WorldWideScience

Sample records for spontaneous cp symmetry

  1. A model of spontaneous CP violation and neutrino phenomenology with approximate LμLτ symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Biswajit

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a model where CP and Z 2 symmetry violate spontaneously. CP and Z 2 violate spontaneously through a singlet complex scalar S which obtains vacuum expectation value with phase S = Ve iα /2 and this is the only source of CP violation in this model. Low energy CP violation in the leptonic sector is connected to the large scale phase by three generations of left and right handed singlet fermions in the inverse see-saw like structure of model. We have considered approximate LμL τ symmetry to study neutrino phenomenology. Considering two mass square differences and three mixing angles including non zero θ 13 to their experimental 3σ limit, we have restricted the Lagrangian parameters for reasonably small value of L μ L τ symmetry breaking parameters. We have predicted the three masses, Dirac phase and two Majorana phases. We also evaluate CP violating parameter J CP , sum-mass and effective mass parameter involved in neutrino less double beta decay. (author)

  2. A minimal spontaneous CP violation model with small neutrino mass and SU(2) x U(1) x Z3 symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, C.Q.; Ng, J.N.

    1988-04-01

    It is shown that spontaneous CP violation and natural flavor conservation can occur in the SU(2) L x U(1) Y model based on two Higgs doublet and one Higgs singlet fields with a Z 3 discrete symmetry. Physical CP nonconservation is purely due to scalar-pseudoscalar mixings. In order for this to be a major source of CP violation a light spin-O boson of mass less than 10 GeV is required. The see-saw mechanism can be implemented to generate small neutrino masses. The model implies a relatively large electric dipole moment for charged leptons and small value for ε'/ε

  3. Is CP a gauge symmetry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Kaplan, D.B.; Nelson, A.E.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional solutions to the strong CP problem all require the existence of global symmetries. However, quantum gravity may destroy global symmetries, making it hard to understand why the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDMN) is so small. We suggest here that CP is actually a discrete gauge symmetry, and is therefore not violated by quantum gravity. We show that four-dimensional CP can arise as a discrete gauge symmetry in theories with dimensional compactification, if the original number of Minkowski dimensions equals 8k+1, 8k+2 or 8k+3, and if there are certain restrictions on the gauge group; these conditions are met by superstrings. CP may then be broken spontaneously below 10 9 GeV, explaining the observed CP violation in the kaon system without inducing a large EDMN. We discuss the phenomenology of such models, as well as the peculiar properties of cosmic 'SP strings' which could be produced at the compactification scale. Such strings have the curious property that a particle carried around the string is turned into its CP conjugate. A single CP string renders four-dimensional space-time nonorientable. (orig.)

  4. CP violation and modular symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...

  5. CP violation and modular symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent noninvariance of the results under duality. We find a modular CP invariance condition, applicable to any predictive model of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated as a source of CP violation, but is likely experimentally excluded. We consider the prospects for explaining CP violation in strongly coupled strings and brane worlds

  6. Leptogenesis and residual CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Peng; Ding, Gui-Jun; King, Stephen F.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss flavour dependent leptogenesis in the framework of lepton flavour models based on discrete flavour and CP symmetries applied to the type-I seesaw model. Working in the flavour basis, we analyse the case of two general residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, which corresponds to all possible semi-direct models based on a preserved Z 2 in the neutrino sector, together with a CP symmetry, which constrains the PMNS matrix up to a single free parameter which may be fixed by the reactor angle. We systematically study and classify this case for all possible residual CP symmetries, and show that the R-matrix is tightly constrained up to a single free parameter, with only certain forms being consistent with successful leptogenesis, leading to possible connections between leptogenesis and PMNS parameters. The formalism is completely general in the sense that the two residual CP symmetries could result from any high energy discrete flavour theory which respects any CP symmetry. As a simple example, we apply the formalism to a high energy S 4 flavour symmetry with a generalized CP symmetry, broken to two residual CP symmetries in the neutrino sector, recovering familiar results for PMNS predictions, together with new results for flavour dependent leptogenesis.

  7. Discrete symmetries, strong CP problem and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1993-05-01

    Spontaneous breaking of parity or time reversal invariance offers a solution to the strong CP problem, the stability of which under quantum gravitational effects provides an upper limit on the scale of symmetry breaking. Even more important, these Planck scale effects may provide a simple and natural way out of the resulting domain wall problem. (author). 22 refs

  8. CP and other gauge symmetries in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dine, M.; Leigh, R.G.; MacIntire, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    We argue that CP is a gauge symmetry in string theory. As a consequence, CP cannot be explicitly broken either perturbatively or nonperturbatively; there can be no nonperturbative CP-violating parameters. String theory is thus an example of a theory where all θ angles arise due to spontaneous CP violation, and are in principle calculable

  9. CP properties of symmetry-constrained two-Higgs-doublet models

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P M; Nachtmann, O; Silva, Joao P

    2010-01-01

    The two-Higgs-doublet model can be constrained by imposing Higgs-family symmetries and/or generalized CP symmetries. It is known that there are only six independent classes of such symmetry-constrained models. We study the CP properties of all cases in the bilinear formalism. An exact symmetry implies CP conservation. We show that soft breaking of the symmetry can lead to spontaneous CP violation (CPV) in three of the classes.

  10. Model for particle masses, flavor mixing, and CP violation, based on spontaneously broken discrete chiral symmetry as the origin of families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, S.L.

    1999-01-01

    We construct extensions of the standard model based on the hypothesis that Higgs bosons also exhibit a family structure and that the flavor weak eigenstates in the three families are distinguished by a discrete Z 6 chiral symmetry that is spontaneously broken by the Higgs sector. We study in detail at the tree level models with three Higgs doublets and with six Higgs doublets comprising two weakly coupled sets of three. In a leading approximation of S 3 cyclic permutation symmetry the three-Higgs-doublet model gives a open-quotes democraticclose quotes mass matrix of rank 1, while the six-Higgs-doublet model gives either a rank-1 mass matrix or, in the case when it spontaneously violates CP, a rank-2 mass matrix corresponding to nonzero second family masses. In both models, the CKM matrix is exactly unity in the leading approximation. Allowing small explicit violations of cyclic permutation symmetry generates small first family masses in the six-Higgs-doublet model, and first and second family masses in the three-Higgs-doublet model, and gives a nontrivial CKM matrix in which the mixings of the first and second family quarks are naturally larger than mixings involving the third family. Complete numerical fits are given for both models, flavor-changing neutral current constraints are discussed in detail, and the issues of unification of couplings and neutrino masses are addressed. On a technical level, our analysis uses the theory of circulant and retrocirculant matrices, the relevant parts of which are reviewed. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  11. Soft CP violation and the global matter-antimatter symmetry of the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjanovic, G.; Stecker, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    Scenarios for baryon production are considered within the context of SU(5) and SO(10) grand unified theories where CP violation arises spontaneously. The spontaneous CP symmetry breaking then results in a matter-antimatter domain structure in the universe. Two possible, distinct types of theories of soft CP violation are defined. In the first type the CP nonconservation originates only from the breaking of SU(2) sub L X U(1) symmetry, and in the second type, even at the unification temperature scale, CP violation can emerge as a result of symmetry breaking by the vacuum expectation values of the superheavy Higgs sector scalars.

  12. Spontaneous CP violation on the lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Mikko

    2000-01-01

    At finite temperatures around the electroweak phase transition, the thermodynamics of the MSSM can be described by a three-dimensional two Higgs doublet effective theory. This effective theory has a phase where CP is spontaneously violated. We study spontaneous CP violation with non-perturbative lattice simulations, and analyse whether one could end up in this phase for any physical MSSM parameter values.

  13. CP -symmetry of order 4 and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Igor P.

    2017-01-01

    Extended Higgs sectors offer rich opportunities for various forms of CP -violation. Here, we describe a new form of CP-conservation and discuss its consequences. We give a concrete example of a three-Higgs-doublet model dubbed CP4-3HDM with a CP -symmetry of order 4 and no other other accidental symmetries. If the vacuum conserves this symmetry, the model is CP -conserving with pairwise mass-degenerate extra neutral Higgs bosons. These fields cannot be classified as CP -even or CP -odd but they can be combined into complex physical fields which are CP -half-odd, that is, they pick up the i factor upon CP transformation. These CP -half-odd scalars can be Yukawa-coupled to the fermion bilinears in a CP -conserving way. We discuss fundamental and phenomenological features of the model, and stress a peculiar clash between the CP -symmetry and any convention for the particle-antiparticle assignment. (paper)

  14. Weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    The present status of weak interaction models with spontaneously broken left-right symmetry is reviewed. The theoretical basis for asymptotic parity conservation, manifest left-right symmetry in charged current weak interactions, natural parity conservation in neutral currents and CP-violation in the context of SU(2)/sub L/ circled x SU (2)/sub R/ circled x U(1) models are outlined in detail. Various directions for further research in the theoretical and experimental side are indicated

  15. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the $S_3$-symmetric scalar sector

    CERN Document Server

    Emmanuel-Costa, D.; Osland, P.; Rebelo, M.N.

    2016-02-23

    We present a detailed study of the vacua of the $S_3$-symmetric three-Higgs-doublet potential, specifying the region of parameters where these minimisation solutions occur. We work with a CP conserving scalar potential and analyse the possible real and complex vacua with emphasis on the cases in which the CP symmetry can be spontaneously broken. Results are presented both in the reducible-representation framework of Derman, and in the irreducible-representation framework. Mappings between these are given. Some of these implementations can in principle accommodate dark matter and for that purpose it is important to identify the residual symmetries of the potential after spontaneous symmetry breakdown. We are also concerned with constraints from vacuum stability.

  16. Radiative violation of CP-symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan Herrera, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    The left-right quiral symmetry is not conserved by the Standard model. A subgroup of the standard gauge group (SU(2) L ) breaks this symmetry in a explicit way. Moreover, the standard model, if there are theree or more matter generations, violates the CP discrete symmetry. This prediction has been experimentally demonstrated correct in the Kaon anti Kaon system. In this work some possible explanations to the CP violation parameter magnitude are researched. We have studied the variation of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix with the energy scale. To realize this work we have developed a general method to calculate the renormalization group equations of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parameters. From these equations we could also calculate the renormalization group equation of the J parameter that characterizes the CP violation. This calculus has been applied in a concrete example: a typical supersymmetric model from superstring theories. This model can be seen like a natural extension of the supersymmetric standard model. This kind of models have a gauge group bigger that the standard one more particles and new terms of the Lagrangian. We have verified that such model provides us of a correct low energy fenomenology and, moreover other results, some particle spectrums have been developed. In the elaboration of this model some conditions, that the model has to respected to be compatible with the actual fenomenology, have been studied. The most interesting results of this thesis are the develop of a general method to calculate the renormalization group equations of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parameters and the develop of a new mechanism of the radiative violation. This mechanism is related with the new terms of the Lagrangian. (Author)

  17. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  18. Aspects of soft and spontaneous CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frampton, P.H.; Harada, M.

    1999-01-01

    We study four different models for CP violation: the standard Kobayashi-Maskawa (KM) model, the aspon model of spontaneous breaking, and two models of soft breaking. In all except the standard model, the strong CP problem is addressed and solved. Testable predictions for the area of the unitarity triangle and for (ε ' /ε) K are emphasized. The issue of CP violation may well become the first place where the standard model of particle theory is shown definitively to be deficient. There are two reasons for expecting this to happen: (1) the strong CP problem is still not understood in the unadorned standard model and (2) the KM mechanism, although unquestionably present, may not provide the full explanation of ε K and (ε ' /ε) K . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  19. Spontaneously broken global symmetries and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafi, Q.; Vilenkin, A.

    1984-01-01

    Phase transitions associated with spontaneously broken global symmetries, in case these occur in nature, can have important cosmological implications. This is illustrated through two examples. The first one shows how the spontaneous breaking of a global U(1) symmetry, present, for instance, in the minimal SU(5) model, can lead to an inflationary phase. The second example illustrates how topologically stable strings associated with the breaking of U(1) symmetry make an appearance at (or near) the end of the inflationary era

  20. Spontaneous CP violation from a quaternionic Kaluza-Klein theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, B.E.; Joshi, G.C.

    1991-01-01

    Motivated by the isomorphism between the universal covering group of the six dimensional Lorentz group and the special linear group over the quaternions, a locally quaternionic covariant quantum mechanics is postulated to exist in six space-time dimensions. Compactifying onto the space-time M 4 x S 2 complex theory is retrieved on the four dimensional Minkowski space with the essential quaternionic nature confined to S 2 . Quaternionic spinors are introduced and a dimensionally reduced theory recovered which exhibits a CP violating effect via spontaneous symmetry breaking. 20 refs

  1. Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking

  2. Neutrino masses and spontaneously broken flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudt, Christian

    2014-01-01

    We study the phenomenology of supersymmetric flavor models. We show how the predictions of models based on spontaneously broken non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries are altered when we include so-called Kaehler corrections. Furthermore, we discuss anomaly-free discrete R symmetries which are compatible with SU(5) unification. We find a set of symmetries compatible with suppressed Dirac neutrino masses and a unique symmetry consistent with the Weinberg operator. We also study a pseudo-anomalous U(1) R symmetry which explains the fermion mass hierarchies and, when amended with additional singlet fields, ameliorates the fine-tuning problem.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  4. Spontaneous emergence of gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.

    1987-05-01

    Within the framework of the random dynamics project we have demonstrated several mechanisms for breakdown of a preexisting exact gauge symmetry. This note concerns and reviews a mechanism which works essentially in the opposite direction, leading from am accidental approximate symmetry to an exact formal gauge symmetry. It was shown that although this symmetry is a priori only strictly formal, it can under certain circumstances lead to a physical consequence: the corresponding gauge boson becomes massless. In the chaotic models typical for our random dynamics project there is, of course, a strong competition between this mechanism and mechanisms which temd to destroy the symmetry and give mass(es) to the gauge boson(s). (orig.)

  5. Deviation from bimaximal mixing and leptonic CP phases in S4 family symmetry and generalized CP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The lepton flavor mixing matrix having one row or one column in common with the bimaximal mixing up to permutations is still compatible with the present neutrino oscillation data. We provide a thorough exploration of generating such a mixing matrix from S 4 family symmetry and generalized CP symmetry H CP . Supposing that S 4 ⋊H CP is broken down to Z 2 ST 2 SU ×H CP ν in the neutrino sector and Z 4 TST 2 U ⋊H CP l in the charged lepton sector, one column of the PMNS matrix would be of the form (1/2,1/√2,1/2) T up to permutations, both Dirac CP phase and Majorana CP phases are trivial to accommodate the observed lepton mixing angles. The phenomenological implications of the remnant symmetry K 4 (TST 2 ,T 2 U) ×H CP ν in the neutrino sector and Z 2 SU ×H CP l in the charged lepton sector are studied. One row of PMNS matrix is determined to be (1/2,1/2,−i/√2), and all the three leptonic CP phases can only be trivial to fit the measured values of the mixing angles. Two models based on S 4 family symmetry and generalized CP are constructed to implement these model independent predictions enforced by remnant symmetry. The correct mass hierarchy among the charged leptons is achieved. The vacuum alignment and higher order corrections are discussed.

  6. N=1 superstrings with spontaneously broken symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrara, S.

    1988-01-01

    We construct N=1 chiral superstrings with spontaneously broken gauge symmetry in four space-time dimensions. These new string solutions are obtained by a generalized coordinate-dependent Z 2 orbifold compactification of some non-chiral five-dimensional N=1 and N=2 superstrings. The scale of symmetry breaking is arbitrary (at least classically) and it can be chosen hierarchically smaller than the string scale (α') -1/2 . (orig.)

  7. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  8. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  9. Necessity of intermediate mass scales in grand unified theories with spontaneously broken CP invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.

    1982-07-01

    It is demonstrated that the spontaneous breakdown of CP invariance in grand unified theories requires the presence of intermediate mass scales. The simplest realization is provided by weakly broken left-right symmetry in the context of SU(2)sub(L) x SU(2)sub(R) x U(1)sub(B-L) model embedded in grand unified theories. (author)

  10. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  11. Nonrestoration of spontaneously broken P, CP and PQ at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali G.; Melfo, A.; Senjanovic, G.

    1996-01-01

    The possibility of P and CP violation at high temperature in models where these symmetries are spontaneously broken is investigated. It is found that in minimal models that include singlet fields, high T nonrestoration is possible for a wide range of parameters of the theory, in particular in models of CP violation with a CP-odd Higgs field. The same holds true for the invisible axion version of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism. This can provide both a way out for the domain wall problem in these theories and the CP violation required for baryogenesis. In the case of spontaneous P violation it turns out that high T nonrestoration required going beyond the minimal model. The results are shown to hold true when next-to-leading order effects are considered. (author). 33 refs, 3 figs

  12. Mass mixing, CP violation and left-right symmetry for heavy neutral mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate M 0 - M-bar 0 mixing and CP violation in the minimal left-right symmetric gauge model with spontaneous P and CP violation. The dominant contributions to the mixing amplitude including QCD corrections are calculated explicitly for B 0 - B-bar 0 . While the amount of mixing is not much changed with respect to the standard model left-right symmetry can give rise to significantly larger CP violation in the B 0 sub(s) - B-bar 0 sub(s) system (up to two orders of magnitude for the dilepton charge asymmetry). Sizable CP violating effects require that the left-right contribution to the KsubLKsubS mass difference has the same sign as the standard model contribution. We also comment on D 0 - D-bar 0 mixing including a careful discussion of the standard model prediction. (Author)

  13. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and response functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beraudo, A.; De Pace, A.; Martini, M.; Molinari, A.

    2005-01-01

    We study the quantum phase transition occurring in an infinite homogeneous system of spin 1/2 fermions in a non-relativistic context. As an example we consider neutrons interacting through a simple spin-spin Heisenberg force. The two critical values of the coupling strength-signaling the onset into the system of a finite magnetization and of the total magnetization, respectively-are found and their dependence upon the range of the interaction is explored. The spin response function of the system in the region where the spin-rotational symmetry is spontaneously broken is also studied. For a ferromagnetic interaction the spin response along the direction of the spontaneous magnetization occurs in the particle-hole continuum and displays, for not too large momentum transfers, two distinct peaks. The response along the direction orthogonal to the spontaneous magnetization displays instead, beyond a softened and depleted particle-hole continuum, a collective mode to be identified with a Goldstone boson of type II. Notably, the random phase approximation on a Hartree-Fock basis accounts for it, in particular for its quadratic-close to the origin-dispersion relation. It is shown that the Goldstone boson contributes to the saturation of the energy-weighted sum rule for ∼25% when the system becomes fully magnetized (that is in correspondence of the upper critical value of the interaction strength) and continues to grow as the interaction strength increases

  14. CP symmetry violation. The search for its origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronin, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present experimental situation on detection of CP symmetry violation is presented. Interference between decays of long-lived (Ksub(L)sup(0)) and short-lived (Ksub(S)sup(0)) mesons into two charged pions serves a direct demonstration of the fact that the effect is caused by CP symmetry breaking. The time distribution of decays into π + π - when the 4-10 GeV Ksub(L) meson beam passes through a carbon regenerator is given as an example of the measurement accuracy. The measurements of the charge asymmetry in half-lepton channels of Ksub(L)→π +- l +- ν decay where l is an electron or a muon are discussed. It is noted that the presence of the charge asymmetry serves an indication of CP invariance violation and permits to carry out experimental differentiation between the matter and antimatter. Different theoretical assumptions on the nature of CP invariance violation are discussed. A list of experiments on search for CP, T and C invariance violation carried out in different laboratories of the world is given [ru

  15. Chiral vacuum alignment and spontaneous CP violation by four-Fermi operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rador, Tonguc

    2009-01-01

    In models where there is a global chiral symmetry which spontaneously breaks to its vectorial subgroup, the introduction of an explicit symmetry breaking perturbation will define the true vacuum of the theory. This true vacuum is found via the minimization of the expectation value of the perturbing Hamiltonian between different vacua as prescribed by Dashen. The procedure of finding the correct vacuum of the theory may result in the spontaneous breaking of CP symmetry even if one initially demands CP invariance on the perturbation. In this work we study, in detail, models where the perturbation is provided by four-Fermi operators. We present the exact treatment for models with two fermion flavors and study the three flavor case in depth numerically. We show that after the Dashen procedure is applied the solutions for the true vacuum fall in three classes with different CP breaking patterns. Critical transitions are possible between these classes as one varies the parameters of the perturbation. We rigorously show that at these transitions a pseudo-Goldstone boson mass vanishes. We also advocate, and substantiate with numerical statistical analysis for various types of models, that if one imposes CP invariance on the perturbation before solving the vacuum alignment, the resulting vacuum structure will have a sizable probability for a light pseudo-Goldstone boson mass. That is a statistical variant of Peccei-Quinn mechanism can be speculated to operate.

  16. Spontaneous CP-violation in the Weinberg-Salam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahanas, A.B.; Papadopoulos, N.J.

    1977-01-01

    The theory of spontaneous CP-violation proposed by Lee is applied to the standard Weinberg-Salam model with four quark flavours. The magnitude of the epsilon-parameters is determined and the neutrons dipole moment is estimated to be ( -23 cm. The epsilon'-parameter and possible extension to a model with more quarks are discussed

  17. Lepton mixing in A_5 family symmetry and generalized CP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Cai-Chang; Ding, Gui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We study lepton mixing patterns which can be derived from the A_5 family symmetry and generalized CP. We find five phenomenologically interesting mixing patterns for which one column of the PMNS matrix is (√(((5+√5)/10)),(1/(√(5+√5))),(1/(√(5+√5))))"T (the first column of the golden ratio mixing), (√(((5−√5)/10)),(1/(√(5−√5))),(1/(√(5−√5))))"T (the second column of the golden ratio mixing), (1,1,1)"T/√3 or (√5+1,−2,√5−1)"T/4. The three lepton mixing angles are determined in terms of a single real parameter θ, and agreement with experimental data can be achieved for certain values of θ. The Dirac CP violating phase is predicted to be trivial or maximal while Majorana phases are trivial. We construct a supersymmetric model based on A_5 family symmetry and generalized CP. The lepton mixing is exactly the golden ratio pattern at leading order, and the mixing patterns of case III and case IV are reproduced after higher order corrections are considered.

  18. Spontaneous breaking of the BRST symmetry in the ABJM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faizal, Mir; Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we will analyze the ghost condensation in the ABJM theory. We will perform our analysis in N=1 superspace. We show that in the Delbourgo–Jarvis–Baulieu–Thierry–Mieg gauge the spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry can occur in the ABJM theory. This spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry is caused by ghost–anti-ghost condensation. We will also show that in the ABJM theory, the ghost–anti-ghost condensates remain present in the modified abelian gauge. Thus, the spontaneous breaking of BRST symmetry in ABJM theory can even occur in the modified abelian gauge

  19. Superconducting cosmic strings in models with spontaneously broken family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, T.M.; Dvali, G.R.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that superconducting cosmic strings with some specific properties naturally exist in models of spontaneously broken family symmetry. Superconductivity may be of both types - bosonic and fermionic. There exists a possible mechanism of string conservation. (orig.)

  20. Temperature renormalization group approach to spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manesis, E.; Sakakibara, S.

    1985-01-01

    We apply renormalization group equations that describe the finite-temperature behavior of Green's functions to investigate thermal properties of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Specifically, in the O(N).O(N) symmetric model we study the change of symmetry breaking patterns with temperature, and show that there always exists the unbroken symmetry phase at high temperature, modifying the naive result of leading order in finite-temperature perturbation theory. (orig.)

  1. A CP violating mixing matrix compatible with neutral flavour conservation and spontaneous CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1987-01-01

    A specific ansatz for the Yukawa couplings of a four-generation SU(2) L x U(I) model with two Higgs doublets is discussed which leads to neutral flavour conservation, spontaneous CP violation and to a genuinely complex mixing matrix. W exchange conserves CP in the limit m t' = m t only. The decay rate for t → b is reduced by a factor two compared to the Standard Model with three generations. The phenomenological implications for K 0 -K-bar 0 and B 0 -B-bar 0 are investigated. (Author)

  2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in 4-dimensional heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharana, J.

    1989-07-01

    The evolution of a 4-dimensional heterotic string is considered in the background of its massless excitations such as graviton, antisymmetric tensor, gauge fields and scalar bosons. The compactified bosonic coordinates are fermionized. The world-sheet supersymmetry requirement enforces Thirring-like four fermion coupling to the background scalar fields. The non-abelian gauge symmetry is exhibited through the Ward identities of the S-matrix elements. The spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism is exhibited through the broken Ward identities. An effective 4-dimensional action is constructed and the consequence of spontaneous symmetry breaking is envisaged for the effective action. 19 refs

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.

  4. Strong evidence for spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in (quenched) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, I.M.; Gibbs, P.; Schierholz, G.; Teper, M.; Gilchrist, J.P.; Schneider, H.

    1983-09-01

    We calculate the chiral condensate for all quark masses using Kogut-Susskind fermions in lattice-regularized quenched QCD. The large volume behaviour of at small quark masses demonstrates that the explicit U(1) chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken. We perform the calculation for β = 5.1 to 5.9 and find very good continuum renormalization group behaviour. We infer that the spontaneous breaking we observe belongs to continuum QCD. This constitutes the first unambiguous demonstration of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in continuum quenched QCD. (orig.)

  5. Symmetry restoration in spontaneously broken induced gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amati, D.; Russo, J.

    1990-01-01

    We investigate the recuperation of expected invariant behaviours in a non-metric gravity theory in which the full general relativistic invariance is broken spontaneously. We show how dangerous increasing energy behaviours of physical amplitudes cancel in a highly non-trivial way. This evidences the expected loss of the vacuum generated scale in the UV regime and gives support for the consistency of spontaneously broken gravity theories. (orig.)

  6. Difficulties for a simple picture of spontaneous CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, D.; Koerner, J.G.

    1981-06-01

    We show that vertical stroke epsilon'/epsilon vertical stroke is unacceptably large in SU(2)sub(L) x U(1) models with spontaneous CP violation and natural flavor conservation in neutral Higgs-particle interactions if it is assumed that charmed quark intermediate states contribute significantly and that Msub(W) 2 >> Msub(H) 2 >> Msub(C) 2 . From the quark operator structure of box and penguin graphs involving Higgs-particle exchange, we demonstrate that pseudoscalar current matrix elements cannot be enhanced over axial-current matrix elements as has been previously assumed in similar calculations. Alternate ways to evaluate the matrix elements are employed. (orig.)

  7. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N = 2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    A model describing the interaction of N = 2 supergravity with a vector and a linear multiplet is constructed. The model admits the introduction of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking with two arbitrary scales, one of which can be equal to zero, corresponding to the partial super-Higgs effect (N = 2→N = 1). The cosmological term is automatically equal to zero

  8. Spontaneous Broken Local Conformal Symmetry and Dark Energy Candidate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Lu-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The local conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken down to the Local Lorentz invariance symmetry through the approach of nonlinear realization. The resulting effective Lagrangian, in the unitary gauge, describes a cosmological vector field non-minimally coupling to the gravitational field. As a result of the Higgs mechanism, the vector field absorbs the dilaton and becomes massive, but with an independent energy scale. The Proca type vector field can be modelled as dark energy candidate. The possibility that it further triggers Lorentz symmetry violation is also pointed out

  9. Phenomenology of the standard model under conditions of spontaneously broken mirror symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyatlov, I. T., E-mail: dyatlov@thd.pnpi.spb.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute, Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Spontaneously broken mirror symmetry is able to reproduce observed qualitative properties of weak mixing for quark and leptons. Under conditions of broken mirror symmetry, the phenomenology of leptons—that is, small neutrino masses and a mixing character other than that in the case of quarks—requires the Dirac character of the neutrinos and the existence of processes violating the total lepton number. Such processes involve heavy mirror neutrinos; that is, they proceed at very high energies. Here, CP violation implies that a P-even mirror-symmetric Lagrangian must simultaneously be T-odd and, according to the CPT theorem, C-odd. All these properties create preconditions for the occurrence of leptogenesis, which is a mechanism of the emergence of the baryon–lepton asymmetry of the universe in models featuring broken mirror symmetry.

  10. Spontaneous breakdown of PT symmetry in the complex Coulomb ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P T symmetry is spontaneously broken, however, for complex values of the form L = − 1 2 + i . In this case the potential remains P T -symmetric, while the two independent solutions are transformed to each other by the P T operation and at the same time, the two series of discrete energy eigenvalues turn into each ...

  11. Nonextensive Entropy, Prior PDFs and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Shafee, Fariel

    2008-01-01

    We show that using nonextensive entropy can lead to spontaneous symmetry breaking when a parameter changes its value from that applicable for a symmetric domain, as in field theory. We give the physical reasons and also show that even for symmetric Dirichlet priors, such a defnition of the entropy and the parameter value can lead to asymmetry when entropy is maximized.

  12. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Manuel; Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytical model for the theoretical analysis of spin dynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This allows for an excellent intuitive understanding of the processes and provides good quantitative agreement with the experimental results...

  13. Non-zero θ{sub 13} and leptonic CP phase with A{sub 4} symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sruthilaya, M.; Mohanta, R. [University of Hyderabad, School of Physics, Hyderabad (India)

    2017-03-15

    We consider a model based on A{sub 4} symmetry to explain the phenomenon of neutrino mixing. The spontaneous symmetry breaking of A{sub 4} symmetry leads to a co-bimaximal mixing matrix at leading order. We consider the effect of higher order corrections in neutrino sector and find that the mixing angles thus obtained, come well within the 3σ ranges of their experimental values. We study the implications of this formalism on the other phenomenological observables, such as CP violating phase, Jarlskog invariant and the effective Majorana mass vertical stroke M{sub ee} vertical stroke. We also obtain the branching ratio of the lepton flavour violating decay μ → eγ in the context of this model and find that it can be less than its present experimental upper bound. (orig.)

  14. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari Rudina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks – Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss – Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  15. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina

    2018-03-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  16. Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirzhnitz, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered

  17. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V.; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J.; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We consider first type-II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators, but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave mixing cavity in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of ...

  18. Noncritical quadrature squeezing through spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ferrer, Ferran V; Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; de Valcárcel, Germán J; Roldán, Eugenio

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the possibility of generating noncritical quadrature squeezing by spontaneous polarization symmetry breaking. We first consider Type II frequency-degenerate optical parametric oscillators but discard them for a number of reasons. Then we propose a four-wave-mixing cavity, in which the polarization of the output mode is always linear but has an arbitrary orientation. We show that in such a cavity, complete noise suppression in a quadrature of the output field occurs, irrespective of the parameter values.

  19. Dynamical symmetry breaking: Exotic quarks and the strong CP problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlong, R.C.

    1988-10-01

    Decuplet quarks (quens) transforming as 10's under SU(3)/sub C/ are shown to be superior to sextet quarks (quixes) in their ability to resolve the Strong CP problem, resulting in composite invisible axions (CIAs). 8 refs

  20. A violation of CP symmetry in B meson decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karyotakis, Y.; Monchenault, G.H. de

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the issue of CP-violation and reports the most recent results about the observation of large CP asymmetries in the decay of neutral B-mesons. Some of the CP asymmetries in the neutral B-meson decay are expected to be large. CP-violation always involves quantum mechanical interference. This occurs for instance when there are 2 paths for a particle to decay into a given final state. The interference between the mixing-induced amplitude (B 0 → B-bar 0 → f) and the decay amplitude (B 0 → f) to a CP eigenstate f leads to a time dependent CP asymmetry that can be interpreted in terms of the angles of the unitary triangle (sin(2β)). The experimental challenge comes from the fact that B decays to some CP eigenstates have very small branching ratios and low efficiencies for complete reconstruction of the final state. It is therefore necessary to produce a very large number of B-mesons to perform a CP-measurement. To make the measurement possible, a new type of e + e - collider, called asymmetric B-factory has been designed. 2 asymmetric B-factories are operating in the world: PEP2 (Stanford, Usa) fitted with the Babar detector and KEK-B (Japan) which hosts Belle detector. The measurements given by Babar and Belle are in good agreement and can be combined. The average value is sin(2β) = 0.78 ± 0.08 and this value is in excellent agreement with the standard model predictions based on available experimental data. (A.C.)

  1. Ruling out the Weinberg Model of Spontaneous CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Darwin

    2000-01-01

    There have been many declarations of the death of the Weinberg model of spontaneous CP violation. Previous studies, before the recent measurements of ε'/ε, indicated that the model could not accommodate the experimental values on ε in K 0 - bar K 0 mixing, the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM), the branching ratio of b → sγ and the upper limit on ε'/ε. The authors point out that these studies were based on optimistic estimates of the uncertainties in the calculations and that when more realistic estimates of these errors are used the Weinberg model cannot be conclusively ruled out from these considerations alone. Here we use these realistic error estimates to analyze the present situation of the Weinberg model. The latest results from Belle and BaBar on sin 2β allow the small values of this parameter which occur naturally in the Weinberg model. However, in this model, the recently measured value of Re(ε'/ε) = (1.92 ± 0.25) x 10 -3 cannot be made compatible with the branching ratio B(b → sγ) = (3.15 ± 0.54) x 10 -4 . As a result they conclude that the Weinburg model is now confidently and conservatively ruled out

  2. Ruling out the Weinberg Model of Spontaneous CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Darwin

    2000-01-01

    There have been many declarations of the death of the Weinberg model of spontaneous CP violation. Previous studies, before the recent measurements of ε'/ε indicated that the model could not accommodate the experimental values on ε in K 0 - bar K 0 mixing, the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM), the branching ratio of b → sγ and the upper limit on ε'/ε. We point out that these studies were based on optimistic estimates of the uncertainties in the calculations and that when more realistic estimates of these errors are used the Weinberg model cannot be conclusively ruled out from these considerations alone. Here we use these realistic error estimates to analyze the present situation of the Weinberg model. The latest results from Belle and BaBar on sin 2β allow the small values of this parameter which occur naturally in the Weinberg model. However, in this model, the recently measured value of Re(ε'/ε) = (1.92 ± 10 -3 ) cannot be made compatible with the branching ratio B(b → sγ) = (3.15 ± 0.54) x 10 -4 . As a result they conclude that the Weinberg model is now confidently and conservatively ruled out

  3. Flavor and CP symmetries for leptogenesis and 0νββ decay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, Claudia; Molinaro, Emiliano

    2017-01-01

    We perform a comprehensive analysis of the phenomenology of leptonic low and high energy CP phases in a scenario with three heavy right-handed neutrinos in which a flavor and a CP symmetry are non-trivially broken. All CP phases as well as lepton mixing angles are determined by the properties...... of the flavor and CP symmetry and one free real parameter. We focus on the generation of the baryon asymmetry YB of the Universe via unflavored leptogenesis and the predictions of mee, the quantity measurable in neutrinoless double beta decay. We show that the sign of YB can be fixed and the allowed parameter...... range of mee can be strongly constrained. We argue on general grounds that the CP asymmetries ϵi are dominated by the contribution associated with one Majorana phase and that in cases in which only the Dirac phase is non-trivial the sign of YB depends on further parameters. In addition, we comment...

  4. Spontaneous SUSY breaking without R symmetry in supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Nobuhiro; Omura, Yuji; Shigekami, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Manabu

    2018-03-01

    We discuss spontaneous supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in a model with an anomalous U (1 )A symmetry. In this model, the size of the each term in the superpotential is controlled by the U (1 )A charge assignment and SUSY is spontaneously broken via the Fayet-Iliopoulos of U (1 )A at the metastable vacuum. In the global SUSY analysis, the gaugino masses become much smaller than the sfermion masses, because an approximate R symmetry appears at the SUSY breaking vacuum. In this paper, we show that gaugino masses can be as large as gravitino mass, taking the supergravity effect into consideration. This is because the R symmetry is not imposed so that the constant term in the superpotential, which is irrelevant to the global SUSY analysis, largely contributes to the soft SUSY breaking terms in the supergravity. As the mediation mechanism, we introduce the contributions of the field not charged under U (1 )A and the moduli field to cancel the anomaly of U (1 )A. We comment on the application of our SUSY breaking scenario to the grand unified theory.

  5. Spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries and the role of inessential Goldstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Remko; Roest, Diederik; Stefanyszyn, David

    2017-10-01

    In contrast to internal symmetries, there is no general proof that the coset construction for spontaneously broken spacetime symmetries leads to universal dynamics. One key difference lies in the role of Goldstone bosons, which for spacetime symmetries includes a subset which are inessential for the non-linear realisation and hence can be eliminated. In this paper we address two important issues that arise when eliminating inessential Goldstones. The first concerns the elimination itself, which is often performed by imposing so-called inverse Higgs constraints. Contrary to claims in the literature, there are a series of conditions on the structure constants which must be satisfied to employ the inverse Higgs phenomenon, and we discuss which parametrisation of the coset element is the most effective in this regard. We also consider generalisations of the standard inverse Higgs constraints, which can include integrating out inessential Goldstones at low energies, and prove that under certain assumptions these give rise to identical effective field theories for the essential Goldstones. Secondly, we consider mappings between non-linear realisations that differ both in the coset element and the algebra basis. While these can always be related to each other by a point transformation, remarkably, the inverse Higgs constraints are not necessarily mapped onto each other under this transformation. We discuss the physical implications of this non-mapping, with a particular emphasis on the coset space corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of the Anti-De Sitter isometries by a Minkowski probe brane.

  6. Lepton mixing predictions including Majorana phases from Δ(6n2 flavour symmetry and generalised CP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen F. King

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Generalised CP transformations are the only known framework which allows to predict Majorana phases in a flavour model purely from symmetry. For the first time generalised CP transformations are investigated for an infinite series of finite groups, Δ(6n2=(Zn×Zn⋊S3. In direct models the mixing angles and Dirac CP phase are solely predicted from symmetry. The Δ(6n2 flavour symmetry provides many examples of viable predictions for mixing angles. For all groups the mixing matrix has a trimaximal middle column and the Dirac CP phase is 0 or π. The Majorana phases are predicted from residual flavour and CP symmetries where α21 can take several discrete values for each n and the Majorana phase α31 is a multiple of π. We discuss constraints on the groups and CP transformations from measurements of the neutrino mixing angles and from neutrinoless double-beta decay and find that predictions for mixing angles and all phases are accessible to experiments in the near future.

