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Sample records for spontaneous conversational speech

  1. Conversation, speech acts, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2008-03-01

    Speakers frequently have specific intentions that they want others to recognize (Grice, 1957). These specific intentions can be viewed as speech acts (Searle, 1969), and I argue that they play a role in long-term memory for conversation utterances. Five experiments were conducted to examine this idea. Participants in all experiments read scenarios ending with either a target utterance that performed a specific speech act (brag, beg, etc.) or a carefully matched control. Participants were more likely to falsely recall and recognize speech act verbs after having read the speech act version than after having read the control version, and the speech act verbs served as better recall cues for the speech act utterances than for the controls. Experiment 5 documented individual differences in the encoding of speech act verbs. The results suggest that people recognize and retain the actions that people perform with their utterances and that this is one of the organizing principles of conversation memory.

  2. Speech identity conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondra, Martin; Vích, Robert

    Vol. 3445, - (2005), s. 421-426 ISSN 0302-9743. [International Summer School on Neural Nets "E. R. Caianiello". Course: Nonlinear Speech Modeling and Applications /9./. Vietri sul Mare, 13.09.2004-18.09.2004] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/1097; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/02/0124; GA MŠk(CZ) OC 277.001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2067918 Keywords : speech synthesis * computer science Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.402, year: 2005

  3. Motivational Projections of Russian Spontaneous Speech

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    Galina M. Shipitsina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the semantic, pragmatic and structural features of words, phrases, dialogues motivation, in the contemporary Russian popular speech. These structural features are characterized by originality and unconventional use. Language material is the result of authors` direct observation of spontaneous verbal communication between people of different social and age groups. The words and remarks were analyzed in compliance with the communication system of national Russian language and cultural background of popular speech. Studies have discovered that in spoken discourse there are some other ways to increase the expression statement. It is important to note that spontaneous speech identifies lacunae in the nominative language and its vocabulary system. It is proved, prefixation is also effective and regular way of the same action presenting. The most typical forms, ways and means to update language resources as a result of the linguistic creativity of native speakers were identified.

  4. Segmentation cues in conversational speech: robust semantics and fragile phonotactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Laurence; Mattys, Sven L; Wiget, Lukas

    2012-01-01

    Multiple cues influence listeners' segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker's articulatory effort - hyperarticulation vs. hypoarticulation (H&H) - may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners' interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs. read), using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylized landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues - semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics - was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech. Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favorable/unfavorable) and cue type (phonotactics/semantics). Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behavior. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically based cues in the segmentation of natural conversational speech.

  5. Segmentation cues in conversational speech: Robust semantics and fragile phonotactics

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    Laurence eWhite

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cues influence listeners’ segmentation of connected speech into words, but most previous studies have used stimuli elicited in careful readings rather than natural conversation. Discerning word boundaries in conversational speech may differ from the laboratory setting. In particular, a speaker’s articulatory effort – hyperarticulation vs hypoarticulation (H&H – may vary according to communicative demands, suggesting a compensatory relationship whereby acoustic-phonetic cues are attenuated when other information sources strongly guide segmentation. We examined how listeners’ interpretation of segmentation cues is affected by speech style (spontaneous conversation vs read, using cross-modal identity priming. To elicit spontaneous stimuli, we used a map task in which speakers discussed routes around stylised landmarks. These landmarks were two-word phrases in which the strength of potential segmentation cues – semantic likelihood and cross-boundary diphone phonotactics – was systematically varied. Landmark-carrying utterances were transcribed and later re-recorded as read speech.Independent of speech style, we found an interaction between cue valence (favourable/unfavourable and cue type (phonotactics/semantics. Thus, there was an effect of semantic plausibility, but no effect of cross-boundary phonotactics, indicating that the importance of phonotactic segmentation may have been overstated in studies where lexical information was artificially suppressed. These patterns were unaffected by whether the stimuli were elicited in a spontaneous or read context, even though the difference in speech styles was evident in a main effect. Durational analyses suggested speaker-driven cue trade-offs congruent with an H&H account, but these modulations did not impact on listener behaviour. We conclude that previous research exploiting read speech is reliable in indicating the primacy of lexically-based cues in the segmentation of natural

  6. Spontaneous conversion of first onset atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Søren Østergaard; Hansen, Sidsel; Nielsen, Tonny

    2011-01-01

    Background  We studied all patients admitted to hospital with first onset atrial fibrillation (AF) to determine the probability of spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and to identify factors predictive of such a conversion. Methods and Results  We retrospectively reviewed charts of 438...

