Sample records for spontaneous crystalline-to-amorphous phase

  1. Residual stress induced crystalline to amorphous phase transformation in Nb2O5 quantum dots (United States)

    Dhawan, Sahil; Dhawan, Tanuj; Vedeshwar, Agnikumar G.


    Nb2O5 quantum dots (QDs) were grown using a simple technique of vacuum thermal evaporation. QDs were found to be crystalline in nature by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) in TEM. Samples with thickness up to 20 nm did not show any significant residual strain. Residual stress effect on band gap of crystalline Nb2O5 was studied for films thicker than 20 nm. Residual strain was determined using SAED of the films with reference to powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). Films thicker than 45 nm become amorphous as analyzed by both SAED and XRD. The optical absorption of films in the range 25-60 nm indicates significantly varying optical band gap of films. The varying band gap with film thickness scales linearly very well with the variation of residual stress with film thickness. The residual stress dependence of band gap of crystalline films yields stress free band gap as 3.37 eV with pressure coefficient of band gap (∂Eg/∂P)T = -29.3 meV/GPa. From this study, the crystalline to amorphous transformation in tetragonal form of M-Nb2O5 has been determined to be at about 14 GPa. Both pressure coefficient of band gap and crystalline to amorphous transition for tetragonal M-Nb2O5 have been determined for the first time in the literature.

  2. Irradiation induced crystalline to amorphous transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgoin, J.


    Irradiation of a crystalline solid with energetic heavy particles results in cascades of defects which, with increasing dose, overlap and form a continuous disordered layer. In semiconductors the physical properties of such disordered layers are found to be similar to those of amorphous layers produced by evaporation. It is shown in the case of silicon, that the transition from a disordered crystalline (X) layer to an amorphous (α) layer occurs when the Gibbs energy of the X phase and of the defects it contains becomes larger than the Gibbs energy of the α phase. (author)

  3. A unified description of crystalline-to-amorphous transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Devanathan, R. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)]|[Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering; Meshii, M. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering


    Amorphous metallic alloys can now be synthesized by a variety of solid-state processes demonstrating the need for a more general approach to crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) transitions. By focusing on static atomic displacements as a measure of chemical and topological disorder, we show that a unified description of c-a transformations can be based on a generalization of the phenomenological melting criterion proposed by Lindemann. The generalized version assumes that melting of a defective crystal occurs whenever the sum of thermal and static mean-square displacements exceeds a critical value identical to that for melting of the defect-free crystal. This implies that chemical or topological disorder measured by static displacements is thermodynamically equivalent to heating, and therefore that the melting temperature of the defective crystal will decrease with increasing amount of disorder. This in turn implies the existence of a critical state of disorder where the melting temperature becomes equal to a glass-transition temperature below which the metastable crystal melts to a glass. The generalized Lindemann melting criterion leads naturally to an interpretation of c-a transformations as defect-induced, low-temperature melting of critically disordered crystals. Confirmation of this criterion is provided by molecular-dynamics simulations of heat-induced melting and of defect-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds caused either by the production of Frenkel pairs or anti-site defects. The thermodynamic equivalence between static atomic disorder and heating is reflected in the identical softening effects which they have on elastic properties and also in the diffraction analysis of diffuse scattering from disordered crystals, where the effect of static displacements appears as an artificially-enlarged thermal Debye-Waller factor. Predictions of this new, unified approach to melting and amorphization are compared with available experimental information.

  4. Crystalline to amorphous transition in solids upon high-pressure torsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundeev, R.V., E-mail: [I.P. Bardin Central Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, 2-ya Baumanskaya 9/23, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Science, Stromynka 20, Moscow 107996 (Russian Federation); Glezer, A.M. [I.P. Bardin Central Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, 2-ya Baumanskaya 9/23, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation); Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Science, Stromynka 20, Moscow 107996 (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky avenue 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Shalimova, A.V. [I.P. Bardin Central Research Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, 2-ya Baumanskaya 9/23, Moscow 105005 (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • Ti–Ni, Zr and Fe-based alloys were deformed using HTP processing. • Ability to deformation-induced amorphization (DIA) of these alloys was studied. • Amorphization is determined by mechanical, thermodynamic and concentration factors. • The smaller stability of phases the higher their ability to deformation amorphization. • There is the difference between of DIA and to thermal amorphization in the nature. - Abstract: The amorphization behavior of the crystalline multicomponent Ni{sub 50}Ti{sub 30}Hf{sub 20}, Ti{sub 50}Ni{sub 25}Cu{sub 25,} Zr{sub 50}Ni{sub 18}Ti{sub 17}Cu{sub 15}, and Fe{sub 78}B{sub 8.5}Si{sub 9}P{sub 4.5} alloys upon severe plastic deformation (SPD) has been studied. It is shown that the crystalline to amorphous transition is determined by the ability of the crystals to accumulation of deformation defects under mechanical action, by the thermodynamic stability of the crystalline phases contained in the alloy, and by the possibility of the diffusion processes necessary for the change in the chemical composition of the crystalline and amorphous phases upon deformation. It is found that the susceptibility to amorphization upon SPD does not coincide with the tendency of the alloys to amorphization upon melt quenching.

  5. Spontaneous vortex phase (SVP) of ruthenocuprate high Tc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RuSr2(RE1.5Ce0.5)Cu2O10, has given rise to the concept of spontaneous vortex phase (SVP). In these compounds, the magnetic ordering temperature (Tmag >. 100 K) is higher than the superconducting transition temperature (Tc ~ 30 K). Hence, due to internal magnetic fields, these compounds remain in a spontaneous.

  6. Electrically Controllable Spontaneous Magnetism in Nanoscale Mixed Phase Multiferroics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Q.; Chu, Y. H.; Heron, J. T.; Yang, S. Y.; Wang, C. H.; Kuo, C. Y.; Lin, H. J.; Yu, P.; Liang, C. W.; Zeches, R. J.; Chen, C. T.; Arenholz, E.; Scholl, A.; Ramesh, R.


    The emergence of enhanced spontaneous magnetic moments in self-assembled, epitaxial nanostructures of tetragonal (T-phase) and rhombohedral phases (R-phase) of the multiferroic BiFeO{sub 3} system is demonstrated. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism based photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) was applied to investigate the local nature of this magnetism. We find that the spontaneous magnetization of the R-phase is significantly enhanced above the canted antiferromagnetic moment in the bulk phase, as a consequence of a piezomagnetic coupling to the adjacent T-phase and the epitaxial constraint. Reversible electric field control and manipulation of this magnetic moment at room temperature is shown using a combination of piezoresponse force microscopy and PEEM studies.

  7. Spontaneous vortex phase (SVP) of ruthenocuprate high Tc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    plots show that both the superconducting and ferromagnetic components are present in the compound at 5 K. At low temperatures, the compound though remains in spontaneous vortex phase, its vs. hysteresis loop is symmetric instead of the theoretically expected asymmetric one. Our results cast doubts on either ...

  8. Spontaneous splenic rupture during the recovery phase of dengue fever. (United States)

    de Silva, W T T; Gunasekera, M


    Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare but known complication of dengue fever. Previously reported cases have occurred early during the course of the disease and most cases have led to a fatal outcome. Here we report a case of spontaneous splenic rupture in a patient with dengue fever, which occurred during the recovery phase of the illness. A 28-year-old Sinhalese, Sri Lankan man presented with a history of fever, myalgia and vomiting of 4 days duration. Investigations revealed a diagnosis of dengue fever with no signs of plasma leakage. He was managed in the ward as per local protocol. During the recovery phase the patient developed severe abdominal distention with circulatory failure. Radiology revealed splenic rupture with massive amounts of abdominal free fluid. The patient was resuscitated and Emergency laparotomy with splenectomy was performed. The outcome was excellent with the patient making a complete recovery. Although splenic rupture is a known complication of dengue fever it may be manifested late in the disease process. A high degree of suspicion should be maintained and patients must be monitored even during the recovery phase of dengue fever. Early diagnosis and intervention can prevent mortality.

  9. Effect of atomic initial phase difference on spontaneous emission of an atom embedded in photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing, Zhang; Xiu-Dong, Sun; Xiang-Qian, Jiang


    We investigate the effect of initial phase difference between the two excited states of a V-type three-level atom on its steady state behaviour of spontaneous emission. A modified density of modes is introduced to calculate the spontaneous emission spectra in photonic crystal. Spectra in free space are also shown to compare with that in photonic crystal with different relative positions of the excited levels from upper band-edge frequency. It is found that the initial phase difference plays an important role in the quantum interference property between the two decay channels. For a zero initial phase, destructive property is presented in the spectra. With the increase of initial phase difference, quantum interference between the two decay channels from upper levels to ground level turns to be constructive. Furthermore, we give an interpretation for the property of these spectra. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. Spontaneous vesicle phase formation by pseudogemini surfactants in aqueous solutions. (United States)

    Sun, Nan; Shi, Lijuan; Lu, Fei; Xie, Shuting; Zheng, Liqiang


    The phase behavior of a kind of pseudogemini surfactant in aqueous solutions, formed by the mixture of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) and butane-1,4-bis (methylimidazolium bromide) ([mim-C4-mim]Br2) or butane-1,4-bis(methylpyrrolidinium bromide) ([mpy-C4-mpy]Br2) in a molar ratio of 2 : 1, is reported in the present work. When [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 is mixed with SDBS in aqueous solutions, one cationic [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 molecule "bridges" two SDBS molecules by noncovalent interactions (e.g. electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions), behaving like a pseudogemini surfactant. Vesicles can be formed by this kind of pseudogemini surfactant, determined by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscopy (FF-TEM) or cryogenic-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The mixed system of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with [mim-C4-mim]Br2 or [mpy-C4-mpy]Br2 was also constructed, and only micelles were observed. We infer that a pseudogemini surfactant is formed under the synergic effect of electrostatic, π-π stacking, and σ-π interactions in the SDBS/[mim-C4-mim]Br2/H2O system, while electrostatic attraction and hydrophobic interactions may provide the directional force for vesicle formation in the SDBS/[mpy-C4-mpy]Br2/H2O system.

  11. Microscopic Phase-Space Exploration Modeling of ^{258}Fm Spontaneous Fission. (United States)

    Tanimura, Yusuke; Lacroix, Denis; Ayik, Sakir


    We show that the total kinetic energy (TKE) of nuclei after the spontaneous fission of ^{258}Fm can be well reproduced using simple assumptions on the quantum collective phase space explored by the nucleus after passing the fission barrier. Assuming energy conservation and phase-space exploration according to the stochastic mean-field approach, a set of initial densities is generated. Each density is then evolved in time using the nuclear time-dependent density-functional theory with pairing. This approach goes beyond the mean-field theory by allowing spontaneous symmetry breaking as well as a wider dynamical phase-space exploration leading to larger fluctuations in collective space. The total kinetic energy and mass distributions are calculated. New information on the fission process: fluctuations in scission time, strong correlation between TKE and collective deformation, as well as prescission particle emission, are obtained. We conclude that fluctuations of the TKE and mass are triggered by quantum fluctuations.

  12. Multiphase flow and transport caused by spontaneous gas phase growth in the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquid. (United States)

    Roy, James W; Smith, James E


    Disconnected bubbles or ganglia of trapped gas may occur below the top of the capillary fringe through a number of mechanisms. In the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), the disconnected gas phase experiences mass transfer of dissolved gases, including volatile components from the DNAPL. The properties of the gas phase interface can also change. This work shows for the first time that when seed gas bubbles exist spontaneous gas phase growth can be expected to occur and can significantly affect water-gas-DNAPL distributions, fluid flow, and mass transfer. Source zone behaviour was observed in three different experiments performed in a 2-dimensional flow cell. In each case, a DNAPL pool was created in a zone of larger glass beads over smaller glass beads, which served as a capillary barrier. In one experiment effluent water samples were analyzed to determine the vertical concentration profile of the plume above the pool. The experiments effectively demonstrated a) a cycle of spontaneous gas phase expansion and vertical advective mobilization of gas bubbles and ganglia above the DNAPL source zone, b) DNAPL redistribution caused by gas phase growth and mobilization, and c) that these processes can significantly affect mass transport from a NAPL source zone.

  13. Temporal phase mask encrypted optical steganography carried by amplified spontaneous emission noise. (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Shastri, Bhavin J; Chang, Matthew P; Frost, Nicholas A; Prucnal, Paul R


    A temporal phase mask encryption method is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to improve the security of the stealth channel in an optical steganography system. The stealth channel is protected in two levels. In the first level, the data is carried by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise, which cannot be detected in either the time domain or spectral domain. In the second level, even if the eavesdropper suspects the existence of the stealth channel, each data bit is covered by a fast changing phase mask. The phase mask code is always combined with the wide band noise from ASE. Without knowing the right phase mask code to recover the stealth data, the eavesdropper can only receive the noise like signal with randomized phase.

  14. Spontaneous default mode network phase-locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat (United States)

    Leitner, Jordan B.; Duran-Jordan, Kelly; Magerman, Adam B.; Schmader, Toni; Allen, John J. B.


    This study assessed whether individual differences in self-oriented neural processing were associated with performance perceptions of minority students under stereotype threat. Resting electroencephalographic activity recorded in white and minority participants was used to predict later estimates of task errors and self-doubt on a presumed measure of intelligence. We assessed spontaneous phase-locking between dipole sources in left lateral parietal cortex (LPC), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (P/PCC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); three regions of the default mode network (DMN) that are integral for self-oriented processing. Results revealed that minorities with greater LPC-P/PCC phase-locking in the theta band reported more accurate error estimations. All individuals experienced less self-doubt to the extent they exhibited greater LPC-MPFC phase-locking in the alpha band but this effect was driven by minorities. Minorities also reported more self-doubt to the extent they overestimated errors. Findings reveal novel neural moderators of stereotype threat effects on subjective experience. Spontaneous synchronization between DMN regions may play a role in anticipatory coping mechanisms that buffer individuals from stereotype threat. PMID:25398433

  15. Spontaneous default mode network phase-locking moderates performance perceptions under stereotype threat. (United States)

    Forbes, Chad E; Leitner, Jordan B; Duran-Jordan, Kelly; Magerman, Adam B; Schmader, Toni; Allen, John J B


    This study assessed whether individual differences in self-oriented neural processing were associated with performance perceptions of minority students under stereotype threat. Resting electroencephalographic activity recorded in white and minority participants was used to predict later estimates of task errors and self-doubt on a presumed measure of intelligence. We assessed spontaneous phase-locking between dipole sources in left lateral parietal cortex (LPC), precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex (P/PCC), and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC); three regions of the default mode network (DMN) that are integral for self-oriented processing. Results revealed that minorities with greater LPC-P/PCC phase-locking in the theta band reported more accurate error estimations. All individuals experienced less self-doubt to the extent they exhibited greater LPC-MPFC phase-locking in the alpha band but this effect was driven by minorities. Minorities also reported more self-doubt to the extent they overestimated errors. Findings reveal novel neural moderators of stereotype threat effects on subjective experience. Spontaneous synchronization between DMN regions may play a role in anticipatory coping mechanisms that buffer individuals from stereotype threat. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  16. Laminar distribution of phase-amplitude coupling of spontaneous current sources and sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto C Sotero


    Full Text Available Although resting-state functional connectivity is a commonly used neuroimaging paradigm, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical circuits generate oscillations at different frequencies during spontaneous activity. However, it remains unclear how the various rhythms interact and whether their interactions are lamina-specific. Here we investigated intra- and inter-laminar spontaneous phase-amplitude coupling (PAC. We recorded local-field potentials using laminar probes inserted in the forelimb representation of rat area S1. We then computed time-series of frequency-band- and lamina-specific current source density (CSD, and PACs of CSD for all possible pairs of the classical frequency bands in the range of 1–150 Hz. We observed both intra- and inter-laminar spontaneous PAC. Of 18 possible combinations, 12 showed PAC, with the highest measures of interaction obtained for the pairs of the theta/gamma and delta/gamma bands. Intra- and inter-laminar PACs involving layers 2/3–5a were higher than those involving layer 6. Current sinks (sources in the delta band were associated with increased (decreased amplitudes of high-frequency signals in the beta to fast gamma bands throughout layers 2/3–6. Spontaneous sinks (sources of the theta and alpha bands in layers 2/3 to 4 were on average linked to dipoles completed by sources (sinks in layer 6, associated with high (low amplitudes of the beta to fast-gamma bands in the entire cortical column. Our findings show that during spontaneous activity, delta, theta, and alpha oscillations are associated with periodic excitability, which for the theta and alpha bands is lamina--dependent. They further emphasize the differences between the function of layer 6 and that of the superficial layers, and the role of layer 6 in controlling activity in those layers. Our study links theories on the involvement of PAC in resting-state functional connectivity with previous work that

  17. Phase of Spontaneous Slow Oscillations during Sleep Influences Memory-Related Processing of Auditory Cues. (United States)

    Batterink, Laura J; Creery, Jessica D; Paller, Ken A


    Slow oscillations during slow-wave sleep (SWS) may facilitate memory consolidation by regulating interactions between hippocampal and cortical networks. Slow oscillations appear as high-amplitude, synchronized EEG activity, corresponding to upstates of neuronal depolarization and downstates of hyperpolarization. Memory reactivations occur spontaneously during SWS, and can also be induced by presenting learning-related cues associated with a prior learning episode during sleep. This technique, targeted memory reactivation (TMR), selectively enhances memory consolidation. Given that memory reactivation is thought to occur preferentially during the slow-oscillation upstate, we hypothesized that TMR stimulation effects would depend on the phase of the slow oscillation. Participants learned arbitrary spatial locations for objects that were each paired with a characteristic sound (eg, cat-meow). Then, during SWS periods of an afternoon nap, one-half of the sounds were presented at low intensity. When object location memory was subsequently tested, recall accuracy was significantly better for those objects cued during sleep. We report here for the first time that this memory benefit was predicted by slow-wave phase at the time of stimulation. For cued objects, location memories were categorized according to amount of forgetting from pre- to post-nap. Conditions of high versus low forgetting corresponded to stimulation timing at different slow-oscillation phases, suggesting that learning-related stimuli were more likely to be processed and trigger memory reactivation when they occurred at the optimal phase of a slow oscillation. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of memory reactivation during sleep, supporting the idea that reactivation is most likely during cortical upstates. Slow-wave sleep (SWS) is characterized by synchronized neural activity alternating between active upstates and quiet downstates. The slow-oscillation upstates are thought to provide a

  18. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera


    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  19. Spontaneous Phase Transfer-Mediated Selective Removal of Heavy Metal Ions Using Biocompatible Oleic Acid. (United States)

    Chang, Jeehan; Yoo, Sooyeon; Lee, Wooju; Kim, Dongchoul; Kang, Taewook


    Here, we propose an environmentally benign removal technique for heavy metal ions based on selective and spontaneous transfer to oleic acid. The ions can be removed via (1) the selective and rapid complexation with the carboxylic end of oleic acid at an oleic acid/water interface, and (2) the diffusion of such complex into the oleic acid layer. A wide variety of heavy metal ions such as Cu 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ , and Ni 2+ can be selectively removed over K + and Na + . For example, the concentration of Cu 2+ is reduced to below 1.3 ppm within 24 h, which corresponds to the level of Cu 2+ permitted by the Environmental Protection Agency. The addition of ethylenediamine ligand to the metal ion solutions is also shown to enhance the phase transfer. The removal efficiency is increased by up to 6 times when compared with that in the absence of the ligand and follows the order, Cu 2+ (99%) > Pb 2+ (96%) > Zn 2+ (95%) > Ni 2+ (65%). Moreover, the removal time can be shortened from 24 h to 1 h. The effect of an emulsion induced by a mechanical agitation on the removal of heavy metal ion is also studied.

  20. Light-front quantized field theory (an introduction): spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Prem P.


    The Dirac procedure is used to construct the Hamiltonian formulation of the scalar field theory on the light-front. The theory is quantized and the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the front form and the instant form dynamics are compared. The phase transition in (φ 4 )2 theory is also discussed and found to be of the second order. (author). 36 refs

  1. Modal spectrum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion with noncollinear phase matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y


    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of the down-conversion angle between the signal and idler beams in spontaneous parametric down-conversion on the bandwidth of the modal spectrum (Schmidt number) of the down-converted quantum state. For this purpose, we...

  2. Recurrent Spontaneous Pneumothorax during the Recovery Phase of ARDS Due to H1N1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canan Bor


    Full Text Available The pregnant patients are prone to influenza A (H1N1 virus infection, which may rapidly progress to lower respiratory tract infection and subsequent respiratory failure and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Pneumothorax might develop in ARDS under mechanical ventilation. But post-ARDS pneumothorax in spontaneously breathing patient has not been reported in the literature. We report a 31-year old pregnant woman infected with influenza A (H1N1 virus and progressed to ARDS. Mechanical ventilation with high PEEP improved patient's gas exchange parameters within 3 weeks. However spontaneous pneumothorax was developed one week after she weaned off the ventilator. After successful drainage therapy, the patient was discharged. However she re-admitted to the hospital because of a recurrent pneumothorax one week later. She was discharged in good health after being treated with negative continuous pleural aspiration for 10 days. Influenza might cause severe pulmonary infection and death. In addition to diffuse alveolar damage, sub-pleural and intrapulmonary air cysts might occur in influenza-related ARDS and may lead to spontaneous pneumothorax. This complication should always be considered during the recovery period of ARDS and a long-term close follow-up is necessary.

  3. Phase I evaluation of STA-1474, a prodrug of the novel HSP90 inhibitor ganetespib, in dogs with spontaneous cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available The novel water soluble compound STA-1474 is metabolized to ganetespib (formerly STA-9090, a potent HSP90 inhibitor previously shown to kill canine tumor cell lines in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in the setting of murine xenografts. The purpose of the following study was to extend these observations and investigate the safety and efficacy of STA-1474 in dogs with spontaneous tumors.This was a Phase 1 trial in which dogs with spontaneous tumors received STA-1474 under one of three different dosing schemes. Pharmacokinetics, toxicities, biomarker changes, and tumor responses were assessed. Twenty-five dogs with a variety of cancers were enrolled. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal in nature consisting of diarrhea, vomiting, inappetence and lethargy. Upregulation of HSP70 protein expression was noted in both tumor specimens and PBMCs within 7 hours following drug administration. Measurable objective responses were observed in dogs with malignant mast cell disease (n = 3, osteosarcoma (n = 1, melanoma (n = 1 and thyroid carcinoma (n = 1, for a response rate of 24% (6/25. Stable disease (>10 weeks was seen in 3 dogs, for a resultant overall biological activity of 36% (9/25.This study provides evidence that STA-1474 exhibits biologic activity in a relevant large animal model of cancer. Given the similarities of canine and human cancers with respect to tumor biology and HSP90 activation, it is likely that STA-1474 and ganetespib will demonstrate comparable anti-cancer activity in human patients.

  4. Spontaneous formation of GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires on sapphire by hydride vapor phase epitaxy (United States)

    Trassoudaine, Agnès; Roche, Elissa; Bougerol, Catherine; André, Yamina; Avit, Geoffrey; Monier, Guillaume; Ramdani, Mohammed Réda; Gil, Evelyne; Castelluci, Dominique; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.


    Spontaneous GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires with high crystal quality were synthesized on sapphire substrates by vapor-liquid-solid hydride vapor phase epitaxy (VLS-HVPE) without any voluntary aluminum source. Deposition of aluminum is difficult to achieve in this growth technique which uses metal-chloride gaseous precursors: the strong interaction between the AlCl gaseous molecules and the quartz reactor yields a huge parasitic nucleation on the walls of the reactor upstream the substrate. We open up an innovative method to produce GaN/AlN structures by HVPE, thanks to aluminum etching from the sapphire substrate followed by redeposition onto the sidewalls of the GaN core. The paper presents the structural characterization of GaN/AlN core-shell nanowires, speculates on the growth mechanism and discusses a model which describes this unexpected behavior.

  5. Nup98 FG domains from diverse species spontaneously phase-separate into particles with nuclear pore-like permselectivity. (United States)

    Schmidt, Hermann Broder; Görlich, Dirk


    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) conduct massive transport mediated by shuttling nuclear transport receptors (NTRs), while keeping nuclear and cytoplasmic contents separated. The NPC barrier in Xenopus relies primarily on the intrinsically disordered FG domain of Nup98. We now observed that Nup98 FG domains of mammals, lancelets, insects, nematodes, fungi, plants, amoebas, ciliates, and excavates spontaneously and rapidly phase-separate from dilute (submicromolar) aqueous solutions into characteristic 'FG particles'. This required neither sophisticated experimental conditions nor auxiliary eukaryotic factors. Instead, it occurred already during FG domain expression in bacteria. All Nup98 FG phases rejected inert macromolecules and yet allowed far larger NTR cargo complexes to rapidly enter. They even recapitulated the observations that large cargo-domains counteract NPC passage of NTR⋅cargo complexes, while cargo shielding and increased NTR⋅cargo surface-ratios override this inhibition. Their exquisite NPC-typical sorting selectivity and strong intrinsic assembly propensity suggest that Nup98 FG phases can form in authentic NPCs and indeed account for the permeability properties of the pore.

  6. Light-front quantized field theory: (an introduction). Spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.


    The field theory quantized on the light-front is compared with the conventional equal-time quantized theory. The arguments based on the micro causality principle would imply that the light-front field theory may become nonlocal with respect to the longitudinal coordinate even though the corresponding equal-time formulation is local. This is found to be the case for the scalar theory. The conventional instant form theory is sometimes required to be constrained by invoking external physical considerations; the analogous conditions seem to be already built in the theory on the light-front. In spite of the different mechanisms of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the two forms of dynamics they result in the same physical content. The phase transition in (φ 4 ) 2 theory is also discussed. The symmetric vacuum state for vanishingly small couplings is found to turn into an unstable symmetric one when the coupling is increased and may result in a phase transition of the second order in contrast to the first order transition concluded from the usual variational methods. (author)

  7. "Plastic" solar cells: self-assembly of bulk heterojunction nanomaterials by spontaneous phase separation. (United States)

    Peet, Jeffrey; Heeger, Alan J; Bazan, Guillermo C


    As the global demand for low-cost renewable energy sources intensifies, interest in new routes for converting solar energy to electricity is rapidly increasing. Although photovoltaic cells have been commercially available for more than 50 years, only 0.1% of the total electricity generated in the United States comes directly from sunlight. The earliest commercial solar technology remains the basis for the most prevalent devices in current use, namely, highly-ordered crystalline, inorganic solar cells, commonly referred to as silicon cells. Another class of solar cells that has recently inspired significant academic and industrial excitement is the bulk heterojunction (BHJ) "plastic" solar cell. Research by a rapidly growing community of scientists across the globe is generating a steady stream of new insights into the fundamental physics, the materials design and synthesis, the film processing and morphology, and the device science and architecture of BHJ technology. Future progress in the fabrication of high-performance BHJ cells will depend on our ability to combine aspects of synthetic and physical chemistry, condensed matter physics, and materials science. In this Account, we use a combination of characterization tools to tie together recent advances in BHJ morphology characterization, device photophysics, and thin-film solution processing, illustrating how to identify the limiting factors in solar cell performance. We also highlight how new processing methods, which control both the BHJ phase separation and the internal order of the components, can be implemented to increase the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The failure of many innovative materials to achieve high performance in BHJ solar cell devices has been blamed on "poor morphology" without significant characterization of either the structure of the phase-separated morphology or the nature of the charge carrier recombination. We demonstrate how properly controlling the "nanomorphology", which is

  8. Multi-bit wavelength coding phase-shift-keying optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Wang, Hongxiang; Ji, Yuefeng


    In this paper, a multi-bit wavelength coding phase-shift-keying (PSK) optical steganography method is proposed based on amplified spontaneous emission noise and wavelength selection switch. In this scheme, the assignment codes and the delay length differences provide a large two-dimensional key space. A 2-bit wavelength coding PSK system is simulated to show the efficiency of our proposed method. The simulated results demonstrate that the stealth signal after encoded and modulated is well-hidden in both time and spectral domains, under the public channel and noise existing in the system. Besides, even the principle of this scheme and the existence of stealth channel are known to the eavesdropper, the probability of recovering the stealth data is less than 0.02 if the key is unknown. Thus it can protect the security of stealth channel more effectively. Furthermore, the stealth channel will results in 0.48 dB power penalty to the public channel at 1 × 10-9 bit error rate, and the public channel will have no influence on the receiving of the stealth channel.

  9. High dose lansoprazole combined with metronomic chemotherapy: a phase I/II study in companion animals with spontaneously occurring tumors. (United States)

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Buglioni, Sabrina; Carocci, Francesca; Francesco, Menicagli; Vincenzi, Bruno; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Fais, Stefano


    The treatment of human cancer has been seriously hampered for decades by resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. A very efficient mechanism of tumor resistance to drugs is the proton pumps-mediated acidification of tumor microenvironment. Metronomic chemotherapy has shown efficacy in adjuvant fashion as well as in the treatment of pets with advanced disease. Moreover, we have shown in veterinary clinical settings that pre-treatment with proton-pumps inhibitors (PPI) increases tumor responsiveness to chemotherapeutics. In this study pet with spontaneously occurring cancer have been recruited to be treated by a combination of metronomic chemotherapy and high dose PPIs and their responses have been matched to those of a historical control of ten patients treated with metronomic chemotherapy alone. Single arm, non randomized phase II open study, with historical control group, evaluating safety and efficacy of the combination of metronomic chemotherapy and alkalization. Twenty-four companion animals (22 dogs and 2 cats) were treated adding to their metronomic chemotherapy protocol the pump inhibitor lansoprazole at high dose, and a water alkalizer. Their responses have been evaluated by clinical and instrumental evaluation and matched to those of the control group. The protocol was overall well tolerated, with only two dogs experiencing side effects due to gastric hypochlorhydria consisting with vomiting and or diarrhea. In terms of overall response, in the alkalized cohort, 18 out of 24 had partial or complete responses (75%), two patients had a stable disease and the remaining patients experienced no response or progressive disease. On the other hand, only one patient in the control group experienced a complete response (10%) and three other experienced short lived responses. Median time to terminal event was 34 weeks for the experimental group versus 2 weeks in the controls (p= 0.042). Patient alkalization has shown to be well tolerated and to increase tumor response

  10. Spontaneous sleep interruptions during extended nights. Relationships with NREM and REM sleep phases and effects on REM sleep regulation. (United States)

    Barbato, Giuseppe; Barker, Charles; Bender, Charles; Wehr, Thomas A


    There is no agreement in the literature as to whether sleep interruption causes rapid eye movement (REM) pressure to increase, and if so, whether this increase is expressed as shortened REM latency, increased REM density, or increased duration of REM sleep. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of different durations of spontaneous sleep interruptions on the regulation of REM sleep that occurs after return to sleep. The occurrence of spontaneous periods of wakefulness and their effects on subsequent REM sleep periods were analysed in a total sample of 1189 sleep interruptions which occurred across 364 extended nights in 13 normal subjects. Compared with sleep interruptions that last less than 10 min, sleep interruptions that last longer than 10 min occur preferentially out of REM sleep. In both the short and long types of sleep interruptions, the duration of REM periods that ended in wakefulness were shorter than the duration of those that were not interrupted by wakefulness. REM densities of the REM periods that terminated in periods of wakefulness were higher than those of uninterrupted REM periods. The proportion of episodes of wakefulness following REM sleep that were long-lasting progressively increased over the course of the extended night period. The sleep episodes that followed the periods of wakefulness were characterised by a short REM latency. REM duration was increased in episodes that followed long sleep interruptions compared to those that followed short sleep interruptions. REM density did not appear to change significantly in the episodes that followed sleep interruption. REM sleep mechanisms appear to be the main force controlling sleep after a spontaneous sleep interruption, presumably because during the second half of the night, where more sleep interruptions occur, the pressure for non-rapid eye movement sleep is reduced and the circadian rhythm in REM sleep propensity reaches its peak. Processes promoting REM sleep at the

  11. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R


    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  12. Spontaneous chronic subdural hematoma development in chronic myeloid leukemia cases at remission phase under maintenance therapy, management strategy - a series with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheja Amol


    Full Text Available Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH is common squeal of trauma and rarely associated with anticoagulant therapy, antiplatelet, chemotherapeutic drugs, arteriovenous malformation, aneurysms and post-craniotomy. However its occurrence is very unusual with systemic haematological malignancy and mostly reported with acute myeloid leukemia; however incidence of SDH occurrence in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML is very rare. CML is a haematological malignancy characterized by chromosomal alteration, pathologically represents increased proliferation of the granulocytic cell line without loss of capacity to differentiate. CML has three phases - remission phase, accelerated phase and blast crisis. About 85 % of patients present in remission phase of disease and carries a favorable prognosis. As intracranial, subdural hematoma usually occur in the accelerated phase or blast crisis phase or extremely uncommon during chronic remission phase, although only those affected, who are neglecting therapeutic medication or discontinued therapy or rarely as an adverse effect of medications. However, important role of neurosurgeon lies in early detection and correction of platelet count and associated hematological abnormality as quite sizeable proportion of cases may not need surgical intervention instead can be managed conservatively under regular supervision in association with oncologist colleague, but few cases may need urgent surgical intervention. So, selecting a subgroup of CML cases in the remission phase requiring surgical intervention, presenting with CSDH is not only challenging, as failure to make an informed and timely precise decision can lead to catastrophic worse outcome and even mortality. So, purpose of current article is to formulate the management therapeutic plan. Authors report three cases of CML in chronic remission phase, receiving treatment under guidance of Haemto-oncologist at our institute presented with spontaneous chronic SDH. The mean

  13. Association between CISH polymorphisms and spontaneous clearance of hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B extracellular antigen-positive patients during immune active phase. (United States)

    Song, Guangjun; Rao, Huiying; Feng, Bo; Wei, Lai


    Some hepatitis B extracellular antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in their immune active phase can clear the virus spontaneously and enter into an inactive hepatitis B virus (HBV) carrier state, indicating a benign prognosis. In this study, the association between cytokine-inducible SRC homology 2 domain protein (CISH) gene polymorphisms at -292 (rs414171) and the spontaneous clearance of HBV in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in immune the active phase was investigated. Seventy HBeAg-positive CHB patients in the immune active phase were followed up for 76 weeks without antiviral therapy. The alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, HBV DNA, HBeAg and hepatitis B extracellular antibody levels were tested regularly. At week 76, 27 patients were classified into group A (HBV DNA level below 2 104 IU/ml and the value of HBeAg declined below 10% of the baseline at week 76), and 43 patients were classified into group B (HBV DNA level higher than 2×10(4) IU/ml or the value of HBeAg did not decline substantially at week 76). CISH (rs414171) polymorphisms were also tested using the iPLEX system. The HBV DNA levels at week 12 were significantly greater in group B compared with group A (group A: (6.87±1.40) log10IU/ml; group B: (7.61±1.38) log10IU/ml, P = 0.034) and the HBeAg values were greater in group B at week 28 compared with group A (P = 0.001). The differences in HBV DNA and HBeAg values increased between the groups over time. Sixteen patients in group A and 11 in group B were genotype AA. Those with genotype AT or TT included 11 in group A and 31 in group B (AA vs. AT and TT, odds ratio 4.10 (95% confidence interval: 1.462-11.491), P = 0.006). CISH gene polymorphisms at -292 (rs414171) are associated with HBV clearance in HBeAg-positive CHB patients in the immune active phase, and AA is a favorable genotype for this effect.

  14. The effect of the inter-phase delay interval in the spontaneous object recognition test for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Thygesen, Kristin Sjølie; Nielsen, Thomas Rune


    and the familiar object was interpreted as recognition of the familiar object. We scored the exploration times both manually and automatically, and compared the methods. A strong discrimination between novel and familiar objects after a 10-min inter-phase delay interval and no discrimination after 24h were found...

  15. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  16. Preclinical evaluation of the novel, orally bioavailable Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE KPT-335 in spontaneous canine cancer: results of a phase I study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE compounds that inhibit the function of the nuclear export protein Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1 against canine tumor cell lines and perform a Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 in dogs with spontaneous cancer to provide a preliminary assessment of biologic activity and tolerability.Canine tumor cell lines derived from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, mast cell tumor, melanoma and osteosarcoma exhibited growth inhibition and apoptosis in response to nanomolar concentrations of SINE compounds; NHL cells were particularly sensitive with IC50 concentrations ranging from 2-42 nM. A Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 was performed in 17 dogs with NHL (naive or relapsed, mast cell tumor or osteosarcoma. The maximum tolerated dose was 1.75 mg/kg given orally twice/week (Monday/Thursday although biologic activity was observed at 1 mg/kg. Clinical benefit (CB including partial response to therapy (PR, n = 2 and stable disease (SD, n = 7 was observed in 9/14 dogs with NHL with a median time to progression (TTP for responders of 66 days (range 35-256 days. A dose expansion study was performed in 6 dogs with NHL given 1.5 mg/kg KPT-335 Monday/Wednesday/Friday; CB was observed in 4/6 dogs with a median TTP for responders of 83 days (range 35-354 days. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal consisting of anorexia, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea and were manageable with supportive care, dose modulation and administration of low dose prednisone; hepatotoxicity, anorexia and weight loss were the dose limiting toxicities.This study provides evidence that the novel orally bioavailable XPO1 inhibitor KPT-335 is safe and exhibits activity in a relevant, spontaneous large animal model of cancer. Data from this study provides critical new information that lays the groundwork for evaluation of SINE compounds in human cancer.

  17. Three-dimensional nanomechanical mapping of amorphous and crystalline phase transitions in phase-change materials. (United States)

    Grishin, Ilja; Huey, Bryan D; Kolosov, Oleg V


    The nanostructure of micrometer-sized domains (bits) in phase-change materials (PCM) that undergo switching between amorphous and crystalline phases plays a key role in the performance of optical PCM-based memories. Here, we explore the dynamics of such phase transitions by mapping PCM nanostructures in three dimensions with nanoscale resolution by combining precision Ar ion beam cross-sectional polishing and nanomechanical ultrasonic force microscopy (UFM) mapping. Surface and bulk phase changes of laser written submicrometer to micrometer sized amorphous-to-crystalline (SET) and crystalline-to-amorphous (RESET) bits in chalcogenide Ge2Sb2Te5 PCM are observed with 10-20 nm lateral and 4 nm depth resolution. UFM mapping shows that the Young's moduli of crystalline SET bits exceed the moduli of amorphous areas by 11 ± 2%, with crystalline content extending from a few nanometers to 50 nm in depth depending on the energy of the switching pulses. The RESET bits written with 50 ps pulses reveal shallower depth penetration and show 30-50 nm lateral and few nanometer vertical wavelike topography that is anticorrelated with the elastic modulus distribution. Reverse switching of amorphous RESET bits results in the full recovery of subsurface nanomechanical properties accompanied with only partial topography recovery, resulting in surface corrugations attributed to quenching. This precision sectioning and nanomechanical mapping approach could be applicable to a wide range of amorphous, nanocrystalline, and glass-forming materials for 3D nanomechanical mapping of amorphous-crystalline transitions.

  18. Phase I clinical trial and pharmacodynamic evaluation of combination hydroxychloroquine and doxorubicin treatment in pet dogs treated for spontaneously occurring lymphoma. (United States)

    Barnard, Rebecca A; Wittenburg, Luke A; Amaravadi, Ravi K; Gustafson, Daniel L; Thorburn, Andrew; Thamm, Douglas H


    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process that may act as a mechanism of survival in a variety of cancers. While pharmacologic inhibition of autophagy with hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is currently being explored in human clinical trials, it has never been evaluated in canine cancers. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is one of the most prevalent tumor types in dogs and has similar pathogenesis and response to treatment as human NHL. Clinical trials in canine patients are conducted in the same way as in human patients, thus, to determine a maximum dose of HCQ that can be combined with a standard chemotherapy, a Phase I, single arm, dose escalation trial was conducted in dogs with spontaneous NHL presenting as patients to an academic, tertiary-care veterinary teaching hospital. HCQ was administered daily by mouth throughout the trial, beginning 72 h prior to doxorubicin (DOX), which was given intravenously on a 21-d cycle. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and biopsies were collected before and 3 d after HCQ treatment and assessed for autophagy inhibition and HCQ concentration. A total of 30 patients were enrolled in the trial. HCQ alone was well tolerated with only mild lethargy and gastrointestinal-related adverse events. The overall response rate (ORR) for dogs with lymphoma was 93.3%, with median progression-free interval (PFI) of 5 mo. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed a 100-fold increase in HCQ in tumors compared with plasma. There was a trend that supported therapy-induced increase in LC3-II (the cleaved and lipidated form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3/LC3, which serves as a maker for autophagosomes) and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) after treatment. The superior ORR and comparable PFI to single-agent DOX provide strong support for further evaluation via randomized, placebo-controlled trials in canine and human NHL.

  19. Vapor Pressure Plus: An Experiment for Studying Phase Equilibria in Water, with Observation of Supercooling, Spontaneous Freezing, and the Triple Point (United States)

    Tellinghuisen, Joel


    Liquid-vapor, solid-vapor, and solid-liquid-vapor equilibria are studied for the pure substance water, using modern equipment that includes specially fabricated glass cells. Samples are evaporatively frozen initially, during which they typically supercool to -5 to -10 [degrees]C before spontaneously freezing. Vacuum pumping lowers the temperature…

  20. Relaxor-ferroelectric crossover in (B i1 /2K1 /2)Ti O3 : Origin of the spontaneous phase transition and the effect of an applied external field (United States)

    Hagiwara, Manabu; Ehara, Yoshitaka; Novak, Nikola; Khansur, Neamul H.; Ayrikyan, Azatuhi; Webber, Kyle G.; Fujihara, Shinobu


    The temperature evolution of polar order in an A -site complex perovskite (B i1 /2K1 /2)Ti O3 (BKT) has been investigated by measurements of dielectric permittivity, depolarization current, and stress-stain curves at elevated temperatures. Upon cooling from high temperatures, BKT first enters a relaxor state and then spontaneously transforms into a ferroelectric state. The analyses of temperature and frequency dependence of permittivity have revealed that polar nanoregions of the relaxor phase appear at temperatures higher than 560°C, and also that their freezing at 296°C triggers the spontaneous relaxor-ferroelectric transition. We discuss the key factors determining the development of long-range polar order in A -site complex perovskites through a comparison with the relaxor (B i1 /2N a1 /2)Ti O3 . We also show that application of biasing electric fields and compressive stresses to BKT favors its ferroelectric phase, resulting in a significant shift of the relaxor-ferroelectric transition temperature towards higher temperatures. Based on the obtained results, electric field-temperature and stress-temperature phase diagrams are firstly determined for BKT.

  1. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain


    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  2. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation


    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide


    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  3. In situ HVEM studies of phase transformation in Zr alloys and compounds under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, A.T.; Faldowski, J.A.; Okamoto, P.R.