  7. Lepton mixing predictions including Majorana phases from Δ(6n2) flavour symmetry and generalised CP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F.; Neder, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Generalised CP transformations are the only known framework which allows to predict Majorana phases in a flavour model purely from symmetry. For the first time generalised CP transformations are investigated for an infinite series of finite groups, Δ(6n 2 )=(Z n ×Z n )⋊S 3 . In direct models the mixing angles and Dirac CP phase are solely predicted from symmetry. The Δ(6n 2 ) flavour symmetry provides many examples of viable predictions for mixing angles. For all groups the mixing matrix has a trimaximal middle column and the Dirac CP phase is 0 or π. The Majorana phases are predicted from residual flavour and CP symmetries where α 21 can take several discrete values for each n and the Majorana phase α 31 is a multiple of π. We discuss constraints on the groups and CP transformations from measurements of the neutrino mixing angles and from neutrinoless double-beta decay and find that predictions for mixing angles and all phases are accessible to experiments in the near future

  8. Trimaximal TM1 neutrino mixing in S4 with spontaneous CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luhn, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The measurement of the reactor angle by the Daya Bay and RENO experiments in 2012 has ruled out the tri-bimaximal paradigm. Adopting an S 4 family symmetry, we propose direct models of the trimaximal type TM 1 in which the tri-bimaximal Klein symmetry of the neutrino sector is broken to a residual Z 2 symmetry. In such a scenario, the solar mixing angle is decreased compared to its tri-bimaximal value by about 1°, thus bringing it in excellent agreement with experimental observation. The atmospheric mixing angle, on the other hand, depends on the CP violating Dirac phase δ. Imposing CP conservation in the family symmetry limit, we show how to break the CP symmetry via flavon VEVs with well-defined complex phases, so that sizable deviations of the atmospheric angle from maximal mixing, consistent with the latest global fits, are produced

  9. Leptonic Dirac CP violation predictions from residual discrete symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Girardi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that the observed pattern of 3-neutrino mixing is related to the existence of a (lepton flavour symmetry, corresponding to a non-Abelian discrete symmetry group Gf, and that Gf is broken to specific residual symmetries Ge and Gν of the charged lepton and neutrino mass terms, we derive sum rules for the cosine of the Dirac phase δ of the neutrino mixing matrix U. The residual symmetries considered are: i Ge=Z2 and Gν=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2; ii Ge=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2 and Gν=Z2; iii Ge=Z2 and Gν=Z2; iv Ge is fully broken and Gν=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2; and v Ge=Zn, n>2 or Zn×Zm, n,m≥2 and Gν is fully broken. For given Ge and Gν, the sum rules for cos⁡δ thus derived are exact, within the approach employed, and are valid, in particular, for any Gf containing Ge and Gν as subgroups. We identify the cases when the value of cos⁡δ cannot be determined, or cannot be uniquely determined, without making additional assumptions on unconstrained parameters. In a large class of cases considered the value of cos⁡δ can be unambiguously predicted once the flavour symmetry Gf is fixed. We present predictions for cos⁡δ in these cases for the flavour symmetry groups Gf=S4, A4, T′ and A5, requiring that the measured values of the 3-neutrino mixing parameters sin2⁡θ12, sin2⁡θ13 and sin2⁡θ23, taking into account their respective 3σ uncertainties, are successfully reproduced.

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in curved space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toms, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    An approach dealing with some of the complications which arise when studying spontaneous symmetry breaking beyond the tree-graph level in situations where the effective potential may not be used is discussed. These situations include quantum field theory on general curved backgrounds or in flat space-times with non-trivial topologies. Examples discussed are a twisted scalar field in S 1 xR 3 and instabilities in an expanding universe. From these it is seen that the topology and curvature of a space-time may affect the stability of the vacuum state. There can be critical length scales or times beyond which symmetries may be broken or restored in certain cases. These features are not present in Minkowski space-time and so would not show up in the usual types of early universe calculations. (U.K.)

  11. Stock market speculation: Spontaneous symmetry breaking of economic valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornette, Didier

    2000-09-01

    Firm foundation theory estimates a security's firm fundamental value based on four determinants: expected growth rate, expected dividend payout, the market interest rate and the degree of risk. In contrast, other views of decision-making in the stock market, using alternatives such as human psychology and behavior, bounded rationality, agent-based modeling and evolutionary game theory, expound that speculative and crowd behavior of investors may play a major role in shaping market prices. Here, we propose that the two views refer to two classes of companies connected through a "phase transition". Our theory is based on (1) the identification of the fundamental parity symmetry of prices (p→-p), which results from the relative direction of payment flux compared to commodity flux and (2) the observation that a company's risk-adjusted growth rate discounted by the market interest rate behaves as a control parameter for the observable price. We find a critical value of this control parameter at which a spontaneous symmetry-breaking of prices occurs, leading to a spontaneous valuation in absence of earnings, similarly to the emergence of a spontaneous magnetization in Ising models in absence of a magnetic field. The low growth rate phase is described by the firm foundation theory while the large growth rate phase is the regime of speculation and crowd behavior. In practice, while large "finite-time horizon" effects round off the predicted singularities, our symmetry-breaking speculation theory accounts for the apparent over-pricing and the high volatility of fast growing companies on the stock markets.

  12. The spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.

    1980-02-01

    It is suggested that the usual path integral representation of Euclidean vacuum amplitude (tunneling amplitude) in QCD must be supplemented by the explicit boundary condition corresponding to the spontaneous breaking of chiral SU(N) x SU(N). Adopting the trial wave function introduced by Nambu and Jona-Lasinio, one sees that such a path integral automatically breaks also the additional chiral U(1) symmetry of massless quarks. The catastrophe of semi-classical approach to QCD and 'U(1) problem' would be avoided in this way and one has, in principle, a better starting point for the self-consistent calculation

  13. Cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research and Dept. of Physics

    2012-11-15

    We study general constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models coming from the cosmological effects of the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons, R-axions. They are substantially produced in the early Universe and may cause several cosmological problems. We focus on relatively long-lived R-axions and find that in a wide range of parameter space, models are severely constrained. In particular, R-axions with mass less than 1 MeV are generally ruled out for relatively high reheating temperature, T{sub R}>10 GeV.

  14. Inertial Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Quantum Scale Invariance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Pedro G. [Oxford U.; Hill, Christopher T. [Fermilab; Ross, Graham G. [Oxford U., Theor. Phys.

    2018-01-23

    Weyl invariant theories of scalars and gravity can generate all mass scales spontaneously, initiated by a dynamical process of "inertial spontaneous symmetry breaking" that does not involve a potential. This is dictated by the structure of the Weyl current, $K_\\mu$, and a cosmological phase during which the universe expands and the Einstein-Hilbert effective action is formed. Maintaining exact Weyl invariance in the renormalised quantum theory is straightforward when renormalisation conditions are referred back to the VEV's of fields in the action of the theory, which implies a conserved Weyl current. We do not require scale invariant regulators. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential.

  15. Spontaneous mirror left-right symmetry breaking for leptogenesis parametrized by Majorana neutrino mass matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Pei-Hong

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a mirror copy of the ordinary fermions and Higgs scalars for embedding the SU(2) L × U(1) Y electroweak gauge symmetry into an SU(2) L × SU(2) R × U(1) B-L left-right gauge symmetry. We then show the spontaneous left-right symmetry breaking can automatically break the parity symmetry motivated by solving the strong CP problem. Through the SU(2) R gauge interactions, a mirror Majorana neutrino can decay into a mirror charged lepton and two mirror quarks. Consequently we can obtain a lepton asymmetry stored in the mirror charged leptons. The Yukawa couplings of the mirror and ordinary charged fermions to a dark matter scalar then can transfer the mirror lepton asymmetry to an ordinary lepton asymmetry which provides a solution to the cosmic baryon asymmetry in association with the SU(2) L sphaleron processes. In this scenario, the baryon asymmetry can be well described by the neutrino mass matrix up to an overall factor.

  16. Massive Kaluza-Klein theories and their spontaneously broken symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohm, O.

    2006-07-01

    In this thesis we investigate the effective actions for massive Kaluza-Klein states, focusing on the massive modes of spin-3/2 and spin-2 fields. To this end we determine the spontaneously broken gauge symmetries associated to these 'higher-spin' states and construct the unbroken phase of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that for the particular background AdS 3 x S 3 x S 3 a consistent coupling of the first massive spin-3/2 multiplet requires an enhancement of local supersymmetry, which in turn will be partially broken in the Kaluza-Klein vacuum. The corresponding action is constructed as a gauged maximal supergravity in D=3. Subsequently, the symmetries underlying an infinite tower of massive spin-2 states are analyzed in case of a Kaluza-Klein compactification of four-dimensional gravity to D=3. It is shown that the resulting gravity-spin-2 theory is given by a Chern-Simons action of an affine algebra and also allows a geometrical interpretation in terms of 'algebra-valued' differential geometry. The global symmetry group is determined, which contains an affine extension of the Ehlers group. We show that the broken phase can in turn be constructed via gauging a certain subgroup of the global symmetry group. Finally, deformations of the Kaluza-Klein theory on AdS 3 x S 3 x S 3 and the corresponding symmetry breakings are analyzed as possible applications for the AdS/CFT correspondence. (Orig.)

  17. Massive Kaluza-Klein theories and their spontaneously broken symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohm, O.

    2006-07-15

    In this thesis we investigate the effective actions for massive Kaluza-Klein states, focusing on the massive modes of spin-3/2 and spin-2 fields. To this end we determine the spontaneously broken gauge symmetries associated to these 'higher-spin' states and construct the unbroken phase of the Kaluza-Klein theory. We show that for the particular background AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} a consistent coupling of the first massive spin-3/2 multiplet requires an enhancement of local supersymmetry, which in turn will be partially broken in the Kaluza-Klein vacuum. The corresponding action is constructed as a gauged maximal supergravity in D=3. Subsequently, the symmetries underlying an infinite tower of massive spin-2 states are analyzed in case of a Kaluza-Klein compactification of four-dimensional gravity to D=3. It is shown that the resulting gravity-spin-2 theory is given by a Chern-Simons action of an affine algebra and also allows a geometrical interpretation in terms of 'algebra-valued' differential geometry. The global symmetry group is determined, which contains an affine extension of the Ehlers group. We show that the broken phase can in turn be constructed via gauging a certain subgroup of the global symmetry group. Finally, deformations of the Kaluza-Klein theory on AdS{sub 3} x S{sup 3} x S{sup 3} and the corresponding symmetry breakings are analyzed as possible applications for the AdS/CFT correspondence. (Orig.)

  18. Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnaukhov, Igor N., E-mail: karnaui@yahoo.com

    2017-06-21

    Highlights: • Proposed a new approach for description of phase transitions in topological insulators. • Considered the mechanism of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators. • The Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics. - Abstract: The system of spinless fermions on a hexagonal lattice is studied. We have considered tight-binding model with the hopping integrals between the nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor lattice sites, that depend on the direction of the link. The links are divided on three types depending on the direction, the hopping integrals are defined by different phases along the links. The energy of the system depends on the phase differences, the solutions for the phases, that correspond to the minimums of the energy, lead to a topological insulator state with the nontrivial Chern numbers. We have analyzed distinct topological states and phase transitions, the behavior of the chiral gapless edge modes, have defined the Chern numbers. The band structure of topological insulator (TI) is calculated, the ground-state phase diagram in the parameter space is obtained. We propose a novel mechanism of realization of TI, when the TI state is result of spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry due to nontrivial stable solutions for the phases that determine the hopping integrals along the links and show that the Haldane model can be implemented in real compounds of the condensed matter physics.

  19. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the BRST symmetry in presence of the Gribov horizon: Renormalizability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capri, Marcio; Justo, Igor; Guimaraes, Marcelo; Sorella, Silvio; Dudal, David; Palhares, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Full text: In recent years much attention has been devoted to the study of the issue of the Gribov copies and of its relevance for confinement in Yang-Mills theories. The existence of the Gribov copies is a general feature of the gauge-fixing quantization procedure, being related to the impossibility of finding a local gauge condition which picks up only one gauge configuration for each gauge orbit. As it has been shown by Gribov and Zwanziger, a partial solution of the Gribov problem in the Landau gauge can be achieved by restricting the domain of integration in the functional Euclidean integral to the first Gribov horizon. Among the various open aspects of the Gribov-Zwanziger framework, the issue of the BRST symmetry is a source of continuous investigations. In a recent work, we have been able to obtain an equivalent formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger action which displays an exact BRST symmetry which turns out to be spontaneously broken by the restriction of the domain of integration to the Gribov horizon. In particular, the BRST operator retains the important property of being nilpotent. Moreover, it has also been shown that the Goldstone mode associated to the spontaneous breaking of the BRST symmetry is completely decoupled. The aim of the present work is that of fills up a gap not addressed in the previous work, namely, the renormalizability to all orders of the spontaneous symmetry breaking formulation of the Gribov-Zwanziger theory. As we shall see, the action obtained enjoys a large set of Ward identities which enables to prove that it is, in fact, multiplicatively renormalizable to all orders. (author)

  20. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in early molecular networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovitch Omer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An important facet of early biological evolution is the selection of chiral enantiomers for molecules such as amino acids and sugars. The origin of this symmetry breaking is a long-standing question in molecular evolution. Previous models addressing this question include particular kinetic properties such as autocatalysis or negative cross catalysis. Results We propose here a more general kinetic formalism for early enantioselection, based on our previously described Graded Autocatalysis Replication Domain (GARD model for prebiotic evolution in molecular assemblies. This model is adapted here to the case of chiral molecules by applying symmetry constraints to mutual molecular recognition within the assembly. The ensuing dynamics shows spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, with transitions towards stationary compositional states (composomes enriched with one of the two enantiomers for some of the constituent molecule types. Furthermore, one or the other of the two antipodal compositional states of the assembly also shows time-dependent selection. Conclusion It follows that chiral selection may be an emergent consequence of early catalytic molecular networks rather than a prerequisite for the initiation of primeval life processes. Elaborations of this model could help explain the prevalent chiral homogeneity in present-day living cells. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Boris Rubinstein (nominated by Arcady Mushegian, Arcady Mushegian, Meir Lahav (nominated by Yitzhak Pilpel and Sergei Maslov.

  1. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in vortex systems with two repulsive lengthscales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, P J; Desoky, W M; Milosević, M V; Chaves, A; Laloë, J-B; Moodera, J S; Bending, S J

    2015-10-23

    Scanning Hall probe microscopy (SHPM) has been used to study vortex structures in thin epitaxial films of the superconductor MgB2. Unusual vortex patterns observed in MgB2 single crystals have previously been attributed to a competition between short-range repulsive and long-range attractive vortex-vortex interactions in this two band superconductor; the type 1.5 superconductivity scenario. Our films have much higher levels of disorder than bulk single crystals and therefore both superconducting condensates are expected to be pushed deep into the type 2 regime with purely repulsive vortex interactions. We observe broken symmetry vortex patterns at low fields in all samples after field-cooling from above Tc. These are consistent with those seen in systems with competing repulsions on disparate length scales, and remarkably similar structures are reproduced in dirty two band Ginzburg-Landau calculations, where the simulation parameters have been defined by experimental observations. This suggests that in our dirty MgB2 films, the symmetry of the vortex structures is broken by the presence of vortex repulsions with two different lengthscales, originating from the two distinct superconducting condensates. This represents an entirely new mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking in systems of superconducting vortices, with important implications for pinning phenomena and high current density applications.

  2. Charged tensor matter fields and Lorentz symmetry violation via spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colatto, L.P.; Penna, A.L.A.; Santos, W.C.

    2003-10-01

    We consider a model with a charged vector field along with a Cremmer-Scherk-Kalb-Ramond (CSKR) matter field coupled to a U(1) gauge potential. We obtain a natural Lorentz symmetry violation due to the local U(1) spontaneous symmetry breaking mechanism triggered by the imaginary part of the vector matter. The choice of the unitary gauge leads to the decoupling of the gauge-Kr sector from the Higgs-Kr sector. The excitation spectrum is carefully analyzed and the physical modes are identified. We propose an identification of the neutral massive spin-1 Higgs-like field with the massive Z' boson of the so-called mirror matter models. (author)

  3. Dynamics of the universe and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanas, D.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the presence of a phase transition early in the history of the universe, associated with spontaneous symmetry breaking (believed to take place at very high temperatures at which the various fundamental interactions unify), significantly modifies its dynamics and evolution. This is due to the energy 'pumping' during the phase transition from the vacuum to the substance, rather than the gravitating effects of the vacuum. The expansion law of the universe then differs substantially from the relation considered so far for the very early time expansion. In particular it is shown that under certain conditions this expansion law is exponential. It is further argued that under reasonable assumptions for the mass of the associated Higgs boson this expansion stage could last long enough to potentially account for the observed isotropy of the universe.

  4. Experimental searches for CP and CPT symmetries violation in the neutral kaons system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debu, P.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this lecture is to give an overview of the experiments devoted to the study and research of CP, T and CPT symmetries invariance violations in the system of neutral K mesons. The discovery of K mesons has provided crucial informations for the elaboration of the standard model. However, the observation of CP violation has remained confined to the K system. The origin of the observed CP violation remains hypothetic. Its origin could be a complex phase in the mixing matrix of quarks. In the standard model of electroweak interactions, several evidences of the CP violation exist: the observed K neutral mesons (K L and K S ) are not proper states of CP and are due to CP violation in the K 0 - anti-K 0 mixture. On the other hand, the model predicts also a CP violation in decay amplitudes, named direct CP violation. Important experiments have been carried out for its demonstration. The K system is also the most precise test for CPT invariance. A description of the experiments in progress developed to improve the precision of these tests is given. The plan of the lecture is the following: after a recall of K 0 - anti-K 0 phenomenology, some important steps in the CP violation study are described. Then, the regeneration phenomenon is briefly described and two of the most recent measurements of the direct CP violation parameter are analysed. Finally, the CPT invariance tests are described with their parameters and the measurements in progress. A review of the principal results is given in conclusion with their improvements expected in a near future. (J.S.). 71 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Results on CP, T, CPT symmetries with tagged $K^{0} and K^{0}$ by CPLEAR

    CERN Document Server

    Angelopoulos, Angelos; Aslanides, Elie; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Dapielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Faravel, L; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Scafer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    1999-01-01

    We report the results of the CPLEAR experiment on CP-, T- and CPT- symmetries in the neutral kaon system. CPLEAR has experimentally determined, for the first time, the violation of T invariance by a direct method using semileptonic decays. The CPT symmetry is tested through the parameters re( delta ) with a precision of a few 10/sup -4/ and Im( delta ), from the Bell-Steinberger relation, with a precision of 10/sup -5/. This allows the mass equality between the K /sup 0/ and K/sup 0/ to be tested down to the level of 10/sup -19/ Ge V. (11 refs).

  6. Gauge principle, vector-meson dominance, and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Yoichiro

    1989-01-01

    The author concentrates on certain theoretical developments of the late 1950s which are concerned with the meaning and role of symmetries and symmetry breaking, and especially work done in Chicago, and notes his own involvement in this debate. He worked on symmetry-breaking in superconductivity, using a four-fermion interaction model. (UK)

  7. Electric dipole moments from spontaneous CP violation in SU(3)-flavoured SUSY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones Perez, J

    2009-01-01

    The SUSY flavour problem is deeply related to the origin of flavour and hence to the origin of the SM Yukawa couplings themselves. Since all CP-violation in the SM is restricted to the flavour sector, it is possible that the SUSY CP problem is related to the origin of flavour as well. In this work, we present three variations of an SU(3) flavour model with spontaneous CP violation. Such models explain the hierarchy in the fermion masses and mixings, and predict the structure of the flavoured soft SUSY breaking terms. In such a situation, both SUSY flavour and CP problems do not exist. We use electric dipole moments and lepton flavour violation processes to distinguish between these models, and place constraints on the SUSY parameter space.

  8. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and effective quark masses in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miransky, V.A.

    1982-01-01

    The ultraviolet asymptotics of the dynamical effective quark mass is determined directly from the equation for the fermion mass function. The indications about the character of the dynamics of the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in QCD are obtained

  9. Finite-temperature effective potential of a system with spontaneously broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E.P. [Yaroslavl State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    A quantum-mechanical system with spontaneously broken symmetry is considered the effective potential is determined, and it is shown that with reduction of temperature the system undergoes a phase transition of the first kind.

  10. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu-Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 609-657 ISSN 2073-8994 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : spontaneous symmetry breaking * Nambu-Goldstone bosons * effective field theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  11. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking and Nambu–Goldstone Bosons in Quantum Many-Body Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Brauner

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a general principle that constitutes the underlying concept of a vast number of physical phenomena ranging from ferromagnetism and superconductivity in condensed matter physics to the Higgs mechanism in the standard model of elementary particles. I focus on manifestations of spontaneously broken symmetries in systems that are not Lorentz invariant, which include both nonrelativistic systems as well as relativistic systems at nonzero density, providing a self-contained review of the properties of spontaneously broken symmetries specific to such theories. Topics covered include: (i Introduction to the mathematics of spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem. (ii Minimization of Higgs-type potentials for higher-dimensional representations. (iii Counting rules for Nambu–Goldstone bosons and their dispersion relations. (iv Construction of effective Lagrangians. Specific examples in both relativistic and nonrelativistic physics are worked out in detail.

  12. Spontaneous CP breaking in QCD and the axion potential: an effective Lagrangian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vecchia, Paolo; Rossi, Giancarlo; Veneziano, Gabriele; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2017-12-01

    Using the well-known low-energy effective Lagrangian of QCD — valid for small (non-vanishing) quark masses and a large number of colors — we study in detail the regions of parameter space where CP is spontaneously broken/unbroken for a vacuum angle θ = π. In the CP broken region there are first order phase transitions as one crosses θ = π, while on the (hyper)surface separating the two regions, there are second order phase transitions signalled by the vanishing of the mass of a pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson and by a divergent QCD topological susceptibility. The second order point sits at the end of a first order line associated with the CP spontaneous breaking, in the appropriate complex parameter plane. When the effective Lagrangian is extended by the inclusion of an axion these features of QCD imply that standard calculations of the axion potential have to be revised if the QCD parameters fall in the above mentioned CP broken region, in spite of the fact that the axion solves the strong- CP problem. These last results could be of interest for axionic dark matter calculations if the topological susceptibility of pure Yang-Mills theory falls off sufficiently fast when temperature is increased towards the QCD deconfining transition.

  13. Nonlinear symmetry realizations and the generalized CP sup(n-1) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    The genralized CP sup(n-1) model having U(p) as Gauge group in the two-dimension Euclidean space in the several existing formulations is presented. Such a model is described as a nonlinear symmetry realization which becames linear when restricted to a determined sub-groups treating therefore of fields which have values in the quocient space G/H. Classical instanton and meron solutions for this model are presented and the existence of a mechanism to generate a family of non auto-dual solutions with finite action, taking as starting point the instanton solutions, is demonstrated. (L.C.) [pt

  14. A phenomenological study of violation of CP and CPT symmetries in the neutral kaon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Kazushi; Sugiyama, Wataru; Tsai, S.Y.

    1996-01-01

    A phenomenological study is given of the (possible) violation of CP and CPT symmetries in the K 0 -K-bar 0 system. Special attention is paid to the problem of phase ambiguity and phase convention. Mixing parameters and decay amplitudes are parametrized in a rephasing invariant way, and the well-known parameters η +- and η 00 describing 2π modes as well as various leptonic asymmetries are expressed in terms of these parameters. The parameters ε and Δ characterizing mixing between |K 0 > and |K-bar 0 > are treated with as little theoretical prejudice as possible. (author)

  15. Vacuum solutions of a gravity model with vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.

    2005-01-01

    We study the vacuum solutions of a gravity model where Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken once a vector field acquires a vacuum expectation value. Results are presented for the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB. The purely radial LSB result corresponds to new black hole solutions. When possible, parametrized post-Newtonian parameters are computed and observational boundaries used to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale

  16. Problem for theories with spontaneous CP violation and natural flavor conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanda, A.I.

    1981-01-01

    Using a vacuum-saturation approximation, Vainshtein, Zakharov, and Shifman have shown that L = L/sub QCD/+L/sub EW/ can explain the ΔI = 1/2 rule of strange-particle decays. Requiring L/sub EW/ to possess spontaneous CP violation and natural flavor conservation, we estimate epsilon'/epsilon using a similar approximation. We show that a very crude computation results in a very stringent limit 0.050>Vertical Barepsilon'/epsilonVertical Bar>0.048. This estimate is in conflict with the experimental measurement Vertical Barepsilon'/epsilonVertical Bar = 0.003 +- 0.015. This is a problem for theories with spontaneous CP violation and natural flavor conservation if the above understanding of the ΔI = 1/2 rule is correct

  17. Particle currents on a CP violating Higgs background and the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comelli, D.; Riotto, A.

    1995-04-01

    We compute the particle currents induced on a bubble wall background at finite temperature in a model with CP violation in the Higgs sector. Using a field theory approach we show that fermionic currents arise at one loop, so that a suppression factor OMIKRON (h t φ/πT) 2 with respect to previous computations is found. The contributions to the Higgs currents are also derived and their relevancy for the spontaneous baryogenesis mechanism is discussed. (orig.)

  18. Resuscitation of the three-scalar doublet model with spontaneous CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branco, G.C.; Buras, A.J.; Gerard, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    We show that the three-scalar doublet model with spontaneous CP violation and natural flavor conservation can be made consistent with the recent measurements of epsilon'/epsilon provided an interesting hierarchy among the vacuum expectation values present in the model is assumed. Simultaneously ΔM(Ksub(L)-Ksub(S)), the epsilon parameter and the electric dipole moment of the neutron are consistent with the experimental data. (orig.)

  19. e +e- modes and U(1) spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steininger, K.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, motivated by evidence for a chiral phase transition in strong coupling lattice QED, the authors calculate the two-particle spectrum of the broken QED phase. This is done in the framework of a Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model with U(1) symmetry including chiral symmetry and symmetry breaking properties of QED. The second order chiral phase transition behavior in our model and in lattice QED are in excellent agreement. The authors then present a detailed analysis of the spectra of the e + e - modes in the broken phase. The authors examine whether these modes have any possible relationship to the narrow e + e - resonances found in soft heavy ion collisions at GSL. The authors' answer is negative

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking as a basis of particle mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions-so different in their manifestations-to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the 'standard model' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout and Englert and by Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble: the agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W ± and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story-though an incomplete story-and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some 'big questions' that will guide our explorations

  1. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout and Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, and Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W ± and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations

  2. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking as a Basis of Particle Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab /CERN

    2007-04-01

    Electroweak theory joins electromagnetism with the weak force in a single quantum field theory, ascribing the two fundamental interactions--so different in their manifestations--to a common symmetry principle. How the electroweak gauge symmetry is hidden is one of the most urgent and challenging questions facing particle physics. The provisional answer incorporated in the ''standard model'' of particle physics was formulated in the 1960s by Higgs, by Brout & Englert, and by Guralnik, Hagen, & Kibble: The agent of electroweak symmetry breaking is an elementary scalar field whose self-interactions select a vacuum state in which the full electroweak symmetry is hidden, leaving a residual phase symmetry of electromagnetism. By analogy with the Meissner effect of the superconducting phase transition, the Higgs mechanism, as it is commonly known, confers masses on the weak force carriers W{sup {+-}} and Z. It also opens the door to masses for the quarks and leptons, and shapes the world around us. It is a good story--though an incomplete story--and we do not know how much of the story is true. Experiments that explore the Fermi scale (the energy regime around 1 TeV) during the next decade will put the electroweak theory to decisive test, and may uncover new elements needed to construct a more satisfying completion of the electroweak theory. The aim of this article is to set the stage by reporting what we know and what we need to know, and to set some ''Big Questions'' that will guide our explorations.

  3. Canonical forms of tensor representations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummins, C.J.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm for constructing canonical forms for any tensor representation of the classical compact Lie groups is given. This method is used to find a complete list of the symmetry breaking patterns produced by Higgs fields in the third-rank antisymmetric representations of U(n), SU(n) and SO(n) for n<=7. A simple canonical form is also given for kth-rank symmetric tensor representations. (author)

  4. Lattice QCD with light quark masses: Does chiral symmetry get broken spontaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbour, I.M.; Schierholz, G.; Teper, M.; Gilchrist, J.P.; Schneider, H.

    1983-03-01

    We present a first direct calculation of the properties of QCD for the small quark masses of phenomenological interest without extrapolations. We describe methods specially adapted to invert the fermion matrix at small quark masses. We use these methods to calculate directly on presently used lattice sizes with different boundary conditions. As is to be expected for a finite system, we do not observe spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. By comparing the results obtained on lattices of different size we see, however, indications that are consistent with eventual spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the infinite volume limit. Our calculations underline the importance of using antiperiodic boundary conditions for fermions. (orig.)

  5. Chains of benzenes with lithium-atom adsorption: Vibrations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Yenni P.; Stegmann, Thomas; Klein, Douglas J.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2017-09-01

    We study effects of different configurations of adsorbates on the vibrational modes as well as symmetries of polyacenes and poly-p-phenylenes focusing on lithium atom adsorption. We found that the spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different configurations. For more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essentially followed by the adsorbate. On poly-p-phenylenes we found that lithium adsorption reduces and often eliminates the torsion between rings thus increasing symmetry. There is spontaneous symmetry breaking in poly-p-phenylenes due to double adsorption of lithium atoms on alternating rings.

  6. The flight of the bumblebee: solutions from a vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    The vacuum solutions arising from a spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry due to the acquisition of a vacuum expectation value by a vector field are derived. These include the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB scenarios. It is found that the purely radial LSB case gives rise to new black hole solutions. Whenever possible. Parametrized Post-Newtonian (PPN) parameters are computed and compared to observational bounds, in order to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale

  7. Do flavor conservation and spontaneous CP nonconservation lead to a real Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.; Kfir, A.; Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1988-01-01

    We reexamine the implication of flavor conservation in tree-level neutral-Higgs-boson exchange for multi-Higgs-scalar SU(2) x U(1) models of spontaneous CP nonconservation . Contrary to a previous claim, we show that in such models for an arbitrary number of fermion families the quark mixing matrix does not have to be real. However, the complex structure derived for the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix in the three-family model is shown to be in conflict with experiment

  8. On hierarchy in asymptotic reconstruction of spontaneously broken isotopic symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermolaev, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    The isotopic features of the effective current-current lagrangian of the Lsub(eff) electromagnetic-weak interaction between elementary particles are treated at large momentum transfers using the Weinberg-Salam model. Transition to other models may be made by analogy. It is shown that when the collision energies of elementary particles exceed 90 GeV one may expect the hierarchy in the asymptotic reconstruction of the isotopic symmetry. Such hierarchy could be observed, in particular, in experiments on elastic leptonic collisions at high energies

  9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and self-consistent equations for the free-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovesey, S.W.

    1980-03-01

    A variational procedure for the free-energy is used to derive self-consistent equations that allow for spontaneous symmetry breaking. For an N-component phi 4 -model the equations are identical to those obtained by summing all loops to order 1/N. (author)

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in local gauge quantum field theory; the Higgs mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strocchi, F.

    1977-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breakings in indefinite metric quantum field theories are analyzed and a generalization of the Goldstone theorem is proved. The case of local gauge quantum field theories is discussed in detail and a characterization is given of the occurrence of the Higgs mechanism versus the Goldstone mechanism. The Higgs phenomenon is explained on general grounds without the introduction of the so-called Higgs fields. The basic property is the relation between the local internal symmetry group and the local group of gauge transformations of the second kind. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of c-number gauge transformations of the second kind is shown to always occur if there are charged local fields. The implications about the absence of mass gap in the Wightman functions and the occurrence of massless particles associated with the unbroken generators in the Higgs phenomenon are discussed. (orig.) [de

  11. Effective potential and spontaneous symmetry breaking in the noncommutative φ6 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking of the (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative φ 6 model in the small-θ limit. In this regime, considering the model as a cutoff theory, it is reasonable to assume translational invariance as a property of the vacuum state and study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking by an effective potential analysis. An investigation of up to the two-loop level reveals that noncommutative effects can modify drastically the shape of the effective potential. Under reasonable conditions, the nonplanar sector of the theory can become dominant and induce symmetry breaking for values of the mass and coupling constants not reached by the commutative counterpart

  12. On the membrane paradigm and spontaneous breaking of horizon BMS symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eling, Christopher; Oz, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    We consider a BMS-type symmetry action on isolated horizons in asymptotically flat spacetimes. From the viewpoint of the non-relativistic field theory on a horizon membrane, supertranslations shift the field theory spatial momentum. The latter is related by a Ward identity to the particle number symmetry current and is spontaneously broken. The corresponding Goldstone boson shifts the horizon angular momentum and can be detected quantum mechanically. Similarly, area preserving superrotations are spontaneously broken on the horizon membrane and we identify the corresponding gapless modes. In asymptotically AdS spacetimes we study the BMS-type symmetry action on the horizon in a holographic superfluid dual. We identify the horizon supertranslation Goldstone boson as the holographic superfluid Goldstone mode.

  13. Restoration of supersymmetric Slavnov-Taylor and Ward identities in the presence of soft and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.; Hollik, W.; Roth, M.; Stoeckinger, D.

    2004-01-01

    Supersymmetric Slavnov-Taylor and Ward identities are investigated in the presence of soft and spontaneous symmetry breaking. We consider an Abelian model where soft supersymmetry breaking yields a mass splitting between electron and selectron and triggers spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we derive the corresponding identities that relate the electron and selectron masses to the Yukawa coupling. We demonstrate that the identities are valid in dimensional reduction and invalid in dimensional regularization and compute the necessary symmetry-restoring counterterms

  14. Restoration of supersymmetric Slavnov-Taylor and Ward identities in presence of soft and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, I.; Hollik, W.; Roth, M.; Stoeckinger, D.

    2003-12-01

    Supersymmetric Slavnov-Taylor and Ward identities are investigated in presence of soft and spontaneous symmetry breaking. We consider an abelian model where soft supersymmetry breaking yields a mass splitting between electron and selectron and triggers spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we derive corresponding identities that relate the electron and selectron masses with the Yukawa coupling. We demonstrate that the identities are valid in dimensional reduction and invalid in dimensional regularization and compute the necessary symmetry-restoring counterterms. (orig.)

  15. Common origin of μ-τ and CP breaking in the neutrino seesaw, baryon asymmetry, and hidden flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongjian; Yin Furong

    2011-01-01

    We conjecture that all CP violations (both Dirac and Majorana types) arise from a common origin in the neutrino seesaw. With this conceptually attractive and simple conjecture, we deduce that μ-τ breaking shares the common origin with all CP violations. We study the common origin of μ-τ and CP breaking in the Dirac mass matrix of seesaw Lagrangian (with right-handed neutrinos being μ-τ blind), which uniquely leads to inverted mass ordering of light neutrinos. We then predict a very different correlation between the two small μ-τ breaking observables θ 13 -0 deg. and θ 23 -45 deg., which can saturate the present experimental upper limit on θ 13 . This will be tested against our previous normal mass-ordering scheme by the ongoing oscillation experiments. We also analyze the correlations of θ 13 with Jarlskog invariant and neutrinoless ββ-decay observable. From the common origin of CP and μ-τ breaking in the neutrino seesaw, we establish a direct link between the low energy CP violations and the cosmological CP violation for baryon asymmetry. With these we further predict a lower bound on θ 13 , supporting the ongoing probes of θ 13 at Daya Bay, Double Chooz, and RENO experiments. Finally, we analyze the general model-independent Z 2 x Z 2 symmetry structure of the light neutrino sector, and map it into the seesaw sector, where one of the Z 2 's corresponds to the μ-τ symmetry Z 2 μτ and another the hidden symmetry Z 2 s (revealed in our previous work) which dictates the solar mixing angle θ 12 . We derive the physical consequences of this Z 2 s and its possible partial violation in the presence of μ-τ breaking (with or without the neutrino seesaw), regarding the θ 12 determination and the correlation between μ-τ breaking observables.

  16. Searching for dark matter signals in the left-right symmetric gauge model with CP symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wanlei; Wu Yueliang; Zhou Yufeng

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the singlet scalar dark matter (DM) candidate in a left-right symmetric gauge model with two Higgs bidoublets in which the stabilization of the DM particle is induced by the discrete symmetries P and CP. According to the observed DM abundance, we predict the DM direct and indirect detection cross sections for the DM mass range from 10 to 500 GeV. We show that the DM indirect detection cross section is not sensitive to the light Higgs mixing and Yukawa couplings except for the resonance regions. The predicted spin-independent DM-nucleon elastic scattering cross section is found to be significantly dependent on the above two factors. Our results show that the future DM direct search experiments can cover the most parts of the allowed parameter space. The PAMELA antiproton data can only exclude two very narrow regions in the two Higgs bidoublets model. It is very difficult to detect the DM direct or indirect signals in the resonance regions due to the Breit-Wigner resonance effect.

  17. Measurements of Direct CP Violation, CPT Symmetry, and Other Parameters in the Neutral Kaon System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worcester, Elizabeth Turner [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The authors present precision measurements of the direct CP violation parameter, Re(ϵ'/ϵ), the kaon parameters, Δm and τS, and the CPT tests, Φ± and ΔΦ, in neutral kaon decays. These results are based on the full dataset collected by the KTeV experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory during 1996, 1997, and 1999. This dataset contains ~ 15 million K → π0π0 decays and ~ 69 million K → π+π- decays. They describe significant improvements to the precision of these measurements relative to previous KTeV analyses. They find Re(ϵ'/ϵ = [19.2 ± 1.1(stat) ± 1.8(syst)] x 10-4, Δm = (5265 ± 10) x 106 hs-1, and τS = (89.62 ± 0.05) x 10-12 s. They measure Φ± = (44.09 ± 1.00)° and ΔΦ = (0.29 ± 0.31)°; these results are consistent with CPT symmetry.

  18. Infrared aspects of spontaneous symmetry breaking of gauge theories in two and three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    The spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in SU(N) quantum chromodynamics (QCD) in two dimensions is investigated by calculating the order parameter , where psi is the fermion in the theory, in the authors approximation. In the chiral limit, where the mass of the fermion m → O, is found to be non-zero both in the finite N and N → infinity cases. This implies that chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken by infrared effects in all these cases. The Wilson loop expectation value is calculated for again SU(N) QCD in two dimensions, without fermions. In two dimensions, the Coulomb potential is linear, and thus confining. Under the authors approximation, the area law of the Wilson loop is indeed obtained as expected, for all values of N; in addition, the N-dependent polynomial multiplying the Wilson exponential is also obtained. In quantum electrodynamics (QED) in three dimensions there is a possibility of spontaneous breaking of parity. The authors consider this possibility by studying and the photon propagator. It is found that in the limit m → O, is zero and the photon has a zero mass pole. Therefore, there is no sign of spontaneous parity violation in (QED) in three dimensions induced by infrared effects, in contrast to the positive result of chiral symmetry breaking in two dimensions

  19. Reformulation od spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Weinberg-Salam model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, A.S.; Rawat, S.; Negi, O.P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Weinberg-Salam model have been reformulated in terms of quaternion-valued field variables. The quaternion-valued scalar Lagrangian reduces to four different field equations associated with the scalar quartet of a quaternion field φ φ 0 +e 1φ1 +e 2φ2 +e 3φ3 . It has been shown that the quaternion gauge group SO(4) is spontaneously broken to two gauge groups of SU(2) non Abelian gauge fields. The Weinberg-Salam model of electroweak interaction has been extensively studied to enlarge the gauge group structure SU(2) L xSU(2) R xU(1)

  20. Noncritical generation of nonclassical frequency combs via spontaneous rotational symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Benlloch, Carlos; Patera, Giuseppe; de Valcárcel, Germán J.

    2017-10-01

    Synchronously pumped optical parametric oscillators (SPOPOs) are optical cavities driven by mode-locked lasers, and containing a nonlinear crystal capable of down-converting a frequency comb to lower frequencies. SPOPOs have received a lot of attention lately because their intrinsic multimode nature makes them compact sources of quantum correlated light with promising applications in modern quantum information technologies. In this work we show that SPOPOs are also capable of accessing the challenging and interesting regime where spontaneous symmetry breaking confers strong nonclassical properties to the emitted light, which has eluded experimental observation so far. Apart from opening the possibility of studying experimentally this elusive regime of dissipative phase transitions, our predictions will have a practical impact, since we show that spontaneous symmetry breaking provides a specific spatiotemporal mode with large quadrature squeezing for any value of the system parameters, turning SPOPOs into robust sources of highly nonclassical light above threshold.