  7. A Foreign Speech Accent in a Case of Conversion Disorder

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    Jo Verhoeven

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this paper is to report the psychiatric, neuroradiological and linguistic characteristics in a native speaker of Dutch who developed speech symptoms which strongly resemble Foreign Accent Syndrome. Background: Foreign Accent Syndrome is a rare speech production disorder in which the speech of a patient is perceived as foreign by speakers of the same speech community. This syndrome is generally related to focal brain damage. Only in few reported cases the Foreign Accent Syndrome is assumed to be of psychogenic and/or psychotic origin. Method: In addition to clinical and neuroradiological examinations, an extensive test battery of standardized neuropsychological and neurolinguistic investigations was carried out. Two samples of the patient's spontaneous speech were analysed and compared to a 500,000-words reference corpus of 160 normal native speakers of Dutch. Results: The patient had a prominent French accent in her pronunciation of Dutch. This accent had persisted over the past eight years and has become progressively stronger. The foreign qualities of her speech did not only relate to pronunciation, but also to the lexicon, syntax and pragmatics. Structural as well as functional neuroimaging did not reveal evidence that could account for the behavioural symptoms. By contrast psychological investigations indicated conversion disorder. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a foreign accent like syndrome in conversion disorder.

  8. A Foreign Speech Accent in a Case of Conversion Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Jo; Mariën, Peter; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; D’Haenen, Hugo; De Deyn, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this paper is to report the psychiatric, neuroradiological and linguistic characteristics in a native speaker of Dutch who developed speech symptoms which strongly resemble Foreign Accent Syndrome. Background: Foreign Accent Syndrome is a rare speech production disorder in which the speech of a patient is perceived as foreign by speakers of the same speech community. This syndrome is generally related to focal brain damage. Only in few reported cases the Foreign Accent Syndrome is assumed to be of psychogenic and/or psychotic origin. Method: In addition to clinical and neuroradiological examinations, an extensive test battery of standardized neuropsychological and neurolinguistic investigations was carried out. Two samples of the patient's spontaneous speech were analysed and compared to a 500,000-words reference corpus of 160 normal native speakers of Dutch. Results: The patient had a prominent French accent in her pronunciation of Dutch. This accent had persisted over the past eight years and has become progressively stronger. The foreign qualities of her speech did not only relate to pronunciation, but also to the lexicon, syntax and pragmatics. Structural as well as functional neuroimaging did not reveal evidence that could account for the behavioural symptoms. By contrast psychological investigations indicated conversion disorder. Conclusions: To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of a foreign accent like syndrome in conversion disorder. PMID:16518013

  9. Speech Acts during Friends' and Non-Friends' Spontaneous Conversations in Preschool Dyads with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder versus Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauminger-Zviely, Nirit; Golan-Itshaky, Adi; Tubul-Lavy, Gila

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we videotaped two 10-min. free-play interactions and coded speech acts (SAs) in peer talk of 51 preschoolers (21 ASD, 30 typical), interacting with friend versus non-friend partners. Groups were matched for maternal education, IQ (verbal/nonverbal), and CA. We compared SAs by group (ASD/typical), by partner's friendship status…