    The High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM)/Tandem facility at Argonne National Laboratory has been used to conduct detailed studies of the phase stability and microstructural evolution in zirconium alloys and compounds under ion and electron irradiation. Detailed kinetic studies of the crystalline-to-amorphous transformation of the intermetallic compounds Zr 3 (Fe 1-x Ni x ), Zr(Fe 1-x ,Cr x ) 2 , Zr 3 Fe, and Zr 1.5 Nb 1.5 Fe, both as second phase precipitates and in bulk form, have been performed using the in-situ capabilities of the Argonne facility, under a variety of irradiation conditions (temperature, dose rate). Results include a verification of a dose rate effect on amorphization and the influence of material variables (stoichiometry x, presence of stacking faults, crystal structure) on the critical temperature and on the critical dose for amorphization. Studies were also conducted of the microstructural evolution under irradiation of specially tailored binary and ternary model alloys. The stability of the ω-phase in Zr-20%Nb under electron and Ar ion irradiation was investigated as well as the β-phase precipitation in Zr-2.5%Nb under Ar ion irradiation. The ensemble of these results is discussed in terms of theoretical models of amorphization and of irradiation-altered solubility

  4. Effects of HVEM irradiation on ordered phases in Ni-Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.


    Various ordered phases in the Ni-Ti system were subjected to electron irradiation in the Berkeley HVEM. Austenitic NiTi (B2 structure) disorders and turns amorphous with room-temperature irradiations at accelerating potentials between 1 and 1.5 MeV. Total doses for the onset of amorphiticity range between 0.7 x 10 22 and 3 x 10 22 -2 (0.4 to 1.0dpa). At 90K the dose requirement decreases to 4 x 10 20 -2 (approx. 10 -2 dpa). Martensitic NiTi (distorted monoclinic structure) readily detwins and transforms to austenite when irradiated for short times (approx. 10 seconds). Vapor-deposited amorphous films were crystallized to produce NiTi, Phase X (ordered nickel-rich phase with unknown structure) and Ni 3 Ti (DO 24 structure). Upon electron irradiation, NiTi and Phase X disorder and become amorphous, while Ni 3 Ti disorders but does not turn amorphous with doses up to 4 x 10 22 -2 at 90K. These results are discussed in terms of the requirement of a critical concentration of defects and their relative mobilities. Brimhall's solubility criteria for amorphization of ordered alloys by ion bombardment is apparantly applicable to electron-induced crystalline to amorphous transitions in this alloy

  5. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters. (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J


    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  6. Transient Structures and Possible Limits of Data Recording in Phase-Change Materials. (United States)

    Hu, Jianbo; Vanacore, Giovanni M; Yang, Zhe; Miao, Xiangshui; Zewail, Ahmed H


    Phase-change materials (PCMs) represent the leading candidates for universal data storage devices, which exploit the large difference in the physical properties of their transitional lattice structures. On a nanoscale, it is fundamental to determine their performance, which is ultimately controlled by the speed limit of transformation among the different structures involved. Here, we report observation with atomic-scale resolution of transient structures of nanofilms of crystalline germanium telluride, a prototypical PCM, using ultrafast electron crystallography. A nonthermal transformation from the initial rhombohedral phase to the cubic structure was found to occur in 12 ps. On a much longer time scale, hundreds of picoseconds, equilibrium heating of the nanofilm is reached, driving the system toward amorphization, provided that high excitation energy is invoked. These results elucidate the elementary steps defining the structural pathway in the transformation of crystalline-to-amorphous phase transitions and describe the essential atomic motions involved when driven by an ultrafast excitation. The establishment of the time scales of the different transient structures, as reported here, permits determination of the possible limit of performance, which is crucial for high-speed recording applications of PCMs.

  7. Sub-nanometre resolution of atomic motion during electronic excitation in phase-change materials. (United States)

    Mitrofanov, Kirill V; Fons, Paul; Makino, Kotaro; Terashima, Ryo; Shimada, Toru; Kolobov, Alexander V; Tominaga, Junji; Bragaglia, Valeria; Giussani, Alessandro; Calarco, Raffaella; Riechert, Henning; Sato, Takahiro; Katayama, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Kanade; Togashi, Tadashi; Yabashi, Makina; Wall, Simon; Brewe, Dale; Hase, Muneaki


    Phase-change materials based on Ge-Sb-Te alloys are widely used in industrial applications such as nonvolatile memories, but reaction pathways for crystalline-to-amorphous phase-change on picosecond timescales remain unknown. Femtosecond laser excitation and an ultrashort x-ray probe is used to show the temporal separation of electronic and thermal effects in a long-lived (>100 ps) transient metastable state of Ge2Sb2Te5 with muted interatomic interaction induced by a weakening of resonant bonding. Due to a specific electronic state, the lattice undergoes a reversible nondestructive modification over a nanoscale region, remaining cold for 4 ps. An independent time-resolved x-ray absorption fine structure experiment confirms the existence of an intermediate state with disordered bonds. This newly unveiled effect allows the utilization of non-thermal ultra-fast pathways enabling artificial manipulation of the switching process, ultimately leading to a redefined speed limit, and improved energy efficiency and reliability of phase-change memory technologies.

  8. Chalcogenide-based system and its thin films for phase change optical data storage (United States)

    Sharma, Yagya D.; Bhatnagar, Promod K.


    Over recent years the demand for optical data storage devices with high speed has become increasingly more evident. Phase change optical storage is based on the rapid crystalline to amorphous (and vice versa) transition in a thin phase change layer enabled by laser induced heating. Among some of the potential candidates, AgSbTe alloy appears to be one of the latest promising materials that have drawn worldwide attention. Using this material as the active layer has other advantages such as the problem of material flow is reduced to a great extent. Moreover the marks written in AgSbTe based media have a well defined shape with sharp edges, leading to intrinsically lower jitter values than observed for GeSbTe based media. In the present work Ag x-Sb 2 (1-x)-Te 3 (1-x) alloys and films are developed for different composition. The present work describes the systematic study of thermal, structural and optical properties of amorphous Ag-Sb-Te system

  9. Molybdenum Carbamate Nanosheets as a New Class of Potential Phase Change Materials. (United States)

    Zhukovskyi, Maksym; Plashnitsa, Vladimir; Petchsang, Nattasamon; Ruth, Anthony; Bajpai, Anshumaan; Vietmeyer, Felix; Wang, Yuanxing; Brennan, Michael; Pang, Yunsong; Werellapatha, Kalpani; Bunker, Bruce; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Luo, Tengfei; Janko, Boldizsar; Fay, Patrick; Kuno, Masaru


    We report for the first time the synthesis of large, free-standing, Mo 2 O 2 (μ-S) 2 (Et 2 dtc) 2 (MoDTC) nanosheets (NSs), which exhibit an electron-beam induced crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition. Both electron beam ionization and femtosecond (fs) optical excitation induce the phase transition, which is size-, morphology-, and composition-preserving. Resulting NSs are the largest, free-standing regularly shaped two-dimensional amorphous nanostructures made to date. More importantly, amorphization is accompanied by dramatic changes to the NS electrical and optical response wherein resulting amorphous species exhibit room-temperature conductivities 5 orders of magnitude larger than those of their crystalline counterparts. This enhancement likely stems from the amorphization-induced formation of sulfur vacancy-related defects and is supported by temperature-dependent transport measurements, which reveal efficient variable range hopping. MoDTC NSs represent one instance of a broader class of transition metal carbamates likely having applications because of their intriguing electrical properties as well as demonstrated ability to toggle metal oxidation states.

  10. FEL gain optimisation and spontaneous radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, L.M.; Srivastava, A.; Pandya, T.P. [Lucknow Univ. (India)] [and others


    Colson have evaluated FEL gains for small deviations from perfect electron beam injection, with radiation of the same polarisation as that of the wiggler fields. We find that for optimum gain the polarisation of the optical field should be the same as that of the spontaneous emission under these conditions. With a helical wiggler the axial oscillations resulting from small departures from perfect electron beam injection lead to injection dependent unequal amplitudes and phases of the spontaneous radiation in the two transverse directions. Viewed along the axis therefore the spontaneous emission is elliptically polarised. The azimuth of the ellipse varies with the difference of phase of the two transverse components of spontaneous emission but the eccentricity remains the same. With planar wigglers the spontaneous emission viewed in the axial direction is linearly polarised, again with an injection dependent azimuth. For optimum coherent gain of a radiation field its polarisation characteristics must be the same as those of the spontaneous radiation with both types of wiggler. Thus, with a helical wiggler and the data reported earlier, an increase of 10% in the FEL gain at the fundamental frequency and of 11% at the fifth harmonic has been calculated in the small gain per pass limit. Larger enhancements in gain may result from more favourable values of input parameters.

  11. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  12. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L


    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  13. Lansoprazole as a rescue agent in chemoresistant tumors: a phase I/II study in companion animals with spontaneously occurring tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spugnini Enrico P


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of human cancer has been seriously hampered for decades by resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Mechanisms underlying this resistance are far from being entirely known. A very efficient mechanism of tumor resistance to drugs is related to the modification of tumour microenvironment through changes in the extracellular and intracellular pH. The acidification of tumor microenvironment depends on proton pumps that actively pump protons outside the cells, mostly to avoid intracellular acidification. In fact, we have shown in pre-clinical settings as pre-treatment with proton-pumps inhibitors (PPI increase tumor cell and tumor responsiveness to chemotherapeutics. In this study pet with spontaneously occurring cancer proven refractory to conventional chemotherapy have been recruited in a compassionate study. Methods Thirty-four companion animals (27 dogs and 7 cats were treated adding to their chemotherapy protocols the pump inhibitor lansoprazole at high dose, as suggested by pre-clinical experiments. Their responses have been compared to those of seventeen pets (10 dogs and 7 cats whose owners did not pursue any other therapy than continuing the currently ongoing chemotherapy protocols. Results The drug was overall well tolerated, with only four dogs experiencing side effects due to gastric hypochlorhydria consisting with vomiting and or diarrhea. In terms of overall response twenty-three pets out of 34 had partial or complete responses (67.6% the remaining patients experienced no response or progressive disease however most owners reported improved quality of life in most of the non responders. On the other hand, only three animals in the control group (17% experienced short lived partial responses (1-3 months duration while all the others died of progressive disease within two months. Conclusions high dose proton pump inhibitors have been shown to induce reversal of tumor chemoresistance as well as improvement of

  14. Spontaneous emission from saturated parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Ott, Johan Raunkjær; Steffensen, Henrik


    Noise performance of parametric amplifiers is typically calculated assuming un-depleted operation. However, in many applications especially when applied as regenerative amplifiers in systems based on phase shift keyed modulation schemes, this assumption is not valid. Here we show the impact...... on accumulated spontaneous emission for a parametric amplifier operated in saturation....

  15. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd


    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  16. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of 'hale' kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, N.; Zozikov, B.; Otzetov, A.; Kamenova, M.; Martinova, F.; Kalyonski, R.


    A rare case of spontaneous bilateral rupture of the kidneys, occurring consecutively over a one-year period in a young male patient with 'hale' kidneys until then, is described. The patient's past history and thorough examination performed do not justify to assign the case under the heading of some of the etiological factors as the underlying cause of spontaneous kidney rupture. The literature survey on spontaneous bilateral non-tumor ruptures of kidneys shows that over a 20-year period, only 3 cases of bilateral spontaneous ruptures have been reported. It is pointed out that panarteritis nodosa followed by hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome is the commonest underlying cause of such ruptures. Clinically spontaneous ruptures become manifest with emergency condition presenting severe renal colic, impaired to serious general condition, often with acute abdomen and hemodynamic breakdown, and no past history evidence of renal disease or injury. In the initial phase diagnosing is not always easy; it is usually made on the ground of physical examination and the full range of imaging studies used in urological practice and during operative treatment. Emphasis is laid on the fact that the imaging methods are not invariably sufficient to identify the exact etiological factor giving rise to such a severe condition, but nevertheless these methods have an essential practical bearing on diagnosing a rupture. (authors)

  17. Efficacy and safety of bilastine in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group phase II/III study. (United States)

    Hide, Michihiro; Yagami, Akiko; Togawa, Michinori; Saito, Akihiro; Furue, Masutaka


    Bilastine, a novel non-sedating second-generation H 1 -antihistamine, has been widely used in the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and urticaria with a recommended dose of 20 mg once daily in most European countries since 2010. We evaluated its efficacy and safety in Japanese patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase II/III study (trial registration No. JapicCTI-142574). Patients (age, 18-74 years) were randomly assigned to receive bilastine 20 mg, 10 mg or placebo once daily for 2 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline (Day -3 to 0) in total symptom score (TSS) at 2 weeks (Day 8-14), consisting of the itch and rash scores. A total of 304 patients were randomly allocated to bilastine 20 mg (101 patients), bilastine 10 mg (100 patients), and placebo (103 patients). The changes in TSS at 2 weeks were significantly decreased by bilastine 20 mg than did placebo (p < 0.001), demonstrating the superiority of bilastine 20 mg. Bilastine 10 mg also showed a significant difference from placebo (p < 0.001). The TSS changes for the bilastine showed significant improvement from Day 1, and were maintained during the treatment period. The Dermatology Life Quality Index scores were also improved in bilastine than in placebo. The bilastine treatments were safe and well tolerated. Two-week treatment with bilastine (20 or 10 mg) once daily was effective and tolerable in Japanese patients with CSU, demonstrating an early onset of action. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  19. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis]. (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  20. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations. (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn


    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  2. Spontaneous dimensional reduction? (United States)

    Carlip, Steven


    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  3. Single Phase Melt Processed Powellite (Ba,Ca) MoO{sub 4} For The Immobilization Of Mo-Rich Nuclear Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, Kyle [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Marra, James [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Fox, Kevin [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Reppert, Jason [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Crum, Jarrod [Paci fic Northwest National Laboratory , Richland, WA (United States); Tang, Ming [Los Alamos National Laboratory , Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Crystalline and glass composite materials are currently being investigated for the immobilization of combined High Level Waste (HLW) streams resulting from potential commercial fuel reprocessing scenarios. Several of these potential waste streams contain elevated levels of transition metal elements such as molybdenum (Mo). Molybdenum has limited solubility in typical silicate glasses used for nuclear waste immobilization. Under certain chemical and controlled cooling conditions, a powellite (Ba,Ca)MoO{sub 4} crystalline structure can be formed by reaction with alkaline earth elements. In this study, single phase BaMoO{sub 4} and CaMoO{sub 4} were formed from carbonate and oxide precursors demonstrating the viability of Mo incorporation into glass, crystalline or glass composite materials by a melt and crystallization process. X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy indicated a long range ordered crystalline structure. In-situ electron irradiation studies indicated that both CaMoO{sub 4} and BaMoO{sub 4} powellite phases exhibit radiation stability up to 1000 years at anticipated doses with a crystalline to amorphous transition observed after 1 X 10{sup 13} Gy. Aqueous durability determined from product consistency tests (PCT) showed low normalized release rates for Ba, Ca, and Mo (<0.05 g/m{sup 2}).

  4. Group-theoretic condition for spontaneous CP violation (United States)

    Haber, Howard E.; Surujon, Ze'ev


    We formulate the necessary conditions for a scalar potential to exhibit spontaneous CP violation. Associated with each complex scalar field is a U(1) symmetry that may be explicitly broken by terms in the scalar potential (called spurions). In order for CP-odd phases in the vacuum to be physical, these phases must be related to spontaneously broken U(1) generators that are also explicitly broken by a sufficient number of inequivalent spurions. In the case where the vacuum is characterized by a single complex phase, our result implies that the phase must be associated with a U(1) generator that is broken explicitly by at least two inequivalent spurions. A suitable generalization of this result to the case of multiple complex phases has also been obtained. These conditions may be used both to distinguish models capable of spontaneous CP violation and as a model building technique for obtaining spontaneously CP-violating deformations of CP-conserving models. As an example, we analyze the generic two Higgs doublet model, where we also carry out a complete spurion analysis. We also comment on other models with spontaneous CP violation, including the chiral Lagrangian, a minimal version of the Nelson-Barr model, and little Higgs models with spontaneous CP violation.

  5. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection. (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  6. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P


    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  7. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K


    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  8. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD


    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  9. New quaternary material for high-speed phase-change optical recording (United States)

    Mongia, Geeta; Bhatnagar, Promod K.


    Over recent years the demand for mass storage devices with high speed has become increasingly more evident. Phase change optical recording is based on the rapid crystalline to amorphous (and vice versa) transition in a thin phase change layer enabled by laser induced heating. Among some of the potential candidates, AgInSbTe alloy appears to be one of the latest promising materials that has drawn world wide attention. The optical disk of this material with overwrites cyclability of more than 105 times, and data rate 22Mbps has been reported for DVD 4.7GB. Using this material as the active layer has other advantages such as the problem of material flow is reduced to a great extent. Moreover the marks written in AgInSbTe based media have a well defined shape with sharp edges, leading to intrinsically lower jitter values than observed for GeSbTe based media. In the present work [(AgSbTe)x(In1-y Sby)1-x] alloy and films are developed for different values of x and y. The crystallization process of Ag-In-Sb-Te films with above composition is systematically reported and compared for the first time. Thermal properties of the alloy and film are studied using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. The analysis of the film is done before annealing and also after 1hr. isothermal annealing at temperature between 200 degree(s)C and 500 degree(s)C. The structural analysis of the film is also done under same conditions (before and after annealing) using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) respectively. The experimental results of the analysis are presented here for compositions close to the eutectic Sb69Te31, in which some of the Te is replaced by Ag and In.

  10. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.


    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  11. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.


    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  12. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.


    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  13. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.


    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  14. Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.


    Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified...... broken, but phase squeezing prevents spin-symmetry breaking. If, however, nondegenerate spin modes contribute to the amplification, quantum interferences lead to spin-dependent density profiles and hence spontaneously formed patterns in the longitudinal magnetization....... clouds. Our experiments permit a precise analysis of the amplification in specific spatial Bessel-like modes, allowing for the detailed understanding of the double symmetry breaking. On resonances that create vortex-antivortex superpositions, we show that the cylindrical spatial symmetry is spontaneously...

  15. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS


    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  16. Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Petra; Bauer, Axel; Müller, Alexander


    Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) indicates poor prognosis after acute myocardial infarction. Noninvasive BRS assessment is complicated by nonstationarities and noise in electrocardiogram and pressure signals. Phase-rectified signal averaging is a novel signal processing technology overcoming...

  17. Radionuclide evaluation of spontaneous femoral osteonecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greyson, N.D.; Lotem, M.M.; Gross, A.E.; Houpt, J.B.


    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the femoral condyle in 40 knees was followed by sequential radiographs and three-phase bone scans using 99 /sup m/Tc-methylene diphosphonate. The characteristic bone scan appearance of focal increased uptake by the medial femoral condyle in blood flow, blood pool, and delayed images helped to make the specific diagnosis in 11 knees that had no characteristic radiographic findings at the time of presentation. The three phases of the bone scan demonstrated a pattern that was useful in determining the activity of the process. There was a gradual loss of hyperemia as healing progressed. Late bone scans were normal or showed nonspecific findings. Radionuclide bone scans were able to confirm or exclude this disease and were superior to radiographs in demonstrating the disease in the acute phase

  18. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.


    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  19. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.


    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  20. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat


    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  1. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection. (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis


    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  2. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan


    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  3. Radiation damage and associated phase change effect on photodesorption rates from ices—Lyα studies of the surface behavior of CO2(ice)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr.


    Photodesorption from a crystalline film of CO 2 (ice) at 75 K has been studied using Lyα (10.2 eV) radiation. We combine quantitative mass spectrometric studies of gases evolved and transmission IR studies of species trapped in the ice. Direct CO desorption is observed from the primary CO 2 photodissociation process, which occurs promptly for CO 2 molecules located on the outermost surface of the ice (Process I). As the fluence of Lyα radiation increases to ∼5.5 × 10 17 photons cm –2 , extensive damage to the crystalline ice occurs and photo-produced CO molecules from deeper regions (Process II) are found to desorb at a rapidly increasing rate, which becomes two orders of magnitude greater than Process I. It is postulated that deep radiation damage to produce an extensive amorphous phase of CO 2 occurs in the 50 nm ice film and that CO (and CO 2 ) diffusive transport is strongly enhanced in the amorphous phase. Photodesorption in Process II is a combination of electronic and thermally activated processes. Radiation damage in crystalline CO 2 ice has been monitored by its effects on the vibrational line shapes of CO 2 (ice). Here the crystalline-to-amorphous phase transition has been correlated with the occurrence of efficient molecular transport over long distances through the amorphous phase of CO 2 (ice). Future studies of the composition of the interstellar region, generated by photodesorption from ice layers on grains, will have to consider the significant effects of radiation damage on photodesorption rates.

  4. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.


    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  5. Spontaneity and international marketing performance


    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.


    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  6. Cancellation of global anomalies in spontaneously broken gauge ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Higgs phase of a gauge theory [6]. The would-be Goldstone bosons—the angular components of the Higgs field—are the scalar fields that can be used to write the WZ term. This idea had already been put forward in [7] where the interplay between renormalizability and anomaly cancellation in spontaneously broken ...

  7. Spontaneous breaking of conformal invariance and trace anomaly matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwimmer, A.; Theisen, S.


    We argue that when conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken the trace anomalies in the broken and unbroken phases are matched. This puts strong constraints on the various couplings of the dilaton. Using the uniqueness of the effective action for the Goldstone supermultiplet for broken N=1 superconformal symmetry the dilaton effective action is calculated.

  8. Spontaneous unilamellar polymer vesicles in aqueous solution. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hwan; Song, Chaeyeon; Han, Young-Soo; Jang, Jong-Dae; Choi, Myung Chul


    A unilamellar polymeric vesicle is a self-assembled structure of a block copolymer that forms a spherical single bilayer structure with a hydrophobic interlayer and a hydrophilic surface. Due to their enhanced colloidal stability and mechanical property, controllable surface functionality, or tunable membrane thickness, polymeric vesicles are useful in nano and bio-science, providing potential applications as nanosized carriers for catalysts, drugs, and enzymes. For fabrication of a unilamellar vesicle, however, preparative procedures with a few steps are inherently required. Herein, without complicated preparative procedures, we report spontaneous unilamellar polymeric vesicles with nanometer sizes (small angle neutron scattering and cryo-TEM, resulting in a phase diagram drawn as a function of temperature and the 5mS concentration. Interestingly the critical temperature for the micelle-to-vesicle phase transition was easily controlled by varying the 5mS concentration, i.e. it was decreased with increasing the 5mS concentration.

  9. Finite-temperature effective potential of a system with spontaneously broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E.P. [Yaroslavl State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)


    A quantum-mechanical system with spontaneously broken symmetry is considered the effective potential is determined, and it is shown that with reduction of temperature the system undergoes a phase transition of the first kind.

  10. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.


    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  11. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission. (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C


    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  12. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.


    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  13. Heterogeneity of chromosome damage in [beta]-thalassaemia traits. An evaluation of spontaneous and [gamma]-ray-induced micronuclei and chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes in vitro after G[sub 0] and G[sub 2] phase irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnaja, A.P.; Sharma, N.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Molecular Biology and Agriculture Div.)


    This study is an attempt to evaluate the chromosomal radiosensitivity of [beta]-thalassaemia traits compared with healthy individuals from the general population, necessitated by the fact that [beta]-thalassaemia trait is present in 1-17% of different population groups in India and the chances of encountering them in radiation and chemical related industries do exist. Spontaneous chromosome aberration frequencies in peripheral blood lymphocytes from [beta]-thalassaemia traits were found to be in the normal range, whereas significantly higher frequencies of micronuclei (MN) were observed in thalassaemia traits. Based on MN frequency at 2 Gy, [beta]-thalassaemia traits fall into two distinct categories. A hypersensitive group with significant increase in radiation-induced MN over the control group, and a second group with MN frequency slightly above normal individuals. Even when compared with the fitted data at 2 Gy obtained from the pooled results of extensive dose-response investigations from 0.5-5 Gy [gamma]-rays with normal donors for MN, dicentrics and total aberrations, the difference between the means of MN frequencies in [beta]-thalassaemia traits and normals is significant. (author).

  14. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk


    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  15. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)


    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  16. Coherent spontaneous radiation from highly bunched electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Crosson, E.R.; Ricci, K.N.


    Coherent spontaneous radiation has now been observed in several FELs, and is a subject of great importance to the design of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) devices. We report observations of coherent spontaneous radiation in both FIREFLY and the mid-infrared FEL at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. Coherent emission has been observed at wavelengths as short as 5 microns, and enhancement over incoherent levels by as much as a factor of 4x10 4 has been observed at longer wavelengths. The latter behavior was observed at 45 microns in FIREFLY with short bunches produced by off-peak acceleration and dispersive compression. We present temporal measurements of the highly bunched electron distributions responsible for the large enhancements, using both transition radiation and energy-phase techniques

  17. Spontaneous bending of pre-stretched bilayers. (United States)

    DeSimone, Antonio


    We discuss spontaneously bent configurations of pre-stretched bilayer sheets that can be obtained by tuning the pre-stretches in the two layers. The two-dimensional nonlinear plate model we use for this purpose is an adaptation of the one recently obtained for thin sheets of nematic elastomers, by means of a rigorous dimensional reduction argument based on the theory of Gamma-convergence (Agostiniani and DeSimone in Meccanica. doi:10.1007/s11012-017-0630-4, 2017, Math Mech Solids. doi:10.1177/1081286517699991, arXiv:1509.07003, 2017). We argue that pre-stretched bilayer sheets provide us with an interesting model system to study shape programming and morphing of surfaces in other, more complex systems, where spontaneous deformations are induced by swelling due to the absorption of a liquid, phase transformations, thermal or electro-magnetic stimuli. These include bio-mimetic structures inspired by biological systems from both the plant and the animal kingdoms.

  18. Spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forell, B.; Myers, L.S. Jr.; Norman, A.


    The rate of spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis in human lymphocytes was estimated from measurements of tritiated thymidine incorporation into double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA) during incubation of cells in vitro. The contribution of scheduled DNA synthesis to the observed incorporation was reduced by inhibiting replication with hydroxyurea and by separating freshly replicated single-stranded DNA (ss-DNA) from repaired ds-DNA by column chromatography. The residual contribution of scheduled DNA synthesis was estimated by observing effects on thymidine incorporation of: (a) increasing the rate of production of apurinic sites, and alternatively, (b) increasing the number of cells in S-phase. Corrections based on estimates of endogenous pool size were also made. The rate of spontaneous unscheduled DNA synthesis is estimated to be 490 +- 120 thymidine molecules incorporated per cell per hour. These results compare favorably with estimates made from rates of depurination and depyrimidination of DNA, measured in molecular systems if we assume thymidine is incorporated by a short patch mechanism which incorporates an average of four bases per lesion

  19. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen


    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  20. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.


    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  1. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts (United States)

    Siegal, M.


    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  2. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter


    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  3. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien


    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  4. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  5. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  6. Spontaneous jamming in one-dimensional systems (United States)

    O'Loan, O. J.; Evans, M. R.; Cates, M. E.


    We study the phenomenon of jamming in driven diffusive systems. We introduce a simple microscopic model in which jamming of a conserved driven species is mediated by the presence of a non-conserved quantity, causing an effective long-range interaction of the driven species. We study the model analytically and numerically, providing strong evidence that jamming occurs; however, this proceeds via a strict phase transition (with spontaneous symmetry breaking) only in a prescribed limit. Outside this limit, the nearby transition (characterised by an essential singularity) induces sharp crossovers and transient coarsening phenomena. We discuss the relevance of the model to two physical situations: the clustering of buses, and the clogging of a suspension forced along a pipe.

  7. Spontaneous inversion of nystagmus without a positional change in the horizontal canal variant of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. (United States)

    Ogawa, Yasuo; Ichimura, Akihide; Otsuka, Koji; Hagiwara, Akira; Inagaki, Taro; Shimizu, Shigetaka; Nagai, Noriko; Itani, Shigeto; Suzuki, Mamoru


    We investigated the neuro-otological findings, including nystagmus, and the clinical course of patients with the horizontal canal variant of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (HC-BPPV), who showed spontaneous inversion of nystagmus without a positional change. Furthermore, we speculated on the possible mechanism of spontaneous inversion of nystagmus without a positional change. The characteristics of spontaneous inversion of positional nystagmus without a positional change were analyzed in 7 patients with HC-BPPV. All patients were diagnosed as having HC-BPPV. During the positional test, the spontaneous inversion of nystagmus was observed in the same head position in all patients. Spontaneous inversion was observed on both sides in 5 patients, and only on 1 side in 2 patients. All patients presented with geotropic nystagmus in the first phase, and ageotropic nystagmus in the second phase. The coexistence of cupulolithiasis and canalolithiasis appears to be a possible mechanism of the spontaneous inversion of positional nystagmus.

  8. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  9. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  10. Spontaneous formation of quantized vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates (United States)

    Weiler, Chad Nathan

    Phase transitions abound in the physical world, from the subatomic length scales of quark condensation to the decoupling forces in the early universe. In the Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition, a gas of trapped bosonic atoms is cooled to a critical temperature. Below this temperature, a macroscopic number of atoms suddenly starts to occupy a single quantum state; these atoms comprise the Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The dynamics of the BEC phase transition are the focus of this dissertation and the experiments described here have provided new information on the details of BEC formation. New theoretical developments are proving to be valuable tools for describing BEC phase transition dynamics and interpreting new experimental results. With their amenability to optical manipulation and probing along with the advent of new microscopic theories, BECs provide an important new avenue for gaining insight into the universal dynamics of phase transitions in general. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the system's order parameter may be one result of cooling through a phase transition. A potential consequence of this is the spontaneous formation of topological defects, which in a BEC appear as vortices. We experimentally observed and characterized the spontaneous formation of vortices during BEC growth. We attribute vortex creation to coherence length limitations during the initial stages of the phase transition. Parallel to these experimental observations, theory collaborators have used the Stochastic Gross-Pitaevski Equation formalism to simulate the growth of a condensate from a thermal cloud. The experimental and theoretical statistical results of the spontaneous formation of vortex cores during the growth of the condensate are in good quantitative agreement with one another, supporting our understanding of the dynamics of the phase transition. We believe that our results are also qualitatively consistent with the Kibble-Zurek mechanism, a universal model for

  11. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.


    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  12. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer. (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki


    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  13. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke


    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  14. Spontaneous spiral formation in two-dimensional oscillatory media (United States)

    Kettunen, Petteri; Amemiya, Takashi; Ohmori, Takao; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko


    Computational studies of pattern formation in a modified Oregonator model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is described. Initially inactive two-dimensional reaction media with an immobilized catalyst is connected to a reservoir of fresh reactants through a set of discrete points distributed randomly over the interphase surface. It is shown that the diffusion of reactants combined with oscillatory reaction kinetics can give rise to spontaneous spiral formation and phase waves.

  15. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian


    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  16. On the temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization of lithium niobate and lithium tantalate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismailzade, I.G.; Ismailov, R.M.


    The temperature dependence of spontaneous polarization Psub(s)(T) of LiNbO 3 and LiTaO 3 ferroelectrics is studied by the precision X-ray diffraction method up to the Curie temperature - 1140 and 650 deg C, respectively. It is shown that for LiTaO 3 a deviation from continuous variation of spontaneous polarization with temperature is observed, expressing itself more disticntly at temperatures corresponding to intermediate ferroelectric phase transitions. The Psub(s)(T) obtained has whown that up to 210 deg C the value of LiNbO 3 spontaneous polarization practically remains constant and it decreases with the temperature increase, and near the phase transition temperature (transition of the first order) Psub(s)(T) is 40% of spontaneous polarization at room temperature. As in the case of lithium tantalate stepwise changes of Psub(s)(T) for LiNbO 3 are observed

  17. Spontaneous recovery in human instrumental learning: Integration of information and recency to primacy shift. (United States)

    López-Romero, Luis Jesús; García-Barraza, Rodolfo; Vila, Javier


    This experiment was conducted to study the effect of changes in the retention interval (RI) on spontaneous recovery within an acquisition-test interference task. College students learned a reversal conditional discrimination to solve a task involving conflicting phases across two training phases. When the test was conducted immediately after training, participants' performance revealed recency, behaving according to the information received during the last phase. Performance after retention interval averaged the information received across phases, regardless of the length of the RI (1.5, 3, 24 or 48 h). These results are not in agreement with traditional theories of spontaneous recovery as they predict a recency to primacy shift effect of the RI. An interpretation of spontaneous recovery based on a temporal weighting rule (TWR) is discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirzhnitz, D.A.


    Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered

  19. Theoretical description of spontaneous pulse formation in a semiconductor microring laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, L.; Columbo, L.


    We theoretically describe the spontaneous formation of stable pulses in a GaAs bulk semiconductor microring laser. These pulses are obtained without active or passive mode locking. We show that the parameter regime associated with their existence is limited on one side by the phase instability of the continuous-wave solution, and on the other side by the failure of Lamb's mode-locking criterion. Bistability between the continuous-wave solution and the spontaneous pulses is observed.

  20. Spontaneous oscillations in microfluidic networks (United States)

    Case, Daniel; Angilella, Jean-Regis; Motter, Adilson


    Precisely controlling flows within microfluidic systems is often difficult which typically results in systems being heavily reliant on numerous external pumps and computers. Here, I present a simple microfluidic network that exhibits flow rate switching, bistablity, and spontaneous oscillations controlled by a single pressure. That is, by solely changing the driving pressure, it is possible to switch between an oscillating and steady flow state. Such functionality does not rely on external hardware and may even serve as an on-chip memory or timing mechanism. I use an analytic model and rigorous fluid dynamics simulations to show these results.

  1. General features of spontaneous baryogenesis (United States)

    Arbuzova, Elena


    The classical version of spontaneous baryogenesis is studied in details. It is shown that the relation between the time derivative of the (pseudo)goldstone field and the baryonic chemical potential essentially depends upon the representation chosen for the fermionic fields with non-zero baryonic number (quarks). The kinetic equation, used for the calculations of the cosmological baryon asymmetry, is generalized to the case of non-stationary background. The effects of the finite interval of the integration over time are also included into consideration.

  2. Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kattapuram, Taj M. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States); Kattapuram, Susan V. [Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital (United States)], E-mail:


    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee presents with acute onset of severe, pain in elderly patients, usually female and usually without a history of trauma. Originally described as idiopathic osteonecrosis, the exact etiology is still debated. Evidence suggests that an acute fracture occurs as a result of chronic stress or minor trauma to a weakened subchondral bone plate. The imaging characteristics on MR reflect the age of the lesion and the symptoms. More appropriate terminology may be ' subchondral insufficiency fracture of the knee' or 'focal subchondral osteonecrosis'.

  3. Radiological evaluation of spontaneous pneumoperitoneum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Kim, J. D.; Rhee, H. S.


    112 cases of spontaneous penumoperitoneum, the causes of which were confirmed by clinical and surgical procedure at Presbyterian Medical Center from January, 1977 to July, 1981 were reviewed radiologically. The results were as follows: 1. Perforation of duodenal ulcer (46/112: 41.1%), stomach ulcer (22/112: 19.6%), and stomach cancer (11/112: 9.8%) were the three most common causes of spontaneous penumoperitoneum. These were 70.5% of all causes. 2. The most common site of free gas was both subdiaphragmatic areas (46: 41.1%). Others were Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (31: 27.7%), both subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (16: 14.3%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic with subhepatic (7: 6.2%), Rt. subdiaphragmatic only (5: 4.4%), diffuse in abdomen (4: 3.6%), and subhepatic only (3: 2.7%). So 92.0% (103/112) were located in RUQ. 3. The radiological shape of free gas was classified: crescent (52: 46.4%) of small amount; half-moon (21: 18.8%) of moderate amount; large or diffuse (39: 34.8%) of large amount.4. The age between 31 and 60 occupied 69.1% (77/112), and male was predominant (5.2 times). 5. The patient's position showing free air most frequently was erect

  4. A Case of Multiple Spontaneous Keloid Scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhadi Jfri


    Full Text Available Keloid scars result from an abnormal healing response to cutaneous injury or inflammation that extends beyond the borders of the original wound. Spontaneous keloid scars forming in the absence of any previous trauma or surgical procedure are rare. Certain syndromes have been associated with this phenomenon, and few reports have discussed the evidence of single spontaneous keloid scar, which raises the question whether they are really spontaneous. Here, we present a 27-year-old mentally retarded single female with orbital hypertelorism, broad nasal bridge, repaired cleft lip and high-arched palate who presented with progressive multiple spontaneous keloid scars in different parts of her body which were confirmed histologically by the presence of typical keloidal collagen. This report supports the fact that keloid scars can appear spontaneously and are possibly linked to a genetic factor. Furthermore, it describes a new presentation of spontaneous keloid scars in the form of multiple large lesions in different sites of the body.

  5. Spontaneity of communication in individuals with autism. (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Carter, Mark


    This article provides an examination of issues related to spontaneity of communication in children with autism. Deficits relating to spontaneity or initiation are frequently reported in individuals with autism, particularly in relation to communication and social behavior. Nevertheless, spontaneity is not necessarily clearly conceptualized or measured. Several approaches to conceptualization of communicative spontaneity are examined with a particular focus on the continuum model and how it might be practically applied. A range of possible explanations for deficits in spontaneity of communication in children with autism is subsequently explored, including external factors (highly structured teaching programs, failure to systematically instruct for spontaneity) and intrinsic characteristics (intellectual disability, stimulus overselectivity, weak central coherence). Possible implications for future research are presented.

  6. Spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in cirrhotic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungkanuparph S


    Full Text Available Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is a common complication in patients with cirrhosis and ascites. However, spontaneous peritonitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans is uncommon. Delayed diagnosis of cryptococcal peritonitis often results in death. We describe three cases of spontaneous cryptococcal peritonitis in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. One case had associated symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clinical awareness of this entity may lead to the early diagnosis and proper treatment.

  7. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension without Orthostatic Headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Kansu


    Full Text Available We report 2 cases of spontaneous intracranial hypotension that presented with unilateral abducens nerve palsy, without orthostatic headache. While sixth nerve palsies improved without any intervention, subdural hematoma was detected with magnetic resonance imaging. We conclude that headache may be absent in spontaneous intracranial hypotension and spontaneous improvement of sixth nerve palsy can occur, even after the development of a subdural hematoma

  8. Spontaneous renal hematoma - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrzut, M.; Obrzut, M.; Homa, J.; Obrzut, B.


    Spontaneous pararenal hematoma is a rare pathology most frequently coexisting with renal tumours, vascular anomalies and inflammatory processes. In some cases one cannot establish its etiology. The paper describes a case of a 58-year-old man with a spontaneous pararenal hematoma and presents a diagnostic algorithm. Ultrasonography and CT play an important role in diagnostics of spontaneous pararenal haemorrhages. These methods enable a precise evaluation of size and location of hematoma and its evolution. (author)

  9. Inertial Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Scale Invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.


    Weyl invariant theories of scalars and gravity can generate all mass scales spontaneously, initiated by a dynamical process of "inertial spontaneous symmetry breaking" that does not involve a potential. This is dictated by the structure of the Weyl current, $K_\\mu$, and a cosmological phase during which the universe expands and the Einstein-Hilbert effective action is formed. Maintaining exact Weyl invariance in the renormalised quantum theory is straightforward when renormalisation conditions are referred back to the VEV's of fields in the action of the theory, which implies a conserved Weyl current. We do not require scale invariant regulators. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential.

  10. New Perspectives on Spontaneous Brain Activity: Dynamic Networks and Energy Matter (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Zare, Marzieh; Benasich, April A.


    Spontaneous brain activity has received increasing attention as demonstrated by the exponential rise in the number of published article on this topic over the last 30 years. Such “intrinsic” brain activity, generated in the absence of an explicit task, is frequently associated with resting-state or default-mode networks (DMN)s. The focus on characterizing spontaneous brain activity promises to shed new light on questions concerning the structural and functional architecture of the brain and how they are related to “mind”. However, many critical questions have yet to be addressed. In this review, we focus on a scarcely explored area, specifically the energetic requirements and constraints of spontaneous activity, taking into account both thermodynamical and informational perspectives. We argue that the “classical” definitions of spontaneous activity do not take into account an important feature, that is, the critical thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Spontaneous brain activity is associated with slower oscillations compared with evoked, task-related activity, hence it exhibits lower levels of enthalpy and “free-energy” (i.e., the energy that can be converted to do work), thus supporting noteworthy thermodynamic energetic differences between spontaneous and evoked brain activity. Increased spike frequency during evoked activity has a significant metabolic cost, consequently, brain functions traditionally associated with spontaneous activity, such as mind wandering, require less energy that other nervous activities. We also review recent empirical observations in neuroscience, in order to capture how spontaneous brain dynamics and mental function can be embedded in a non-linear dynamical framework, which considers nervous activity in terms of phase spaces, particle trajectories, random walks, attractors and/or paths at the edge of the chaos. This takes us from the thermodynamic free-energy, to the realm

  11. Biomarkers of spontaneous preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polettini, Jossimara; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian


    predictors of pregnancy outcome. This systematic review was conducted to synthesize the knowledge on PTB biomarkers identified using multiplex analysis. Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of multiplex assays for maternal......Despite decades of research on risk indicators of spontaneous preterm birth (PTB), reliable biomarkers are still not available to screen or diagnose high-risk pregnancies. Several biomarkers in maternal and fetal compartments have been mechanistically linked to PTB, but none of them are reliable......) followed by MIP-1β, GM-CSF, Eotaxin, and TNF-RI (two studies) were reported more than once in maternal serum. However, results could not be combined due to heterogeneity in type of sample, study population, assay, and analysis methods. By this systematic review, we conclude that multiplex assays...

  12. Spontaneous Strategies in Innovation Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plesner, Ursula; Husted, Emil Krastrup

    and a site ontology, we show how physical sites and objects become constitutive of the inside of virtual worlds through innovation processes. This argument is in line with ANT’s perspective on strategy, where sites and objects are considered a strategically relevant resource in the innovation process...... of materiality in relation to the organization and structuring of virtual worlds. We examine various innovation processes in five Danish entrepreneurial companies where actors continuously struggle to stabilize virtual worlds as platforms for professional communication. With inspiration from actor-network theory....... Empirically, the analysis is founded on descriptive accounts from the five entrepreneurs. By highlighting the spontaneous strategies described by actors, we show how sites and objects are actively used as an element in their strategy, and also how the sites and objects end up facilitating new ways of thinking...

  13. Recurrent spontaneous attacks of dizziness. (United States)

    Lempert, Thomas


    This article describes the common causes of recurrent vertigo and dizziness that can be diagnosed largely on the basis of history. Ninety percent of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness can be explained by six disorders: (1) Ménière disease is characterized by vertigo attacks, lasting 20 minutes to several hours, with concomitant hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. Aural symptoms become permanent during the course of the disease. (2) Attacks of vestibular migraine may last anywhere from minutes to days. Most patients have a previous history of migraine headaches, and many experience migraine symptoms during the attack. (3) Vertebrobasilar TIAs affect older adults with vascular risk factors. Most attacks last less than 1 hour and are accompanied by other symptoms from the posterior circulation territory. (4) Vestibular paroxysmia is caused by vascular compression of the eighth cranial nerve. It manifests itself with brief attacks of vertigo that recur many times per day, sometimes with concomitant cochlear symptoms. (5) Orthostatic hypotension causes brief episodes of dizziness lasting seconds to a few minutes after standing up and is relieved by sitting or lying down. In older adults, it may be accompanied by supine hypertension. (6) Panic attacks usually last minutes, occur in specific situations, and are accompanied by choking, palpitations, tremor, heat, and anxiety. Less common causes of spontaneous recurrent vertigo and dizziness include perilymph fistula, superior canal dehiscence, autoimmune inner ear disease, otosclerosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and medication side effects. Neurologists need to venture into otolaryngology, internal medicine, and psychiatry to master the differential diagnosis of recurrent dizziness.

  14. Crows spontaneously exhibit analogical reasoning. (United States)

    Smirnova, Anna; Zorina, Zoya; Obozova, Tanya; Wasserman, Edward


    Analogical reasoning is vital to advanced cognition and behavioral adaptation. Many theorists deem analogical thinking to be uniquely human and to be foundational to categorization, creative problem solving, and scientific discovery. Comparative psychologists have long been interested in the species generality of analogical reasoning, but they initially found it difficult to obtain empirical support for such thinking in nonhuman animals (for pioneering efforts, see [2, 3]). Researchers have since mustered considerable evidence and argument that relational matching-to-sample (RMTS) effectively captures the essence of analogy, in which the relevant logical arguments are presented visually. In RMTS, choice of test pair BB would be correct if the sample pair were AA, whereas choice of test pair EF would be correct if the sample pair were CD. Critically, no items in the correct test pair physically match items in the sample pair, thus demanding that only relational sameness or differentness is available to support accurate choice responding. Initial evidence suggested that only humans and apes can successfully learn RMTS with pairs of sample and test items; however, monkeys have subsequently done so. Here, we report that crows too exhibit relational matching behavior. Even more importantly, crows spontaneously display relational responding without ever having been trained on RMTS; they had only been trained on identity matching-to-sample (IMTS). Such robust and uninstructed relational matching behavior represents the most convincing evidence yet of analogical reasoning in a nonprimate species, as apes alone have spontaneously exhibited RMTS behavior after only IMTS training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien


    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  16. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  17. Spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture in alkaptonuria | Mohammed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous Achilles tendon ruptures are uncommon. We present a 46-year-old man with spontaneous Achilles tendon rupture due to ochronosis. To our knowledge, this has not been previously reported in Sudan literature. The tendon of the reported patient healed well after debridement and primary repairs.