  1. Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, we will study the spontaneous breakdown of the Lorentz symmetry by ghost condensation in perturbative quantum gravity. Our analysis will be done in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. We will also analyse the modification of the BRST and anti-BRST transformations by the formation of this ghost condensate. It will be shown that even though the modified BRST and anti-BRST transformations are not nilpotent, their nilpotency is restored on-shell.

  2. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, quantization of the electric charge and the anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1990-01-01

    Cancellation of anomalies and on ensuring that fermions are massive, one obtains quantization of the electric charge, which is shown to be independent of the hypercharge quantum number of the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model. Ignorance of this fact can lead to pitfalls. It is shown that contrary to the popular belief, charge quantization is not a consequence of the anomalies but that in addition spontaneous symmetry breaking is essential. (author)

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermion chirality in higher-dimensional gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    1985-01-01

    The number of chiral fermions may change in the course of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We discuss solutions of a six-dimensional Einstein-Yang-Mills theory based on SO(12). In the resulting effective four-dimensional theory they can be interpreted as spontaneous breaking of a gauge group SO(10) to H=SU(3)sub(C)xSU(2)sub(L)xU(1)sub(R)xU(1)sub(B-L). For all solutions, the fermions which are chiral with respect to H form standard generations. However, the number of generations for the solutions with broken SO(10) may be different compared to the symmetric solutions. All solutions considered here exhibit a local generation group SU(2)sub(G)xU(1)sub(G). For the solutions with broken SO(10) symmetry, the leptons and quarks within one generation transform differently with respect to SU(2)sub(G)xU(1)sub(G). Spontaneous symmetry breaking also modifies the SO(10) relations among Yukawa couplings. All this has important consequences for possible fermion mass relations obtained from higher-dimensional theories. (orig.)

  4. On the effect of scalar partons at short distances in unified theories with spontaneously broken colour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Salam, Abdus

    1979-05-01

    The effect of scalar partons arising in QCD if the colour symmetry is spontaneously broken is discussed. The authors use a previous result, which states that such scalars can be incorporated into the theory without disturbing asymptotic freedom. (author)

  5. Fermion mass hierarchy as a consequence of the spontaneous breakdown of the four-flavor symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cveti, M.

    1985-01-01

    We study the fermion mass matrix in the case of four fermionic flavors u, d, c, and s. The original Lagrangian of the effective gauge theory respects the full four-flavor symmetry and fermions are massless. We analyze a vacuum expectation pattern of the elementary Higgs-field multiplet Phi/sub a/b [(a,b) = u,d,c,s]. Nonzero vacuum expectation values of Phi spontaneously break the original flavor symmetry with fermionic masses being directly proportional to these vacuum expectation values. In the Higgs potential, hard terms in Phi respect the global symmetry SU(4)/sub L/ x SU(4)/sub R/ of four flavors while soft terms in Psi break this symmetry down to the effective anomaly-free gauge group SU(2)/sub L//sup e/+μ x SU(2)/sub R//sup e/+μ. These soft terms are due to radiative as well as nonperturbative effects. Such a symmetry structure of the Higgs potential can be motivated by the underlying preonic dynamics. The desired solution, i.e., the proper interfamily and intrafamily hierarchy as well as the desired Cabibbo mixing angle, can emerge as a consequence of a subtle interplay between the soft terms and certain hard terms of the Higgs potential

  6. CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    1989-01-01

    Contents: CP Phenomenology: Introduction to CP Violation (C Jarlskog); CP-Violation in the K 0 -K 0 -System (K Kleinknecht); The Quark Mixing Matrix, Charm Decays and B Decays (S Stone); The Question of CP Noninvariance - As Seen through the Eyes of Neutral Beauty (I I Bigi et al.); In Search of CP Noninvariance in Heavy Quark Systems (L-L Chau); CP Violation at High Energy e + e - Colliders (J Bernabéu & M B Gavela); CP Violation in the Standard Model with Four Families (A Datta & E A Paschos); CP Effects When Neutrinos are their Own Antiparticles (B Kayser); On Spontaneous CP Violation Trigg

  7. Left-right symmetry, mixing and CP violation in B0 - B-bar0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.; Grimus, W.

    1986-01-01

    We discuss B 0 - B-bar 0 mixing and CP violation in the minimal left-right symmetric model. While the amount of mixing is not much changed with respect to the standard model, left-right symmtery can give rise to significantly larger CP violation in the B 0 sub(s) - B-bar 0 sub(s) system. (Author)

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking due to the trade-off between attractive and repulsive couplings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyadevi, K; Karthiga, S; Chandrasekar, V K; Senthilkumar, D V; Lakshmanan, M

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important phenomenon observed in various fields including physics and biology. In this connection, we here show that the trade-off between attractive and repulsive couplings can induce spontaneous symmetry breaking in a homogeneous system of coupled oscillators. With a simple model of a system of two coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators, we demonstrate how the tendency of attractive coupling in inducing in-phase synchronized (IPS) oscillations and the tendency of repulsive coupling in inducing out-of-phase synchronized oscillations compete with each other and give rise to symmetry breaking oscillatory states and interesting multistabilities. Further, we provide explicit expressions for synchronized and antisynchronized oscillatory states as well as the so called oscillation death (OD) state and study their stability. If the Hopf bifurcation parameter (λ) is greater than the natural frequency (ω) of the system, the attractive coupling favors the emergence of an antisymmetric OD state via a Hopf bifurcation whereas the repulsive coupling favors the emergence of a similar state through a saddle-node bifurcation. We show that an increase in the repulsive coupling not only destabilizes the IPS state but also facilitates the reentrance of the IPS state.

  9. Truncation effects in the functional renormalization group study of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defenu, N.; Mati, P.; Márián, I.G.; Nándori, I.; Trombettoni, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the occurrence of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) for O(N) models using functional renormalization group techniques. We show that even the local potential approximation (LPA) when treated exactly is sufficient to give qualitatively correct results for systems with continuous symmetry, in agreement with the Mermin-Wagner theorem and its extension to systems with fractional dimensions. For general N (including the Ising model N=1) we study the solutions of the LPA equations for various truncations around the zero field using a finite number of terms (and different regulators), showing that SSB always occurs even where it should not. The SSB is signalled by Wilson-Fisher fixed points which for any truncation are shown to stay on the line defined by vanishing mass beta functions.

  10. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland). Inst. de Theorie des Phenomenes Physiques; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Arts and Science

    2013-10-15

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1){sub R} breaking scale f{sub a} is constrained as f{sub a}<10{sup 12-14} GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  11. More on cosmological constraints on spontaneous R-symmetry breaking models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Kamada, Kohei; Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2013-10-01

    We study the spontaneous R-symmetry breaking model and investigate the cosmological constraints on this model due to the pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson, R-axion. We consider the R-axion which has relatively heavy mass in order to complement our previous work. In this regime, model parameters, R-axions mass and R-symmetry breaking scale, are constrained by Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and overproduction of the gravitino produced from R-axion decay and thermal plasma. We find that the allowed parameter space is very small for high reheating temperature. For low reheating temperature, the U(1) R breaking scale f a is constrained as f a 12-14 GeV regardless of the value of R-axion mass.

  12. Penrose limit, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and holography in a pp-wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sumit R.; Gomez, Cesar; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2002-01-01

    We argue that the gauge theory dual to the type IIB string theory in a ten-dimensional pp-wave background resides on a Euclidean subspace spanning four of the eight transverse coordinates. We then show that the evolution of the string along one of the light cone directions in the bulk is identifiable as the RG flow of the gauge theory, a relation facilitating the 'holography' of the pp-wave background. The 'holography' reorganizes the dual gauge theory into theories defined over Hilbert subspaces of fixed R charge. The reorganization breaks the SO(4,2)xSO(6) symmetry to a maximal subgroup SO(4)xSO(4) spontaneously. We argue that the low-energy string modes may be regarded as Goldstone modes resulting from such a symmetry breaking pattern

  13. dRGT theory of massive gravity from spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabian, Mahdi

    2018-05-01

    In this note we propose a topological action for a Poincare times diffeomorphism invariant gauge theory. We show that there is Higgs phase where the gauge symmetry is spontaneous broken to a diagonal Lorentz subgroup and gives the Einstein-Hilbert action plus the dRGT potential terms. In this vacuum, there are five (three from Goldstone modes) propagating degrees of freedom which form polarizations of a massive spin 2 particle, an extra healthy heavy scalar (Higgs) mode and no Boulware-Deser ghost mode. We further show that the action can be derived in a limit from a topological de Sitter invariant gauge theory in 4 dimensions.

  14. Spontaneously broken continuous symmetries in hyperbolic (or open) de Sitter spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratra, B.

    1994-01-01

    The functional Schroedinger approach is used to study scalar field theory in hyperbolic (or open) de Sitter spacetime. While on intermediate length scales (small compared to the spatial curvature length scale) the massless minimally coupled scalar field two-point correlation function does have a term that varies logarithmically with scale, as in flat and closed de Sitter spacetime, the spatial curvature tames the infrared behavior of this correlation function at larger scales in the open model. As a result, and contrary to what happens in flat and closed de Sitter spacetime, spontaneously broken continuous symmetries are not restored in open de Sitter spacetime (with more than one spatial dimension)

  15. Relativistic Hydrodynamics of Color-Flavor Locking Phase with Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Sun; WANG Fan

    2004-01-01

    We study the hydrodynamics of color-flavor locking phase of three flavors of light quarks in high density QCD with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The basic hydrodynamic equations are presented based on the Poisson bracket method and the Goldstone phonon and the thermo phonon are compared. The dissipative equations are constructed in the frame of the first-order theory and all the transport coefficients are also defined, which could be looked on as the general case including the Landau's theory and the Eckart's theory

  16. Bogoliubov condensation of gluons and spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervushin, V.N.; Roepke, G.; Volkov, M.K.; Blaschke, D.; Pavel, H.P.; Litvin, A.

    1995-08-01

    The ''squeezed'' representation of commutation relations for gluon fields in QCD is formulated as the mathematical tool for the description of the gluon condensate. We first consider λφ 4 theory and show that the ''squeezed'' Bogoliubov condensate can lead to the spontaneous appearance of a mass. Using the ''squeezed'' representation, we show that in the non-Abelian theory spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking (SGSB) and the appearance of a constituent mass of gluons can be described. We construct a projector onto the oscillator - like variables, for which the ''squeezed'' representation is valid, by using the formal solution of the Gauss equation instead of fixing a gauge. We discuss the effects of the SGSB and present as an application of the approach the calculation of the gluon mass from the difference of the η' and the η - meson masses. (author). 27 refs

  17. Spontaneous Symmetry-Breaking in a Network Model for Quadruped Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ian

    2017-12-01

    Spontaneous symmetry-breaking proves a mechanism for pattern generation in legged locomotion of animals. The basic timing patterns of animal gaits are produced by a network of spinal neurons known as a Central Pattern Generator (CPG). Animal gaits are primarily characterized by phase differences between leg movements in a periodic gait cycle. Many different gaits occur, often having spatial or spatiotemporal symmetries. A natural way to explain gait patterns is to assume that the CPG is symmetric, and to classify the possible symmetry-breaking periodic motions. Pinto and Golubitsky have discussed a four-node model CPG network for biped gaits with ℤ2 × ℤ2 symmetry, classifying the possible periodic states that can arise. A more specific rate model with this structure has been analyzed in detail by Stewart. Here we extend these methods to quadruped gaits, using an eight-node network with ℤ4 × ℤ2 symmetry proposed by Golubitsky and coworkers. We formulate a rate model and calculate how the first steady or Hopf bifurcation depends on its parameters, which represent four connection strengths. The calculations involve a distinction between “real” gaits with one or two phase shifts (pronk, bound, pace, trot) and “complex” gaits with four phase shifts (forward and reverse walk, forward and reverse buck). The former correspond to real eigenvalues of the connection matrix, the latter to complex conjugate pairs. The partition of parameter space according to the first bifurcation, ignoring complex gaits, is described explicitly. The complex gaits introduce further complications, not yet fully understood. All eight gaits can occur as the first bifurcation from a fully synchronous equilibrium, for suitable parameters, and numerical simulations indicate that they can be asymptotically stable.

  18. The complex Langevin analysis of spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by complex fermion determinant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nishimura, Jun [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI),1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2016-12-05

    In many interesting physical systems, the determinant which appears from integrating out fermions becomes complex, and its phase plays a crucial role in the determination of the vacuum. An example of this is QCD at low temperature and high density, where various exotic fermion condensates are conjectured to form. Another example is the Euclidean version of the type IIB matrix model for 10d superstring theory, where spontaneous breaking of the SO(10) rotational symmetry down to SO(4) is expected to occur. When one applies the complex Langevin method to these systems, one encounters the singular-drift problem associated with the appearance of nearly zero eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. Here we propose to avoid this problem by deforming the action with a fermion bilinear term. The results for the original system are obtained by extrapolations with respect to the deformation parameter. We demonstrate the power of this approach by applying it to a simple matrix model, in which spontaneous symmetry breaking from SO(4) to SO(2) is expected to occur due to the phase of the complex fermion determinant. Unlike previous work based on a reweighting-type method, we are able to determine the true vacuum by calculating the order parameters, which agree with the prediction by the Gaussian expansion method.

  19. A model of spontaneous symmetry breakdown in spatially flat cosmological spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundu, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is an elaboration of a previous short exposition of a theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking in a conformally coupled, massless lambdaphi 4 model in a spatially flat Robertson-Walker spacetime. Under the weakened global boundary condition allowing the physical spacetime to be conformal to only a portion of the Minkowski spacetime, the model admits a pair of degenerate vacua in which the phi->phi symmetry is spontaneously broken. The model is formulated as a euclidean field theory in a space with a positive-definite metric obtained by analytically continuing the conformal time coordinate. An appropriate time-dependent zero energy solution of the euclidean equation of motion representing the field configuration in the asymmetric vacuum is considered and the corresponding quantum trace anomaly is computed in the one-loop approximation. The nontrivial infrared behavior of the model due to the singular nature of the classical background field forces a modification of the boundary conditions on the propagator. A general form for an 'improved' one-loop trace anomaly is found by a simple argument based on renormalization group invariance. Via the Einstein equation, the trace anomaly leads to a self-consistent dynamical equation for the cosmic expansion scale factor. Some physical aspects of the back-reaction problem based on a simple power law model of the expansion scale factor are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, and strings defects in hypercomplex gauge field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, R. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Instituto de Fisica, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Meza-Aldama, O. [Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)

    2016-02-15

    Inspired by the appearance of split-complex structures in the dimensional reduction of string theory, and in the theories emerging as byproducts, we study the hypercomplex formulation of Abelian gauge field theories by incorporating a new complex unit to the usual complex one. The hypercomplex version of the traditional Mexican hat potential associated with the U(1) gauge field theory, corresponds to a hybrid potential with two real components, and with U(1) x SO(1,1) as symmetry group. Each component corresponds to a deformation of the hat potential, with the appearance of a new degenerate vacuum. Hypercomplex electrodynamics will show novel properties, such as spontaneous symmetry breaking scenarios with running masses for the vectorial and scalar Higgs fields, and such as Aharonov-Bohm type strings defects as exact solutions; these topological defects may be detected only by quantum interference of charged particles through gauge invariant loop integrals. In a particular limit, the hyperbolic electrodynamics does not admit topological defects associated with continuous symmetries. (orig.)

  1. Study of spontaneously broken conformal symmetry in curved space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janson, M.M.

    1977-05-01

    Spontaneous breakdown of Weyl invariance (local scale invariance) in a conformally-invariant extension of a gauge model for weak and electromagnetic interactions is considered. The existence of an asymmetric vacuum for the Higgs field, phi, is seen to depend on the space-time structure via the Gursey-Penrose term, approximately phi + phi R, in the action. (R denotes the scalar curvature.) The effects of a prescribed space-time structure on spontaneously broken Weyl invariance is investigated. In a cosmological space-time, it is found that initially, in the primordial fireball, the symmetry must hold exactly. Spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) develops as the universe expands and cools. Consequences of this model include a dependence of G/sub F/, the effective weak interaction coupling strength, on ''cosmic time.'' It is seen to decrease monotonically; in the present epoch (G/sub F//G/sub F/)/sub TODAY/ approximately less than 10 -10 (year) -1 . The effects of the Schwarzschild geometry on SSB are explored. In the interior of a neutron star the Higgs vacuum expectation value, and consequently G/sub F/, is found to have a radial dependence. The magnitude of this variation does not warrant revision of present models of neutron star structures. Another perspective on the problem considered a theory of gravitation (conformal relativity) to be incorporated in the conformally invariant gauge model of weak and electromagnetic interactions. If SSB develops, the vacuum gravitational field equations are the Einstein field equations with a cosmological constant. The stability of the asymmetric vacuum solution is investigated to ascertain whether SSB can occur

  2. An Analysis of $B_{s}$ Decays in the Left-Right-Symmetric Model with Spontaneous CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Ball, Patricia; Ball, Patricia; Fleischer, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Non-leptonic B_s decays into CP eigenstates that are caused by \\bar b -> \\bar cc\\bar s quark-level transitions, such as B_s -> D_s^+D^-_s, J/psi eta^(') or J/psi phi, provide a powerful tool to search for ``new physics'', as the CP-violating effects in these modes are tiny in the Standard Model. We explore these effects for a particular scenario of new physics, the left-right-symmetric model with spontaneous CP violation. In our analysis, we take into account all presently available experimental constraints on the parameters of this model, i.e. those implied by K- and B-decay observables; we find that CP asymmetries as large as O(40%) may arise in the B_s channels, whereas the left-right-symmetric model favours a small CP asymmetry in the ``gold-plated'' mode B_d -> J/psi K_S. Such a pattern would be in favour of B-physics experiments at hadron machines, where the B_s modes are very accessible.

  3. A CP violetion model of cosmological origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truppel, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    It's presented a model of spontaneous violation of the CP symmetry whose mechanism of symmetry breaking is of cosmological nature. The main feature is the conformal coupling of the field of a λφ 4 theory with a background gravitational field. We show that, for the open Friedmann model of the universe, the reason of the critical temperaTure for the symmetry restoration to the equilibrium temperature of the universe rrmains constant, so that either the symmetry breaking never happened or, if happened, it can't be reverted by means of thermal effects. Upon coupling the boson to a fermion, this symmetry breaking id related to the CP non-conservation in two distinct ways: violating the P and T symmetries, and violating the C and T symmetries. (author) [pt

  4. Chiral polarization scale of QCD vacuum and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandru, Andrei; Horv, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    It has recently been found that dynamics of pure glue QCD supports the low energy band of Dirac modes with local chiral properties qualitatively different from that of a bulk: while bulk modes suppress chirality relative to statistical independence between left and right, the band modes enhance it. The width of such chirally polarized zone – chiral polarization scale bigwedge ch – has been shown to be finite in the continuum limit at fixed physical volume. Here we present evidence that bigwedge ch remains non-zero also in the infinite volume, and is therefore a dynamical scale in the theory. Our experiments in N f = 2+1 QCD support the proposition that the same holds in the massless limit, connecting bigwedge ch to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. In addition, our results suggest that thermal agitation in quenched QCD destroys both chiral polarization and condensation of Dirac modes at the same temperature T ch > T c .

  5. Esoteric elementary particle phenomena in undergraduate physics: spontaneous symmetry breaking and scale invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenberger, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    We take two rather abstract concepts from elementary particle physics, and show that there actually exist analogs to both of them in undergraduate physics. In the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking, we provide an example where the most symmetrical state of a simple system suddenly becomes unstable, while a less symmetrical state develops lower energy and becomes stable. In the case of scale invariance, we consider an example with no natural scale determined, and show that a straightforward dimensional analysis of the problem leads to incorrect results, because of the occurrence of infinities, even though they would appear to be irrelevant infinities that might not be expected to affect the dimensions of the answer. We then show how a simple use of the scale invariance of the problem leads to the correct answer

  6. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Goldstone theorem in non-Hermitian field theories arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandre, Jean; Millington, Peter; Seynaeve, Dries

    We demonstrate the extension to PT-symmetric field theories of the Goldstone theorem, confirming that the spontaneous appearance of a field vacuum expectation value via minimisation of the effective potential in a non-Hermitian model is accompanied by a massless scalar boson. Laying a basis for our analysis, we first show how the conventional quantisation of the path-integral formulation of quantum field theory can be extended consistently to a non-Hermitian model by considering PT conjugation instead of Hermitian conjugation. The extension of the Goldstone theorem to a PT-symmetric field theory is made possible by the existence of a conserved current that does not, however, correspond to a symmetry of the non-Hermitian Lagrangian. In addition to extending the proof of the Goldstone theorem to a PT-symmetric theory, we exhibit a specific example in which we verify the existence of a massless boson at the tree and one-loop levels.

  7. Decoherence plus spontaneous symmetry breakdown generate the ''ohmic'' view of the state-vector collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ne'eman, Y.; Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX

    1993-06-01

    The collapse of the state-vector is described as a phase transition due to three features. First, there is the atrophying of indeterminacy for macroscopic objects -- including the measurement apparatus. Secondly, there is the environment decohering mechanism, as described by Zeh, Joos and others -- dominant in macroscopic objects. As a result, the classical background, an input in the Copenhagen prescriptions, is generated as an ''effective'' picture, similar to the ''effective'' introduction of Ohmic resistance or of thermodynamical variables, when going from the micro to the macroscopic; in this case, the collectivized substrate is provided by the multiplicity of photon scatterings, etc., on top of the effect of the large number of particles in macroscopic objects. Thirdly, there is the Everett ''branching'', i.e. the materialization of one of the now decoherent states, accompanied by the destruction of the other branches. By definition, quantum indeterminancy represents a symmetry; in a measurement, or in a branching, this symmetry is broken ''spontaneously'', involving a Ginzburg-Landau type potential with asymmetric minima, thus concretizing the quantum ''dice'' without the burden of ''many worlds''. The authors review and systematize the various phase transitions relating quantum to classical phenomena

  8. Renormalizable massive charged vector-boson theory without spontaneous symmetry breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac, E.

    1977-01-01

    A renormalizable and unitary theory of massive charged vector bosons is proposed. This theory has a similarity with the Georgi-Glashow theory, the difference being that in the former the Lagrangian does not contain the potential term in the scalar fields necessary in theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The mass M > 0 of the charged vector bosons are introduced in the Lagrangian in such a way that the Lagrangian is still invariant under a ''distorted'' local gauge symmetry. This Lagrangian is studied in the generalized renormalizable gauge (gauge R /sub xi/), by means of the Lagrange multiplier formalism. In this way, the fictitious Lagrangian that restores unitarity to the theory can be constructed. The fictitious Lagrangian constructed using the Lagrange multiplier formalism is compared to the one obtained due to the variation of the gauge condition under the gauge transformations. The renormalizability of this theory is studied and the Ward-Takahaski identities are derived; these identities are checked by explicit calculations. Using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora transformation, one can obtain the equation satisfied by the renormalized Lagrangian; solving this equation the most general form of the renormalized Lagrangian is obtained. Also the classical solutions of this kind of theories are studied. Solutions are found suggesting the presence of dyons

  9. Experimental tests of CP, T and CPT symmetries using K0 and K-bar0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavrtanik, D.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Aslanides, E.; Bertin, V.; Ealet, A.; Fassnacht, P.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Le Gac, R.; Montanet, F.; Touchard, F.; Backenstoss, G.; Leimgruber, F.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Polivka, G.; Rickenbach, R.; Schietinger, T.; Tauscher, L.; Vlachos, S.; Bargassa, P.

    1998-01-01

    The CPLEAR experiment at CERN measured the CP and CPT violation parameters and determined in a direct way the T violation. The results allow the determination of the CPT violation parameters in the neutral kaon mixing with a precision better than a few 10 -4 . The mass equality between K 0 and K-tilde 0 is tested down to the level of 10 -19 GeV. In addition, physics on a scale close to the Planck mass is probed for the first time

  10. Study of the breaking of the CP symmetry in the BABAR experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganjour, S.

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes my scientific activities from 1995 to 2007. During this period of time, my research work was related to the particle physics experiment BABAR. The BABAR experiment has been running since 1999 at the PEP-II e + e - asymmetric B-factory located at SLAC. This experiment searches for CP violation in the system of B mesons and tests the Standard Model through the measurements of the angles and the sides of the Unitarity Triangle. My research work is divided in five main topics: study of the BABAR magnet system and measurement of the magnetic field in the central tracking volume; project of the particle identification system based on aerogel counters for the forward region of the detector; conception of the magnetic shield and measurements of the fringe field in the region of photomultipliers of the DIRC (Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) system, the principal particle identification system of BABAR; development of the partial reconstruction technique of B mesons and study of the B 0 → D s * + D *- decays; measurement of CP violation in the B 0 → D *± π ± decays and constraint on the Unitary Triangle parameter sin(2β + γ) using these decays. (author)

  11. Zurek–Kibble Symmetry Breaking Process in Superconducting Rings; Spontaneous Fluxon Formation in Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarøe, Morten; Monaco, Roberto; Dmitriev, P

    2007-01-01

    We report on new investigations of spontaneous symmetry breaking in non-adiabatic phase transitions. This Zurek-Kibble (ZK) process is mimicked in solid state systems by trapping of magnetic flux quanta, fluxons, in a long annular Josephson tunnel junction quenched through the normal-superconducting...

  12. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of Bose-Fermi mixtures in double-well potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, S. K.; Malomed, B. A.; Salasnich, L.; Toigo, F.

    2010-01-01

    We study the spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) of a superfluid Bose-Fermi (BF) mixture in a double-well potential (DWP). The mixture is described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) for the bosons, coupled to an equation for the order parameter of the Fermi superfluid, which is derived from the respective density functional in the unitarity limit (a similar model applies to the BCS regime, too). Straightforward SSB in the degenerate Fermi gas loaded into a DWP is impossible, as it requires an attractive self-interaction, and the intrinsic nonlinearity in the Fermi gas is repulsive. Nonetheless, we demonstrate that the symmetry breaking is possible in the mixture with attraction between fermions and bosons, like 40 K and 87 Rb. Numerical results are represented by dependencies of asymmetry parameters for both components on particle numbers of the mixture, N F and N B , and by phase diagrams in the (N F ,N B ) plane, which displays regions of symmetric and asymmetric ground states. The dynamical picture of the SSB, induced by a gradual transformation of the single-well potential into the DWP, is reported too. An analytical approximation is proposed for the case when the GPE for the boson wave function may be treated by means of the Thomas-Fermi (TF) approximation. Under a special linear relationship between N F and N B , the TF approximation allows us to reduce the model to a single equation for the fermionic function, which includes competing repulsive and attractive nonlinear terms. The latter one directly displays the mechanism of the generation of the effective attraction in the Fermi superfluid, mediated by the bosonic component of the mixture.

  13. Spontaneous CP breaking and the axion potential: an effective Lagrangian approach

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When we add to the model a generic axion field (in order to ensure CP at all values of $\\theta$) the above considerations have a bearing on the shape of the axion potential near the boundary of its periodicity interval. This ...

  14. Twisted Spectral Triple for the Standard Model and Spontaneous Breaking of the Grand Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devastato, Agostino, E-mail: agostino.devastato@na.infn.it; Martinetti, Pierre, E-mail: martinetti@dima.unige.it [Università di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy)

    2017-03-15

    Grand symmetry models in noncommutative geometry, characterized by a non-trivial action of functions on spinors, have been introduced to generate minimally (i.e. without adding new fermions) and in agreement with the first order condition an extra scalar field beyond the standard model, which both stabilizes the electroweak vacuum and makes the computation of the mass of the Higgs compatible with its experimental value. In this paper, we use a twist in the sense of Connes-Moscovici to cure a technical problem due to the non-trivial action on spinors, that is the appearance together with the extra scalar field of unbounded vectorial terms. The twist makes these terms bounded and - thanks to a twisted version of the first-order condition that we introduce here - also permits to understand the breaking to the standard model as a dynamical process induced by the spectral action, as conjectured in [24]. This is a spontaneous breaking from a pre-geometric Pati-Salam model to the almost-commutativegeometryofthestandardmodel,withtwoHiggs-likefields: scalar and vector.

  15. Phase transition of the first kind with respect to the density in a model of spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, N.P.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry motivated by quantum chromodynamics is considered at a finite density of the quarks and zero temperature. For zero chemical potential the dynamical quark mass, the bag constant, and the vacuum expectation value are estimated. The dependence of the grand thermodynamic potential on the chemical potential of the quarks and of the energy on the particle number density are calculated. It is found that there is a phase transition of the first kind with respect to the density of the quarks accompanied by restoration of the chiral symmetry. The critical values of the fermion density are found

  16. The renormalization group of relativistic quantum field theory as a set of generalized, spontaneously broken, symmetry transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maris, Th.A.J.

    1976-01-01

    The renormalization group theory has a natural place in a general framework of symmetries in quantum field theories. Seen in this way, a 'renormalization group' is a one-parametric subset of the direct product of dilatation and renormalization groups. This subset of spontaneously broken symmetry transformations connects the inequivalent solutions generated by a parameter-dependent regularization procedure, as occurs in renormalized perturbation theory. By considering the global, rather than the infinitesimal, transformations, an expression for general vertices is directly obtained, which is the formal solution of exact renormalization group equations [pt

  17. Lepton mixing and CP violation phase in the 3-3-1 model with neutral leptons based on T{sub 13} flavor symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vien, Vo Van, E-mail: wvienk16@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Tay Nguyen University, Le Duan, Buon Ma Thuot, DakLak (Viet Nam)

    2015-08-15

    We study a 3-3-1 model based on non-Abelian discrete symmetry group T{sub 13} which accommodates lepton mixing with non-zero θ{sub 13} and CP violation phase. The neutrinos get small masses and mixing with CP violation phase from S U(3) L antisextets which are all in triplets under T{sub 13}. If both breakings T{sub 13} → Z{sub 3} and Z{sub 3} → {Identity} are taken place in neutrino sector, and T{sub 13} is broken into Z{sub 3} in lepton sector, the realistic neutrino mixing form is obtained as a natural consequence of P{sub l} and T{sub 13} symmetries. The model predicts the lepton mixing with non-zero θ{sub 13}, and also gives a remarkable prediction of Dirac CP violation δ{sub CP} = 292.5∘ in the normal spectrum, and δ {sub CP} = 303.161∘ in the inverted spectrum which is still missing in the neutrino mixing matrix. There exist some regions of model parameters that can fit the experimental data in 2014 on neutrino masses and mixing without perturbation. (author)

  18. Spontaneous breaking of time-reversal symmetry in strongly interacting two-dimensional electron layers in silicon and germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, S; Mahapatra, S; Scappucci, G; Klesse, W M; Simmons, M Y; Ghosh, A

    2014-06-13

    We report experimental evidence of a remarkable spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking in two-dimensional electron systems formed by atomically confined doping of phosphorus (P) atoms inside bulk crystalline silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). Weak localization corrections to the conductivity and the universal conductance fluctuations were both found to decrease rapidly with decreasing doping in the Si:P and Ge:P delta layers, suggesting an effect driven by Coulomb interactions. In-plane magnetotransport measurements indicate the presence of intrinsic local spin fluctuations at low doping, providing a microscopic mechanism for spontaneous lifting of the time-reversal symmetry. Our experiments suggest the emergence of a new many-body quantum state when two-dimensional electrons are confined to narrow half-filled impurity bands.

  19. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ4 theory in light-front field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, C.M.; Pinsky, S.; van de Sande, B.

    1993-01-01

    We study spontaneous symmetry breaking in (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory using the light-front formulation of field theory. Since the physical vacuum is always the same as the perturbative vacuum in light-front field theory the fields must develop a vacuum expectation value through the zero-mode components of the field. We solve the nonlinear operator equation for the zero mode in the one-mode approximation. We find that spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs at λ critical =4π(3+ √3 )μ 2 , which is consistent with the value λ critical =54.27μ 2 obtained in the equal-time theory. We calculate the vacuum expectation value as a function of the coupling constant in the broken phase both numerically and analytically using the δ expansion. We find two equivalent broken phases. Finally we show that the energy levels of the system have the expected behavior for the broken phase

  20. Light-front quantized field theory (an introduction): spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Prem P.

    1994-01-01

    The Dirac procedure is used to construct the Hamiltonian formulation of the scalar field theory on the light-front. The theory is quantized and the mechanism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the front form and the instant form dynamics are compared. The phase transition in (φ 4 )2 theory is also discussed and found to be of the second order. (author). 36 refs

  1. A solution to the rho-π puzzle: Spontaneously broken symmetries of the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.; Pagels, H.

    1976-01-01

    This article proposes a solution to the long-standing rho-π puzzle: How can the rho and π be members of a quark model U(6) 36 and the π be a Nambu-Goldstone boson satisfying partial conservation of the axial-vector current (PCAC) Our solution to the puzzle requires a revision of conventional concepts regarding the vector mesons rho, ω, K*, and phi. Just as the π is a Goldstone state, a collective excitation of the Nambu--Jona-Lasinio type, transforming as a member of the (3, 3) + (3, 3) representation of the chiral SU(3) x SU(3) group, so also the rho transforms like (3, 3) + (3, 3) and is also a collective state, a ''dormant'' Goldstone boson that is a true Goldstone boson in the static chiral U(6) x U(6) limit. The static chiral U(6) x U(6) is to be spontaneously broken to static U(6) in the vacuum. Relativisitc effects provide for U(6) breaking and a massive rho. This viewpoint has many consequences. Vector-meson dominance is a consequence of spontaneously broken chiral symmetry: the mechanism that couples the axial-vector current to the π couples the vector current to the rho. The transition rate is calculated as γ/sub rho/ -1 = f/sub pi//m/sub rho/ in rough agreement with experiment. This picture requires soft rho's to decouple. The chiral partner of the rho is not the A 1 but the B (1235). The experimental absence of the A 1 is no longer a theoretical embarrassment in this scheme. As the analog of PCAC for the pion we establish a tensor-field identity for the rho meson in which the rho is interpreted as a dormant Goldstone state. The decays delta → eta + π, B → ω + π, epsilon → 2π are estimated and are found to be in agreement with the observed rates. A static U(6) x U(6) generalization of the Σ model is presented with the π, rho, sigma, B in the (6, 6) + (6, 6) representation. The rho emerges as a dormant Goldstone boson in this model

  2. Spontaneous Time Symmetry Breaking in System with Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibrium: Evidences in Experimental Economics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.

  3. A model for the origin and mechanisms of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.

    1995-01-01

    In this talk I will show that the two-Higgs doublet model with vacuum CP violation and approximate global U(1) family symmetries may provide one of the simplest and attractive models for understanding the origin and mechanisms of CP violation. It is shown that the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking provides not only a mechanism for generating masses of the bosons and fermions, but also a mechanism for creating CP-phases of the bosons and fermions, so that CP violation occurs, after spontaneous symmetry breaking, in all possible ways from a single CP phase of the vacuum and is generally classified into four types of CP-violating mechanism. A new type of CP-violating mechanism in the charged Higgs boson interactions of the fermions is emphasized and can provide a consistent description for both established and reported CP-, P-, and T-violating phenomena. Of particular importance is the new source of CP violation for charged Higgs boson interactions that lead to the value of ε'/ε as large as 10 -3 independent of the CKM phase. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  4. SU(4) x U(1) gauge theory. II. CP nonconservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Hwa, R.C.; Mannheim, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    We exploit the higher symmetry inherent in an SU(4) x U(1) gauge theory to construct a spontaneously broken theory of CP nonconservation. Higgs multiplets in the adjoint representation of SU(4) contain both even and odd CP fields; thus, requiring the simultaneous nonvanishing of the vacuum expectation values of these fields leads to CP noninvariance of the vacuum. We find that all the CP-nonconserving effects are mediated in our theory by the superheavy gauge bosons of the broken SU(4) x U(1) symmetry. In fact, the very existence of CP violation sets an upper limit on the masses of these bosons. In our model the dominant CP effect lies in the neutral kaon system and is found to arise through a direct (ΔS = 2) K 1 -K 2 transition. The model has all the features of a superweak theory, with a neutron electric dipole moment substantially smaller than 10 -24 e cm

  5. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in ΡΤ symmetric systems with nonlinear damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karthiga, S.; Chandrasekar, V.K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2016-01-01

    In this talk, we discuss the remarkable role of position dependent damping in determining the parametric regions of symmetry breaking in nonlinear ΡΤ -symmetric systems. We illustrate the nature of ΡΤ-symmetry preservation and breaking with reference to a remarkable integrable scalar nonlinear system. In the two dimensional cases of such position dependent damped systems, we unveil the existence of a class of novel bi-ΡΤ -symmetric systems which have two fold ΡΤ symmetries. We discuss the dynamics of these systems and show how symmetry breaking occurs, that is whether the symmetry breaking of the two ΡΤ symmetries occurs in pair or occurs one by one. The addition of linear damping in these nonlinearly damped systems induces competition between the two types of damping. This competition results in a ΡΤ phase transition in which the ΡΤ symmetry is broken for lower loss/gain strength and is restored by increasing the loss/gain strength. We also show that by properly designing the form of the position dependent damping, we can tailor the ΡΤ-symmetric regions of the system. (author)

  6. Spontaneously broken symmetry of vacuum in external gravitational fields of isotropic cosmological models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veryaskin, A.V.; Lapchinskij, V.G.; Nekrasov, V.I.; Rubakov, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Behaviour of vacuum symmetry in the model of self-acting scalar field in the open and closed isotropic cosmological spaces is investigated. Considered are the cases with the mass squared of the scalar field m 2 >0, m 2 =0 and m 2 2 2 =0 at exponentially large scale factors the study of the problem on the behaviour of the symmetry requires exceeding the limits of the perturbation theory. The final behaviour of the vacuum symmetry in the open model at small radii depends on combined effect of all the external factors [ru

  7. One-loop corrections to the perturbative unitarity bounds in the CP-conserving two-Higgs doublet model with a softly broken ℤ{sub 2} symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinstein, Benjamín [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Murphy, Christopher W. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, Pisa 56126 (Italy); Uttayarat, Patipan [Department of Physics, Srinakharinwirot University, Wattana, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand)

    2016-06-13

    We compute all of the one-loop corrections that are enhanced, O(λ{sub i}λ{sub j}/16π{sup 2}), in the limit s≫|λ{sub i}|v{sup 2}≫M{sub W}{sup 2}, s≫m{sub 12}{sup 2} to all the 2→2 longitudinal vector boson and Higgs boson scattering amplitudes in the CP-conserving two-Higgs doublet model with a softly broken ℤ{sub 2} symmetry. In the two simplified scenarios we study, the typical bound we find is |λ{sub i}(s)|⪅4.

  8. Study of the breaking of the CP symmetry in the BABAR experiment; Etude de la violation de la symetrie CP dans l'experience BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganjour, S

    2007-09-15

    This report summarizes my scientific activities from 1995 to 2007. During this period of time, my research work was related to the particle physics experiment BABAR. The BABAR experiment has been running since 1999 at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric B-factory located at SLAC. This experiment searches for CP violation in the system of B mesons and tests the Standard Model through the measurements of the angles and the sides of the Unitarity Triangle. My research work is divided in five main topics: study of the BABAR magnet system and measurement of the magnetic field in the central tracking volume; project of the particle identification system based on aerogel counters for the forward region of the detector; conception of the magnetic shield and measurements of the fringe field in the region of photomultipliers of the DIRC (Detector of Internally Reflected Cherenkov light) system, the principal particle identification system of BABAR; development of the partial reconstruction technique of B mesons and study of the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sub s}{sup *} + D{sup *-} decays; measurement of CP violation in the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup *{+-}}{pi}{sup {+-}} decays and constraint on the Unitary Triangle parameter sin(2{beta} + {gamma}) using these decays. (author)

  9. Axions from chiral family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, D.; Pal, P.B.; Maryland Univ., College Park; Senjanovic, G.