  10. Perceived gender in clear and conversational speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booz, Jaime A.

    Although many studies have examined acoustic and sociolinguistic differences between male and female speech, the relationship between talker speaking style and perceived gender has not yet been explored. The present study attempts to determine whether clear speech, a style adopted by talkers who perceive some barrier to effective communication, shifts perceptions of femininity for male and female talkers. Much of our understanding of gender perception in voice and speech is based on sustained vowels or single words, eliminating temporal, prosodic, and articulatory cues available in more naturalistic, connected speech. Thus, clear and conversational sentence stimuli, selected from the 41 talkers of the Ferguson Clear Speech Database (Ferguson, 2004) were presented to 17 normal-hearing listeners, aged 18 to 30. They rated the talkers' gender using a visual analog scale with "masculine" and "feminine" endpoints. This response method was chosen to account for within-category shifts of gender perception by allowing nonbinary responses. Mixed-effects regression analysis of listener responses revealed a small but significant effect of speaking style, and this effect was larger for male talkers than female talkers. Because of the high degree of talker variability observed for talker gender, acoustic analyses of these sentences were undertaken to determine the relationship between acoustic changes in clear and conversational speech and perceived femininity. Results of these analyses showed that mean fundamental frequency (fo) and f o standard deviation were significantly correlated to perceived gender for both male and female talkers, and vowel space was significantly correlated only for male talkers. Speaking rate and breathiness measures (CPPS) were not significantly related for either group. Outcomes of this study indicate that adopting a clear speaking style is correlated with increases in perceived femininity. Although the increase was small, some changes associated

  11. Experiments on Detection of Voiced Hesitations in Russian Spontaneous Speech

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    Vasilisa Verkhodanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development and popularity of voice-user interfaces made spontaneous speech processing an important research field. One of the main focus areas in this field is automatic speech recognition (ASR that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers. However, ASR systems often work less efficiently for spontaneous than for read speech, since the former differs from any other type of speech in many ways. And the presence of speech disfluencies is its prominent characteristic. These phenomena are an important feature in human-human communication and at the same time they are a challenging obstacle for the speech processing tasks. In this paper we address an issue of voiced hesitations (filled pauses and sound lengthenings detection in Russian spontaneous speech by utilizing different machine learning techniques, from grid search and gradient descent in rule-based approaches to such data-driven ones as ELM and SVM based on the automatically extracted acoustic features. Experimental results on the mixed and quality diverse corpus of spontaneous Russian speech indicate the efficiency of the techniques for the task in question, with SVM outperforming other methods.

  12. Deixis in Spontaneous Speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic Native Speakers

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    Sa'aida, Zainab

    2017-01-01

    This study aims at describing types and usages of deixis in the speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic native speakers. The present study was conducted in different settings which researcher's family members, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances took part in. Data of the study were collected through observing spontaneous speech of native speakers of…

  13. Words from spontaneous conversational speech can be recognized with human-like accuracy by an error-driven learning algorithm that discriminates between meanings straight from smart acoustic features, bypassing the phoneme as recognition unit.

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    Denis Arnold

    Full Text Available Sound units play a pivotal role in cognitive models of auditory comprehension. The general consensus is that during perception listeners break down speech into auditory words and subsequently phones. Indeed, cognitive speech recognition is typically taken to be computationally intractable without phones. Here we present a computational model trained on 20 hours of conversational speech that recognizes word meanings within the range of human performance (model 25%, native speakers 20-44%, without making use of phone or word form representations. Our model also generates successfully predictions about the speed and accuracy of human auditory comprehension. At the heart of the model is a 'wide' yet sparse two-layer artificial neural network with some hundred thousand input units representing summaries of changes in acoustic frequency bands, and proxies for lexical meanings as output units. We believe that our model holds promise for resolving longstanding theoretical problems surrounding the notion of the phone in linguistic theory.

  14. A Comparison between Three Methods of Language Sampling: Freeplay, Narrative Speech and Conversation

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    Yasser Rezapour

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The spontaneous language sample analysis is an important part of the language assessment protocol. Language samples give us useful information about how children use language in the natural situations of daily life. The purpose of this study was to compare Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech in aspects of Mean Length of Utterance (MLU, Type-token ratio (TTR, and the number of utterances. Methods: By cluster sampling method, a total of 30 Semnanian five-year-old boys with normal speech and language development were selected from the active kindergartens in Semnan city. Conversation, Freeplay, and narrative speech were three applied language sample elicitation methods to obtain 15 minutes of children’s spontaneous language samples. Means for MLU, TTR, and the number of utterances are analyzed by dependent ANOVA. Results: The result showed no significant difference in number of elicited utterances among these three language sampling methods. Narrative speech elicited longer MLU than freeplay and conversation, and compared to freeplay and narrative speech, conversation elicited higher TTR. Discussion: Results suggest that in the clinical assessment of the Persian-language children, it is better to use narrative speech to elicit longer MLU and to use conversation to elicit higher TTR.