  18. Spontaneous rupture of choledochal cyst: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ho Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Chan Sung; Choi, Jong Cheol; Oh, Jong Young [Dong-a University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)


    Spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst leading to biliary peritonitis is a rare complication which can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed. The authors report the ultrasound and CT findings of two cases of spontaneous choledochal cystic rupture and the biliary peritonitis which ensued.

  19. Spontaneity and Equilibrium II: Multireaction Systems (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    The thermodynamic criteria for spontaneity and equilibrium in multireaction systems are developed and discussed. When N reactions are occurring simultaneously, it is shown that G and A will depend upon N independent reaction coordinates, ?a (a = 1,2, ..., N), in addition to T and p for G or T and V for A. The general criteria for spontaneity and…

  20. Spontaneous vortex phase (SVP) of ruthenocuprate high Tc ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The Ru0.9Sr2YCu2.1O7.9 compound synthesized by HPHT (high pressure high temperature) solid-state reaction route exhibits bulk superconductivity below 30 K. Also the Ru-spins are ordered magnetically above 143 K, with a ferromagnetic component at 5 K. Low field (<1000 Oe) M vs. H plots show that both the ...

  1. Phase transitions in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A.A. de; Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.


    By means of an example for which the effective potential is explicitly calculable (up to the one loop approximation), it is discussed how a phase transition takes place as the temperature is increased and pass from spontaneously broken symmetry to a phase in which the symmetry is restored. (Author) [pt

  2. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth


    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  3. Epstein-Barr virus latency type and spontaneous reactivation predict lytic induction levels. (United States)

    Phan, An T; Fernandez, Samantha G; Somberg, Jessica J; Keck, Kristin M; Miranda, Jj L


    The human Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) evades the immune system by entering a transcriptionally latent phase in B cells. EBV in tumor cells expresses distinct patterns of genes referred to as latency types. Viruses in tumor cells also display varying levels of lytic transcription resulting from spontaneous reactivation out of latency. We measured this dynamic range of lytic transcription with RNA deep sequencing and observed no correlation with EBV latency types among genetically different viruses, but type I cell lines reveal more spontaneous reactivation than isogenic type III cultures. We further determined that latency type and spontaneous reactivation levels predict the relative amount of induced reactivation generated by cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs. Our work has potential implications for personalizing medicine against EBV-transformed malignancies. Identifying latency type or measuring spontaneous reactivation may provide predictive power in treatment contexts where viral production should be either avoided or coerced. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The (perceived) meaning of spontaneous thoughts. (United States)

    Morewedge, Carey K; Giblin, Colleen E; Norton, Michael I


    Spontaneous thoughts, the output of a broad category of uncontrolled and inaccessible higher order mental processes, arise frequently in everyday life. The seeming randomness by which spontaneous thoughts arise might give people good reason to dismiss them as meaningless. We suggest that it is precisely the lack of control over and access to the processes by which they arise that leads people to perceive spontaneous thoughts as revealing meaningful self-insight. Consequently, spontaneous thoughts potently influence judgment. A series of experiments provides evidence supporting two hypotheses. First, we hypothesize that the more a thought is perceived to be spontaneous, the more it is perceived to provide meaningful self-insight. Participants perceived more spontaneous kinds of thought (e.g., intuition) to reveal greater self-insight than did more controlled kinds of thought in Study 1 (e.g., deliberation). In Studies 2 and 3, participants perceived thoughts with the same content and target to reveal greater self-insight when spontaneously rather than deliberately generated (i.e., childhood memories and impressions formed). Second, we hypothesize that the greater self-insight attributed to thoughts that are (perceived to be) spontaneous leads those thoughts to more potently influence judgment. Participants felt more sexually attracted to an attractive person whom they thought of spontaneously than deliberately in Study 4, and reported their commitment to a current romantic relationship would be more affected by the spontaneous rather than deliberate recollection of a good or bad experience with their romantic partner in Study 5. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Stock market speculation: Spontaneous symmetry breaking of economic valuation (United States)

    Sornette, Didier


    Firm foundation theory estimates a security's firm fundamental value based on four determinants: expected growth rate, expected dividend payout, the market interest rate and the degree of risk. In contrast, other views of decision-making in the stock market, using alternatives such as human psychology and behavior, bounded rationality, agent-based modeling and evolutionary game theory, expound that speculative and crowd behavior of investors may play a major role in shaping market prices. Here, we propose that the two views refer to two classes of companies connected through a "phase transition". Our theory is based on (1) the identification of the fundamental parity symmetry of prices (p→-p), which results from the relative direction of payment flux compared to commodity flux and (2) the observation that a company's risk-adjusted growth rate discounted by the market interest rate behaves as a control parameter for the observable price. We find a critical value of this control parameter at which a spontaneous symmetry-breaking of prices occurs, leading to a spontaneous valuation in absence of earnings, similarly to the emergence of a spontaneous magnetization in Ising models in absence of a magnetic field. The low growth rate phase is described by the firm foundation theory while the large growth rate phase is the regime of speculation and crowd behavior. In practice, while large "finite-time horizon" effects round off the predicted singularities, our symmetry-breaking speculation theory accounts for the apparent over-pricing and the high volatility of fast growing companies on the stock markets.

  6. An animal model of spontaneous metabolic syndrome: Nile grass rat. (United States)

    Noda, Kousuke; Melhorn, Mark I; Zandi, Souska; Frimmel, Sonja; Tayyari, Faryan; Hisatomi, Toshio; Almulki, Lama; Pronczuk, Andrzej; Hayes, K C; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali


    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a prevalent and complex disease, characterized by the variable coexistence of obesity, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and hypertension. The alarming rise in the prevalence of metabolic disorders makes it imperative to innovate preventive or therapeutic measures for MetS and its complications. However, the elucidation of the pathogenesis of MetS has been hampered by the lack of realistic models. For example, the existing animal models of MetS, i.e., genetically engineered rodents, imitate certain aspects of the disease, while lacking other important components. Defining the natural course of MetS in a spontaneous animal model of the disease would be desirable. Here, we introduce the Nile grass rat (NGR), Arvicanthis niloticus, as a novel model of MetS. Studies of over 1100 NGRs in captivity, fed normal chow, revealed that most of these animals spontaneously develop dyslipidemia (P<0.01), and hyperglycemia (P<0.01) by 1 yr of age. Further characterization showed that the diabetic rats develop liver steatosis, abdominal fat accumulation, nephropathy, atrophy of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, fatty streaks in the aorta, and hypertension (P<0.01). Diabetic NGRs in the early phase of the disease develop hyperinsulinemia, and show a strong inverse correlation between plasma adiponectin and HbA1c levels (P<0.01). These data indicate that the NGR is a valuable, spontaneous model for exploring the etiology and pathophysiology of MetS as well as its various complications.

  7. Spontaneous Superlattice Formation in Nanorods through PartialCation Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Richard D.; Sadtler, Bryce; Demchenko, Denis O.; Erdonmez, Can K.; Wang, Lin-Wang; Alivisatos, A. Paul


    Lattice mismatch strains are widely known to controlnanoscale pattern formation in heteroepitaxy, but such effects have notbeen exploited in colloidal nanocrystal growth. We demonstrate acolloidal route to synthesizing CdS-Ag2S nanorod superlattices throughpartial cation exchange. Strain induces the spontaneous formation ofperiodic structures. Ab initio calculations of the interfacial energy andmodeling of strain energies show that these forces drive theself-organization. The nanorod superlattices exhibit high stabilityagainst ripening and phase mixing. These materials are tunablenear-infrared emitters with potential applications as nanometer-scaleoptoelectronic devices.

  8. Spontaneous Metacognition in Rhesus Monkeys. (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Santos, Laurie R


    Metacognition is the ability to think about thinking. Although monitoring and controlling one's knowledge is a key feature of human cognition, its evolutionary origins are debated. In the current study, we examined whether rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta; N = 120) could make metacognitive inferences in a one-shot decision. Each monkey experienced one of four conditions, observing a human appearing to hide a food reward in an apparatus consisting of either one or two tubes. The monkeys tended to search the correct location when they observed this baiting event, but engaged in information seeking-by peering into a center location where they could check both potential hiding spots-if their view had been occluded and information seeking was possible. The monkeys only occasionally approached the center when information seeking was not possible. These results show that monkeys spontaneously use information about their own knowledge states to solve naturalistic foraging problems, and thus provide the first evidence that nonhumans exhibit information-seeking responses in situations with which they have no prior experience. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Spontaneous flocking in human groups. (United States)

    Belz, Michael; Pyritz, Lennart W; Boos, Margarete


    Flocking behaviour, as a type of self-organised collective behaviour, is described as the spatial formation of groups without global control and explicit inter-individual recruitment signals. It can be observed in many animals, such as bird flocks, shoals or herds of ungulates. Spatial attraction between humans as the central component of flocking behaviour has been simulated in a number of seminal models but it has not been detected experimentally in human groups so far. The two other sub-processes of this self-organised collective movement - collision avoidance and alignment - are excluded or held constant respectively in this study. We created a computer-based, multi-agent game where human players, represented as black dots, moved on a virtual playground. The participants were deprived of social cues about each other and could neither communicate verbally nor nonverbally. They played two games: (1) Single Game, where other players were invisible, and (2) Joint Game, where each player could see players' positions in a local radius around himself/herself. We found that individuals approached their neighbours spontaneously if their positions were visible, leading to less spatial dispersion of the whole group compared to moving alone. We conclude that human groups show the basic component of flocking behaviour without being explicitly instructed or rewarded to do so. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arife Zeybek


    Full Text Available Simultaneous bilateral primary pneumothorax is a very rare (1.6 / 100,000 and life-threatening condition. Clinical presentation may vary from mild dyspnea to tension pneumothorax. It may be milder particularly in younger patients, but more severe in patients with advanced age, and tube thoracostomy is a life preserver in the latter group. Since mortality and recurrence rates following tube thoracostomy are high, endoscopic approaches to bilateral hemithorax have been reported in literature. Apical wedge resection and pleural procedures are recommended in video thoracoscopy or mini thoracotomy even if no bulla and/or bleb are detected. Bilateral surgical interventions and additional pleural procedures are associated with increased rate of post-operative complications and longer postoperative hospital-stays. As a first-line approach, the surgical method toward any side of lung with air leakage following a previous tube thoracostomy is considered less invasive, especially in younger patients. Here, we present a case of simultaneous bilateral primary spontaneous pneumothorax (SBPSP in a 21-year old male with no history of smoking and chronic pulmonary disease. A unilateral surgical intervention was performed, and no recurrence was observed during 5-year follow up.

  11. Bilateral spontaneous hemotympanum: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economou Nicolas C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common causes of hemotympanum are therapeutic nasal packing, epistaxis, blood disorders and blunt trauma to the head. Hemotympanum is characterized as idiopathic, when it is detected in the presence of chronic otitis media. A rare case of spontaneous bilateral hemotympanum in a patient treated with anticoagulants is presented herein. Case presentation A 72-year-old male presented with acute deterioration of hearing. In the patient's medical history aortic valve replacement 1 year before presentation was reported. Since then he had been administered regularly coumarinic anticoagulants, with INR levels maintained between 3.4 and 4.0. Otoscopy revealed the presence of bilateral hemotympanum. The audiogram showed symmetrical moderately severe mixed hearing loss bilaterally, with the conductive component predominating. Tympanograms were flat bilaterally with absent acoustic reflexes. A computerized tomography scan showed the presence of fluid in the mastoid and middle ear bilaterally. Treatment was conservative and consisted of a 10-day course of antibiotics, anticongestants and temporary interruption of the anticoagulant therapy. After 3 weeks, normal tympanic membranes were found and hearing had returned to previous levels. Conclusion Anticoagulant intake should be included in the differential diagnosis of hemotympanum, because its detection and appropriate treatment may lead to resolution of the disorder.

  12. The spinning dancer illusion and spontaneous brain fluctuations: an fMRI study. (United States)

    Bernal, Byron; Guillen, Magno; Marquez, Juan Camilo


    The brain activation associated with the Spinning Dancer Illusion, a cognitive visual illusion, is not entirely known. Inferences from other study modalities point to the involvement of the dorso-parieto-occipital areas in the spontaneous switchings of perception in other bistable non-kinetic illusions. fMRI is a mature technique used to investigate the brain responses associated with mental changes. Resting-state fMRI is a novel technique that may help ascertain the effects of spontaneous brain changes in the top-down regulation of visual perception. The purpose of this report is to describe the brain activation associated with the subjective illusory changes of perception of a kinetic bistable stimulus. We hypothesize that there is a relationship between the perception phases with the very slow cortical spontaneous fluctuations, recently described. A single normal subject who was trained to produce voluntarily perception phase switches underwent a series of fMRI studies whose blocks were either defined post-hoc or accordingly with a predefined timeline to assess spontaneous and voluntarily evoked visual perception switches, respectively. Correlation of findings with resting-state fMRI and independent component analysis of the task series was sought. Phases of the rotation direction were found associated with right parietal activity. Independent component analysis of the task series and their comparison with basal resting-state components suggest that this activity is related to one of the very slow spontaneous brain fluctuations. The spontaneous fluctuations of the cortical activity may explain the subjective changes in perception of direction of the Spinning Dancer Illusion. This observation is a proof-of-principle, suggesting that the spontaneous brain oscillations may influence top-down sensory regulation.

  13. Clock frequency estimation under spontaneous emission (United States)

    Qin, Xi-Zhou; Huang, Jia-Hao; Zhong, Hong-Hua; Lee, Chaohong


    We investigate the quantum dynamics of a driven two-level system under spontaneous emission and its application in clock frequency estimation. By using the Lindblad equation to describe the system, we analytically obtain its exact solutions, which show three different regimes: Rabi oscillation, damped oscillation, and overdamped decay. From the analytical solutions, we explore how the spontaneous emission affects the clock frequency estimation. We find that under a moderate spontaneous emission rate, the transition frequency can still be inferred from the Rabi oscillation. Our results enable potential practical applications in frequency measurement and quantum control under decoherence.

  14. Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis in Subclinical Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalip Gupta


    Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is an uncommon cause of ascites. Here we describe a case of a 75 year-old female patient with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and subclinical hypothyroidism that resolved with thyroid replacement and antibiotic therapy respectively. Ascitic fluid analysis revealed a gram-positive bacterium on gram staining. A review of the literature revealed just one other reported case of myxoedema ascites with concomitant spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and no case has till been reported of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in subclinical hypothyroidism.

  15. Spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. (United States)

    Yutaka, Yojiro; Omasa, Mitsugu; Shikuma, Kei; Okuda, Masato; Taki, Toshihiko


    Although there are many reports of spontaneous regression of noninvasive thymoma, there are no reports of spontaneous regression of an invasive thymoma. Moreover, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression is still unknown. The present case concerns a 47-year-old man who presented with chest pain. Computed tomography (CT) showed a large anterior mediastinal mass with left pleural effusion that occluded the innominate vein. The tissue obtained by video-assisted thoracic surgery suggested a diagnosis of invasive thymic carcinoma. One month later CT showed prominent regression of the tumor, and the tumor was completely resected. On pathology, the diagnosis was thymoma type B3.

  16. Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheldon, Patrick J.; Esther, James B.; Sheldon, Elana L.; Sparks, Steven R.; Brophy, David P.; Oglevie, Steven B.


    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a rare occurrence, especially when not associated with aortic dissection. Currently, only 28 cases appear to have been reported. Due to the scarcity of cases in the literature, the natural history of isolated, spontaneous SMA dissection is unclear. CT has been reported to be useful for the initial diagnosis of SMA dissection [2-5]. We present two recent cases of spontaneous SMA dissection in which enhanced spiral CT was instrumental in following the disease process and guiding clinical decision making

  17. Does Spontaneous Favorability to Power (vs. Universalism) Values Predict Spontaneous Prejudice and Discrimination? (United States)

    Souchon, Nicolas; Maio, Gregory R; Hanel, Paul H P; Bardin, Brigitte


    We conducted five studies testing whether an implicit measure of favorability toward power over universalism values predicts spontaneous prejudice and discrimination. Studies 1 (N = 192) and 2 (N = 86) examined correlations between spontaneous favorability toward power (vs. universalism) values, achievement (vs. benevolence) values, and a spontaneous measure of prejudice toward ethnic minorities. Study 3 (N = 159) tested whether conditioning participants to associate power values with positive adjectives and universalism values with negative adjectives (or inversely) affects spontaneous prejudice. Study 4 (N = 95) tested whether decision bias toward female handball players could be predicted by spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values. Study 5 (N = 123) examined correlations between spontaneous attitude toward power (vs. universalism) values, spontaneous importance toward power (vs. universalism) values, and spontaneous prejudice toward Black African people. Spontaneous positivity toward power (vs. universalism) values was associated with spontaneous negativity toward minorities and predicted gender bias in a decision task, whereas the explicit measures did not. These results indicate that the implicit assessment of evaluative responses attached to human values helps to model value-attitude-behavior relations. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Personality Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Consumption of a dark roast coffee decreases the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks: a randomized controlled trial. (United States)

    Bakuradze, T; Lang, R; Hofmann, T; Eisenbrand, G; Schipp, D; Galan, J; Richling, E


    Coffee consumption has been reported to decrease oxidative damage in peripheral white blood cells (WBC). However, effects on the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks, a well established marker of health risk, have not been specifically reported yet. We analyzed the impact of consuming a dark roast coffee blend on the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks. Healthy men (n = 84) were randomized to consume daily for 4 weeks either 750 ml of fresh coffee brew or 750 ml of water, subsequent to a run in washout phase of 4 weeks. The study coffee was a blend providing high amounts of both caffeoylquinic acids (10.18 ± 0.33 mg/g) and the roast product N-methylpyridinium (1.10 ± 0.05 mg/g). Before and after the coffee/water consumption phase, spontaneous strand breaks were determined by comet assay. At baseline, both groups exhibited a similar level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks. In the intervention phase, spontaneous DNA strand breaks slightly increased in the control (water only) group whereas they significantly decreased in the coffee group, leading to a 27% difference within both arms (p = 0.0002). Food frequency questionnaires indicated no differences in the overall diet between groups, and mean body weight during the intervention phases remained stable. The consumption of the study coffee substantially lowered the level of spontaneous DNA strand breaks in WBC. We conclude that regular coffee consumption contributes to DNA integrity.

  19. Right Diaphragm Spontaneous Rupture: A Surgical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duilio Divisi


    Full Text Available We present a case of spontaneous rupture of the diaphragm, characterized by nonspecific symptoms. The rapid diagnosis and appropriate surgical approach led to a positive resolution of the pathology.

  20. Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous cecal perforation secondary to acute fulminant gastroenteritis: report of a rare case. Duvuru Ram, Vilvapathy S. Karthikeyan, Sarath C. Sistla, Sheik M. Ali, Parnandi Sridhar, Nagarajan Rajkumar ...

  1. Spontaneous Trait Inferences on Social Media. (United States)

    Levordashka, Ana; Utz, Sonja


    The present research investigates whether spontaneous trait inferences occur under conditions characteristic of social media and networking sites: nonextreme, ostensibly self-generated content, simultaneous presentation of multiple cues, and self-paced browsing. We used an established measure of trait inferences (false recognition paradigm) and a direct assessment of impressions. Without being asked to do so, participants spontaneously formed impressions of people whose status updates they saw. Our results suggest that trait inferences occurred from nonextreme self-generated content, which is commonly found in social media updates (Experiment 1) and when nine status updates from different people were presented in parallel (Experiment 2). Although inferences did occur during free browsing, the results suggest that participants did not necessarily associate the traits with the corresponding status update authors (Experiment 3). Overall, the findings suggest that spontaneous trait inferences occur on social media. We discuss implications for online communication and research on spontaneous trait inferences.

  2. Spontane abdominale arteriovenøse fistler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flarup, S; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal


    Spontaneous arteriovenous fistulas between major abdominal vessels (AAVF) complicates about 1% of abdominal aortic aneurysms. AAVF produces severe circulatory disturbances with high operative mortality. Preoperative diagnosis is important but difficult due to the varied nature of presentation. Fo...

  3. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A


    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  4. Postmenopausal spontaneous uterine perforation: Case report (United States)

    İşlek Seçen, Elçin; Ağış, Hilal; Altunkaya, Canan; Avşar, Ayşe Filiz


    Spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis caused by pyometra occurs rarely with high morbidity and mortality. A correct and definite diagnosis can be made with laparotomy or laparoscopy. The clinical findings of perforated pyometra are similar to perforation of the gastrointestinal tract and gynecologic symptoms are less frequent, which makes preoperative diagnosis difficult. We report a case of a patient aged 82 years who underwent surgery for spontaneous uterine rupture and generalized peritonitis as a result of pyometra. PMID:28913055

  5. Endometriosis-related spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture. (United States)

    Triponez, Frédéric; Alifano, Marco; Bobbio, Antonio; Regnard, Jean-François


    Non-traumatic, spontaneous diaphragmatic rupture is a rare event whose pathophysiology is not known. We report the case of endometriosis-related spontaneous rupture of the right diaphragm with intrathoracic herniation of the liver, gallbladder and colon. We hypothesize that the invasiveness of endometriotic tissue caused diaphragm fragility, which finally lead to its complete rupture without traumatic event. The treatment consisted of a classical management of diaphragmatic rupture, with excision of the endometriotic nodule followed by medical ovarian suppression for six months.

  6. Spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hassan, S J


    Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin predominantly affecting elderly Caucasians. It has a high rate of local recurrence and regional lymph node metastases. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Complete spontaneous regression of Merkel cell carcinoma has been reported but is a poorly understood phenomenon. Here we present a case of complete spontaneous regression of metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma demonstrating a markedly different pattern of events from those previously published.

  7. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jeronimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva Junior, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo, E-mail: [Instituto de Neurologia de Curitiba (INC), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)


    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xarelto®. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban. (author)

  8. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma during rivaroxaban treatment. (United States)

    Ruschel, Leonardo Gilmone; Rego, Felipe Marques Monteiro do; Milano, Jerônimo Buzetti; Jung, Gustavo Simiano; Silva, Luis Fernando; Ramina, Ricardo


    According to our research, this is the first case described in the literature of spontaneous intracranial epidural hematoma secondary to the use of Xareltor. Spontaneous intracranial epidural hematomas are rarely described in the literature. They are associated with infectious diseases of the skull, coagulation disorders, vascular malformations of the dura mater and metastasis to the skull. Long-term post-marketing monitoring and independent reports will probably detect the full spectrum of hemorrhagic complications of the use of rivaroxaban.

  9. Modeling of wettability alteration during spontaneous imbibition of mutually soluble solvents in mixed wet fractured reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chahardowli, M.; Bruining, J.


    Mutually-soluble solvents can enhance oil recovery both in mixed-wet fractured reservoirs. When a partially waterwet matrix is surrounded by an immiscible wetting phase in the fracture, spontaneous imbibition is the most important production mechanism. Initially, the solvent moves with the imbibing

  10. Expert opinion : Defining response to omalizumab in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrer, Marta; Boccon-Gibod, Isabelle; Gonçalo, Margarida; İnalöz, Hüseyin Serhat; Knulst, André; Lapeere, Hilde; Parthasaradhi, Anchala; Stingl, Georg; Tagka, Anna; Valenzuela, Fernando; Yeung, Jensen; Thomsen, Simon Francis


    Omalizumab (a recombinant, humanized anti-immunoglobulin-E antibody) has been shown in three pivotal Phase III trials (ASTERIA I, II and GLACIAL) and real-world studies to be effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), and is the only licensed third-line

  11. Formation of oil-in-water emulsions from natural emulsifiers using spontaneous emulsification: sunflower phospholipids. (United States)

    Komaiko, Jennifer; Sastrosubroto, Ashtri; McClements, David Julian


    This study examined the possibility of producing oil-in-water emulsions using a natural surfactant (sunflower phospholipids) and a low-energy method (spontaneous emulsification). Spontaneous emulsification was carried out by titrating an organic phase (oil and phospholipid) into an aqueous phase with continuous stirring. The influence of phospholipid composition, surfactant-to-oil ratio (SOR), initial phospholipids location, storage time, phospholipid type, and preparation method was tested. The initial droplet size depended on the nature of the phospholipid used, which was attributed to differences in phospholipid composition. Droplet size decreased with increasing SOR and was smallest when the phospholipid was fully dissolved in the organic phase rather than the aqueous phase. The droplets formed using spontaneous emulsification were relatively large (d > 10 μm), and so the emulsions were unstable to gravitational separation. At low SORs (0.1 and 0.5), emulsions produced with phospholipids had a smaller particle diameter than those produced with a synthetic surfactant (Tween 80), but at a higher SOR (1.0), this trend was reversed. High-energy methods (microfluidization and sonication) formed significantly smaller droplets (d < 10 μm) than spontaneous emulsification. The results from this study show that low-energy methods could be utilized with natural surfactants for applications for which fine droplets are not essential.

  12. Coherent control of spontaneous emission near a photonic band edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldeyohannes, Mesfin; John, Sajeev


    We demonstrate the coherent control of spontaneous emission for a three-level atom located within a photonic band gap (PBG) material, with one resonant frequency near the edge of the PBG. Spontaneous emission from the three-level atom can be totally suppressed or strongly enhanced depending on the relative phase between the steady-state control laser coupling the two upper levels and the pump laser pulse used to create an excited state of the atom in the form of a coherent superposition of the two upper levels. Unlike the free-space case, the steady-state inversion of the atomic system is strongly dependent on the externally prescribed initial conditions. This non-zero steady-state population is achieved by virtue of the localization of light in the vicinity of the emitting atom. It is robust to decoherence effects provided that the Rabi frequency of the control laser field exceeds the rate of dephasing interactions. As a result, such a system may be relevant for a single-atom, phase-sensitive optical memory device on the atomic scale. The protected electric dipole within the PBG provides a basis for a qubit to encode information for quantum computations. A detailed literature survey on the nature, fabrication and applications of PBG materials is presented to provide context for this research. (phd tutorial)

  13. Spontaneous remission of hepatocellular carcinoma without any treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Ciao Luo


    A 61 year old asymptomatic woman visited our outpatient clinic (OPC with a high alpha-fetal protein (AFP level. A computed tomogram (CT revealed a 4.1 cm hypervascular tumor (arterial phase at S4 of the liver and washed out in venous phase. Her Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg was negative and Hepatitis C Antibody (anti-HCV was positive. This patient also had esophageal varices. She refused any treatment and returned to our OPC about 2 years later. Her AFP level was 11.8 ng/ml. The following CT scan revealed a small amount of cirrhosis, but no mass, in the liver, so that spontaneous remission of HCC was determined. She was treated by oral diuretics. Here we report the case and review of literature.

  14. Observation of magnetic flux generated spontaneously during a rapid quench of superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maniv, A.; Polturak, E.; Koren, G.


    We report observations of spontaneous formation of magnetic flux lines during a rapid quench of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films through T c . This effect is predicted according to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of creation of topological defects of the order parameter during a symmetry-breaking phase transition. Our previous experiment, at a quench rate of 20 K/s, gave null results. In the present experiment, the quench rate was increased to >10 8 K/s. The amount of spontaneous flux increases weakly with the cooling rate

  15. Spontaneous fluxon production in annular Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of a magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper


    We report on the spontaneous production of fluxons in annular Josephson tunnel junctions during a thermal quench in the presence of a symmetry-breaking magnetic field. The dependence on field intensity B of the probability (f) over bar (1) to trap a single defect during the N-S phase transition...... depends drastically on the sample circumferences. We show that this can be understood in the framework of the same picture of spontaneous defect formation that leads to the experimentally well attested scaling behavior of (f) over bar (1) with quench rate in the absence of an external field....

  16. Spontaneous body movements in spatial cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiu eTcaci Popescu


    Full Text Available People often perform spontaneous body movements during spatial tasks such as giving complex directions or orienting themselves on maps. How are these spontaneous gestures related to spatial problem-solving? We measured spontaneous movements during a perspective-taking task inspired by map reading. Analyzing the motion data to isolate rotation and translation components of motion in specific geometric relation to the task, we found out that most participants executed spontaneous miniature rotations of the head that were significantly related to the main task parameter. These head rotations were as if participants were trying to align themselves with the orientation on the map either in the image plane or on the ground plane, but with tiny amplitudes, typically below 1% of the actual movements. Our results are consistent with a model of sensorimotor prediction driving spatial reasoning. The efference copy of planned movements triggers this prediction mechanism. The movements themselves may then be mostly inhibited; the small spontaneous gestures that we measure are the visible traces of these planned but inhibited actions.

  17. Surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal Krishna Shrestha


    Full Text Available Spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage is the spontaneous brainstem hemorrhage associated with long term hypertension but not having definite focal or objective lesion. It is a catastrophic event which has a poor prognosis and usually managed conservatively. It is not uncommon, especially in eastern Asian populations, accounting approximately for 10% of the intracerebral hemorrhage. Before the advent of computed tomography, the diagnosis of brainstem hemorrhage was usually based on the clinical picture or by autopsy and believed to be untreatable via surgery. The introduction of computed tomography permitted to categorize the subtypes of brainstem hemorrhage with more predicted outcome. Continuous ongoing developments in the stereotactic surgery and microsurgery have added more specific surgical management in these patients. However, whether to manage conservatively or promptly with surgical evacuation of hematoma is still a controversy. Studies have shown that an accurate prognostic assessment based on clinical and radiological features on admission is critical for establishing a reasonable therapeutic approach. Some authors have advocate conservative management, whereas others have suggested the efficacy of surgical treatment in brainstem hemorrhage. With the widening knowledge in microsurgical techniques as well as neuroimaging technology, there seems to have more optimistic hope of surgical management of spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage for better prognosis. Here we present five cases of severe spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage patients who had undergone surgery; and explore the possibilities of surgical management in patients with the spontaneous hypertensive brainstem hemorrhage.

  18. Cursed lamp: the problem of spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Simkulet, William


    Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Developing spontaneity and well-being in women victims of domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Testoni


    Full Text Available In this paper we present the results of the last stage of the research project Empower Daphne that involved the participation of six countries belonging to the EU in two phases: I validation of the theoretical model on which basis rests the construct of well-being and spontaneity; II analysis of Morenian psychodrama intervention efficacy. 407 university students were part of the non-clinical sample in the first phase and 136 women victims of domestic violence made up the clinical sample for the second phase. During the six month the women took part in psychodramatic sessions, together with individual interviews. At the beginning and the end of the six month, a questionnaire was administered consisting of a well-being and a spontaneity scales. In the article we present the results that compare well-being and spontaneity between clinical and non-clinical samples, and between the clinical cut-off scores highlighted in the literature and the scores of clinical sample. The findings demonstrate interesting differences between two sample: observed lower levels of spontaneity and well-being in women victims of domestic violence, both before and after the psychodramatic intervention.

  20. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.


    If the universe stated from conditions of high temperature and density, there should have been a series of phase transitions associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The cosmological phase transitions could have observable consequences in the present Universe. Some of the consequences including the formation of topological defects and cosmological inflation are reviewed here. One of the most important tools in building particle physics models is the use of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). The proposal that there are underlying symmetries of nature that are not manifest in the vacuum is a crucial link in the unification of forces. Of particular interest for cosmology is the expectation that are the high temperatures of the big bang symmetries broken today will be restored, and that there are phase transitions to the broken state. The possibility that topological defects will be produced in the transition is the subject of this section. The possibility that the Universe will undergo inflation in a phase transition will be the subject of the next section. Before discussing the creation of topological defects in the phase transition, some general aspects of high-temperature restoration of symmetry and the development of the phase transition will be reviewed. 29 references, 1 figure, 1 table

  1. Minimally packed phases in holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Rd., Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gauntlett, Jerome P. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College,Prince Consort Rd., London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)


    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein-Maxwell theory coupled to a pseudoscalar. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs at finite chemical potential and in a constant magnetic field, which spontaneously break translation invariance leading to the spontaneous formation of abelian and momentum magnetisation currents flowing around the plaquettes of a periodic Bravais lattice. We analyse the three-dimensional moduli space of lattice solutions, which are generically oblique, and show, for a specific value of the magnetic field, that the free energy is minimised by the triangular lattice, associated with minimal packing of circles in the plane. We show that the average stress tensor for the thermodynamically preferred phase is that of a perfect fluid and that this result applies more generally to spontaneously generated periodic phases. The triangular structure persists at low temperatures indicating the existence of novel crystalline ground states.

  2. Spontaneous Regression of Lumbar Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Wei Chang


    Full Text Available Intervertebral disc herniation of the lumbar spine is a common disease presenting with low back pain and involving nerve root radiculopathy. Some neurological symptoms in the majority of patients frequently improve after a period of conservative treatment. This has been regarded as the result of a decrease of pressure exerted from the herniated disc on neighboring neurostructures and a gradual regression of inflammation. Recently, with advances in magnetic resonance imaging, many reports have demonstrated that the herniated disc has the potential for spontaneous regression. Regression coincided with the improvement of associated symptoms. However, the exact regression mechanism remains unclear. Here, we present 2 cases of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation with spontaneous regression. We review the literature and discuss the possible mechanisms, the precipitating factors of spontaneous disc regression and the proper timing of surgical intervention.

  3. Spontaneous hemothorax: primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Panjwani


    Full Text Available Spontaneous hemothorax is a rare condition seen in coagulation and vascular disorders. Uncommonly, malignant neoplasms may cause spontaneous hemothorax. Primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcomas (excluding the cases with pleuropulmonary or chest wall involvement are extremely rare pleural tumors, which may be mistaken for mesothelioma or adenocarcinoma, and only 19 cases (one of them from India have been reported in the English literature, to date. It commonly occurs in older men, has a nonspecific clinicoradiological presentation, and carries a poor prognosis with no survivors beyond a year of establishing the diagnosis. We report a case of primary pleural epithelioid angiosarcoma presenting as a life-threatening spontaneous hemothorax. We also present a brief literature review on pleural angiosarcoma.

  4. Computed tomographic findings of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Seung Sook; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Young Chul [College of Medicine, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Computed tomography (CT) was a reliable technique to evaluate the exact size and location of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage and to predict it's prognosis. Fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage were evaluated and reviewed by CT scan. The following results were obtained. 1. The sex ratio of male to female was 1 to 1.4, The highest incidence was in 6th and 7th decades. 2. The most common cause of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage was hypertension (74.6%), followed by the aneurysm (13.5%), arteriovenous malformation (5.1%), occlusive vascular disease (3.4%), and blood dyscrasia (3.4%). 3. The most common location was basal ganglia and thalamic hemorrhage (37.3%), followed by lobar hemorrhage (27.1%), cerebellar hemorrhage (13.5%), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (11.9%). 4. Primary intraventricular hemorrhage carried the highest mortality. 5. The larger volume of hematoma, the higher the mortality rate.

  5. Spontaneous Perforation of Pyometra: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Pyometra is the accumulation of purulent material in the uterine cavity. Its reported incidence is 0.01–0.5% in gynecologic patients; however, as far as elderly patients are concerned, its incidence is 13.6% [3]. The most common cause of pyometra is malignant diseases of genital tract and the consequences of their treatment (radiotherapy. Other causes are benign tumors like leiomyoma, endometrial polyps, senile cervicitis, cervical occlusion after surgery, puerperal infections, and congenital cervical anomalies. Spontaneous rupture of the uterus is an extremely rare complication of pyometra. To our knowledge, only 21 cases of spontaneous perforation of pyometra have been reported in English literature since 1980. This paper reports an additional case of spontaneous uterine rupture.

  6. Calculation of the Spontaneous Polarization and the Dielectric Constant as a Function of Temperature for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamit Yurtseven


    Full Text Available The temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization P is calculated in the ferroelectric phase of KH2PO4 (KDP at atmospheric pressure (TC = 122 K. Also, the dielectric constant ε is calculated at various temperatures in the paraelectric phase of KDP at atmospheric pressure. For this calculation of P and ε, by fitting the observed Raman frequencies of the soft mode, the microscopic parameters of the pure tunnelling model are obtained. In this model, the proton-lattice interaction is not considered and the collective proton mode is identified with the soft-mode response of the system. Our calculations show that the spontaneous polarization decreases continuously in the ferroelectric phase as approaching the transition temperature TC. Also, the dielectric constant decreases with increasing temperature and it diverges in the vicinity of the transition temperature (TC = 122 K for KDP according to the Curie-Weiss law.

  7. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.


    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  8. Two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele. (United States)

    Kamiya, Kouhei; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Kawai, Kensuke; Usami, Kenichi; Ohtomo, Kuni


    This is a report of two cases of spontaneous temporal encephalocele: one was anteroinferior and presented with epilepsy; the other was posteroinferior and presented with facial neuritis and labyrinthitis. Spontaneous temporal encephalocele is relatively rare and apparently not familiar to a majority of primary physicians. It may present with a variety of symptoms according to its anatomical location, including cerebrospinal fluid fistulas, recurrent meningitis, chronic otitis media, hearing loss, facial nerve palsy and medically intractable epilepsy. Attention should be paid to this disease entity, as it is easily overlooked in imaging studies and can leave serious neurological deficits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  10. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.


    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  11. Spontaneous subdural hematoma associated to Duret hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins, MD


    Full Text Available Subdural hematoma (SH is a neurosurgical emergency, usually caused by head trauma. Non-traumatic causes include aneurysm or arterial–venous malformation rupture, coagulopathy and others. We report the case of a 66 year-old man who developed apparently unprovoked signs of increased intracranial pressure. Brain computed tomography scan showed an acute spontaneous SH, surgically treated. Throughout surgery, a ruptured cortical artery with intensive bleeding appeared and was cauterized. After surgery, patient remained comatose and a new CT demonstrated Duret hemorrhage at the brainstem. Acute spontaneous SH of arterial origin is rare and highly lethal, in which a good prognosis relies on early diagnosis and treatment.

  12. Primer on spontaneous heating and pyrophoricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This primer was prepared as an information resource for personnel responsible for operation of DOE nuclear facilities. It has sections on combustion principles, spontaneous heating/ignition of hydrocarbons and organics, pyrophoric gases and liquids, pyrophoric nonmetallic solids, pyrophoric metals (including Pu and U), and accident case studies. Although the information in this primer is not all-encompassing, it should provide the reader with a fundamental knowledge level sufficient to recognize most spontaneous combustion hazards and how to prevent ignition and widespread fires. This primer is provided as an information resource only, and is not intended to replace any fire protection or hazardous material training.

  13. Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Williamson, Lewis; J Longdell, Jevon


    Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity. (paper)

  14. Spontaneous supersymmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenger, Urs [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland)


    We discuss various strategies for regularising supersymmetric quantum field theories on a space-time lattice. In general, simulations of lattice models with spontaneously broken supersymmetry suffer from a fermion sign problem related to the vanishing of the Witten index. We discuss a novel approach which evades this problem in low dimensions by formulating the path integral on the lattice in terms of fermion loops. Then we present exact results on the spectrum and the Witten index for N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics and results from simulations of the spontaneously broken N=1 Wess-Zumino model.

  15. Improved Oil Recovery in Chalk. Spontaneous Imbibition affected by Wettability, Rock Framework and Interfacial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milter, J.


    The author of this doctoral thesis aims to improve the oil recovery from fractured chalk reservoirs, i.e., maximize the area of swept zones and their displacement efficiencies. In order to identify an improved oil recovery method in chalk, it is necessary to study wettability of calcium carbonate and spontaneous imbibition potential. The thesis contains an investigation of thin films and wettability of single calcite surfaces. The results of thin film experiments are used to evaluate spontaneous imbibition experiments in different chalk types. The chalk types were described detailed enough to permit considering the influence of texture, pore size and pore throat size distributions, pore geometry, and surface roughness on wettability and spontaneous imbibition. Finally, impacts of interfacial tension by adding anionic and cationic surfactants to the imbibing water phase are studied at different wettabilities of a well known chalk material. 232 refs., 97 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission. (United States)

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi


    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  17. Assessment of baroreflex sensitivity from spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure and heart rate: proven clinical value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa


    The baroreceptor-heart rate reflex (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) is a key mechanism contributing to the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system. Several methods have been proposed so far to assess BRS by analyzing the spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. These methods are inherently simple, non-invasive and low-cost. This study is an attempt to address the question of whether spontaneous baroreflex methods have proven to be of value in the clinical setting. In the first part of this article, we critically review most representative clinical studies using spontaneous BRS techniques either for risk stratification or treatment evaluation, these being major issues in the clinical management of the patients. In the second part, we address two important aspects of spontaneous BRS measurements: measurability and reliability. Estimation of BRS in the studies selected for the review was performed according to the sequence, transfer function, alpha-index and phase-rectified signal averaging method. Arterial blood pressure was recorded non-invasively during supine, short-term (<30 min) laboratory recordings. The conclusion from this review is that spontaneous BRS techniques have been shown to be of great value in clinical practice but further work is needed to confirm the validity of previous findings and to widen the field of clinical applications. Measurability and reliability can be a major issue in the measurement of spontaneous BRS, particularly in some patient populations like post-myocardial infarction and heart failure patents. Main causes of poor measurability are: non-sinus rhythm, a high rate of ectopic beats and the need for recorded time series of RR interval and arterial blood pressure to satisfy the constraints of the different BRS estimation algorithms. As for reliability, within-subject variability is rather high in the measurements of spontaneous BRS and, therefore, should be carefully taken into account

  18. Symmetry structure and phase transitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is one of the most important concepts of all unified gauge theories. The idea that ... stable configurations of gauge and Higgs fields in the form of domain walls, cosmic strings and monopoles on the ..... pressure to balance the surface tension and the pressure of the hadron phase. The quark.

  19. Spontaneous Immortalization of Clinically Normal Colon-Derived Fibroblasts from a Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Forsyth


    Full Text Available Normal human diploid cells do not spontaneously immortalize in culture, but instead enter replicative senescence after a finite number of population doublings. Ablation of key checkpoint arrest or cancersuppressor genes, through dominantly inherited germline mutation (p53+/-, Li-Fraumeni or viral oncogene expression (SV40 large T, HPV16/18, E6/E7 can lead to escape from senescence, additional doublings, entrance into crisis phase, where immortal clones emerge at low frequency. In the vast majority of cases, telomerase is reactivated and telomeres are stabilized. Here we describe the spontaneous immortalization of clinically normal fibroblasts derived from colonic stroma of a familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP patient. The preimmortal (C26C and the spontaneously immortalized derivative (C26Ci cells are heterozygous for a characterized germline mutation in exon 15 of the adenomatous polyposis coli gene. Immortalization was accompanied by spontaneous reactivation of endogenous telomerase and establishment of telomeres at presenescent lengths. Normal checkpoint behavior is retained and a diploid karyotype is maintained. These cells provide a valuable new addition to the limited number of spontaneously immortalized human cell types, particularly fibroblast cells, will be useful in experimentally determining the functional pathways in neoplastic development and in the identification of potential molecular targets for cancer chemoprevention.

