 192 Ir apparatus. The idea is to prevent accidents, as physical failures can lead to overexposure of working staffs. In order to accomplish this, almost a hundred 192 Ir apparatus, from the 11 models used in Brazil, were studied. According to our results, almost 20 % of the 97 apparatus evaluated presented some kind of unsafe condition for proper operation, like poor state of maintenance and faults at the lock that retains the source at the secure position. From the 11 imported models of 192 Ir apparatus in use in Brazil, six models were already manufactured incorporating the safety devices specified by the first edition of the Standard ISO 3999, edited in 1977. However, five models do not comply even with this first edition of the Standard ISO 3999. Thus, they lack some important and basic safety devices. None of the 11 models comply

  6. Simulating physiological conditions to evaluate nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shihwei [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan (China); Chiang Chenli [Department of Chemical Engineering, Southern Taiwan University of Technology, Taiwan (China); Hsieh Shuchen, E-mail: shsieh@facmail.nsysu.edu.t [Department of Chemistry and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Taiwan (China)

    2010-01-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles with high self-heating capacity and low toxicity characteristics are a promising candidate for cancer hyperthermia treatment. In order to achieve minimum dosage to a patient, magnetic nanoparticles with high heating capacity are needed. In addition, the influence of physiological factors on the heat capacity of a material should be investigated in order to determine the feasibility. In this study, magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid were prepared by co-precipitation of Fe{sup 3+}:Fe{sup 2+} in a ratio of 2:1, 5:3, 3:2, and 4:3, and the pH was controlled using NaOH. Structural and magnetization characterization by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) revealed that the main species was Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and further showed that most of the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic properties. All of the magnetic nanoparticles showed a specific absorption rate (SAR) increase that was linear with the magnetic field strength and frequency of the alternating magnetic field. Among all, the magnetic nanoparticles prepared in a 3:2 ratio showed the highest SAR. To further test the influence of physiological factors on the 3:2 ratio magnetic nanoparticles, we simulated the environment with protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA), blood sugar (dextrose), electrolytes (commercial norm-saline) and viscosity (glycerol) to examine the heating capacity under these conditions. Our results showed that the SAR value was unaffected by the protein and blood sugar environments. On the other hand, the SAR value was significantly reduced in the electrolyte environment, due to precipitation and aggregation with sodium ions. For the simulated viscous environment with glycerol, the result showed that the SAR values reduced with increasing glycerol concentration. We have further tested the heating capacity contribution from the Neel mechanism by trapping the magnetic nanoparticles in a solid form of

  7. Evaluating Changes in Pre-Eruptive Conditions of Explosively and Effusively Erupted Intermediate Magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaus, J. G.; Waters, L. E.; Frey, H. M.; Manon, M. R. F.

    2017-12-01

    Dominica is known for its voluminous eruptions of andesitic and dacitic magmas, and provides a case study for testing for differences in the magmatic systems sourcing explosive and effusive intermediate volcanics. Here, we conduct a detailed petrologic study to evaluate changes in the pre-eruptive magmatic conditions between the eruption of the Layou ignimbrite (LI) and its corresponding resurgent dome, Morne Trois Piton (MTP). Point counts reveal that the LI contains 21% crystals and is multiply saturated in seven phenocrystic phases (plagioclase + hornblende + clinopyroxene +orthopyroxene + ilmenite + magnetite + quartz). The MTP dome is intermediate in composition with light and dark grey banding with mafic enclaves. MTP contains 50% crystals and a phase assemblage identical to LI with a few notable distinctions. Hornblende crystals in the dome are significantly reacted, and quartz occurs in a greater abundance and size. Application of a two-oxide geo-thermometer results in an average pre-eruptive temperature of 769 ± 12°C and average oxygen fugacity of -0.1 ± 0.1 ΔNNO (relative to the NNO buffer) for LI. Despite differences in color, the banded lavas yielded similar pre-eruptive temperatures and fO2, with light grey at 813 ± 32 °C and average fO2 of 0.4 ± 0.1 ΔNNO, and dark grey at 822± 27 °C and fO2 of 0.3 ± 0.2 ΔNNO. Water contents are calculated by incorporating the whole rock and interstitial glass compositions into a plagioclase liquid hygrometer model along with pre-eruptive temperatures and plagioclase compositions. H2O contents for the Layou ignimbrite range from 6.4 to 8.7 wt%, whereas water contents for all Morne Trois Piton lava range from 7.2-8.5 wt%. Pressures of crystallization are estimated using a solubility model and the water contents derived from the hygrometer and are ≥3kb (≥10km) for all samples. The main difference between the explosive LI and effusive MTP is that the dome shows signs of mingling of light and dark grey

  8. Evaluation of specific tritium transfer parameters in equilibrium conditions for Cernavoda area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paunescu, N.; Galeriu, D.; Mocanu, N.; Margineanu, R.

    1998-01-01

    In Romania, a CANDU nuclear power plant with five reactors of 600 MWe is under construction. The first unit reached its criticality on April 1996 and became operational at full power on December 1996. The nuclear power plant is placed in Cernavoda area, in the S-E of Romania, between the Danube River and the Danube-Black Sea Canal. The prevalent local climate is continental and agricultural activity in the neighbourhood of the nuclear power plant is of intensive type. The routine atmospheric tritium release from the 3 GWe nuclear power plant is expected to be about 460 TBq/year and the aqueous release is expected to be 350 TBq/year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the environmental tritium reference level before commissioning the nuclear power plant. Representative samples for Cernavoda area were analysed: air humidity; water from Danube River, Danube-Black Sea Canal, lakes; drinking and ground water, rain (snow) water; soil at different depths; tissue free water tritium in vegetal and animal foodstuff relevant for human diet: cereals (wheat, maize, barley), vegetables (potato, tomato, cabbage, onion, bean), fruits, grapes, wine and milk; organically bound tritium in wheat and maize grains. The equipment and methods used were: Liquid scintillation analyzer of type TRICARB 1900 TR; scintillation cocktails of Instagel and Pico Fluor LLT type; sampling system for trapping the atmospheric tritium on molecular sieves; furnace; vacuum line and freeze trap (-60 deg. C); equipment for simple, fractionating and azeotropic distillation. The background level of tritium concentration was determined in environmental samples in Cernavoda area, in preoperational stage of nuclear power plant. The mean values determined during 1994-early 1996 are : (7.4±5.5) Bq/L in air humidity, (3.1±1.0) Bq/L in water, (3.53±0.4) Bq/L in tissue water from vegetable and (4.9±1.7) Bq/L in tissue water from cereals (grains). The values of tritium concentration in air, water, soil and

  9. Simulating physiological conditions to evaluate nanoparticles for magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shihwei; Chiang, Chen-li; Hsieh, Shuchen