    1985-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that family symmetry, Gsub(F), is spontaneously broken chiral global symmetry. We classify the interesting cases when family symmetry can result in an automatic Peccei-Quinn symmetry U(1)sub(PQ) and thus provide a solution to the strong CP problem. The result disfavors having two or four families. For more than four families, U(1)sub(PQ) is in general automatic. In the case of three families, a unique Higgs sector allows U(1)sub(PQ) in the simplest case of Gsub(F)=[SU(3)] 3 . Cosmological consideration also puts strong constraint on the number of families. For Gsub(F)=[SU(N)] 3 cosmology singles out the three-family (N=3) case as a unique solution if there are three light neutrinos. Possible implication of decoupling theorem as applied to family symmetry breaking is also discussed. (orig.)

  10. A reciprocal of Coleman's theorem and the quantum statistics of systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaichian, M.; Montonen, C.; Perez Rojas, H.

    1991-01-01

    The completely different conservation properties of charges associated to unbroken and broken symmetries are discussed. The impossibility of establishing a conservation law for nondegenerate Hilbert space representations in the broken case leads to a reciprocal of Coleman's theorem. The quantum statistical implication is that these charges cannot be introduced as conserved operators in the density matrix. (orig.)

  11. Topological defect formation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in ion Coulomb crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, K; Keller, J; Partner, H L; Nigmatullin, R; Burgermeister, T; Meier, D M; Kuhlmann, K; Retzker, A; Plenio, M B; Zurek, W H; del Campo, A; Mehlstäubler, T E

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry breaking phase transitions play an important role in nature. When a system traverses such a transition at a finite rate, its causally disconnected regions choose the new broken symmetry state independently. Where such local choices are incompatible, topological defects can form. The Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicts the defect densities to follow a power law that scales with the rate of the transition. Owing to its ubiquitous nature, this theory finds application in a wide field of systems ranging from cosmology to condensed matter. Here we present the successful creation of defects in ion Coulomb crystals by a controlled quench of the confining potential, and observe an enhanced power law scaling in accordance with numerical simulations and recent predictions. This simple system with well-defined critical exponents opens up ways to investigate the physics of non-equilibrium dynamics from the classical to the quantum regime.

  12. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and neutral stability in the noncanonical Hamiltonian formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.J.; Eliezer, S.

    1985-10-01

    The noncanonical Hamiltonian formalism is based upon a generalization of the Poisson bracket, a particular form of which is possessed by continuous media fields. Associated with this generalization are special constants of motion called Casimirs. These are constants that can be viewed as being built into the phase space, for they are invariant for all Hamiltonians. Casimirs are important because when added to the Hamiltonian they yield an effective Hamiltonian that produces equilibrium states upon variation. The stability of these states can be ascertained by a second variation. Goldstone's theorem, in its usual context, determines zero eigenvalues of the mass matrix for a given vacuum state, the equilibrium with minimum energy. Here, since for fluids and plasmas the vacuum state is uninteresting, we examine symmetry breaking for general equilibria. Broken symmetries imply directions of neutral stability. Two examples are presented: the nonlinear Alfven wave of plasma physics and the Korteweg-de Vries soliton. 46 refs

  13. Chains of benzenes with lithium-atom adsorption: Vibrations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Yenni P.; Stegmann, Thomas; Klein, Douglas J.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    We study effects of different configurations of adsorbates on the vibrational modes as well as symmetries of polyacenes and poly-p-phenylenes focusing on lithium atom adsorption. We found that the spectra of the vibrational modes distinguish the different configurations. For more regular adsorption schemes the lowest states are bending and torsion modes of the skeleton, which are essentially followed by the adsorbate. On poly-p-phenylenes we found that lithium adsorption reduces and often eli...

  14. The pseudo-conformal universe: scale invariance from spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinterbichler, Kurt; Khoury, Justin

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel theory of the very early universe which addresses the traditional horizon and flatness problems of big bang cosmology and predicts a scale invariant spectrum of perturbations. Unlike inflation, this scenario requires no exponential accelerated expansion of space-time. Instead, the early universe is described by a conformal field theory minimally coupled to gravity. The conformal fields develop a time-dependent expectation value which breaks the flat space so(4,2) conformal symmetry down to so(4,1), the symmetries of de Sitter, giving perturbations a scale invariant spectrum. The solution is an attractor, at least in the case of a single time-dependent field. Meanwhile, the metric background remains approximately flat but slowly contracts, which makes the universe increasingly flat, homogeneous and isotropic, akin to the smoothing mechanism of ekpyrotic cosmology. Our scenario is very general, requiring only a conformal field theory capable of developing the appropriate time-dependent expectation values, and encompasses existing incarnations of this idea, specifically the U(1) model of Rubakov and the Galileon Genesis scenario. Its essential features depend only on the symmetry breaking pattern and not on the details of the underlying lagrangian. It makes generic observational predictions that make it potentially distinguishable from standard inflation, in particular significant non-gaussianities and the absence of primordial gravitational waves

  15. Automatic O(a) improvement for twisted mass QCD in the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Sinya; Baer, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present a proof for automatic O(a) improvement in twisted mass lattice QCD at maximal twist, which uses only the symmetries of the leading part in the Symanzik effective action. In the process of the proof we clarify that the twist angle is dynamically determined by vacuum expectation values in the Symanzik theory. For maximal twist according to this definition, we show that scaling violations of all quantities which have nonzero values in the continuum limit are even in a. In addition, using Wilson chiral perturbation theory, we investigate this definition for maximal twist and compare it to other definitions which were already employed in actual simulations

  16. Renormalization of the scalar field theory with spontaneously broken discrete symmetry without shifting the field vacuum expectation value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solin, J.

    1988-01-01

    The one-loop renormalization of the λφ 4 theory with a spontaneous breaking of its discrete (reflection) symmetry is analyzed. It is explicitly shown that it is not necessary to forcefully eliminate the linear counterterm in the shifted field (accomplished usually by shifting the vacuum expectation value of the field) in order to have the renormalized Lagrangian still formally invariant under the original discrete symmetry. It is further shown, using the normal-ordering procedure, that the renormalization carried out in the customary form completely wipes out the tadpole diagram contributions from the original Lagrangian. As a consequence, the same renormalized Lagrangian can be also obtained from the original bare Lagrangian which, however, has been normal-ordered and as such cannot cause the linear counterterm in the shifted field since now the tadpole diagrams are absent altogether. These analyses should support the view that the vacuum expectation value of the field is of a group-theoretical origin rather than a field-theoretical origin, and as such should not change independently of the shifted field in the course of renormalization

  17. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ4 theory in light-front field theory. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsky, S.S.; van de Sande, B.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous symmetry breaking of (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory in light-front field theory using a Tamm-Dancoff truncation. We show that, even though light-front field theory has a simple vacuum state which is an eigenstate of the full Hamiltonian, the field can develop a nonzero vacuum expectation value. This occurs because the zero mode of the field must satisfy an operator-valued constraint equation. In the context of (1+1)-dimensional φ 4 theory we present solutions to the constraint equation using a Tamm-Dancoff truncation to a finite number of particles and modes. We study the behavior of the zero mode as a function of coupling and Fock space truncation. The zero mode introduces new interactions into the Hamiltonian which breaks the Z 2 symmetry of the theory when the coupling is stronger than the critical coupling. We investigate the energy spectrum in the symmetric and broken phases, show that the theory does not break down in the vicinity of the critical coupling, and discuss the connection to perturbation theory. Finally, we study the spectrum of the field φ and show that, in the broken phase, the field is localized away from φ=0 as one would expect from equal-time calculations. We explicitly show that tunneling occurs

  18. Sum rules for the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking parameters of QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.; Stern, J.

    1981-03-01

    We discuss in the spirit of the work of Shifman, Vainshtein and Zakharov (SVZ), sum rules involving current-current vacuum correlation functions, whose Wilson expansion starts off with the operators anti qq or (anti qq) 2 , and thus provide information about the chiral symmetry breaking parameters of QCD. We point out that under the type of crude approximations made by SVZ, a value of sub(vac) (250MeV) 3 is obtained from one of these sum rules, in agreement with current expectations. Further we show that a Borel transformed version of the Weinberg sum rule, for VV - AA, current products seem only to make sense for an A 1 mass close to 1.3GeV and it makes little sense with the current algebra mass Msub(A)=anti 2M. We also give an estimate for the chiral symmetry breaking parameters μ 1 6 =2 2 (anti qsub(L) lambda sup(a)γsub(μ)qsub(L))(anti qsub(R) lambdasup(a) γsup(μ)qsub(R)) >sub(vac) entering in the Weinberg sum rules and μ 2 6 =g 2 sub(vac) entering in a new sum rule we propose involving antisymmetric tensor currents J=anti q σsub(μnu) q. (author)

  19. CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.

    1993-06-01

    The violation of the CP symmetry is a phenomenon, the origin of which is not yet well established and deserves a particular attention since it may be a fundamental property of Nature with very important consequences for the evolution of the universe. We propose in these lectures to have an overview of this phenomenon as we understand it so far. To this end, and after introducing the discrete space-time symmetries, we discuss the observation of the violation of the CP symmetry in the neutral kaon decays. We then derive the general formalism for any neutral system made of a particle and its antiparticle and discuss how CP violation is introduced. We show how this phenomenon is generated in the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions and what are the predictions that can be made. In particular we shall concentrate on the expected effects in the decays of mesons involving the b quark. We review the various possibilities for observing these effects, calculate their magnitudes and show how the consistency of the theory can be tested. Finally, we outline the experimental prospects for studying CP non conservation at an asymmetric B Factory to either verify the Standard Model mechanism or provide evidence for new physics. (author)

  20. Spontaneous compactification of D=10 Maxwell-Einstein theory leads to SU(3) X SU(2) X U(1) gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watamura, S.

    1983-01-01

    Solutions of ten-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein theory and a bosonic part of N = 2, D = 10 supergravity theory are examined. It is shown that there is a solution for which six-dimensional internal space is compactified into CP 2 x S 2 . The gauge symmetry of the effective four-dimensional theory is SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The introduction of fermions is also considered. The requirement of consistency in introducing a spinsup(C) structure on CP 2 results in a U(1) charge quantization condition. (orig.)

  1. CP Violation course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    The lecture introduces the concepts and phenomena of matter-antimatter symmetry violation, so-called "CP" violation. The lecture is organized in four courses, the first being devoted to a historical overview and an introduction into fundamental discrete symmetries. The second course introduces the most compelling CP-violating phenomena, and presents the first experimental discovery of CP violation in the neutral kaon system. The third course discusses how CP violation is beautifully incorporated into the Standard Model of particle interactions, and how modern B-meson "factories" provide precise tests of this picture. Finally, the fourth and last course introduces CP violation and the genesis of our matter world.

  2. CP violation with an unbroken CP transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratz, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California,Irvine, California 92697-4575 (United States); Trautner, Andreas [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics und Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-21

    A CP conserving SU(3) gauge theory is spontaneously broken to T{sub 7} by the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of a 15-plet. Even though the SU(3)-CP transformation is not broken by the VEV, the theory exhibits physical CP violation in the broken phase. This is because the SU(3)-CP transformation corresponds to the unique order-two outer automorphism of T{sub 7}, which is not a physical CP transformation for the T{sub 7} states, and there is no other possible CP transformation. We explicitly demonstrate that CP is violated by calculating a CP odd decay asymmetry in the broken phase. This scenario provides us with a natural protection for topological vacuum terms, ensuring that θ G{sub μν}G̃{sup μν} is absent even though CP is violated for the physical states of the model.

  3. The Effect of Retardation on the Spontaneous Breaking of Chiral Symmetry in GCM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Sheng-Dong; ZHAI Chen-Yang; ZHOU Zhi-Ning; YANG Ze-Sen

    2001-01-01

    An effective Hamiltonian including current-current coupling from the global color symmetry model is -R2 2derived.Retardation effects are introduced by the factor ( R/ ) e ,instead of δ (r) in the correlation kernel,from which the retardation gap equation with α-α coupling in the 3po vacuum is obtained,qq condensations of different retardation parameters R with or without the α-α term are calculated.The results show the effects of retardation,and indicate that the typical value of R is about 2 fm-1 at reasonable value of qq condensation.And while taking typical value 1 fm-1 of R,the condensation 1/3 is about 13% larger than that with no retardation effect.With the α-αterms,the condensation (qq) 1/3 is about 17%o larger than that without it for all values of the parameter R.This shows that the retardation effects and the α-α terms are important for further studying in the Iow-energy region.``

  4. Conribution to the study of spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamonal, R.

    1984-01-01

    In the framework of quantum chromodynamics, we have been interested in the order parameters for the breakdown of the non-abelian chiral symmetry. Using the functional integral representation in the euclidean formalism, we have performed the fermionic integration after having inverted the chiral limit and the integration over gluonic fields. So, we were led to look for what gauge field configurations, the fermionic integrand has a non-vanishing chiral limit. We have been able to show, in a general manner, that the generating functional of all the order parameters vanishes in the chiral limit for the gauge field configurations which lead to a discrete spectrum for the Dirac operator around zero. For those leading to a continuous spectrum from the zero eigenvalue, the existence of a non-vanishing infra-red limit for the spectral density of the Dirac operator is crucial. We have exhibited gauge field configurations which give such a behaviour. Nevertheless, our analysis reveals the necessity to get a degeneracy for the zero modes belonging to the continuum of the Dirac operator. We have been able to demonstrate, for the class of gluonic fields, previously considered, an absence of degeneracy [fr

  5. (Pseudo-Goldstone boson interaction in D=2+1 systems with a spontaneously broken internal rotation symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph P. Hofmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The low-temperature properties of systems characterized by a spontaneously broken internal rotation symmetry, O(N→O(N−1, are governed by Goldstone bosons and can be derived systematically within effective Lagrangian field theory. In the present study we consider systems living in two spatial dimensions, and evaluate their partition function at low temperatures and weak external fields up to three-loop order. Although our results are valid for any such system, here we use magnetic terminology, i.e., we refer to quantum spin systems. We discuss the sign of the (pseudo-Goldstone boson interaction in the pressure, staggered magnetization, and susceptibility as a function of an external staggered field for general N. As it turns out, the d=2+1 quantum XY model (N=2 and the d=2+1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet (N=3, are rather special, as they represent the only cases where the spin-wave interaction in the pressure is repulsive in the whole parameter regime where the effective expansion applies. Remarkably, the d=2+1 XY model is the only system where the interaction contribution in the staggered magnetization (susceptibility tends to positive (negative values at low temperatures and weak external field.

  6. Light-front quantized field theory: (an introduction). Spontaneous symmetry breaking. Phase transition in φ4 theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1993-01-01

    The field theory quantized on the light-front is compared with the conventional equal-time quantized theory. The arguments based on the micro causality principle would imply that the light-front field theory may become nonlocal with respect to the longitudinal coordinate even though the corresponding equal-time formulation is local. This is found to be the case for the scalar theory. The conventional instant form theory is sometimes required to be constrained by invoking external physical considerations; the analogous conditions seem to be already built in the theory on the light-front. In spite of the different mechanisms of the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the two forms of dynamics they result in the same physical content. The phase transition in (φ 4 ) 2 theory is also discussed. The symmetric vacuum state for vanishingly small couplings is found to turn into an unstable symmetric one when the coupling is increased and may result in a phase transition of the second order in contrast to the first order transition concluded from the usual variational methods. (author)

  7. Low-amplitude instability as a premise for the spontaneous symmetry breaking in the new integrable semidiscrete nonlinear system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakhnenko, Oleksiy O.; Vakhnenko, Vyacheslav O.

    2014-01-01

    The new integrable semidiscrete multicomponent nonlinear system characterized by two coupling parameters is presented. Relying upon the lowest local conservation laws the concise form of the system is given and its selfconsistent symmetric parametrization in terms of four independent field variables is found. The comprehensive analysis of quartic dispersion equation for the system low-amplitude excitations is made. The criteria distinguishing the domains of stability and instability of low-amplitude excitations are formulated and a collection of qualitatively distinct realizations of a dispersion law are graphically presented. The loop-like structure of a low-amplitude dispersion law of reduced system emerging within certain windows of adjustable coupling parameter turns out to resemble the loop-like structure of a dispersion law typical of beam-plasma oscillations. Basing on the peculiarities of low-amplitude dispersion law as the function of adjustable coupling parameter it is possible to predict the windows of spontaneous symmetry breaking even without an explicit knowledge of the system Lagrangian function. Having been rewritten in terms of properly chosen modified field variables the reduced four wave integrable system can be qualified as consisting of two coupled nonlinear lattice subsystems, namely the self-dual ladder network and the vibrational ones

  8. Leptonic CP violation theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, C.

    2017-01-01

    I summarize the status of theoretical predictions for the yet to be measured leptonic CP phases, the Dirac phase δ and the two Majorana phases α and β. I discuss different approaches based on: (a) a flavor symmetry without and with corrections, (b) different types of sum rules and (c) flavor and CP...... symmetries. I show their predictive power with examples. In addition, I present scenarios in which low and high energy CP phases are connected so that predictions for the CP phases α, β and δ become correlated to the sign of the baryon asymmetry YB of the Universe that is generated via leptogenesis....

  9. Planck-scale physics and solutions to the strong CP-problem without axion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, Z.G.; Mohapatra, R.N.; Senjanovic, G.

    1992-12-01

    We analyse the impact of quantum gravity on the possible solutions to the strong CP problem which utilize the spontaneously broken discrete symmetries, such as parity and time reversal invariance. We find that the stability of the solution under Planck scale effects provides an upper limit on the scale Λ of relevant symmetry breaking. This result is mode dependent and the bound is most restrictive for the seesaw type models of fermion masses, with Λ 6 GeV. (author). 32 refs

  10. Spontaneous continum symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some recent results on the Goldstone's theories and Coleman's theorem in the framework of Classical or Quantum Statistical Mechanics of discrete systems in lattice or in continum are related. (L.C.) [pt

  11. P stabilizes dark matter and with CP can predict leptonic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchimanchi, Ravi

    2014-02-15

    We find that spontaneously broken parity (P) or left-right symmetry stabilizes darkmatter in a beautiful way. If dark matter has a non-real intrinsic parity ±i (e.g. if it entails Majorana fermions), parity can ensure that it cannot decay to all normal particles with real intrinsic parities. However, if Majorana couplings are absent either in the lepton or the dark sector, P symmetry can be redefined to remove relative non-real intrinsic phases. It is therefore predicted that neutrinos and dark matter fermions must have Majorana masses if dark matter is stable due to parity. The strong CP problem is solved by additionally imposing CP and including vectorlike fermions that help generate CP violation. If leptonlike heavy fermions are provided purely imaginary intrinsic parity phase, they do not couple to the usual leptons, and leptonic CP phases are not generated, which is a testable prediction. Experimentally if leptonic CP phases are not found (if they are consistent with 0 or π) it can be evidence for the type of models in this work where CP is spontaneously or softly broken and there is also a second hidden or softly broken symmetry such as P, Z{sub 2} or Z{sub 4}. However, leptonic CP violation can be present in closely related or some nonminimal versions of these models, such as by also including vectorlike leptons with real intrinsic parities. (orig.)

  12. Broken symmetries at high temperatures and the problem of baryon excess of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Rabindra N

    1979-01-01

    We discuss a class of gauge theories, where spontan- eously broken symmetries, instead of being restored, persist as the temperature is increased. Applying these ideas to the specific case of the soft CP- viola tion in grand unified theories, we discuss a mechanism to generate the baryon to entropy ratio of the universe.

  13. Spontaneous violation of chiral symmetry in QCD vacuum is the origin of baryon masses and determines baryon magnetic moments and their other static properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B. L.

    2009-01-01

    A short review is presented of the spontaneous violation of chiral symmetry in QCD vacuum. It is demonstrated that this phenomenon is the origin of baryon masses in QCD. The value of nucleon mass is calculated, as well as the masses of hyperons and some baryonic resonances, and expressed mainly through the values of quark condensates - , q = u, d, s,-the vacuum expectation values (v.e.v.) of quark field. The concept of v.e.v. induced by external fields is introduced. It is demonstrated that such v.e.v. induced by static electromagnetic field results in quark condensate magnetic susceptibility, which plays the main role in determination of baryon magnetic moments. The magnetic moments of proton, neutron, and hyperons are calculated. The results of calculation of baryon octet β-decay constants are also presented.

  14. Study of CP(N-1) theta-vacua by cluster simulation of SU(N) quantum spin ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, B B; Pepe, M; Riederer, S; Wiese, U-J

    2005-01-14

    D-theory provides an alternative lattice regularization of the 2D CP(N-1) quantum field theory in which continuous classical fields emerge from the dimensional reduction of discrete SU(N) quantum spins. Spin ladders consisting of n transversely coupled spin chains lead to a CP(N-1) model with a vacuum angle theta=npi. In D-theory no sign problem arises and an efficient cluster algorithm is used to investigate theta-vacuum effects. At theta=pi there is a first order phase transition with spontaneous breaking of charge conjugation symmetry for CP(N-1) models with N>2.

  15. Study of the violation of the T and CP symmetries in the reactions Λb0 → Λ0 + a vector meson. Validation of the Front-end electronics for the PreShower detector of the LHCb experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, E.

    2007-11-01

    This thesis probes the beauty baryon physics in the framework of the LHCb experiment. The present study deals with the Λ b 0 → Λ 0 V decays where V is a vector meson such as J/Ψ(μ + μ - ), φ(K + K - ), ω(π + π - π0) or the ρ 0 - ω 0 (π + π - ) mixing. These processes allow to test independently the CP symmetry, which violation has not been observed yet in the baryonic sector, and the T symmetry, which experimental proofs are limited. Among the possible perspectives, a precise measurement of the Λ b 0 lifetime could contribute to the resolution of the raising theoretical-experimental puzzle. A phenomenological model of the Λ b 0 → Λ 0 V decays has been performed, from which branching ratios and angular distributions have been estimated. An advanced study of the reconstruction and the selection of these reactions by the LHCb apparatus shows that the channel Λ b 0 → Λ 0 J/Ψ is the dominant channel on both statistics and purity aspects. The Λ b 0 lifetime measure is the most imminent result; the constrains on asymmetries due to CP and T violation require several data taking years. Besides, an instrumental work has been achieved on the read-out electronics, called Front-End, of the experiment pre-shower. This contribution takes into account the validation of the prototype boards and the development of tools required by the qualification of the 100 production boards. (author)

  16. Spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, and eventually of parity, in a σ-model with two Mexican hats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacosa, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    A σ-model with two linked Mexican hats is discussed. This scenario could be realized in low-energy QCD when the ground state and the first excited (pseudo)scalar mesons are included, and where not only in the subspace of the ground states, but also in that of the first excited states, a Mexican hat potential is present. This possibility can change some basic features of a low-energy hadronic theory of QCD. It is also shown that spontaneous breaking of parity can occur in the vacuum for some parameter choice of the model. (orig.)

  17. Summary: Symmetries and spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haxton, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    I discuss a number of the themes of the Symmetries and Spin session of the 8th International Symposium on High Energy Spin Physics: parity nonconservation, CP/T nonconservation, and tests of charge symmetry and charge independence. 28 refs., 1 fig

  18. Dynamical relaxation of the CP phases in next-to-minimal supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, D.A.

    1999-11-01

    After promoting the phases of the soft masses to dynamical fields corresponding to Goldstone bosons of spontaneously broken global symmetries in the supersymmetry breaking sector, the next-to-minimal supersymmetric model is found to solve the μ problem and the strong CP problem simultaneously with an invisible axion. The domain wall problem persists in the form of axionic domain formation. Relaxation dynamics of the physical CP-violating phases is determined only by the short-distance physics and their relaxation values are not necessarily close to the CP-conserving points. Consequently, the solution of tile supersymmetric CP problem may require heavy enough superpartners and nonminimal flavor structures, where the latter may be also relevant for avoiding the formation of axionic domain walls. (author)

  19. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  20. Predictions of the spontaneous symmetry-breaking theory for visual code completeness and spatial scaling in single-cell learning rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, C J

    2001-05-01

    This article shows analytically that single-cell learning rules that give rise to oriented and localized receptive fields, when their synaptic weights are randomly and independently initialized according to a plausible assumption of zero prior information, will generate visual codes that are invariant under two-dimensional translations, rotations, and scale magnifications, provided that the statistics of their training images are sufficiently invariant under these transformations. Such codes span different image locations, orientations, and size scales with equal economy. Thus, single-cell rules could account for the spatial scaling property of the cortical simple-cell code. This prediction is tested computationally by training with natural scenes; it is demonstrated that a single-cell learning rule can give rise to simple-cell receptive fields spanning the full range of orientations, image locations, and spatial frequencies (except at the extreme high and low frequencies at which the scale invariance of the statistics of digitally sampled images must ultimately break down, because of the image boundary and the finite pixel resolution). Thus, no constraint on completeness, or any other coupling between cells, is necessary to induce the visual code to span wide ranges of locations, orientations, and size scales. This prediction is made using the theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which we have previously shown can also explain the data-driven self-organization of a wide variety of transformation invariances in neurons' responses, such as the translation invariance of complex cell response.

  1. Methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island distinguishes spontaneous and plutonium-induced tumors from nitrosamine-induced lung tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinsky, S.A.; Baylin, S.B.; Issa, J.J. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01

    CpG islands located in the promoter region of genes constitute one mechanism for regulating transcription. These islands are normally free of methylation, regardless of the expression state of the gene. Hypermethylation of CpG islands, the addition of a methyl group to the internal cytosine within CpG dinucleotides, can cause silencing of a gene. Hypermethylation has been detected as an early event at specific chromosome loci during the development of colon cancer and represents one mechanism used by neoplatic cells to inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Recent studies have demonstrated this mechanism in inactivation of the VHL tumor suppressor gene in 19% of sporadic renal tumors and the p16 {sup INK4a} tumor suppressor gene in 30% of non-small cell lung cancers. A recent report indicates that the estrogen receptor gene could also be inactivated through methylation. In addition, estrogen receptor CpG island methylation arises as a direct function of age in normal colonic mucosa and is present in virtually all colonic tumors. In cultured colon cancer cells, methylation-associated loss of expression of the estrogen receptor gene results in deregulated growth, suggesting a role for the estrogen receptor in colon cancer development. These results provide further evidence that gene silencing through methylation could be a predominant epigenetic mechanism underlying the development of many different types of cancer. The purpose of the current investigation was to determine whether estrogen receptor CpG island methylation is involved in the development of lung cancer. The frequency for methylation of the estrogen receptor CpG island in rodent lung tumors is summarized.

  2. CP violating scalar Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Cid, A.; Hernández-Sánchez, J.; Keus, V.; King, S. F.; Moretti, S.; Rojas, D.; Sokołowska, D.

    2016-12-01

    We study an extension of the Standard Model (SM) in which two copies of the SM scalar SU(2) doublet which do not acquire a Vacuum Expectation Value (VEV), and hence are inert, are added to the scalar sector. We allow for CP-violation in the inert sector, where the lightest inert state is protected from decaying to SM particles through the conservation of a Z 2 symmetry. The lightest neutral particle from the inert sector, which has a mixed CP-charge due to CP-violation, is hence a Dark Matter (DM) candidate. We discuss the new regions of DM relic density opened up by CP-violation, and compare our results to the CP-conserving limit and the Inert Doublet Model (IDM). We constrain the parameter space of the CP-violating model using recent results from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and DM direct and indirect detection experiments.

  3. Constraints on a very light CP-odd Higgs of the NMSSM and other axion-like particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreas, Sarah; Lebedev, Oleg; Ramos-Sanchez, Saul; Ringwald, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    In the NMSSM, a light CP-odd Higgs arises due to spontaneous breaking of approximate symmetries such as Peccei-Quinn or R-symmetry and is motivated by string theory. The case when it is heavier than two muons is well studied and constrained. We analyze various meson decay, g-2, beam dump and reactor bounds on the CP-odd Higgs with mass below the muon threshold, in particular, addressing the question how light a CP-odd Higgs can be. We nd that it has to be heavier than 210 MeV or have couplings to fermions 4 orders of magnitude below those of the Standard Model Higgs. Our analysis applies more generally to couplings of a light pseudoscalar to matter. (orig.)

  4. Broken symmetries at high temperatures and the problem of baryon excess of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.; Senjanovic, G.

    1979-06-01

    A class of gauge theories, where spontaneously broken symmetries, instead of being restored, persist as the temperature is increased is discussed. A renormalization group analysis of this phenomena suggests that there may be more than one phase transition in these models with at least one symmetric phase. Applying these ideas to the specific case of soft CP-violation in grand unified theories, a mechanism to generate the baryon to entropy ratio of the universe is discussed. 34 references

  5. Symmetry, Symmetry Breaking and Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Sen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The ground state of a system with symmetry can be described by a group G. This symmetry group G can be discrete or continuous. Thus for a crystal G is a finite group while for the vacuum state of a grand unified theory G is a continuous Lie group. The ground state symmetry described by G can change spontaneously from G to one of its subgroups H as the external parameters of the system are modified. Such a macroscopic change of the ground state symmetry of a system from G to H correspond to a “phase transition”. Such phase transitions have been extensively studied within a framework due to Landau. A vast range of systems can be described using Landau’s approach, however there are also systems where the framework does not work. Recently there has been growing interest in looking at such non-Landau type of phase transitions. For instance there are several “quantum phase transitions” that are not of the Landau type. In this short review we first describe a refined version of Landau’s approach in which topological ideas are used together with group theory. The combined use of group theory and topological arguments allows us to determine selection rule which forbid transitions from G to certain of its subgroups. We end by making a few brief remarks about non-Landau type of phase transition.

  6. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  7. Study of CP Symmetry Violation in the Charmonium-K*(892) Channel By a Complete Time Dependent Angular Analysis (BaBar Experiment)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T' Jampens, Stephane; /Orsay

    2006-09-18

    This thesis presents the full-angular time-dependent analysis of the vector-vector channel B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})*{sup 0}. After a review of the CP violation in the B meson system, the phenomenology of the charmonium-K*(892) channels is exposed. The method for the measurement of the transversity amplitudes of the B {yields} J/{psi}K*(892), based on a pseudo-likelihood method, is then exposed. The results from a 81.9 fb{sup -1} of collected data by the BABAR detector at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance peak are |A{sub 0}|{sup 2} = 0.565 {+-} 0.011 {+-} 0.004, |A{sub {parallel}}|{sup 2} = 0.206 {+-} 0.016 {+-} 0.007, |A{sub {perpendicular}}|{sup 2} = 0.228 {+-} 0.016 {+-} 0.007, {delta}{sub {parallel}} = -2.766 {+-} 0.105 {+-} 0.040 and {delta}{sub {perpendicular}} = 2.935 {+-} 0.067 {+-} 0.040. Note that ({delta}{sub {parallel}}, {delta}{sub {perpendicular}}) {yields} (-{delta}{sub {parallel}}, {pi} - {delta}{sub {perpendicular}}) is also a solution. The strong phases {delta}{sub {parallel}} and {delta}{sub {perpendicular}} are at {approx}> 3{sigma} from {+-}{pi}, signing the presence of final state interactions and the breakdown of the factorization hypothesis. The forward-backward analysis of the K{pi} mass spectrum revealed the presence of a coherent S-wave interfering with the K*(892). It is the first evidence of this wave in the K{pi} system coming from a B meson. The particularity of the B{sub d}{sup 0} {yields} J/{psi}(K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0})*{sup 0} channel is to have a time-dependent but also an angular distribution which allows to measure sin 2{beta} but also cos2{beta}. The results from an unbinned maximum likelihood fit are sin 2{beta} = -0.10 {+-} 0.57 {+-} 0.14 and cos 2{beta} = 3.32{sub -0.96}{sup +0.76} {+-} 0.27 with the transversity amplitudes fixed to the values given above. The other solution for the strong phases flips the sign of cos 2{beta}. Theoretical considerations based on the s-quark helicity

  8. CP violation

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    1999-01-01

    In the first two lectures, CP violation in the K system is pedagogically reviewed: its manifestations in the neutral K meson systems, in rare K meson decays and in decays of charged K mesons, and results from classical and current experiments, are discussed. In the third lecture, CP Violation in the B system and the forthcoming experimental tests will be discussed.

  9. CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have just entered a period during which we expect considerable progress toward understanding CP violation. Here we review what we have learnt so far, and what is to be expected in the near future. To do this we cover the foundation of CP violation at a level which can be understood by physicists who are not working ...

  10. CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1995-01-01

    We review the present status of the Standard Model of CP violation, which is based on a complex phase in the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. So far CP violation has been observed only in K 0 -K 0 mixing, consistent with a sizable phase. The implications of future CP nonconserving measusrements in K and B decays are discussed within the model. Direct CP violation in K→2π may be observed in the near future, however this would not be a powerful test of the model. B decays provide a wide variety of CP asymmetry measurements, which can serve as precise tests of the Standard Model in cases where the asymmetry is cleanly related to phases of CKM matrix elements. Some of the most promising cases are discussed. ((orig.))

  11. Symmetries in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, K.

    1988-01-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs

  12. Symmetries in nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainzer, K

    1988-05-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs.

  13. CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-12-01

    Predictions for CP violation in the three generation Standard Model are reviewed based on what is known about the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Application to the K and B meson systems are emphasized. 43 refs., 13 figs

  14. CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    1995-12-01

    In this talk the author briefly reviews the cosmological importance of CP violation and the status of calculations of baryogenisis in the context of the Standard Model. The author then turns to a discussion of Standard Model Predictions for CP violation in B decays, stressing the importance of multiple measurements to overconstrain the model parameters and thus search for indications of beyond-Standard-Model physics

  15. The suggestion about the absence of the phase transition, vacuum degeneration, spontaneous symmetry breaking and zero-mass Goldstone-bosons in QFT models of the type gphi4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zastavenko, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    The usual proof of the phase transition existence in the gphi 4 model is considered. (For M 2 >M 0 2 minimum of the effective potential is at phi(0)=0, for M 2 >M 0 2 this minimum is at phi(0)=+-lambda not equal to 0, lambda→+ infinity at M 2 →- infinity). This proof is shown to be wrong, thus suggesting the absence in the model considered of the phase transition, vacuum degeneration, spontaneous symmetry breaking and zero-mass Goldstone-bosons

  16. B decays and models for CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.

    1996-01-01

    The decay modes B to ππ, ψK S , K - D, πK, and ηK are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP-violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. In this paper I study the consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model. I show that using the same set of measurements, the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: (1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; (2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and (3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  17. CP violating phenomena and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1987-01-01

    An introduction to CP violating phenomena is given and the standard model and its most popular low energy extensions in this context are reviewed. The discussion comprises the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, left-right symmetry, the standard model with more than one Higgs doublet and gauged horizontal symmetries. (Author)

  18. Standard Model CP-violation and baryon asymmetry; 1, zero temperature

    CERN Document Server

    Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Orloff, J; Pène, O

    1994-01-01

    We consider quantum effects in a world with two coexisting symmetry phases, unbroken and spontaneously broken, as a result of a first order phase transition. The discrete symmetries of the problem are discussed in general. We compute the exact two-point Green function for a free fermion, when a thin wall separates the two phases. The Dirac propagator displays both massive and massless poles, and new CP-even phases resulting from the fermion reflection on the wall. We discuss the possible quark-antiquark CP asymmetries produced in the Standard Model(SM) for the academic T=0 case. General arguments indicate that an effect first appears at order \\alpha_W in the reflection amplitude, as the wall acts as a source of momentum and the on-shell one-loop self-energy cannot be renormalized away. The asymmetries stem from the interference of the SM CP-odd couplings and the CP-even phases in the propagator. We perform a toy computation that indicates the type of GIM cancellations of the problem. The behaviour can be expr...

  19. Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    dropdown arrow Site Map A-Z Index Menu Synopsis Val L. Fitch, the CP Violation, and Antimatter Resources ) 'to verify a fundamental tenet of physics, known as CP [charge-parity] symmetry, by showing that two into two pi mesons. Cronin and Fitch had found an example of CP violation. The discovery's

  20. CP violation in the lepton sector and implications for leptogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagedorn, C.; Mohapatra, R. N.; Molinaro, E.

    2018-01-01

    We review the current status of the data on neutrino masses and lepton mixing and the prospects for measuring the CP-violating phases in the lepton sector. The possible connection between low energy CP violation encoded in the Dirac and Majorana phases of the Pontecorvo-Maki-Nakagawa-Sakata mixing...... matrix and successful leptogenesis is emphasized in the context of seesaw extensions of the Standard Model with a flavor symmetry Gf (and CP symmetry)....

  1. CP nonconservation in dynamically broken gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lane, K.

    1981-01-01

    The recent proposal of Eichten, Lane, and Preskill for CP nonconservation in electroweak gauge theories with dynamical symmetry breaking is reviewed. Through the alignment of the vacuum with the explicit chiral symmetry breaking Hamiltonian, these theories provide a natural way to understand the dynamical origin of CP nonconservation. Special attention is paid to the problem of strong CP violation. Even through all vacuum angles are zero, this problem is not automatically avoided. In the absence of strong CP violation, the neutron electric dipole moment is expected to be 10 -24 -10 -26 e-cm. A new class of models is proposed in which both strong CP violation and large /ΔS/ = 2 effects may be avoided. In these models, /ΔC/ = 2 processes such as D/sup o/ D/sup -o/ mixing may be large enough to observe

  2. Symmetry and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)

  3. At the origins of mass: elementary particles and fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliopoulos, Jean; Englert, Francois

    2015-01-01

    After a brief recall of the history of cosmology, the author proposes an overview of the different symmetries (symmetries in space and in time, internal symmetries, local or gauge symmetries), describes the mass issue (gauge interactions, quarks and leptons as matter mass constituents, chirality), addresses the spontaneous symmetry breaking (the Curie theorem, spontaneous symmetry breaking in classical physics and in quantum physics, the Goldstone theorem, spontaneous symmetry breaking in presence of gauge interactions), presents the standard theory (electromagnetic and weak interactions, strong interactions, relationship with experiment). An appendix presents elementary particles, and notably reports the story of the neutrino

  4. Neutrino masses and family symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinstein, B.; Preskill, J.; Wise, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Neutrino masses in the 100 eV-1 MeV range are permitted if there is a spontaneously broken global family symmetry that allows the heavy neutrinos to decay by Goldstone boson emission with a cosmologically acceptable lifetime. The family symmetry may be either abelian or nonabelian; we present models illustrating both possibilities. If the family symmetry is nonabelian, then the decay tau -> μ + Goldstone boson or tau -> e + Goldstone may have an observable rate. (orig.)

  5. ANNIVERSARY: 25 years without CP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-01-01

    In 1964 a small group of Princeton University physicists led by Jim Cronin and Val Fitch performed a landmark experiment at Brookhaven. Using a double-arm spectrometer, they showed that long-lived neutral kaons occasionally decayed into a pair of pions - violating the hitherto sacrosanct CP symmetry of combined mirror reflection and particle-antiparticle switching. From May 21-26 scientists gathered at the Chateau de Blois, southwest of Paris, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of this achievement

  6. ANNIVERSARY: 25 years without CP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riordan, Michael

    1989-07-15

    In 1964 a small group of Princeton University physicists led by Jim Cronin and Val Fitch performed a landmark experiment at Brookhaven. Using a double-arm spectrometer, they showed that long-lived neutral kaons occasionally decayed into a pair of pions - violating the hitherto sacrosanct CP symmetry of combined mirror reflection and particle-antiparticle switching. From May 21-26 scientists gathered at the Chateau de Blois, southwest of Paris, to celebrate the 25th anniversary of this achievement.