  20. Comparison of application value of DSA and MRA in diagnosis of subacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mingli; Qu Tianrong; Feng Jun


    Objective: To explore the clinical value of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) in diagnosis of cerebral vascular structural abnormalities in the patients with spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage in subacute phase, and to provide clinical basis for detection of cerebral vascular structural abnormalities. Methods: 183 patients with subacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 1 week were selected, the vascular structures of the patients were detected by DSA and MRA, and the influence factors were analyzed. Results: The DSA and MRA results showed that the parietal lobe, frontal lobe, and lenticular nucleus had the largest incidence rates of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, and accounted for 17.5% , 16.9% , and 14.2% , respectively. The age and the incidence of the hypertension of the patients with cerebral vascular structural abnormalities were significantly lower than those of the patients without cerebral vascular structural abnormalities (P<0.05). There were positive correlations between subacute spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage and the age and the incidence of hypertension (r=0.43, r=0.46, P<0.05). The rates of cerebrovascular malformation detected with MRA and DSA had no statistically significant difference. The DSA was regarded as detection gold standard, the sensitivities and specificities of MRA in detection of cerebrovascular malformation were 98.8% and 96.9% . Conclusion: The abnormal vascular structures of patients with subacute spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage can be detected mostly by MRA and DSA. MRA has the advantages of non-invasion, which is worthy to be applied in clinic. (authors)

  1. Effects of Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid on the Spontaneous Mechanical Activity of Juvenile Rat Duodenum. (United States)

    Ciciora, Steven L; Williams, Kent C; Gariepy, Cheryl E


    There are a limited number of medications for the treatment of foregut dysmotility. Enteral amoxicillin/clavulanic acid induces phase III duodenal contractions in a fasting pediatric patient. The mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. We examined the individual contributions of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid on the spontaneous mechanical activity of juvenile rat duodenum to better understand this phenomenon. Duodenal segments from juvenile rats were longitudinally attached to force transducers in organ baths. Samples were cumulatively exposed to amoxicillin or clavulanic acid. Separate samples were exposed to carbachol alone to assess response in both the presence and absence of amoxicillin or clavulanic acid. Basal tone, frequency, and amplitude of contractions were digitized and recorded. The amplitude of the spontaneous contractions increased with amoxicillin. Inhibition of neuronal activity prevented this effect. Clavulanic acid did not affect the spontaneous contractions. Basal tone and the rate of contractions did not differ with either drug. Stimulation with carbachol in the presence of amoxicillin caused a statistically significant increase in the contractility compared with carbachol alone. Amoxicillin alters the spontaneous longitudinal mechanical activity of juvenile rat duodenum. Our results suggest that amoxicillin modulates the spontaneous pattern of cyclic mechanical activity of duodenal smooth muscle through noncholinergic, neurally mediated mechanisms. Our work provides an initial physiologic basis for the therapeutic use of amoxicillin in patients with gastrointestinal dysmotility.

  2. Wheaten ferments spontaneous fermantation in biotechnological methods




    In article are shown results of research of biotechnological properties of wheaten leavens of spontaneous fermentation (in the example of pea-anisetree leaven) and their analysis. Also is established influence of the given type of leavens on the basic biopolymers of the flour, on the property of the pastry and quality of bread from wheaten flour.

  3. Original article Spontaneous Pregnancy Outcome after Surgical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Sep 28, 2011 ... Table 2: Spontaneous pregnancy in relation to postoperative semen parameters. (no statistically significant difference), comparable to the mean ages of 22, 28.4 and. 34.9 years, respectively, reported by Bach et al9, Abdel- Meguid et al10 and Baazeem et al11. The mean age of the wives who did or did.

  4. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.


    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  5. Identical Twin Primigravid Sisters -Spontaneous Labour and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report 2 cases of identical twin sisters, the older sibling getting married 14 months earlier but both got pregnant for their first child at about the same time and were managed by the same Obstetrician and fell into spontaneous labour within a few hours of each other. Both were delivered by emergency caesarean section ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    I explore the regions of quark masses where CP will be spontaneously broken in the strong interactions. The boundaries of these regions are controlled by the chiral anomaly, which manifests itself in ambiguities in the definition of non-degenerate quark masses. In particular, the concept of a single massless quark is ill defined.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico-chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  8. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  9. Spontaneous regression of an intraspinal disc cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demaerel, P.; Eerens, I.; Wilms, G. [University Hospital, Leuven (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology; Goffin, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospitals, Leuven (Belgium)


    We present a patient with a so-called disc cyst. Its location in the ventrolateral epidural space and its communication with the herniated disc are clearly shown. The disc cyst developed rapidly and regressed spontaneously. This observation, which has not been reported until now, appears to support focal degeneration with cyst formation as the pathogenesis. (orig.)

  10. Spontaneous rupture of an infected renal cyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, W.; Toelly, E.; Ebner, F.; Kullnig, P.


    Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of renal cysts is a rare occurrence. The contents of the cyst can perforate into the renal calyx system or into the perirenal space. Perforation into the peritoneal cavity has also been described (1, 2, 4, 5).

  11. Proteomic Biomarkers for Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana


    This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...

  12. Spontaneous Non-verbal Counting in Toddlers (United States)

    Sella, Francesco; Berteletti, Ilaria; Lucangeli, Daniela; Zorzi, Marco


    A wealth of studies have investigated numerical abilities in infants and in children aged 3 or above, but research on pre-counting toddlers is sparse. Here we devised a novel version of an imitation task that was previously used to assess spontaneous focusing on numerosity (i.e. the predisposition to grasp numerical properties of the environment)…

  13. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis | Lule | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home > Vol 81, No 3 (2004) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Editorial: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. GN Lule. Abstract. No Abstract Available. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  14. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny


    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  15. Spontaneous dimensional reduction in quantum gravity (United States)

    Carlip, S.


    Hints from a number of different approaches to quantum gravity point to a phenomenon of “spontaneous dimensional reduction” to two spacetime dimensions near the Planck scale. I examine the physical meaning of the term “dimension” in this context, summarize the evidence for dimensional reduction, and discuss possible physical explanations.

  16. Surgical management of spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle Ribeiro Junior


    Full Text Available AIMS: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma (SRHA is a rare life-threatening condition that may require surgical treatment to control hemorrhaging and also stabilize the patient. We report a series of emergency surgeries performed at our institution for this condition. METHODS: We reviewed medical records and radiology files of 28 patients (from 1989 to 2006 with a proven diagnosis of hepatocellular adenoma (HA. Three (10.7% of 28 patients had spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma, two of which were associated with intrahepatic hemorrhage while one had intraperitoneal bleeding. Two patients were female and one was male. Both female patients had a background history of oral contraceptive use. Sudden abdominal pain associated with hemodynamic instability occurred in all patients who suffered from spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma. The mean age was 41.6 years old. The preoperative assessment included liver function tests, ultrasonography and computed tomography. RESULTS: The surgical approaches were as follows: right hemihepatectomy for controlling intraperitoneal bleeding, and right extended hepatectomy and non-anatomic resection of the liver for intrahepatic hemorrhage. There were no deaths, and the postoperative complications were bile leakage and wound infection (re-operation, as well as intraperitoneal abscess (re-operation and pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous ruptured hepatocellular adenoma may be treated by surgery for controlling hemorrhages and stabilizing the patient, and the decision to operate depends upon both the patient's condition and the expertise of the surgical team.

  17. Chronic Allium sativum administration alters spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Allium sativum extract on the medial prefrontal cortex and neurobehaviour of adult Wistar rats. ... altered spontaneous alternation, while cellular pathologic changes were observed in the medial prefrontal cortex of these test groups in a dose dependent sequence.

  18. Spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Hartmann, T.; Eden, A.; Veling, H.P.


    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we

  19. Recurrent spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 15% of stroke cases in the US and Europe and up to 30% in Asian populations. Intracerebral hemorrhage is a relatively uncommon form of stroke-it causes only 10 to 15 percent of all strokes. It is more disabling and has a higher mortality rate than ischemic stroke, ...

  20. Ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome in a spontaneous pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that most cases of Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome (OHSS) are associated with the therapies for ovulation induction. However, OHSS may rarely be associated with a spontaneous ovulatory cycle, usually in the case of multiple gestations, hypothyroidism or polycystic ovary syndrome. We report a case of ...

  1. Spontaneous left main coronary artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alptug Tokatli


    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD is a very rare clinical condition. Physiopathology of SCAD is still mostly unclear. Clinical presentation of SCAD ranges from atypical symptoms to sudden cardiac death. The diagnosis of dissection is generally made by using conventional coronary angiography. Invasive or conservative treatment is reasonable.

  2. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neely, John C.; Jones, Blaise V.; Crone, Kerry R.


    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  3. Spontaneous extracranial decompression of epidural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, John C. [Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, WV (United States); Jones, Blaise V. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Crone, Kerry R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Neurosurgery, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Epidural hematoma (EDH) is a common sequela of head trauma in children. An increasing number are managed nonsurgically, with close clinical and imaging observation. We report the case of a traumatic EDH that spontaneously decompressed into the subgaleal space, demonstrated on serial CT scans that showed resolution of the EDH and concurrent enlargement of the subgaleal hematoma. (orig.)

  4. Spontaneous Sourcing among Students Reading Multiple Documents (United States)

    Stromso, Helge I.; Braten, Ivar; Britt, M. Anne; Ferguson, Leila E.


    This study used think-aloud methodology to explore undergraduates' spontaneous attention to and use of source information while reading six documents that presented conflicting views on a controversial social scientific issue in a Google-like environment. Results showed that students explicitly and implicitly paid attention to sources of documents…

  5. Massive Spontaneous Hemothorax, Giant Intrathoracic Meningocele ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    haemothorax associated with von Recklinghausen's disease: Review of occurrence in Japan. Thorax 1997;52:575‑8. 3. Fedoruk LM, English J, Fradet GJ. Spontaneous hemothorax and neurofibromatosis: A review of a lethal combination. Asian Cardiovasc. Thorac Ann 2007;15:342‑4. 4. Conlon NP, Redmond KC, Celi LA.

  6. A Fatal Complication of Dermatomyositis: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezgi Demirdöğen Çetinoğlu


    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a negative prognostic factor associated with increased morbidity and mortality in patients with dermatomyositis (DM. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is a rare complication of DM and it can be fatal. We present a 48-year-old woman with DM and ILD complicated by pneumomediastinum without pneumothorax and subcutaneous emphysema.

  7. Grooming behavior of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuse, M. van den; Jong, Wybren de


    In an open field spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibited lower scores for grooming when compared to their normotensive controls, the Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). After i.c.v. injection of 1 μg ACTH1–24 cumulative 50-min grooming scores were lower in SHR. Analysis of subscores indicated that the

  8. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short ...

  9. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues. (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm


    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  10. Spontaneous electric fields in solid films: spontelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Field, David; Plekan, Oksana; Cassidy, Andrew


    When dipolar gases are condensed at sufficiently low temperature onto a solid surface, they form films that may spontaneously exhibit electric fields in excess of 108V/m. This effect, called the ‘spontelectric effect’, was recently revealed using an instrument designed to measure scattering...

  11. Spontaneous Retroperitoneal Hemorrhage from Adrenal Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Valverde, F.M.; Balsalobre, M.; Torregrosa, N.; Molto, M.; Gomez Ramos, M.J.; Vazquez Rojas, J.L.


    Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is a very rare but serious disorder of the adrenal gland that can require emergent treatment. We report on a 42-year-old man who underwent selective angiography for diagnosis and treatment of retroperitoneal hemorrhage from small adrenal artery aneurysm. This case gives further details about the value of transluminal artery embolization in the management of visceral aneurysm rupture

  12. Individual differences in spontaneous analogical transfer. (United States)

    Kubricht, James R; Lu, Hongjing; Holyoak, Keith J


    Research on analogical problem solving has shown that people often fail to spontaneously notice the relevance of a semantically remote source analog when solving a target problem, although they are able to form mappings and derive inferences when given a hint to recall the source. Relatively little work has investigated possible individual differences that predict spontaneous transfer, or how such differences may interact with interventions that facilitate transfer. In this study, fluid intelligence was measured for participants in an analogical problem-solving task, using an abridged version of the Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) test. In two experiments, we systematically compared the effect of augmenting verbal descriptions of the source with animations or static diagrams. Solution rates to Duncker's radiation problem were measured across varying source presentation conditions, and participants' understanding of the relevant source material was assessed. The pattern of transfer was best fit by a moderated mediation model: the positive impact of fluid intelligence on spontaneous transfer was mediated by its influence on source comprehension; however, this path was in turn modulated by provision of a supplemental animation via its influence on comprehension of the source. Animated source depictions were most beneficial in facilitating spontaneous transfer for those participants with low scores on the fluid intelligence measure.

  13. Spontaneous regression of a mandibular arteriovenous malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott B. Raymond, MD, PhD


    Full Text Available Mandibular arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are rare lesions that may initially present as catastrophic bleeding during dental surgical procedures. Owing to the significant risk of bleeding, most mandibular AVMs are treated definitively by resection or embolization. In this report, we describe a mandibular AVM that spontaneously regressed after biopsy.

  14. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.


    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  15. Influence of spontaneous fermentation on some quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous fermentation has been identified to improve the quality characteristics of foods derived from them. When combined with cowpea fortification and nixtamalization, it is expected to improve the nutritional, functional, physico- chemical and sensory qualities of maize based foods thereby improving the qualities as ...

  16. Maternal Factors Associated With Early Spontaneous Singleton ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the maternal factors predisposing to preterm deliveries should affect the anticipatory care of mothers at risk of delivering preterm babies and improve perinatal outcome. Objective: To determine the maternal socio-biological characteristics associated with the delivery of early spontaneous ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    A class of spontaneously broken field theories is proposed, and the occurrence of their periodic, classical solutions is investigated in detail. The emergence of multiple solutions is observed, their normal modes of oscillation are studied, and the bifurcations of the classical energy functional are

  18. Spontaneous sensorimotor coupling with multipart music. (United States)

    Hurley, Brian K; Martens, Peter A; Janata, Petr


    Music often evokes spontaneous movements in listeners that are synchronized with the music, a phenomenon that has been characterized as being in "the groove." However, the musical factors that contribute to listeners' initiation of stimulus-coupled action remain unclear. Evidence suggests that newly appearing objects in auditory scenes orient listeners' attention, and that in multipart music, newly appearing instrument or voice parts can engage listeners' attention and elicit arousal. We posit that attentional engagement with music can influence listeners' spontaneous stimulus-coupled movement. Here, 2 experiments-involving participants with and without musical training-tested the effect of staggering instrument entrances across time and varying the number of concurrent instrument parts within novel multipart music on listeners' engagement with the music, as assessed by spontaneous sensorimotor behavior and self-reports. Experiment 1 assessed listeners' moment-to-moment ratings of perceived groove, and Experiment 2 examined their spontaneous tapping and head movements. We found that, for both musically trained and untrained participants, music with more instruments led to higher ratings of perceived groove, and that music with staggered instrument entrances elicited both increased sensorimotor coupling and increased reports of perceived groove. Although untrained participants were more likely to rate music as higher in groove, trained participants showed greater propensity for tapping along, and they did so more accurately. The quality of synchronization of head movements with the music, however, did not differ as a function of training. Our results shed new light on the relationship between complex musical scenes, attention, and spontaneous sensorimotor behavior.

  19. Theory of the spontaneous condensation of steam during expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleitz, Alain


    When steam expands in a nozzle or turbine, it cools and, at a certain pressure level, the saturation limit is exceeded. The appearance of moisture does not comply with the simple laws of thermodynamic balance. The liquid phase appears only as from a certain sub-cooling of the steam, at which stage it forms suddenly as a finely dispersed mist. On the basis of the kinetic theory of gases and the critical radius concept, Oswatitch produced a theory on spontaneous condensation which was checked by tests in nozzles. On the other hand, this theory does not fully explain that which is observed in turbines or manifolds fed with fluids other than steam. Modifications have been made to the conventional theory in an endeavour to corroborate the experimental results [fr

  20. Constraints and stability in vector theories with spontaneous Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluhm, Robert; Gagne, Nolan L.; Potting, Robertus; Vrublevskis, Arturs


    Vector theories with spontaneous Lorentz violation, known as bumblebee models, are examined in flat spacetime using a Hamiltonian constraint analysis. In some of these models, Nambu-Goldstone modes appear with properties similar to photons in electromagnetism. However, depending on the form of the theory, additional modes and constraints can appear that have no counterparts in electromagnetism. An examination of these constraints and additional degrees of freedom, including their nonlinear effects, is made for a variety of models with different kinetic and potential terms, and the results are compared with electromagnetism. The Hamiltonian constraint analysis also permits an investigation of the stability of these models. For certain bumblebee theories with a timelike vector, suitable restrictions of the initial-value solutions are identified that yield ghost-free models with a positive Hamiltonian. In each case, the restricted phase space is found to match that of electromagnetism in a nonlinear gauge

  1. Optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission noise. (United States)

    Wu, Ben; Wang, Zhenxing; Tian, Yue; Fok, Mable P; Shastri, Bhavin J; Kanoff, Daniel R; Prucnal, Paul R


    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical steganography method in which a data signal is transmitted using amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise as a carrier. The ASE serving as a carrier for the private signal has an identical frequency spectrum to the existing noise generated by the Erbium doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) in the transmission system. The system also carries a conventional data channel that is not private. The so-called "stealth" or private channel is well-hidden within the noise of the system. Phase modulation is used for both the stealth channel and the public channel. Using homodyne detection, the short coherence length of the ASE ensures that the stealth signal can only be recovered if the receiver closely matches the delay-length difference, which is deliberately changed in a dynamic fashion that is only known to the transmitter and its intended receiver.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Early Mid-Trimester Amniotic Fluid Does Not Predict Spontaneous Preterm Delivery (United States)

    Lenco, Juraj; Vajrychova, Marie; Link, Marek; Tambor, Vojtech; Liman, Victor; Bullarbo, Maria; Nilsson, Staffan; Tsiartas, Panagiotis; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian; Jacobsson, Bo


    Objective The aim of this study was to identify early proteomic biomarkers of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) in mid-trimester amniotic fluid from asymptomatic women. Methods This is a case-cohort study. Amniotic fluid from mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis (14–19 weeks of gestation) was collected from 2008 to 2011. The analysis was conducted in 24 healthy women with subsequent spontaneous PTD (cases) and 40 randomly selected healthy women delivering at term (controls). An exploratory phase with proteomics analysis of pooled samples was followed by a verification phase with ELISA of individual case and control samples. Results The median (interquartile range (IQR: 25th; 75th percentiles) gestational age at delivery was 35+5 (33+6–36+6) weeks in women with spontaneous PTD and 40+0 (39+1–40+5) weeks in women who delivered at term. In the exploratory phase, the most pronounced differences were found in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, that were approximately two-fold higher in the pooled case samples than in the pooled control samples. However, we could not verify these differences with ELISA. The median (25th; 75th IQR) CRP level was 95.2 ng/mL (64.3; 163.5) in women with spontaneous PTD and 86.0 ng/mL (51.2; 145.8) in women delivering at term (p = 0.37; t-test). Conclusions Proteomic analysis with mass spectrometry of mid-trimester amniotic fluid suggests CRP as a potential marker of spontaneous preterm delivery, but this prognostic potential was not verified with ELISA. PMID:27214132

  3. Proteomic Analysis of Early Mid-Trimester Amniotic Fluid Does Not Predict Spontaneous Preterm Delivery. (United States)

    Hallingström, Maria; Lenco, Juraj; Vajrychova, Marie; Link, Marek; Tambor, Vojtech; Liman, Victor; Bullarbo, Maria; Nilsson, Staffan; Tsiartas, Panagiotis; Cobo, Teresa; Kacerovsky, Marian; Jacobsson, Bo


    The aim of this study was to identify early proteomic biomarkers of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) in mid-trimester amniotic fluid from asymptomatic women. This is a case-cohort study. Amniotic fluid from mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis (14-19 weeks of gestation) was collected from 2008 to 2011. The analysis was conducted in 24 healthy women with subsequent spontaneous PTD (cases) and 40 randomly selected healthy women delivering at term (controls). An exploratory phase with proteomics analysis of pooled samples was followed by a verification phase with ELISA of individual case and control samples. The median (interquartile range (IQR: 25th; 75th percentiles) gestational age at delivery was 35+5 (33+6-36+6) weeks in women with spontaneous PTD and 40+0 (39+1-40+5) weeks in women who delivered at term. In the exploratory phase, the most pronounced differences were found in C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, that were approximately two-fold higher in the pooled case samples than in the pooled control samples. However, we could not verify these differences with ELISA. The median (25th; 75th IQR) CRP level was 95.2 ng/mL (64.3; 163.5) in women with spontaneous PTD and 86.0 ng/mL (51.2; 145.8) in women delivering at term (p = 0.37; t-test). Proteomic analysis with mass spectrometry of mid-trimester amniotic fluid suggests CRP as a potential marker of spontaneous preterm delivery, but this prognostic potential was not verified with ELISA.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Early Mid-Trimester Amniotic Fluid Does Not Predict Spontaneous Preterm Delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hallingström

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify early proteomic biomarkers of spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD in mid-trimester amniotic fluid from asymptomatic women.This is a case-cohort study. Amniotic fluid from mid-trimester genetic amniocentesis (14-19 weeks of gestation was collected from 2008 to 2011. The analysis was conducted in 24 healthy women with subsequent spontaneous PTD (cases and 40 randomly selected healthy women delivering at term (controls. An exploratory phase with proteomics analysis of pooled samples was followed by a verification phase with ELISA of individual case and control samples.The median (interquartile range (IQR: 25th; 75th percentiles gestational age at delivery was 35+5 (33+6-36+6 weeks in women with spontaneous PTD and 40+0 (39+1-40+5 weeks in women who delivered at term. In the exploratory phase, the most pronounced differences were found in C-reactive protein (CRP levels, that were approximately two-fold higher in the pooled case samples than in the pooled control samples. However, we could not verify these differences with ELISA. The median (25th; 75th IQR CRP level was 95.2 ng/mL (64.3; 163.5 in women with spontaneous PTD and 86.0 ng/mL (51.2; 145.8 in women delivering at term (p = 0.37; t-test.Proteomic analysis with mass spectrometry of mid-trimester amniotic fluid suggests CRP as a potential marker of spontaneous preterm delivery, but this prognostic potential was not verified with ELISA.

  5. Crocin loaded nano-emulsions: Factors affecting emulsion properties in spontaneous emulsification. (United States)

    Mehrnia, Mohammad-Amin; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Makhmal-Zadeh, Behzad S; Maghsoudlou, Yahya


    Spontaneous emulsification may be used for encapsulating bioactive compounds in food and pharmaceutical industry. It has several advantages over high energy and other low energy methods including, protecting sensitive compounds against severe conditions of high energy method and its ability to minimize surfactant, removal of cosurfactant and thermal stability compared with other low energy methods. In this study, we examined possibility of encapsulating highly soluble crocin in W/O micro-emulsions using spontaneous method which further could be used for making double emulsions. Nonionic surfactants of Span 80 and polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) were used for making micro-emulsions that showed the high potential of PGPR for spontaneous method. Surfactant to water ratio (SWR%) was evaluated to find the highest amount of aqueous phase which can be dispersed in organic phase. Droplet size decreased by increasing SWR toward the SWR=100% which had the smallest droplet size and then increased at higher levels of surfactant. By increasing SWR, shear viscosity increased which showed the high effect of PGPR on rheological properties. This study shows in addition to W/O micro-emulsions, spontaneous method could be used for preparing stable O/W micro-emulsions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Origin of spontaneous wave generation in an oscillatory chemical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yi-Xue; Foerster, P.; Ross, J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    The origin of spontaneously generated chemical waves in an oscillatory Belousov-Zhabotinskii reaction has been investigated by numerical calculations of the deterministic reaction-diffusion equations of a modified Oregonator model and by equilibrium stochastic calculations. From numerical calculations, we obtain threshold perturbations in the phase of oscillations and in the concentrations of HBrO{sub 2} and Br{sup {minus}} within areas of space with varying radii necessary to initiate trigger waves. Inward propagating trigger waves initiated by a phase shift in the perturbed region with respect to the bulk solution have been observed in the calculations for the first time. Perturbations smaller than the threshold perturbations or in regions with smaller radii lead to phase-diffusion waves. Our equilibrium stochastic calculations show that the recurrence time for a thermal fluctuation to induce a change in the HBrO{sub 2} concentration of sufficient magnitude within a sufficient volume for a trigger wave to propagate is many orders of magnitude larger than the observation time of traveling wave experiments. We concluded that an internal thermal fluctuation is highly unlikely to generate a trigger wave in an oscillatory chemical solution. 22 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie


    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  8. [Bacterial vaginosis and spontaneous preterm birth]. (United States)

    Brabant, G


    To determine if bacterial vaginosis is a marker for risk of spontaneous preterm delivery and if its detection and treatment can reduce this risk. Consultation of the database Pubmed/Medline, Science Direct, and international guidelines of medical societies. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a dysbiosis resulting in an imbalance in the vaginal flora through the multiplication of anaerobic bacteria and jointly of a disappearance of well-known protective Lactobacilli. His diagnosis is based on clinical Amsel criteria and/or a Gram stain with establishment of the Nugent score. The prevalence of the BV extraordinarily varies according to ethnic and/or geographical origin (4-58 %), in France, it is close to 7 % in the first trimester of pregnancy (EL2). The link between BV and spontaneous premature delivery is low with an odds ratio between 1.5 and 2 in the most recent studies (EL3). Metronidazole or clindamycin is effective to treat BV (EL3). It is recommended to prescribe one of these antibiotics in the case of symptomatic BV (Professional Consensus). The testing associated with the treatment of BV in the global population showed no benefit in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL2). Concerning low-risk asymptomatic population (defined by the absence of antecedent of premature delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the BV in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL1). Concerning the high-risk population (defined by a history of preterm delivery), it has been failed profit to track and treat the VB in the prevention of the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery (EL3). However, in the sub population of patients with a history of preterm delivery occurred in a context of materno-fetal bacterial infection, there may be a benefit to detect and treat early and systematically genital infection, and in particular the BV (Professional Consensus). The screening and treatment of BV during pregnancy in asymptomatic low


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Nesterenko


    Full Text Available The essence and the genesis of spontaneous order are disclosed in the context of critical analysis of constructivism. The author’s approach to the definition of the characteristic features of the spontaneous order is proposed. The dichotomy of the order is revealed towards the economic sphere in form of spontaneous order and organization.

  10. [Spontaneous renal artery dissection: a case report]. (United States)

    Maehana, Takeshi; Nishida, Sachiyo; Shindo, Tetsuya; Miyamoto, Shintaro; Muranaka, Takashi; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Yanase, Masahiro


    A 65-year-old female was admitted to our hospital complaining of left upper abdominal pain. Although the symptom improved with observation, serum creatinine rose to 2.0 mg/dl. Slight atrophy of the left kidney was seen on abdominal plain computed tomography. In order to examine the possibility of renal infarction from thrombosis with angiography, we consulted the department of cardiovascular medicine. Even though we did not detect thrombosis with left renal angiography or intravascular ultrasound, there was a dissection finding localized at the left renal artery. Based on this finding, we made a diagnosis of spontaneous renal artery dissection and performed stent placement. Spontaneous renal artery dissection is extremely rare and the frequency of occurrence is reported to be less than 0.05%. Recently, however the frequency of detection has risen with the development of clinical imaging. We must keep in mind that the condition has the possibility of leading to renal blood circulation disorders.

  11. Thermal influences on spontaneous rock dome exfoliation (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Stock, Greg M.; Eppes, Martha C.; Lewis, Scott W.; Corbett, Skye C.; Smith, Joel B.


    Rock domes, with their onion-skin layers of exfoliation sheets, are among the most captivating landforms on Earth. Long recognized as integral in shaping domes, the exact mechanism(s) by which exfoliation occurs remains enigmatic, mainly due to the lack of direct observations of natural events. In August 2014, during the hottest days of summer, a granitic dome in California, USA, spontaneously exfoliated; witnesses observed extensive cracking, including a ~8000 kg sheet popping into the air. Subsequent exfoliation episodes during the following two summers were recorded by instrumentation that captured—for the first time—exfoliation deformation and stress conditions. Here we show that thermal cycling and cumulative dome surface heating can induce subcritical cracking that culminates in seemingly spontaneous exfoliation. Our results indicate that thermal stresses—largely discounted in dome formation literature—can play a key role in triggering exfoliation and therefore may be an important control for shaping domes worldwide.

  12. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.


    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... time periods are the relevant measure. We followed a cohort of first pregnancy planners from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses include 181 pregnancies, of which 32 were subclinical pregnancies detected by hCG analysis only. During early...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  13. Spontaneous Enterocutaneous Fistula Resulting from Richter's Hernia. (United States)

    Hajong, Ranendra; Khongwar, Donkupar; Komut, Ojing; Naku, Narang; Baru, Kappa


    Richter's hernia is due to the entrapment of a part of circumference of the bowel wall. As the bowel continuity is maintained, the patients usually do not have intestinal obstruction. Some patients with Richter's hernia may present with enterocutaneous fistula either spontaneous or due to surgical intervention mistaking the obstructed hernia to be inguinal abscess. This is more so in developing countries due to lack of awareness among the masses or due to the delay in seeking medical attention. Presenting here is a case of a 53-year-old male patient with enterocutaneous fistula which occurred spontaneously and sought medical attention only after about three years of repeated discharge of yellowish fluid from the left inguinal region. Magnetic resonance fistulogram confirmed the diagnosis of enterocutaneous fistula. Laparotomy with resection and primary anastomosis of the fistulous bowel was done. Patient recovered uneventfully without any complications or recurrence.

  14. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection and Pregnancy. (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-atherosclerotic, non-traumatic cause of coronary artery dissection. SCAD is the most common cause of myocardial infarction in pregnancy or the postpartum period and results in significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the pregnant population. It is important to consider pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (PASCAD) high on the differential for a pregnant woman who presents with symptoms consistent with acute coronary syndrome. Management of these patients requires a thoughtful, multidisciplinary approach, with consideration of conservative management if possible. Counseling regarding future pregnancies is also critical and requires compassionate care. Given our limited understanding of SCAD, including PASCAD, more data and research are needed to help guide diagnosis, management, and determination of prognosis.

  15. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.


    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head

  16. Motivational Projections of Russian Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina M. Shipitsina


    Full Text Available The article deals with the semantic, pragmatic and structural features of words, phrases, dialogues motivation, in the contemporary Russian popular speech. These structural features are characterized by originality and unconventional use. Language material is the result of authors` direct observation of spontaneous verbal communication between people of different social and age groups. The words and remarks were analyzed in compliance with the communication system of national Russian language and cultural background of popular speech. Studies have discovered that in spoken discourse there are some other ways to increase the expression statement. It is important to note that spontaneous speech identifies lacunae in the nominative language and its vocabulary system. It is proved, prefixation is also effective and regular way of the same action presenting. The most typical forms, ways and means to update language resources as a result of the linguistic creativity of native speakers were identified.

  17. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang


    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  18. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum due to paralytic rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuping Wang

    Full Text Available Rabies is a fatal disease resulting from rabies virus infection, causing severe neurological symptoms and ultimately death by destroying the nervous system. In general, a patient tends to see a neurologist or an infectious diseases physician, with very common and typical discipline-related signs and symptoms, such as hydrophobia, aerophobia, and mental disorders. However, we reported a rabies patient who was first admitted to see a thoracic surgeon with spontaneous pneumomediastinum.

  19. Self energy QED: Multipole spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamin, Y.I.


    Within the context of Barut's self-field approach, we write the exact expression of the spontaneous atomic decay rate (Phys. Rev. A37, 2284 (1988)), in the long wavelength approximation, in terms of electric- and magnetic-like multipole contributions which are related to the matrix elements of the transition charge and current distributions of the relativistic electron. A number of features of these expressions are discussed and their generalization to interacting composite systems is also pointed out. (author). 8 refs

  20. Quantum mechanics with spontaneous localization and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benatti, F.; Grassi, R.


    We examine from an experimental point of view the recently proposed models of spontaneous reduction. We compare their implications about decoherence with those of environmental effects. We discuss the treatment, within the considered models, of the so called quantum telegraph phenomenon and we show that, contrary to what has been recently stated, no problems are met. Finally, we review recent interesting work investigating the implications of dynamical reduction for the proton decay. (author). 16 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  1. Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation associated with tonsillitis


    Shunmugam, Meenalochani; Poonnoose, Santosh


    Atlantoaxial subluxation is a rare condition and requires a high index of suspicion to diagnose and treat in order to avoid long-term sequelae. Here, we present a case of late presentation of a nontraumatic rotatory subluxation of the atlantoaxial joint or atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation. A 17-year-old girl presented 3 months after the onset of nonspecific upper limb sensory symptoms which eventually settled spontaneously. Initial conservative management by the general practitioner had no e...

  2. Spontaneous Regression of a Cervical Disk Herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Delen


    Full Text Available A 54 years old female patient was admitted to our outpatient clinic with a two months history of muscle spasms of her neck and pain radiating to the left upper extremity. Magnetic resonance imaging had shown a large left-sided paracentral disk herniation at the C6-C7 disk space (Figure 1. Neurological examination showed no obvious neurological deficit. She received conservative treatment including bed rest, rehabilitation, and analgesic drugs. After 13 months, requested by the patient, a second magnetic resonance imaging study showed resolution of the disc herniation.(Figure 2 Although the literature contains several reports about spontaneous regression of herniated lumbar disc without surgical intervention, that of phenomenon reported for herniated cervical level is rare, and such reports are few[1]. In conclusion, herniated intervertebral disc have the potential to spontaneously regress independently from the spine level. With further studies, determining the predictive signs for prognostic evaluation for spontaneous regression which would yield to conservative treatment would be beneficial.

  3. Spontaneously emerging cortical representations of visual attributes (United States)

    Kenet, Tal; Bibitchkov, Dmitri; Tsodyks, Misha; Grinvald, Amiram; Arieli, Amos


    Spontaneous cortical activity-ongoing activity in the absence of intentional sensory input-has been studied extensively, using methods ranging from EEG (electroencephalography), through voltage sensitive dye imaging, down to recordings from single neurons. Ongoing cortical activity has been shown to play a critical role in development, and must also be essential for processing sensory perception, because it modulates stimulus-evoked activity, and is correlated with behaviour. Yet its role in the processing of external information and its relationship to internal representations of sensory attributes remains unknown. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging, we previously established a close link between ongoing activity in the visual cortex of anaesthetized cats and the spontaneous firing of a single neuron. Here we report that such activity encompasses a set of dynamically switching cortical states, many of which correspond closely to orientation maps. When such an orientation state emerged spontaneously, it spanned several hypercolumns and was often followed by a state corresponding to a proximal orientation. We suggest that dynamically switching cortical states could represent the brain's internal context, and therefore reflect or influence memory, perception and behaviour.

  4. Spontaneous prediction error generation in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Yamashita

    Full Text Available Goal-directed human behavior is enabled by hierarchically-organized neural systems that process executive commands associated with higher brain areas in response to sensory and motor signals from lower brain areas. Psychiatric diseases and psychotic conditions are postulated to involve disturbances in these hierarchical network interactions, but the mechanism for how aberrant disease signals are generated in networks, and a systems-level framework linking disease signals to specific psychiatric symptoms remains undetermined. In this study, we show that neural networks containing schizophrenia-like deficits can spontaneously generate uncompensated error signals with properties that explain psychiatric disease symptoms, including fictive perception, altered sense of self, and unpredictable behavior. To distinguish dysfunction at the behavioral versus network level, we monitored the interactive behavior of a humanoid robot driven by the network. Mild perturbations in network connectivity resulted in the spontaneous appearance of uncompensated prediction errors and altered interactions within the network without external changes in behavior, correlating to the fictive sensations and agency experienced by episodic disease patients. In contrast, more severe deficits resulted in unstable network dynamics resulting in overt changes in behavior similar to those observed in chronic disease patients. These findings demonstrate that prediction error disequilibrium may represent an intrinsic property of schizophrenic brain networks reporting the severity and variability of disease symptoms. Moreover, these results support a systems-level model for psychiatric disease that features the spontaneous generation of maladaptive signals in hierarchical neural networks.

  5. Spontaneous Large Serous Retinal Pigment Epithelial Tear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voraporn Chaikitmongkol


    Full Text Available Purpose: To report cases of spontaneous retinal pigment epithelial (RPE tear complicating serous pigment epithelial detachment (PED. Methods: The records of 3 Asian patients with spontaneous giant RPE tear were reviewed retrospectively by including clinical presentation, angiography, optical coherence tomography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and visual outcome. Results: Three patients (4 eyes were included in this study, with a mean age of 48.3 (42–56 years, and a mean follow-up period of 7.75 (4–18 months. Fundus examination in all patients showed giant RPE tear associated with bullous PED. Two cases had a history of prior corticosteroid use, and 1 had no history of medication use. All 3 patients developed spontaneous resolution of subretinal fluid with no treatment. However, in patients who used corticosteroids, initial progression of the tear and subretinal fluid were observed despite ceasing medication. On subsequent follow-up, an incomplete RPE regeneration was demonstrated by fundus autofluorescence imaging, and choroidal neovascularization developed in 1 patient. Conclusion: Large PED with RPE tear is a rare manifestation. When the fovea is spared, visual prognosis is favorable. No specific treatment is required, but careful choroidal neovascularization monitoring should be performed.

  6. Spontaneous fission of the heaviest elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.


    Although spontaneous fission was discovered in /sup 238/U in 1940, detailed studies of the process were first made possible in the 1960's with the availability of milligram quantities of /sup 252/Cf. The advent of solid-state detectors made it possible to perform measurements of coincident fission fragments from even very short-lived spontaneous fission activities or those available in only very small quantities. Until 1971 it was believed that the main features of the mass and kinetic-energy distributions were essentially the same as those for thermal neutron-induced fission and that all low-energy fission proceeded via asymmetric mass division with total kinetic energies which could be derived by linear extrapolation from those of lighter elements. In 1971, measurements of /sup 257/Fm showed an increase in symmetric mass division with anomalously high TKE's. Subsequent experiments showed that in /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, the most probable mass split was symmetric with very high total kinetic energy. Measurements for the heavier elements have shown symmetric mass distributions with both high and low total kinetic energies. Recent results for spontaneous fission properties of the heaviest elements are reviewed and compared with theory. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Ferroelectric smectic phase formed by achiral straight core mesogens. (United States)

    Stannarius, Ralf; Li, Jianjun; Weissflog, Wolfgang


    We report electro-optic experiments in liquid crystalline freestanding films of achiral hockey stick shaped mesogens with a straight aromatic core. The material forms two smectic mesophases. In the higher temperature phase, a spontaneous polarization exists in the smectic layer plane and the films show polar switching in electric fields. It is the first example of a ferroelectric phase formed by nearly rodlike achiral mesogens. Mirror symmetry of the phase is spontaneously broken. We propose a molecular configuration similar to a synclinic ferroelectric (C(S)P(F)) high temperature phase and an anticlinic, probably antiferroelectric (C(A)P(A)) low temperature phase.

  8. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection Associated With Pregnancy. (United States)

    Tweet, Marysia S; Hayes, Sharonne N; Codsi, Elisabeth; Gulati, Rajiv; Rose, Carl H; Best, Patricia J M


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is the most common cause of pregnancy-associated myocardial infarction and remains poorly characterized. This study sought to assess presentation, clinical factors, and outcomes of pregnancy-associated spontaneous coronary artery dissection (P-SCAD) compared with spontaneous coronary artery dissection not associated with pregnancy (NP-SCAD). A Mayo Clinic registry was established in 2010 to include comprehensive retrospective and prospective SCAD data. Records were reviewed to identify women who were pregnant or ≤12 weeks postpartum at time of SCAD. Complete records were available for 323 women; 54 women met criteria for P-SCAD (4 during pregnancy) and they were compared with 269 women with NP-SCAD. Most events occurred within the first month postpartum (35 of 50). Compared with NP-SCAD, P-SCAD patients more frequently presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (57% vs. 36%; p = 0.009), left main or multivessel SCAD (24% vs. 5%; p vs. 14%; p = 0.0027, respectively), and left ventricular function ≤35% (26% vs. 10%; p = 0.0071). Among women with imaging of other vascular territories, P-SCAD was less likely with a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia and extracoronary vascular abnormalities (42% vs. 64%; p = 0.047; and 46% vs. 77%; p = 0.0032, respectively). Compared with U.S. birth data, women with P-SCAD were more often multiparous (p = 0.0167), had a history of infertility therapies (p = 0.0004), and had pre-eclampsia (p = 0.001). On long-term follow-up (median 2.3 years) recurrent SCAD occurred in 51 patients, with no difference in the Kaplan Meier 5-year recurrence rates (10% vs. 23%; p = 0.18). P-SCAD patients had more acute presentations and high-risk features than women with NP-SCAD did. The highest frequency of P-SCAD occurred during the first postpartum month and P-SCAD patients less often had extracoronary vascular abnormalities. Hormonal, hemodynamic variations, and yet

  9. Unexpected, spontaneous and selective formation of colloidal Pt 3Sn nanoparticles using organometallic Pt and Sn complexes

    KAUST Repository

    Boualleg, Malika


    The facile and selective synthesis of small crystalline Pt3Sn alloy nanoparticles was performed at room temperature under H2, using a colloidal approach without the use of extra-stabilizing ligands. The Pt 3Sn alloy was found to be obtained spontaneously as the unique phase regardless of the number of tin equivalents introduced. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking on a mutiple-channel hollow cylinder (United States)

    Wang, Ruili; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.; Liu, Mingzhe


    This Letter investigates coupled asymmetric exclusion processes with two types of particles on multiple parallel channels of a hollow cylinder. The model is inspired by the structure of microtubules, along which motor proteins such as kinesins and dyneins move in opposite directions. Interactions between two-species particles are assumed to take place only on the left and right boundaries where a rule of narrow entrances is applied. Narrow entrances mean that a particle cannot enter the system if either of two nearest-neighbor sites on the neighboring channels is occupied by a particle of the other species. This rule is similar to, but different from, that in [E. Pronina, A.B. Kolomeisky, J. Phys. A 40 (2007) 2275] since the narrow entrance rule in our model involves two neighbors. The phase diagram of our model is studied theoretically and via Monte Carlo simulations. The spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) is observed in the system. There are four possible phases in the system and with SSB occurring in two of them: high/low density and asymmetric low/low density. Bulk density and particle currents are also computed. Theoretical calculations deviate from Monte Carlo simulation results due to the neglecting of correlations in particles dynamics in mean-field analysis.

  11. Age differences in the spontaneous termination of sleep. (United States)

    Murphy, P J; Rogers, N L; Campbell, S S


    The stage from which the spontaneous ending of sleep occurred was investigated in 138 sleep episodes obtained from 14 younger (19-28 years) and 11 older (60-82 years) individuals. The possible influences of circadian phase and quality of the preceding sleep period, as well as the impact of aging on characteristics of sleep termination were examined. Under experimental conditions in which subjects were isolated from time cues, and behavioral options to sleep were limited, no age-associated differences in the duration of sleep periods, or in the number or duration of REM episodes were observed. Despite similar percentages of NREM (stages 2-4) and REM sleep across age groups, younger subjects awakened preferentially from REM while older subjects did not. Of the sleep episodes obtained from older subjects, those with sleep efficiencies higher than the median were more likely to terminate from REM than those with lower sleep efficiencies. For all subjects, the REM episodes from which sleep termination occurred were truncated relative to those that did not end the sleep period. In addition, nonterminating REM episodes that were interrupted by a stage shift were most often interrupted by brief arousals to stage 0. Such arousals within nonterminating REM episodes occurred, on average, after a similar duration as the terminating point of sleep-ending REM episodes. The results from this study demonstrate that there are age-related differences in the sleep stage from which spontaneous awakenings occur, and that these differences may be due in part to the quality of the sleep period preceding termination. Findings regarding the characteristics of both terminating and nonterminating REM episodes are consistent with the notion that the neural and biochemical context of REM sleep may facilitate a smooth transition to wakefulness. It is speculated that age-associated changes in sleep continuity may render unnecessary the putative role of REM sleep in providing a 'gate' to

  12. Spontaneous Blinking Kinematics in Patients Who Have Undergone Autogeneous Fascia Frontalis Suspension. (United States)

    Baccega, Adriano; Garcia, Denny Marcos; Cruz, Antonio Augusto V


    To measure spontaneous blink metrics and brow motion in patients with congenital ptosis operated with frontalis slings with autogenous fascia lata. An infrared three-dimensional video motion analyzer was employed to simultaneously measure brow motion and spontaneous blinks of 17 patients with congenital ptosis who underwent frontalis sling with autogenous fascia lata and a control group of equal number of healthy subjects. A customized software identified and quantified the amplitude and maximum velocity spontaneous blinks eyelid and brown motion during a 5-minute observation of a commercial movie. The corneal status of the patients with and without lagophthamos was evaluated with slit-lamp biomicroscopy with fluorescein staining. Lagophthalmos was detected on 13 (76.5%) patients. Out of these 3 (23%) showed signs of inferior superficial keratopathy despite the presence of normal (upwards) Bell's phenomenon in all of them. Blink rate was significantly diminished in the patients. The distribution of interblink time was similar in both groups. The mean amplitude of the down-phase of the patients' blinks was only 38% of the controls. The main sequence slope of the patients' blinks was abnormally low. In controls brow motion was a minute and random event no related to blinks. In the patients, the mean brow amplitude was five times higher than in controls reaching 45% of the blink amplitude. Spontaneous blink amplitude and velocity are severely impaired in patients with fascia lata autogenous slings. After surgery blinking amplitude is linearly related to the amplitude of brow motion.