    2010-01-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles with high self-heating capacity and low toxicity characteristics are a promising candidate for cancer hyperthermia treatment. In order to achieve minimum dosage to a patient, magnetic nanoparticles with high heating capacity are needed. In addition, the influence of physiological factors on the heat capacity of a material should be investigated in order to determine the feasibility. In this study, magnetite nanoparticles coated with lauric acid were prepared by co-precipitation of Fe 3+:Fe 2+ in a ratio of 2:1, 5:3, 3:2, and 4:3, and the pH was controlled using NaOH. Structural and magnetization characterization by means of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) revealed that the main species was Fe 3O 4 and further showed that most of the nanoparticles exhibited superparamagnetic properties. All of the magnetic nanoparticles showed a specific absorption rate (SAR) increase that was linear with the magnetic field strength and frequency of the alternating magnetic field. Among all, the magnetic nanoparticles prepared in a 3:2 ratio showed the highest SAR. To further test the influence of physiological factors on the 3:2 ratio magnetic nanoparticles, we simulated the environment with protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA), blood sugar (dextrose), electrolytes (commercial norm-saline) and viscosity (glycerol) to examine the heating capacity under these conditions. Our results showed that the SAR value was unaffected by the protein and blood sugar environments. On the other hand, the SAR value was significantly reduced in the electrolyte environment, due to precipitation and aggregation with sodium ions. For the simulated viscous environment with glycerol, the result showed that the SAR values reduced with increasing glycerol concentration. We have further tested the heating capacity contribution from the Néel mechanism by trapping the magnetic nanoparticles in a solid form of polydimethylsiloxane

  10. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  11. Evaluation under diverse conditions of a differential host reaction scale to Tomato yellow leaf curl virus in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana PÉREZ-DE-CASTRO

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV is the most widespread virus species causing Tomato yellow leaf curl disease. Accurate methods for assessment of resistance are requisite in breeding programs. Researchers at the Volcani Center (Israel developed a scale of differential TYLCV reactions in seven non-segregating tomato host lines, with virus responses ranging from susceptible to highly resistant. In the present work, this scale has been evaluated with inoculation and assessment methods routinely used by two different research groups, in Spain and Cuba. Different TYLCV isolates, inoculation methods, plant ages, and environmental conditions were compared. Symptom scores of the tomato lines were generally lower in the conditions assayed in both locations than those originally described. Reaction ranking order of the standard tomato lines was more similar to the original description in the assays carried out in Spain. However, response of the lines to TYLCV obtained in both locations did not correspond to scale grades for most of the conditions. A large difference between symptom scores in the susceptible and the resistant lines was observed, with the range in the resistant lines being narrow. These results indicate that the number of standard lines used could be reduced, selecting the most susceptible and the most resistant lines, and one with intermediate resistance. All the factors evaluated affected symptom development. This highlights the importance of establishing a standard inoculation method, experimental conditions, evaluation period and appropriate resistance evaluation criteria, to ensure precise evaluation of genotype responses.

  12. Graphite Based Electrode for ECG Monitoring: Evaluation under Freshwater and Saltwater Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharoeun Thap

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We proposed new electrodes that are applicable for electrocardiogram (ECG monitoring under freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions. Our proposed electrodes are made of graphite pencil lead (GPL, a general-purpose writing pencil. We have fabricated two types of electrode: a pencil lead solid type (PLS electrode and a pencil lead powder type (PLP electrode. In order to assess the qualities of the PLS and PLP electrodes, we compared their performance with that of a commercial Ag/AgCl electrode, under a total of seven different conditions: dry, freshwater immersion with/without movement, post-freshwater wet condition, saltwater immersion with/without movement, and post-saltwater wet condition. In both dry and post-freshwater wet conditions, all ECG-recorded PQRST waves were clearly discernible, with all types of electrodes, Ag/AgCl, PLS, and PLP. On the other hand, under the freshwater- and saltwater-immersion conditions with/without movement, as well as post-saltwater wet conditions, we found that the proposed PLS and PLP electrodes provided better ECG waveform quality, with significant statistical differences compared with the quality provided by Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  13. Being Spontaneous: The Future of Telehealth Implementation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E

    2017-09-01

    The smartphone simplifies interprofessional communication, and smartphone applications can facilitate telemedicine activity. Much has been written about the steps that need to be followed to implement and establish a successful telemedicine service that is integrated into everyday clinical practice. A traditional and systematic approach has evolved incorporating activities such as strategy development, needs assessment, business cases and plans, readiness assessment, implementation plans, change management interventions, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. This "best practice" has been promoted in the telehealth literature for many years. In contrast, several recent initiatives have arisen without any such formal undertakings. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of two "spontaneous" telemedicine services in dermatology and burn management that have evolved in South Africa. Two spontaneous services were identified and reviewed. In one unsolicited service, doctors at rural referring hospitals have been taking photographs of skin lesions and sending them with a brief text message history to dermatologists using the instant messaging smartphone app, WhatsApp. In the other, burns service, admissions to the burns unit or the clinic were triaged by telephonic description of the case and completion of a preadmission questionnaire. More recently, management and referral decisions are made only after completion of the questionnaire and subsequent submission of photographs of the burn sent by WhatsApp, with the decision transmitted by text message. Although efficient and effective, potential legal and ethical shortcomings have been identified. These "spontaneous" telehealth services challenge traditional best practice, yet appear to lead to truly integrated practice and, therefore, are successful and warrant further study.

  14. Evaluation of drought tolerance and yield capacity of barley (hordeum vulgare) genotypes under irrigated and water-stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khokhar, M.I.; Silva, J.A.T.D

    2012-01-01

    Twelve barley genotypes developed through different selection methods were evaluated under drought and irrigated conditions. The results of a correlation matrix revealed highly significant associations between Grain Yield (Yp) and Mean Productivity (MP), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) under irrigated conditions while the Mean Productivity (MP), Yield Stability Index (Yi), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP) and Yield Index (Yi) had a high response under stressed condition. Based on a principal component analysis, Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Mean Productivity (MP) and Stress Tolerance Index (STI) were considered to be the best parameters for selection of drought-tolerant genotypes. The 2-row barley genotypes B-07023 and B-07021 performed better in yield response under drought conditions and were more stable under stress conditions. Furthermore, drought stress reduced the yield of some genotypes while others were tolerant to drought, suggesting genetic variability in this material for drought tolerance. (author)

  15. Spontaneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidural abscess in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connealy, Brendan D; Lovgren, Todd R; Tomich, Paul G; Smith, Carl V; Berg, Teresa G

    2010-08-01

    Epidural abscess is a rare complication of regional anesthesia, and spontaneous formation is even more uncommon. Diabetes mellitus, concomitant infection, intravenous drug use, and immune suppression are risk factors for spontaneous epidural abscess. A 29-year-old white woman presented at 28 weeks of estimated gestational age reporting an intermittent headache. She had Horner syndrome and was hospitalized. A cervicothoracic epidural abscess was diagnosed. Surgical decompression and parenteral antibiotics resulted in complete resolution of neurologic symptoms. Cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureous. Spontaneous epidural abscess is a rare condition and diagnosis is often delayed. The finding of Horner syndrome led to imaging of the cervical spine and diagnosis of epidural abscess. Early intervention resulted in resolution of neurologic symptoms and a successful pregnancy outcome.