  15. Corticomuscular Coherence Is Tuned to the Spontaneous Rhythmicity of Speech at 2-3 Hz

    OpenAIRE

    Ruspantini, I.; Saarinen, T.; Belardinelli, P.; Jalava, A.; Parviainen, T.; Kujala, J.; Salmelin, Riitta

    2012-01-01

    Human speech features rhythmicity that frames distinctive, fine-grained speech patterns. Speech can thus be counted among rhythmic motor behaviors that generally manifest characteristic spontaneous rates. However, the critical neural evidence for tuning of articulatory control to a spontaneous rate of speech has not been uncovered. The present study examined the spontaneous rhythmicity in speech production and its relationship to cortex–muscle neurocommunication, which is essential for speech...

  16. Qualifying phrases as a measure of spontaneity in speech.

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    Weintraub, W; Plaut, S M

    1985-11-01

    Although investigators have attempted to define the paralinguistic characteristics of spontaneous speech, there have been no systematic attempts to study its verbal reflections. An experiment comparing extemporaneous and impromptu speech samples of 10 freshman medical students showed that, of 10 verbal categories, only qualifying phrases significantly differentiated the two levels of spontaneity. A second study compared post-World War II presidential communications of different degrees of spontaneity. Speech samples were taken from inaugural addresses of seven presidents, and from both introductory remarks and responses to questions at their press conferences. The proportion of qualifying phrases significantly decreased as the amount of preparation increased, confirming the results of the student experiment. The use of qualifying phrases appears to represent, in part, an attempt by the speaker to avoid silence while retrieving and encoding memories from long-term storage.

  17. Phonetic and Prosodic Characteristics of Disfluencies in French Spontaneous Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulides, George; Avanzi, Mathieu; 14th Conference on Laboratory Phonology

    2014-01-01

    A key difference between spontaneous speech and controlled laboratory speech is the prevalence of disfluencies in the former (e.g. Shriberg 1994). Disfluencies typically signal production problems, as the speaker incrementally constructs his message (Levelt 1989). However, in specific contexts, these events may be used as communicative devices, e.g. in order to manage dialogue interaction (Moniz et al. 2009) or indicate information status (Arnold et al. 2003). Disfluencies have recently attra...

  18. Spotting social signals in conversational speech over IP : A deep learning perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brueckner, Raymond; Schmitt, Maximilian; Pantic, Maja; Schuller, Björn

    2017-01-01

    The automatic detection and classification of social signals is an important task, given the fundamental role nonverbal behavioral cues play in human communication. We present the first cross-lingual study on the detection of laughter and fillers in conversational and spontaneous speech collected

  19. Surface spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Peřina ml., Jan; Lukš, A.; Haderka, Ondřej

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 6 (2009), 063902/1-063902/4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : parametric down-conversion * surface Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.328, year: 2009

  20. Deixis in Spontaneous Speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic Native Speakers

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    Zainab Sa'aida

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at describing types and usages of deixis in the speech of Jordanian Urban Arabic native speakers. The present study was conducted in different settings which researcher’s family members, friends, colleagues, and acquaintances took part in. Data of the study were collected through observing spontaneous speech of native speakers of Jordanian Urban Arabic. The data consist of transcriptions of deictic expressions, which were categorised into groups according to the types or usages of deictic words. The data were translated and transliterated by the researcher. The International Phonetic Alphabet symbols were used to transcribe the data. Findings of the study show that there are five types of deictic expressions in Jordanian Urban Arabic: Personal, spatial, temporal, discourse and social deixis. The current study has also described the various usages of deictic words in Jordanian Urban Arabic: gestural, symbolic, and non-deictic usage.