  13. Spontaneous Neuronal Activity in Developing Neocortical Networks: From Single Cells to Large-Scale Interactions. (United States)

    Luhmann, Heiko J; Sinning, Anne; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Reyes-Puerta, Vicente; Stüttgen, Maik C; Kirischuk, Sergei; Kilb, Werner


    Neuronal activity has been shown to be essential for the proper formation of neuronal circuits, affecting developmental processes like neurogenesis, migration, programmed cell death, cellular differentiation, formation of local and long-range axonal connections, synaptic plasticity or myelination. Accordingly, neocortical areas reveal distinct spontaneous and sensory-driven neuronal activity patterns already at early phases of development. At embryonic stages, when immature neurons start to develop voltage-dependent channels, spontaneous activity is highly synchronized within small neuronal networks and governed by electrical synaptic transmission. Subsequently, spontaneous activity patterns become more complex, involve larger networks and propagate over several neocortical areas. The developmental shift from local to large-scale network activity is accompanied by a gradual shift from electrical to chemical synaptic transmission with an initial excitatory action of chloride-gated channels activated by GABA, glycine and taurine. Transient neuronal populations in the subplate (SP) support temporary circuits that play an important role in tuning early neocortical activity and the formation of mature neuronal networks. Thus, early spontaneous activity patterns control the formation of developing networks in sensory cortices, and disturbances of these activity patterns may lead to long-lasting neuronal deficits.

  14. Multiple genetic switches spontaneously modulating bacterial mutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Randal N


    Full Text Available Abstract Background All life forms need both high genetic stability to survive as species and a degree of mutability to evolve for adaptation, but little is known about how the organisms balance the two seemingly conflicting aspects of life: genetic stability and mutability. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR system is essential for maintaining genetic stability and defects in MMR lead to high mutability. Evolution is driven by genetic novelty, such as point mutation and lateral gene transfer, both of which require genetic mutability. However, normally a functional MMR system would strongly inhibit such genomic changes. Our previous work indicated that MMR gene allele conversion between functional and non-functional states through copy number changes of small tandem repeats could occur spontaneously via slipped-strand mis-pairing during DNA replication and therefore may play a role of genetic switches to modulate the bacterial mutability at the population level. The open question was: when the conversion from functional to defective MMR is prohibited, will bacteria still be able to evolve by accepting laterally transferred DNA or accumulating mutations? Results To prohibit allele conversion, we "locked" the MMR genes through nucleotide replacements. We then scored changes in bacterial mutability and found that Salmonella strains with MMR locked at the functional state had significantly decreased mutability. To determine the generalizability of this kind of mutability 'switching' among a wider range of bacteria, we examined the distribution of tandem repeats within MMR genes in over 100 bacterial species and found that multiple genetic switches might exist in these bacteria and may spontaneously modulate bacterial mutability during evolution. Conclusions MMR allele conversion through repeats-mediated slipped-strand mis-pairing may function as a spontaneous mechanism to switch between high genetic stability and mutability during bacterial evolution.

  15. Being Spontaneous: The Future of Telehealth Implementation? (United States)

    Mars, Maurice; Scott, Richard E


    The smartphone simplifies interprofessional communication, and smartphone applications can facilitate telemedicine activity. Much has been written about the steps that need to be followed to implement and establish a successful telemedicine service that is integrated into everyday clinical practice. A traditional and systematic approach has evolved incorporating activities such as strategy development, needs assessment, business cases and plans, readiness assessment, implementation plans, change management interventions, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation. This "best practice" has been promoted in the telehealth literature for many years. In contrast, several recent initiatives have arisen without any such formal undertakings. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of two "spontaneous" telemedicine services in dermatology and burn management that have evolved in South Africa. Two spontaneous services were identified and reviewed. In one unsolicited service, doctors at rural referring hospitals have been taking photographs of skin lesions and sending them with a brief text message history to dermatologists using the instant messaging smartphone app, WhatsApp. In the other, burns service, admissions to the burns unit or the clinic were triaged by telephonic description of the case and completion of a preadmission questionnaire. More recently, management and referral decisions are made only after completion of the questionnaire and subsequent submission of photographs of the burn sent by WhatsApp, with the decision transmitted by text message. Although efficient and effective, potential legal and ethical shortcomings have been identified. These "spontaneous" telehealth services challenge traditional best practice, yet appear to lead to truly integrated practice and, therefore, are successful and warrant further study.

  16. Angyomatous vocal polypus: a complete spontaneous regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmir Américo Lourenço

    Full Text Available The authors describe a male patient who had malignant lymphoma seven years ago which remitted with chemotherapy.Two years ago he developed dysphonia. An unilateral, pediculate smooth red lesion on the right vocal fold was later discovered. Even without benefit of medicamentosus treatment, the patient refused surgery. In a reevaluation using rigid telescopy of the larynx two years later, the lesion had disappeared, completely and spontaneously. As there are no existing publications on this topic, this case report is an alert that surgery should be recommended with extreme caution in this type of vocal disease.

  17. Cerebrovascular gene expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grell, Anne-Sofie; Frederiksen, Simona Denise; Edvinsson, Lars


    in the middle cerebral arteries from hypertensive compared to normotensive rats. The gene expression of 72 genes was decreased and the gene expression of 97 genes was increased. The following genes with a fold difference ≥1.40 were verified by quantitative PCR; Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1, Serpine1......, Mmp11, Cd34, Ptgs1 and Ptgs2. The gene expression of Postn, Olr1, Fas, Vldlr, Mmp2, Timp1 and Serpine1 and the protein expression of LOX1 (also known as OLR1) were significantly increased in the middle cerebral arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats compared to Wistar-Kyoto rats. In conclusion...

  18. Spontaneous light emission from fibers in MINOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avvakumov, S.; Barrett, W.L.; Belias, T.; Bower, C.; Erwin, A.; Kordosky, M.; Lang, K.; Lee, R.; Liu, J.; Miller, W.; Mualem, L.; Nichol, R.; Nelson, J.; Pearce, G.; Proga, M.; Rebel, B.; Ruddick, K.; Smith, C.; Thomas, J.; Vahle, P.; Webb, R.


    We report on the observation and measurements of unexpected background rates in the MINOS Far Detector. The noise level at the Far Detector is significantly greater than that expected from natural radioactivity and intrinsic photomultiplier dark current. We have conducted a series of additional tests which demonstrate that the excess rate is caused by spontaneous light emission in the wavelength-shifting fibers, which are used to read out signals from scintillator strips. This noise due to fibers exhibits an exponential fall off with time with a decay time constant of the order of 100 days

  19. Fracture of maternal sternum during spontaneous delivery. (United States)

    Stubert, J; Gerber, B


    We report of a maternal sternal fracture during a spontaneous delivery in a 31-year-old primipara without a suitable trauma. The putative mechanism of fracture was strong hyperflexion of the thoracic spine and additional cervical flexion with pushing the chin to the thorax due to active management of labour. The history of the healthy woman was free of related risk factors. A possible promoting factor might be pregnancy-induced bone loss. Although there were clear symptoms, the diagnosis of the fracture was delayed by a week because nobody took account of such a possibility.

  20. Mixed lipid bilayers with locally varying spontaneous curvature and bending. (United States)

    Gueguen, Guillaume; Destainville, Nicolas; Manghi, Manoel


    A model of lipid bilayers made of a mixture of two lipids with different average compositions on both leaflets, is developed. A Landau Hamiltonian describing the lipid-lipid interactions on each leaflet, with two lipidic fields ψ 1 and ψ 2, is coupled to a Helfrich one, accounting for the membrane elasticity, via both a local spontaneous curvature, which varies as C 0 + C 1(ψ 1 - ψ 2/2), and a bending modulus equal to κ 0 + κ 1(ψ 1 + ψ 2)/2. This model allows us to define curved patches as membrane domains where the asymmetry in composition, ψ 1 - ψ 2, is large, and thick and stiff patches where ψ 1 + ψ 2 is large. These thick patches are good candidates for being lipidic rafts, as observed in cell membranes, which are composed primarily of saturated lipids forming a liquid-ordered domain and are known to be thick and flat nano-domains. The lipid-lipid structure factors and correlation functions are computed for globally spherical membranes and planar ones and for a whole set of parameters including the surface tension and the coupling in the two leaflet compositions. Phase diagrams are established, within a Gaussian approximation, showing the occurrence of two types of Structure Disordered phases, with correlations between either curved or thick patches, and an Ordered phase, corresponding to the divergence of the structure factor at a finite wave vector. The varying bending modulus plays a central role for curved membranes, where the driving force κ 1 C 0 (2) is balanced by the line tension, to form raft domains of size ranging from 10 to 100 nm. For planar membranes, raft domains emerge via the cross-correlation with curved domains. A global picture emerges from curvature-induced mechanisms, described in the literature for planar membranes, to coupled curvature- and bending-induced mechanisms in curved membranes forming a closed vesicle.

  1. Spontaneous cooperation for prosocials, but not for proselfs: Social value orientation moderates spontaneous cooperation behavior (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dorothee; Glöckner, Andreas


    Cooperation is essential for the success of societies and there is an ongoing debate whether individuals have therefore developed a general spontaneous tendency to cooperate or not. Findings that cooperative behavior is related to shorter decision times provide support for the spontaneous cooperation effect, although contrary results have also been reported. We show that cooperative behavior is better described as person × situation interaction, in that there is a spontaneous cooperation effect for prosocial but not for proself persons. In three studies, one involving population representative samples from the US and Germany, we found that cooperation in a public good game is dependent on an interaction between individuals’ social value orientation and decision time. Increasing deliberation about the dilemma situation does not affect persons that are selfish to begin with, but it is related to decreasing cooperation for prosocial persons that gain positive utility from outcomes of others and score high on the related general personality trait honesty/humility. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous cooperation hypothesis has to be qualified in that it is limited to persons with a specific personality and social values. Furthermore, they allow reconciling conflicting previous findings by identifying an important moderator for the effect. PMID:26876773

  2. Spontaneous regression of intracranial malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Tokutomi, Takashi; Eguchi, Gihachirou; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Tomie; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.


    In a 46-year-old female with a 1-month history of gait and speech disturbances, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated mass lesions of slightly high density in the left basal ganglia and left frontal lobe. The lesions were markedly enhanced by contrast medium. The patient received no specific treatment, but her clinical manifestations gradually abated and the lesions decreased in size. Five months after her initial examination, the lesions were absent on CT scans; only a small area of low density remained. Residual clinical symptoms included mild right hemiparesis and aphasia. After 14 months the patient again deteriorated, and a CT scan revealed mass lesions in the right frontal lobe and the pons. However, no enhancement was observed in the previously affected regions. A biopsy revealed malignant lymphoma. Despite treatment with steroids and radiation, the patient's clinical status progressively worsened and she died 27 months after initial presentation. Seven other cases of spontaneous regression of primary malignant lymphoma have been reported. In this case, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression was not clear, but changes in immunologic status may have been involved. (author)

  3. Surgery for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: Emerging trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Menon


    Full Text Available In spite of advances in imaging and surgical techniques, spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH has defied attempts to find a scientifically proven effective therapy. The pathophysiology of SICH suggests that early removal of the clot with minimal additional surgical trauma should prove beneficial. Trials in this direction have been few, and for some unknown reason, surgery has not proved to be superior to best medical management in most of these trials. This has led to substantial variability in the management of ICH throughout the world, and the treatment of SICH remains a controversy. SICH encompasses spectra of possible clot locations with varying volumes. Surgery so far has been reserved only for patients with large hematomas and impending brain herniation. Critical analysis of the earlier studies has now shown that surgery does help in clots in certain locations and of particular volume and when done at an optimal time. Poor grade patients with large hematomas, earlier considered poor surgical candidates are being taken up for aggressive decompressive craniectomies with fair results. In addition, minimally invasive surgical techniques complemented by thrombolytic techniques seem to providing surprisingly good results. Overall surgery seems to be going through a period of renaissance with respect to primary spontaneous ICHs.

  4. Spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. (United States)

    Lacuesta, Raquel; Lloret, Jaime; Sendra, Sandra; Peñalver, Lourdes


    Cloud computing helps users and companies to share computing resources instead of having local servers or personal devices to handle the applications. Smart devices are becoming one of the main information processing devices. Their computing features are reaching levels that let them create a mobile cloud computing network. But sometimes they are not able to create it and collaborate actively in the cloud because it is difficult for them to build easily a spontaneous network and configure its parameters. For this reason, in this paper, we are going to present the design and deployment of a spontaneous ad hoc mobile cloud computing network. In order to perform it, we have developed a trusted algorithm that is able to manage the activity of the nodes when they join and leave the network. The paper shows the network procedures and classes that have been designed. Our simulation results using Castalia show that our proposal presents a good efficiency and network performance even by using high number of nodes.

  5. Spontaneous and stimulated emission from quasifree electrons (United States)

    Friedman, A.; Gover, A.; Kurizki, G.; Ruschin, S.; Yariv, A.


    This article presents a unified formulation and review of an extensive class of radiation effects and devices based on free or quasifree electrons. The effects and devices reviewed include slow-wave radiators [such as Čerenkov, Smith-Purcell, and TWT (traveling-wave tube) effects and devices], periodic bremsstrahlung radiators [such as undulator radiation, magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL's (free-electron lasers), and coherent bremsstrahlung in the crystal lattice], and transverse-binding radiators [such as the CRM (cyclotron resonance maser) and channeling radiation]. Starting from a general quantum-electrodynamic model, both quantum and classical effects and operating regimes of these radiation devices are described. The article provides a unified physical description of the interaction kinematics, and presents equations for the characterization of spontaneous and stimulated radiative emission in these various effects and devices. Universal relations between the spontaneous and stimulated emission parameters are revealed and shown to be related (in the quantum limit) to Einstein relations for atomic radiators and (in the classical limit) to the relations derived by Madey for magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL for on-axis radiative emission. Examples for the application of the formulation are given, estimating the feasibility of channeling radiation x-ray laser and optical regime Smith-Purcell FEL, and deriving the gain equations of magnetic bremsstrahlung FEL and CRM for arbitrary electron propagation direction, structure (wiggler) axis, and radiative emission angle.

  6. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth (United States)

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia


    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  7. Microchimerism after induced or spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Sato, Tomoko; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Akira; Ohto, Hitoshi


    To investigate fetomaternal microchimerism in women with induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 76 healthy women who underwent dilation and curettage in the first trimester but had never had an abortion or male delivery before. Samples were collected at three time points: just before, 7 days after, and 30 days after abortion. Y chromosome-specific, nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) was used to test DNA extracted from buffy coat cells. DNA was also extracted from the chorion to determine sex. The sensitivity of our assay allowed detection of approximately one male cell in 100,000 female cells. Thirty-six male and 40 female chorions were obtained. Male DNA was found in 52.8% of women who had a male chorion before abortion, decreasing to 5.6% at 7 days after abortion. At 30 days after abortion, no male DNA was detected. Male DNA was never detected at any point from women with a female chorion. Fetal cells in the maternal circulation are undetectable 30 days after induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Fetal cells may be harbored in maternal organs.

  8. Body Mass Index and spontaneous miscarriage.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Turner, Michael J


    OBJECTIVE: We compared the incidence of spontaneous miscarriage in women categorised as obese, based on a Body Mass Index (BMI) >29.9 kg\\/m(2), with women in other BMI categories. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study conducted in a university teaching hospital, women were enrolled at their convenience in the first trimester after a sonogram confirmed an ongoing singleton pregnancy with fetal heart activity present. Maternal height and weight were measured digitally and BMI calculated. Maternal body composition was measured by advanced bioelectrical impedance analysis. RESULTS: In 1200 women, the overall miscarriage rate was 2.8% (n=33). The mean gestational age at enrolment was 9.9 weeks. In the obese category (n=217), the miscarriage rate was 2.3% compared with 3.3% in the overweight category (n=329), and 2.3% in the normal BMI group (n=621). There was no difference in the mean body composition parameters, particularly fat mass parameters, between those women who miscarried and those who did not. CONCLUSIONS: In women with sonographic evidence of fetal heart activity in the first trimester, the rate of spontaneous miscarriage is low and is not increased in women with BMI>29.9 kg\\/m(2) compared to women in the normal BMI category.

  9. Brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Won Kyu; Byun, Woo Mok; Cho, Jae Ho; Cho Kil Ho; Hwang, Mi Soo; Park, Bok Hwan [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Yang Gu [Keimyoung Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Jin [Soonchunhyang Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate brain MRI findings of spontaneous intracranial hypotension. A retrospective review of MRI findings was conducted on six patients with clinically proven spontaneous intracranial hypotension; no patient had a history of previous spinal puncture. Follow-up MRI was available in two patients, and to detect CSF leakage, radio-nuclide cisternography(n=3D5), myelography(n=3D1), and MR myelography(n=3D1) were performed. On contrast-enhanced T1WI, diffuse dural enhancement was seen in all cases, subdural hematoma or hygroma was seen in four cases, pituitary gland prominence in four, dural sinus dilatation in four, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil in two, downward displacement of the iter in one, and suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement in two. In no patient was abnormal CSF leakage found. Although dural enhancement, as seen on MRI, is not specific, diffuse enhancement of the dura mater accompanied by subdural hematoma, hygroma, pituitary gland prominence, dural sinus dilatation, downward displacement of the cerebellar tonsil, or suprasellar and prepontine cistern effacement can strongly suggest intracranial hypotension.=20.

  10. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen


    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  11. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo


    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  12. Spontaneous resolution of a herniated fragment cervical disc


    METE, Mesut; SAVRAN, Mehmet; DEMİRÇİVİ ÖZER, Füsun; DURANSOY, Yusuf Kurtuluş


    ABSTRACT Although the spontaneous resolution of herniated nucleus pulposus is a well known phe¬nomenon in lumbar disc herniations, it is rarely encountered in the cervical region. The spontaneous resolution of a herniated cervical disc in a woman is reported to describe a rare occurrence of spontaneous regression of a cervical herniated nucleus pulposus and to discuss its mechanism. A woman with a large and fragment herniated cervical disc refused to undergo operation and was followed-up ...

  13. Spontaneous globe luxation associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Ashok Kumar


    Full Text Available Spontaneous globe luxation is a rarely reported condition which can lead to complications like optic neuropathy. Common causes are thyroid eye disease, shallow orbit and floppy eyelid syndrome. We report a case of spontaneous globe luxation with the onset and severity associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. To our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous globe luxation associated with COPD.

  14. Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury (United States)


    inflammation. 15. SUBJECT TERMS traumatic spinal cord injury, spinal cord , spontaneous recovery, functional recovery, inflammation, biomarkers, trauma 16...Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0614 TITLE: Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ona Bloom...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0614 W81XWH-15-1-0614 Biomarkers of Spontaneous Recovery from Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  15. Spontaneous regression of a lumbar disc herniation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostarchid Brahim El


    Full Text Available Lumbar disc herniation is a common disease that induces back pain and radicular pain. Some cases require conservative treatment or at times relived spontaneously. Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is an atypical clinical presentation, and it has been recognized with the advancement of recent advances in imaging techniques. We present a 35-year-old woman presented a spontaneous regression of a lumbar disc herniation with good outcome after intensive physical therapy program. Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is thought to occur via an inflammatory reaction with molecular mechanisms of phagocytic processes.

  16. Spontaneous closure of an ileostomy: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Saxena


    CONCLUSION: Further research is warranted to understand the mechanism behind spontaneous regression of a stoma. Relationship between this event and intestinal tuberculosis or ATT needs to be analysed.

  17. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin


    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...

  18. Dorsomedial prefontal cortex supports spontaneous thinking per se. (United States)

    Raij, T T; Riekki, T J J


    Spontaneous thinking, an action to produce, consider, integrate, and reason through mental representations, is central to our daily experience and has been suggested to serve crucial adaptive purposes. Such thinking occurs among other experiences during mind wandering that is associated with activation of the default mode network among other brain circuitries. Whether and how such brain activation is linked to the experience of spontaneous thinking per se remains poorly known. We studied 51 healthy subjects using a comprehensive experience-sampling paradigm during 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging. In comparison with fixation, the experiences of spontaneous thinking and spontaneous perception were related to activation of wide-spread brain circuitries, including the cortical midline structures, the anterior cingulate cortex and the visual cortex. In direct comparison of the spontaneous thinking versus spontaneous perception, activation was observed in the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Modality congruence of spontaneous-experience-related brain activation was suggested by several findings, including association of the lingual gyrus with visual in comparison with non-verbal-non-visual thinking. In the context of current literature, these findings suggest that the cortical midline structures are involved in the integrative core substrate of spontaneous thinking that is coupled with other brain systems depending on the characteristics of thinking. Furthermore, involvement of the anterior dorsomedial prefrontal cortex suggests the control of high-order abstract functions to characterize spontaneous thinking per se. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3277-3288, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spontaneous closure of patent ductus arteriosus after an episode of Kawasaki disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Ming-Chih


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kawasaki disease is regarded as systemic vasculitis. Many experts believe that not only coronary arteries but also other small arteries are involved during the period of systemic inflammation. However, the evidence to support this point view is limited. Case presentation We report the case of a one-year-four-month-old Taiwanese girl whose patent ductus arteriosus was incidentally found during an episode of Kawasaki disease. The ductus closed spontaneously after the acute phase of Kawasaki disease. Conclusions In this patient, the patent ductus arteriosus may have closed spontaneously after Kawasaki disease due to its involvement in the generalized vasculitis that this disease incurs. This would support the theory that the vasculitis of Kawasaki disease is limited not only to coronary arteries but also to all medium- sized arteries.

  20. [Spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization]. (United States)

    Studničková, M; Holusková, I; Durdová, V; Kratochvílová, T; Strašilová, P; Marková, I; Lubušký, M


    Assess the incidence of spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization in RhD negative pregnant women with an RhD positive fetus. Clinical study. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical School and University Hospital Olomouc. A total of 906 RhD negative women with an RhD positive fetus and without the presence of anti-Dalloantibodies at the beginning of pregnancy were examined. Always it was a singleton pregnancy, RhD blood group of the pregnant women was assessed in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, RhD status of the fetus was determined after delivery. Screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies was performed in all women in the 1st trimester of pregnancy, at 28-32 weeks gestation and immediately prior to delivery at 38-42 weeks gestation. Screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies was performed also at 6 months following delivery in all cases of positive antibodies before delivery. Antibody screening was performed using the indirect antiglobulin (LISS/NAT) and enzyme (papain) test with their subsequent identification using a panel of reference erythrocytes by column agglutination method Dia-Med. After delivery, the volume of fetomaternal hemorrhage was assesed in all RhD negative women and RhD alloimmunization prophylaxis was performed by administering the necessary IgG anti-D dose; none of the women were administered IgG anti-D antepartally. During screening for irregular antierythrocyte antibodies at 28-32 weeks gestation, anti-D alloantibodies were diagnosed in 0.2% of the women (2/906); immediately prior to the delivery at 38-42 weeks gestation, anti-D alloantibodies were diagnosed in 2.3% of the women (21/906) and repeatedly even at 6 months following delivery (21/157). In 82.7% of the women (749/906), examination at 6 months following delivery was not performed, therefore in these women spontaneous antepartal RhD alloimmunization cannot reliably be ruled out. Alloimmunization may not be diagnosed yet at term of delivery. If anti

  1. Spontaneous high piezoelectricity in poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanoribbons produced by iterative thermal size reduction technique. (United States)

    Kanik, Mehmet; Aktas, Ozan; Sen, Huseyin Sener; Durgun, Engin; Bayindir, Mehmet


    We produced kilometer-long, endlessly parallel, spontaneously piezoelectric and thermally stable poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) micro- and nanoribbons using iterative size reduction technique based on thermal fiber drawing. Because of high stress and temperature used in thermal drawing process, we obtained spontaneously polar γ phase PVDF micro- and nanoribbons without electrical poling process. On the basis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, we observed that PVDF micro- and nanoribbons are thermally stable and conserve the polar γ phase even after being exposed to heat treatment above the melting point of PVDF. Phase transition mechanism is investigated and explained using ab initio calculations. We measured an average effective piezoelectric constant as -58.5 pm/V from a single PVDF nanoribbon using a piezo evaluation system along with an atomic force microscope. PVDF nanoribbons are promising structures for constructing devices such as highly efficient energy generators, large area pressure sensors, artificial muscle and skin, due to the unique geometry and extended lengths, high polar phase content, high thermal stability and high piezoelectric coefficient. We demonstrated two proof of principle devices for energy harvesting and sensing applications with a 60 V open circuit peak voltage and 10 μA peak short-circuit current output.

  2. A model of spontaneous CP violation and neutrino phenomenology with approximate LμLτ symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Biswajit


    We introduce a model where CP and Z 2 symmetry violate spontaneously. CP and Z 2 violate spontaneously through a singlet complex scalar S which obtains vacuum expectation value with phase S = Ve iα /2 and this is the only source of CP violation in this model. Low energy CP violation in the leptonic sector is connected to the large scale phase by three generations of left and right handed singlet fermions in the inverse see-saw like structure of model. We have considered approximate LμL τ symmetry to study neutrino phenomenology. Considering two mass square differences and three mixing angles including non zero θ 13 to their experimental 3σ limit, we have restricted the Lagrangian parameters for reasonably small value of L μ L τ symmetry breaking parameters. We have predicted the three masses, Dirac phase and two Majorana phases. We also evaluate CP violating parameter J CP , sum-mass and effective mass parameter involved in neutrino less double beta decay. (author)

  3. Traceability of biopharmaceuticals in spontaneous reporting systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, Niels S; Straus, Sabine M J M; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K


    , including spontaneous reporting systems (SRSs), in which reports of ADRs are collected. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the current status of traceability of biopharmaceuticals in the US and the EU up to patient level in SRSs. DESIGN AND SETTING: A cross-sectional study was conducted over......BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) of biopharmaceuticals can be batch or product specific, resulting from small differences in the manufacturing process. Detailed exposure information should be readily available in systems for postmarketing safety surveillance of biopharmaceuticals...... the period 2004-2010, including ADR reports from two major SRSs: the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) in the US and EudraVigilance (EV) in the EU. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The availability of batch numbers was determined for biopharmaceuticals, and compared with small molecule drugs...

  4. Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia: Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Marko V.


    Full Text Available This is the second part of the article “Spontaneously abandoned settlements in Serbia”, the first part of which was published in No. 60-2 of this Journal. Geomorphological indicators pointing at unsustainability of the studied settlements are singled out. The indicators are classified as morphometric (quantitative and morphologic (qualitative. Geomorphometry has been used for determination of quantitative indicators. The coefficient of settlement isolation (Ki is defined, which is a product of road coefficient (Kr and real relative height (RRH. Morphological indicators refer to the position of a settlement on a certain geomorphological unit (ridge, valley, valley side, as well as to the geomorphological homogeneity of space, determined by geomorphological mapping. The defined indicators of unsustainability are presented in detail as a case study of the abandoned village Smilov Laz, in the municipality of Novi Pazar.

  5. Spontaneous galactosylation of agalactoglycoproteins in colostrum. (United States)

    Oubihi, M; Kitajima, K; Aoki, N; Matsuda, T


    We have found that spontaneous galactosylation of GlcNAc residues occurs in bovine colostrum, but not in dialyzed colostrum, without adding UDP-Gal as a donor substrate. UDP-Gal was shown to be present in bovine colostrum at a level ranging from 200 to 600 microM. When a tracer UDP-[(14)C]Gal was added to the dialyzed colostrum together with a Gal beta1,4-specific beta-galactosidase, remarkable incorporation of radioactivity into 24-28 kDa and 33 kDa RCA1-positive glycoproteins was demonstrated by SDS-PAGE/autoradiography. Some 100-140 kDa agalactoglycoproteins of a CHO mutant cell line were also galactosylated on a blotted membrane by the incubation in the colostrum.

  6. Pneumomediastin spontané chez un asthmatique (United States)

    Elmoqaddem, Amine; Serghini, Issam; Janah, Hicham; Chouikh, Chakib; Alaoui, Amine; Bensghir, Mustapha


    Le pneumomédiastin spontané est une pathologie rare. Il se voit surtout chez l’adulte jeune. Sa survenue brutale est caractéristique, associant une douleur thoracique, un emphysème sous-cutané et une dyspnée. Nous rapportons l’observation d’un pneumomédiastin, chez un patient de 24 ans asthmatique déclenché suite à un effort de toux. Le patient s’est présenté dans un tableau d’insuffisance respiratoire aigue avec une douleur thoracique retrosternale. La radiographie pulmonaire a confirmé le diagnostic de pneumomédiastin. L’évolution a été favorable en 4 jours après exsufflation, oxygénothérapie et traitement médical conventionnel. PMID:28292057

  7. Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B


    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...

  8. Spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in two dogs. (United States)

    Boulineau, Theresa Marie; Andrews-Jones, Lydia; Van Alstine, William


    This report describes 2 cases of spontaneous aortic dissecting hematoma in young Border Collie and Border Collie crossbred dogs. Histology was performed in one of the cases involving an unusual splitting of the elastin present within the wall of the aorta, consistent with elastin dysplasia as described in Marfan syndrome in humans. The first case involved a young purebred Border Collie that died suddenly and the second case involved a Border Collie crossbred dog that died after a 1-month history of seizures. Gross lesions included pericardial tamponade with dissection of the ascending aorta in the former case and thoracic cavity hemorrhage, mediastinal hematoma, and aortic dissection in the latter. Histologic lesions in the case of the Border Collie crossbred dog included a dissecting hematoma of the ascending aorta with elastin dysplasia and right axillary arterial intimal proliferation.

  9. A Young Man with Bilateral Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liese Lieve Willemien Verhaert


    Full Text Available Case. A 33-year-old male nonsmoker presented with sudden onset of dyspnoea and thoracic pain. Chest radiograph showed a left-sided pneumothorax. Few days later he developed a right-sided pneumothorax. He had a positive family history of pneumothorax. High-resolution computed tomography of the chest showed multiple pulmonary cysts predominantly located in the lower lung regions. We suspected Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome (BHD. Conclusion. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant inherited genodermatosis and characterised by clinical manifestations including hamartomas of the skin, renal tumors, and pulmonary cysts with spontaneous pneumothorax. BHD is probably underdiagnosed because of the wide variability in its clinical expression. It is important to recognize these patients because of the possibility of developing renal cancer.

  10. Constrained gauge fields from spontaneous Lorentz violation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chkareuli, J. L.; Froggatt, C. D.; Jejelava, J. G.


    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type AµAµ=M2 (M is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant...... theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory...... couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical Lorentz violation due to the simultaneously generated gauge invariance. Udgivelsesdato: June 11...

  11. Spontaneous Esophageal Injury: Esophageal Intramural Hematoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hui Chiu


    Full Text Available Acute chest pain can indicate a life-threatening condition and it is important for physicians to diagnose and treat it as a matter of urgency. We report 1 rare case of esophageal intramural hematoma (IMH that presented with chest pain at the emergency department and which was initially clinically suspected to be due to aortic dissection. The case was diagnosed preoperatively by multidetector computed tomography. Esophageal IMH may represent an intermediate stage between Mallory-Weiss tear (mucosal and Boerhaave's syndrome (transmural. Multidetector computed tomography is a useful noninvasive imaging modality for accurate diagnosis of these spontaneous intramural and transmural ruptures of the esophagus, and aids in the differential diagnosis of aortic and other mediastinal diseases with acute chest pain.

  12. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement (United States)

    Sveshnikov, Konstantin; Tolokonnikov, Andrey


    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The most novel and nontrivial result, which has not been reported previously, is that such an effect takes place not only for attractive, but also for repulsive interactions of atomic electrons with the cavity environment. Moreover, in the limit of a large box size R ≫ aB the regime of an atom, soaring over a plane with boundary condition of "not going out", is reproduced, rather than a spherically symmetric configuration, which would be expected on the basis of the initial SO(3) symmetry of the problem.

  13. Spontaneous Heterotopic Triplet Pregnancy With Tubal Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima Arsala MBBS, BBMedSci


    Full Text Available The recent increase in heterotopic pregnancies has been largely attributed to the increased use of assisted reproduction technologies. We report the rare case of a multiparous woman with a spontaneous conception resulting in a triplet heterotopic pregnancy: a twin intrauterine pregnancy and a single right tubal ectopic pregnancy. Heterotopic pregnancy is a rare and potentially life-threatening condition in which simultaneous gestations occur at 2 or more implantation sites. It is infrequent in natural conception cycles, occurring in 1:30 000 pregnancies. However, the prevalence is rising with the increased use of assisted reproduction techniques to that of 1:100 to 1:500 in these patient subgroups, highlighting the need to incorporate it into a clinician’s diagnostic algorithm.

  14. Spontaneous closure of midline diastema following frenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koora Kiran


    Full Text Available Maxillary midline diastema is a common aesthetic problem in mixed and early permanent dentitions. The space can occur either as a transient malocclusion or created by developmental, pathological or iatrogenical factors. Many innovative therapies varying from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomies and orthodontics are available. Although literature says every frenectomy procedure should be preceded by orthodontic treatment, we opted for frenectomy technique without any orthodontic intervention. Presented herewith is a case report of a 9-year-old girl with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. A spontaneous closure of the midline diastema was noted within 2 months following frenectomy. The patient was followed up for 4 months after which the space remained closed and there was no necessity for an orthodontic treatment at a later stage.

  15. Glioblastoma Multiforme Presenting as Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Ozdol


    Full Text Available Brain tumors with concomitant intracerebral hemorrhage are rarely encountered. Hemorrhage as the initial presentation of a brain tumour may pose some diagnostic problems, especially if the tumour is small or the hemorrhage is abundant. We present a 47-year-old man who admitted to the emergency department with sudden onset headache, right blurred vision and gait disturbance. A non-contrast cranial computerized tomography scan performed immediately after his admission revealed a well circumscribed right occipitoparietal haematoma with intense peripheral edema causing compression of the ipsilateral ventricles. On 6th hour of his admission the patient%u2019s neurological status deteriorated and he subsequently underwent emergent craniotomy and microsurgical evacuation of the haematoma. The histopathological examination of the mass was consistent with a glioblastoma multiforme. Neoplasms may be hidden behind each case of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Histological sampling and investigation is mandatory in the presence of preoperative radiological features suggesting a neoplasm.

  16. Ion cyclotron emission by spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Costa, O. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Gresillon, D. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises


    The goal of the study is to examine whether the spontaneous emission can account for ICE (ion cyclotron emission) experimental results, or part of them. A straightforward approach to plasma emission is chosen, investigating the near equilibrium wave radiation by gyrating ions, and thus building from the majority and fast fusion ions the plasma fluctuations and emission on the fast magnetoacoustic or compressional Alfven wave mode in the IC frequency range. Similarities with the ICE experiments are shown: the emission temperature in the presence of fast ions (even in a very small amount), the strong fast ion emission increase with the harmonic, the fine double-line splitting of each peak, the linear but not proportional increase of the peak width with the harmonic. 3 refs., 2 figs.

  17. Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model. (United States)

    Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo


    Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle.

  18. Spontaneous activity in peripheral diaphragmatic lymphatic loops. (United States)

    Moriondo, Andrea; Solari, Eleonora; Marcozzi, Cristiana; Negrini, Daniela


    The spontaneous contractility of FITC-dextran-filled lymphatics at the periphery of the pleural diaphragm was documented for the first time "in vivo" in anesthetized Wistar rats. We found that lymphatic segments could be divided into four phenotypes: 1) active, displaying rhythmic spontaneous contractions (51.8% of 197 analyzed sites); 2) stretch-activated, whose contraction was triggered by passive distension of the vessel lumen (4.1%); 3) passive, which displayed a completely passive distension (4.5%); and 4) inert, whose diameter never changed over time (39.6%). Smooth muscle actin was detected by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy in the vessel walls of active but also of inert sites, albeit with a very different structure within the vessel wall. Indeed, while in active segments, actin was arranged in a dense mesh completely surrounding the lumen, in inert segments actin decorated the vessels wall in sparse longitudinal strips. When located nearby along the same lymphatic loop, active, stretch-activated, and passive sites were always recruited in temporal sequence starting from the active contraction. The time delay was ∼0.35 s between active and stretch-activated and 0.54 s between stretch-activated and passive segments, promoting a uniform lymph flux of ∼150/200 pl/min. We conclude that, unlike more central diaphragmatic lymphatic vessels, loops located at the extreme diaphragmatic periphery do require an intrinsic pumping mechanism to propel lymph centripetally, and that such an active lymph propulsion is attained by means of a complex interplay among sites whose properties differ but are indeed able to organize lymph flux in an ordered fashion.

  19. Risk factors for recurrent spontaneous epistaxis. (United States)

    Abrich, Victor; Brozek, Annabelle; Boyle, Timothy R; Chyou, Po-Huang; Yale, Steven H


    To identify risk factors associated with spontaneous recurrent epistaxis. This was a retrospective cohort study assessing patients in the Marshfield Clinic system diagnosed as having epistaxis between January 1, 1991, and January 1, 2011. There were 461 cases with at least 2 episodes of spontaneous epistaxis within 3 years and 912 controls with only 1 episode in the same time frame. More than 50 potential risk factors were investigated, including demographic features, substance use, nasal anatomical abnormalities, nasal infectious and inflammatory processes, medical comorbidities, medications, and laboratory values. A Cox proportional hazards regression modeling approach was used to calculate hazard ratios of epistaxis recurrence. Traditional risk factors for epistaxis, including nasal perforation, nasal septum deviation, rhinitis, sinusitis, and upper respiratory tract infection, did not increase the risk of recurrence. Significant risk factors for recurrent epistaxis included congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a history of anemia. Warfarin use increased the risk of recurrence, independent of international normalized ratio. Aspirin and clopidogrel were not found to increase the risk of recurrence. Few major adverse cardiovascular events were observed within 30 days of the first epistaxis event. Congestive heart failure is an underappreciated risk factor for recurrent epistaxis. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus may induce atherosclerotic changes in the nasal vessels, making them friable and more at risk for bleeding. Patients with recurrent epistaxis may also be more susceptible to developing anemia. Physicians should promote antiplatelet and antithrombotic medication adherence despite an increased propensity for recurrent epistaxis to prevent major adverse cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous trait inference and spontaneous trait transference are both unaffected by prior evaluations of informants. (United States)

    Zengel, Bettina; Ambler, James K; McCarthy, Randy J; Skowronski, John J


    This article reports results from a study in which participants encountered either (a) previously known informants who were positive (e.g. Abraham Lincoln), neutral (e.g., Jay Leno), or negative (e.g., Adolf Hitler), or (b) previously unknown informants. The informants ostensibly described either a trait-implicative positive behavior, a trait-implicative negative behavior, or a neutral behavior. These descriptions were framed as either the behavior of the informant or the behavior of another person. Results yielded evidence of informant-trait linkages for both self-informants and for informants who described another person. These effects were not moderated by informant type, behavior valence, or the congruency or incongruency between the prior knowledge of the informant and the behavior valence. Results are discussed in terms of theories of Spontaneous Trait Inference and Spontaneous Trait Transference.

  1. Massive Kaluza-Klein theories and their spontaneously broken symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohm, O.


    In this thesis we investigate the effective actions for massive Kaluza-Klein states, focusing on the massive modes of spin-3/2 and spin-2 fields. To this end we determine the spontaneously broken gauge symmetries associated to these 'higher-spin' states and construct the unbroken phase of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that for the particular background AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} a consistent coupling of the first massive spin-3/2 multiplet requires an enhancement of local supersymmetry, which in turn will be partially broken in the Kaluza-Klein vacuum. The corresponding action is constructed as a gauged maximal supergravity in D=3. Subsequently, the symmetries underlying an infinite tower of massive spin-2 states are analyzed in case of a Kaluza-Klein compactification of four-dimensional gravity to D=3. It is shown that the resulting gravity-spin-2 theory is given by a Chern-Simons action of an affine algebra and also allows a geometrical interpretation in terms of 'algebra-valued' differential geometry. The global symmetry group is determined, which contains an affine extension of the Ehlers group. We show that the broken phase can in turn be constructed via gauging a certain subgroup of the global symmetry group. Finally, deformations of the Kaluza-Klein theory on AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} and the corresponding symmetry breakings are analyzed as possible applications for the AdS/CFT correspondence. (Orig.)

  2. Impairments of spontaneous and deliberative mentalizing co-occur, yet dissociate, in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Langdon, Robyn; Flynn, Michaela; Connaughton, Emily; Brüne, Martin


    goal-driven behaviours. These impairments were even more pronounced when participants were instructed to think of the stimuli as people, suggesting that perceiving others in social roles does not prompt people with schizophrenia to anthropomorphize about others as agents motivated by their own inner worlds. Impairments of spontaneous mentalizing were found to co-occur independently with explicit mentalizing deficits in schizophrenia, consistent with the claim that humans can access two distinct systems for understanding others' minds. Findings suggest that interventions to improve conscious deliberative mentalizing in schizophrenia may not be enough; we also need to target implicit mentalizing processes. Limitations The patient sample was chronic and only mildly symptomatic. As such, findings cannot be generalized to other stages and phases of the illness. All patients were also medicated, allowing for the possibility that automatic responses to socially salient stimuli may have been pharmacologically attenuated. Future research may examine whether unmedicated young people at ultra-high risk of psychosis show a similar profile of mentalizing impairment. Future work may also examine whether impairments of deliberative and spontaneous mentalizing associate differentially with social functioning and different cognitive domains in schizophrenia. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Molecular structure of the lecithin ripple phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, AH; Yefimov, S; Mark, AE; Marrink, SJ


    Molecular dynamics simulations of lecithin lipid bilayers in water as they are cooled from the liquid crystalline phase show the spontaneous formation of rippled bilayers. The ripple consists of two domains of different length and orientation, connected by a kink. The organization of the lipids in

  4. Spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry in the complex Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry; Coulomb potential; complex en- ergy eigenvalues. PACS Nos 03.65.Ge; 03.65.Nk; 11.30.Er. 1. Introduction. One of the most intriguing features of PT -symmetric quantum mechanics is the spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry. This phenomenon was noted in the first.

  5. Safety of Oral Clemastine – Analysis of Data from Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    event reporting system. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on ... existing spontaneous monitoring system for adverse effects in Poland may not be sensitive enough and therefore, needs improvement. ... which is based on current EU legislation. As part.

  6. Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy: a case report | Makwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous splenic rupture in pregnancy is a rare condition, associated with very high maternal mortality rate and fetal wastage. It is frequently misdiagnosed at presentation. We report a case of a 33-year-old, gravida 2, para 1 lady at 29 weeks' gestation with spontaneous splenic rupture, which was initially diagnosed as ...

  7. Spontaneous massive vulva swelling in pregnancy: a case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous massive vulva edema is not common during pregnancy, but its presence possesses management challenges with significant patient anxiety and discomfort. We report a case of spontaneous vulva edema in a 24-year old primigravida at 28 weeks gestational age havingtwin gestation, with one anaecephalyand ...

  8. Safety of Oral Clemastine – Analysis of Data from Spontaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To analyse the safety of oral clemastine marketed in Poland based on spontaneous adverse event reporting system. Methods: We analyzed sales volume and data obtained from the monitoring of spontaneous reports on the adverse effects of Clemastinum Hasco tablets (1.0 mg) and Clemastinum Hasco syrup (0.1 ...

  9. Spontaneous infected biloma: case report | Kimani | East African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biloma is defined as any collection of bile outside the biliary tree. It mainly results from surgical complications and abdominal trauma. Spontaneous biloma is extremely rare and is occasionally associated with choledocholithiasis. This report describes a case of spontaneous biloma diagnosed radiologically and confirmed at ...