  7. Cosmological CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    1994-01-01

    Spinor fields are studied in infinite, topologically multiply connected Robertson-Walker cosmologies. Unitary spinor representations for the discrete covering groups of the spacelike slices are constructed. The spectral resolution of Dirac's equation is given in terms of horospherical elementary waves, on which the treatment of spin and energy is based in these cosmologies. The meaning of the energy and the particle-antiparticle concept is explained in the context of this varying cosmic background. Discrete symmetries, in particular inversions of the multiply connected spacelike slices, are studied. The violation of the unitarity of the parity operator, due to self-interference of P-reflected wave packets, is discussed. The violation of the CP and CPT invariance - already on the level of the free Dirac equation on this cosmological background - is pointed out.

  8. B decays and models for CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Xiao Gang

    1995-12-01

    The decay modes B to π π,υK S , K - D, πK and ηK are promising channels to study the unitarity triangle of the CP violating Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix. The consequences of these measurements in the Weinberg model are discussed. It is shown that measurements of CP violation in B decay can be used to distinguish Standard Model from Weinberg model and that the following different mechanisms for CP violation can be distinguished: 1) CP is violated in the CKM sector only; 2) CP is violated spontaneously in the Higgs sector only; and 3) CP is violated in both the CKM and Higgs sectors. 27 refs., 4 figs

  9. Killing symmetries in neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Racz, A.

    1992-10-01

    Although inside the reactor zone there is no exact continuous spatial symmetry, in certain configurations neutron flux distribution is close to a symmetrical one. In such cases the symmetrical solution could provide a good starting point to determine the non-symmetrical power distribution. All possible symmetries are determined in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space, and the form of the transport equation is discussed in such a coordinate system which is adapted to the particular symmetry. Possible spontaneous symmetry breakings are pointed out. (author) 6 refs

  10. Strong CP, flavor, and twisted split fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harnik, Roni; Perez, Gilad; Schwartz, Matthew D.; Shirman, Yuri

    2005-01-01

    We present a natural solution to the strong CP problem in the context of split fermions. By assuming CP is spontaneously broken in the bulk, a weak CKM phase is created in the standard model due to a twisting in flavor space of the bulk fermion wavefunctions. But the strong CP phase remains zero, being essentially protected by parity in the bulk and CP on the branes. As always in models of spontaneous CP breaking, radiative corrections to theta bar from the standard model are tiny, but even higher dimension operators are not that dangerous. The twisting phenomenon was recently shown to be generic, and not to interfere with the way that split fermions naturally weaves small numbers into the standard model. It follows that out approach to strong CP is compatible with flavor, and we sketch a comprehensive model. We also look at deconstructed version of this setup which provides a viable 4D model of spontaneous CP breaking which is not in the Nelson-Barr class. (author)

  11. A possible explanation of the CP puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takhtamyshev, Georgij

    1996-03-01

    The problem of mirror-reflection symmetry (MRS) and time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in our world is discussed. The opinion is expressed, that well-known experiments on parity violation and CP-violation can be treated as signals of some new, yet unknown, level of matter. An hypothesis, which can be used as a base for some future model or theory is formulated. In the framework of this hypothesis, experiments will demonstrate parity violation or CP-violation do not contradict MRS or TRS conservation. (author). 14 refs

  12. Lectures of David Olive on gauge theories and Lie algebras with some applications to spontaneous symmetry breaking and integrable dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Turok, Neil

    2018-01-01

    Professor David Olive was a renowned British theoretical physicist who made seminal contributions to superstrings, quantum gauge theories and mathematical physics. He was awarded the Dirac Medal by the International Centre for Theoretical Physics in Trieste in 1997, with his long-standing collaborator Peter Goddard. David Olive was a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Founding Fellow of the Learned Society of Wales. David Olive was known for his visionary conjectures, including electromagnetic duality in spontaneously broken gauge theories, as well as his exceptionally clear and insightful style of exposition. These lectures, delivered by David Olive in 1982 at the University of Virginia, provide a pedagogical, self-contained introduction to gauge theory, Lie algebras, electromagnetic duality and integrable models. Despite enormous subsequent developments, they still provide a valuable entry point to some of the deepest topics in quantum gauge theory.

  13. Generalized permutation symmetry and the flavour problem in SU(2)sub(L)xU(1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1984-01-01

    A generalized permutation group is introduced as a possible horizontal symmetry for SU(2)sub(L)xU(1) gauge theories. It leads to the unique two generation quark mass matrices with a correct prediction for the Cabibbo angle. For three generations the model exhibits spontaneous CP violation, correlates the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing parameters s 1 and s 3 and predicts an upper bound for the running top quark mass of approximately 45 GeV. The hierarchy of generations is due to a hierarchy of vacuum expectation values rather than of Yukawa coupling constants. (orig.)

  14. Theory prospective on leptonic CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcov, S.T.

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenology of 3-neutrino mixing, the current status of our knowledge about the 3-neutrino mixing parameters, including the absolute neutrino mass scale, and of the Dirac and Majorana CP violation in the lepton sector are reviewed. The problems of CP violation in neutrino oscillations and of determining the nature – Dirac or Majorana – of massive neutrinos are discussed. The seesaw mechanism of neutrino mass generation and the related leptogenesis scenario of generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe are considered. The results showing that the CP violation necessary for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe in leptogenesis can be due exclusively to the Dirac and/or Majorana CP-violating phase(s) in the neutrino mixing matrix U are briefly reviewed. The discrete symmetry approach to understanding the observed pattern of neutrino mixing and the related predictions for the leptonic Dirac CP violation are also reviewed.

  15. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  16. Spontaneously broken abelian gauge invariant supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    A model is presented that is invariant under an Abelian gauge transformation and a modified supersymmetry transformation. This model is broken spontaneously, and the interplay between symmetry breaking, Goldstone particles, and mass breaking is studied. In the present model, spontaneously breaking the Abelian symmetry of the vacuum restores the invariance of the vacuum under a modified supersymmetry transformation. (U.S.)

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, L. H.

    2005-11-01

    One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would

  18. On the character of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusijnin, V.P.; Kushnir, V.A.; Miransky, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories is discussed. It is shown that the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry in gauge theories is incompatible with the PCAAC dynamics. 12 refs

  19. CP violation experiment at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiung, Yee B.

    1990-07-01

    The E731 experiment at Fermilab has searched for ''direct'' CP violation in K 0 → ππ, which is parametrized by var-epsilon '/var-epsilon. For the first time, in 20% of the data set, all four modes of the K L,S → π + π - (π 0 π 0 ) were collected simultaneously, providing a great check on the systematic uncertainty. The result is Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) = -0.0004 ± 0.0014 (stat) ± 0.0006(syst), which provides no evidence for ''direct'' CP violation. The CPT symmetry has also been tested by measuring the phase difference Δφ = φ 00 - φ ± between the two CP violating parameters η 00 and η ± . We fine Δφ = -0.3 degrees ± 2.4 degree(stat) ± 1.2 degree(syst). Using this together with the world average φ ± , we fine that the phase of the K 0 -bar K 0 mixing parameter var-epsilon is 44.5 degree ± 1.5 degree. Both of these results agree well with the predictions of CPT symmetry. 17 refs., 10 figs

  20. CP Violation and B Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Helen R

    2001-01-01

    These lectures provide a basic overview of topics related to the study of CP Violation in B decays. In the first lecture, I review the basics of discrete symmetries in field theories, the quantum mechanics of neutral but flavor-non-trivial mesons, and the classification of three types of CP violation [1]. The actual second lecture which I gave will be separately published as it is my Dirac award lecture and is focused on the separate topic of strong CP Violation. In Lecture 2 here, I cover the Standard Model predictions for neutral B decays, and in particular discuss some channels of interest for CP Violation studies. Lecture 3 reviews the various tools and techniques used to deal with the hadronic physics effects. In Lecture 4, I briefly review the present and planned experiments that can study B decays. I cannot teach all the details of this subject in this short course, so my approach is instead to try to give students a grasp of the relevant concepts and an overview of the available tools. The level of these lectures is introductory. I will provide some references to more detailed treatments and current literature, but this is not a review article so I do not attempt to give complete references to all related literature. By now there are some excellent textbooks that cover this subject in great detail [1]. I refer students to these for more details and for more complete references to the original literature

  1. B physics and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.

    2002-01-01

    These lectures provide a basic overview of topics related to the study of CP Violation in B decays. In the first lecture, I review the basics of discrete symmetries in field theories, the quantum mechanics of neutral but flavor-non-trivial mesons, and the classification of three types of CP violation. The actual second lecture which I gave will be separately published as it is my Dirac award lecture and is focussed on the separate topic of strong CP Violation. In Lecture 2 here, I cover the Standard Model predictions for neutral B decays, and in particular discuss some channels of interest for CP Violation studies. Lecture 3 reviews the various tools and techniques used to deal with the hadronic physics effects. In Lecture 4, I briefly review the present and planned experiments that can study B decays. I cannot teach all the details of this subject in this short course, so my approach is instead to try to give students a grasp of the relevant concepts and an overview of the available tools. The level of these lectures is introductory. I will provide some references to more detailed treatments and current literature, but this is not a review article so I do not attempt to give complete references to all related literature. By now there are some excellent textbooks that cover this subject in great detail. I refer students to these for more details and for more complete references to the original literature. (author)

  2. Quark Yukawa pattern from spontaneous breaking of flavour SU(3) 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Enrico

    2015-10-01

    A SU(3)Q × SU(3)u × SU(3)d invariant scalar potential breaking spontaneously the quark flavour symmetry can explain the Standard Model flavour puzzle. The approximate alignment in flavour space of the vacuum expectation values of the up and down 'Yukawa fields' results as a dynamical effect. The observed quark mixing angles, the weak CP violating phase, and hierarchical quark masses can be all reproduced at the cost of introducing additional (auxiliary) scalar multiplets, but without the need of introducing hierarchical parameters.

  3. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-12-02

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry is discovered which solves the {mu}-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z{sup R}{sub 4} is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z{sup R}{sub 4} symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  4. Discrete symmetries in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieren, Roland

    2010-01-01

    The use of discrete symmetries, especially abelian ones, in physics beyond the standard model of particle physics is discussed. A method is developed how a general, abelian, discrete symmetry can be obtained via spontaneous symmetry breaking. In addition, anomalies are treated in the path integral approach with special attention to anomaly cancellation via the Green-Schwarz mechanism. All this is applied to the minimal supersymmetric standard model. A unique Z R 4 symmetry is discovered which solves the μ-problem as well as problems with proton decay and allows to embed the standard model gauge group into a simple group, i.e. the Z R 4 is compatible with grand unification. Also the flavor problem in the context of minimal flavor violation is addressed. Finally, a string theory model is presented which exhibits the mentioned Z R 4 symmetry and other desirable features. (orig.)

  5. Global U(1 ) Y⊗BRST symmetry and the LSS theorem: Ward-Takahashi identities governing Green's functions, on-shell T -matrix elements, and the effective potential in the scalar sector of the spontaneously broken extended Abelian Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Bryan W.; Starkman, Glenn D.

    2017-09-01

    The weak-scale U (1 )Y Abelian Higgs model (AHM) is the simplest spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) gauge theory: a scalar ϕ =1/√{2 }(H +i π )≡1/√{2 }H ˜ei π ˜/⟨H ⟩ and a vector Aμ. The extended AHM (E-AHM) adds certain heavy (MΦ2,Mψ2˜MHeavy2≫⟨H ⟩2˜mWeak2 ) spin S =0 scalars Φ and S =1/2 fermions ψ . In Lorenz gauge, ∂μAμ=0 , the SSB AHM (and E-AHM) has a global U (1 )Y conserved physical current, but no conserved charge. As shown by T. W. B. Kibble, the Goldstone theorem applies, so π ˜ is a massless derivatively coupled Nambu-Goldstone boson (NGB). Proof of all-loop-orders renormalizability and unitarity for the SSB case is tricky because the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST)-invariant Lagrangian is not U (1 )Y symmetric. Nevertheless, Slavnov-Taylor identities guarantee that on-shell T-matrix elements of physical states Aμ,ϕ , Φ , ψ (but not ghosts ω , η ¯ ) are independent of anomaly-free local U (1 )Y gauge transformations. We observe here that they are therefore also independent of the usual anomaly-free U (1 )Y global/rigid transformations. It follows that the associated global current, which is classically conserved only up to gauge-fixing terms, is exactly conserved for amplitudes of physical states in the AHM and E-AHM. We identify corresponding "undeformed" [i.e. with full global U (1 )Y symmetry] Ward-Takahashi identities (WTI). The proof of renormalizability and unitarity, which relies on BRST invariance, is undisturbed. In Lorenz gauge, two towers of "1-soft-pion" SSB global WTI govern the ϕ -sector, and represent a new global U (1 )Y⊗BRST symmetry not of the Lagrangian but of the physics. The first gives relations among off-shell Green's functions, yielding powerful constraints on the all-loop-orders ϕ -sector SSB E-AHM low-energy effective Lagrangian and an additional global shift symmetry for the NGB: π ˜→π ˜+⟨H ⟩θ . A second tower, governing on-shell T-matrix elements, replaces the old Adler

  6. Problems of CP-violation in early unification theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liparteliani, A.G.; Monich, V.A.; Volkov, G.G.

    1985-01-01

    The present work studies possible mechanisms of P and CP-violation in the frames of an approach based on early unification of fundamental local symmetries, i.e., Pati-Salam four-colour symmetry, extended weak isotopic symmetry and that of quark-lepton generations. The work also studies the influence of generations mixing on the rates of rare processes in each of 3 classes of interactions

  7. Experimental prospects for C, P, T, CP, and CPT tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Discrete symmetry violation in the weak interaction is central to the Standard Model of particle physics, however the origin of these violations is not well understood. Nor are we able to provide a satisfactory explanation of the Universal dominance of matter over antimatter, an issue related to CP violation. As a result study of discrete symmetry violation remains a topic of broad interest. These proceedings discuss experimental prospects of studying C, P, T, CP and CPT symmetries in a number of contexts, including the use of triple product asymmetries and entangled neutral meson systems. (paper)

  8. Solution of the strong CP problem by color exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.M.; Zee, A.

    1985-08-01

    We present a new way to solve the strong CP problem in models with a spontaneously broken CP invariance. It is simpler than existing non-Peccei-Quinn approaches. It predicts the existence of light (i.e. weak scale) colored Higgs bosons which could be seen in colliders. 25 refs., 3 figs

  9. CP violation outside the standard model phenomenology for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    So far the only experimental evidence for CP violation is the 1964 discovery of K L →2π where the two mass eigenstates produced by neutral meson mixing both decay into the same CP eigenstate. This result is described by two parameters ε and ε'. Today ε ∼ its 1964 value, ε' data are still inconclusive and there is no new evidence for CP violation. One might expect to observe similar phenomena in other systems and also direct CP violation as charge asymmetries between decays of charge conjugate hadrons H ± → f ± . Why is it so hard to find CP violation? How can B Physics help? Does CP lead beyond the standard model? The author presents a pedestrian symmetry approach which exhibits the difficulties and future possibilities of these two types of CP-violation experiments, neutral meson mixing and direct charge asymmetry: what may work, what doesn't work and why

  10. Symmetry breaking in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potting, R.

    1998-01-01

    A mechanism for a spontaneous breakdown of CPT symmetry appears in string theory, with possible implications for particle models. A realistic string theory might exhibit CPT violation at levels detectable in current or future experiments. A possible new mechanism for baryogenesis in the early Universe is also discussed

  11. Symmetry witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2017-07-01

    A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.

  12. Effective lagrangian description on discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banks, T.

    1989-01-01

    We exhibit a simple low-energy lagrangian which describes a system with a discrete remnant of a spontaneously broken continuous gauge symmetry. The lagrangian gives a simple description of the effects ascribed to such systems by Krauss and Wilczek: black holes carry discrete hair and interact with cosmic strings, and wormholes cannot lead to violation of discrete gauge symmetries. (orig.)

  13. Pauli-Guersey symmetry in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.

    1983-05-01

    Gauge theories with massless or massive fermions in a selfcontragredient representation exhibit global symmetries of Pauli-Guersey type. Some of them are broken spontaneously leading to a difermion Goldstone bosons. An example of a boson version of the Pauli-Guersey symmetry is provided by the Weinberg-Salam model in the limit THETAsub(w)→O

  14. Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.) [pt

  15. Right unitarity triangles and tri-bimaximal mixing from discrete symmetries and unification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antusch, S.; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph; Spinrath, M.

    2011-01-01

    We propose new classes of models which predict both tri-bimaximal lepton mixing and a right-angled Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) unitarity triangle, α∼90 o . The ingredients of the models include a supersymmetric (SUSY) unified gauge group such as SU(5), a discrete family symmetry such as A 4 or S 4 , a shaping symmetry including products of Z 2 and Z 4 groups as well as spontaneous CP violation. We show how the vacuum alignment in such models allows a simple explanation of α∼90 o by a combination of purely real or purely imaginary vacuum expectation values (vevs) of the flavons responsible for family symmetry breaking. This leads to quark mass matrices with 1-3 texture zeros that satisfy the 'phase sum rule' and lepton mass matrices that satisfy the 'lepton mixing sum rule' together with a new prediction that the leptonic CP violating oscillation phase is close to either 0 o , 90 o , 180 o , or 270 o depending on the model, with neutrino masses being purely real (no complex Majorana phases). This leads to the possibility of having right-angled unitarity triangles in both the quark and lepton sectors.

  16. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  17. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, Michele; Weiler, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3) U x SU(3) D which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  18. Flavor and CP invariant composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, Michele [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; INFN, Firenze (Italy); Weiler, Andreas [CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    The flavor protection in composite Higgs models with partial compositeness is known to be insufficient. We explore the possibility to alleviate the tension with CP odd observables by assuming that flavor or CP are symmetries of the composite sector, broken by the coupling to Standard Model fields. One realization is that the composite sector has a flavor symmetry SU(3) or SU(3){sub U} x SU(3){sub D} which allows us to realize Minimal Flavor Violation. We show how to avoid the previously problematic tension between a flavor symmetric composite sector and electro-weak precision tests. Some of the light quarks are substantially or even fully composite with striking signals at the LHC. We discuss the constraints from recent dijet mass measurements and give an outlook on the discovery potential. We also present a different protection mechanism where we separate the generation of flavor hierarchies and the origin of CP violation. This can eliminate or safely reduce unwanted CP violating effects, realizing effectively ''Minimal CP Violation'' and is compatible with a dynamical generation of flavor at low scales. (orig.)

  19. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  20. Gauge symmetry breaking in gauge theories -- in search of clarification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friederich, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries in gauge theories from a philosophical angle, taking into account the fact that the notion of a spontaneously broken local gauge symmetry, though widely employed in textbook expositions of the Higgs mechanism, is not supported by

  1. Giant CP stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loden, L.O.; Sundman, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study is part of an investigation of the possibility of using chemically peculiar (CP) stars to map local galactic structure. Correct luminosities of these stars are therefore crucial. CP stars are generally regarded as main-sequence or near-main-sequence objects. However, some CP stars have been classified as giants. A selection of stars, classified in literature as CP giants, are compared to normal stars in the same effective temperature interval and to ordinary 'non giant' CP stars. There is no clear confirmation of a higher luminosity for 'CP giants', than for CP stars in general. In addition, CP characteristics seem to be individual properties not repeated in a component star or other cluster members. (author). 50 refs., 5 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José

    2018-01-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.

  3. Dynamics of symmetry breaking in strongly coupled QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1988-10-01

    I review the dynamical structure of strong coupled QED in the quenched planar limit. The symmetry structure of this theory is examined with reference to the nature of both chiral and scale symmetry breaking. The renormalization structure of the strong coupled phase is analysed. The compatibility of spontaneous scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied using effective lagrangian methods. 14 refs., 3 figs

  4. Dynamical study of symmetries: breaking and restauration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, P.

    1986-09-01

    First symmetry breaking (spontaneous) is explained and the physical implication discussed for infinite systems. The relation with phase transitions is indicated. Then the specific aspects of symmetry breaking in finite systems is treated and illustrated in detail for the case of translational invariance with the help of an oversimplified but exactly solvable model. The method of projection (restauration of symmetry) is explained for the static case and also applied to the model. Symmetry breaking in the dynamical case and for instance the notion of a soft mode responsible for the symmetry breaking is discussed in the case of superfluidity and another exactly solvable model is introduced. The Goldstone mode is treated in detail. Some remarks on analogies with the breaking of chiral symmetry are made. Some recent developments in the theory of symmetry restauration are briefly outlined [fr

  5. Methylation-mediated deamination of 5-methylcytosine appears to give rise to mutations causing human inherited disease in CpNpG trinucleotides, as well as in CpG dinucleotides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper David N

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cytosine-guanine (CpG dinucleotide has long been known to be a hotspot for pathological mutation in the human genome. This hypermutability is related to its role as the major site of cytosine methylation with the attendant risk of spontaneous deamination of 5-methylcytosine (5mC to yield thymine. Cytosine methylation, however, also occurs in the context of CpNpG sites in the human genome, an unsurprising finding since the intrinsic symmetry of CpNpG renders it capable of supporting a semi-conservative model of replication of the methylation pattern. Recently, it has become clear that significant DNA methylation occurs in a CpHpG context (where H = A, C or T in a variety of human somatic tissues. If we assume that CpHpG methylation also occurs in the germline, and that 5mC deamination can occur within a CpHpG context, then we might surmise that methylated CpHpG sites could also constitute mutation hotspots causing human genetic disease. To test this postulate, 54,625 missense and nonsense mutations from 2,113 genes causing inherited disease were retrieved from the Human Gene Mutation Database http://www.hgmd.org. Some 18.2 per cent of these pathological lesions were found to be C → T and G → A transitions located in CpG dinucleotides (compatible with a model of methylation-mediated deamination of 5mC, an approximately ten-fold higher proportion than would have been expected by chance alone. The corresponding proportion for the CpHpG trinucleotide was 9.9 per cent, an approximately two-fold higher proportion than would have been expected by chance. We therefore estimate that ~5 per cent of missense/nonsense mutations causing human inherited disease may be attributable to methylation-mediated deamination of 5mC within a CpHpG context.

  6. Invariant approach to CP in unbroken Δ(27

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo C. Branco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The invariant approach is a powerful method for studying CP violation for specific Lagrangians. The method is particularly useful for dealing with discrete family symmetries. We focus on the CP properties of unbroken Δ(27 invariant Lagrangians with Yukawa-like terms, which proves to be a rich framework, with distinct aspects of CP, making it an ideal group to investigate with the invariant approach. We classify Lagrangians depending on the number of fields transforming as irreducible triplet representations of Δ(27. For each case, we construct CP-odd weak basis invariants and use them to discuss the respective CP properties. We find that CP violation is sensitive to the number and type of Δ(27 representations.

  7. Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied

  8. CP violation in B decay

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    We review the physics of CP violation in B decays. After introducing the CKM matrix and how it causes CP violation, we cover three types of CP violation that can occur in B decays: CP violation in mixing, CP violation by mixing-decay interference, and CP violation in decay.

  9. Symmetry behavior of the effective gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    The restoration of spontaneously broken CP invariance is investigated by using the effective QED lagrangian obtained from the standard SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory with two Higgs doublets. It is shown that the large electromagnetic field may restore CP invariance by changing the relative phase angle of Higgs vacuum expectation values even before one of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets disappears. Further large magnetic field may lead to the fine structure constant with discontinuous behavior. (orig.)

  10. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, I.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy); Merlo, L. [Instituto de Física Teórica, IFT-UAM/CSIC, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Rigolin, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padua (Italy)

    2016-04-04

    In Alonso et al., http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2014)034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak-θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2)×U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  11. arXiv Global $SU(2)_L \\otimes$BRST symmetry and its LSS theorem: Ward-Takahashi identities governing Green's functions, on-shell T-Matrix elements, and $V_{eff}$, in the scalar-sector of certain spontaneously broken non-Abelian gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, Özenç; Starkman, Glenn D.; Stora, Raymond

    This work is dedicated to the memory of Raymond Stora (1930-2015). $SU(2)_L$ is the simplest spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB) non-Abelian gauge theory: a complex scalar doublet $\\phi=\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{2}}\\begin{bmatrix}H+i\\pi_3-\\pi_2 +i\\pi_1\\end{bmatrix}\\equiv\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{2}}\\tilde{H}e^{2i\\tilde{t}\\cdot\\tilde{\\vec{\\pi}}/}\\begin{bmatrix}10\\end{bmatrix}$ and a vector $\\vec{W}^\\mu$. In Landau gauge, $\\vec{W}^\\mu$ is transverse, $\\vec{\\tilde{\\pi}}$ are massless derivatively coupled Nambu-Goldstone bosons (NGB). A global shift symmetry enforces $m^{2}_{\\tilde{\\pi}}=0$. We observe that on-shell T-matrix elements of physical states $\\vec{W}^\\mu$,$\\phi$ are independent of global $SU(2)_{L}$ transformations, and the associated global current is exactly conserved for amplitudes of physical states. We identify two towers of "1-soft-pion" global Ward-Takahashi Identities (WTI), which govern the $\\phi$-sector, and represent a new global symmetry, $SU(2)_L\\otimes$BRST, a symmetry not of the Lagrangian but of the physical...

  12. Classification of finite reparametrization symmetry groups in the three-Higgs-doublet model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Igor P.; Vdovin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Symmetries play a crucial role in electroweak symmetry breaking models with non-minimal Higgs content. Within each class of these models, it is desirable to know which symmetry groups can be implemented via the scalar sector. In N-Higgs-doublet models, this classification problem was solved only for N=2 doublets. Very recently, we suggested a method to classify all realizable finite symmetry groups of Higgs-family transformations in the three-Higgs-doublet model (3HDM). Here, we present this classification in all detail together with an introduction to the theory of solvable groups, which play the key role in our derivation. We also consider generalized-CP symmetries, and discuss the interplay between Higgs-family symmetries and CP-conservation. In particular, we prove that presence of the Z 4 symmetry guarantees the explicit CP-conservation of the potential. This work completes classification of finite reparametrization symmetry groups in 3HDM. (orig.)

  13. Type I Interferon Signaling Is Required for CpG-Oligodesoxynucleotide-Induced Control of Leishmania major, but Not for Spontaneous Cure of Subcutaneous Primary or Secondary L. major Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Schleicher

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously showed that in mice infected with Leishmania major type I interferons (IFNs initiate the innate immune response to the parasite at day 1 and 2 of infection. Here, we investigated which type I IFN subtypes are expressed during the first 8 weeks of L. major infection and whether type I IFNs are essential for a protective immune response and clinical cure of the disease. In self-healing C57BL/6 mice infected with a high dose of L. major, IFN-α4, IFN-α5, IFN-α11, IFN-α13, and IFN-β mRNA were most prominently regulated during the course of infection. In C57BL/6 mice deficient for IFN-β or the IFN-α/β-receptor chain 1 (IFNAR1, development of skin lesions and parasite loads in skin, draining lymph node, and spleen was indistinguishable from wild-type (WT mice. In line with the clinical findings, C57BL/6 IFN-β−/−, IFNAR1−/−, and WT mice exhibited similar mRNA expression levels of IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-4, IL-12, IL-13, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and arginase 1 during the acute and late phase of the infection. Also, myeloid dendritic cells from WT and IFNAR1−/− mice produced comparable amounts of IL-12p40/p70 protein upon exposure to L. major in vitro. In non-healing BALB/c WT mice, the mRNAs of IFN-α subtypes (α2, α4, α5, α6, and α9 were rapidly induced after high-dose L. major infection. However, genetic deletion of IFNAR1 or IFN-β did not alter the progressive course of infection seen in WT BALB/c mice. Finally, we tested whether type I IFNs and/or IL-12 are required for the prophylactic effect of CpG-oligodesoxynucleotides (ODN in BALB/c mice. Local and systemic administration of CpG-ODN 1668 protected WT and IFN-β−/− mice equally well from progressive leishmaniasis. By contrast, the protective effect of CpG-ODN 1668 was lost in BALB/c IFNAR1−/− (despite a sustained suppression of IL-4 and in BALB/c IL-12p35−/− mice. From these data, we conclude that IFN-β and IFNAR1 signaling are

  14. Phenomenology of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, G.

    1987-01-01

    A short survey of the theoretical status of CP violation is presented. The Standart Model is confronted with the present experimental situation. Possible future tests of our notions of CP violation are discussed, concentrating on rare K decays. Other promising reactions such as B decays are briefly reviewed. Among alternative models of CP violation, multi-Higgs extensions of the Standart Model, left-right symmetric gauge theories and minimal SUSY models are discussed. Finally, the relevance of generalized CP invariance is emphasized. 64 refs., 7 figs. (Author)

  15. Is CP violation maximal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronau, M.

    1984-01-01

    Two ambiguities are noted in the definition of the concept of maximal CP violation. The phase convention ambiguity is overcome by introducing a CP violating phase in the quark mixing matrix U which is invariant under rephasing transformations. The second ambiguity, related to the parametrization of U, is resolved by finding a single empirically viable definition of maximal CP violation when assuming that U does not single out one generation. Considerable improvement in the calculation of nonleptonic weak amplitudes is required to test the conjecture of maximal CP violation. 21 references

  16. Symmetries of Ginsparg-Wilson chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandula, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    The group structure of the variant chiral symmetry discovered by Luescher in the Ginsparg-Wilson description of lattice chiral fermions is analyzed. It is shown that the group contains an infinite number of linearly independent symmetry generators, and the Lie algebra is given explicitly. CP is an automorphism of this extended chiral group, and the CP transformation properties of the symmetry generators are found. The group has an infinite-parameter invariant subgroup, and the factor group, whose elements are its cosets, is isomorphic to the continuum chiral symmetry group. Features of the currents associated with these symmetries are discussed, including the fact that some different, noncommuting symmetry generators lead to the same Noether current. These are universal features of lattice chiral fermions based on the Ginsparg-Wilson relation; they occur in the overlap, domain-wall, and perfect-action formulations. In a solvable example, free overlap fermions, these noncanonical elements of lattice chiral symmetry are related to complex energy singularities that violate reflection positivity and impede continuation to Minkowski space.

  17. Universe symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr

  18. Introduction to symmetry-breaking phenomena in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    The notion of broken symmetries started slowly to emerge in the 19th century. The early studies of Pasteur on the parity asymmetry of life, the studies of Curie on piezoelectricity and on the symmetries of effects versus the symmetry of causes ( which clearly excluded spontaneous symmetry breaking), are important historical landmarks. However the possibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking within the usual principles of statistical mechanics, waited for the work of Peierls and Onsager. The whole theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, as well as the construction of field theoretic models as long distance limit of yet unknown physics, relies nowadays on the concept of criticality associated to spontaneous symmetry breaking. The phenomena of Goldstone bosons, of Meissner-Higgs effects, are central to the theory of condensed matter as well as to particle physics. In cosmology as well, the various inflationary scenarios begin similarly with this same concept. The three lectures will provide a simple ...

  19. Wess-Zumino model as linear σ-model of spontaneously broken conformal and OSp (1,4)-supersymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    The massless Wess-Zumino model is shown to exhibit the spontaneous breaking of global conformal and orthosymplectic supersymmetries on account of the Fubini-type classical solutions to the equations of motion. The group structure of spontaneously broken phase is studied and its particle spectrum is analyzed. The little group of the ground state is found to be the graded subgroup OSp(1,4) of the conformal supergroup. The symmetry with respect to another OSp(1,4) subgroup (OSp(1,4))Ois broken to (2,3)-symmetry with emergence of massive Goldstone fermion. The superfield Weyl transformation is defined and with its help the model action is rewritten in terms of superspace OSp(1,4)/O(1,3), spinorial extension of anti de Sitter space. In such a representation the spontaneously broken phase admits the standard σ-model interpretation. We also construct the OSp(1,4)-analog of the massive Wess-Zumino model and examine its vacuum structure. An effect of the spontaneous breaking of P- and CP-parities with the strength related to anti de Sitter radius is found

  20. Study of the violation of the T and CP symmetries in the reactions {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {lambda}{sup 0} + a vector meson. Validation of the Front-end electronics for the PreShower detector of the LHCb experiment; Recherche de la violation des symetries CP et T dans les reactions {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {lambda}{sup 0} + un meson vecteur. Validation de l'architecture de lecteur des canaux du detecteur de pied de gerbe de l'experience LHCb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, E

    2007-11-15

    This thesis probes the beauty baryon physics in the framework of the LHCb experiment. The present study deals with the {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {lambda}{sup 0}V decays where V is a vector meson such as J/{psi}({mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}), {phi}(K{sup +}K{sup -}), {omega}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}0) or the {rho}{sup 0} - {omega}{sup 0}({pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}) mixing. These processes allow to test independently the CP symmetry, which violation has not been observed yet in the baryonic sector, and the T symmetry, which experimental proofs are limited. Among the possible perspectives, a precise measurement of the {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime could contribute to the resolution of the raising theoretical-experimental puzzle. A phenomenological model of the {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {lambda}{sup 0}V decays has been performed, from which branching ratios and angular distributions have been estimated. An advanced study of the reconstruction and the selection of these reactions by the LHCb apparatus shows that the channel {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} {yields} {lambda}{sup 0}J/{psi} is the dominant channel on both statistics and purity aspects. The {lambda}{sub b}{sup 0} lifetime measure is the most imminent result; the constrains on asymmetries due to CP and T violation require several data taking years. Besides, an instrumental work has been achieved on the read-out electronics, called Front-End, of the experiment pre-shower. This contribution takes into account the validation of the prototype boards and the development of tools required by the qualification of the 100 production boards. (author)

  1. Heavy axions from strong broken horizontal gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, T.; King, S.F.

    1993-01-01

    We study the consequences of the existence and breaking of a Peccei-Quinn symmetry within the context of a dynamical model of electroweak symmetry breaking based on broken gauged flavour symmetries. We perform an estimate of the axion mass by including flavour instanton effects and show that, for low cut-offs, the axion is sufficiently massive to prevent it from being phenomenologically unacceptable. We conclude with an examination of the strong CP problem and show that our axion cannot solve the problem, though we indicate ways in which the model can be extended so that the strong CP problem is solved. (orig.)

  2. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J. [Benemerita Univ. Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico). Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas; Hollik, W.G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-05-15

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  3. Addressing the strong CP problem with quark mass ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Saldana-Salazar, U.J.

    2016-05-01

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particles physics that still lacks an explanation. Solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP in the strong interactions despite large CP violation in weak interactions. Observation of CP violation is exclusively through the Higgs-Yukawa interactions. In this letter, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices the strong CP problem does not exist in the Standard Model and no extension to solve this is needed. However, to solve the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored.

  4. CP violation in the lepton sector with Majorana neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguila, F. del

    1995-01-01

    We study CP violation in the lepton sector in extended models with right-handed neutrinos, without and with left-right symmetry, and with arbitrary mass terms. We find the conditions which must be satisfied by the neutrino and charged lepton mass matrices for CP conservation. These constraints, which are independent of the choice of weak basis, are proven to be also sufficient in simple cases. This invariant formulation makes apparent the necessary requirements for CP violation, as well as the size of CP violating effects. As an example, we show that CP violation can be much larger in left-right symmetric models than in models with only additional right-handed neutrinos, i.e., without right-handed currents. (orig.)

  5. Right-handed quark mixings in minimal left-right symmetric model with general CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yue; Ji Xiangdong; An Haipeng; Mohapatra, R. N.

    2007-01-01

    We solve systematically for the right-handed quark mixings in the minimal left-right symmetric model which generally has both explicit and spontaneous CP violations. The leading-order result has the same hierarchical structure as the left-handed Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing, but with additional CP phases originating from a spontaneous CP-violating phase in the Higgs vacuum expectation values. We explore the phenomenology entailed by the new right-handed mixing matrix, particularly the bounds on the mass of W R and the CP phase of the Higgs vacuum expectation values

  6. Spontaneously broken mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endlich, Solomon; Nicolis, Alberto; Penco, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The Galilei group involves mass as a central charge. We show that the associated superselection rule is incompatible with the observed phenomenology of superfluid helium 4: this is recovered only under the assumption that mass is spontaneously broken. This remark is somewhat immaterial for the real world, where the correct space-time symmetries are encoded by the Poincaré group, which has no central charge. Yet it provides an explicit example of how superselection rules can be experimentally tested. We elaborate on what conditions must be met for our ideas to be generalizable to the relativistic case of the integer/half-integer angular momentum superselection rule.

  7. Strong-Weak CP Hierarchy from Non-Renormalization Theorems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, Gudrun

    2002-01-28

    We point out that the hierarchy between the measured values of the CKM phase and the strong CP phase has a natural origin in supersymmetry with spontaneous CP violation and low energy supersymmetry breaking. The underlying reason is simple and elegant: in supersymmetry the strong CP phase is protected by an exact non-renormalization theorem while the CKM phase is not. We present explicit examples of models which exploit this fact and discuss corrections to the non-renormalization theorem in the presence of supersymmetry breaking. This framework for solving the strong CP problem has generic predictions for the superpartner spectrum, for CP and flavor violation, and predicts a preferred range of values for electric dipole moments.

  8. CP violation conditions in N-Higgs-doublet potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Conditions for CP violation in the scalar potential sector of general N-Higgs-doublet models are analyzed from a group theoretical perspective. For the simplest two-Higgs-doublet model potential, a minimum set of conditions for explicit and spontaneous CP violation is presented. The conditions can be given a clear geometrical interpretation in terms of quantities in the adjoint representation of the basis transformation group for the two doublets. Such conditions depend on CP-odd pseudoscalar invariants. When the potential is CP invariant, the explicit procedure to reach the real CP-basis and the explicit CP transformation can also be obtained. The procedure to find the real basis and the conditions for CP violation are then extended to general N-Higgs-doublet model potentials. The analysis becomes more involved and only a formal procedure to reach the real basis is found. Necessary conditions for CP invariance can still be formulated in terms of group invariants: the CP-odd generalized pseudoscalars. The problem can be completely solved for three Higgs-doublets

  9. Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kang Sin [Scranton Honors Program, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Fields, Gravity and Strings, CTPU, Institute for Basic Sciences, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jihn E., E-mail: jihnekim@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (IBS), 291 Daehakro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kyae, Bumseok [Department of Physics, Pusan National University, 2 Busandaehakro-63-Gil, Geumjeong-Gu, Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Soonkeon [Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, 26 Gyungheedaero, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 02447 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-10

    Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair) at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.

  10. Hairs of discrete symmetries and gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sin Choi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries are known to be respected by gravity because gauge charges carry flux lines, but global charges do not carry flux lines and are not conserved by gravitational interaction. For discrete symmetries, they are spontaneously broken in the Universe, forming domain walls. Since the realization of discrete symmetries in the Universe must involve the vacuum expectation values of Higgs fields, a string-like configuration (hair at the intersection of domain walls in the Higgs vacua can be realized. Therefore, we argue that discrete charges are also respected by gravity.