  1. Effects of the Syntactic Complexity on Speech Dysfluency of Stuttering Persian-Speaking Children and Adults in Conversational Speech

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    Behrooz Mahmoodi Bakhtiari

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, researchers have increasingly turned to study the relation between stuttering and syntactic complexity. This study investigates the effect of syntactic complexity on theamount of speech dysfluency in stuttering Persian-speaking children and adults in conversational speech. The obtained results can pave the way to a better understanding of stuttering in children andadults, and finding more appropriate treatments.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were 15 stuttering adult Persian-speakers, older than 15 years, and 15 stuttering child Persian-speakers of 4-6 years of age. In this study, first a 30 minute sample of the spontaneous speech of the participants was provided. Then the utterances of each person were studied in respect to the amount of dysfluency and syntactic complexity. The obtained information was analyzed using paired samples t-test.Results: In both groups of stuttering children and adults, there was a significant difference between the amount of dysfluency of simple and complex sentences (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that an increase in syntactic complexity in conversational speech, increased the amount of dysfluency in stuttering children and adults. Moreover,as a result of increase of syntactic complexity, dysfluency had a greater increase in stuttering children than stuttering adults.

  2. Production planning and coronal stop deletion in spontaneous speech

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    James Tanner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Many phonological processes can be affected by segmental context spanning word boundaries, which often lead to variable outcomes. This paper tests the idea that some of this variability can be explained by reference to production planning. We examine coronal stop deletion (CSD, a variable process conditioned by preceding and upcoming phonological context, in a corpus of spontaneous British English speech, as a means of investigating a number of variables associated with planning: Prosodic boundary strength, word frequency, conditional probability of the following word, and speech rate. From the perspective of production planning, (1 prosodic boundaries should affect deletion rate independently of following context; (2 given the locality of production planning, the effect of the following context should decrease at stronger prosodic boundaries; and (3 other factors affecting planning scope should modulate the effect of upcoming phonological material above and beyond the modulating effect of prosodic boundaries. We build a statistical model of CSD realization, using pause length as a quantitative proxy for boundary strength, and find support for these predictions. These findings are compatible with the hypothesis that the locality of production planning constrains variability in speech production, and have practical implications for work on CSD and other variable processes.

  3. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotions in speech using acoustic and lexical features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, S.; Truong, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    We developed acoustic and lexical classifiers, based on a boosting algorithm, to assess the separability on arousal and valence dimensions in spontaneous emotional speech. The spontaneous emotional speech data was acquired by inviting subjects to play a first-person shooter video game. Our acoustic

  4. Language in individuals with left hemisphere tumors: Is spontaneous speech analysis comparable to formal testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rofes, Adrià; Talacchi, Andrea; Santini, Barbara; Pinna, Giampietro; Nickels, Lyndsey; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Miceli, Gabriele

    2018-01-31

    The relationship between spontaneous speech and formal language testing in people with brain tumors (gliomas) has been rarely studied. In clinical practice, formal testing is typically used, while spontaneous speech is less often evaluated quantitatively. However, spontaneous speech is quicker to sample and may be less prone to test/retest effects, making it a potential candidate for assessing language impairments when there is restricted time or when the patient is unable to undertake prolonged testing. To assess whether quantitative spontaneous speech analysis and formal testing detect comparable language impairments in people with gliomas. Specifically, we addressed (a) whether both measures detected comparable language impairments in our patient sample; and (b) which language levels, assessment times, and spontaneous speech variables were more often impaired in this subject group. Five people with left perisylvian gliomas performed a spontaneous speech task and a formal language assessment. Tests were administered before surgery, within a week after surgery, and seven months after surgery. Performance on spontaneous speech was compared with that of 15 healthy speakers. Language impairments were detected more often with both measures than with either measure independently. Lexical-semantic impairments were more common than phonological and grammatical impairments, and performance was equally impaired across assessment time points. Incomplete sentences and phonological paraphasias were the most common error types. In our sample both spontaneous speech analysis and formal testing detected comparable language impairments. Currently, we suggest that formal testing remains overall the better option, except for cases in which there are restrictions on testing time or the patient is too tired to undergo formal testing. In these cases, spontaneous speech may provide a viable alternative, particularly if automated analysis of spontaneous speech becomes more readily

  5. Towards spontaneous parametric down-conversion at low temperatures

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    Akatiev Dmitrii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of observing spontaneous parametric down-conversion in doped nonlinear crystals at low temperatures, which would be useful for combining heralded single-photon sources and quantum memories, is studied theoretically. The ordinary refractive index of a lithium niobate crystal doped with magnesium oxide LiNbO3:MgO is measured at liquid nitrogen and helium temperatures. On the basis of the experimental data, the coefficients of the Sellmeier equation are determined for the temperatures from 5 to 300 K. In addition, a poling period of the nonlinear crystal has been calculated for observing type-0 spontaneous parametric down-conversion (ooo-synchronism at the liquid helium temperature under pumping at the wavelength of λp = 532 nm and emission of the signal field at the wavelength of λs = 794 nm, which corresponds to the resonant absorption line of Tm3+ doped ions.