  10. Spontaneous rupture: An uncommon complication of ventral hernia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Literature is scarce about spontaneous rupture of hernia because spontaneous rupture of here is uncommon (1). Reported cases are complications of incisional hernias, recurrent inguinal hernia, and umbilical hernias. It is potentially life threatening (1) because the ensuing entrapment and tension on ...

  11. A comparison of spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal according to the rank. To estimate the spontaneous combustion susceptibility of coal, both crossing-point temperature (CPT) measurement and gas analysis by using gas chromatography (GC) were performed. For the experiment, Ihuoma coal, Orlu ...

  12. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin


    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases; thi...

  13. Role of ascitic fluid C3 in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amany Talaat Kamal


    Feb 29, 2012 ... [13] Terg R, Fassio E, Guevara M. Ciprofloxacin in primary prophy- laxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis: a randomized, placebo controlled study. J Hepatol 2008;48(5):774–9. [14] Akriviadis EA, Runyon BA. Utility of an algorithm in differen- tiating spontaneous from secondary bacterial peritonitis. Gastro ...

  14. Spontaneous magnetization in high-density quark matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsue, Yasuhiko; da Providência, João; Providência, Constanca


    It is shown that spontaneous magnetization occurs due to the anomalous magnetic moments of quarks in high-density quark matter under the tensor-type four-point interaction. The spin polarized condensate for each flavor of quark appears at high baryon density, which leads to the spontaneous...

  15. Visually Evoked Spiking Evolves While Spontaneous Ongoing Dynamics Persist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huys, Raoul; Jirsa, Viktor K; Darokhan, Ziauddin


    by evoked spiking. This study of laminar recordings of spontaneous spiking and visually evoked spiking of neurons in the ferret primary visual cortex shows that the spiking dynamics does not change: the spontaneous spiking as well as evoked spiking is controlled by a stable and persisting fixed point...

  16. Spontaneous herniation of the thoracic spinal cord : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sung Chan; Lee, Seong Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin


    Spontaneous herniation of the spinal cord is a rare disease entity in which spinal cord substance is herniated through a previously uninjured and/or untouched dural. It is a cause of myelopathy that is treatable but difficult to diagnose. We report the CT and MR findings of a case of spontaneous thoracic spinal cord through a dural defect

  17. Spontaneous perforation by pyometra — an acute emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous perforation by pyometra — an acute emergency. B Gupta, R Agarwal, G Radhakrishnan. Abstract. Accumulation of pus in the uterine cavity is termed pyometra and has an incidence of 0.1 - 0.5%.1 We report a case of spontaneous pyometra rupture with subsequent peritonitis. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  18. A Rare Case of Peritonitis Following Spontaneous Rupture of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chan LY, Yu VS, HO LC, Lok YH, Hui SK. Spontaneous uterine perforation of pyometra. A report of three cases. J Reprod Med 2000;45:857-60. 5. Bostofte E, Legarth J. Spontaneous perforation of pyometra with diffuse peritonitis. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1981;60:511-2. 6. Nakao A, Mimura H, Fujisawa K. Generalized ...

  19. Computed Tomography Features of Spontaneously Perforated Pyometra: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.S.; Tan, C.K.; Mak, C.W.; Chia, C.C.; Kuo, C.Y.; Yu, W.L. [Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan, Taiwan (China). Depts. of Intensive Care Medicine, Radiology, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Surgery


    Spontaneous perforation of pyometra is an extremely rare emergent gynecologic disease. We report a 73-year-old woman with a spontaneously perforated pyometra presenting with acute abdomen in the emergency department. A dedicated computed tomography examination of the abdominal and pelvic regions revealed the diagnosis. The patient recovered well after surgical intervention and antibiotic treatment.

  20. Spontaneous resolution of post-traumatic chronic subdural hematoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Here, we present a case of spontaneously resolved post-traumatic bilateral chronic subdural hematoma within a period of one month in a 55-year-old male and we discuss the probable mechanisms of pathophysiology in the spontaneous resolution of chronic subdural hematoma. Keywords: Antiaggregation therapy, chronic ...

  1. Spontaneity and Equilibrium III: A History of Misinformation (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    Necessary and sufficient criteria for reaction spontaneity in a given direction and for spontaneity of finite transformations in single-reaction, closed systems are developed. The criteria are general in that they hold for reactions conducted under either conditions of constant T and p or constant T and V. These results are illustrated using a…

  2. Bilateral spontaneous rupture of flexor digitorum profundus tendons.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, S T


    Spontaneous tendon rupture is an unusual condition usually associated with underlying disease processes such as rheumatoid arthritis, chronic renal failure or bony abnormalities of the hand. We report a case of spontaneous, non-concurrent bilateral rupture of flexor profundus tendons in an otherwise healthy individual. Treatment was successful and consisted of a two-stage reconstruction of the ruptured tendon.

  3. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik


    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...

  4. Spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora (Leguminosae) in sheep (United States)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the first report of clinical, epidemiological and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by Prosopis juliflora in sheep. Of a total of 500 sheep at risk, two adult male sheep were affected; one died spontaneously and the other animal was examined, euthaniz...

  5. Two Cases of Subdural Hematoma in Spontaneous CSF Hypovolemia


    島谷, 佳光; 井戸川, 美帆; 阿部, 剛典; 仁平, 敦子; 溝渕, 雅広; 佐光, 一也; 田中, 千春


    Two cases of subdural hematoma in spontaneous CSF hypovolemia. The typical orthostatic features were replaced by continuous, nonpositional headache. MEI showed subdural hematoma. These cases emphasize that spontaneous CSF hypovolemia is not an entirely benign condition and that subudural hematoma may accompany persistent intracranial hypotension.

  6. Spontaneous Uterine Rupture during Pregnancy: Case Report and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient. The case was managed at the University Teaching Hospital of Yaounde (Cameroon). She had past history of ...

  7. Spontaneous Activity Drives Local Synaptic Plasticity In Vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Johan; Cheyne, Juliette E; Niculescu, Dragos; Lohmann, C.


    Spontaneous activity fine-tunes neuronal connections in the developing brain. To explore the underlying synaptic plasticity mechanisms, we monitored naturally occurring changes in spontaneous activity at individual synapses with whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and simultaneous calcium imaging in

  8. Spontaneous generation in medieval Jewish philosophy and theology. (United States)

    Gaziel, Ahuva


    The concept of life forms emerging from inanimate matter--spontaneous generation--was widely accepted until the nineteenth century. Several medieval Jewish scholars acknowledged this scientific theory in their philosophical and religious contemplations. Quite interestingly, it served to reinforce diverse, or even opposite, theological conclusions. One approach excluded spontaneously-generated living beings form the biblical account of creation or the story of the Deluge. Underlying this view is an understanding that organisms that generate spontaneously evolve continuously in nature and, therefore, do not require divine intervention in their formation or survival during disastrous events. This naturalistic position reduces the miraculous dimension of reality. Others were of the opinion that spontaneous generation is one of the extraordinary marvels exhibited in this world and, accordingly, this interpretation served to accentuate the divine aspect of nature. References to spontaneous generation also appear in legal writings, influencing practical applications such as dietary laws and actions forbidden on the Sabbath.

  9. The effects of age and divided attention on spontaneous recognition. (United States)

    Anderson, Benjamin A; Jacoby, Larry L; Thomas, Ruthann C; Balota, David A


    Studies of recognition typically involve tests in which the participant's memory for a stimulus is directly questioned. There are occasions however, in which memory occurs more spontaneously (e.g., an acquaintance seeming familiar out of context). Spontaneous recognition was investigated in a novel paradigm involving study of pictures and words followed by recognition judgments on stimuli with an old or new word superimposed over an old or new picture. Participants were instructed to make their recognition decision on either the picture or word and to ignore the distracting stimulus. Spontaneous recognition was measured as the influence of old vs. new distracters on target recognition. Across two experiments, older adults and younger adults placed under divided-attention showed a greater tendency to spontaneously recognize old distracters as compared to full-attention younger adults. The occurrence of spontaneous recognition is discussed in relation to ability to constrain retrieval to goal-relevant information.

  10. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin


    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases......; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence...... of therapy, which is considered inadequate to exert a significant influence on neoplastic disease. The incidence of spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma is approximately one per 400 patients, and possible mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and tumour nutritional...

  11. Phase IV of Drug Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viraj Suvarna


    Full Text Available Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT. No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, the true safety profile of a drug is characterized only by continuing safety surveillance through a spontaneous adverse event monitoring system and a post-marketing surveillance/non-interventional study. Prevalent practice patterns can generate leads that could result in further evaluation of a new indication via the RCT route or even a signal that may necessitate regulatory action (change in labeling, risk management/minimization action plan. Disease registries are another option as are the large simple hybrid trials. Surveillance of spontaneously reported adverse events continues as long as a product is marketed. And so Phase IV in that sense never ends.

  12. Spontaneous mutation rates and the rate-doubling dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Borstel, R.C.; Moustaccki, E.; Latarjet, R.


    The amount of radiation required to double the frequency of mutations or tumours over the rate of those that occur spontaneously is called the rate-doubling dose. An equivalent concept has been proposed for exposure to other environmental mutagens. The doubling dose concept is predicated on the assumption that all human populations have the same spontaneous mutation rate, and that this spontaneous mutation rate is known. It is now established for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that numerous genes control the spontaneous mutation rate, and it is likely that the same is true for human cells as well. Given that the accepted mode of evolution of human populatons is from small, isolated groups of individuals, it seems likely that each population would have a different spontaneous mutation rate. Given that a minimum of twenty genes control or affect the spontaneous mutation rate, and that each of these in turn is susceptible to spontaneously arising or environmentally induced mutations, it seems likely that every individual within a population (except for siblings from identical multiple births) will have a unique spontaneous mutation rate. If each individual in a population does have a different spontaneous mutation rate, the doubling dose concept, in rigorous terms, is fallacious. Therefore, as with other concepts of risk evaluation, the doubling dose concept is subject to criticism. Nevertheless, until we know individual spontaneous mutation rates with precision, and can evaluate risks based on this information, the doubling dose concept has a heuristic value and is needed for practical assessment of risks for defined populations. (author)

  13. Phase transitions with four-spin interactions


    Lebowitz, Joel L.; Ruelle, David


    Using an extended Lee-Yang theorem and GKS correlation inequalities, we prove, for a class of ferromagnetic multi-spin interactions, that they will have a phase transition(and spontaneous magnetization) if, and only if, the external field $h=0$ (and the temperature is low enough). We also show the absence of phase transitions for some nonferromagnetic interactions. The FKG inequalities are shown to hold for a larger class of multi-spin interactions.

  14. Whole body hyperthermia by extracorporeal circulation in spontaneously breathing sarcoma patients: hemodynamics and oxygen metabolism. (United States)

    Locker, Gottfried J; Fuchs, Eva-Maria; Worel, Nina; Bojic, Andja; Heinrich, Gerhard; Brodowicz, Thomas; Clodi, Martin; Funk, Georg-Christian; Knöbl, Paul; Zielinski, Christoph C; Köstler, Wolfgang J


    This phase I study was performed to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of a new method of extracorporeal perfusion-induced whole body hyperthermia (WBHT) in patients with advanced sarcoma avoiding the need of intubation and general anesthesia. One double-lumen femoral venous access was inserted by Seldinger's technique to obtain WBHT (41.8°C for 120 minutes) via an extracorporeal circuit. No concomitant chemotherapy was applied. Up to 4 treatments of WBHT were performed under moderate sedation in 6 spontaneously breathing patients. Invasive hemodynamic monitoring was performed by use of a pulmonary artery catheter. After their first WBHT session, 2 patients were excluded from further treatment due to transient liver toxicity or catheter-related complication, so a total of 12 cycles remained for analyses. In all patients, conscious sedation resulted in sufficient spontaneous respiration without the need for mandatory ventilation. Median time to reach the target temperature was 84 minutes (range 60-142). Hemodynamic changes revealed the expected hyperdynamic state: heart rate, cardiac index, and stroke volume index significantly increased (pmean; 0.062 µg·kg¹·min⁻¹) were necessary to maintain the mean arterial blood pressure >60 mmHg. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of this method of extracorporeal WBHT without mandatory ventilation. Hemodynamic side effects in spontaneously breathing patients during perfusion-induced WBHT seem less severe than those observed in radiant heat WBHT.

  15. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen eLiu


    Full Text Available Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72. The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72 in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  16. Spontaneous large-scale autolysis in Clostridium acetobutylicum contributes to generation of more spores. (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Qiao, Kai; Tian, Lei; Zhang, Quan; Liu, Zi-Yong; Li, Fu-Li


    Autolysis is a widespread phenomenon in bacteria. In batch fermentation of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, there is a spontaneous large-scale autolysis phenomenon with significant decrease of cell density immediately after exponential phase. To unravel the role of autolysis, an autolysin-coding gene, CA_C0554, was disrupted by using ClosTron system to obtain the mutant C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72). The lower final cell density and faster cell density decrease rate of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 than those of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) indicates that CA_C0554 was an important but not the sole autolysin-coding gene responding for the large-scale autolysis. Similar glucose utilization and solvents production but obvious lower cell density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 comparing to C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) suggests that lysed C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 cells were metabolic inactive. On the contrary, the spore density of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is 26.1% higher than that of C. acetobutylicum lyc::int(72) in the final culture broth of batch fermentation. We speculated that spontaneous autolysis of metabolic-inactive cells provided nutrients for the sporulating cells. The present study suggests that one important biological role of spontaneous large-scale autolysis in C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 batch fermentation is contributing to generation of more spores during sporulation.

  17. Commensurate-incommensurate phase transition in the deformed crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parlinski, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Ohno, K.; Kawazoe, Y.


    Using simple orthorhombic microscopic model the commensurate-incommensurate phase transition has been studied. Coupling of the order parameter with spontaneous strain may lead to process which uses the ferroelastic domain walls to introduce the discommensurations to the incommensurate phase. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig

  18. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas in dengue hemorrhagic fever: A case report. (United States)

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Angelina, Frida; Adiwinata, Randy; Matondang, Sahat; Andriono, Prasetyo


    Muscle hematomas are rare complications in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). We report a case of 58-year-old-female admitted with dengue fever who developed spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma complicating DHF. She presented with progressive thrombocytopenia with platelet count reaching 13000/μL at its lowest point. There was evidence of plasma leakage and persistent cough during the course of illness. During the recovery phase, she reported severe abdominal pain and developed hematoma in the right rectus sheath, which was confirmed by abdominal computed-tomography scan and serial magnetic resonance imaging. This complication during convalescent period of DHF needs to be recognized so it can be managed appropriately.

  19. Spontaneous regulating mechanisms that may have led to the origin of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chela Flores, J.


    According to Salam condensation may be relevant in biochemistry, as a factor contributing to the homochirality of amino acids. We attempt to show that DNA packaging may be modelled, by interpreting chromatin as a form of soft matter, in which a phase transition has induced chromatin into a condensed mode. In the context of the origin of life we show the relevance of simultaneous discussion of DNA packaging, transcription, and DNA replication. Beyond a certain critical length of the protogenome (RNA), physical properties of inert condensed matter may have given rise to a spontaneous regulating mechanism of certain significance for the evolution of life on Earth. (author). 31 refs, 1 tab

  20. Pseudoaneurysm of the Superficial Femoral Artery in Behcet's Disease with Spontaneous Thrombosis Followed by CT Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Satoru; Akiba, Hidenari; Tamakawa, Mituharu; Takeda, Miki; Yama, Naoya; Hareyama, Masato; Morita, Kazuo; Masuda, Atsushi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki


    A 25-year-old man developed sudden pain and a pulsating mass in the left thigh. A diagnosis of Behcet's disease was made because of four major symptoms. Laboratory data indicated active inflammation. Emergency spiral computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed an aneurysm of the left superficial femoral artery (SFA). Under steroid therapy, follow-up spiral CTA showed spontaneous occlusion of the aneurysm. In the active phase of arteritis, spiral CTA is useful for the diagnosis of arterial lesions to avoid the arterial puncture of conventional arteriography

  1. Spontaneous breakdown and the scalar nonet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scadron, M.D.


    In the context of the QCD quark model and on the basis of dynamical Bethe-Salpeter ladder graphs, we suggest that (i) the existence of the scalar q-barq hadron multiplet, like the pseudoscalar q-barq multiplet, is a direct consequence of dynamical spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry with a chiral-limiting nonstrange mass scale of m/sub sigmaNS//sup CL/ = 2m/sub dyn/ roughly-equal630 MeV, (ii) the lifting of the nonstrange sigma-delta degeneracy is expected from the s-wave quark-gluon annihilation diagram, and (iii) the observed sigma-S* mixing follows from the existence of the p-wave scalar quark-annihilation diagram. The resulting predicted 0q-barq nonet is then sigma(750 MeV), kappa(800), S*(980), and delta(985), in agreement with data for the resonant masses, the mixing angle, and also decay widths except for the kappa(800).

  2. Enhancement of Pleasure during Spontaneous Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolò F. Bernardi


    Full Text Available Dancing emphasizes the motor expression of emotional experiences. The bodily expression of emotions can modulate the subjective experience of emotions, as when adopting emotion-specific postures and faces. Thus, dancing potentially offers a ground for emotional coping through emotional enhancement and regulation. Here we investigated the emotional responses to music in individuals without any prior dance training while they either freely danced or refrained from movement. Participants were also tested while imitating their own dance movements but in the absence of music as a control condition. Emotional ratings and cardio-respiratory measures were collected following each condition. Dance movements were recorded using motion capture. We found that emotional valence was increased specifically during spontaneous dance of groovy excerpts, compared to both still listening and motor imitation. Furthermore, parasympathetic-related heart rate variability (HRV increased during dance compared to motor imitation. Nevertheless, subjective and physiological arousal increased during movement production, regardless of whether participants were dancing or imitating. Significant correlations were found between inter-individual differences in the emotions experienced during dance and whole-body acceleration profiles. The combination of movement and music during dance results in a distinct state characterized by acutely heightened pleasure, which is of potential interest for the use of dance in therapeutic settings.

  3. Sync the emerging science of spontaneous order

    CERN Document Server

    Strogatz, Steven


    At the heart of the universe is a steady, insistent beat, the sound of cycles in sync. Along the tidal rivers of Malaysia, thousands of fireflies congregate and flash in unison; the moon spins in perfect resonance with its orbit around the earth; our hearts depend on the synchronous firing of ten thousand pacemaker cells. While the forces that synchronize the flashing of fireflies may seem to have nothing to do with our heart cells, there is in fact a deep connection. Synchrony is a science in its infancy, and Strogatz is a pioneer in this new frontier in which mathematicians and physicists attempt to pinpoint just how spontaneous order emerges from chaos. From underground caves in Texas where a French scientist spent six months alone tracking his sleep-wake cycle, to the home of a Dutch physicist who in 1665 discovered two of his pendulum clocks swinging in perfect time, this fascinating book spans disciplines, continents, and centuries. Engagingly written for readers of books such as Chaos and The Elegant ...

  4. Spontaneous Assembly of Exopolymers from Phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Xue Ding


    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exopolymeric substances (EPS contribute significantly to the dissolved organic car bon (DOC pool in the ocean, playing crucial roles in the surface ocean car bon cycle. Recent studies have demonstrated that ~10% of marine DOC can self-assemble as microgels through electro static Ca bonds providing hotspots of enriched microbial substrate. How ever, the question whether EPS can self-assemble and the formation mechanisms for EPS microgels have not been examined. Here were port that EPS from three representative phytoplankton species, Synechococcus, Emiliania huxleyi, and Skeletonema costatum can spontaneously self assemble in artificial sea water (ASW, forming microscopic gels of ~ 3 - 4 __m in diameter. Different from the marine DOC polymers assembly, these EPS samples can self-assemble in Ca2+-free ASW. Further experiments from fluorescence enhancement and chemical composition analysis confirmed the existence of fair amounts of hydrophobic domains in these EPS samples. These results suggest that hydrophobic interactions play a key role in the assembly of EPS from these three species of marine phytoplankton.

  5. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitin, V.N.; Kulakov, V.N.; Khokhlov, V.F.


    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x10 9 n/cm 2 s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x10 3 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  6. Spontaneously settled refugees in Northwestern Province, Zambia. (United States)

    Freund, P J; Kalumba, K


    The UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) commissioned researchers from the University of Zambia to conduct a socioeconomic survey and census of "spontaneously settled" Zairean and Angolan refugees in the Northwestern Province of Zambia in 1982. The sample consisted of 188 Angolans, 201 Zaireans, and 2 South Africans. The difficulties experienced by refugees in Northwestern Province in achieving integration were related to a combination of factors including the lack of a clear national policy on refugees and refugee status, a national concern for maintaining security, the popular belief that aliens are responsible for an increasing crime rate, the desire by immigration officials for stricter laws to control alien infiltration, conflict between traditional and modern leaders, and Zambia's deteriorating economic situation. In spite of the problems described, the integration of refugees into existing communities is a desirable goal and should be encouraged. One should not assume that self-settling refugees are able to live with ethnic kin, receive assistance and hospitality, and thus are better off than those in camps. The Zambian case provides ample evidence that integration is not easy even with kin support, shared ethnicity, language, and historical connections. Moreover, given the fact that Zambia will continue to receive refugees it is vital that there is a well defined refugee policy and an administrative mechanism for implementing that policy at all levels. This will be particularly important in Zambia as it will undoubtedly continue to receive large influxes of refugees, from countries such as Namibia, Uganda, Angola, Mozambique, and South Africa.

  7. Self-completeness and spontaneous dimensional reduction (United States)

    Mureika, Jonas; Nicolini, Piero


    A viable quantum theory of gravity is one of the biggest challenges physicists are facing. We discuss the confluence of two highly expected features which might be instrumental in the quest of a finite and renormalizable quantum gravity —spontaneous dimensional reduction and self-completeness. The former suggests the spacetime background at the Planck scale may be effectively two-dimensional, while the latter implies a condition of maximal compression of matter by the formation of an event horizon for Planckian scattering. We generalize such a result to an arbitrary number of dimensions, and show that gravity in higher than four dimensions remains self-complete, but in lower dimensions it does not. In such a way we established an "exclusive disjunction" or "exclusive or" (XOR) between the occurrence of self-completeness and dimensional reduction, with the goal of actually reducing the unknowns for the scenario of the physics at the Planck scale. Potential phenomenological implications of this result are considered by studying the case of a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model resulting from dimensional reduction of the Einstein gravity.

  8. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection: Diagnosis and Management. (United States)

    Yeo, Ilhwan; Feldman, Dmitriy N; Kim, Luke K


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a non-iatrogenic and non-traumatic separation of the coronary arterial wall. While SCAD represents an important cause of myocardial infarction, optimal diagnostic and therapeutic options remain challenging. We sought to review recent studies and provide an update on diagnosis and management of SCAD. Coronary angiography is the first-line diagnostic modality for SCAD, with three angiographic features commonly observed in SCAD: type 1 (pathognomonic angiographic appearance with contrast staining of the arterial wall), type 2 (long coronary stenosis), and type 3 (focal tubular stenosis). In addition, adjunctive intracoronary imaging can aid in identifying coronary dissections. Conservative management with beta-blockers and aspirin remains the mainstay of therapy. However, patients with high-risk features and recurrent symptoms may require revascularization. Several techniques have been reported, such as long stents to seal the entire length of the dissection, stepwise stenting starting at the distal edge followed by proximal edge stenting, use of bioabsorbable stents, and cutting balloon angioplasty. Furthermore, cardiac rehabilitation appears to be safe and offers significant benefits for patients with SCAD. Coronary angiographic classification contributed to the increased recognition of SCAD in recent years. Selecting the most suitable and appropriate therapy based on accurate diagnosis is the cornerstone of management in SCAD. Further studies are needed to establish optimal treatment of SCAD depending on anatomical and/or clinical features.

  9. Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissection: The Borgess Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas eAl-Ali


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground and Purpose: The pathogenesis of spontaneous cervical artery dissections (sCAD and its best medical treatment are debated. This may be due to a lack of clear classification of sCAD. We propose the new Borgess classification of sCAD, based on the presence or absence of intimal tear as depicted on imaging studies and effect on blood flow. Materials and Methods: This is a single-center investigator-initiated registry on consecutive patients treated for sCAD. In the Borgess classification, type I dissections have intact intima and type II dissections have an intimal tear. Results: Forty-four patients and 52 dissected arteries were found. Forty-nine of 52 dissections (93% were treated with dual anti-platelet therapy. Twenty-one of 52 dissections were type I; 31 were type II. Type I dissections were more likely to present with ischemic symptoms (stroke, TIA (p=0.001. More type I dissections occurred in the vertebral artery, while more type II dissections occurred in the internal carotid artery (p

  10. Current management of spontaneous coronary artery dissection. (United States)

    Bastante, Teresa; Cuesta, Javier; García-Guimaraes, Marcos; Rivero, Fernando; Maruri, Ramon; Adlan, David; Alfonso, Fernando


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) remains an infrequent and elusive clinical entity of unknown etiology. However, our knowledge of SCAD has been significantly enriched in recent years. Large and prospective contemporary series have increased the interest in this disease with fewer patients misdiagnosed and a growing number of cases recognized in daily clinical practice. Classically, SCAD was thought to present mainly in young women without traditional atherosclerotic risk factors but, actually, most patients are middle-aged and are not free from coronary risk factors. A high number of associated conditions have been reported. Of these, fibromuscular dysplasia emerges as a major association with intriguing pathophysiological implications. Areas covered: This review aims to present a contemporary update on SCAD. We concentrate on the clinical scenario, related conditions, practical management and treatment strategies. Expert commentary: Recognition of SCAD is currently much more frequent and accurate as a result of increased clinical awareness and the widespread use of intravascular imaging techniques. Hopefully, in the near future an improvement in the management of SCAD patients will come not only from empirical evidence but also from dedicated clinical trials.

  11. Clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHANG


    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MICH. Methods Conservative therapy, puncture and drainage, hematoma removal and/or decompressive craniectomy were used in the treatment of 630 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH patients, who were divided into 2 groups: 30 cases with MICH and another 600 cases with solitary intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH. Three months after onset, modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis of all cases. Results Compared with patients in SICH group, the occurrence rate of hypertension > 5 years (P = 0.008, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.024, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.050 and previous ischemic stroke (P = 0.026 were all significantly higher in MICH group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP level (P = 0.002 and the incidence of limb movement disorder (P = 0.000 were significantly higher in patients with MICH than those with SICH. Basal ganglia and thalamus were the predilection sites of hematoma (P = 0.001. Patients with MICH had worse prognosis compared to those with SICH 3 months after onset (P = 0.006. Conclusions Hypertension > 5 years, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke were identified to be the pathophysiological basis of MICH in this study. All patients with MICH had more serious clinical manifestations after onset and worse prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.008

  12. Spontaneous canine hydrocephalus: cerebrospinal fluid dynamics1 (United States)

    Sahar, A.; Hochwald, G. M.; Kay, W. J.; Ransohoff, J.


    Cerebrospinal fluid dynamics were studied in 14 dogs with spontaneous hydrocephalus. In nine of the dogs aqueductal obstruction was observed and the remainder had a `communicating type' hydrocephalus. The major histological findings consisted of severe ependymal destruction, spongy changes in the periventricular white matter, increased density of capillaries in this area, and varying degrees of thickening, fibrosis, and fusion of the choroid villi. The formation and absorption of CSF were studied by perfusion of the cerebral ventricles. The rate of formation of CSF was found to decrease with perfusion pressure by Vf = 0·02595−0·00022 P ml./min (P = pressure in cm H2O). The absorption of spinal fluid was found to increase linearly with pressure by Va = 0·0165 + 0·00050 P. The various factors influencing the formation and absorption of the spinal fluid are discussed. The meaning and attainment of `arrest' of the hydrocephalic process in terms of the measured rates of CSF formation and absorption in these animals are considered. Images PMID:5571319

  13. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum with a Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Bolvardi


    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is an unusual and benign condition in which air is present in mediastinum. A 20-year-old male patient presented to ED with complaint of hoarseness and odynophagia from the day before, after weightlifting. The patient was nonsmoker and denied history of other diseases. On physical examination he had no dyspnea with normal vital signs. Throat examination and pulmonary auscultation were normal and no crepitation was palpable. We could not find subcutaneous emphysema in neck and chest examination. In neck and chest X-ray we found that air is present around the trachea. There was no apparent pneumothorax in CXR. In cervical and chest CT free air was present around trachea and in mediastinum. Subcutaneous emphysema was also evident. But there was no pneumothorax. The patient was admitted and went under close observation, oxygen therapy, and analgesic. The pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema gradually resolved within a week by conservative therapy and he was discharged without any complication. Many different conditions could be trigged because of pneumomediastinum but it is rarely seen in intense physical exertion such as weightlifting and bodybuilding. Two most common symptoms are retrosternal chest pain and dyspnea. But the patient here complained of hoarseness and odynophagia.

  14. [Spontaneous hepatic hematoma in twin pregnancy]. (United States)

    Quesnel, Carlos; Weber, Alejandro; Mendoza, Dalila; Garteiz, Denzil


    The hepatic hematoma or rupture appear in 1 of every 100,000 pregnancies. The most common causes of hepatic hematoma in pregnancy are severe preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome; some predisposing factors are seizures, vomiting, labor, preexistent hepatic disease and trauma. A 33 year old primigravid with a normal 33 week twin pregnancy presented abdominal pain and hypovolemic shock due to spontaneous subcapsular hepatic hematoma; laparoscopy was performed to evaluate the possibility of rupture, which was not found, later emergency cesarean section was carried out followed by hepatic hematoma drainage and abdominal packaging by laparoscopy. After surgery the flow through drainage was too high additionally hemodynamic instability and consumption coagulopathy. Abdominal panangiography was performed without identifying bleeding areas. Intesive care was given to the patient evolving satisfactorily, was discharged 19 days after the event. Seven months later she had laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute litiasic colecistitis. We found 5 cases in literatura about hepatic hematoma during pregnancy no related to hypertensive disorders of pregnancy; these were related to hepatoma, amebian hepatic abscess, falciform cell anemia, cocaine consumption and molar pregnancy. Hepatics hematomas have high morbidity and mortality so is significant early diagnosis and multidisciplinary approach.

  15. Spontaneous Blinking from a Tribological Viewpoint. (United States)

    Pult, Heiko; Tosatti, Samuele G P; Spencer, Nicholas D; Asfour, Jean-Michel; Ebenhoch, Michael; Murphy, Paul J


    The mechanical forces between the lid wiper and the ocular surface, and between a contact lens and the lid wiper, are reported to be related to dry eye symptoms. Furthermore, the mechanical forces between these sliding partners are assumed to be related to the ocular signs of lid-wiper epitheliopathy (LWE) and lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF). Recent literature provides some evidence that a contact lens with a low coefficient of friction (CoF) improves wearing comfort by reducing the mechanical forces between the contact lens surface and the lid wiper. This review discusses the mechanical forces during spontaneous blinks from a tribological perspective, at both low and high sliding velocities, in a healthy subject. It concludes that the coefficient of friction of the ocular surfaces appears to be strongly comparable to that of hydrophilic polymer brushes at low sliding velocity, and that, with increased sliding velocity, there is no wear at the sliding partners' surfaces thanks to the presence of a fluid film between the two sliding partners. In contrast, in the case of dry eye, the failure to maintain a full fluid film lubrication regime at high blinking speeds may lead to increased shear rates, resulting in deformation and wear of the sliding pairs. These shear rates are most likely related to tear film viscosity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enhancement of Pleasure during Spontaneous Dance (United States)

    Bernardi, Nicolò F.; Bellemare-Pepin, Antoine; Peretz, Isabelle


    Dancing emphasizes the motor expression of emotional experiences. The bodily expression of emotions can modulate the subjective experience of emotions, as when adopting emotion-specific postures and faces. Thus, dancing potentially offers a ground for emotional coping through emotional enhancement and regulation. Here we investigated the emotional responses to music in individuals without any prior dance training while they either freely danced or refrained from movement. Participants were also tested while imitating their own dance movements but in the absence of music as a control condition. Emotional ratings and cardio-respiratory measures were collected following each condition. Dance movements were recorded using motion capture. We found that emotional valence was increased specifically during spontaneous dance of groovy excerpts, compared to both still listening and motor imitation. Furthermore, parasympathetic-related heart rate variability (HRV) increased during dance compared to motor imitation. Nevertheless, subjective and physiological arousal increased during movement production, regardless of whether participants were dancing or imitating. Significant correlations were found between inter-individual differences in the emotions experienced during dance and whole-body acceleration profiles. The combination of movement and music during dance results in a distinct state characterized by acutely heightened pleasure, which is of potential interest for the use of dance in therapeutic settings. PMID:29238298

  17. Timing of spontaneous sleep-paralysis episodes. (United States)

    Girard, Todd A; Cheyne, J Allan


    The objective of this prospective naturalistic field study was to determine the distribution of naturally occurring sleep-paralysis (SP) episodes over the course of nocturnal sleep and their relation to bedtimes. Regular SP experiencers (N = 348) who had previously filled out a screening assessment for SP as well as a general sleep survey were recruited. Participants reported, online over the World Wide Web, using a standard reporting form, bedtimes and subsequent latencies of spontaneous episodes of SP occurring in their homes shortly after their occurrence. The distribution of SP episodes over nights was skewed to the first 2 h following bedtime. Just over one quarter of SP episodes occurred within 1 h of bedtime, although episodes were reported throughout the night with a minor mode around the time of normal waking. SP latencies following bedtimes were moderately consistent across episodes and independent of bedtimes. Additionally, profiles of SP latencies validated self-reported hypnagogic, hypnomesic, and hypnopompic SP categories, as occurring near the beginning, middle, and end of the night/sleep period respectively. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that SP timing is controlled by mechanisms initiated at or following sleep onset. These results also suggest that SP, rather than uniquely reflecting anomalous sleep-onset rapid eye movement (REM) periods, may result from failure to maintain sleep during REM periods at any point during the sleep period. On this view, SP may sometimes reflect the maintenance of REM consciousness when waking and SP hallucinations the continuation of dream experiences into waking life.

  18. Do positive spontaneous thoughts function as incentive salience? (United States)

    Rice, Elise L; Fredrickson, Barbara L


    The present work explores the theoretical relationship between positive spontaneous thoughts and incentive salience-a psychological property thought to energize wanting and approach motivation by rendering cues that are associated with enjoyment more likely to stand out to the individual when subsequently encountered in the environment (Berridge, 2007). We reasoned that positive spontaneous thoughts may at least be concomitants of incentive salience, and as such, they might likewise mediate the effect of liking on wanting. In Study 1, 103 adults recruited via Amazon's Mechanical Turk reported on key aspects of 10 everyday activities. As predicted, positive spontaneous thoughts mediated the relationship between liking an activity in the past and wanting to engage in it in the future. In Study 2, 99 undergraduate students viewed amusing and humorless cartoons and completed a thought-listing task, providing experimental evidence for the causal effect of liking on positive spontaneous thoughts. In Study 3, we tested whether positive spontaneous thoughts play an active role in energizing wanting rather than merely co-occurring with (inferred) incentive salience. In that experiment involving 80 undergraduates, participants who were led to believe that their spontaneous thoughts about a target activity were especially positive planned to devote more time to that activity over the coming week than participants who received no such information about their spontaneous thoughts. Collectively, these findings suggest that positive spontaneous thoughts may play an important role in shaping approach motivation. Broader implications and future directions in the study of positive spontaneous thoughts are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Spontaneous bacterial empyema in cirrhotic patients: analysis of eleven cases. (United States)

    Xiol, X; Castellote, J; Baliellas, C; Ariza, J; Gimenez Roca, A; Guardiola, J; Casais, L


    Eleven episodes of spontaneous bacterial empyema were identified in eight cirrhotic patients with ascites. Criteria for spontaneous bacterial empyema included positive pleural fluid culture or polymorphonuclear cell concentration greater than 500 cells/mm3, evidence of pleural effusion before an infectious episode and transudate characteristics during infection. In five cases, spontaneous bacterial empyema was culture-negative and was associated with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. Ascitic fluid was culture-negative in two of these cases and culture-positive in three. Blood cultures were negative in all five of these cases. In six cases spontaneous bacterial empyema was culture-positive (Escherichia coli in four, Klebsiella pneumoniae in one and Clostridium perfringens in one). Four of these patients had the same organism in ascites; one had culture-negative spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and one had no infection of ascites. Blood cultures were positive in four of these patients; three died. Death was more frequent in patients with positive cultures than in those with negative ones (p less than 0.05). Patients with hydrothorax are prone to spontaneous bacterial empyema. This infection probably occurs through hematogenous seeding, but transfer of infected ascites from the abdominal cavity through the diaphragm cannot be excluded. Patients with spontaneous bacterial empyema may be asymptomatic or may be seen with fever, chills and dyspnea. Spontaneous bacterial empyema must be differentiated from parapneumonic empyemas. The presence of pleural effusion before the infectious episode, fluid characteristics and the organisms isolated are the clues for differential diagnosis. Treatment includes antibiotics; chest tube insertion probably is not necessary.

  20. Spontaneous Breaking of Scale Invariance in a d=3 U(N) Model with Chern-Simons Gauge Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bardeen, William A


    We study spontaneous breaking of scale invariance in the large N limit of three dimensional $U(N)_\\kappa$ Chern-Simons theories coupled to a scalar field in the fundamental representation. When a $\\lambda_6(\\phi^\\dagger\\cdot\\phi)^3$ self interaction term is added to the action we find a massive phase at a certain critical value for a combination of the $\\lambda_6$ and 't Hooft's $\\lambda=N/\\kappa$ couplings. This model attracted recent attention since at finite $\\kappa$ it contains a singlet sector which is conjectured to be dual to Vasiliev's higher spin gravity on $AdS_4$. Our paper concentrates on the massive phase of the 3d boundary theory. We discuss the advantage of introducing masses in the boundary theory through spontaneous breaking of scale invariance.

  1. Initial characterization of a spontaneous interferon secreted during growth and differentiation of Friend erythroleukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revel, M.F.E.M.; Kimchi, A.


    A gradual increase in the level of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase takes place in Friend erythroleukemia cells after a shiftdown in the rate of cell growth. The increase is about 5-fold after entry of cells into the stationary phase of growth, but much higher (25-fold) when reduction in growth accompanies cell differentiation. In the latter case, the enzyme increase is similar to that which can be induced in these cells by exogeneous interferon (IFN). The increase in 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase was shown to be due to a spontaneous secretion of IFN by the cells themselves: it is completely abolished if antiserum to murine type I IFN is added to the culture medium. In attempts to isolate some of this spontaneously secreted IFN, we show that it is stable at pH 2, not neutralized by antiserum to type II IFN, and that it also differs from the known IFN species induced by Sendai virus in Friend cells. The major component of this spontaneously secreted IFN is 20,000 M/sub r/, and differs from the corresponding virus-induced 20,000-M/sub r/ IFN by its lower affinity for antiserum to type I IFN and its antigenic characterization as BETA-murine IFN. The major component of the spontaneous IFN also exhibits a higher ratio of antigrowth to antiviral activity than the Sendai-induced IFNs. The authors suggest that Friend cells produce this specific type of IFN for the regulation of their growth and differentiation.

  2. Spontaneous and Evoked Activity from Murine Ventral Horn Cultures on Microelectrode Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan J. Black


    Full Text Available Motor neurons are the site of action for several neurological disorders and paralytic toxins, with cell bodies located in the ventral horn (VH of the spinal cord along with interneurons and support cells. Microelectrode arrays (MEAs have emerged as a high content assay platform for mechanistic studies and drug discovery. Here, we explored the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity of VH cultures derived from embryonic mouse spinal cord on multi-well plates of MEAs. Primary VH cultures from embryonic day 15–16 mice were characterized by expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT by immunocytochemistry. Well resolved, all-or-nothing spontaneous spikes with profiles consistent with extracellular action potentials were observed after 3 days in vitro, persisting with consistent firing rates until at least day in vitro 19. The majority of the spontaneous activity consisted of tonic firing interspersed with coordinated bursting across the network. After 5 days in vitro, spike activity was readily evoked by voltage pulses where a minimum amplitude and duration required for excitation was 300 mV and 100 μs/phase, respectively. We characterized the sensitivity of spontaneous and evoked activity to a host of pharmacological agents including AP5, CNQX, strychnine, ω-agatoxin IVA, and botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A. These experiments revealed sensitivity of the cultured VH to both agonist and antagonist compounds in a manner consistent with mature tissue derived from slices. In the case of BoNT/A, we also demonstrated intoxication persistence over an 18-day period, followed by partial intoxication recovery induced by N- and P/Q-type calcium channel agonist GV-58. In total, our findings suggest that VH cultures on multi-well MEA plates may represent a moderate throughput, high content assay for performing mechanistic studies and for screening potential therapeutics pertaining to paralytic toxins and neurological disorders.

  3. Factors affecting the spontaneous mutational spectra in somatic mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.А. Ковальова


    Full Text Available  In our survey of references we are discussed the influence of factors biological origin on the spontaneous mutation specters in mammalian. Seasonal and age components influence on the frequence of cytogenetic anomalies. The immune and endocrinous systems are take part in control of the alteration of the spontaneous mutation specters. Genetical difference of sensibility in animal and human at the alteration of factors enviroment as and  genetical differences of repair systems activity are may influence on individual variation of spontaneous destabilization characters of chromosomal apparatus.

  4. Acupuncture and Spontaneous Regression of a Radiculopathic Cervical Herniated Disc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sung-Ha


    Full Text Available The spontaneous regression of herniated cervical discs is not a well-established phenomenon. However, we encountered a case of a spontaneous regression of a severe radiculopathic herniated cervical disc that was treated with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herb medicine. The symptoms were improved within 12 months of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI conducted at that time revealed marked regression of the herniated disc. This case provides an additional example of spontaneous regression of a herniated cervical disc documented by MRI following non-surgical treatment.

  5. Acupuncture and spontaneous regression of a radiculopathic cervical herniated disc. (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ha; Park, Man-Young; Lee, Sang-Mi; Jung, Ho-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Kyoun; Lee, Jong-Deok; Kim, Dong-Woung; Yeom, Seung-Ryong; Lim, Jin-Young; Park, Min-Jung; Park, Se-Woon; Kim, Sung-Chul


    The spontaneous regression of herniated cervical discs is not a well-established phenomenon. However, we encountered a case of a spontaneous regression of a severe radiculopathic herniated cervical disc that was treated with acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, and herb medicine. The symptoms were improved within 12 months of treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conducted at that time revealed marked regression of the herniated disc. This case provides an additional example of spontaneous regression of a herniated cervical disc documented by MRI following non-surgical treatment.

  6. Geometry of spontaneously broken local N=1 supersymmetry in superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.


    The authers reveal the model-independent geometric content of spontaneous breakdown of local supersymmetry in N=1 supergravities (conformal and minimal Einstien ones) via constructing nonlinear realizations of their underlying superspace gauge group. A general method of implementing such realizations consistently with the intrinsic superspace geometry of supergravity theories is proposed and its relevance to description of spontaneous symmetry breaking in the theories of similar nature (strings, membranes) is pointed out. Superspace adequate to the nonlinear realizations constructed and find the explicit relation between them and conventional curved N=1 superspaces are defined. The implications of this relationship for the N = 1 supergravity actions with spontaneously broken supersymmetry are discussed. 29 refs

  7. Teaching spontaneous responses to a young child with Down syndrome. (United States)

    Feeley, Kathleen; Jones, Emily


    Children with Down syndrome experience significant communication impairments, particularly in expressive language. Although receiving little attention in the literature, deficiencies in expressive language are likely to affect spontaneous communicative responses in children with Down syndrome. In this study, using a multiple baseline design across responses, we demonstrated the effectiveness of discrete trial instruction in establishing spontaneous responses in a preschooler with Down syndrome. Spontaneous responses generalised to a novel setting involving a novel person and novel materials. Implications for the use of behaviourally based interventions to address the social-communicative needs of children with Down syndrome are discussed.