  16. Hypovolemic shock following induced abortion and spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakniyat, Abdolghader; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Moshar-Mowahed, Ghasem; Talebi, Fatimah

    2015-12-01

    Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy is a rare clinical condition in which intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancies occur at the same time. It is rare, estimated to occur in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The case was a 38-year-old woman with spontaneously conceived heterotopic pregnancy. She was admitted to our center with hypovolemic shock. Focused assessment sonography for trauma examination in emergency department showed large amount of free fluid in peritoneal cavity. She was managed surgical laparotomy. Considering spontaneous pregnancies, physician should be aware of the possibility of heterotopic pregnancy in all reproductive age women, especially those with history of recent abortion. It can occur without any predisposing risk factors. Patients should be informed about possible side effects of nonprescription medicines, and also the health care centers must be safe peaceful environment for them without severe legal consequences.

  17. Joseph Conrad and the spontaneous combustion of coal - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, A.D. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Joseph Conrad`s novel `Youth` described an on-board fire and explosion from transported coal between Sumatra and Bangka Island. This incident is based on Conrad`s experience as a mariner transporting coal, and displays a detailed knowledge of the technical issues and preventative actions involved in the spontaneous combustion of coal cargoes at sea. The coal concerned was West Hartley coal, and in this article the author examines the combustion characteristics of this coal, and the historical information available on the explosion on board the `Palestine`. The reasons for spontaneous combustion are examined, with particular attention paid to oxidation, moisture content and pyrite oxidation. West Hartley coal was a high volatile bituminous coal, with high self-heating tendencies, and so likely to undergo spontaneous combustion in the right conditions. Self-heating in ships is now well researched as a result of the international maritime coal trade. 21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  19. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  20. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  2. Identification of Pavement Distress Types and Pavement Condition Evaluation Based on Network Level Inspection for Jazan City Road Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mubaraki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The first step in establishing a pavement management system (PMS is road network identification. An important feature of a PMS is the ability to determine the current condition of a road network and predict its future condition. Pavement condition evaluation may involve structure, roughness, surface distress, and safety evaluation. In this study, a pavement distress condition rating procedure was used to achieve the objectives of this study. The main objectives of this study were to identify the common types of distress that exist on the Jazan road network (JRN, either on main roads or secondary roads, and to evaluate the pavement condition based on network level inspection. The study was conducted by collecting pavement distress types from 227 sample units on main roads and 500 sample units from secondary roads. Data were examined through analysis of common types of distress identified in both main and secondary roads. Through these data, pavement condition index (PCI for each sample unit was then calculated. Through these calculations, average PCIs for the main and secondary roads were determined. Results indicated that the most common pavement distress types on main roads were patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, polished aggregate, weathering and raveling, and alligator cracking. The most common pavement distress types on secondary roads were weathering and raveling, patching and utility cut patching, longitudinal and transverse cracking, potholes, and alligator cracking. The results also indicated that 65% of Jazan's main road network has an average pavement condition rating of very good while only 30% of Jazan's secondary roads network has an average pavement condition.

  3. Validation of perceptual strain index to evaluate the thermal strain in experimental hot conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: The research findings showed when there is no access to other forms of methods to evaluate the heat stress, it can be used the PeSI in evaluating the strain because of its favorable correlation with the thermal strain.

  4. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  5. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  6. EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL TISSUES CONDITION IN CHILDREN WITH BLOOD COAGULABILITY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2014-02-01

    Volodkina, PMA index (papillary-marginal-alveolar index was determined by standard methods. Visual presence of inflammation clinical signs and periodontal tissue condition was determined in each group. During interviews with parents the timing and frequency of oral hygiene were studied on the proposed scheme. Results. During clinical examination of children with pathology of blood coagulability unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene was revealed. When evaluating PMA index in different age groups it should be noted that mild gingivitis is observed in all groups (5%. The most numerous group was one with gingivitis of moderate severity (71% and severe course (24%. Diffuse catarrhal gingivitis dominates in the structure of inflammatory diseases of gums, gingival papillae and gingival margin. Analysis of the data of PMA index and visual examination shows that diffuse inflammation prevails in 99% of cases. It was found out that everyday teeth cleaning was carried out by 25% of children in group I and 40% of children in group III. Obviously, the obtained data indicate the untypical inflammatory process and the high prevalence of gingival and periodontal inflammation in the examined children. Conclusions. It was found out that low indicators of the oral hygiene level are registered in all groups of examined children; oral hygiene in these children was not carried out because of the risk and fear of bleeding. Prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in examined children was 100%. Treatment of gingivitis or visit to the dentist due to gingival bleeding were not carried out. Search and use of adequate oral hygiene products for children with pathology of blood coagulability, development of hygiene programs and supporting activities taking into account the underlying disease were put on the agenda by this fact.

  7. EVALUATION OF PERIODONTAL TISSUES CONDITION IN CHILDREN WITH BLOOD COAGULABILITY PATHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2013-12-01

    Fedorov and Volodkina, PMA index (papillary-marginal-alveolar index was determined by standard methods. Visual presence of inflammation clinical signs and periodontal tissue condition was determined in each group. During interviews with parents the timing and frequency of oral hygiene were studied on the proposed scheme. Results. During clinical examination of children with pathology of blood coagulability unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene was revealed. When evaluating PMA index in different age groups it should be noted that mild gingivitis is observed in all groups (5%. The most numerous group is one with gingivitis of moderate severity (71% and severe course (24%. Diffuse catarrhal gingivitis dominates in the structure of inflammatory diseases of gums, gingival papillae and gingival margin. Analysis of the data of PMA index and visual examination shows that diffuse inflammation prevails in 99% of cases. It was found out that everyday teeth cleaning was carried out by 25% of children in group I and 40% of children in group III. Obviously, the obtained data indicate the untypical inflammatory process and the high prevalence of gingival and periodontal inflammation in the examined children. Conclusions. It is found out that low indicators of the oral hygiene level are registered in all groups of examined children; oral hygiene in these children is not carried out because of the risk and fear of bleeding; prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in examined children is 100%; treatment of gingivitis or visit to the dentist due to gingival bleeding are not carried out. Search and use of adequate oral hygiene products for children with pathology of blood coagulability, development of hygiene programs and supporting activities taking into account the underlying disease are put on the agenda by this fact.

  8. Evaluation of periodontal tissues condition in children with blood coagulability pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gavrilenko

    2013-12-01

    and Volodkina, PMA index (papillary-marginal-alveolar index was determined by standard methods. Visual presence of inflammation clinical signs and periodontal tissue condition was determined in each group. During interviews with parents the timing and frequency of oral hygiene were studied on the proposed scheme. Results. During clinical examination of children with pathology of blood coagulability unsatisfactory level of oral hygiene was revealed. When evaluating PMA index in different age groups it should be noted that mild gingivitis is observed in all groups (5%. The most numerous group is one with gingivitis of moderate severity (71% and severe course (24%. Diffuse catarrhal gingivitis dominates in the structure of inflammatory diseases of gums, gingival papillae and gingival margin. Analysis of the data of PMA index and visual examination shows that diffuse inflammation prevails in 99% of cases. It was found out that everyday teeth cleaning was carried out by 25% of children in group I and 40% of children in group III. Obviously, the obtained data indicate the untypical inflammatory process and the high prevalence of gingival and periodontal inflammation in the examined children. Conclusions. It is found out that low indicators of the oral hygiene level are registered in all groups of examined children; oral hygiene in these children is not carried out because of the risk and fear of bleeding; prevalence of inflammatory diseases of periodontal tissues in examined children is 100%; treatment of gingivitis or visit to the dentist due to gingival bleeding are not carried out. Search and use of adequate oral hygiene products for children with pathology of blood coagulability, development of hygiene programs and supporting activities taking into account the underlying disease are put on the agenda by this fact.