  11. Translational Symmetry and Microscopic Constraints on Symmetry-Enriched Topological Phases: A View from the Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its higher-dimensional generalizations by Oshikawa and Hastings require that translationally invariant 2D spin systems with a half-integer spin per unit cell must either have a continuum of low energy excitations, spontaneously break some symmetries, or exhibit topological order with anyonic excitations. We establish a connection between these constraints and a remarkably similar set of constraints at the surface of a 3D interacting topological insulator. This, combined with recent work on symmetry-enriched topological phases with on-site unitary symmetries, enables us to develop a framework for understanding the structure of symmetry-enriched topological phases with both translational and on-site unitary symmetries, including the effective theory of symmetry defects. This framework places stringent constraints on the possible types of symmetry fractionalization that can occur in 2D systems whose unit cell contains fractional spin, fractional charge, or a projective representation of the symmetry group. As a concrete application, we determine when a topological phase must possess a “spinon” excitation, even in cases when spin rotational invariance is broken down to a discrete subgroup by the crystal structure. We also describe the phenomena of “anyonic spin-orbit coupling,” which may arise from the interplay of translational and on-site symmetries. These include the possibility of on-site symmetry defect branch lines carrying topological charge per unit length and lattice dislocations inducing degeneracies protected by on-site symmetry.

  12. Spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Fuminobu

    2015-10-01

    We propose a variant scenario of spontaneous baryogenesis from asymmetric inflaton based on current-current interactions between the inflaton and matter fields with a non-zero B-L charge. When the inflaton starts to oscillate around the minimum after inflation, it may lead to excitation of a CP-odd component, which induces an effective chemical potential for the B-L number through the current-current interactions. We study concrete inflation models and show that the spontaneous baryogenesis scenario can be naturally implemented in the chaotic inflation in supergravity.

  13. Masses, flavor mix and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussard, L.

    2004-06-01

    The author describes the relationships between masses, mixing of flavors and CP violation. This document is divided into 4 chapters: 1) fermions' masses, 2) mixing of flavors and CP violation, 3) beauty physics and 4) neutrino physics. In chapter 1 an attempt is made to explain what is behind the concepts of lepton mass and quark mass. As for neutrinos, the only neutral fermion, Dirac's and Majorana's views are exposed as well as their consequences. Fermion flavors are mixed in the process of mass generation and this mix is responsible for the breaking of CP and T symmetries. In chapter 2 the author shows how the analysis of particle oscillations from neutral mesons (K 0 , D 0 , B d 0 and B s 0 ) and from neutrinos can shed light on CP violation. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the contribution of beauty physics to the determination of the unitary triangle, through the oscillations of beauty mesons. In chapter 4 the author reviews the experimental results obtained recently concerning neutrino mass and neutrino oscillations and draws some perspectives on future neutrino experiments. (A.C.)

  14. CP violation and supersymmetry-breaking in superstring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dent, T.E.

    2000-09-01

    In this thesis I discuss aspects of the phenomenology of heterotic string, theory, using low-energy effective supergravity models. I investigate the origin of CP violation, the implications for low-energy physics of the modular invariance of the theory, supersymmetry-breaking via gaugino condensation in a hidden sector, and the interplay between these topics. I review the theory of CP violation and the problem of CP violation in supersymmetry phenomenology. In a scenario where the origin of CP violation lies in the compactification of the extra dimensions of string theory, I present simple models which include a duality symmetry acting on the compactification modulus and on observable fields. I show how the structure of the theory affects CP-violating observables, and discuss the effect of such a symmetry on low-energy physics in general. I present a detailed investigation of supersymmetry-breaking by gaugino condensation in supergravity, in particular as applied to the stabilisation of string moduli. For hidden sectors with or without matter I calculate corrections to the usual formulae for the scalar potential and soft supersymmetry-breaking terms. I discuss the phenomenological implications of these corrections and show that they may affect the value of the compactification modulus. and consequently the prospects for predictions of CP violation in string models. (author)

  15. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M.

    2015-01-01

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  16. Gravitational leptogenesis, C, CP and strong equivalence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, Jamie I.; Shore, Graham M. [Department of Physics, Swansea University,Swansea, SA2 8PP (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-12

    The origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry is one of the most important outstanding problems at the interface of particle physics and cosmology. Gravitational leptogenesis (baryogenesis) provides a possible mechanism through explicit couplings of spacetime curvature to appropriate lepton (or baryon) currents. In this paper, the idea that these strong equivalence principle violating interactions could be generated automatically through quantum loop effects in curved spacetime is explored, focusing on the realisation of the discrete symmetries C, CP and CPT which must be broken to induce matter-antimatter asymmetry. The related issue of quantum corrections to the dispersion relation for neutrino propagation in curved spacetime is considered within a fully covariant framework.

  17. CP violation in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, C.O.

    Some aspects of CP violation in gauge theories are reviewed. The topics covered include a discussion of the Kobayashi-Maskawa six-quarks model, models of soft- CP violation (extended Higgs sector), the strong CP problem and finally some speculations relating CP violation and magnetic charges in non-abelian gauge theories. (Author) [pt

  18. Observational Aspects of Symmetries of the Neutral B Meson System

    CERN Document Server

    Fidecaro, Maria; Ruf, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We revisit various results, which have been obtained by the BABAR and Belle Collaborations over the last twelve years, concerning symmetry properties of the Hamiltonian, which governs the time evolution and the decay of neutral B mesons. We find that those measurements, which established CP violation in B meson decay, 13 years ago, had as well established T (time-reversal) symmetry violation. They also confirmed CPT symmetry in the decay (T$_{CPT}$ = 0) and symmetry with respect to time-reversal ( $\\epsilon$ = 0) and to CPT ($\\delta$ = 0) in the $B^0 \\bar{B}^0$ oscillation.

  19. Can the family group be a global symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    We consider the possibility that the family group may be a spontaneously broken continuous global symmetry. In the context of grand unification, the couplings of the associated Goldstone bosons to fermions can be sufficiently suppressed so as to satisfy the phenomenological bounds. For a maximal family symmetry this requires a large number of Higgs fields. (orig.)

  20. Some symmetries in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1981-09-01

    Internal and space-time symmetries are discussed in this group of lectures. The first of the lectures deals with an internal symmetry, or rather two related symmetries called charge independence and charge symmetry. The next two discuss space-time symmetries which also hold approximately, but are broken only by the weak forces; that is, these symmetries hold for both the hadronic and electromagnetic forces

  1. Brane Lorentz symmetry from Lorentz breaking in the bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Carvalho, C [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-05-15

    We propose the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking of a bulk vector field as a way to generate the selection of bulk dimensions invisible to the standard model confined to the brane. By assigning a nonvanishing vacuum value to the vector field, a direction is singled out in the bulk vacuum, thus breaking the bulk Lorentz symmetry. We present the condition for induced Lorentz symmetry on the brane, as phenomenologically required.

  2. CP violation in atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Electric dipole moments of large atoms are an excellent tool to search for CP violation beyond the Standard Model. These tell us about the electron EDM but also about CP-violating electron-nucleon dimension-6 operators that arise from Higgs-exchange. Rapid strides are being made in searches for atomic EDMs. Limits on the electron EDM approaching the values which would be expected from Higgs-exchange mediated CP violation have been achieved. It is pointed out that in this same kind of model if tan β is large the effects in atoms of the dimension-6 e - n operators may outweigh the effect of the electron EDM. (author) 21 refs

  3. Highlights of CP 2000

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Various developing topics in CP violation are reviewed. There are many theoretical reasons to hope that the CKM paradigm may be incomplete. It is surely too soon to be claiming new physics in \\epsilon^\\prime/\\epsilon or in D^0-\\bar D^0 mixing, but rare K decays offer interesting places to search for new physics. It is probably also premature to see a clash between global CKM fits and current estimates of sin \\beta and \\gamma, where much more precise data will soon be available. There are interesting possibilities to look for CP violation in neutrino oscillations and in Higgs physics. Rapid progress can be expected now that CP violation is moving to the top of the particle physics agenda.

  4. Discrete Symmetries and Models of Flavour Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Stephen F

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we shall give an overview of the role of discrete symmetries, including both CP and family symmetry, in constructing unified models of quark and lepton (including especially neutrino) masses and mixing. Various different approaches to model building will be described, denoted as direct, semi-direct and indirect, and the pros and cons of each approach discussed. Particular examples based on Δ(6n 2 ) will be discussed and an A to Z of Flavour with Pati-Salam will be presented. (paper)

  5. Dark Matter candidate in Inert Doublet Model with additional local gauge symmetry U (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaitán, R.; De Oca, J.H. Montes; Garcés, E. A.; Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the Inert Doublet Model (IDM) with an additional local gauge symmetry U (1) and a complex singlet scalar to break the symmetry U (1). The continuous symmetry U (1) is introduced to control the CP-conserving interaction instead of some discrete symmetries as usually. We present the mass spectrum for neutral scalar and gauge bosons and the values of the charges under U (1) for which the model could have a candidate to dark matter. (paper)

  6. LHC experimental sensitivity to CP violating gtt couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Sjölin, J

    2003-01-01

    The level of CP violation in pp to tt+X induced by the standard model is known to be below the experimental sensitivity by many orders of magnitude. However, in some effective theories, it is plausible that new CP violating physics could reveal itself as additional non- renormalizable terms in the Lagrangian. Since these should respect the symmetries of the low-energy gauge interaction, violate CP and generate the correct event topology, the set of allowed terms is highly restricted. This analysis gives an estimate of the expected experimental sensitivity to the lowest order effective CP violating gtt interaction term beyond the standard model using simulated data from the ATLAS detector at the LHC. (36 refs).

  7. Introduction to heavy meson decays and CP asymmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligeti, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    These lectures are intended to provide an introduction to heavy meson decays and CP violation. The first lecture contains a brief review of the standard model and how the CKM matrix and CP violation arise, mixing and CP violation in neutral meson systems, and explanation of the cleanliness of the sin 2β measurement. The second lecture deals with the heavy quark limit, some applications of heavy quark symmetry and the operator product expansion for exclusive and inclusive semileptonic B decays. The third lecture concerns with theoretically clean CP violation measurements that may become possible in the future, and some developments toward a better understanding of nonleptonic B decays. The conclusions include a subjective best buy list for the near future

  8. Topics in CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons

  9. Topics in CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, H. R.

    1993-02-01

    Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

  10. Leptonic CP violation induced by approximately μ-τ symmetric seesaw mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Teppei; Yasue, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Assuming a minimal seesaw model with two heavy neutrinos (N), we examine effects of leptonic CP violation induced by approximate μ-τ symmetric interactions. As long as N is subject to the μ-τ symmetry, we can choose CP phases of Dirac mass terms without loss of generality in such a way that these phases arise from μ-τ symmetry breaking interactions. In the case that no phase is present in heavy neutrino mass terms, leptonic CP phases are controlled by two phases α and β. The similar consideration is extended to N blind to the μ-τ symmetry. It is argued that N subject (blind) to the μ-τ symmetry necessarily describes the normal (inverted) mass hierarchy. We restrict ourselves to μ-τ symmetric textures giving the tribimaximal mixing and calculate flavor neutrino masses to estimate CP-violating Dirac and Majorana phases as well as neutrino mixing angles as functions of α and β. Since α and β are generated by μ-τ symmetry breaking interactions, the CP-violating Majorana phase tends to be suppressed and is found to be at most O(0.1) radian. On the other hand, the CP-violating Dirac phase tends to show a proportionality to α or to β.

  11. CP violations in the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auriemma, Giulio

    2003-12-01

    The origin of the asymmetry between matter and antimatter that is evident in our part of the Universe is one of the open questions in cosmology, because the CPT symmetry between matter and antimatter seems to be absolutely conserved at microscopic level. We repeat here the classical proofs which exclude the viability of a Universe baryon symmetric on the average, or the observed asymmetry as an initial conditions. The current understanding is that the asymmetry should have been dynamically generated before nucleosynthesis, by B, C, and CP violating processes, acting out of thermodynamical equilibrium, as suggested by Sakharov in the 70's. The physical realizations of these conditions would be possible, in principle, also in the framework of the Standard Model of elementary particles, but the present limits on the mass of the higgs particle exclude this possibility. Finally we present the model of baryogenesis through leptogenesis, which is allowed by a minimal extension of the Standard Model, which has the appeal of being testable in future long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments.

  12. Symmetries in eleven dimensional supergravity compactified on a parallelized seven sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, F; Spindel, P

    1983-01-01

    We analyse, in eleven-dimensional supergravity compactified on S7, the spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by a spontaneous parallelization of the sphere. The eight supersymmetries are broken at a common scale and the SO(8) gauge group is reduced to Spin (7). Such a large residual symmetry has a simple geometrical significance revealed through use of octonions; this is explained in elementary terms.

  13. Neutrino mixing: from the broken μ-τ symmetry to the broken Friedberg–Lee symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Zhizhong

    2007-01-01

    I argue that the observed flavor structures of leptons and quarks might imply the existence of certain flavor symmetries. The latter should be a good starting point to build realistic models towards deeper understanding of the fermion mass spectra and flavor mixing patterns. The μ-τ permutation symmetry serves for such an example to interpret the almost maximal atmospheric neutrino mixing angle (θ 23 ~ 45°) and the strongly suppressed CHOOZ neutrino mixing angle (θ 13 < 10°). In this talk I like to highlight a new kind of flavor symmetry, the Friedberg–Lee symmetry, for the effective Majorana neutrino mass operator. Luo and I have shown that this symmetry can be broken in an oblique way, such that the lightest neutrino remains massless but an experimentally-favored neutrino mixing pattern is achievable. We get a novel prediction for θ 13 in the CP-conserving case: sinθ 13 = tanθ 12 |(1 - tanθ 23 )/(1 + tanθ 23 )|. Our scenario can simply be generalized to accommodate CP violation and be combined with the seesaw mechanism. Finally I stress the importance of probing possible effects of μ-τ symmetry breaking either in terrestrial neutrino oscillation experiments or with ultrahigh-energy cosmic neutrino telescopes. (author)

  14. Large leptonic Dirac CP phase from broken democracy with random perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; Kusenko, Alexander; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2018-06-01

    A large value of the leptonic Dirac CP phase can arise from broken democracy, where the mass matrices are democratic up to small random perturbations. Such perturbations are a natural consequence of broken residual S3 symmetries that dictate the democratic mass matrices at leading order. With random perturbations, the leptonic Dirac CP phase has a higher probability to attain a value around ± π / 2. Comparing with the anarchy model, broken democracy can benefit from residual S3 symmetries, and it can produce much better, realistic predictions for the mass hierarchy, mixing angles, and Dirac CP phase in both quark and lepton sectors. Our approach provides a general framework for a class of models in which a residual symmetry determines the general features at leading order, and where, in the absence of other fundamental principles, the symmetry breaking appears in the form of random perturbations.

  15. Beautiful CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunietz, I.

    1997-01-01

    CP violation is observed to date only in K 0 decays and is parameterizable by a single quantity ε. Because it is one of the least understood phenomena in the Standard Model and holds a clue to baryogenesis, it must be investigated further. Highly specialized searches in K 0 decays are possible. Effects in B decays are much larger. In addition to the traditional B d → J/ψK S , π + π - asymmetries, CP violation could be searched for in already existing inclusive B data samples. The rapid B s --anti B s oscillations cancel in untagged B s data samples, which therefore allow feasibility studies for the observation of CP violation and the extraction of CKM elements with present vertex detectors. The favored method for the extraction of the CKM angle γ is shown to be unfeasible and a solution is presented involving striking direct CP violation in charged B decays. Novel methods for determining the B s mixing parameter Δm are described without the traditional requirement of flavor-specific final states

  16. S3 flavor symmetry and leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Jisuke; Paschos, Emmanuel A.

    2004-01-01

    It is found that a Majorana phase in a minimal S 3 extension of the standard model with an additional Z 2 symmetry in the leptonic sector is responsible for leptogenesis. We assume that the resonant enhancement of the CP asymmetries takes place to obtain a realistic size of baryon number asymmetry in the universe. We expect the masses of the right-handed neutrino are of O(10) TeV in this model. (author)

  17. Leptogenesis and low energy CP-violation in neutrino physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascoli, S.; Petcov, S.T.; Riotto, A.

    2007-01-01

    Taking into account the recent progress in the understanding of the lepton flavor effects in leptogenesis, we investigate in detail the possibility that the CP-violation necessary for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is due exclusively to the Dirac and/or Majorana CP-violating phases in the PMNS neutrino mixing matrix U, and thus is directly related to the low energy CP-violation in the lepton sector (e.g., in neutrino oscillations, etc.). We first derive the conditions of CP-invariance of the neutrino Yukawa couplings λ in the see-saw Lagrangian, and of the complex orthogonal matrix R in the 'orthogonal' parametrization of λ. We show, e.g. that under certain conditions (i) real R and specific CP-conserving values of the Majorana and Dirac phases can imply CP-violation, and (ii) purely imaginary R does not necessarily imply breaking of CP-symmetry. We study in detail the case of hierarchical heavy Majorana neutrino mass spectrum, presenting results for three possible types of light neutrino mass spectrum: (i) normal hierarchical, (ii) inverted hierarchical, and (iii) quasi-degenerate. Results in the alternative case of quasi-degenerate in mass heavy Majorana neutrinos, are also derived. The minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard theory with right-handed Majorana neutrinos and see-saw mechanism of neutrino mass generation is discussed as well. We illustrate the possible correlations between the baryon asymmetry of the Universe and (i) the rephasing invariant J CP controlling the magnitude of CP-violation in neutrino oscillations, or (ii) the effective Majorana mass in neutrinoless double beta decay, in the cases when the only source of CP-violation is respectively the Dirac or the Majorana phases in the neutrino mixing matrix

  18. CP violation in ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saavedra, A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: In the standard model CP violation is generated by a non trivial complex phase in the CKM matrix. The Standard Model does not predict the elements of the CKM matrix, they need to be experimentally measured. This will show if all the CP violation phenomena can be accounted by the complex phase or there are other contributing mechanisms which lie beyond the scope of Standard Model. It is of interest to overconstraint the so called unitary triangle by measuring each angle (α, β and γ) from the CP asymmetry that occurs in different decay modes. During the initial low luminosity period of the LHC a large effort will be concentrated in studying B physics, especially CP violation in the B 0 - B-bar 0 system, with the ATLAS detector. The features of the detector which are important for CP studies are: sharp trigger from the muon spectrometer (muons will be identify down to p T ≅ 5GeV, be able to distinguish electrons from hadrons (down to p T ≅ 1 GeV) with the Straw Tracker and Transition detector and high resolution of tracks, secondary vertices with the Semiconductor Tracker (resolution of 10-90 μm. For some decays modes ATLAS is expected to obtain larger sample of events than the B-factories that are being proposed. It has been calculated that the systematic error σ sin (2 α) = 0.06 and σ sin ( 2 β) = 0.027 which is comparable with other future experiments

  19. Symmetries and nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclei are very useful for testing symmetries, and for studies of symmetry breaking. This thesis is illustrated for two improper space-time transformations, parity and time-reversal and for one internal symmetry: charge symmetry and independence. Recent progress and present interest is reviewed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  20. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  1. Nobel Prize for work on broken symmetries

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The 2008 Nobel Prize for Physics goes to three physicists who have worked on broken symmetries in particle physics. The announcement of the 2008 Nobel Prize for physics was transmitted to the Globe of Science and Innovation via webcast on the occasion of the preview of the Nobel Accelerator exhibition.On 7 October it was announced that the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences had awarded the 2008 Nobel Prize for physics to three particle physicists for their fundamental work on the mechanisms of broken symmetries. Half the prize was awarded to Yoichiro Nambu of Fermilab for "the discovery of the mechanism of spontaneous broken symmetry in subatomic physics". The other half is shared by Makato Kobayashi of Japan’s KEK Institute and Toshihide Maskawa of the Yukawa Institute at the University of Kyoto "for the discovery of the origin of the broken symmetry which predicts the existence of at least three families of quarks in Nature". At th...

  2. Hidden symmetries and critical dimensions in the theory of modulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babich, A.V.; Berezovsky, S.V.; Klepikov, V.F.

    2009-01-01

    Some aspects of the theory of the critical phenomena in systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are considered. The applicability range of the mean field approximation for the systems with modulated structures is discussed. Connection between symmetries of a corresponding model and the existence of exact solutions is showed. The role of symmetries in the theory of dynamic long range ordering is discussed

  3. Spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, ZhiRui; Zhang, ZhenWei; Xu, DaZhi; Zhao, Nan; Sun, ChangPu

    2018-04-01

    We study the spontaneous decoherence of coupled harmonic oscillators confined in a ring container, where the nearest-neighbor harmonic potentials are taken into consideration. Without any external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment, the quantum superposition state prepared in the relative degrees of freedom gradually loses its quantum coherence spontaneously. This spontaneous decoherence is interpreted by the gauge couplings between the center-of-mass and the relative degrees of freedoms, which actually originate from the symmetries of the ring geometry and the corresponding nontrivial boundary conditions. In particular, such spontaneous decoherence does not occur at all at the thermodynamic limit because the nontrivial boundary conditions become the trivial Born-von Karman boundary conditions when the perimeter of the ring container tends to infinity. Our investigation shows that a thermal macroscopic object with certain symmetries has a chance for its quantum properties to degrade even without applying an external symmetry-breaking field or surrounding environment.

  4. CP violation in K decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, F.J.

    1989-05-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental progress on the manifestation of CP violation in K decays, and toward understanding whether CP violation originates in a phase, or phases, in the weak mixing matrix of quarks is reviewed. 23 refs., 10 figs

  5. CP violation in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1990-01-01

    The study of CP-violating effects in B decays will be a good test of whether CP violation is caused by the known weak interaction. If this is its origin, then large, cleanly-predicted CP-violating effects are expected in certain neutral B decays to hadronic CP eigenstates. The phenomenology of CP violation in the B system is reviewed, and the genesis of these large effects is explained. In this it is shown that large, cleanly-predicted effects are also expected in some decays to states which are not CP eigenstates. The combined study of the latter decays and those to CP eigenstates may make it possible to obtain a statistically-significant CP-violating signal with fewer B mesons that would otherwise be required

  6. Effective action for composite operators and chiral symmetry breakdown in asymptotically free and non-asymptotically free gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusynin, V.P.; Miranskij, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    An essential distinction in the relaization of the PCAC dynamics in asymptotically free and non-asymptotically free (with a non-trivial ultraviolet-stable fixed point) gauge theories is revealed. For the latter theories an analytical expressions for the condensate is obtained in the two-loop approximation and arguments of support of a soft behaviour at small distances of composite operators are given. The problem of factorizing the low-energy region for the Wess-Zumino-Witten action is discussed. Besides, the mass relations for pseudoscalar mesons in arbitrary Θ-sector are obtained in the first order in fermion bare masses and the impossibility for spontaneous P and CP-symmetries breaking in vector-like gauge theories at Θ=0 is shown

  7. The nucleon- nucleon interaction and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oers, W.T.H.

    1992-11-01

    With the advent of the possibility to study nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies, its extension to investigate fundamental symmetries was recognized early on. It was precisely the introduction of rotational invariance, parity conservation, time reversal invariance, and isotopic spin conversation that led to the description of the N - N scattering matrix in terms of five complex amplitudes: one set of five for proton-proton scattering and one set of five for neutron-proton scattering, or alternatively, one set for the isotopic spin state ι=ο and the other for the isotopic spin state ι=1. Clearly, if one or more of the above constraints are removed, there are additional amplitudes that need to be considered. To be meaningful, experiment requires observables that are particularly sensitive to the violation of a conservation law or symmetry principle. During the last decade a series of precision experiments has been performed to measure charge- symmetry breaking in n - p elastic scattering (corresponding to isotopic spin non-conservation), and to measure parity violation in p-p scattering. For a particle-anti-particle system,like the pp or λλ system one can raise the question of CP violation in a system other than the neutral kaon system may become possible in the near future through pp →λλ and pp→ ≡ ≡. A description is given of the ongoing efforts to measure charge symmetry breaking, parity violation and CP violation.(author). 42 refs., 6 figs

  8. Status in CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayard, L.

    1989-11-01

    Twenty-five years after the discovery of CP violation in the neutral Kaon system, we still dont know exactly the origin and the components of that weak non invariance. The two more precise experiments give slightly different answers concerning the direct way of CP violation NA 31 gives ε prime/ε incompatible with the Superweak Model (for which ε prime=0) and in agreement with Standard Model predictions compatible with both. Again, one needs new and precise results in order to conclude about ε prime. E731 and NA31 are actually working on their new data samples. Longer term ideas are also being discussed, looking for new experiments able to give ε prime/ε with a precision. Concerning CPT invariance the situation seems to be more clear

  9. LHCb CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Vesterinen, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The study of $CP$ violation in the beauty hadron sector is a promising approach to search for the effects of physics beyond the Standard Model. Several recent measurements in this area from the LHCb experiment are reported in these proceedings. These are based on the Run-I dataset of 3~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected at proton-proton centre of mass energies of 7 and 8~TeV.

  10. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  11. The symmetry of man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, Alexander E; Perepada, Elena A

    2007-01-01

    The paper contains a description of basic regularities in the manifestation of symmetry of human structural organization and its ontogenetic and phylogenetic development. A concept of macrobiocrystalloid with inherent complex symmetry is proposed for the description of the human organism in its integrity. The symmetry can be characterized as two-plane radial (quadrilateral), where the planar symmetry is predominant while the layout of organs of radial symmetry is subordinated to it. Out of the two planes of symmetry (sagittal and horizontal), the sagittal plane is predominant. The symmetry of the chromosome, of the embrio at the early stages of cell cleavage as well as of some organs and systems in their phylogenetic development is described. An hypothesis is postulated that the two-plane symmetry is formed by two mechanisms: a) the impact of morphogenetic fields of the whole crystalloid organism during embriogenesis and, b) genetic mechanisms of the development of chromosomes having two-plane symmetry.

  12. Spontaneous breaking of conformal invariance and trace anomaly matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwimmer, A.; Theisen, S.

    2011-01-01

    We argue that when conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken the trace anomalies in the broken and unbroken phases are matched. This puts strong constraints on the various couplings of the dilaton. Using the uniqueness of the effective action for the Goldstone supermultiplet for broken N=1 superconformal symmetry the dilaton effective action is calculated.

  13. Lambda-antilambda decay asymmetries and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzog, D.W.; Barnes, P.D.; Birien, P.

    1988-01-01

    The exclusive reaction /bar p/p → /bar Lambda/Λ is an interesting laboratory in which to study both spin physics and fundamental symmetries. The PS185 collaboration at LEAR has been exploiting this fact for the last few years in an ongoing program of hyperon-antihyperon production. The motivation for this study will be outlined and the experimental technique will be described. Spin physics aspects such as the measurements of the outgoing hyperon polarization and preliminary determinations of spin correlation coefficients will be presented. Fundamental symmetry checks such as lifetime differences between Λ and /bar Lambda/ (CPT) and decay properties (CP) will be discussed. A future experiment which is quite sensitive to CP violation in a hyperon-antihyperon system will be mentioned. 15 refs., 4 figs

  14. Nuclear probes of fundamental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear experiments which probe the parity (P) and time-reversal (T) symmetries and lepton-number conservation are reviewed. The P-violating NN interaction, studied in the NN system and in light nuclei, provides an unique window on ΔS=0 hadronic weak processes. Results are in accord with expectations. Sensitive searches for T-violation via detailed balance, T-odd correlations in γ and β-decay, and a possible neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) are discussed. No T-violation is observed. The EDM limit is almost good enough to eliminate one of the leading theoretical explanations for CP violation. Experimental studies of double β-decay are reviewed. Although ββ nu nu decay has been convincingly detected in geochemical experiments there is no evidence for the lepton number violating ββ decay mode

  15. Solutions to the strong-CP problem in a world with gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.; Watkins, R.; Widrow, L.M.; Toronto Univ., ON

    1992-01-01

    We examine various solutions of the strong-CP problem to determine their sensitivity to possible violations of global symmetries by Plauck scale physics. While some solutions remain viable even in the face of such effects. Violations of the Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry by non-renormalizable operators of dimension less than 10 will generally shift the value of bar θ to values inconsistent with the experimental bound bar θ approx-lt 10 - 9. We show that it is possible to construct axion models where gauge symmetries protect PQ symmetry to the requisite level

  16. A bottom-up approach to the strong CP problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cruz, J. L.; Hollik, W. G.; Saldana-Salazar, U. J.

    2018-05-01

    The strong CP problem is one of many puzzles in the theoretical description of elementary particle physics that still lacks an explanation. While top-down solutions to that problem usually comprise new symmetries or fields or both, we want to present a rather bottom-up perspective. The main problem seems to be how to achieve small CP violation in the strong interactions despite the large CP violation in weak interactions. In this paper, we show that with minimal assumptions on the structure of mass (Yukawa) matrices, they do not contribute to the strong CP problem and thus we can provide a pathway to a solution of the strong CP problem within the structures of the Standard Model and no extension at the electroweak scale is needed. However, to address the flavor puzzle, models based on minimal SU(3) flavor groups leading to the proposed flavor matrices are favored. Though we refrain from an explicit UV completion of the Standard Model, we provide a simple requirement for such models not to show a strong CP problem by construction.

  17. Origin of family symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilles, Hans Peter

    2012-04-01

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  18. Origin of family symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  19. Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr

  20. Symmetry and electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs

  1. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  2. Gauge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy

  3. Workshop on CP Studies and Non-Standard Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Accomando, E.; Akhmetzyanova, E.; Albert, J.; Alves, A.; Amapane, N.; Aoki, M.; Azuelos, G.; Baffioni, S.; Ballestrero, A.; Barger, V.; Bartl, A.; Bechtle, P.; Blanger, G.; Belhouari, A.; Bellan, R.; Belyaev, A.; Benes, Petr; Benslama, K.; Bernreuther, W.; Besanon, M.; Bevilacqua, G.; Beyer, M.; Bluj, M.; Bolognesi, S.; Boonekamp, M.; Borzumati, Francesca; Boudjema, F.; Brandenburg, A.; Brauner, Tomas; Buszello, C.P.; Butterworth, J.M.; Carena, Marcela; Cavalli, D.; Cerminara, G.; Choi, S.Y.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Conley, John A.; Deandrea, A.; De Curtis, S.; Dermisek, R.; De Roeck, A.; Dewhirst, G.; Diaz, M.A.; Diaz-Cruz, J.L.; Dietrich, D.D.; Dolgopolov, M.; Dominici, D.; Dubinin, M.; Eboli, O.; Ellis, John R.; Evans, N.; Fano, L.; Ferland, J.; Ferrag, S.; Fitzgerald, S.P.; Fraas, H.; Franke, F.; Gennai, S.; Ginzburg, I.F.; Godbole, R.M.; Gregoire, T.; Grenier, Gerald Jean; Grojean, C.; Gudnason, S.B.; Gunion, J.F.; Haber, H.E.; Hahn, T.; Han, T.; Hankele, V.; Hays, Christopher Paul; Heinemeyer, S.; Hesselbach, S.; Hewett, J.L.; Hidaka, K.; Hirsch, M.; Hollik, W.; Hooper, D.; Hosek, J.; Hubisz, J.; Hugonie, C.; Kalinowski, J.; Kanemura, S.; Kashkan, V.; Kernreiter, T.; Khater, W.; Khoze, V.A.; Kilian, W.; King, S.F.; Kittel, O.; Klamke, G.; Kneur, J.L.; Kouvaris, C.; Kraml, S.; Krawczyk, M.; Krstonoic, P.; Kyriakis, A.; Langacker, P.; Le, M.P.; Lee, H.-S.; Lee, J.S.; Lemaire, M.C.; Liao, Y.; Lillie, B.; Litvine, Vladimir A.; Logan, H.E.; McElrath, Bob; Mahmoud, T.; Maina, E.; Mariotti, C.; Marquard, P.; Martin, A.D.; Mazumdar, K.; Miller, D.J.; Min, P.; Monig, Klaus; Moortgat-Pick, G.; Moretti, S.; Muhlleitner, M.M.; Munir, S.; Nevzorov, R.; Newman, H.; Niezurawski, P.; Nikitenko, A.; Noriega-Papaqui, R.; Okada, Y.; Osland, P.; Pilaftsis, A.; Porod, W.; Przysiezniak, H.; Pukhov, A.; Rainwater, D.; Raspereza, A.; Reuter, J.; Riemann, S.; Rindani, S.; Rizzo, T.G.; Ros, E.; Rosado, A.; Rousseau, D.; Roy, D.P.; Ryskin, M.G.; Rzehak, H.; Sannino, F.; Schmidt, E.; Schrder, H.; Schumacher, M.; Semenov, A.; Senaha, E.; Shaughnessy, G.; Singh, R.K.; Terning, J.; Vacavant, L.; Velasco, M.; Villanova del Moral, Albert; von der Pahlen, F.; Weiglein, G.; Williams, J.; Williams, K.E.; Zarnecki, A.F.; Zeppenfeld, D.; Zerwas, D.; Zerwas, P.M.; Zerwekh, A.R.; Ziethe, J.; 2nd Workshop on CP Studies and Non-standard Higgs Physics; 3rd Workshop on CP Studies and Non-standard Higgs Physics; 4th Workshop on CP Studies and Non-standard Higgs Physics; CPNSH; Workshop on CP Studies and Non-standard Higgs Physics; CP Studies and Non-Standard Higgs Physics

    2006-01-01

    There are many possibilities for new physics beyond the Standard Model that feature non-standard Higgs sectors. These may introduce new sources of CP violation, and there may be mixing between multiple Higgs bosons or other new scalar bosons. Alternatively, the Higgs may be a composite state, or there may even be no Higgs at all. These non-standard Higgs scenarios have important implications for collider physics as well as for cosmology, and understanding their phenomenology is essential for a full comprehension of electroweak symmetry breaking. This report discusses the most relevant theories which go beyond the Standard Model and its minimal, CP-conserving supersymmetric extension: two-Higgs-doublet models and minimal supersymmetric models with CP violation, supersymmetric models with an extra singlet, models with extra gauge groups or Higgs triplets, Little Higgs models, models in extra dimensions, and models with technicolour or other new strong dynamics. For each of these scenarios, this report presents ...

  4. CP violation and B0-(B0)-bar mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksan, R.

    1996-01-01

    The status of CP violation and B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing is given and the subsequent constraints in the framework of the Standard Model are discussed. Recent result on CP violation in the kaon system and related topics are reviewed, including the status of T violation and the tests of the CPT symmetry. The results on B 0 -(B 0 )-bar mixing are presented followed by the studies on B d 0 -(B d 0 )-bar and B s 0 -(B s 0 )-bar oscillations. Finally, the prospects of progress on understanding CP violation are discussed in framework of the new projects expected to produce results at the turn of the century. (author)

  5. Quark-flavour phenomenology of models with extended gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlucci, Maria Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Gauge invariance is one of the fundamental principles of the Standard Model of particles and interactions, and it is reasonable to believe that it also regulates the physics beyond it. In this thesis we have studied the theory and phenomenology of two New Physics models based on gauge symmetries that are extensions of the Standard Model group. Both of them are particularly interesting because they provide some answers to the question of the origin of flavour, which is still unexplained. Moreover, the flavour sector represents a promising field for the research of indirect signatures of New Physics, since after the first run of LHC we do not have any direct hint of it yet. The first model assumes that flavour is a gauge symmetry of nature, SU(3) 3 f , spontaneously broken by the vacuum expectation values of new scalar fields; the second model is based on the gauge group SU(3) c x SU(3) L x U(1) X , the simplest non-abelian extension of the Standard Model group. We have traced the complete theoretical building of the models, from the gauge group, passing through the nonanomalous fermion contents and the appropriate symmetry breakings, up to the spectra and the Feynman rules, with a particular attention to the treatment of the flavour structure, of tree-level Flavour Changing Neutral Currents and of new CP-violating phases. In fact, these models present an interesting flavour phenomenology, and for both of them we have analytically calculated the contributions to the ΔF=2 and ΔF=1 down-type transitions, arising from new tree-level and box diagrams. Subsequently, we have performed a comprehensive numerical analysis of the phenomenology of the two models. In both cases we have found very effective the strategy of first to identify the quantities able to provide the strongest constraints to the parameter space, then to systematically scan the allowed regions of the latter in order to obtain indications about the key flavour observables, namely the mixing parameters of

  6. Complex scaling and residual flavour symmetry in the neutrino mass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Probir Roy

    2017-10-09

    Oct 9, 2017 ... Leptonic Dirac CP violation must be maximal while atmospheric neutrino mixing need not be exactly maximal. Each of the two Majorana phases, to be probed by the search for 0νββ decay, has to be zero or π and a normal neutrino mass hierarchy is allowed. Keywords. Neutrinos; residual flavour symmetry; ...

  7. The minimal extension of the Standard Model with S3 symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.E.; Lin, C.; Yang, Y.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the two Higgs-doublet extension of the standard electroweak model with S 3 symmetry is presented. The flavour changing neutral Higgs interaction are automatically absent. A permutation symmetry breaking scheme is discussed. The correction to the Bjorken's approximation and the CP-violation factor J are given within this scheme

  8. Leptonic CP phases near the μ–τ symmetric limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana C. Rivera-Agudelo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The neutrino masses and mixings indicated by current neutrino oscillation experiments suggest that the neutrino mass matrix possesses an approximate μ–τ exchange symmetry. In this study, we explore the neutrino parameter space and show that if a small μ–τ symmetry breaking is considered, the Majorana CP phases must be unequal and non-zero independently of the neutrino mass scale. Moreover, a small μ–τ symmetry breaking favors quasi-degenerate masses. We also show that Majorana phases are strongly correlated with the Dirac CP violating phase. Within this framework, we obtain robust predictions for the values of the Majorana phases when the experimental indications for the Dirac CP phase are used.

  9. Violation of Particle Anti-particle Symmetry

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2001-01-01

    Symmetry is a fundamental concept which can be found in the whole range of human activities e. g. from arts to science. The beauty of a statues is often related to its symmetric form. In physics, all the laws are related to some sort of symmetry. Equally important is a small breakdown ofsymmetry. Even for the case of a statue, its beauty might be enhanced by introducing small distortions. In this course, we investigate the role symmetry in the world of elementary particles. Some symmetries found there are very similar to those which can be seen in our daily life, while others are more exotic and related to the quantum nature of the elementary particles. Our particular focus ismade on symmetry and its violation between the matter and anti-matter, known as CP violation. It is experimentally well established that particleand anti-particle behave a tiny bit differently in the world of elementary particles. We discuss how this would be explained and how we can extendour knowledge. Evolution of our universe is stro...

  10. Scale gauge symmetry and the standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sola, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper speculates on a version of the standard model of the electroweak and strong interactions coupled to gravity and equipped with a spontaneously broken, anomalous, conformal gauge symmetry. The scalar sector is virtually absent in the minimal model but in the general case it shows up in the form of a nonlinear harmonic map Lagrangian. A Euclidean approach to the phenological constant problem is also addressed in this framework

  11. Effective potential and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David

    2010-01-01

    The nonequilibrium effective potential is calculated for the Frank model of spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in chemistry in which external noise is introduced to account for random environmental effects. The well-mixed limit, corresponding to negligible diffusion, and the case of diffusion in two space dimensions are studied in detail. White noise has a disordering effect in the former case, whereas in the latter case a phase transition occurs for external noise exceeding a critical intensity which racemizes the system.