  8. Spontaneous and cytokine induced basophil adhesion evaluated by microtiter assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quan, Sha; Poulsen, Lars K; Reimert, Claus Michael


    We have developed a microtiter assay for evaluating basophil spontaneous adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins exemplified by fibronectin and cytokine induced basophil adhesion to bovine serum albumin (BSA). The percentage of basophils adhering to either ECM or BSA was quantified...... by the histamine content of the adhering basophils. The spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin was higher than to laminin and collagen type I. Both spontaneous adhesion to fibronectin and interleukin-3 (IL-3), interleukin-5 (IL-5), granulocyte/macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) induced adhesion to BSA...

  9. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik


    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...... the first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....

  10. [Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD): about 2 cases]. (United States)

    Elkasimi, Abdelouahab; Elouazzani, Ghizlane; Hbali, Anas; Ismaili, Nabila; Elouafi, Nouha


    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS); its prevalence is estimated to be less than 3%. It is defined as a separation within the coronary arterial wall secondary to intramural bleeding with or without intimal tear, creating a false channel. It mainly affects young subjects, mainly women, without coronary atherosclerosis or risk factors for atherosclerosis. However, the occurrence of spontaneous dissection due to atheromatous disease is possible. We here report 2 cases of spontaneous coronary dissection, in order to discuss its pathogenesis, factors favoring its occurrence, its clinical presentation and its therapeutic management.

  11. Strong evidence for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in (quenched) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, I.M.; Gibbs, P.; Schierholz, G.; Teper, M.; Gilchrist, J.P.; Schneider, H.


    We calculate the chiral condensate for all quark masses using Kogut-Susskind fermions in lattice-regularized quenched QCD. The large volume behaviour of at small quark masses demonstrates that the explicit U(1) chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. We perform the calculation for β = 5.1 to 5.9 and find very good continuum renormalization group behaviour. We infer that the spontaneous breaking we observe belongs to continuum QCD. This constitutes the first unambiguous demonstration of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in continuum quenched QCD. (orig.)

  12. Spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in IPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franquet, T.; Gimenez, A.; Torrubia, S.; Sabate, J.M.; Rodriguez-Arias, J.M.


    Patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are at risk for a variety of acute pulmonary complications, including pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum. Our aim was to describe the radiographic and CT findings and to determine the frequency of complicating spontaneous pneumothorax and pneumomediastinum in patients with IPF. A retrospective study was performed including 78 consecutive patients who underwent CT scanning of the chest and who had confirmed IPF. The chest radiographs and CT scans were reviewed by two chest radiologists and classified as showing features of extra-alveolar air collections. The CT scans showed extra-alveolar air in 9 (11.2 %) of 78 patients (six females and three males; age range 26-90 years, mean age 65 years). Pneumothorax was demonstrated in 5 patients and mediastinal air collections in 4 patients. All patients had dyspnea for 1-48 months (mean 14 months). Of the five cases with pneumothorax, four developed acute onset of dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain, whereas 1 patient had a relatively stable functional status. Of the 4 patients with pneumomediastinum, three presented with nonpleuritic chest pain and acute dyspnea. Chest radiographs showed extra-alveolar air in 6 patients. Three cases were predicted to be negative by chest radiographs. Follow-up CT showed that air collections had resolved completely in 5 patients. Two patients died of respiratory failure within 4 months after CT. Extra-alveolar air should be recognized as a relatively common IPF-related complication. Chest CT is a useful imaging method in determining air collections in patients with IPF that become acutely breathless and their chest radiograph fails to reveal the presence of extra-alveolar air. (orig.)

  13. Probiotics and refractory chronic spontaneous urticaria. (United States)

    Nettis, E; Di Leo, E; Pastore, A; Distaso, M; Zaza, I; Vacca, M; Macchia, L; Vacca, A


    Background. In chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU) first-line therapy with an antihistamine-based regimen may not achieve satisfactory control in patients. Thus, a continuing need exists for effective and safe treatments for refractory CSU. Aim. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of an intake of a combination of 2 probiotics (Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03) in patients with CSU who remain symptomatic despite concomitant H1-antihistamine therapy. Methods. This report analyzes the effects of therapy with two probiotic strains on the clinical progress of 52 unselected patients with difficulty to treat CSU underwent to medical examination in two Italian specialist urticaria Clinics between September 2013 and September 2014. A mixture of Lactobacillus LS01 and Bifidobacterium BR03 were administered in each patient twice daily for 8 weeks. To evaluate patients' improvement with probiotics, urticaria activity score over 7 days (UAS7) was used at baseline and at week 8 in addition to a 5-question urticaria quality of life questionnaire. Results. Fifty-two patients with CSU were included in this study (10 male and 42 female, age range 19-72 years). Mean disease duration was 1.5 years. Fourteen patients discontinued treatment, so evaluable population consisted of 38 patients. Nine of the 38 patients experienced mild clinical improvement during probiotic treatment (23.7%); one patient reported significant clinical improvement (2.6%) and one patient had complete remission of urticaria (2.6%). Twenty-seven patients did not have improvement in symptoms (71.1%). No side effects during the course of therapy were reported. Conclusions. A combination of Lactobacillus salivarius LS01 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 administered twice daily for 8 weeks might reduce the symptoms scores and improve quality of life scores in a part of patients with CSU who remained symptomatic despite treatment with H1 antihistamine mostly in subjects with allergic

  14. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...

  15. Spontaneous choledochal cyst rupture in pregnancy with concomitant chronic pancreatitis. (United States)

    Pal, Sandip; Simon, Ebby George; Koshy, Anoop K; Ramakrishna, B S; Raju, Ravish S; Vyas, Fredrick L; Joseph, Philip; Sitaram, V; Eapen, Anu


    Choledochal cysts are rare cystic transformations of the biliary tree that are increasingly diagnosed in adult patients. We report here a case of spontaneous rupture of a choledochal cyst in a pregnant young lady with chronic pancreatitis.

  16. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    given birth twice or more previously had increased odds ratio (OR), 1.78 (1.27-2.49), whereas women who were students had decreased OR, 0.55 (0.34-0.91) for having spontaneous abortions. Regarding lifestyle factors, the adjusted ORs among women who consumed 5 units or more alcohol per week or 375 mg......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  17. Treatment of ascites and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis - Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Flemming; Grønbæk, Henning; Hansen, Jesper Bach


    National guidelines for treatment of ascites, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatorenal syndrome, and hyponatremia have been approved by the Danish Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology. Ascites develops in approximately 60% of patients with cirrhosis during a 10 year period...

  18. Renormalization of extended QED with spontaneously broken supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibold, K.


    Using the BPHZ subtraction scheme in the version of Lowenstein and Zimmermann gauge and supersymmetry Ward identities are proved to all orders of perturbation theory for the super QED where supersymmetry is spontaneously broken. (orig.)

  19. Spontaneous Tumour Lysis Syndrome in a Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Huzmeli


    Full Text Available The tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a collection of metabolic abnormalities that occur in consequence of the release of intracellular contents following lysis of tumor cells. TLS occurs spontaneously or after chemotherapy. Spontaneous TLS is uncommon occurrence in multiple myeloma (MM. We define a case of a 70-year-old woman patient who was found to have MM with spontaneous TLS, following a compression fracture of the T-12 vertebrae. While serum uric acid and phosphorous levels were high, low calcium levels were identified. There were also acute kidney injury and metabolic acidosis. Upon the diagnosis of TLS, she was treated with hydration, allopurinol, sodium bicarbonate, and calcium gluconate. The improvement of her laboratory data was observed. We submitted this case in order to draw attention to the presentation of MM with spontaneous TLS.

  20. Fetal megacystis : prediction of spontaneous resolution and outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontanella, F.; Duin, L.; Adama van Scheltema, P. N.; Cohen-Overbeek, T. E.; Pajkrt, E.; Bekker, M.; Willekes, C.; Bax, C. J.; Bilardo, C. M.


    Objectives: To investigate the natural history of fetal megacystis from diagnosis in utero to postnatal outcome, and to identify prognostic indicators of spontaneous resolution and postnatal outcome after resolution. Methods: This was a national retrospective cohort study. Fetal megacystis was

  1. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah


    STUDY QUESTION: Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? SUMMARY ANSWER: We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced...... abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk...... and spontaneous abortion over time. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995...

  2. Spontaneous ignition due to intentional acute aluminum phosphide poisoning. (United States)

    Shadnia, Shahin; Soltaninejad, Kambiz


    Acute aluminum phosphide (AlP) poisoning is one of the most common cause of acute pesticide poisoning in Iran. Spontaneous ignition is a rare finding in AlP poisoning. To present two cases of fatal AlP poisoning that involved spontaneous ignition. Two patients presented with suicidal ingestion of AlP tablets. In the Emergency Department (ED), they received gastric lavage. During insertion of a nasogastric tube, both patients experienced spontaneous ignition, and flames were witnessed by the medical personnel. Unfortunately, both patients died due to systemic effects of AlP poisoning. Patients who present with acute aluminum phosphide poisoning may experience spontaneous ignition in the ED. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Immunoglobulin G antisperm antibodies and prediction of spontaneous pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leushuis, Esther; van der Steeg, Jan Willem; Steures, Pieternel; Repping, Sjoerd; Schöls, Willem; van der Veen, Fulco; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Hompes, Peter G. A.


    Objective: To investigate the predictive capacity of immunoglobulin G ASA (direct MAR test) for spontaneous ongoing pregnancy in subfertile couples. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Nine fertility centers in The Netherlands. Patient(s): Consecutive ovulatory subfertile couples.

  4. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke


    , and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  5. Spontaneity and Equilibrium: Why "?G Equilibrium" Are Incorrect (United States)

    Raff, Lionel M.


    The fundamental criteria for chemical reactions to be spontaneous in a given direction are generally incorrectly stated as ?G equilibrium are also misstated as being ?G = 0 or ?A = 0. Following a brief review of the…

  6. Spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring (United States)

    Gong, ZhiRui; Zhang, ZhenWei; Xu, DaZhi; Zhao, Nan; Sun, ChangPu


    We study the spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the gauge couplings between the center-of-mass and the relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originate from the symmetries of the ring geometry and the corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. In particular, such spontaneous decoherence does not occur at all at the thermodynamic limit because the nontrivial boundary conditions become the trivial Born-von Karman boundary conditions when the perimeter of the ring container tends to infinity. Our investigation shows that a thermal macroscopic object with certain symmetries has a chance for its quantum properties to degrade even without applying an external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment.

  7. Investigation of some features of ferroelectric phase transition in a liquid-crystal binary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkissyan, A.Ts.; Baghdasaryan, Z.V.; Vardanyan, K.K.


    Investigation of some features of the ferroelectric phase transition in a liquid-crystal binary system is carried out. It is shown that in investigated systems the flexoelectric effects are responsible, in basic, for occurrence of the spontaneous polarization

  8. 14-Decades Calibration in Airborne Detectors for Environmental Science (14DeCADES), Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The 14-DeCADES SBIR leverages the results of a FY13 spontaneous IRAD and a subsequent successful Phase 1 SBIR which characterized and tested key elements that will...

  9. Spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Eun Young; Nam, Sang Yu; Choi, Hye Young; Hong, Min Ji [Dept. of Radiology, Gil Medical Center, Gachon University School of Medicine and Science, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Spontaneous breast infarction is a very rare complication of fibroadenoma of the breast. We present an interesting case of a 33-year-old woman with spontaneous infarction of hyperplastic breast tissue related to pregnancy and lactation. Mammography showed an oval, circumscribed, fat-containing mass with microcalcifications. Ultrasonography revealed an oval, circumscribed mass with echogenic dots. Color Doppler imaging revealed presence of minimal vascularity at the periphery of the mass.

  10. Teaching Spontaneous Responses to Young Children With Autism


    Jones, Emily A; Feeley, Kathleen M; Takacs, Jennifer


    Using a multiple probe design across responses, we demonstrated the effectiveness of intensive intervention in establishing spontaneous verbal responses to 2 3-year-old children with autism with generalization to novel settings involving novel persons. Intervention involved discrete-trial instruction (i.e., repeated instructional opportunities presented in close proximity to high rates of reinforcement), specific prompts, and error correction. Spontaneous responses were defined as specific ve...

  11. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage caused by decompensated liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnagopal Srikanth


    Full Text Available Expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage can be surgical or spontaneous. Spontaneous expulsive suprachoroidal hemorrhage (SESCH is a rare entity. Most of the reported cases of SESCH were caused by a combination of corneal pathology and glaucoma. We are reporting a rare presentation of SESCH with no pre-existing glaucoma or corneal pathology and caused by massive intra- and peri-ocular hemorrhage due to decompensated liver disease.

  12. Spontaneous emission of semiconductors in the Wigner approach (United States)

    Filinov, V. S.; Hoyer, W.; Bonitz, M.; Kira, M.; Fortov, V. E.; Koch, S. W.


    This paper presents a first step towards combining two well-established methods used in semiconductor physicsmdashsemiconductor Bloch equations and the Wigner approach to quantum transport. This combination provides the possibility of including spontaneous emission, i.e., the spontaneous recombination of excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors, into the Wigner approach, which so far has been used only for systems with fixed particle number. The theory is presented and first numerical results for a three-dimensional system are shown.

  13. Learning sculpts the spontaneous activity of the resting human brain


    Lewis, Christopher M.; Baldassarre, Antonello; Committeri, Giorgia; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio


    The brain is not a passive sensory-motor analyzer driven by environmental stimuli, but actively maintains ongoing representations that may be involved in the coding of expected sensory stimuli, prospective motor responses, and prior experience. Spontaneous cortical activity has been proposed to play an important part in maintaining these ongoing, internal representations, although its functional role is not well understood. One spontaneous signal being intensely investigated in the human brai...

  14. Highly Efficient Spontaneous Emission from Self-Assembled Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Lund-Hansen, Toke; Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency.......We present time resolved measurements of spontaneous emission (SE) from InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs). The measurements are interpreted using Fermi's Golden Rule and from this analysis we establish the parameters for high quantum efficiency....

  15. Idiopathic Spontaneous Adrenal Hemorrhage in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narin Nasiroglu Imga


    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage (SAH is seen in the absence of trauma or adrenal tumor in adrenal glands. The incidence of SAH has been reported from 0.14% to 1.1% and it usually involves the right gland. During pregnancy, idiopathic unilateral SAH has been reported rarely. We present a case which comes to emergency department with an acute abdominal pain and the test results showed spontaneous left SAH.

  16. [Atypical etiology of rhinorrhea: spontaneous bilateral temporal encephalocele]. (United States)

    Lorente Muñoz, Asís; Lisbona Alquézar, María Pilar; González Martínez, Luis; Sevil Navarro, Jorge; Llorente Arenas, Eva María


    Spontaneous herniation of brain parenchyma through a dural and osseous defect in the temporal bone is a rare entity and a bilateral form is even more infrequent. It usually presents as an intermittent but persistent otorrhea. Manifestation as nose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is very uncommon. Our objective is presenting this unusual case report of a spontaneous bilateral encephalocele with a bilateral tegmen tympani defect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Spontaneous acute subdural hematoma in a patient with multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ahad Wani


    Full Text Available Acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in a patient of multiple myeloma receiving chemotherapy is an unknown event, needing an urgent neurosurgical management. We report this patient who presented with progressive neurological deterioration and a low platelet count. She was successfully managed by craniotomy and evacuation of subdural hematoma with intraoperative transfusion of platelets. The acute spontaneous subdural hematoma in her was probably related to the bleeding diathesis due to thrombocytopenia associated with chemotherapy.

  18. Spontaneous Rupture of the Stomach; Report of Case, (United States)


    massively distended and she experienced dyspnea. She developed tachycardia (110) and became hypotensive (90 systolic). Portable x-rays of the chest and...pointed out by Matikainen 17 in 1979. Spontaneous gastric rupture in the newborn appears to be more common than in the adult. 18 DISCUSSION The cause of...138:(451-452), 1979. 18. Bayatpour, M., Bernard, L., McCune, F., and bariel, W.: Spontaneous gastric rupture in the newborn , Am. J. Surg., 137:(267-269), 1979.

  19. Spontaneous Tricuspid Valve Chordal Rupture in Idiopathic Pulmonary Hypertension. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Clara Tude; Afonso, José E; Cordovil, Adriana; Monaco, Claudia; Piveta, Rafael; Cordovil, Rodrigo; Fischer, Claudio H; Vieira, Marcelo; Lira-Filho, Edgar; Morhy, Samira S


    Rupture of tricuspid valve is unusual, occurring mainly in the setting of blunt trauma or endomyocardial biopsy. Spontaneous tricuspid valve chordal rupture is particularly rare. We report herein a case of a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension, on the lung transplantation waiting list, who presented with spontaneous chordal rupture, exacerbation of tricuspid insufficiency and worsening of clinical status. Diagnosis and treatment, along with possible mechanisms for this complication, are discussed. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Spontaneous remission of a diffuse brainstem lesion in a neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Leena; Kahn, Thomas [University of Leipzig, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany); Merkenschlager, Andreas [University of Leipzig, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Hirsch, Wolfgang [University of Leipzig, Pediatric Radiology, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Leipzig (Germany)


    We describe here the spontaneous remission of a diffuse brainstem lesion found in an infant at the age of 7 weeks. Clinical and MRI characteristics strongly suggested a diffuse pontine glioma. Repeated MRI studies showed a continuous decrease in the size of the lesion, which was no longer visible by the age of 27 months. Spontaneous remission of diffuse pontine glioma is extremely rare; to our knowledge there are reports of only three similar cases. (orig.)

  1. Spontaneous Regression of Intervertebral Disc Herniation – Case Reports


    Rapan, Saša; Gulan, Gordan; Lovrić, Ivan; Jovanović, Savo


    Lumbar disc hernia (LDH) is a common cause of low back pain and radicular leg pain. It is well known that the majority of LDH patients recover spontaneously. Since the advent of MRI, a spontaneous regression of fragment size of disc hernia occurs, as well as mitigation of subjective difficulties and neurological disorders. Therefore, surgical treatment is not always method of choice in this disease. Two cases of conservatively treated large disc extrusion which result in significant ...

  2. Trisomy 13 ascertained in a survey of spontaneous abortions.


    Jacobs, P A; Hassold, T J; Henry, A; Pettay, D; Takaesu, N


    In a series of 2922 karyotyped spontaneous abortions, 62 were found to be trisomic for chromosome 13, 46 having a simple trisomy and 16 a translocation trisomy. The epidemiology of this series of trisomy 13 conceptuses is presented and compared to that of trisomy 13 ascertained from other populations. In most compared parameters the trisomy 13 spontaneous abortions are very similar. However, there is no evidence in our material for the fall in proportion of trisomy 13 conceptuses at very adva...

  3. Spontaneous polarization of a nonstoichiometric ferroelectric NaNO2 at low temperatures (United States)

    Matyjasik, S.; Shaldin, Yu.


    We report measurements of the temperature dependence of the pyroelectric charge in a nonstoichiometric z-cut sample of sodium nitrite in the temperature range 4.2-300 K. The obtained data are supplemented by the measurements of thermally stimulated depolarization (TSD) in electric fields of different magnitudes and polarities. All the experimental results serve as the basis for constructing the temperature dependence of the spontaneous polarization ΔPs(T,U) and the pyroelectric coefficient γ(U,T) for fixed external stimuli. It is found that the value of ΔPs in the sample of sodium nitrite is negligible at low temperatures, up to 40 K. This indicates (for known experimental values of the linear expansion coefficients) a minor contribution of the sample piezoelectricity to the spontaneous polarization in this temperature range. Starting from T = 75 K, an exponential increase in the contribution to the total charge of the TSD is found only in the defect subsystem of the crystal. Based on the data of physical studies, a crystal-physics model is proposed, which differs from the model presented by Lines and Glass. Due to the splitting of ion positions in all three sublattices upon the transition to the paraelectric phase, NaNO2 crystals can be assigned to the three-dimensional type of ferroelectrics, according to the classification by Abrahams and Keve. This agrees with the estimate of the spontaneous polarization Ps ˜ 0.01 C/m2 given in the paper. This value is significantly different from the data obtained by repolarization of nonstoichiometric samples in strong electric fields up to the phase transition temperature.

  4. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA profiles among chronic HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals in ESPRIT; spontaneous HCV RNA clearance observed in nine individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grint, D; Tedaldi, Ellen; Peters, L


    OBJECTIVES: Studies have shown that hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA levels remain stable over time in HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals taking combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), while spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA during the persistent infection phase has been documented only rarely among tho...

  5. Brain activation for spontaneous and explicit false belief tasks overlaps: new fMRI evidence on belief processing and violation of expectation. (United States)

    Bardi, Lara; Desmet, Charlotte; Nijhof, Annabel; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel


    There is extensive discussion on whether spontaneous and explicit forms of ToM are based on the same cognitive/neural mechanisms or rather reflect qualitatively different processes. For the first time, we analyzed the BOLD signal for false belief processing by directly comparing spontaneous and explicit ToM task versions. In both versions, participants watched videos of a scene including an agent who acquires a true or false belief about the location of an object (belief formation phase). At the end of the movies (outcome phase), participants had to react to the presence of the object. During the belief formation phase, greater activity was found for false vs true belief trials in the right posterior parietal cortex. The ROI analysis of the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), confirmed this observation. Moreover, the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (aMPFC) was active during the outcome phase, being sensitive to violation of both the participant's and agent's expectations about the location of the object. Activity in the TPJ and aMPFC was not modulated by the spontaneous/explicit task. Overall, these data show that neural mechanisms for spontaneous and explicit ToM overlap. Interestingly, a dissociation between TPJ and aMPFC for belief tracking and outcome evaluation, respectively, was also found. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Spontaneous indices are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex gain. (United States)

    Lipman, Ruth D; Salisbury, Julie K; Taylor, J Andrew


    Spontaneously occurring, parallel fluctuations in arterial pressure and heart period are frequently used as indices of baroreflex function. Despite the convenience of spontaneous indices, their relation to the arterial baroreflex remains unclear. Therefore, in 97 volunteers, we derived 5 proposed indices (sequence method, alpha-index, transfer function, low-frequency transfer function, and impulse response function), compared them with arterial baroreflex gain (by the modified Oxford pharmacologic technique), and examined their relation to carotid distensibility and respiratory sinus arrhythmia. The subjects comprised men and women (n=41) aged 25 to 86 years, 30% of whom had established coronary artery disease. Generally, the indices were correlated with each other (except alpha-index and low-frequency transfer function) and with baroreflex gain. However, the Bland-Altman method demonstrated that the spontaneous indices had limits of agreement as large as the baroreflex gain itself. Even in individuals within the lowest tertile of baroreflex gain for whom baroreflex gain appears to be the most clinically relevant, spontaneous indices failed to relate to baroreflex gain. In fact, for these individuals, there was no correlation between any index and baroreflex gain. Forward stepwise linear regression showed that all spontaneous indices and baroreflex gain were related to respiratory sinus arrhythmia, but only baroreflex gain was related to carotid distensibility. Therefore, these data suggest that spontaneous indices are inadequate estimates of gain and are inconsistent with arterial baroreflex function.

  7. Observation time and spontaneous resolution of primary phimosis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Toledo de Arruda Lourenção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to investigate spontaneous resolution rate of a series of patients with physiologic phimosis in relation to observation time and presence of symptoms. Methods: retrospective and longitudinal follow-up study of patients with physiologic phimosis, that did not apply topic treatment. These patients were invited for a new visit for reevaluation, or recent data were obtained by chart analysis. Spontaneous resolution rate was determined and statistically compared to age, presence of symptoms at first medical visit and time until reevaluation. Results: seventy one patients were included. Medium time of observation from first visit to reevaluation was 37.4 months. There was spontaneous resolution of phimosis in 32 (45% patients. Children with spontaneous resolution were younger at initial diagnosis and were observed during a longer period of time. Most asymptomatic patients at first visit presented spontaneous resolution. However, it was not possible to stablish a significant relationship between presence of symptoms and evolution of physiologic phimosis. Conclusions: time of observation was the main determinant of spontaneous resolution of patients with physiologic phimosis, reinforcing the current more conservative approach regarding circumcision of those patients.

  8. Sustained mild hypergravity reduces spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. (United States)

    Yanagida, Ryo; Ogawa, Yojiro; Ueda, Kaname; Aoki, Ken; Iwasaki, Ken-ichi


    Head-to-foot gravitational force >1G (+Gz hypergravity) augments venous pooling in the lower body and reduces central blood volume during exposure, compared with 1Gz. Central hypovolemia has been reported to reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. However, no investigations have examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exposure to sustained mild +Gz hypergravity. We therefore hypothesized that mild +Gz hypergravity would reduce spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, compared with 1Gz. To test this hypothesis, we examined spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity in 16 healthy men during exposure to mild +Gz hypergravity using a short-arm centrifuge. Beat-to-beat arterial blood pressure (tonometry) and R-R interval (electrocardiography) were obtained during 1Gz and 1.5Gz exposures. Spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by sequence slope and transfer function gain. Stroke volume was calculated from the arterial pressure waveform using a three-element model. All indices of spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity decreased significantly (up slope: 18.6±2.3→12.7±1.6ms/mmHg, Pbaroreflex sensitivity, increasing the risk of cardiovascular disturbance during the exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A possible relation between leptogenesis and PMNS phases

    CERN Document Server

    Covi, Laura; Kyae, Bumseok; Nam, Soonkeon


    The CP phase relevant in the leptogenesis is related to the PMNS phase in case only one CP phase appears in the full theory. Thus, the CP phase is introduced by spontaneous CP violation at a high energy scale toward realizing the successful Kobayashi-Maskawa electroweak CP violation. This phase is in a complex vacuum expectation value of a standard model singlet field. We find new $W$ boson exchange diagrams for leptogenesis. Assuming that the lightest (intermediate scale) Majorana lepton $N_0$ dominates the lepton asymmetry, the lepton asymmetry and the PMNS phase are related.

  10. Moon Phases (United States)

    Riddle, Bob


    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

  11. Spontaneous CP Violation in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Branco, G.C.; Romao, J.C.; Teixeira, A.M.


    We re-examine spontaneous CP violation at the tree level in the context of the next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) with two Higgs doublets H_{1,2} and a gauge singlet field N. Within such a framework, the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is real and all CP-violating phenomena can be described by two phases phi_D and phi_N which arise from the complex vacuum expectation values and of the neutral Higgs doublet and singlet fields respectively. We analyse the most general Higgs potential without a discrete Z_3 symmetry, and derive an upper bound on the mass of the lightest neutral Higgs boson which is still consistent with present experimental data. We investigate, in particular, its dependence on the CP-violating phase phi_N as well as the admixture of the gauge singlet field, and on tan(beta). To assess the viability of the spontaneous CP violation scenario, we estimate epsilon_K by applying the mass insertion approximation. We find that a non-trivial flavour structure in the soft-breaking A...

  12. Pathogenesis of hypercalciuria in spontaneously hypertensive rats. (United States)

    Hsu, C H; Chen, P S; Smith, D E; Yang, C S


    The etiology of hypercalciuria remains unknown in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In order to differentiate absorptive versus renal hypercalciuria, serial measurements of urinary calcium (UCaV) excretion were made weekly under fasting (3-hour urine collection) and after oral administration of CaCl2 (50 mg/100 g; 4-hour urine collection) from age 8 to 14 weeks in SHR (n = 14) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; n = 14). Fasting UCaV was significantly greater in WKY than in SHR throughout the periods of observation. In contrast, after oral Ca loading UCaV was greater in SHR after 13 weeks of age (13 weeks: SHR UCaV = 954 micrograms/mg creatinine, WKY UCaV = 541 p less than 0.01; 14 weeks: SHR UCaV = 988 micrograms/mg creatinine, WKY UCaV = 534, p less than 0.01). Fasting urinary cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) excretion was not different between WKY and SHR. However, cyclic AMP excretion of SHR, but not WKY, was decreased after calcium loading when compared to the fasting values. The cyclic AMP was also significantly lower in SHR than in WKY rats after calcium loading. Calcium handling by the kidney was not different between SHR and WKY with or without parathyroidectomy. Calcium disposition kinetic studies were performed on these animals at age 15 and 16 weeks. No significant difference of intravenous 45Ca was observed between WKY (n = 6) and SHR (n = 6) in total plasma clearance, nonrenal clearance, biologic half-life, and elimination rate constant from the central compartment. However, the WKY had a significantly greater renal clearance of 45Ca than the SHR (0.48 +/- 0.04 vs. 0.24 +/- 0.02 ml/n, p less than 0.001). Since tissue disposition of intravenous 45Ca was not different between WKY and SHR, the increased renal excretion of calcium after oral administration in SHR, therefore, reflects increased intestinal absorption of calcium. Correction of established hypertension did not abolish the hypercalciuria. We believe that increased

  13. Modulation of Jahn-Teller effect on magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization of CuFeO2 (United States)

    Xiao, Guiling; Xia, Zhengcai; Wei, Meng; Huang, Sha; Shi, Liran; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Wu, Huan; Yang, Feng; Song, Yujie; Ouyang, Zhongwen


    CuFe0.99Mn0.01O2 and CuFe0.99Co0.01O2 single crystal samples are grown by a floating zone technique and their magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization have been investigated. Similarly with pure CuFeO2, an obviously anisotropic magnetization and spontaneous electric polarization were observed in the both doped samples, and their phase transition critical fields and temperatures are directly doping ion dependent. Considering the different d-shell configuration and ionic size between Mn3+, Co3+ and Fe3+ ions, in which the Mn3+ ion with Jahn-Teller (J-T) effect has different distortion on the geometry frustration from both of Fe3+ and Co3+ ion. Since for Mn3+ ion, the orbital splitting results from the low-symmetry J-T distortion in a crystal-field environment leads to a distorted MnO6 octahedron, which different from undistorted FeO6 and CoO6 octahedrons. The strain between distorted and undistorted octahedrons produces different effects on the spin reorientation transition and spontaneous electric polarization. Although the pure CuFeO2 has a very strong and robust frustration, the presence of the strain due to the random distribution of distorted MnO6 octahedron and undistorted CoO6 (FeO6) octahedrons leads to its spin reorientation transitions and spontaneous electric polarization different from CuFeO2.

  14. Multiple origins of spontaneously arising micronuclei in HeLa cells: Direct evidence from long-term live cell imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao Xiaotang; Zhang Yingyin; Yi Qiyi; Hou Heli; Xu Bo; Chu Liang; Huang Yun; Zhang Wenrui [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China); Fenech, Michael [CSIRO Human Nutrition, PO Box 10041, Adelaide BC, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Shi Qinghua [Laboratory of Molecular and Cell Genetics, Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230027 (China)], E-mail:


    Although micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxic effects and chromosome instability, the most basic issue regarding their origins has not been completely addressed due to limitations of traditional methods. Recently, long-term live cell imaging was developed to monitor the dynamics of single cell in a real-time and high-throughput manner. In the present study, this state-of-the-art technique was employed to examine spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in untreated HeLa cells. We demonstrate that spontaneous MNi are derived from incorrectly aligned chromosomes in metaphase (displaced chromosomes, DCs), lagging chromosomes (LCs) and broken chromosome bridges (CBs) in later mitotic stages, but not nuclear buds in S phase. However, most of bipolar mitoses with DCs (91.29%), LCs (73.11%) and broken CBs (88.93%) did not give rise to MNi. Our data also show directly, for the first time, that MNi could originate spontaneously from (1) MNi already presented in the mother cells; (2) nuclear fragments that appeared during mitosis with CB; and (3) chromosomes being extruded into a minicell which fused with one of the daughter cells later. Quantitatively, most of MNi originated from LCs (63.66%), DCs (10.97%) and broken CBs (9.25%). Taken together, these direct evidences show that there are multiple origins for spontaneously arising MNi in HeLa cells and each mechanism contributes to overall MN formation to different extents.

  15. Multiple origins of spontaneously arising micronuclei in HeLa cells: Direct evidence from long-term live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Xiaotang; Zhang Yingyin; Yi Qiyi; Hou Heli; Xu Bo; Chu Liang; Huang Yun; Zhang Wenrui; Fenech, Michael; Shi Qinghua


    Although micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxic effects and chromosome instability, the most basic issue regarding their origins has not been completely addressed due to limitations of traditional methods. Recently, long-term live cell imaging was developed to monitor the dynamics of single cell in a real-time and high-throughput manner. In the present study, this state-of-the-art technique was employed to examine spontaneous micronucleus (MN) formation in untreated HeLa cells. We demonstrate that spontaneous MNi are derived from incorrectly aligned chromosomes in metaphase (displaced chromosomes, DCs), lagging chromosomes (LCs) and broken chromosome bridges (CBs) in later mitotic stages, but not nuclear buds in S phase. However, most of bipolar mitoses with DCs (91.29%), LCs (73.11%) and broken CBs (88.93%) did not give rise to MNi. Our data also show directly, for the first time, that MNi could originate spontaneously from (1) MNi already presented in the mother cells; (2) nuclear fragments that appeared during mitosis with CB; and (3) chromosomes being extruded into a minicell which fused with one of the daughter cells later. Quantitatively, most of MNi originated from LCs (63.66%), DCs (10.97%) and broken CBs (9.25%). Taken together, these direct evidences show that there are multiple origins for spontaneously arising MNi in HeLa cells and each mechanism contributes to overall MN formation to different extents

  16. Spontaneous piezoelectric effect as order parameter in (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CuBr{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tylczyński, Z., E-mail:; Wiesner, M.; Trzaskowska, A.


    Temperature change of piezoelectric properties of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}CuBr{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O crystal in the low-temperature ferroelastoelectric phase is studied. The macroscopic order parameter is proved to be the h{sub 36} component of the spontaneous piezoelectric tensor. The critical exponent related with the phase transition is α=0.60±0.05.

  17. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion. (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A; Karasek, Deborah; Adler, Nancy E; Mortensen, Laust H


    Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk aversion, moreover, supposedly influences all decisions including those that individuals can and cannot report making. We argue that these circumstances, if real, would manifest in conscious and non-conscious decisions to invest in prospective offspring, and therefore affect incidence of induced and spontaneous abortion over time. Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995 through December 2009), yielded 1 351 800 gestations including 156 780 spontaneous as well as 233 280 induced abortions 9100 of which were clinically indicated. We use Box-Jenkins transfer functions to adjust the incidence of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions for autocorrelation (including seasonality), cohort size, and fetal as well as gestational anomalies over the 180-month test period. We use cross-correlation to test our hypothesized association. We find a positive association between spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. Limitations of our work include that even the world's best registration system

  18. Absence of spontaneous magnetism associated with a possible time-reversal symmetry breaking state beneath the surface of (110)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting films (United States)

    Saadaoui, H.; Salman, Z.; Prokscha, T.; Suter, A.; Huhtinen, H.; Paturi, P.; Morenzoni, E.


    We report the results of a search for spontaneous magnetism due to a time-reversal symmetry breaking phase in the superconducting state of (110)-oriented YBa2Cu3O7-δ films, expected near the surface in this geometry. Zero field and weak transverse field measurements performed using the low-energy muon spin rotation technique with muons implanted a few nm inside optimally doped YBa2Cu3O7-δ-(110) films show no appearance of spontaneous magnetic fields below the superconducting temperature down to 2.9 K. Our results give an upper limit of ˜0.02 mT for putative spontaneous internal fields.

  19. An expiratory assist during spontaneous breathing can compensate for endotracheal tube resistance. (United States)

    Uchiyama, Akinori; Chang, Cheng; Suzuki, Shinya; Mashimo, Takashi; Fujino, Yuji


    Although inspiratory assist of spontaneous breathing in intubated patients is common, expiratory assist functions have rarely been reported. Effective expiratory support (ES) could be used to compensate for endotracheal tube (ETT) resistance during spontaneous breathing. In this study, we examined the performance of a new system designed to provide both inspiratory support (IS) and ES during spontaneous breathing with the goal of reducing the effective resistance of the ETT. The ES system consisted of a ventilator demand valve and a computer-controlled piston cylinder, which aspirated gas from the respiratory circuit during the expiratory phase. The movement of the piston was synchronized with spontaneous breathing. We compared the pressures at the tip of the ETT and in the breathing circuit during spontaneous breathing through an ETT of internal diameter (ID) 5 mm with that of an ETT with ID 8 mm in nine healthy adult male volunteers. The ventilatory mode was set to maintain a continuous airway pressure of 0 cm H(2)O. Three ventilator settings (no support, IS only, and IS plus ES) were compared using ID 5 mm ETT. We monitored pressure in the breathing circuit (P(aw)), ETT tip pressure (P(tip)), and respiratory flow. The P(tip) of the ID 5 mm ETT showed a large negative deflection during inspiration and a positive deflection during expiration without support. IS alone did not improve the respiratory pattern through the small ETT. However, IS plus ES resulted in negative P(aw) during expiration in addition to positive deflection of P(aw) during inspiration, making the pressure characteristics of P(tip) similar to those of ID 8 mm ETT. Moreover, IS plus ES produced a respiratory pattern through the ID 5 mm ETT that was similar to that through the ID 8 mm ETT. In this study of healthy volunteers, IS plus ES compensated for the airway resistance imposed by a ID 5.0 mm ETT to create pressure changes at the tip of the ETT similar to those of an ID 8.0 mm ETT.

  20. Synchrotron Diffraction Studies of Spontaneous Magnetostriction in Rare Earth Transition Metal Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Yang


    Thermal expansion anomalies of R 2 Fe 14 B and R 2 Fe 17 C x (x = 0,2) (R Y, Nd, Gd, Tb, Er) stoichiometric compounds are studied with high-energy synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction using Debye-Schemer geometry in temperature range 10K to 1000K. Large spontaneous magnetostriction up to their Curie temperatures (T c ) is observed. The a-axes show relatively larger invar effects than c-axes in the R 2 Fe 14 B compounds whereas the R 2 Fe 17 C x show the contrary anisotropies. The iron sub-lattice is shown to dominate the spontaneous magnetostriction of the compounds. The contribution of the rare earth sublattice is roughly proportional to the spin magnetic moment of the rare earth in the R 2 Fe 14 B compounds but in R 2 Fe 17 C x , the rare earth sub-lattice contribution appears more likely to be dominated by the local bonding. The calculation of spontaneous magnetostrain of bonds shows that the bonds associated with Fe(j2) sites in R 2 Fe 14 B and the dumbbell sites in R 2 Fe 17 C x have larger values, which is strongly related to their largest magnetic moment and Wigner-Seitz atomic cell volume. The roles of the carbon atoms in increasing the Curie temperatures of the R 2 Fe 17 compounds are attributed to the increased separation of Fe hexagons. The R 2 Fe 17 and R 2 Fe 14 B phases with magnetic rare earth ions also show anisotropies of thermal expansion above T c . For R 2 Fe 17 and R 2 Fe 14 B the a a /a c > 1 whereas the anisotropy is reversed with the interstitial carbon in R 2 Fe 17 . The average bond magnetostrain is shown to be a possible predictor of the magnetic moment of Fe sites in the compounds. Both of the theoretical and phenomenological models on spontaneous magnetostriction are discussed and a Landau model on the spontaneous magnetostriction is proposed

  1. The clinical and laboratory characteristics of acute spontaneous urticaria and its progression to chronic spontaneous urticaria. (United States)

    Magen, Eli; Zueva, Ekaterina; Mishal, Joseph; Schlesinger, Menachem


    The natural history of the progression from acute spontaneous urticaria (ASU) to chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU), CSU remains poorly understood. To identify clinical and laboratory patient attributes that may be predictive of ASU progression to CSU. We prospectively studied consecutive adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) with a diagnosis of urticaria of urticaria activity score assessment were performed in all the patients at baseline and then at weeks 7, 12, 24, and 48. Of 114 patients with acute urticaria and without identifiable causes, 73 patients (64%) were included in the ASU group, 41 patients in the CSU group (36%), and 44 healthy subjects in the control group. At baseline, 26 patients in the CSU group (63.4%) had a positive ASST result, whereas only 17 patients with a positive ASST result (23.3%) were revealed in the ASU group (p < 0.001). Patients with baseline ASST positive results were characterized by more profound basopenia (mean [standard deviation], 0.05 ± 0.08 cell/mm(3)) and more anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (18 [41.8%]) than those with the negative baseline ASST result (mean [standard deviation], 0.13 ± 0.09 cell/mm(3), p < 0.001 more profound basopenia; and 13 (18.1%), p = 0.009 more thyroid peroxidase antibodies). We observed the disappearance of ASST positive result in some patients with CSU with baseline positive ASST results, whereas, in some subjects with CSU, baseline negative ASST results came to be positive results throughout the study period. A baseline positive ASST result of patients with ASU was a significant determinant (odds ratio 5.91 [95% confidence interval, 2.57-13.62]; p < 0.001) for a CSU diagnosis at week 7. The patients with ASU who progressed toward CSU were characterized by a positive ASST result, thyroid autoimmunity, and profound basopenia at baseline.

  2. Involvement of hippocampal NMDA receptors in encoding and consolidation, but not retrieval, processes of spontaneous object location memory in rats. (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuo; Arai, Misaki; Suenaga, Toshiko; Ichitani, Yukio


    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in object location recognition memory, yet the contribution of hippocampal NMDA receptors to the memory processes, such as encoding, retention and retrieval, is unknown. First, we confirmed that hippocampal infusion of a competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, AP5 (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid, 20-40nmol), impaired performance of spontaneous object location recognition test but not that of novel object recognition test in Wistar rats. Next, the effects of hippocampal AP5 treatment on each process of object location recognition memory were examined with three different injection times using a 120min delay-interposed test: 15min before the sample phase (Time I), immediately after the sample phase (Time II), and 15min before the test phase (Time III). The blockade of hippocampal NMDA receptors before and immediately after the sample phase, but not before the test phase, markedly impaired performance of object location recognition test, suggesting that hippocampal NMDA receptors play an important role in encoding and consolidation/retention, but not retrieval, of spontaneous object location memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. NANOEMULSIFIKASI SPONTAN EKSTRAK JINTAN HITAM DAN KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK ENKAPSULASINYA [Spontaneous Nanoemulsification of Black Cumin Extract and the Characteristics of the Encapsulation Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovie Farah Diba1*


    Full Text Available Research on the use of low energy nano technology on black cumin is still limited. Encapsulation of black cumin extract nanoemulsion has been developed and the products have been characterized. The aims of this study were to determine the extraction method of the black cumin seed, produce black cumin extract nanoemulsion by spontaneous emulsification technique, and produce encapsulated black cumin extract nanoemulsion. Three steps of experiments were done in this study, i.e. extraction, nanoemulsification and encapsulation. In the first step, extraction was done using maceration and reflux methods and the best result was sent to the next step. Second, a spontaneous nanoemulsification was performed using organic phase (ethanol 70%, and water phase (Tween 80 solution at 1, 2 and 3% w/w to produce the best nanoemulsion. Finally, the best nanoemulsion based on size, homogeneity, and stability of the particles, was encapsulated using two different encapsulating material compositions, i.e. maltodextrin (100% and a combination of maltodextrin and soy protein isolate at a ratio of 80 : 20 (w/w. The results showed that the three-hour reflux method produced better black cumin extract properties than that of maceration. Use of 3% surfactant gave a stable nanoemulsion with average droplet size of 10.93 nm. Reconstitution of the encapsulated nanoemulsion resulted in products with more spherical globules, indicating an efficient encapsulation process. The combination of of maltodextrin and soy protein isolate provided a better preservation of phenolic content and antioxidant capacity as compared to the use of maltodextrin alone.

  4. Phase Field (United States)

    Koyama, Toshiyuki

    The term phase field has recently become known across many fields of materials science. The meaning of phase field is the spatial and temporal order parameter field defined in a continuum-diffused interface model. By using the phase field order parameters, many types of complex microstructure changes observed in materials science are described effectively. This methodology has been referred to as the phase field method, phase field simulation, phase field modeling, phase field approach, etc. In this chapter, the basic concept and theoretical background for the phase field approach is explained in Sects. 21.1 and 21.2. The overview of recent applications of the phase field method is demonstrated in Sects. 21.3 to 21.6.