  9. Kinematic assessment of stereotypy in spontaneous movements in infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karch, Dominik; Kang, Keun-Sun; Wochner, Katarzyna; Philippi, Heike; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Pietz, Joachim; Dickhaus, Hartmut

    Movement variation constitutes a crucial feature of infant motor development. Reduced variation of spontaneous infant movements, i.e. stereotyped movements, may indicate severe neurological deficit at an early stage. Hitherto evaluation of movement variation has been mainly restricted to subjective

  10. Real time PCR mediated determination of the spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluates the utility of Real Time PCR (RT-PCR) in quantitative and qualitative analysis of alleles in sorghum populations and the spontaneous occurrence of Sorghum bicolor alleles in wild populations of sorghum. Leaf and seed material from wild sorghum accesions were sampled in Homabay, Siaya and Busia ...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging used for the evaluation of water presence in wood plastic composite boards exposed to exterior conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek Gnatowski; Rebecca Ibach; Mathew Leung; Grace Sun

    2014-01-01

    Two wood plastic composite (WPC) boards, one experimental and one commercial, were exposed to exterior conditions and evaluated non-destructively using a clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit for moisture content (MC) and distribution. The experimental board was exposed in Vancouver, British Columbia, for more than 8 years, and the commercial board was exposed...

  12. Evaluation of the Optimal Reaction Conditions for the Methanolysis and Ethanolysis of Castor Oil Catalyzed by Immobilized Enzymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Thalles Allan; Al-Kabalawi, Ibrahim; Errico, Massimiliano

    This study aims to compare the efficiency of the transesterification of castor oil with methanol and ethanol as part of the biodiesel production, using immobilized enzyme Lipozyme IM as catalyst. Different reaction conditions were evaluated and optimized, including the reaction temperature, alcohol-to-oil...

  13. Fracture Strength of Indirect Resin Composite Laminates to Teeth with Existing Restorations : An Evaluation of Conditioning Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mese, Ayse; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the fracture strength and failure types of indirect resin-based composite laminates bonded to teeth with aged Class III composite restorations that were conditioned according to various protocols. Materials and Methods: Maxillary central incisors (N = 60) with

  14. Medical Evaluation Board for Mental Health Condition: U.S. Army Officer Medical Evaluation Board Data by Branch and Component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, William A; Doane, Eric L; Gallavan, Robert H; Tavares, Spencer; Jones, Mark C

    2017-09-01

    A retrospective review of Medical Evaluation Board (MEB) data to determine the effect of career field or Army component on the relative risk for mental health (MH) related MEBs among Army Officers, may identify specific populations for enhanced screening before accession, or groups that may require targeted preventive resources during their careers. 4 years' of data available on Army Officers from the Department of the Army's Electronic Disability Evaluation System database, contained specific information on the officers' physical profiles, career fields, and service component. This information was compared with a dataset provided by the Defense Manpower Data Center (DMDC), reporting documented force strength by career field and service component for the corresponding years, allowing for calculation and comparison of MEB and MH-MEB rates between Army components and between career fields. Significant differences in MEB and MH-MEB rates were found between Army components, but database gaps make this assessment uncertain. When comparing MEB and MH-MEB rates between career fields (regardless of service component), 9 career fields had statistically significant higher risk rates of MEB and/or MH-MEB, whereas 13 career fields showed significantly lower rates of MEB and/or MH-MEB. Frequency of Army Officer MEBs and/or MH-MEBs were variable and career field dependent; the underlying causes of these variations warrant further research. The use of the Electronic Disability Evaluation System database for the Integrated Disability Evaluation System process is a rich source of data for in-depth analysis, but the program itself and the procedures for its use need to be improved to obtain more complete information. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  15. Using Motion Tracking to Detect Spontaneous Movements in Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    We study the characteristics of infants’ spontaneous movements, based on data obtained from a markerless motion tracking system. From the pose data, the set of features are generated from the raw joint-angles of the infants and different classifiers are trained and evaluated using annotated data....... Furthermore, we look at the importance of different features and outline the most significant features for detecting spontaneous movements of infants. Using these findings for further analysis of infants’ movements, this might be used to identify infants in risk of cerebral palsy....

  16. EVALUATION OF THE WORK CONDITIONS OF ACTIVITIES OF URBAN TREE PRUNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton César Fiedler

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available this work analyzed the work environment in the trees pruning activities in the urban arborization, comparison with the values of the legislation and the practical application of results to provide a better comfort, security, health, welfare to workers, and also a better efficiency and quality of the work. The weather conditions, the noise levels, the light conditions and vibration were analyzed using suitable ergonomic methods. The weather conditions in the work environment were according the permissible values in the legislation (NR15 for index of humid bulb and globe thermometer (IBUTG of 25°C for the activities of pruning, with exception of the schedule to twelve hours (26,2°C, the hours of working should be of 30 minutes of work and 30 minutes of rest. The noise levels found in the activities of cut were 105,7 dB (A and bucking were 103.9 dB (A, above the level permited by legislation (NR15. The minimum light conditions values were acceptable for legislation (NBR 5413/92, but the global indices were too high being able to cause problems to the worker health. The vibration conditions were acceptable.

  17. An evaluation of resistance to change with unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargo, Kristina K; Ringdahl, Joel E

    2015-09-01

    Several reinforcer-related variables influence a response's resistance to change (Nevin, 1974). Reinforcer type (i.e., conditioned or unconditioned) is a reinforcer-related variable that has not been studied with humans but may have clinical implications. In Experiment 1, we identified unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers of equal preference. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we reinforced participants' behavior during a baseline phase using a multiple variable-interval (VI) 30-s VI 30-s schedule with either conditioned (i.e., token) or unconditioned (i.e., food; one type of reinforcement in each component) reinforcement. After equal reinforcement rates across components, we introduced a disruptor. Results of Experiments 2 and 3 showed that behaviors were more resistant to extinction and distraction, respectively, with conditioned than with unconditioned reinforcers. Results of Experiment 4, however, showed that when prefeeding disrupted responding, behaviors were more resistant to change with unconditioned reinforcers than with conditioned reinforcers. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  18. Brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Kyu; Byun, Woo Mok; Cho, Jae Ho; Cho Kil Ho; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Yang Gu [Keimyoung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jin [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    To evaluate brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. A retrospective review of MRI findings was conducted on six patients with clinically proven spontaneous intracranial hypotension; no patient had a history of previous spinal puncture. Follow-up MRI was available in two patients, and to detect CSF leakage, radio-nuclide cisternography(n=3D5), myelography(n=3D1), and MR myelography(n=3D1) were performed. On contrast-enhanced T1WI, diffuse dural enhancement was seen in all cases, subdural hematoma or hygroma was seen in four cases, pituitary gland prominence in four, dural sinus dilatation in four, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil in two, downward displacement of the iter in one, and suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement in two. In no patient was abnormal CSF leakage found. Although dural enhancement, as seen on MRI, is not specific, diffuse enhancement of the dura mater accompanied by subdural hematoma, hygroma, pituitary gland prominence, dural sinus dilatation, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil, or suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement can strongly suggest intracranial hypotension.=20.