  12. Symmetry in running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  13. Symmetries of Chimera States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeth, Felix P.; Haugland, Sindre W.; Krischer, Katharina

    2018-05-01

    Symmetry broken states arise naturally in oscillatory networks. In this Letter, we investigate chaotic attractors in an ensemble of four mean-coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with two oscillators being synchronized. We report that these states with partially broken symmetry, so-called chimera states, have different setwise symmetries in the incoherent oscillators, and in particular, some are and some are not invariant under a permutation symmetry on average. This allows for a classification of different chimera states in small networks. We conclude our report with a discussion of related states in spatially extended systems, which seem to inherit the symmetry properties of their counterparts in small networks.

  14. Parastatistics and gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed

  15. Probing Fundamental Symmetries: Questioning the Very Basics of Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanmurthy, Prajwal

    2017-09-01

    Is the Lorentz-CPT symmetry, a core component of the standard model, valid? To what extent are the CP and T symmetries broken in the strong sector? What are we doing about the existing strong-CP problem? Do neutrons oscillate (like neutral kaons) or break the (Baryon - Lepton) number conservation? In this presentation, we will go over some of the experiments probing fundamental symmetries trying to answer the above questions. I will, very briefly, introduce the CompEx & nEx experiments probing the Lorentz symmetry in the electromagnetic (EM) sector, the nEDM experiment probing CP and T symmetries in the strong sector, NStar experiment searching for neutron oscillations, MASS & BDX experiments searching for axion like particles & dark matter. We will then briefly touch upon the highlights of these experiments and focus on the path we are taking towards answering those questions while also connecting the dots [experiments] with CEU. PM would like to acknowledge support from SERI SNSF Grant 2015.0594.

  16. Present status of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, J.N.

    1989-06-01

    A review of the status of CP violation in kaons is given. Status of our knowledge of quark mixing angles in the standard six quark model is presented. The role Β d o - Βd o transition plays in this study is examined. A comparison of the estimates of CP violation effects from models beyond the standard one is given. Other experiments that have the capability of testing different CP violation models are also discussed. (Author) 35 refs., 6 figs., tab

  17. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation

  18. Symmetries in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arima, A.

    2003-01-01

    (1) There are symmetries in nature, and the concept of symmetry has been used in art and architecture. The symmetry is evaluated high in the European culture. In China, the symmetry is broken in the paintings but it is valued in the architecture. In Japan, however, the symmetry has been broken everywhere. The serious and interesting question is why these differences happens? (2) In this lecture, I reviewed from the very beginning the importance of the rotational symmetry in quantum mechanics. I am sorry to be too fundamental for specialists of nuclear physics. But for people who do not use these theories, I think that you could understand the mathematical aspects of quantum mechanics and the relation between the angular momentum and the rotational symmetry. (3) To the specialists of nuclear physics, I talked about my idea as follows: dynamical treatment of collective motions in nuclei by IBM, especially the meaning of the degeneracy observed in the rotation bands top of γ vibration and β vibration, and the origin of pseudo-spin symmetry. Namely, if there is a symmetry, a degeneracy occurs. Conversely, if there is a degeneracy, there must be a symmetry. I discussed some details of the observed evidence and this correspondence is my strong belief in physics. (author)

  19. Flavor physics and CP violation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paoti; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, Wei-Shu

    2017-11-01

    We currently live in the age of the CKM paradigm. The 3 × 3 matrix that links (d , s , b) quarks to (u , c , t) in the charged current weak interaction, being complex and nominally with 18 parameters, can be accounted for by just 3 rotation angles and one CP violating (CPV) phase, with unitarity and the CKM phases triumphantly tested at the B factories. But the CKM picture is unsatisfactory and has too many parameters. The main aim of Flavor Physics and CP violation (FPCP) studies is the pursuit to uncover New Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). Two highlights of LHC Run 1 period are the CPV phase ϕs of Bs mixing and Bs →μ+μ- decay, which were found to be again consistent with SM, though the saga is yet unfinished. We also saw the emergence of the P5‧ angular variable anomaly in B0 →K∗0μ+μ- decay and R K (∗) anomaly in B →K (∗)μ+μ- to B →K (∗)e+e- rate ratios, and the BaBar anomaly in B →D (∗) τν decays, which suggest possible New Physics in these flavor processes, pointing to extra Z‧, charged Higgs, or leptoquarks. Charmless hadronic, semileptonic, purely leptonic and radiative B decays continue to offer various further windows on New Physics. Away from B physics, the rare K → πνν decays and ε‧ / ε in the kaon sector, μ → e transitions, muon g - 2 and electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron, τ → μγ , μμμ , eee, and a few charm physics probes, offer broadband frontier windows on New Physics. Lastly, flavor changing neutral transitions involving the top quark t and the 125 GeV Higgs boson h, such as t → ch and h → μτ, offer a new window into FPCP, while a new Z‧ related or inspired by the P5‧ anomaly, could show up in analogous top quark processes, perhaps even link with low energy phenomena such as muon g - 2 or rare kaon processes. In particular, we advocate the potential new SM, the two Higgs doublet model without discrete symmetries to control flavor violation, as SM2. As we are

  20. CPLEAR et BABAR, all aspects of CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeche, Ch.

    2003-06-01

    This report of French 'Habilitation a diriger les recherches' summarizes my scientific activity from 1993 to 2003. During this decade, my research work was related to two particle physics experiments: CPLEAR and BABAR. The first one, CPLEAR, has recorded data from 1988 to 1995 on the low energy anti-proton ring (LEAR) at CERN. This experiment was devoted to the study of T, CPT et CP discrete symmetries. The second experiment, BABAR, has been running since 1999, on the PEP-II B factory at SLAC. This experiment searches for CP violation and tests the Standard Model through the measurements of the angles and the sides of the Unitarity Triangle. My research work is divided in five main topics: Study of CP and CPT violation in K 0 → π + π - decays; Performance optimization of the particle identification detector (DIRC) of the BABAR experiment; B meson tagging in BABAR experiment; Δm d measurement and Search for CP and T violation in mixing with dilepton events; Search for CP violation in B 0 → ρ ± π ± and B 0 → π ± K ± decays. (author)

  1. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is well known that the study of flavour physics and CP violation is very important to critically test the Standard Model and to look for possible signature of new physics beyond it. The observation of CP violation in kaon system in 1964 has ignited a lot of experimental and theoretical efforts to understand its origin and to look ...

  2. Testing New Indirect CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Yuval; Nir, Yosef; Perez, Gilad

    2009-01-01

    If new CP violating physics contributes to neutral meson mixing, but its contribution to CP violation in decay amplitudes is negligible, then there is a model independent relation between four (generally independent) observables related to the mixing: the mass splitting (x), the width splitting (y), the CP violation in mixing (1-|q/p|), and the CP violation in the interference of decays with and without mixing (φ). For the four neutral meson systems, this relation can be written in a simple approximate form: ytanφ≅x(1-|q/p|). In the K system, all four observables have been measured and obey the relation to excellent accuracy. For the B s and D systems, new predictions are provided. The success or failure of these relations will probe the physics that is responsible for the CP violation.

  3. CP-violation and instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, C.G.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of Yang-Mills instantons on CP-violating strong interactions are studied. Using simplified models of CP-noninvariant weak interactions, we calculate the induced strong CP-violation. Even in the simple examples studied, the CP-violating phase of a vacuum-to-vacuum transition amplitude differs in general from the phase of the determinant of the quark mass matrix multiplied by the topological charge of the background Yang-Mills field. Then several CP-violating phenomena such as eta → 2π decay and neutron electric dipole moment induced by instantons are studied. The result of our explicit calculation of eta → 2π decay strength verifies the current algebraic method used by Crewther et al. We also present a calculation of the instanton contribution, in the dilute gas approximation for instanton gas, to the electric dipole moment of a free quark without using 't Hooft's effective Lagrangian

  4. Chemical potential and reaction electronic flux in symmetry controlled reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt-Geisse, Stefan; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro

    2016-07-15

    In symmetry controlled reactions, orbital degeneracies among orbitals of different symmetries can occur along a reaction coordinate. In such case Koopmans' theorem and the finite difference approximation provide a chemical potential profile with nondifferentiable points. This results in an ill-defined reaction electronic flux (REF) profile, since it is defined as the derivative of the chemical potential with respect to the reaction coordinate. To overcome this deficiency, we propose a new way for the calculation of the chemical potential based on a many orbital approach, suitable for reactions in which symmetry is preserved. This new approach gives rise to a new descriptor: symmetry adapted chemical potential (SA-CP), which is the chemical potential corresponding to a given irreducible representation of a symmetry group. A corresponding symmetry adapted reaction electronic flux (SA-REF) is also obtained. Using this approach smooth chemical potential profiles and well defined REFs are achieved. An application of SA-CP and SA-REF is presented by studying the Cs enol-keto tautomerization of thioformic acid. Two SA-REFs are obtained, JA'(ξ) and JA'' (ξ). It is found that the tautomerization proceeds via an in-plane delocalized 3-center 4-electron O-H-S hypervalent bond which is predicted to exist only in the transition state (TS) region. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. From physical symmetries to emergent gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barceló, Carlos; Carballo-Rubio, Raúl; Di Filippo, Francesco; Garay, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    Gauge symmetries indicate redundancies in the description of the relevant degrees of freedom of a given field theory and restrict the nature of observable quantities. One of the problems faced by emergent theories of relativistic fields is to understand how gauge symmetries can show up in systems that contain no trace of these symmetries at a more fundamental level. In this paper we start a systematic study aimed to establish a satisfactory mathematical and physical picture of this issue, dealing first with abelian field theories. We discuss how the trivialization, due to the decoupling and lack of excitation of some degrees of freedom, of the Noether currents associated with physical symmetries leads to emergent gauge symmetries in specific situations. An example of a relativistic field theory of a vector field is worked out in detail in order to make explicit how this mechanism works and to clarify the physics behind it. The interplay of these ideas with well-known results of importance to the emergent gravity program, such as the Weinberg-Witten theorem, are discussed.

  6. The Symmetry of Multiferroics

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, A. Brooks

    2006-01-01

    This paper represents a detailed instruction manual for constructing the Landau expansion for magnetoelectric coupling in incommensurate ferroelectric magnets. The first step is to describe the magnetic ordering in terms of symmetry adapted coordinates which serve as complex valued magnetic order parameters whose transformation properties are displayed. In so doing we use the previously proposed technique to exploit inversion symmetry, since this symmetry had been universally overlooked. Havi...

  7. CPLEAR et BABAR, all aspects of CP violation; CPLEAR et BABAR la violation de CP dans tous ses etats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeche, Ch

    2003-06-01

    This report of French 'Habilitation a diriger les recherches' summarizes my scientific activity from 1993 to 2003. During this decade, my research work was related to two particle physics experiments: CPLEAR and BABAR. The first one, CPLEAR, has recorded data from 1988 to 1995 on the low energy anti-proton ring (LEAR) at CERN. This experiment was devoted to the study of T, CPT et CP discrete symmetries. The second experiment, BABAR, has been running since 1999, on the PEP-II B factory at SLAC. This experiment searches for CP violation and tests the Standard Model through the measurements of the angles and the sides of the Unitarity Triangle. My research work is divided in five main topics: Study of CP and CPT violation in K{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +} {pi}{sup -} decays; Performance optimization of the particle identification detector (DIRC) of the BABAR experiment; B meson tagging in BABAR experiment; {delta}m{sub d} measurement and Search for CP and T violation in mixing with dilepton events; Search for CP violation in B{sup 0} {yields} {rho}{sup {+-}} {pi}{sup {+-}} and B{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup {+-}} K{sup {+-}} decays. (author)

  8. Dynamical symmetry breaking with hypercolour and high colour representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoupanos, G.

    1985-01-01

    A model is presented in which the electroweak gauge group is spontaneously broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the existence of high colour representations. An unattractive feature of this scenario was the necessity to introduce elementary Higgs fields in order to obtain the spontaneous symmetry breaking of part of the theory. In the present model, this breaking can also be understood dynamically with the introduction of hypercolour interactions. (author)

  9. Approximate and renormgroup symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibragimov, Nail H. [Blekinge Institute of Technology, Karlskrona (Sweden). Dept. of Mathematics Science; Kovalev, Vladimir F. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Mathematical Modeling

    2009-07-01

    ''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)

  10. Approximate and renormgroup symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibragimov, Nail H.; Kovalev, Vladimir F.

    2009-01-01

    ''Approximate and Renormgroup Symmetries'' deals with approximate transformation groups, symmetries of integro-differential equations and renormgroup symmetries. It includes a concise and self-contained introduction to basic concepts and methods of Lie group analysis, and provides an easy-to-follow introduction to the theory of approximate transformation groups and symmetries of integro-differential equations. The book is designed for specialists in nonlinear physics - mathematicians and non-mathematicians - interested in methods of applied group analysis for investigating nonlinear problems in physical science and engineering. (orig.)

  11. Symmetry breaking and scalar bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gildener, E.; Weinberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    There are reasons to suspect that the spontaneous breakdown of the gauge symmetries of the observed weak and electromagnetic interactions may be produced by the vacuum expectation values of massless weakly coupled elementary scalar fields. A method is described for finding the broken-symmetry solutions of such theories even when they contain arbitrary numbers of scalar fields with unconstrained couplings. In any such theory, there should exist a number of heavy Higgs bosons, with masses comparable to the intermediate vector bosons, plus one light Higgs boson, or ''scalon'' with mass of order αG/sub F/sub 1/2/. The mass and couplings of the scalon are calculable in terms of other masses, even without knowing all the details of the theory. For an SU(2) direct-product U(1) model with arbitrary numbers of scalar isodoublets, the scalon mass is greater than 5.26 GeV; a likely value is 7--10 GeV. The production and decay of the scalon are briefly considered. Some comments are offered on the relation between the mass scales associated with the weak and strong interactions

  12. Symmetry tests with intense hadron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, E.W.

    1994-08-01

    The Government of Canada has pulled the plug on funding of the KAON facility in Canada. But the science opportunities for symmetry tests with the kinds of beams that KAON would have provided remain. For example, the full intensity of kaons, which KAON would have provided, is needed to find the magnitude and phase of V td and therefore to describe direct CP violation. The combination of K + → π + ν ν - and K L o → π o ν ν - serve this purpose. A variety of other symmetry tests are possible with the kind of intense beams of kaons, antinucleons, other hadrons and neutrinos which KAON would have provided. A perspective will be given for such experiments and their future prospects, now that KAON will not be built. (author). 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs

  13. Family symmetries in F-theory GUTs

    CERN Document Server

    King, S F; Ross, G G

    2010-01-01

    We discuss F-theory SU(5) GUTs in which some or all of the quark and lepton families are assigned to different curves and family symmetry enforces a leading order rank one structure of the Yukawa matrices. We consider two possibilities for the suppression of baryon and lepton number violation. The first is based on Flipped SU(5) with gauge group SU(5)\\times U(1)_\\chi \\times SU(4)_{\\perp} in which U(1)_{\\chi} plays the role of a generalised matter parity. We present an example which, after imposing a Z_2 monodromy, has a U(1)_{\\perp}^2 family symmetry. Even in the absence of flux, spontaneous breaking of the family symmetry leads to viable quark, charged lepton and neutrino masses and mixing. The second possibility has an R-parity associated with the symmetry of the underlying compactification manifold and the flux. We construct an example of a model with viable masses and mixing angles based on the gauge group SU(5)\\times SU(5)_{\\perp} with a U(1)_{\\perp}^3 family symmetry after imposing a Z_2 monodromy.

  14. The geometric role of symmetry breaking in gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, Derek K

    2012-01-01

    In gravity, breaking symmetry from a group G to a group H plays the role of describing geometry in relation to the geometry of the homogeneous space G/H. The deep reason for this is Cartan's 'method of equivalence,' giving, in particular, an exact correspondence between metrics and Cartan connections. I argue that broken symmetry is thus implicit in any gravity theory, for purely geometric reasons. As an application, I explain how this kind of thinking gives a new approach to Hamiltonian gravity in which an observer field spontaneously breaks Lorentz symmetry and gives a Cartan connection on space.

  15. The nucleon- nucleon interaction and symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Oers, W T.H.

    1992-11-01

    With the advent of the possibility to study nucleon-nucleon scattering at medium energies, its extension to investigate fundamental symmetries was recognized early on. It was precisely the introduction of rotational invariance, parity conservation, time reversal invariance, and isotopic spin conversation that led to the description of the N - N scattering matrix in terms of five complex amplitudes: one set of five for proton-proton scattering and one set of five for neutron-proton scattering, or alternatively, one set for the isotopic spin state {iota}={omicron} and the other for the isotopic spin state {iota}=1. Clearly, if one or more of the above constraints are removed, there are additional amplitudes that need to be considered. To be meaningful, experiment requires observables that are particularly sensitive to the violation of a conservation law or symmetry principle. During the last decade a series of precision experiments has been performed to measure charge- symmetry breaking in n - p elastic scattering (corresponding to isotopic spin non-conservation), and to measure parity violation in p-p scattering. For a particle-anti-particle system,like the pp or {lambda}{lambda} system one can raise the question of CP violation in a system other than the neutral kaon system may become possible in the near future through pp {yields}{lambda}{lambda} and pp{yields} {identical_to} {identical_to}. A description is given of the ongoing efforts to measure charge symmetry breaking, parity violation and CP violation.(author). 42 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Viability of minimal left–right models with discrete symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Dekens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We provide a systematic study of minimal left–right models that are invariant under P, C, and/or CP transformations. Due to the high amount of symmetry such models are quite predictive in the amount and pattern of CP violation they can produce or accommodate at lower energies. Using current experimental constraints some of the models can already be excluded. For this purpose we provide an overview of the experimental constraints on the different left–right symmetric models, considering bounds from colliders, meson-mixing and low-energy observables, such as beta decay and electric dipole moments. The features of the various Yukawa and Higgs sectors are discussed in detail. In particular, we give the Higgs potentials for each case, discuss the possible vacua and investigate the amount of fine-tuning present in these potentials. It turns out that all left–right models with P, C, and/or CP symmetry have a high degree of fine-tuning, unless supplemented with mechanisms to suppress certain parameters. The models that are symmetric under both P and C are not in accordance with present observations, whereas the models with either P, C, or CP symmetry cannot be excluded by data yet. To further constrain and discriminate between the models measurements of B-meson observables at LHCb and B-factories will be especially important, while measurements of the EDMs of light nuclei in particular could provide complementary tests of the LRMs.

  17. Discrete R symmetries for the MSSM and its singlet extensions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Hyun Min; Ratz, Michael; Ross, Graham G; Schieren, Roland; Schmidt-Hoberg, Kai; Vaudrevange, Patrick K S

    2011-01-01

    We determine the anomaly free discrete R symmetries, consistent with the MSSM, that commute with SU(5) and suppress the $\\mu$ parameter and nucleon decay. We show that the order M of such $Z_M^R$ symmetries has to divide 24 and identify 5 viable symmetries. The simplest possibility is a $Z_4^R$ symmetry which commutes with SO(10). We present a string-derived model with this $Z_4^R$ symmetry and the exact MSSM spectrum below the GUT scale; in this model $Z_4^R$ originates from the Lorentz symmetry of compactified dimensions. We extend the discussion to include the singlet extensions of the MSSM and find $Z_4^R$ and $Z_8^R$ are the only possible symmetries capable of solving the $\\mu$ problem in the NMSSM. We also show that a singlet extension of the MSSM based on a $Z_{24}^R$ symmetry can provide a simultaneous solution to the $\\mu$ and strong CP problem with the axion coupling in the favoured window.

  18. CP-Recursion in Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyvad, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Vikner, Sten

    2017-01-01

    Based on data from extraction, embedded V2, and complementizer stacking, this paper proposes a cP/CP-analysis of CP-recursion in Danish. Because extraction can be shown to be possible from relative clauses, wh-islands, and adverbial clauses, and given that long extraction is successive......-cyclic, an extra specifier position has to be available as an escape hatch. Consequently, such extractions require a CP-recursion analysis, as has been argued for embedded V2 and for complementizer stacking. Given that CP-recursion in embedded V2 clauses does not allow extraction, whereas other types of CP......-recursion do, we suggest that embedded V2 is fundamentally different, in that main clause V2 and embedded V2 involve a CP (“big CP”), whereas all other clausal projections above IP are instances of cP (“little cP”). The topmost “little” c° has an occurrence feature that enables extraction but bars spell...

  19. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  20. Separate T, CP, CPT Asymmetries in Neutral Meson Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José

    2017-07-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I will discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2-σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K and Bd transitions. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV. A clean methodology to disentangle CPTV effects in the Hamiltonian dynamics and the ω-effect weakening Entanglement in a given experiment is discussed.

  1. Symmetry Festival 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.

  2. Quantum symmetry for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.

    1992-03-01

    Symmetries more general than groups are possible in quantum therory. Quantum symmetries in the narrow sense are compatible with braid statistics. They are theoretically consistent much as supersymmetry is, and they could lead to degenerate multiplets of excitations with fractional spin in thin films. (orig.)

  3. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr. ... principle of symmetry was not held as something very fundamental ... principle of local symmetry: the laws of physics are invariant un- .... Next, we would show that different coefficients of a state ...

  4. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...

  5. Symmetry and Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.

  6. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in modern physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barone, M; Theophilou, A K

    2008-01-01

    In modern physics, the theory of symmetry, i.e. group theory, is a basic tool for understanding and formulating the fundamental principles of Physics, like Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and Particle Physics. In this work we focus on the relation between Mathematics, Physics and objective reality

  7. Renormalisation group improved leptogenesis in family symmetry models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Iain K.; King, Stephen F.; Luhn, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    We study renormalisation group (RG) corrections relevant for leptogenesis in the case of family symmetry models such as the Altarelli-Feruglio A 4 model of tri-bimaximal lepton mixing or its extension to tri-maximal mixing. Such corrections are particularly relevant since in large classes of family symmetry models, to leading order, the CP violating parameters of leptogenesis would be identically zero at the family symmetry breaking scale, due to the form dominance property. We find that RG corrections violate form dominance and enable such models to yield viable leptogenesis at the scale of right-handed neutrino masses. More generally, the results of this paper show that RG corrections to leptogenesis cannot be ignored for any family symmetry model involving sizeable neutrino and τ Yukawa couplings.

  8. CP violation in the two-doublet Higgs sector of the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetzyanova, Eh.N.; Dolgopolov, M.V.; Dubinin, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    Models with extended two-doublet Higgs sector are discussed in view of using their particular features to find out which sources of CP violation could take place in nature. It is considered the effective two-Higgs-doublet potential with complex parameters, when the CP invariance is broken both explicitly and spontaneously. For case of the two-doublet Higgs sector of the minimal supersymmetric model, when CP invariance is violated by the interactions of Higgs fields with the third generation of scalar quarks, the Higgs bosons mass spectrum in the case of maximal CP mixing is calculated which is significantly different from CP-conserving case. The phenomenological consequences for the Higgs mass spectrum in the decoupling regime and for the strong mixing case are considered [ru

  9. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the central role is played by the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, investigate the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss the main strategies to explore CP violation and the preferred avenues for physics beyond the Standard Model to enter. This formalism is then applied to discuss the status of important B-factory benchmark modes, where we focus on puzzling patterns in the data that may indicate new-physics effects, as well as the prospects for B-decay studies at the LHC.

  10. Flavour physics and CP violation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    status and prospectives of the flavour physics associated with the strange, charm and .... might reveal something completely unexpected. Standard Model weak ..... Thus, in order to have an observable CP violation effect in the SM, the mixing.

  11. Light-cone gauge formulation for AdS4 x CP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uvarov, D.V.

    2011-01-01

    We review the Type IIA superstring on the AdS 4 x CP 3 background in the k-symmetry light-cone gauge characterized by the choice of the lightlike directions from the D = 3 Minkowski boundary of AdS 4 both in the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations

  12. Chiral-symmetry breakdown in large-N chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, S.; Witten, E.

    1980-01-01

    Chromodynamics with n flavors of massless quarks is invariant under chiral U(n) x U(n). It is shown that in the limit of a large number of colors, under reasonable assumptions, this symmetry group must spontaneously break down to diagonal U

  13. Symmetry-breaking and high-spin states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, F C [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1992-08-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in nuclear matter would require Nambu-Goldstone bosons in the system. A model calculation gives the nature of these excitations. In finite nuclei the excitations will be a mixture of rotational, surface vibrations and pseudo-Goldstone bosons. A search for such excitations would be fruitful. (author). 5 refs.

  14. Bosonization, dual transformation and non-local hidden symmetry in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Hiroyuki

    1985-01-01

    The non-local hidden symmetry is investigated in the bosonized non-abelian Thirring model and the dual representation of the chiral model. In these representations the first non-local symmetry is spontaneously broken in naive pertubation theory. (orig.)

  15. Mirror Symmetry Breaking and Restoration: The Role of Noise and Chiral Bias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David

    2009-01-01

    The nonequilibrium effective potential is computed for the Frank model of spontaneous mirror symmetry breaking (SMSB) in chemistry in which external noise is introduced to account for random environmental effects. When these fluctuations exceed a critical magnitude, mirror symmetry is restored. The competition between ambient noise and the chiral bias due to physical fields and polarized radiation can be explored with this potential.

  16. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and vector-meson dominance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldi, D.G.; Pagels, H.

    1977-01-01

    This article is a continuation of our previous work on the rho-π puzzle. It examines further consequences of the unification of partial conservation of axial-vector current (PCAC) and vector-meson dominance (VMD) in which the pion is a Goldstone state and the rho is a ''dormant'' Goldstone state. Our new picture of the vector mesons does not require an A 1 meson although such a state is not ruled out. The Weinberg sum rules which provide the raison d'etre for the A 1 are reexamined. The first Weinberg sum rule can be accommodated without a narrow A 1 state although some enhancement seems required. Examining the J/sup P C/ = 1 +- nonet we conclude that a new state, the isoscalar octet partner of the B (1235) should exist around 1.7 GeV assuming ideal mixing. Without a detailed assumption on the mixing angle, its mass should be in the range 1.4 to 1.7 GeV. We also discuss the photon-rho interactions. In the standard VMD picture the predicted rate for rho → π + γ fails by five standard deviations, while in our picture this undesired result is averted

  17. Spin-isospin mixing without spontaneous symmetry breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, A.; Roy, P.

    1983-01-01

    The phenomenon advertised in the title is demonstrated in an exactly symmetric SU(2) classical gauge theory with a scalar isodoublet of matter fields. Possible implications for chromodynamics are discussed briefly. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous symmetry breaking by double lithium adsorption in polyacenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz, Yenni. P.; Seligman, Thomas H.

    2010-01-01

    We show that adsorption of one lithium atom to polyacenes, i.e. chains of linearly fused benzene rings, will cause such chains to be slightly deformed. If we adsorb a second identical atom on the opposite side of the same ring, this deformation is dramatically enhanced despite the fact that a symmetric configuration seems possible. We argue, that this may be due to an instability of the Jahn-Teller type possibly indeed to a Peierls instability.

  19. Spontaneous breaking of spacetime symmetries and the inverse Higgs effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brauner, Tomáš; Watanabe, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 8 (2014), 085004 ISSN 1550-7998 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : phenomenological Lagrangians * broken generators Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  20. Comment on bag models with spontaneously broken color symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandel, M.

    1985-01-01

    A recently suggested field-theoretic bag model, where gluons are confined via a Higgs mechanism, is discussed. It is found that the proposed model creates gluon boundary conditions that break global SU/sub c/(3) invariance. A modified scheme that removes this anomaly is suggested. However, some severe generic problems remain. Examples are the lack of a suppression mechanism for states with open color and the large surface energy of the bag states

  1. Dissipation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in brain dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, Walter J; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    We compare the predictions of the dissipative quantum model of the brain with neurophysiological data collected from electroencephalograms resulting from high-density arrays fixed on the surfaces of primary sensory and limbic areas of trained rabbits and cats. Functional brain imaging in relation to behavior reveals the formation of coherent domains of synchronized neuronal oscillatory activity and phase transitions predicted by the dissipative model

  2. Soliton surfaces associated with generalized symmetries of integrable equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundland, A M; Post, S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, based on the Fokas et al approach (Fokas and Gel'fand 1996 Commun. Math. Phys. 177 203-20; Fokas et al 2000 Sel. Math. 6 347-75), we provide a symmetry characterization of continuous deformations of soliton surfaces immersed in a Lie algebra using the formalism of generalized vector fields, their prolongation structure and links with the Frechet derivatives. We express the necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such surfaces in terms of the invariance criterion for generalized symmetries and identify additional sufficient conditions which admit an explicit integration of the immersion functions of 2D surfaces in Lie algebras. We discuss in detail the su(N)-valued immersion functions generated by conformal symmetries of the CP N-1 sigma model defined on either the Minkowski or Euclidean space. We further show that the sufficient conditions for explicit integration of such immersion functions impose additional restrictions on the admissible conformal symmetries of the model defined on Minkowski space. On the other hand, the sufficient conditions are identically satisfied for arbitrary conformal symmetries of finite action solutions of the CP N-1 sigma model defined on Euclidean space.

  3. Hidden gauge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, L.

    1979-01-01

    This review describes the principles of hidden gauge symmetry and of its application to the fundamental interactions. The emphasis is on the structure of the theory rather than on the technical details and, in order to emphasise the structure, gauge symmetry and hidden symmetry are first treated as independent phenomena before being combined into a single (hidden gauge symmetric) theory. The main application of the theory is to the weak and electromagnetic interactions of the elementary particles, and although models are used for comparison with experiment and for illustration, emphasis is placed on those features of the application which are model-independent. (author)

  4. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  5. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, Thorsten; Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-08-01

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  6. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry.   It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.

  7. CP violation with self-tagging Bd modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunietz, I.

    1991-01-01

    Gronau and Wyler (GW) extract the weak phase γ and remove the dependence on final state phases by measuring six charged B mesons rates, which are grouped into two trinangles. This note applies the GW method to self-tagging B d modes. Self-tagging eliminates the need for time-dependent measurements. Of interest are the six rates, Γ(B d →D 0 K *0 )=Γ(anti B d →anti D 0 anti K *0 ), Γ(B d →anti D 0 K *0 )=Γ(anti B d →D 0 anti K *0 ), Γ(B d →D 0 CP K *0 ) and Γ(anti B d →D 0 CP anti K *0 ), where D 0 CP denotes a CP eigenmode of a D 0 or anti D 0 . Here the K *0 must be seen in its K + π - mode, which tags the beauty flavour. An additional handle exists to resolve an ambiguity in vertical strokesin γvertical stroke, which accomplished by isospin symmetry from B u and B d data. Preliminary results of a feasibility study are given. (orig.)

  8. Symmetries and groups in particle physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this book consists of a didactic introduction to the group-theoretical considerations and methods, which have led to an ever deeper understanding of the interactions of the elementary particles. The first three chapters deal primarily with the foundations of the representation theory of primarily finite groups, whereby many results are also transferable to compact Lie groups. In the third chapter we discuss the concept of Lie groups and their connection with Lie algebras. In the remaining chapter it is mainly about the application of group theory in physics. Chapter 4 deals with the groups SO(3) and SU(2), which occur in connection with the description of the angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We discuss the Wigner-Eckar theorem together with some applications. In chapter 5 we are employed to the composition properties of strongly interacting systems, so called hadrons, and discuss extensively the transformation properties of quarks with relation to the special unitary groups. The Noether theorem is generally treated in connection to the conservation laws belonging to the Galilei group and the Poincare group. We confine us in chapter 6 to internal symmetries, but explain for that extensively the application to quantum field theory. Especially an outlook on the effect of symmetries in form of so called Ward identities is granted. In chapter 7 we turn towards the gauge principle and discuss first the construction of quantum electrodynamics. In the following we generalize the gauge principle to non-Abelian groups (Yang-Mills theories) and formulate the quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Especially we take a view of ''random'' global symmetries of QCD, especially the chiral symmetry. In chapter 8 we illuminate the phenomenon of spontaneous symmetry breaking both for global and for local symmetries. In the final chapter we work out the group-theoretical structure of the Standard Model. Finally by means of the group SU(5) we take a view to

  9. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvan, J B; Perez-Mercader, J; Sanchez, F J

    1987-04-16

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems.

  10. Hierarchy stability for spontaneously broken theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvan, J.B.; Perez-Mercader, J.; Sanchez, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    By using Weisberger's method for the integration of heavy degrees of freedom in multiscale theories, we show that tree level hierarchies are not destabilized byquantum corrections in a two-scale, two scalar field theory model where the heavy sector undergoes spontaneous symmetry breaking. We see explicitly the role played by the one-loop heavy log corrections to the effective parameters in maintaining the original tree level hierarchy and in keeping the theory free of hierarchy problems. (orig.)

  11. Spontaneous fission of 259Md

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J.; Mustafa, M.; Ghiorso, A.; Nitschke, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide 259 Md were obtained. 259 Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of 259 No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. 259 Md, together with 258 Fm and 259 Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of 258 Fm and 259 Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for 259 Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in 259 Md. 6 figures

  12. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  13. Generalized symmetry algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragon, N.

    1979-01-01

    The possible use of trilinear algebras as symmetry algebras for para-Fermi fields is investigated. The shortcomings of the examples are argued to be a general feature of such generalized algebras. (author)

  14. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  15. Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.

    2011-01-01

    of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...

  16. Statistical symmetries in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, H.S.; Adelaide Univ., SA

    1994-01-01

    Every law of physics is invariant under some group of transformations and is therefore the expression of some type of symmetry. Symmetries are classified as geometrical, dynamical or statistical. At the most fundamental level, statistical symmetries are expressed in the field theories of the elementary particles. This paper traces some of the developments from the discovery of Bose statistics, one of the two fundamental symmetries of physics. A series of generalizations of Bose statistics is described. A supersymmetric generalization accommodates fermions as well as bosons, and further generalizations, including parastatistics, modular statistics and graded statistics, accommodate particles with properties such as 'colour'. A factorization of elements of ggl(n b ,n f ) can be used to define truncated boson operators. A general construction is given for q-deformed boson operators, and explicit constructions of the same type are given for various 'deformed' algebras. A summary is given of some of the applications and potential applications. 39 refs., 2 figs

  17. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  18. Dynamical symmetries for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  19. CP Studies and Non-Standard Higgs Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraml, S.; Accomando, E.; G. Akeroyd, A.

    2006-01-01

    There are many possibilities for new physics beyond the Standard Model that feature non-standard Higgs sectors. These may introduce new sources of CP violation, and there may be mixing between multiple Higgs bosons or other new scalar bosons. Alternatively, the Higgs may be a composite state......, or there may even be no Higgs at all. These non-standard Higgs scenarios have important implications for collider physics as well as for cosmology, and understanding their phenomenology is essential for a full comprehension of electroweak symmetry breaking. This report discusses the most relevant theories...

  20. Status of the CP lear experiment and first results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoni, C.; Adler, R.; Angelopoulos, A.; Apostolakis, A.; Aslanides, E.; Backenstoss, G.; Bee, C.B.; Bennet, J.; Beveren, E.V.; Bloch, P.; Bula, C.; Burgun, G.; Carlson, P.; Carvalho, J.; Charalambous, S.; Chardalas, M.; Cobbaert, H.; Dedoussis, S.; Dejardin, M.; Derre, J.; Dodgson, M.; Doussee, J.C.; Duclos, J.; Ealet, A.; Eckart, B.; Faravel, L.; Fassnacht, P.; Faure, J.L.; Felder, C.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Fetscher, W.; Fidecaro, M.; Filipcic, A.; Francis, D.; Fry, J.; Fuglesang, C.; Gabathuler, E.; Gamet, R.; Garreta, D.; Geralis, T.; Gerber, H.J.; Go, A.; Gumpliger, P.; Guyot, C.; Harrison, P.F.; Hayman, P.J.; Heyes, W.G.; Hollander, R.W.; Jansson, K.; Johner, H.J.; Jon-And, K.; Kerek, A.; Kern, J.; Kettle, P.R.; Kochowski, C.; Kokkas, P.; Kossionides, E.; Kreuger, R.; Lawry, T.; Gac, R. le; Machado, E.; Maley, P.; Manthos, N.; Marel, G.; Marotte, P.; Mikuz, M.; Miller, J.; Montanet, F.; Nakada, T.; Onofre, A.; Pagels, B.; Paradelis, T.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Pelucchi, F.; Pinto da Cunha, J.; Policarpo, A.; Postma, H.; Rickenbach, R.; Roberts, B.L.; Rozaki, E.; Ruf, T.; Sacks, L.; Sakeliou, L.; Sanders, P.; Sarigianis, K.; Schaller, L.; Schopper, A.; Seljak, U.; Szilagyi, S.; Tauscher, L.; Thibault, C.; Touchard, F.; Touramanis, C.; Triantis, F.; Troester, D.A.; Putte, M. van de; Eijk, C.W.W. van; Varner, G.; Vlachos, S.; Weber, P.; Witzig, C.; Zavrtanik, D.; Zimmermann, D.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the CP LEAR experiment is to study symmetry-violation effects, making use of tagged K 0 's and anti K 0 's. The detector, although missing some electronic components, has been operational for a few weeks at the end of 1989 at the CERN Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). At the moment, the analysis of the data is in progress. This paper gives a description of the experimental method and of the detector; the sensitivities of some measurements and some preliminary results are also discussed. (orig.)

  1. Measuring $CP$ violation with $\\Delta A_{CP}$ at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Alex

    2014-01-01

    The control of systematic uncertainties is a key component of many analyses performed at the Large Hadron Collider, and will only become more important as more data are taken during Run II. Many of the CP measurements performed using the LHCb detector have statistical precisions below the per cent level, and so particular care must be taken in this area. One technique for dealing with the various production and detection asymmetries which can mask the physics asymmetry of interest, and increase the measurement’s systematic uncertainty, is $\\Delta A_{CP}$ . The application of $\\Delta A_{CP}$ in three separate LHCb analyses of $D^{0}$ and $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ decays will be discussed, along with prospects for applying the technique to $\\Lambda_{c}^{+}$ decays.

  2. Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.

  3. Flavour from accidental symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferretti, Luca; King, Stephen F.; Romanino, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    We consider a new approach to fermion masses and mixings in which no special 'horizontal' dynamics is invoked to account for the hierarchical pattern of charged fermion masses and for the peculiar features of neutrino masses. The hierarchy follows from the vertical, family-independent structure of the model, in particular from the breaking pattern of the Pati-Salam group. The lightness of the first two fermion families can be related to two family symmetries emerging in this context as accidental symmetries

  4. Constrained Gauge Fields from Spontaneous Lorentz Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Chkareuli, J L; Jejelava, J G; Nielsen, H B

    2008-01-01

    Spontaneous Lorentz violation realized through a nonlinear vector field constraint of the type $A_{\\mu}^{2}=M^{2}$ ($M$ is the proposed scale for Lorentz violation) is shown to generate massless vector Goldstone bosons, gauging the starting global internal symmetries in arbitrary relativistically invariant theories. The gauge invariance appears in essence as a necessary condition for these bosons not to be superfluously restricted in degrees of freedom, apart from the constraint due to which the true vacuum in a theory is chosen by the Lorentz violation. In the Abelian symmetry case the only possible theory proves to be QED with a massless vector Goldstone boson naturally associated with the photon, while the non-Abelian symmetry case results in a conventional Yang-Mills theory. These theories, both Abelian and non-Abelian, look essentially nonlinear and contain particular Lorentz (and $CPT$) violating couplings when expressed in terms of the pure Goldstone vector modes. However, they do not lead to physical ...