  5. Uncovering intrinsic modular organization of spontaneous brain activity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong He

    Full Text Available The characterization of topological architecture of complex brain networks is one of the most challenging issues in neuroscience. Slow (<0.1 Hz, spontaneous fluctuations of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal in functional magnetic resonance imaging are thought to be potentially important for the reflection of spontaneous neuronal activity. Many studies have shown that these fluctuations are highly coherent within anatomically or functionally linked areas of the brain. However, the underlying topological mechanisms responsible for these coherent intrinsic or spontaneous fluctuations are still poorly understood. Here, we apply modern network analysis techniques to investigate how spontaneous neuronal activities in the human brain derived from the resting-state BOLD signals are topologically organized at both the temporal and spatial scales. We first show that the spontaneous brain functional networks have an intrinsically cohesive modular structure in which the connections between regions are much denser within modules than between them. These identified modules are found to be closely associated with several well known functionally interconnected subsystems such as the somatosensory/motor, auditory, attention, visual, subcortical, and the "default" system. Specifically, we demonstrate that the module-specific topological features can not be captured by means of computing the corresponding global network parameters, suggesting a unique organization within each module. Finally, we identify several pivotal network connectors and paths (predominantly associated with the association and limbic/paralimbic cortex regions that are vital for the global coordination of information flow over the whole network, and we find that their lesions (deletions critically affect the stability and robustness of the brain functional system. Together, our results demonstrate the highly organized modular architecture and associated topological properties in

  6. Size effects in PbTiO3 nanocrystals: Effect of particle size on spontaneous polarization and strains (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Rawn, C. J.; Porter, W. D.; Payzant, E. A.; Safari, A.


    The spontaneous polarization (Ps) and spontaneous strains (xi) in mechanically unclamped and surface charge compensated PbTiO3 nanocrystals were determined as a function of particle size in the range <150nm by differential scanning calorimetry and x-ray powder diffraction, respectively. Significant deviations from bulk order parameters (P,xi) have been observed as the particle size decreased below ˜100nm. The critical size (rc) below which the ferroelectric tetragonal phase transforms to the paraelectric cubic phase was determined as ˜15nm. The depression in transition temperature with particle size is 14 °C at 28 nm. No change in the order of m3m →4mm ferrodistortive phase transition is observed. A simple analysis showed that ΔHtr/(kBT )˜103 at 25 °C for r =16nm, indicating that the stabilization of the cubic phase at rc cannot be linked to an instability in dipolar ordering due to thermal agitations. Comparison of the spontaneous volumetric strains with the strain induced by surface stress indicated that the effect of surface stress on ferroelectric phase stability was negligible. Anomalies in electrostrictive properties were determined for r →rc. The observed size dependence of PS is attributed to the reduced extent of long-range dipole-dipole interactions that arise due to the changes in bonding characteristics of ions with decreasing particle size in the perovskite lattice, in conformity with a recent study by Tsunekawa et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 (16), 4340 (2000)].

  7. Spatial diversity of spontaneous activity in the cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Yong-Yi Tan


    Full Text Available The neocortex is a layered sheet across which a basic organization is thought to widely apply. The variety of spontaneous activity patterns is similar throughout the cortex, consistent with the notion of a basic cortical organization. However, the basic organization is only an outline which needs adjustments and additions to account for the structural and functional diversity across cortical layers and areas. Such diversity suggests that spontaneous activity is spatially diverse in any particular behavioral state. Accordingly, this review summarizes the laminar and areal diversity in cortical activity during fixation and slow oscillations, and the effects of attention, anesthesia and plasticity on the cortical distribution of spontaneous activity. Among questions that remain open, characterizing the spatial diversity in spontaneous membrane potential may help elucidate how differences in circuitry among cortical regions supports their varied functions. More work is also needed to understand whether cortical spontaneous activity not only reflects cortical circuitry, but also contributes to determining the outcome of plasticity, so that it is itself a factor shaping the functional diversity of the cortex.

  8. Spontaneous emission near non-trivial conducting surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melo e Souza, Reinaldo de; Kort-Kamp, W.J.M.; Taddei, M.M.; Farina, C.


    Full text: One of the remarkable phenomena associated with the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field is the spontaneous emission, which accounts for the emission of photons by an excited atom placed in vacuum. As discovered by Purcell in the 1940's, the spontaneous emission rate depends not only on the atomic properties but also on the nearby bodies. This should be expected once the electromagnetic field modes are affected by the boundary conditions imposed by these bodies. We begin our presentation reviewing a method which establishes a striking connection between the spontaneous emission of an excited atom and the classical radiation emitted by an oscillating real dipole. In fact, it can be shown, the influence of the neighbouring bodies is the same in both cases. We use this approach to evaluate the influence of an infinite conducting plane with a circular aperture on the spontaneous emission rate of the atom. This geometry will be particularly interesting if the atom is placed on the axis of symmetry of the hole and if it is predominantly polarizable in this axis, once this configuration is one of the those rare configurations that give rise to repulsive dispersive interactions. It would be very interesting to establish some connection between how the spontaneous emission rate of an excited atom is influenced by the presence of material bodies and the attractive or repulsive character of the dispersive force between that atom (in its ground state) and those material bodies. (author)

  9. Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Computed Tomographic Characteristics and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimara de la Caridad Vergara Santos


    Full Text Available Background: strokes are the third leading cause of death among adults and 10-15 % of them are due to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage. Objective: to characterize spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage through computed tomography scan and its outcome. Methods: a case series study was conducted comprising patients diagnosed with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to the Arnaldo Milián Castro Provincial University Hospital in Villa Clara from January 2009 to January 2010. Tomographic variables of interest were derived from evaluation of spontaneous intracerebral hematomas. Results: fifty-nine cases of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage were studied, 23 were located in lobar regions, 4 had severe midline shift, and 2 showed volume greater than 80 ml. Eight out of eleven with extension into the ventricular system had an unfavorable outcome. Among those with thalamic hemorrhage, patients with diameter larger than 4cm and extension into the ventricular system died. Patients with putaminal hemorrhage larger than 4 cm and posterior fossa hematoma with hydrocephalus had a poor outcome, as well as most individuals (55 with other mass effects. Most lobar hematomas (14 out of 23 had a satisfactory outcome, unlike cerebellar and brainstem hematomas. Conclusions: tomographic variables that had a negative impact on the outcome were: volume greater than 80 ml, severe midline shift, diameter larger than 4 cm, extension into the ventricular system, hydrocephalus, other signs of mass effect and brainstem location.

  10. Modelling spontaneous combustion in wet lignite (United States)

    Gong, Rose; Burnell, John G.; Wake, Graeme C.


    A model of self-heating of wet coal is presented. This involves coupled heat and mass transport within a coal pile, together with an exothermic reaction and phase changes of water. There are four state variables: temperature, oxygen, water vapour and liquid water concentrations. Heat and mass are conducted or diffused through the pile, while simultaneously undergoing chemical reaction. As demonstrated by experiment, the heat release rate depends in a quadratic fashion on the liquid water content and this feature is a distinctive aspect of the model. After development of the model, an illustrative spatially uniform model of just three state variables (temperature, oxygen and liquid water concentrations) is analysed for its bifurcational structure of steady states, periodic solutions and their stability. By this means, thresholds for the onset of ignition can be determined as a function of the physical and chemical parameters.

  11. Retrieval of phase memory in two independent atomic ensembles by Raman process (United States)

    Bian, Cheng-Ling; Chen, Li-Qing; Zhang, Guo-Wan; Ou, Z. Y.; Zhang, Weiping


    In spontaneous Raman process in atomic cell at high gain, both the Stokes field and the accompanying collective atomic excitation (atomic spin wave) are coherent. We find that, due to the spontaneous nature of the process, the phases of the Stokes field and the atomic spin wave change randomly from one realization to another but are anti-correlated. The phases of the atomic ensembles are read out via another Raman process at a later time, thus realizing phase memory in atoms. The observation of phase correlation between the Stokes field and the collective atomic excitations is an important step towards macroscopic EPR-type entanglement of continuous variables between light and atoms.

  12. Spontaneous uterine perforation due to pyometra presenting as acute abdomen. (United States)

    Geranpayeh, Loabat; Fadaei-Araghi, Mohsen; Shakiba, Behnam


    Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01%-0.05%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 63-year-old woman with severe abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy, about 900 mL of pus was found in the peritoneal cavity. There were no abnormal findings in the alimentary tract, liver, or gallbladder. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Pathological investigation of the surgical specimen revealed endometritis and myometritis of the uterus; but there was no evidence of malignancy, and the cervical canal was patent. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, a perforated pyometra should therefore also be considered when elderly women present with acute abdominal pain.

  13. Spontaneous methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus epidural abscess in pregnancy. (United States)

    Connealy, Brendan D; Lovgren, Todd R; Tomich, Paul G; Smith, Carl V; Berg, Teresa G


    Epidural abscess is a rare complication of regional anesthesia, and spontaneous formation is even more uncommon. Diabetes mellitus, concomitant infection, intravenous drug use, and immune suppression are risk factors for spontaneous epidural abscess. A 29-year-old white woman presented at 28 weeks of estimated gestational age reporting an intermittent headache. She had Horner syndrome and was hospitalized. A cervicothoracic epidural abscess was diagnosed. Surgical decompression and parenteral antibiotics resulted in complete resolution of neurologic symptoms. Cultures were positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureous. Spontaneous epidural abscess is a rare condition and diagnosis is often delayed. The finding of Horner syndrome led to imaging of the cervical spine and diagnosis of epidural abscess. Early intervention resulted in resolution of neurologic symptoms and a successful pregnancy outcome.

  14. Operator-product expansion with spontaneously broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, L.S.; Lee, T.


    The operator-product expansion is a most important tool in quantum field theory, and it is often employed in theories that have a spontaneously broken symmetry such as QCD where chiral symmetry is broken. Claims have been made that the operator-product expansion does not apply to theories with a spontaneously broken symmetry. Although these claims have been previously rebutted, none of these works provide a precise and careful definition of the needed renormalized composite operators and of the operator-product expansion. This we do here for the simple case of scalar field theory. We show explicitly for the first two orders of perturbation theory that operator-product expansion does hold for the spontaneously broken theory for the case of the two-point Green's function. This we do both for the case of a single scalar field and also for the O(N) linear σ-model. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  15. Planning for spontaneous evacuation during a radiological emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.H. Jr.


    The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) radiological emergency preparedness program ignores the potential problem of spontaneous evacuation during a nuclear reactor accident. To show the importance of incorporating the emergency spatial behaviors of the population at risk in radiological emergency preparedness and response plans, this article presents empirical evidence that demonstrates the potential magnitude and geographic extent of spontaneous evacuation in the event of an accident at the Long Island Lighting Company's Shoreham Nuclear Power Station. The results indicate that, on the average, 39% of the population of Long Island is likely to evacuate spontaneously and thus to cast an evacuation shadow extending at least 25 miles beyond the plant. On the basis of these findings, necessary revisions to FEMA's radiological emergency preparedness program are outlined

  16. General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points. (United States)

    Pick, Adi; Zhen, Bo; Miller, Owen D; Hsu, Chia W; Hernandez, Felipe; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Soljačić, Marin; Johnson, Steven G


    We present a general theory of spontaneous emission at exceptional points (EPs)-exotic degeneracies in non-Hermitian systems. Our theory extends beyond spontaneous emission to any light-matter interaction described by the local density of states (e.g., absorption, thermal emission, and nonlinear frequency conversion). Whereas traditional spontaneous-emission theories imply infinite enhancement factors at EPs, we derive finite bounds on the enhancement, proving maximum enhancement of 4 in passive systems with second-order EPs and significantly larger enhancements (exceeding 400×) in gain-aided and higher-order EP systems. In contrast to non-degenerate resonances, which are typically associated with Lorentzian emission curves in systems with low losses, EPs are associated with non-Lorentzian lineshapes, leading to enhancements that scale nonlinearly with the resonance quality factor. Our theory can be applied to dispersive media, with proper normalization of the resonant modes.

  17. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T.B.; Hjollund, N.H.; Jensen, Tina Kold


    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions....... Women collected morning urine for 10 days from the first day of vaginal bleeding in each cycle. The authors detected 186 pregnancies: 131 resulted in childbirth, and 55 resulted in spontaneous abortion (34 detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin). Depending on the intake in the cycle...... of conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared...

  18. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in 5D Conformally Invariant Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeyoon Moon


    Full Text Available We explore the possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in 5D conformally invariant gravity, whose action consists of a scalar field nonminimally coupled to the curvature with its potential. Performing dimensional reduction via ADM decomposition, we find that the model allows an exact solution giving rise to the 4D Minkowski vacuum. Exploiting the conformal invariance with Gaussian warp factor, we show that it also admits a solution which implements the spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry. We investigate its stability by performing the tensor perturbation and find the resulting system is described by the conformal quantum mechanics. Possible applications to the spontaneous symmetry breaking of time-translational symmetry along the dynamical fifth direction and the brane-world scenario are discussed.

  19. Spontaneous Uterine Perforation due to Pyometra Presenting as Acute Abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loabat Geranpayeh


    Full Text Available Spontaneous perforation of the uterus is rare, its incidence being about 0.01%–0.05%. We report a rare case of diffuse peritonitis caused by spontaneously perforated pyometra. A 63-year-old woman with severe abdominal pain was admitted to our hospital. Laparotomy was performed because of the suspicion of gastrointestinal perforation with generalized peritonitis. At laparotomy, about 900 mL of pus was found in the peritoneal cavity. There were no abnormal findings in the alimentary tract, liver, or gallbladder. A total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. Pathological investigation of the surgical specimen revealed endometritis and myometritis of the uterus; but there was no evidence of malignancy, and the cervical canal was patent. Although spontaneously perforated pyometra is rare, a perforated pyometra should therefore also be considered when elderly women present with acute abdominal pain.

  20. Spontaneous Plasticity of Multineuronal Activity Patterns in Activated Hippocampal Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Usami


    Full Text Available Using functional multineuron imaging with single-cell resolution, we examined how hippocampal networks by themselves change the spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity during the course of emitting spontaneous activity. When extracellular ionic concentrations were changed to those that mimicked in vivo conditions, spontaneous activity was increased in active cell number and activity frequency. When ionic compositions were restored to the control conditions, the activity level returned to baseline, but the weighted spatial dispersion of active cells, as assessed by entropy-based metrics, did not. Thus, the networks can modify themselves by altering the internal structure of their correlated activity, even though they as a whole maintained the same level of activity in space and time.

  1. Hypovolemic shock following induced abortion and spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy. (United States)

    Pakniyat, Abdolghader; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Moshar-Mowahed, Ghasem; Talebi, Fatimah


    Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy is a rare clinical condition in which intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancies occur at the same time. It is rare, estimated to occur in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The case was a 38-year-old woman with spontaneously conceived heterotopic pregnancy. She was admitted to our center with hypovolemic shock. Focused assessment sonography for trauma examination in emergency department showed large amount of free fluid in peritoneal cavity. She was managed surgical laparotomy. Considering spontaneous pregnancies, physician should be aware of the possibility of heterotopic pregnancy in all reproductive age women, especially those with history of recent abortion. It can occur without any predisposing risk factors. Patients should be informed about possible side effects of nonprescription medicines, and also the health care centers must be safe peaceful environment for them without severe legal consequences.

  2. Joseph Conrad and the spontaneous combustion of coal - Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walters, A.D. [Kilborn Engineering Pacific Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada)


    Joseph Conrad`s novel `Youth` described an on-board fire and explosion from transported coal between Sumatra and Bangka Island. This incident is based on Conrad`s experience as a mariner transporting coal, and displays a detailed knowledge of the technical issues and preventative actions involved in the spontaneous combustion of coal cargoes at sea. The coal concerned was West Hartley coal, and in this article the author examines the combustion characteristics of this coal, and the historical information available on the explosion on board the `Palestine`. The reasons for spontaneous combustion are examined, with particular attention paid to oxidation, moisture content and pyrite oxidation. West Hartley coal was a high volatile bituminous coal, with high self-heating tendencies, and so likely to undergo spontaneous combustion in the right conditions. Self-heating in ships is now well researched as a result of the international maritime coal trade. 21 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Qualifying phrases as a measure of spontaneity in speech. (United States)

    Weintraub, W; Plaut, S M


    Although investigators have attempted to define the paralinguistic characteristics of spontaneous speech, there have been no systematic attempts to study its verbal reflections. An experiment comparing extemporaneous and impromptu speech samples of 10 freshman medical students showed that, of 10 verbal categories, only qualifying phrases significantly differentiated the two levels of spontaneity. A second study compared post-World War II presidential communications of different degrees of spontaneity. Speech samples were taken from inaugural addresses of seven presidents, and from both introductory remarks and responses to questions at their press conferences. The proportion of qualifying phrases significantly decreased as the amount of preparation increased, confirming the results of the student experiment. The use of qualifying phrases appears to represent, in part, an attempt by the speaker to avoid silence while retrieving and encoding memories from long-term storage.

  4. [Results of spontaneous NBT-test in influenza patients]. (United States)

    Nagoev, B S; Orazaev, N G


    Assessment of leukocyte activity with spontaneous NBT-test in influenza patients regarding the disease stage, severity, complication and concomitant diseases. 107 influenza patients aged 16-84 years were studied. 70 patients had no complications, 11 patients had early influenzal pneumonia, 26 patients had late viral-bacterial infection. Chronic concomitant diseases were diagnosed in 23 cases. Cytochemical examination of leukocyte activity was made in all the patients using spontaneous NBT-test. In mild influenza NBT-test results were within upper limits of normal value. In alleviation of the symptoms NBT-test parameters were low. In early influenzal and viral-bacterial pneumonia leukocyte activity was high and lowered to normal in late convalescence. Parameters of spontaneous NBT-test in influenzal patients were elevated depending on influenza stage, severity and complications. This fact is of differential-diagnostic importance.

  5. Metastatic thymoma presenting as spontaneous epidural lumbar haematoma. (United States)

    Shivapathasundram, Ganeshwaran; Sammons, Vanessa; Bazina, Renata


    We report the case of a 44-year-old man who was found to have metastatic thymoma to his lumbar spine presenting as a spontaneous epidural haematoma. The man presented with back pain and cauda equina like symptoms in the absence of trauma, antiplatelet or anticoagulant agents. Following a laminectomy and excision of the epidural collection he made a full neurological recovery. Histopathology of the haematoma demonstrated metastatic thymoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first such case of metastatic thymoma to the lumbar spine presenting as a spontaneous epidural collection. We believe, in all patients with spontaneous spinal epidural haematoma and a background of malignancy, histopathological analysis should be sought.

  6. Progesterone, selected heavy metals and micronutrients in pregnant Nigerian women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. (United States)

    Ajayi, O O; Charles-Davies, M A; Arinola, O G


    Environmental and endocrine factors have been implicated in the aetiology of recurrent abortion, with poorly understood roles. Luteal phase insufficiency marked with insufficient progesterone secretion has been reported. To define the involvement of progesterone, trace metals, and Vitamin E in pregnant women with history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 69 pregnant women aged 21-41 years with gestational age of 0-20 weeks in this case-control study. Thirty five (cases) and thirty four (controls) had previous and no history of recurrent spontaneous abortion respectively. Demographic characteristics and 10 mls of blood samples were obtained from each subject. Serum obtained was used for the determination of progesterone, zinc, copper, selenium, iron, magnesium, manganese, chromium, lead, cadmium, and serum vitamin E by standard methods. Results showed statistically significant decreases (pspontaneous abortion.

  7. ATP enhances spontaneous calcium activity in cultured suburothelial myofibroblasts of the human bladder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Cheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Suburothelial myofibroblasts (sMF are located underneath the urothelium in close proximity to afferent nerves. They express purinergic receptors and show calcium transients in response to ATP. Therefore they are supposed to be involved in afferent signaling of the bladder fullness. Since ATP concentration is likely to be very low during the initial filling phase, we hypothesized that sMF Ca(2+ activity is affected even at very low ATP concentrations. We investigated ATP induced modulation of spontaneous activity, intracellular calcium response and purinergic signaling in cultured sMF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myofibroblast cultures, established from cystectomies, were challenged by exogenous ATP in presence or absence of purinergic antagonist. Fura-2 calcium imaging was used to monitor ATP (10(-16 to 10(-4 mol/l induced alterations of calcium activity. Purinergic receptors (P2X1, P2X2, P2X3 were analysed by confocal immunofluorescence. We found spontaneous calcium activity in 55.18% ± 1.65 of the sMF (N = 48 experiments. ATP significantly increased calcium activity even at 10(-16 mol/l. The calcium transients were partially attenuated by subtype selective antagonist (TNP-ATP, 1 µM; A-317491, 1 µM, and were mimicked by the P2X1, P2X3 selective agonist α,β-methylene ATP. The expression of purinergic receptor subtypes in sMF was confirmed by immunofluorescence. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our experiments demonstrate for the first time that ATP can modulate spontaneous activity and induce intracellular Ca(2+ response in cultured sMF at very low concentrations, most likely involving P2X receptors. These findings support the notion that sMF are able to register bladder fullness very sensitively, which predestines them for the modulation of the afferent bladder signaling in normal and pathological conditions.

  8. Spontaneous Hypoglycemia After Islet Autotransplantation for Chronic Pancreatitis. (United States)

    Lin, Yu Kuei; Faiman, Charles; Johnston, Philip C; Walsh, R Matthew; Stevens, Tyler; Bottino, Rita; Hatipoglu, Betul A


    Spontaneous hypoglycemia has been reported in patients after total pancreatectomy (TP) and islet autotransplantation (IAT) with maintained insulin independence. Details surrounding these events have not been well described. The objective of the study was to determine the frequency and characteristics of spontaneous hypoglycemia in patients undergoing TP-IAT and/or to ascertain predictive or protective factors of its development. This was an observational cohort study in 40 patients who underwent TP-IAT from August 2008 to May 2014, with a median follow-up of 34 months. The study was conducted at a single institution (Cleveland Clinic). Patients included recipients of TP-IAT. The intervention included small, frequent meals in those patients who developed spontaneous hypoglycemia. Incidence of spontaneous hypoglycemia development, characteristics of the patients developing hypoglycemia, and their response to small, frequent meals were measured. Six of 12 patients, who maintained insulin independence, developed spontaneous hypoglycemia. The episodes could be fasting, postprandial, and/or exercise associated, with the frequency ranging from two to three times daily to once every 1-2 weeks. All patients experienced at least one episode that required external assistance, glucagon administration, and/or emergent medical attention. Patients who developed hypoglycemia had a lower median age and tended to have a lower median islet equivalent/kg body weight but a higher median total islet equivalent, body mass index, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance score. All patients who received small, frequent meal intervention had improvement in severity and/or frequency of the hypoglycemic episodes. Spontaneous hypoglycemia is prevalent after TP-IAT. Although the underlying pathophysiology responsible for these hypoglycemia events remains to be elucidated, small, frequent meal intervention is helpful in ameliorating this condition.

  9. Predictors of rapid spontaneous resolution of acute subdural hematoma. (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kenji; Otsuka, Tadahiro; Yoshizato, Kimio; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi


    Acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) usually requires emergency surgical decompression, but rare cases exhibit rapid spontaneous resolution. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify factors predictive of spontaneous ASDH resolution. A total of 366 consecutive patients with ASDH treated between January 2006 and September 2012 were identified in our hospital database. Patients with ASDH clot thickness >10mm in the frontoparietotemporal region and showing a midline shift >10mm on the initial computed tomography (CT) scan were divided into two groups according to subsequent spontaneous resolution. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors predictive of rapid spontaneous ASDH resolution. Fifty-six ASDH patients met study criteria and 18 demonstrated rapid spontaneous resolution (32%). Majority of these patients were not operated because of poor prognosis/condition and in accordance to family wishes. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences in use of antiplatelet agents before head injury and in the incidence of a low-density band between the hematoma and inner wall of the skull bone on the initial CT. Use of antiplatelet agents before head injury (OR 19.6, 95% CI 1.5-260.1, p=0.02) and the low-density band on CT images (OR 40.3, 95% CI 3.1-520.2, p=0.005) were identified as independent predictive factors by multivariate analysis. Our analysis suggested that use of antiplatelet agents before head injury and a low-density band between the hematoma and inner skull bone on CT images (indicative of cerebrospinal fluid infusion into the subdural space) increase the probability of rapid spontaneous resolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous usage of different shortcuts based on the commutativity principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gaschler

    Full Text Available Based on research on expertise a person can be said to possess integrated conceptual knowledge when she/he is able to spontaneously identify task relevant information in order to solve a problem efficiently. Despite the lack of instruction or explicit cueing, the person should be able to recognize which shortcut strategy can be applied--even when the task context differs from the one in which procedural knowledge about the shortcut was originally acquired. For mental arithmetic, first signs of such adaptive flexibility should develop already in primary school. The current study introduces a paper-and-pencil-based as well as an eyetracking-based approach to unobtrusively measure how students spot and apply (known shortcut options in mental arithmetic. We investigated the development and the relation of the spontaneous use of two strategies derived from the mathematical concept of commutativity. Children from grade 2 to grade 7 and university students solved three-addends addition problems, which are rarely used in class. Some problems allowed the use of either of two commutativity-based shortcut strategies. Results suggest that from grade three onwards both of the shortcuts were used spontaneously and application of one shortcut correlated positively with application of the other. Rate of spontaneous usage was substantial but smaller than in an instructed variant. Eyetracking data suggested similar fixation patterns for spontaneous an instructed shortcut application. The data are consistent with the development of an integrated concept of the mathematical principle so that it can be spontaneously applied in different contexts and strategies.

  11. An uncommon cause of ascites: spontaneous rupture of biliary cystadenoma. (United States)

    Abhishek, Sasidharan; Jino, Thomas; Sarin, George Zacharia; Sandesh, Kolassery; Prathapan, Valiya Kambarath; Ramachandran, Thazhath Mavali


    Biliary cystadenomas are cystic hepatic tumours of biliary origin. Cystadenomas are often slow-growing benign tumours, but always harbour the risk of malignant transformation. Cystadenomas are often asymptomatic, but may present with abdominal pain and distension. Though suspected with cross-sectional abdominal imaging, definitive diagnosis almost always requires histology. Spontaneous rupture of cystadenoma had been reported three times in the medical literature to date, all presenting with peritonitis. Here we report a case of spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of biliary cystadenoma presenting as ascites without peritonitis.

  12. Controlling the spontaneous emission of a superconducting transmon qubit. (United States)

    Houck, A A; Schreier, J A; Johnson, B R; Chow, J M; Koch, Jens; Gambetta, J M; Schuster, D I; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Girvin, S M; Schoelkopf, R J


    We present a detailed characterization of coherence in seven transmon qubits in a circuit QED architecture. We find that spontaneous emission rates are strongly influenced by far off-resonant modes of the cavity and can be understood within a semiclassical circuit model. A careful analysis of the spontaneous qubit decay into a microwave transmission-line cavity can accurately predict the qubit lifetimes over 2 orders of magnitude in time and more than an octave in frequency. Coherence times T1 and T_{2};{*} of more than a microsecond are reproducibly demonstrated.

  13. Mesoscale Architecture Shapes Initiation and Richness of Spontaneous Network Activity. (United States)

    Okujeni, Samora; Kandler, Steffen; Egert, Ulrich


    Spontaneous activity in the absence of external input, including propagating waves of activity, is a robust feature of neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro The neurophysiological and anatomical requirements for initiation and persistence of such activity, however, are poorly understood, as is their role in the function of neuronal networks. Computational network studies indicate that clustered connectivity may foster the generation, maintenance, and richness of spontaneous activity. Since this mesoscale architecture cannot be systematically modified in intact tissue, testing these predictions is impracticable in vivo Here, we investigate how the mesoscale structure shapes spontaneous activity in generic networks of rat cortical neurons in vitro In these networks, neurons spontaneously arrange into local clusters with high neurite density and form fasciculating long-range axons. We modified this structure by modulation of protein kinase C, an enzyme regulating neurite growth and cell migration. Inhibition of protein kinase C reduced neuronal aggregation and fasciculation of axons, i.e., promoted uniform architecture. Conversely, activation of protein kinase C promoted aggregation of neurons into clusters, local connectivity, and bundling of long-range axons. Supporting predictions from theory, clustered networks were more spontaneously active and generated diverse activity patterns. Neurons within clusters received stronger synaptic inputs and displayed increased membrane potential fluctuations. Intensified clustering promoted the initiation of synchronous bursting events but entailed incomplete network recruitment. Moderately clustered networks appear optimal for initiation and propagation of diverse patterns of activity. Our findings support a crucial role of the mesoscale architectures in the regulation of spontaneous activity dynamics. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Computational studies predict richer and persisting spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity in

  14. Unilateral Post-LASIK Ectasia and Contralateral Spontaneous Ectasia. (United States)

    Qin, Vincent; Saad, Alain; Gatinel, Damien


    To report a case of iatrogenic unilateral post-LASIK corneal ectasia with contralateral spontaneous ectatic evolution. Case report with preoperative and postoperative measurements including uncorrected visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, refraction, slit-scanning topographic and pachymetric maps, and differential maps. Six months after unilateral LASIK, the operated eye progressively developed signs of post-LASIK ectasia with increased inferior corneal steepening and corneal thinning and decrease in corrected distance visual acuity. Five years later, the unoperated eye also developed signs of spontaneous ectatic evolution with increased inferior steepening and corneal thinning. LASIK accelerates occurrence of ectasia in ectasia-susceptible and biomechanically fragile eyes. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Spontaneous drainage in syringomyelia: magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, E.I.; Mendelevich, E.G.; Ibatullin, M.M.


    We present five cases of syringomyelia associated with Chiari I or other causes of partial obstructions at the cervicomedullary junction, with spontaneous disruption of the wall of a cervical syrinx and formation of a communication between the cavity and the subarachnoid space, shown on axial MRI. MRI can be used to investigate the hydrodynamics, showing the liquid inside the disrupted syrinx wall and the pathway of drainage. The finding of spontaneous drainage may be important for understanding the pathogenesis of syringomyelia and may be helpful for choosing a surgical approach. (orig.)

  16. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.


    ,449) and the unemployment rate in Denmark beginning in January 1995 and ending in December 2009. Our statistical methods controlled for temporal patterns in spontaneous abortion (e.g., seasonality, trend) and changes in the population of pregnancies at risk of loss. Unexpected increases in the unemployment rate preceded...... in elective abortions and in the cohort composition of high-risk pregnancies did not account for results. It appears that in Denmark, ambient stressors as common as increasing unemployment may precede a population-level increase in spontaneous abortion....

  17. Using Motion Tracking to Detect Spontaneous Movements in Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo


    We study the characteristics of infants’ spontaneous movements, based on data obtained from a markerless motion tracking system. From the pose data, the set of features are generated from the raw joint-angles of the infants and different classifiers are trained and evaluated using annotated data....... Furthermore, we look at the importance of different features and outline the most significant features for detecting spontaneous movements of infants. Using these findings for further analysis of infants’ movements, this might be used to identify infants in risk of cerebral palsy....

  18. Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage during pregnancy: a case with horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohadeseh Amini


    Full Text Available Spontaneous adrenal hemorrhage is an acute hemorrhage during pregnancy, which can be tragic for the mother and the baby. We report a unique spontaneous hemorrhage during pregnancy in a case with horseshoe kidney with separated adrenal, presented for the first time in the world. Computed tomography scan showed a horseshoe kidney fused with left normal kidney. Interestingly the adrenal gland was remained in right flank and separated from the horseshoe kidney, which prepares a probable physical stress for the hemorrhage. Diagnosis and surgery were done successfully and the case was fully recovered after several days.

  19. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations

    CERN Document Server


    This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.

  20. HLA-G polymorphisms in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Hylenius, S; Hoegh, A M


    The etiology of a fraction of recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) may involve immunological mechanisms. Aberrant profiles of Th1 and Th2 cytokines have been observed which are not present in uncomplicated pregnancies. Studies of classical HLA class I and II antigens in relation to RSA have...... (with three or more spontaneous abortions) and 47 fertile control couples were HLA-G genotyped by direct DNA sequencing and analyzed for specific polymorphisms. No statistically significant differences were observed in the distribution of HLA-G alleles between controls and RSA couples, however, 15...

  1. Spontaneous pregnancy during ulipristal acetate treatment of giant uterine leiomyoma. (United States)

    Hrgovic, Z; Habek, D; Cerkez Habek, J; Hrgovic, I; Jerkovic Gulin, S; Gulin, D


    Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator, pharmacologically inhibits endometrial proliferation and thereby prevents pregnancy. It is primarily used as emergency contraception, but also for the treatment of fibroids in women of reproductive age. There have been no published cases of pregnancy, while on therapy with ulipristal acetate. In this article, we present a case report of spontaneous pregnancy during ulipristal acetate therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with spontaneous conception, while on ulipristal acetate treatment. There were no drug-related complications, and the pregnancy resulted in the delivery of a healthy baby. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nonclassical photon streams using rephased amplified spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledingham, Patrick M.; Naylor, William R.; Longdell, Jevon J.; Beavan, Sarah E.; Sellars, Matthew J.


    We present a fully quantum mechanical treatment of optically rephased photon echoes. These echoes exhibit noise due to amplified spontaneous emission; however, this noise can be seen as a consequence of the entanglement between the atoms and the output light. With a rephasing pulse one can get an 'echo' of the amplified spontaneous emission, leading to light with nonclassical correlations at points separated in time, which is of interest in the context of building wide bandwith quantum repeaters. We also suggest a wideband version of DLCZ protocol based on the same ideas.

  3. Multiple spontaneous bone infarcts secondary to alcohol abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.


    Alcohol induced spontaneous osteonecrosis is part of the differential diagnosis in patients with history of alcohol abuse and diffuse bone pain. Usually patients have a longer than 10 year history of alcohol abuse prior to the development of osteonecrosis. The femoral head is the commonest site involved, however, involvement of the long bones is also seen. Facial involvement is rarely seen. Fat embolism secondary to coexisting hyperlipidemia has been postulated as a possible cause of osteonecrosis in alcoholics. A case of multifocal spontaneous bone infarction with facial bone involvement in a 34 year old female alcoholic is described. Copyright (1999) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. Spontaneous emergence of free-space optical and atomic patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmittberger, Bonnie L; Gauthier, Daniel J


    The spontaneous formation of patterns in dynamical systems is a rich phenomenon that transcends scientific boundaries. Here, we report our observation of coupled optical–atomic pattern formation, which results in the creation of self-organized, multimode structures in free-space laser-driven cold atoms. We show that this process gives rise to spontaneous three-dimensional Sisyphus cooling even at very low light intensities and the emergence of self-organized structures on both sub- and super-wavelength scales. (paper)

  5. Spontaneous compactification and Ricci-flat manifolds with torsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInnes, B.


    The Freund-Rubin mechanism is based on the equation Rsub(ik)=lambdagsub(ik) (where lambda>0), which, via Myers' Theorem, implies ''spontaneous'' compactification. The difficulties connected with the cosmological constant in this approach can be resolved if torsion is introduced and lambda set equal to zero, but then compactification ''by hand'' is necessary, since the equation Rsub(ik)=0 can be satisfied both on compact and on non-compact manifolds. In this paper we discuss the global geometry of Ricci-flat manifolds with torsion, and suggest ways of restoring the ''spontaneity'' of the compactification. (author)

  6. Electrostatic Effects in Phase Transitions of Biomembranes between Cubic Phases and Lamellar Liquid-Crystalline (Lα) phase (United States)

    Masum, Shah Md.; Li, Shu Jie; Tamba, Yukihiro; Yamashita, Yuko; Yamazaki, Masahito


    Elucidation of the mechanisms of transitions between cubic phase and liquid-crystalline (Lα) phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases, are essential for understanding of dynamics of biomembranes and topological transformation of lipid membranes. Recently, we found that electrostatic interactions due to surface charges of lipid membranes induce transition between cubic phase and Lα phase, and between different IPMS cubic phases. As electrostatic interactions increase, the most stable phase of a monoolein (MO) membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒ Lα. We also found that a de novo designed peptide partitioning into electrically neutral lipid membrane changed the phase stability of the MO membranes. As peptide-1 concentration increased, the most stable phase of a MO membrane changes: Q224 ⇒ Q229 ⇒Lα. In both cases, the increase in the electrostatic repulsive interaction greatly reduced the absolute value of spontaneous curvature of the MO monolayer membrane. We also investigated factors such as poly (L-lysine) and osmotic stress to control structure and phase stability of DOPA/MO membranes. Based on these results, we discuss the mechanism of the effect of electrostatic interactions on the stability of cubic phase.

  7. Spontaneous exchange of leader-laggard relationship in mutually coupled synchronized semiconductor lasers. (United States)

    Kanno, Kazutaka; Hida, Takuya; Uchida, Atsushi; Bunsen, Masatoshi


    We investigate the instantaneous behavior of synchronized temporal wave forms in two mutually coupled semiconductor lasers numerically and experimentally. The temporal wave forms of two lasers are synchronized with a propagation delay time, with one laser oscillating in advance of the other, known as the leader-laggard relationship. The leader-laggard relationship can be determined by measuring the cross-correlation between the two temporal wave forms with the propagation delay time. The leader can be identified when the optical carrier frequency of the leader laser is higher than that of the other laser. However, spontaneous exchange between the leader and laggard lasers can be observed in low-frequency fluctuations by short-term cross-correlation measurements, even for a fixed initial optical frequency detuning. The spontaneous exchange of the leader-laggard relationship originates from alternation of partial optical frequency locking between the two lasers. This observation is analyzed using a phase space trajectory on steady-state solutions for mutually coupled lasers with optical frequency detuning.

  8. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  9. Evidence of spontaneous vortex ground state in an iron-based ferromagnetic superconductor (United States)

    Jiao, Wen-He; Tao, Qian; Ren, Zhi; Liu, Yi; Cao, Guang-Han


    Spontaneous vortex phase (SVP) is an exotic quantum matter in which quantized superconducting vortices form in the absence of external magnetic field. Although being predicted theoretically nearly 40 years ago, its rigorous experimental verification still appears to be lacking. Here we present low-field magnetic measurements on single crystals of the iron-based ferromagnetic superconductor Eu(Fe0.91Rh0.09)2As2 which undergoes a superconducting transition at Tsc = 19.6 K followed by a magnetic transition at Tm = 16.8 K. We observe a characteristic first-order transition from a Meissner state within Tm < T < Tsc to an SVP below Tm, under a magnetic field approaching zero. Additional isothermal magnetization and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements at T ≪Tsc confirm that the system is intrinsically in a spontaneous-vortex ground state. The unambiguous demonstration of SVP in the title material lays a solid foundation for future imaging and spectroscopic studies on this intriguing quantum matter.

  10. Il?us biliaire avec ?vacuation spontan?e d?un gros calcul : a propos d?un cas


    Hassani, Karim Ibnmajdoub; Rode, Julie; Poincenot, Jane; Gruss, Jean-Manuel


    L?il?us biliaire est une complication rare de la lithiase biliaire; Il est caract?ris? par la triade radiologique, syndrome occlusif, a?robilie et localisation ectopique d?un calcul dans le tube digestif. La cause est g?n?ralement une fistule bilio-digestive. En dehors de l??vacuation spontan?e du calcul qui est rare et int?resse surtout les calculs de moins de 2 cm, le traitement reste dans la majorit? des cas chirurgical. Nous rapportons le cas d?une patiente de 80ans, admise pour occlusion...

  11. Merkel Cell Carcinoma with Spontaneous Regression: A Case Report and Immunohistochemical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Terui


    Full Text Available Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC is an aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma that only rarely regresses spontaneously. Since little is known about the immunological mechanisms involved in the spontaneous regression of MCC, we describe a case of MCC with spontaneous regression and employed immunohistochemical staining for cytotoxic and immunosuppressive molecules to investigate possible mechanisms involved in the spontaneous regression of MCC. Interestingly, compared to conventional MCC, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in MCC with spontaneous regression contained higher numbers of CD8+ cells and granulysin-bearing cells and lower numbers of CD206+ cells. Our present study suggests one of the possible reasons for the spontaneous regression of MCC.

  12. Spontaneous emulsification at surfactantless liquid/liquid interfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Silver, Barry Richard; Holub, Karel; Mareček, Vladimír


    Roč. 805, NOV 2017 (2017), s. 91-97 ISSN 1572-6657 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-09980S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : ities * Open circuit potential * Spontaneous emulsification * Water-in- oil Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 3.012, year: 2016

  13. Scanning Emitter Lifetime Imaging Microscopy for Spontaneous Emission Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimmer, Martin; Chen, Yuntian; Koenderink, A. Femius


    We report an experimental technique to map and exploit the local density of optical states of arbitrary planar nanophotonic structures. The method relies on positioning a spontaneous emitter attached to a scanning probe deterministically and reversibly with respect to its photonic environment while...

  14. Spontaneous carotid artery dissection causing a juvenile cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trattnig, S.; Huebsch, P.; Schindler, E.


    The case of a 19-year-old patient is presented who was admitted with aphasia and hemiparesis due to basal ganglia infarction as a result of spontaneous dissection of the internal carotid artery. The difficulties in diagnosing this disease with CT and MRI in the acute stage are demonstrated. Angiography is still imperative in order to ascertain that a carotid dissection has occurred.

  15. Intake of probiotic food and risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. (United States)

    Myhre, Ronny; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Myking, Solveig; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian; Sengpiel, Verena; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Haugen, Margaretha; Jacobsson, Bo


    Preterm delivery represents a substantial problem in perinatal medicine worldwide. Current knowledge on potential influences of probiotics in food on pregnancy complications caused by microbes is limited. We hypothesized that intake of food with probiotics might reduce pregnancy complications caused by pathogenic microorganisms and, through this, reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. This study was performed in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort on the basis of answers to a food-frequency questionnaire. We studied intake of milk-based products containing probiotic lactobacilli and spontaneous preterm delivery by using a prospective cohort study design (n = 950 cases and 17,938 controls) for the pregnancy outcome of spontaneous preterm delivery (delivery were associated with any intake of milk-based probiotic products in an adjusted model [odds ratio (OR): 0.857; 95% CI: 0.741, 0.992]. By categorizing intake into none, low, and high intakes of the milk-based probiotic products, a significant association was observed for high intake (OR: 0.820; 95% CI: 0.681, 0.986). Women who reported habitual intake of probiotic dairy products had a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm delivery.

  16. Spontaneous rupture of the middle colic artery resulting in delayed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mission for three days after delivery due to raised blood pressure which was controlled using antihypertensives. The baby weighed 3.8 kg with good Apgar score. ... Osamu C, Hiroshi K, Makoto S, Soichiro Y, Hiroyuki. K, Yasumasa K, Hiroyasu M. Spontaneous rupture of. Dissecting Aneurysm of the Middle colic Artery. Tokai.

  17. Spontaneous and complete regression of a thoracic disc herniation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coevoet, V.; Benoudiba, F.; Doyon, D.; Lignieres, C.; Said, G.


    Spontaneous regression of disc herniation is well known but the mechanism is not clear. Some hypotheses have been made. We present here a large thoracic disc herniation diagnosed by MRI which completely regressed one year after a medical treatment with complete amendment of symptoms. (authors)

  18. Spontaneous rupture of incisional hernia- a case report | Nwashilli ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spontaneous rupture of an abdominal hernia is rare and usually occurs in incisional or recurrent groin hernias. The rupture requires an emergency surgery to prevent obstruction, strangulation and to cover the herniated contents. The herniated contents can be covered primarily by mesh repair if the general condition of the ...

  19. Spontaneous Rupture of Gravid Horn of Bicornuate Uterus at Term ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of a 28 year old secondigravida with uterus bicornis unicollis who had spontaneous rupture of one of the uteri in pregnancy, had excision of one horn of the double uterus and was able to carry a subsequent pregnancy to term and achieve a live birth. The literature on double uterus was also reviewed.

  20. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection: complete angiographic resolution without stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Abizaid


    Full Text Available A case of spontaneous coronary artery dissection in a 49-year-oldwoman is presented. She did not present the classical cardiovascular riskfactors. Etiology and treatment are discussed. She underwent primarypercutaneous coronary intervention of the left anterior descendingartery with no stenting and had complete angiographic resolution.