  19. Evaluation on current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin-film wire considering electric coupling condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, H.-I.; Han, B.-S.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, D.-H.; Song, S.-S.; Han, T.-H.; Han, S.-C.

    2011-01-01

    The basic way to improve the performance of a superconducting current limiter is to apply and evaluate a superconducting device that is appropriate to the superconducting current limiter. Among the many types of superconducting devices, the YBCO thin film wire has excellent current-limiting performance that is appropriate for actual system application. For the application of the YBCO thin film wire to superconducting current limiters, its current-limiting performance as a unit device must be accurately evaluated, and measures to improve its current-limiting performance must be sought. Accordingly, to evaluate the current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin film wire, this study was conducted to evaluate its resistance-increasing trend, V max , T r , I max , I qt , and current-limiting rate as a unit device, after which the electric coupling condition that consists of a core and windings was used to evaluate the current-limiting performance of the YBCO thin film wire.

  20. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Computed Tomographic Characteristics and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimara de la Caridad Vergara Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: strokes are the third leading cause of death among adults and 10-15 % of them are due to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Objective: to characterize spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage through computed tomography scan and its outcome. Methods: a case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital in Villa Clara from January 2009 to January 2010. Tomographic variables of interest were derived from evaluation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. Results: fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were studied, 23 were located in lobar regions, 4 had severe midline shift, and 2 showed volume greater than 80 ml. Eight out of eleven with extension into the ventricular system had an unfavorable outcome. Among those with thalamic hemorrhage, patients with diameter larger than 4cm and extension into the ventricular system died. Patients with putaminal hemorrhage larger than 4 cm and posterior fossa hematoma with hydrocephalus had a poor outcome, as well as most individuals (55 with other mass effects. Most lobar hematomas (14 out of 23 had a satisfactory outcome, unlike cerebellar and brainstem hematomas. Conclusions: tomographic variables that had a negative impact on the outcome were: volume greater than 80 ml, severe midline shift, diameter larger than 4 cm, extension into the ventricular system, hydrocephalus, other signs of mass effect and brainstem location.

  1. Blind image quality evaluation using the conditional histogram patterns of divisive normalization transform coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ying; Mou, Xuanqin; Yu, Hengyong

    2017-09-01

    A novel code book based framework for blind image quality assessment is developed. The code words are designed according to the image pattern of joint conditional histograms among neighboring divisive normalization transform coefficients in degraded images. By extracting high dimensional perceptual features from different subjective score levels in the sample database, and by clustering the features to their centroids, the conditional histogram based code book is constructed. Objective image quality score is calculated by comparing the distances between extracted features and the code words. Experiments are performed on most current databases, and the results confirm the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed approach.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of uranium mill tailings conditioning as an alternative remedial action technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Cokal, E.J.; Thode, E.F.; Wangen, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Conditioning of uranium mill tailings is being investigated as an alternative remedial action for inactive tailings piles to be stabilized by the US Department of Energy. Tailings from high priority sites have been characterized for elemental composition, mineralogy, aqueous leachable contaminants, and radon emanation power to provide a baseline to determine the environmental hazard control produced by conditioning. Thermal stabilization of tailings at high temperatures and removal of contaminants by sulfuric acid leaching are being investigated for technical merit as well as economic and engineering feasibility

  3. Information-Theoretic Conditions for Two-Party Secure Function Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaffner, Christian; Crépeau, Claude; Savvides, George

    2006-01-01

    The standard security definition of unconditional secure function evaluation, which is based on the ideal/real model paradigm, has the disadvantage of being overly complicated to work with in practice. On the other hand, simpler ad-hoc definitions tailored to special scenarios have often been...... flawed. Motivated by this unsatisfactory situation, we give an information-theoretic security definition of secure function evaluation which is very simple yet provably equivalent to the standard, simulation-based definitions....

  4. Evaluation of Two Moringa oleifera Lam Varieties Using Different Substrates in Nursery Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Damisela Pacheco Veiga; Idania Yero Pino; Nelson Heriberto Martin Cuesta; Delmy Triana González; Oscar Loyola Hernández

    2016-01-01

    A nursery study was made on brown soil with typical carbonate to evaluate agroproductive behavior of Plain and Supergenious Moringa oleifera Lam varieties, using different substrates. Three substrates were studied (worm castings, decomposed cattle manure and compost), using a randomized block experimental design, with 8 treatments and three replicas. The evaluation included the amount of leaves 30 days after germination, plant height until transplantation every ten days and at 30 days, stem d...

  5. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T.; Janke, Christopher James; Dai, Sheng; Das, S.; Liao, W.P.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Wood, Jordana; Gill, Gary; Byers, Maggie Flicker; Schneider, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  6. Adsorbent Alkali Conditioning for Uranium Adsorption from Seawater. Adsorbent Performance and Technology Cost Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mayes, Richard T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dai, Sheng [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Das, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liao, W. -P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wood, Jordana [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Byers, Maggie Flicker [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schneider, Eric [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The Fuel Resources program of the Fuel Cycle Research and Development program of the Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) is focused on identifying and implementing actions to assure that nuclear fuel resources are available in the United States. An immense source of uranium is seawater, which contains an estimated amount of 4.5 billion tonnes of dissolved uranium. This unconventional resource can provide a price cap and ensure centuries of uranium supply for future nuclear energy production. NE initiated a multidisciplinary program with participants from national laboratories, universities, and research institutes to enable technical breakthroughs related to uranium recovery from seawater. The goal is to develop advanced adsorbents to reduce the seawater uranium recovery technology cost and uncertainties. Under this program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a new amidoxime-based adsorbent of high surface area, which tripled the uranium capacity of leading Japanese adsorbents. Parallel efforts have been focused on the optimization of the physicochemical and operating parameters used during the preparation of the adsorbent for deployment. A set of parameters that need to be optimized are related to the conditioning of the adsorbent with alkali solution, which is necessary prior to adsorbent deployment. Previous work indicated that alkali-conditioning parameters significantly affect the adsorbent performance. Initiated in 2014, this study had as a goal to determine optimal parameters such as base type and concentration, temperature, and duration of conditioning that maximize the uranium adsorption performance of amidoxime functionalized adsorbent, while keeping the cost of uranium production low. After base-treatment at various conditions, samples of adsorbent developed at ORNL were tested in this study with batch simulated seawater solution of 8-ppm uranium concentration, batch seawater spiked with uranium nitrate at 75-100 ppb uranium, and continuous

  7. An Evaluation of the Effects of Chronic Diseases and Health Conditions on Tobacco Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Dawn E.; Barr, Nikki; Rickert, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the effects of chronic health conditions on tobacco cessation and participation in a follow-up assessment among 13,900 smokers in a telephone-based tobacco cessation programme. Design: This study involved gathering data from individuals during pre- and post-intervention telephonic assessments following their decision…

  8. Study of the physico-chemical conditions and evaluation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to different estimations in literatures the volume of the wastewaters varied between 7 × 106 and 8 × 106 m3day-1, which is supposed to increase with the growing population density of Alexandria city. These conditions cause pronounced eutrophication and drastic changes. Eutrophication-related problems in El- ...