  5. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  6. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  7. Spontaneous baryogenesis in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abel, S.A.; Cottingham, W.N.; Whittingham, I.B.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we extent the results of previous work on spontaneous baryogenesis to general models involving charge-parity (CP) violation in the Higgs sector. We show how to deal with Chern-Simons terms appearing in the effective potential arising from phase changes in the vacuum expectation values of the Higgs fields. In particular, this enables us to apply this mechanism to general supersymmetric models including the minimal supersymmetric standard model, and the extended model with a gauge singlet. A comparison is made between this approach, and that in which one solves the equations of motion for Higgs winding modes. As anticipated in earlier work, the effect of the latter approach is found to be small. (Author)

  8. CpG + CpNpG Analysis of Protein-Coding Sequences from Tomato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Nielsen, Rasmus; Wang, Ying

    2006-01-01

    We develop codon-based models for simultaneously inferring the mutational effects of CpG and CpNpG methylation in coding regions. In a data set of 369 tomato genes, we show that there is very little effect of CpNpG methylation but a strong effect of CpG methylation affecting almost all genes. We...... further show that the CpNpG and CpG effects are largely uncorrelated. Our results suggest different roles of CpG and CpNpG methylation, with CpNpG methylation possibly playing a specialized role in defense against transposons and RNA viruses....

  9. S{sub 3} flavor symmetry and leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Jisuke [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Paschos, Emmanuel A [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Dortmund, Dortmund (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    It is found that a Majorana phase in a minimal S{sub 3} extension of the standard model with an additional Z{sub 2} symmetry in the leptonic sector is responsible for leptogenesis. We assume that the resonant enhancement of the CP asymmetries takes place to obtain a realistic size of baryon number asymmetry in the universe. We expect the masses of the right-handed neutrino are of O(10) TeV in this model. (author)

  10. Flavour symmetries and SUSY soft breaking in the LHC era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vives, O

    2008-01-01

    The so-called supersymmetric flavour problem does not exist in isolation to the Standard Model flavour problem. We show that a realistic flavour symmetry can simultaneously solve both problems without ad hoc modifications of the SUSY model. Furthermore, departures from the SM expectations in these models can be used to discriminate among different possibilities. In particular we present the expected values for the electron EDM in a flavour model solving the supersymmetric flavour and CP problems

  11. On the Universality of CP Violation in Delta F = 1 Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Gedalia, Oram; Ligeti, Zoltan; Perez, Gilad

    2012-01-01

    We show that new physics that breaks the left-handed SU(3)_Q quark flavor symmetry induces contributions to CP violation in Delta F = 1 processes which are approximately universal, in that they are not affected by flavor rotations between the up and the down mass bases. Therefore, such flavor violation cannot be aligned, and is constrained by the strongest bound from either the up or the down sectors. We use this result to show that the bound from eps'/eps prohibits an SU(3)_Q breaking explanation of the recent LHCb evidence for CP violation in D meson decays. Another consequence of this universality is that supersymmetric alignment models with a moderate mediation scale are consistent with the data, and are harder to probe via CP violating observables. With current constraints, therefore, squarks need not be degenerate. However, future improvements in the measurement of CP violation in D-Dbar mixing will start to probe alignment models.

  12. Effects of Higgs sector CP violation in top-quark pair production at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bernreuther, W; Flesch, M

    1998-01-01

    A striking manifestation of CP violation in the electroweak symmetry breaking sector would be the existence of neutral Higgs boson(s) with undefined CP parity. We analyse signatures of such a boson, with a mass of about 300 GeV or larger, produced in high energy proton-proton collisions at LHC energies in its top-quark antitop-quark decay channel. The large irreducible $t\\bar t$ background is taken into account. We propose, both for the dilepton and the lepton + jets decay channels of $t\\bar t$, several correlations and asymmetries with which (Higgs sector) CP violation can be traced. We show that for judiciously chosen cuts on the $t\\bar t$ invariant mass these CP observables yield, for an LHC integrated luminosity of 100 $\\rm{fb}^{-1}$, statistically significant signals for a range of Higgs boson masses and Yukawa couplings.

  13. Common origin of soft μ−τ and CP breaking in neutrino seesaw and the origin of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Shao-Feng; He, Hong-Jian; Yin, Fu-Rong

    2010-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation data strongly support μ – τ symmetry as a good approximate flavor symmetry of the neutrino sector, which has to appear in any viable theory for neutrino mass-generation. The μ – τ breaking is not only small, but also the source of Dirac CP-violation. We conjecture that both discrete μ – τ and CP symmetries are fundamental symmetries of the seesaw Lagrangian (respected by interaction terms), and they are only softly broken, arising from a common origin via a unique dimension-3 Majorana mass-term of the heavy right-handed neutrinos. From this conceptually attractive and simple construction, we can predict the soft μ – τ breaking at low energies, leading to quantitative correlations between the apparently two small deviations θ 23 −45° and θ 13 −0°. This nontrivially connects the on-going measurements of mixing angle θ 23 with the upcoming experimental probes of θ 13 . We find that any deviation of θ 23 −45° must put a lower limit on θ 13 . Furthermore, we deduce the low energy Dirac and Majorana CP violations from a common soft-breaking phase associated with μ – τ breaking in the neutrino seesaw. Finally, from the soft CP breaking in neutrino seesaw we derive the cosmological CP violation for the baryon asymmetry via leptogenesis. We fully reconstruct the leptogenesis CP-asymmetry from the low energy Dirac CP phase and establish a direct link between the cosmological CP-violation and the low energy Jarlskog invariant. We predict new lower and upper bounds on the θ 13 mixing angle, 1°∼ 13 ∼ 12 by its group-parameter, and includes the conventional tri-bimaximal mixing as a special case, allowing deviations from it

  14. Finding CP-violating Higgses

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinowski, Jan

    1999-01-01

    In a general two-Higgs-doublet model with CP violation in the Higgs sector, the three neutral physical Higgs bosons have no definite CP properties. A new sum rule relating Yukawa and Higgs-Z couplings implies that a neutral Higgs boson cannot escape detection at an e^+e^- collider if it is kinematically accessible in Z+Higgs, $b\\bar b+$Higgs and $t\\bar t+$Higgs production, irrespective of the mixing angles and the masses of the other neutral Higgs bosons. The implications of the sum rules for...

  15. On the strong CP problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowrick, N.J. (Dept. of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom)); McDougall, N.A. (National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1992-07-09

    We show that two well-known solutions to the strong CP problem, the axion and a massless quark, may be understood in terms of the mechanism recently proposed by Samuel where long-range interactions between topological charges may be responsible for the removal of CP violation. We explain how the axion and a QCD meson (identified as the {eta}' if all quarks are massless) suppress fluctuations in global topological charge by almost identical dynamical although the masses, couplings and relevant length scales are very different. Furthermore, we elucidate the precise origin of the {eta}' mass. (orig.).

  16. The Nature of the Chemical Process. 1. Symmetry Evolution – Revised Information Theory, Similarity Principle and Ugly Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Symmetry is a measure of indistinguishability. Similarity is a continuous measure of imperfect symmetry. Lewis' remark that “gain of entropy means loss of information” defines the relationship of entropy and information. Three laws of information theory have been proposed. Labeling by introducing nonsymmetry and formatting by introducing symmetry are defined. The function L ( L=lnw, w is the number of microstates, or the sum of entropy and information, L=S+I of the universe is a constant (the first law of information theory. The entropy S of the universe tends toward a maximum (the second law law of information theory. For a perfect symmetric static structure, the information is zero and the static entropy is the maximum (the third law law of information theory. Based on the Gibbs inequality and the second law of the revised information theory we have proved the similarity principle (a continuous higher similarity−higher entropy relation after the rejection of the Gibbs paradox and proved the Curie-Rosen symmetry principle (a higher symmetry−higher stability relation as a special case of the similarity principle. The principles of information minimization and potential energy minimization are compared. Entropy is the degree of symmetry and information is the degree of nonsymmetry. There are two kinds of symmetries: dynamic and static symmetries. Any kind of symmetry will define an entropy and, corresponding to the dynamic and static symmetries, there are static entropy and dynamic entropy. Entropy in thermodynamics is a special kind of dynamic entropy. Any spontaneous process will evolve towards the highest possible symmetry, either dynamic or static or both. Therefore the revised information theory can be applied to characterizing all kinds of structural stability and process spontaneity. Some examples in chemical physics have been given. Spontaneous processes of all kinds of molecular

  17. Methyl-CpG binding-protein 2 function in cholinergic neurons mediates cardiac arrhythmogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, José A; Ward, Christopher S; Wehrens, Xander H T; Neul, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-15

    Sudden unexpected death occurs in one quarter of deaths in Rett Syndrome (RTT), a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by mutations in Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). People with RTT show a variety of autonomic nervous system (ANS) abnormalities and mouse models show similar problems including QTc interval prolongation and hypothermia. To explore the role of cardiac problems in sudden death in RTT, we characterized cardiac rhythm in mice lacking Mecp2 function. Male and female mutant mice exhibited spontaneous cardiac rhythm abnormalities including bradycardic events, sinus pauses, atrioventricular block, premature ventricular contractions, non-sustained ventricular arrhythmias, and increased heart rate variability. Death was associated with spontaneous cardiac arrhythmias and complete conduction block. Atropine treatment reduced cardiac arrhythmias in mutant mice, implicating overactive parasympathetic tone. To explore the role of MeCP2 within the parasympathetic neurons, we selectively removed MeCP2 function from cholinergic neurons (MeCP2 ChAT KO), which recapitulated the cardiac rhythm abnormalities, hypothermia, and early death seen in RTT male mice. Conversely, restoring MeCP2 only in cholinergic neurons rescued these phenotypes. Thus, MeCP2 in cholinergic neurons is necessary and sufficient for autonomic cardiac control, thermoregulation, and survival, and targeting the overactive parasympathetic system may be a useful therapeutic strategy to prevent sudden unexpected death in RTT.

  18. Gauged Supergravities and Spontaneous Supersymmetry Breaking from the Double Copy Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodaroli, M.; Günaydin, M.; Johansson, H.; Roiban, R.

    2018-04-01

    Supergravities with gauged R symmetry and Minkowski vacua allow for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and, as such, provide a framework for building supergravity models of phenomenological relevance. In this Letter, we initiate the study of double copy constructions for these supergravities. We argue that, on general grounds, we expect their scattering amplitudes to be described by a double copy of the type (spontaneously broken gauge theory)⊗ (gauge theory with broken supersymmetry). We present a simple realization in which the resulting supergravity has U (1 )R gauge symmetry, spontaneously broken N =2 supersymmetry, and massive gravitini. This is the first instance of a double copy construction of a gauged supergravity and of a theory with spontaneously broken supersymmetry. The construction extends in a straightforward manner to a large family of gauged Yang-Mills-Einstein supergravity theories with or without spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking.

  19. Symmetry violating kaon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, P.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the muon number violating decay modes of the K-mesons is given. Subsequently, some new developments in the field of CP-violation are reviewed and the question of time-reversal invariance and the status of CPT-invariance are briefly considered. 42 references

  20. Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G

    2002-01-01

    Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...

  1. Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 2. Symmetry of larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V

    2001-02-01

    Larvae of priapulids are characterized by radial symmetry evident from both external and internal characters of the introvert and lorica. The bilaterality appears as a result of a combination of several radial symmetries: pentaradial symmetry of the teeth, octaradial symmetry of the primary scalids, 25-radial symmetry of scalids, biradial symmetry of the neck, and biradial and decaradial symmetry of the trunk. Internal radiality is exhibited by musculature and the circumpharyngeal nerve ring. Internal bilaterality is evident from the position of the ventral nerve cord and excretory elements. Externally, the bilaterality is determined by the position of the anal tubulus and two shortened midventral rows of scalids bordering the ventral nerve cord. The lorical elements define the biradial symmetry that is missing in adult priapulids. The radial symmetry of larvae is a secondary appearance considered an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of the benthic sediment. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. CP violation in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, H.R.

    1994-02-01

    She reviews how one can test the Standard Model predictions for CP violation. This test requires sufficient independent measurements to overconstrain the model parameters and thus be sensitive to possible beyond Standard Model contributions. She addresses the challenges for theory as well as for experiment to achieve such a test

  3. Flavour Physics and CP Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Fleischer, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The starting point of these lectures is an introduction to the weak interactions of quarks and the Standard-Model description of CP violation, where the key element is the Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa matrix and the corresponding unitarity triangles. Since the B-meson system will govern the stage of (quark) flavour physics and CP violation in this decade, it will be -- after a brief look at the kaon system -- our main focus. We shall classify B-meson decays, introduce the theoretical tools to deal with them, explore the requirements for non-vanishing CP-violating asymmetries, and discuss B^0_q--B^0_q_bar mixing (q={d,s}). We will then turn to B-factory benchmark modes, discuss the physics potential of B^0_s mesons, which is particularly promising for B-decay experiments at hadron colliders, and emphasize the importance of studies of rare decays, which are absent at the tree level in the Standard Model, complement nicely the studies of CP violation, and provide interesting probes for new physics.

  4. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  5. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .

  6. CP violation in neutral B decays to non-CP-eigenstates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, B.

    1992-01-01

    If CP violation comes from complex phases in the quark mixing matrix, then neutral B decays to CP eigenstates will exhibit large, cleanly-predicted CP-violating effects. The authors show that the same is true of neutral B decays to several types of ''near-CP-eigenstates.'' By experimentally studying the latter decays as well as those to the CP eigenstates, one will be able to obtain more definitive information on CP violation from a given number of B mesons

  7. CP violation in a multi-Higgs-doublet model with flavor-changing neutral currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; He, X.

    1994-01-01

    We study CP violation in multi-Higgs-doublet model based on a S 3 xZ 3 horizontal symmetry where the CKM phase is not the principal source of CP violation. We consider two mechanisms for CP violation in this model: (a) CP violation due to complex Yukawa couplings, and (b) CP violation due to scalar-pseudoscalar Higgs boson mixings. Both mechanisms can explain the observed CP violation in the neutral kaon system. ε'/ε due to neutral Higgs boson exchange is small in both mechanisms, but charged Higgs boson contributions can be as large as 10 -4 for (a) and 10 -3 for (b). CP violation in the neutral B system is, however, quite different from the minimal standard model. The neutron electric dipole moment can be as large as the present experimental bound, and can be used to constrain charged Higgs boson masses. The electron EDM is one order of magnitude below the experimental bound in case (b) and smaller in case (a)

  8. Symmetry, structure, and spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational

  9. Symmetry and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P.

    2002-01-01

    We find the group of symmetry transformations under which the Einstein equations for the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe are form invariant. They relate the energy density and the pressure of the fluid to the expansion rate. We show that inflation can be obtained from nonaccelerated scenarios by a symmetry transformation. We derive the transformation rule for the spectrum and spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Finally, the group is extended to investigate inflation in the anisotropic Bianchi type-I spacetime and the brane-world cosmology

  10. Mu-tau reflection symmetry with a texture-zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, C.C. [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC - UFABC,Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André - SP, 09210-580 (Brazil); Sánchez-Vega, B.L. [Instituto de Física Teórica - Universidade Estadual Paulista,R. Dr. Bento Teobaldo Ferraz 271, Barra Funda São Paulo - SP, 01140-070 (Brazil)

    2017-01-17

    The μτ-reflection symmetry is a simple symmetry capable of predicting all the unknown CP phases of the lepton sector and the atmospheric angle but too simple to predict the absolute neutrino mass scale or the mass ordering. We show that by combining it with a discrete abelian symmetry in a nontrivial way we can additionally enforce a texture-zero and obtain a highly predictive scenario where the lightest neutrino mass is fixed to be in the few meV range for two normal ordering (NO) solutions or in the tens of meV in one inverted ordering (IO) solution. The rate for neutrinoless double beta decay is predicted to be negligible for NO or have effective mass m{sub ββ}≈14–29 meV for IO, right in the region to be probed in future experiments.

  11. The one-loop contributions to c(t) electric dipole moment in the CP-violating BLMSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shu-Min; Feng, Tai-Fu; Yang, Zhong-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Dong, Xing-Xing [Hebei University, Department of Physics, Baoding (China); Guo, Tao [Hebei University of Geosciences, School of Mathematics and Science, Shijiazhuang (China)

    2017-02-15

    In the CP-violating supersymmetric extension of the standard model with local gauged baryon and lepton symmetries (BLMSSM), there are new CP-violating sources which can give new contributions to the quark electric dipole moment (EDM). Considering the CP-violating phases, we analyze the EDMs of the quarks c and t. We take into account the contributions from the one-loop diagrams. The numerical results are analyzed with some assumptions on the relevant parameter space. The numerical results for the c and t EDMs can reach large values. (orig.)

  12. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-01-01

    In these two lectures the author discusses electroweak symmetry breaking from a general perspective, stressing properties that are model independent and follow just from the assumption that the electroweak interactions are described by a spontaneously broken gauge theory. This means he assumes the Higgs mechanism though not necessarily the existence of Higgs bosons. The first lecture presents the general framework of a spontaneously broken gauge theory: (1) the Higgs mechanism sui generis, with or without Higgs boson(s) and (2) the implications of symmetry and unitarity for the mass scale and interaction strength of the new physics that the Higgs mechanism requires. In addition he reviews a softer theoretical argument based on the naturalness problem which leads to a prejudice against Higgs bosons unless they are supersymmetric. This is a prejudice, not a theorem, and it could be overturned in the future by a clever new idea. In the second lecture he illustrates the general framework by reviewing some specific models: (1) the Weinberg-Salam model of the Higgs sector; (2) the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Weinberg-Salam model; and (3) technicolor as an example of the Higgs mechanism without Higgs bosons. He concludes the second lecture with a discussion of strong WW scattering that must occur if L SB lives above 1 TeV. In particular he describes some of the experimental signals and backgrounds at the SSC. 57 refs., 12 figs

  13. Chiral symmetry breaking and the pion quark structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, V.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in hadronic matter is first studied in the framework of the Nambu and Jona-Lasinio model on one hand and its generalisation to finite hadron size on the other hand. The analysis uses a variational procedure modelled after the BCS superconductor. Our study indicates for example, a great sensitivity of various quantities characterizing the breaking of symmetry to the shape of the interaction. Also the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry is essentially related to the mechanism of confinement. When a symmetry is spontaneously broken, there exists a Goldstone particle of zero mass. This is true in our model. This particle, the pion, is obtained as solution of a Bethe Salpeter equation for a qantiq bound state. This enables us to establish a connection between the pion as a Goldstone boson related to spontaneous symmetry breaking and the quark-antiquark structure of the pion. The finite mass of the physical pion is obtained with non zero current quark mass. Various properties of this particle are then studied in the RPA formalism. One important point of our model is the highly collective character of the pion. 85 refs [fr

  14. Symmetry realization via a dynamical inverse Higgs mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Ira Z.; Shrivastava, Prashant

    2018-05-01

    The Ward identities associated with spontaneously broken symmetries can be saturated by Goldstone bosons. However, when space-time symmetries are broken, the number of Goldstone bosons necessary to non-linearly realize the symmetry can be less than the number of broken generators. The loss of Goldstones may be due to a redundancy or the generation of a gap. In either case the associated Goldstone may be removed from the spectrum. This phenomena is called an Inverse Higgs Mechanism (IHM) and its appearance has a well defined mathematical condition. However, there are cases when a Goldstone boson associated with a broken generator does not appear in the low energy theory despite the lack of the existence of an associated IHM. In this paper we will show that in such cases the relevant broken symmetry can be realized, without the aid of an associated Goldstone, if there exists a proper set of operator constraints, which we call a Dynamical Inverse Higgs Mechanism (DIHM). We consider the spontaneous breaking of boosts, rotations and conformal transformations in the context of Fermi liquids, finding three possible paths to symmetry realization: pure Goldstones, no Goldstones and DIHM, or some mixture thereof. We show that in the two dimensional degenerate electron system the DIHM route is the only consistent way to realize spontaneously broken boosts and dilatations, while in three dimensions these symmetries could just as well be realized via the inclusion of non-derivatively coupled Goldstone bosons. We present the action, including the leading order non-linearities, for the rotational Goldstone (angulon), and discuss the constraint associated with the possible DIHM that would need to be imposed to remove it from the spectrum. Finally we discuss the conditions under which Goldstone bosons are non-derivatively coupled, a necessary condition for the existence of a Dynamical Inverse Higgs Constraint (DIHC), generalizing the results for Vishwanath and Wantanabe.

  15. Lepton mixing from Δ(3n2 and Δ(6n2 and CP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Hagedorn

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We perform a detailed study of lepton mixing patterns arising from a scenario with three Majorana neutrinos in which a discrete flavor group Gf=Δ(3n2 or Gf=Δ(6n2 and a CP symmetry are broken to residual symmetries Ge=Z3 and Gν=Z2×CP in the charged lepton and neutrino sectors, respectively. While we consider all possible Z3 and Z2 generating elements, we focus on a certain set of CP transformations. The resulting lepton mixing depends on group theoretical indices and one continuous parameter. In order to study the mixing patterns comprehensively for all admitted Ge and Gν, it is sufficient to discuss only three types of combinations. One of them requires as flavor group Δ(6n2. Two types of combinations lead to mixing patterns with a trimaximal column, while the third one allows for a much richer structure. For the first type of combinations the Dirac phase as well as one of the Majorana phases are trivial, whereas the other two types of combinations predict in general all CP phases to be non-trivial and also non-maximal. Already for small values of the index n of the group, n≤11, experimental data on lepton mixing can be accommodated well for particular choices of the parameters of the theory. We also comment on the relation of the used CP transformations to the automorphisms of Δ(3n2 and Δ(6n2.

  16. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  17. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  18. Approximate symmetries of Hamiltonians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Christopher T.; Flammia, Steven T.

    2017-08-01

    We explore the relationship between approximate symmetries of a gapped Hamiltonian and the structure of its ground space. We start by considering approximate symmetry operators, defined as unitary operators whose commutators with the Hamiltonian have norms that are sufficiently small. We show that when approximate symmetry operators can be restricted to the ground space while approximately preserving certain mutual commutation relations. We generalize the Stone-von Neumann theorem to matrices that approximately satisfy the canonical (Heisenberg-Weyl-type) commutation relations and use this to show that approximate symmetry operators can certify the degeneracy of the ground space even though they only approximately form a group. Importantly, the notions of "approximate" and "small" are all independent of the dimension of the ambient Hilbert space and depend only on the degeneracy in the ground space. Our analysis additionally holds for any gapped band of sufficiently small width in the excited spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and we discuss applications of these ideas to topological quantum phases of matter and topological quantum error correcting codes. Finally, in our analysis, we also provide an exponential improvement upon bounds concerning the existence of shared approximate eigenvectors of approximately commuting operators under an added normality constraint, which may be of independent interest.

  19. Molecular symmetry and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Philip; Jensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    The first edition, by P.R. Bunker, published in 1979, remains the sole textbook that explains the use of the molecular symmetry group in understanding high resolution molecular spectra. Since 1979 there has been considerable progress in the field and a second edition is required; the original author has been joined in its writing by Per Jensen. The Material of the first edition has been reorganized and much has been added. The molecular symmetry group is now introduced early on, and the explanation of how to determine nuclear spin statistical weights has been consolidated in one chapter, after groups, symmetry groups, character tables and the Hamiltonian have been introduced. A description of the symmetry in the three-dimensional rotation group K(spatial), irreducible spherical tensor operators, and vector coupling coefficients is now included. The chapters on energy levels and selection rules contain a great deal of material that was not in the first edition (much of it was undiscovered in 1979), concerning ...

  20. Introduction to chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, V.

    1996-01-01

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. Effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model will be discussed as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. Some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions will be presented

  1. The politics of symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pels, D.L.

    While symmetry and impartiality have become ruling principles in S&TS, defining its core ideal of a 'value-free relativism', their philosophical anchorage has attracted much less discussion than the issue or:how far their jurisdiction can be extended or generalized. This paper seeks to argue that

  2. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...

  3. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...

  4. Groups and Symmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Groups and Symmetry: A Guide to Discovering Mathematics. Geetha Venkataraman. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  5. Aspects of W∞ symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezgin, E.

    1991-08-01

    We review the structure of W ∞ algebras, their super and topological extensions, and their contractions down to (super) w ∞ . Emphasis is put on the field theoretic realizations of these algebras. We also review the structure of w ∞ and W ∞ gravities and comment on various applications of W ∞ symmetry. (author). 42 refs

  6. Non-Noetherian symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, Sergio A.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to present some of the ways in which non-Noetherian symmetries are used in contemporary mathematical physics. These include, among others, obtaining conservation laws for dynamical systems, solving non-linear problems, getting alternative Lagrangians for systems of differential equations and constructing symplectic structures and Hamiltonians for dynamical systems starting from scratch

  7. Detection symmetry and asymmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    du Buf, J.M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments were performed on the detection symmetry and asymmetry of incremental and decremental disks, as a function of both disk diameter and duration. It was found that, for a background luminance of 300cd.m-2, thresholds of dynamic (briefly presented) foveal disks are symmetrical for all

  8. From symmetries to dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, J.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of a uniform description of symmetries, their dynamic disturbing and the structure of the vacuum is discussed. The role which problems of this kind played in searching for and understanding the Standard Model of elementary particles from the 1960s till now is also highlighted. (Z.J.)

  9. Fields, symmetries, and quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosel, U.

    1989-01-01

    'Fields, symmetries, and quarks' covers elements of quantum field theory, symmetries, gauge field theories and phenomenological descriptions of hadrons, with special emphasis on topics relevant to nuclear physics. It is aimed at nuclear physicists in general and at scientists who need a working knowledge of field theory, symmetry principles of elementary particles and their interactions and the quark structure of hadrons. The book starts out with an elementary introduction into classical field theory and its quantization. As gauge field theories require a working knowledge of global symmetries in field theories this topic is then discussed in detail. The following part is concerned with the general structure of gauge field theories and contains a thorough discussion of the still less widely known features of Non-Abelian gauge field theories. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), which is important for the understanding of hadronic matter, is discussed in the next section together with the quark compositions of hadrons. The last two chapters give a detailed discussion of phenomenological bag-models. The MIT bag is discussed, so that all theoretical calculations can be followed step by step. Since in all other bag-models the calculational methods and steps are essentially identical, this chapter should enable the reader to actually perform such calculations unaided. A last chapter finally discusses the topological bag-models which have become quite popular over the last few years. (orig.)

  10. Symmetry of priapulids (Priapulida). 1. Symmetry of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrianov, A V; Malakhov, V V

    2001-02-01

    Priapulids possess a radial symmetry that is remarkably reflected in both external morphology and internal anatomy. It results in the appearance of 25-radial (a number divisible by five) symmetry summarized as a combination of nonaradial, octaradial, and octaradial (9+8+8) symmetries of scalids. The radial symmetry is a secondary appearance considered as an evolutionary adaptation to a lifestyle within the three-dimensional environment of bottom sediment. The eight anteriormost, or primary, scalids retain their particular position because of their innervation directly from the circumpharyngeal brain. As a result of a combination of the octaradial symmetry of primary scalids, pentaradial symmetry of teeth, and the 25-radial symmetry of scalids, the initial bilateral symmetry remains characterized by the single sagittal plane. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Invariant renormalization method for nonlinear realizations of dynamical symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, D.I.; Pervushin, V.N.; Pushkin, S.V.

    1977-01-01

    The structure of ultraviolet divergences is investigated for the field theoretical models with nonlinear realization of the arbitrary semisimple Lie group, with spontaneously broken symmetry of vacuum. An invariant formulation of the background field method of renormalization is proposed which gives the manifest invariant counterterms off mass shell. A simple algorithm for construction of counterterms is developed. It is based on invariants of the group of dynamical symmetry in terms of the Cartan forms. The results of one-loop and two-loop calculations are reported

  12. B Factories and CP Violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    In this lecture, I will give an overview of the current and planned B meson facilities and the motivation for building them. The emphasis will be on the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II accelerator and on the primary physics motivation for these facilities: charge-parity symmetry violation. (Author) 11 refs

  13. Spontaneously generated gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1981-01-01

    We show, following a recent suggestion of Adler, that gravity may arise as a consequence of dynamical symmetry breaking in a scale- and gauge-invariant world. Our calculation is not tied to any specific scheme of dynamical symmetry breaking. A representation for Newton's coupling constant in terms of flat-space quantities is derived. The sign of Newton's coupling constant appears to depend on infrared details of the symmetry-breaking mechanism

  14. Discrete symmetries: A broken look at QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1996-01-01

    The alphabet soup of discrete symmetries is briefly surveyed with a view towards those which can be tested at LISS and two particularly interesting cases are called out. A LISS experiment may be able to distinguish CP violation that is not due to the QCD θ term. The elements of a model of parity violation in proton-nucleon scattering, which is consistent with lower energy LAMPF and ANL results, are reviewed in the light of new information on diquarks and the proton spin fraction carried by quarks. The prediction that the parity violating total cross section asymmetry should be large at LISS energies is confirmed. The results of such an experiment can be used both to obtain new information about the diquark substructure of the nucleon and to provide bounds on new right-chiral weak interactions

  15. Flavour physics and CP violation

    CERN Document Server

    Nir, Y.

    2015-05-22

    We explain the many reasons for the interest in flavor physics. We describe flavor physics and the related CP violation within the Standard Model, and explain how the B-factories proved that the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism dominates the CP violation that is observed in meson decays. We explain the implications of flavor physics for new physics, with emphasis on the “new physics flavor puzzle”, and present the idea of minimal flavor violation as a possible solution. We explain why the values flavor parameters of the Standard Model are puzzling, present the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism as a possible solution, and describe how measurements of neutrino parameters are interpreted in the context of this puzzle. We show that the recently discovered Higgs-like boson may provide new opportunities for making progress on the various flavor puzzles.

  16. Constraints on the CP-Violating MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, A; Godbole, R M; Mahmoudi, F

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for observing CP violation in the MSSM with six CP-violating phases, using a geometric approach to maximise CP-violating observables subject to the experimental upper bounds on electric dipole moments. We consider constraints from Higgs physics, flavour physics, the dark matter relic density and spin-independent scattering cross section with matter.

  17. CP violation without elementary scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichten, E.; Lane, K.; Preskill, J.

    1980-04-01

    Dynamically broken gauge theories of electroweak interactions provide a natural mechanism for generating CP violation. Even if all vacuum angles are unobservable, strong CP violation is not automatically avoided. In the absence of strong CP violation, the neutron electric dipole moment is expected to be of order 10 -24 e cm

  18. CP-violations in B decays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent results on CP-violation measurements in decays from energy asymmetric -factory experiments are reported. Thanks to large accumulated data samples, CP-violations in decays in mixing-decay interference and direct CP-violation are now firmly established. The measurements of three angles of the unitarity ...

  19. New look at CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.J.; Miller, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    The CP-violating (CPV) kaonic matrix elements ε', ImA 0 , and ImA 2 are used to compute CPV observables in baryonic systems. The numerical results for the electric dipole moment and the difference between Λ and bar Λ decay parameters are similar to other approaches that use quark operators. Relations between the neutron electric dipole moment, CPV pion-nucleon coupling constants, and Λ-decay parameters are derived

  20. Cytosine methylation at CpCpG sites triggers accumulation of non-CpG methylation in gene bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Zabet, NR; Catoni, Marco; Prischi, F; Paszkowski, Jerzy Waclaw

    2017-01-01

    Methylation of cytosine is an epigenetic mark involved in the regulation of transcription, usually associated with transcriptional repression. In mammals, methylated cytosines are found predominantly in CpGs but in plants non-CpG methylation (in the CpHpG or CpHpH contexts, where H is A, C or T) is also present and is associated with the transcriptional silencing of transposable elements. In addition, CpG methylation is found in coding regions of active genes. In the absence of the demethylas...

  1. Symmetries in physics and harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolk, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this book the symmetries of elementary particles are described in relation to the rules of harmonics in music. The selection rules are described in connections with harmonic intervals. Also symmetry breaking is considered in this framework. (HSI)

  2. Quark mixing and CP violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschos, E.A.

    1992-01-01

    These lectures present a pedagogical introduction to the topics quark mixing and CP violation. They explain how the mixing matrix comes about and reviews the values of constraints for its elements. The second chapter reviews the CP transformation properties of amplitudes and defines the quantities which are measured in the experiments. Then it reviews the theory of CP violation in the standard model. In addition to the phase and the angles introduced through the flavor matrix, numerical predictions also depend (a) on hadronic matrix elements of weak current operators and (b) the short distance expansion of effective Hamiltonians computed by methods of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). I also review these topics and present predictions for (ε'/ε) which are shown to be consistent with the experiments. Last but not least, the article is divided into sections which are as self-contained as possible. The article assumes a general knowledge of the electroweak theory. For guidance, the interested reader will find a table of contents at the end of the text. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. Dark matter stability and one-loop neutrino mass generation based on Peccei-Quinn symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suematsu, Daijiro [Kanazawa University, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kanazawa (Japan)

    2018-01-15

    We propose a model which is a simple extension of the KSVZ invisible axion model with an inert doublet scalar. Peccei-Quinn symmetry forbids tree-level neutrino mass generation and its remnant Z{sub 2} symmetry guarantees dark matter stability. The neutrino masses are generated by one-loop effects as a result of the breaking of Peccei-Quinn symmetry through a nonrenormalizable interaction. Although the low energy effective model coincides with an original scotogenic model which contains right-handed neutrinos with large masses, it is free from the strong CP problem. (orig.)

  4. Dark matter stability and one-loop neutrino mass generation based on Peccei-Quinn symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Daijiro

    2018-01-01

    We propose a model which is a simple extension of the KSVZ invisible axion model with an inert doublet scalar. Peccei-Quinn symmetry forbids tree-level neutrino mass generation and its remnant Z_2 symmetry guarantees dark matter stability. The neutrino masses are generated by one-loop effects as a result of the breaking of Peccei-Quinn symmetry through a nonrenormalizable interaction. Although the low energy effective model coincides with an original scotogenic model which contains right-handed neutrinos with large masses, it is free from the strong CP problem.

  5. Spin-rotation symmetry breaking and triplet superconducting state in doped topological insulator CuxBi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guo-Qing

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is an important concept for understanding physics ranging from the elementary particles to states of matter. For example, the superconducting state breaks global gauge symmetry, and unconventional superconductors can break additional symmetries. In particular, spin rotational symmetry is expected to be broken in spin-triplet superconductors. However, experimental evidence for such symmetry breaking has not been obtained so far in any candidate compounds. We report 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance measurements which showed that spin rotation symmetry is spontaneously broken in the hexagonal plane of the electron-doped topological insulator Cu0.3Bi2Se3 below the superconducting transition temperature Tc =3.4 K. Our results not only establish spin-triplet (odd parity) superconductivity in this compound, but also serve to lay a foundation for the research of topological superconductivity (Ref.). We will also report the doping mechanism and superconductivity in Sn1-xInxTe.

  6. Flavor Mixing, CP-Violation and the Masses of the Light Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Fritzsch, Harald

    1998-01-01

    The observed hierarchy of the quark masses is interpreted as a signal for an underlying ``subnuclear democracy'' as the relevant symmetry of the quark mass terms. A simple breaking of the symmetry leads to a mixing between the second and the third family, in agreement with observation. Introducing the mixing between the first and the second family, one finds an interesting pattern of maximal CP--violation as well as a complete determination of the elements of the CKM matrix and of the unitarity triangle.

  7. Flavor mixing, CP-violation and the masses of the light quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, H.

    1998-01-01

    The observed hierarchy of the quark masses is interpreted as a signal for an underlying ''subnuclear democracy'' as the relevant symmetry of the quark mass terms. A simple breaking of the symmetry leads to a mixing between the second and the third family, in agreement with observation. Introducing the mixing between the first and the second family, one finds an interesting pattern of maximal CP-violation as well as a complete determination of the elements of the CKM matrix and of the unitarity triangle. (orig.)

  8. Unified Symmetry of Hamilton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xuejun; Qin Maochang; Mei Fengxiang

    2005-01-01

    The definition and the criterion of a unified symmetry for a Hamilton system are presented. The sufficient condition under which the Noether symmetry is a unified symmetry for the system is given. A new conserved quantity, as well as the Noether conserved quantity and the Hojman conserved quantity, deduced from the unified symmetry, is obtained. An example is finally given to illustrate the application of the results.

  9. Quantum symmetries in particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of a quantum symmetry is introduced as a symmetry in the formulation of which quantum representations and specific quantum notions are used essentially. Three quantum symmetry principles are discussed: the principle of renormalizability (possibly super-renormalizability), the principle of local gauge symmetry, and the principle of supersymmetry. It is shown that these principles play a deterministic role in the development of quantum field theory. Historically their use has led to ever stronger restrictions on the interaction mechanism of quantum fields

  10. Symmetry and topology in evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1991-10-01

    This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)

  11. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  12. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  13. Symmetry energy in nuclear surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielewicz, P.; Lee, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Interplay between the dependence of symmetry energy on density and the variation of nucleonic densities across nuclear surface is discussed. That interplay gives rise to the mass dependence of the symmetry coefficient in an energy formula. Charge symmetry of the nuclear interactions allows to introduce isoscalar and isovector densities that are approximately independent of the magnitude of neutron-proton asymmetry. (author)

  14. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  15. Group analysis and renormgroup symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    An original regular approach to constructing special type symmetries for boundary-value problems, namely renormgroup symmetries, is presented. Different methods of calculating these symmetries based on modern group analysis are described. An application of the approach to boundary value problems is demonstrated with the help of a simple mathematical model. 35 refs

  16. Some ideas for learning CP-theories

    OpenAIRE

    Fierens, Daan

    2008-01-01

    Causal Probabilistic logic (CP-logic) is a language for describing complex probabilistic processes. In this talk we consider the problem of learning CP-theories from data. We briefly discuss three possible approaches. First, we review the existing algorithm by Meert et al. Second, we show how simple CP-theories can be learned by using the learning algorithm for Logical Bayesian Networks and converting the result into a CP-theory. Third, we argue that for learning more complex CP-theories, an ...

  17. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  18. Symmetries and microscopic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaizot, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    This book is based on a course of lectures devoted to the applications of group theory to quantum physics. The purpose is to give students a precise idea of general principles involving the concept of symmetry and to present practical methods used to calculate physical properties derived from symmetries. The first chapter is an introduction to the main results of group theory, 2 chapters highlight principles and methods concerning geometrical transformations in the space of states, state degeneracy and perturbation theory. The last 4 chapters investigate the applications of these methods to atom physics, nuclear structure and elementary particles. A chapter is devoted to the atom of hydrogen and another to the isospin. Numerous exercises and problems, some with their corrections, are proposed. (A.C.)

  19. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  20. Symmetry rules. How science and nature are founded on symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J.

    2008-07-01

    When we use science to describe and understand the world around us, we are in essence grasping nature through symmetry. In fact, modern theoretical physics suggests that symmetry is a, if not the, foundational principle of nature. Emphasizing the concepts, this book leads the reader coherently and comprehensively into the fertile field of symmetry and its applications. Among the most important applications considered are the fundamental forces of nature and the Universe. It is shown that the Universe cannot possess exact symmetry, which is a principle of fundamental significance. Curie's principle - which states that the symmetry of the effect is at least that of the cause - features prominently. An introduction to group theory, the mathematical language of symmetry, is included. This book will convince all interested readers of the importance of symmetry in science. Furthermore, it will serve as valuable background reading for all students in the physical sciences. (orig.)