  9. Evaluation of seed storage conditions on the growth of rough lemon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies on the effect of four seed storage conditions (Refrigeration, River sand, Brown envelope and Baft bag) on the performance of rough lemon seeds (variety C. jambhiri) stored for 12 weeks, in the laboratory and later planted out in the field for 24 weeks, revealed that plants developed from refrigerated stored seeds ...

  10. Further Evaluation of Leisure Items in the Attention Condition of Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Eileen M.; Carreau, Abbey; MacDonald, Jackie; Pence, Sacha T.

    2008-01-01

    Research suggests that including leisure items in the attention condition of a functional analysis may produce engagement that masks sensitivity to attention. In this study, 4 individuals. initial functional analyses indicated that behavior was maintained by nonsocial variables (n = 3) or by attention (n = 1). A preference assessment was used to…

  11. Predicting speech intelligibility in adverse conditions: evaluation of the speech-based envelope power spectrum model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Søren; Dau, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    conditions by comparing predictions to measured data from [Kjems et al. (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 126 (3), 1415-1426] where speech is mixed with four different interferers, including speech-shaped noise, bottle noise, car noise, and cafe noise. The model accounts well for the differences in intelligibility...

  12. Evaluation of Sub-Zonal Airflow Models for the Prediction of Local Interior Boundary Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steskens, Paul W. M. H.; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    and applicability of the sub-zonal airflow model to predict the local indoor environmental conditions, as well as the local surface transfer coefficients near building components. Two test cases were analyzed for, respectively, natural and forced convection in a room. The simulation results predicted from the sub...

  13. The Effects of Involvement, Message Appeal, and Viewing Conditions on Memory and Evaluation of TV Commercials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Glen; Thorson, Esther

    A study tested an information processing model that incorporates the concepts of episodic and semantic memory. The model was designed to provide for the concurrent study of three advertising and communication variables: product involvement, message appeal, and distraction in viewing conditions. Among the five hypotheses being tested were that…

  14. A multi-criterion index for the evaluation of local tropical forest conditions in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa-Gaona, S.; Kampichler, C.; de Jong, B.H.J.; Hernández, S.; Geissen, V.; Huerta, E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the ecological and economical importance of tropical forests they are currently affected by human activities, mainly through deforestation and selective extraction. With the aim of making an opportune diagnosis of the condition of forests, we developed an ecological index based on

  15. Evaluation of classifiers that score linear type traits and body condition score using common sires

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Gerritsen, C.L.M.; Koenen, E.P.C.; Hamoen, A.; Jong, de G.

    2002-01-01

    Subjective visual assessment of animals by classifiers is undertaken for several different traits in farm livestock, e.g., linear type traits, body condition score, or carcass conformation. One of the difficulties in assessment is the effect of an individual classifier. To ensure that classifiers

  16. Evaluating a new method for reconstructing forest conditions from General Land Office survey records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrie R. Levine; Charles V. Cogbill; Brandon M. Collins; Andrew J. Larson; James A. Lutz; Malcolm P. North; Christina M. Restaino; Hugh D. Safford; Scott L. Stephens; John J. Battles

    2017-01-01

    Historical forest conditions are often used to inform contemporary management goals because historical forests are considered to be resilient to ecological disturbances. The General Land Office (GLO) surveys of the late 19th and early 20th centuries provide regionally quasi-contiguous data sets of historical forests across much of the Western United States....

  17. Evaluating Maximum Photovoltaic Integration in District Distribution Systems Considering Optimal Inverter Dispatch and Cloud Shading Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Tao; Kou, Yu; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    . However, the intermittency of solar PV energy (e.g., due to passing clouds) may affect the PV generation in the district distribution network. To address this issue, the voltage magnitude constraints under the cloud shading conditions should be taken into account in the optimization model, which can...

  18. A Further Evaluation of Picture Prompts during Auditory-Visual Conditional Discrimination Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Charlotte L.; Peterson, Sean P.; Arkel, Amber J.; Petursdottir, Anna I.; Ingvarsson, Einar T.

    2012-01-01

    This study was a systematic replication and extension of Fisher, Kodak, and Moore (2007), in which a picture prompt embedded into a least-to-most prompting sequence facilitated acquisition of auditory-visual conditional discriminations. Participants were 4 children who had been diagnosed with autism; 2 had limited prior receptive skills, and 2 had…

  19. Performance Evaluation of Three-Level Z-Source Inverters Under Semiconductor Failure Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Loh, P.C.; Vilathgamuwa, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes various compensation methods for three-level Z-source inverters under semiconductor failure conditions. Unlike the traditional fault tolerant techniques in three-level inverter by using either an additional phase-leg or collective switching states, the proposed methods simply ...

  20. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  1. Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...

  2. Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical Lorentz violation due to the simultaneously generated gauge invariance. Udgivelsesdato: June 11...

  3. Spontaneous Esophageal Injury: Esophageal Intramural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Chiu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute chest pain can indicate a life-threatening condition and it is important for physicians to diagnose and treat it as a matter of urgency. We report 1 rare case of esophageal intramural hematoma (IMH that presented with chest pain at the emergency department and which was initially clinically suspected to be due to aortic dissection. The case was diagnosed preoperatively by multidetector computed tomography. Esophageal IMH may represent an intermediate stage between Mallory-Weiss tear (mucosal and Boerhaave's syndrome (transmural. Multidetector computed tomography is a useful noninvasive imaging modality for accurate diagnosis of these spontaneous intramural and transmural ruptures of the esophagus, and aids in the differential diagnosis of aortic and other mediastinal diseases with acute chest pain.

  4. Spontaneous Heterotopic Triplet Pregnancy With Tubal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Arsala MBBS, BBMedSci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The recent increase in heterotopic pregnancies has been largely attributed to the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies. We report the rare case of a multiparous woman with a spontaneous conception resulting in a triplet heterotopic pregnancy: a twin intrauterine pregnancy and a single right tubal ectopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in which simultaneous gestations occur at 2 or more implantation sites. It is infrequent in natural conception cycles, occurring in 1:30 000 pregnancies. However, the prevalence is rising with the increased use of assisted reproduction techniques to that of 1:100 to 1:500 in these patient subgroups, highlighting the need to incorporate it into a clinician’s diagnostic algorithm.

  5. Evaluating Weather Research and Forecasting Model Sensitivity to Land and Soil Conditions Representative of Karst Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Fan, Xingang; Mahmood, Rezaul; Groves, Chris; Polk, Jason S.; Yan, Jun

    2017-10-01

    Due to their particular physiographic, geomorphic, soil cover, and complex surface-subsurface hydrologic conditions, karst regions produce distinct land-atmosphere interactions. It has been found that floods and droughts over karst regions can be more pronounced than those in non-karst regions following a given rainfall event. Five convective weather events are simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model to explore the potential impacts of land-surface conditions on weather simulations over karst regions. Since no existing weather or climate model has the ability to represent karst landscapes, simulation experiments in this exploratory study consist of a control (default land-cover/soil types) and three land-surface conditions, including barren ground, forest, and sandy soils over the karst areas, which mimic certain karst characteristics. Results from sensitivity experiments are compared with the control simulation, as well as with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction multi-sensor precipitation analysis Stage-IV data, and near-surface atmospheric observations. Mesoscale features of surface energy partition, surface water and energy exchange, the resulting surface-air temperature and humidity, and low-level instability and convective energy are analyzed to investigate the potential land-surface impact on weather over karst regions. We conclude that: (1) barren ground used over karst regions has a pronounced effect on the overall simulation of precipitation. Barren ground provides the overall lowest root-mean-square errors and bias scores in precipitation over the peak-rain periods. Contingency table-based equitable threat and frequency bias scores suggest that the barren and forest experiments are more successful in simulating light to moderate rainfall. Variables dependent on local surface conditions show stronger contrasts between karst and non-karst regions than variables dominated by large-scale synoptic systems; (2) significant

  6. Evaluating Weather Research and Forecasting Model Sensitivity to Land and Soil Conditions Representative of Karst Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Fan, Xingang; Mahmood, Rezaul; Groves, Chris; Polk, Jason S.; Yan, Jun

    2018-03-01

    Due to their particular physiographic, geomorphic, soil cover, and complex surface-subsurface hydrologic conditions, karst regions produce distinct land-atmosphere interactions. It has been found that floods and droughts over karst regions can be more pronounced than those in non-karst regions following a given rainfall event. Five convective weather events are simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting model to explore the potential impacts of land-surface conditions on weather simulations over karst regions. Since no existing weather or climate model has the ability to represent karst landscapes, simulation experiments in this exploratory study consist of a control (default land-cover/soil types) and three land-surface conditions, including barren ground, forest, and sandy soils over the karst areas, which mimic certain karst characteristics. Results from sensitivity experiments are compared with the control simulation, as well as with the National Centers for Environmental Prediction multi-sensor precipitation analysis Stage-IV data, and near-surface atmospheric observations. Mesoscale features of surface energy partition, surface water and energy exchange, the resulting surface-air temperature and humidity, and low-level instability and convective energy are analyzed to investigate the potential land-surface impact on weather over karst regions. We conclude that: (1) barren ground used over karst regions has a pronounced effect on the overall simulation of precipitation. Barren ground provides the overall lowest root-mean-square errors and bias scores in precipitation over the peak-rain periods. Contingency table-based equitable threat and frequency bias scores suggest that the barren and forest experiments are more successful in simulating light to moderate rainfall. Variables dependent on local surface conditions show stronger contrasts between karst and non-karst regions than variables dominated by large-scale synoptic systems; (2) significant

  7. Evaluation of Two Moringa oleifera Lam Varieties Using Different Substrates in Nursery Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damisela Pacheco Veiga

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A nursery study was made on brown soil with typical carbonate to evaluate agroproductive behavior of Plain and Supergenious Moringa oleifera Lam varieties, using different substrates. Three substrates were studied (worm castings, decomposed cattle manure and compost, using a randomized block experimental design, with 8 treatments and three replicas. The evaluation included the amount of leaves 30 days after germination, plant height until transplantation every ten days and at 30 days, stem diameter, and root length and diameter. The best results were achieved with soil + wormcast in the two varieties.

  8. Orion Ground Test Article Water Impact Tests: Photogrammetric Evaluation of Impact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilakos, Gregory J.; Mark, Stephen D.

    2018-01-01

    The Ground Test Article (GTA) is an early production version of the Orion Crew Module (CM). The structural design of the Orion CM is being developed based on LS-DYNA water landing simulations. As part of the process of confirming the accuracy of LS-DYNA water landing simulations, the GTA water impact test series was conducted at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) to gather data for comparison with simulations. The simulation of the GTA water impact tests requires the accurate determination of the impact conditions. To accomplish this, the GTA was outfitted with an array of photogrammetry targets. The photogrammetry system utilizes images from two cameras with a specialized tracking software to determine time histories for the 3-D coordinates of each target. The impact conditions can then be determined from the target location data.

  9. CFD simulation of thermodynamic and temperature effects on spontaneous combustion of coal stockpiles and dumps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the development of a numerical model capable of identifying suitable conditions responsible for spontaneous combustion of coal storage piles and carbonaceous waste dumps are presented. The developed model captured the mass, momentum...

  10. Evaluation of Medipix2 detector for recording electron diffraction data in low dose conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, D; Sikharulidze, I; Jiang, L; Abrahams, J P; Jansen, J; Zandbergen, H W

    2011-01-01

    The drive for elucidation of important macromolecular structures to high resolution in their 3D native or near-native state places continuously higher demands on the quality of the experimental data. For instance, recording of diffraction patterns good enough for structural studies from cryo-preserved bio-macromolecules at low dose conditions remains challenging and highly desirable. The emergence of hybrid pixel detectors opens up new possibilities for direct electron detection and superior detector performance. Here, we report on the characteristics of the Medipix2 detector in diffraction studies, with a special focus on the reliability of the intensities acquired in very low dose conditions. Diffraction data recorded on a Medipix2 detector were assessed in refinement analysis. R-factors lower than 10% were obtained from data recorded at electron dose of 0.05 el/A 2 . The reproducibility of the data was also shown to be high, given the correlation coefficient of the intensities being higher than 0.9970. The contrast that could be achieved at very low dose conditions was at least an order of magnitude better than that of image plates, based on a direct comparison.

  11. Evaluation of the leakage behavior of inflatable seals subject to severe accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, M.B.

    1989-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, under the sponsorship of the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is currently developing test validated methods to predict the pressure capacity of light water reactor containment buildings when subjected to postulated severe accident conditions. These conditions are well beyond the design basis. Scale model tests of steel and reinforced concrete containments have been conducted as well as tests of typical containment penetrations. As a part of this effort, a series of tests was recently conducted to determine the leakage behavior of inflatable seals. These seals are used to prevent leakage around personnel and escape lock doors of some containments. The results of the inflatable seals tests are the subject of this report. Inflatable seals were tested at both room temperature and at elevated temperatures representative of postulated severe accident conditions. Both aged (radiation and thermal) and unaged seals were included in the test program. The internal seal pressure at the beginning of each test was varied to cover the range of seal pressures actually used in containments. For each seal pressure level, the external (containment) pressure was increased until significant leakage past the seals was observed. Parameters that were monitored and recorded during the tests were the internal seal pressure, chamber pressure, leakage past the seals, and temperature of the test chamber and fixture to which the seals were attached. 8 refs., 34 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Road condition evaluation using the vibration response of ordinary vehicles and synchronously recorded movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Tomonori; Miyajima, Akira; Kimura, Shunya; Shimada, Yuuki; Fujino, Yozo

    2013-04-01

    Frequent and quantitative assessment of road condition is important as the maintenance of the road infrastructure needs to be performed with a limited budget. Vehicle Intelligent Monitoring System (VIMS) has been developed to estimate an index of road ride comfort (International Roughness Index; IRI) by obtaining the acceleration responses of ordinary vehicles together with GPS position data. VIMS converts the vertical acceleration of the measurement vehicle to acceleration RMS of the sprung mass of the standard Quarter Car model, and then to IRI using an approximate expression. By driving over a hump of a known profile and comparing the responses with Quarter Car simulation responses, a variety of vehicles can be calibrated; a non-linear quarter car model equivalent to the vehicle is identified. By performing numerical simulation using the nonlinear vehicle model, the difference in driving speed can also be calibrated. The measurement results can be exported to maps to comprehend road condition in a geographical view and to other data base systems. In addition, smartphones which can record motions, GPS data, and movies synchronously are utilized to improve VIMS. Because practical installation locations of smartphones are limited and because angular velocity responses are less subjective to difference in installation locations, VIMS is extended to utilize the pitching angular velocity. Furthermore, high frequency components of acceleration responses are analyzed to distinguish local pavement damages or joints from rough road sections. The examination of synchronously recorded movies confirmed the capability to distinguish the local conditions.

  13. Evaluation of service conditions of the machines within the furniture joinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Zalejski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this thesis is to present the operation of machines within the furniture joinery, presentation of the risks for this branch, discussion of quality and technical documentation within the analysed enterprise, characteristics of the Total Productive Maintenance (TPM rate, evaluation of the level of materialized technology using Parker's scale.

  14. Evaluation of chitosan application on agronomic parameters of tomato farming in shade net house conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Caridad Jiménez Arteaga

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research was done in net houses at Empresa de Servicios (ESUNI del Grupo Empresarial Cuba Níquel, in Moa municipality, Holguín. The objective was to evaluate the agronomic response of tomato cultivars to the application of chitosan, as an alternative to increase yield. Five doses of chitosan (250, 275, 300, 325, 350 mg/ha and control treatment were evaluated after transplantation. They were applied during the bloom stage in two moments, and an average of the both moments were obtained and their results were presented in tables and graphs. The main production indicators were evaluated. The two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey’s range test were used with p d” 0.05 and Statistica 8.0 software was used to perform the statistical analysis. According to the response of plants to the application of the polymer in the different evaluated variables of both experiments, it was confirmed that chitosan have the capacity to stimulate the processes

  15. Evaluation of maize cultivars for their susceptibility towards mycotoxigenic fungi under storage conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dawlal, P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available that are regularly found in South African maize were selected and evaluated against 49 commercially produced maize cultivars for their ability to infest maize during storage. Four of these fungi, known to contaminate maize in the field included Fusarium graminearum...

  16. Evaluation of Friction Stir Processing of HY-80 Steel Under Wet and Dry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    High Strength Steel , Microstructural Properties, Hardenable Alloy Steel , Weld Repair, HY-80, Charpy Impact Test , Tensile Test , Microhardness Test ...evaluated by tensile, microhardness, and Charpy V-notch impact resistance tests . The results indicated that austenitization occurred within the stir...tensile, microhardness, and Charpy V-notch impact resistance tests . The results indicated that austenitization occurred within the stir zones and

  17. Evaluative Conditioning 2.0: Direct versus Associative Transfer of Affect to Brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T.L.R. Sweldens (Steven)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractA basic assumption in advertising is that brands become more well-liked after they were presented in positive contexts. This assumption is warranted because studies on ‘evaluative conditioning’ have demonstrated that when a brand is repeatedly presented together with positive affective

  18. SUBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF CONDITIONS OF TENSION AND OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH JOBS ROLLING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нурлан Кемельбекович Смагулов

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion. The survey showed that if the subjective evaluation of working environment factors and labor process corresponds to the results hygiene-ergonomic research, the assessment of the health showed its bias, as evidenced by the results of analysis of morbidity.

  19. An Evaluation of Fracture Toughness of Vinyl Ester Composites Cured under Microwave Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, H.; Chan, W. L.; Trada, M.; Baddeley, D.

    2007-12-01

    The shrinkage of vinyl ester particulate composites has been reduced by curing the resins under microwave conditions. The reduction in the shrinkage of the resins by microwaves will enable the manufacture of large vinyl ester composite items possible (H.S. Ku, G. Van Erp, J.A.R. Ball, and S. Ayers, Shrinkage Reduction of Thermoset Fibre Composites during Hardening using Microwaves Irradiation for Curing, Proceedings, Second World Engineering Congress, Kuching, Malaysia, 2002a, 22-25 July, p 177-182; H.S. Ku, Risks Involved in Curing Vinyl Ester Resins Using Microwaves Irradiation. J. Mater. Synth. Proces. 2002b, 10(2), p 97-106; S.H. Ku, Curing Vinyl Ester Particle Reinforced Composites Using Microwaves. J. Comp. Mater., (2003a), 37(22), p 2027-2042; S.H. Ku and E. Siores, Shrinkage Reduction of Thermoset Matrix Particle Reinforced Composites During Hardening Using Microwaves Irradiation, Trans. Hong Kong Inst. Eng., 2004, 11(3), p 29-34). In tensile tests, the yield strengths of samples cured under microwave conditions obtained are within 5% of those obtained by ambient curing; it is also found that with 180 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for all duration of exposure to microwaves are also within the 5% of those obtained by ambient curing. While, with 360 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for all duration of exposure to microwaves are 5% higher than those obtained by ambient curing. Whereas, with 540 W microwave power, the tensile strengths obtained for most samples are 5% below those obtained by ambient curing (H. Ku, V.C. Puttgunta, and M. Trada, Young’s Modulus of Vinyl Ester Composites Cured by Microwave Irradiation: Preliminary Results, J. Electromagnet. Waves Appl., 2007, 20(14), p. 1911-1924). This project, using 33% by weight fly ash reinforced vinyl ester composite [VE/FLYSH (33%)], is to further investigate the difference in fracture toughness between microwave cured vinyl ester particulate composites and those cured

  20. Using ideal distributions of the time since habitat was disturbed to build metrics for evaluating landscape condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; McDonald, Jane; Cosier, Peter; Sbrocchi, Carla; Stein, John; Lindenmayer, David; Possingham, Hugh P

    2018-02-28

    Developing a standardized approach to measuring the state of biodiversity in landscapes undergoing disturbance is crucial for evaluating and comparing change across different systems, assessing ecosystem vulnerability and the impacts of destructive activities, and helping direct species recovery actions. Existing ecosystem metrics of condition fail to acknowledge that a particular community could be in multiple states, and the distribution of states could worsen or improve when impacted by a disturbance process, depending on how far the current landscape distribution of states diverges from pre-anthropogenic impact baseline conditions. We propose a way of rapidly assessing regional-scale condition in ecosystems where the distribution of age classes representing increasing time since last disturbance is suspected to have diverged from an ideal benchmark reference distribution. We develop two metrics that (1) compare the observed mean time since last disturbance with an expected mean and (2) quantify the summed shortfall of vegetation age-class frequencies relative to a reference age-class distribution of time since last disturbance. We demonstrate the condition metrics using two case studies: (1) fire in threatened southwestern Australian proteaceaous mallee-heath and (2) impacts of disturbance (fire and logging) in the critically endangered southeastern Australian mountain ash Eucalyptus regnans forest on the yellow-bellied glider Petaurus australis. We explore the effects of uncertainty in benchmark time since last disturbance, and evaluate metric sensitivity using simulated age-class distributions representing alternative ecosystems. By accounting for and penalizing too-frequent and too-rare disturbances, the summed shortfall metric is more sensitive to change than mean time since last disturbance. We find that mountain ash forest is in much poorer condition (summed shortfall 38.5 out of 100 for a 120-yr benchmark disturbance interval) than indicated merely by