  6. Specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated style in indonesian speech recognition

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    Vista, C. B.; Satriawan, C. H.; Lestari, D. P.; Widyantoro, D. H.

    2018-03-01

    The performance of an automatic speech recognition system is affected by differences in speech style between the data the model is originally trained upon and incoming speech to be recognized. In this paper, the usage of GMM-HMM acoustic models for specific speech styles is investigated. We develop two systems for the experiments; the first employs a speech style classifier to predict the speech style of incoming speech, either spontaneous or dictated, then decodes this speech using an acoustic model specifically trained for that speech style. The second system uses both acoustic models to recognise incoming speech and decides upon a final result by calculating a confidence score of decoding. Results show that training specific acoustic models for spontaneous and dictated speech styles confers a slight recognition advantage as compared to a baseline model trained on a mixture of spontaneous and dictated training data. In addition, the speech style classifier approach of the first system produced slightly more accurate results than the confidence scoring employed in the second system.

  7. Characteristics of Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic spontaneous speech and the consequences for understanding agrammatic aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abuom, Tom O.; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    Most studies on spontaneous speech of individuals with agrammatism have focused almost exclusively on monolingual individuals. There is hardly any previous research on bilinguals, especially of structurally different languages; and none on characterization of agrammatism in Swahili. The current

  8. Quality of polarization entanglement in spontaneous parametric down conversion

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    Ali N

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We experimentally demonstrated a high degree of polarization entanglement known as entanglement visibility through spontaneous parametric down conversion process pumped by a femtosecond laser. The entangled-photon pair was obtained using two type-I BBO crystal. The down-converted photons from these crystals demonstrates a high visibility of 98.7% (θ2 = 0° and 90% (θ2 = 22.5°. These results are in agreement with the theory which expects high visibility from such arrangement.

  9. Arousal and Valence prediction in spontaneous emotional speech: felt versus perceived emotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, K.P.; Leeuwen, D.A. van; Neerincx, M.A.; Jong, F.M.G. de

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe emotion recognition experiments carried out for spontaneous affective speech with the aim to compare the added value of annotation of felt emotion versus annotation of perceived emotion. Using speech material available in the TNO-GAMING corpus (a corpus containing

  10. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Vowel Intelligibility for Older Adults with Hearing Loss

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    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish the range of talker variability for vowel intelligibility in clear versus conversational speech for older adults with hearing loss and to determine whether talkers who produced a clear speech benefit for young listeners with normal hearing also did so for older adults with hearing loss. Method: Clear and conversational vowels…

  11. A Speech Recognition-based Solution for the Automatic Detection of Mild Cognitive Impairment from Spontaneous Speech.

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    Toth, Laszlo; Hoffmann, Ildiko; Gosztolya, Gabor; Vincze, Veronika; Szatloczki, Greta; Banreti, Zoltan; Pakaski, Magdolna; Kalman, Janos

    2018-01-01

    Even today the reliable diagnosis of the prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains a great challenge. Our research focuses on the earliest detectable indicators of cognitive decline in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Since the presence of language impairment has been reported even in the mild stage of AD, the aim of this study is to develop a sensitive neuropsychological screening method which is based on the analysis of spontaneous speech production during performing a memory task. In the future, this can form the basis of an Internet-based interactive screening software for the recognition of MCI. Participants were 38 healthy controls and 48 clinically diagnosed MCI patients. The provoked spontaneous speech by asking the patients to recall the content of 2 short black and white films (one direct, one delayed), and by answering one question. Acoustic parameters (hesitation ratio, speech tempo, length and number of silent and filled pauses, length of utterance) were extracted from the recorded speech signals, first manually (using the Praat software), and then automatically, with an automatic speech recognition (ASR) based tool. First, the extracted parameters were statistically analyzed. Then we applied machine learning algorithms to see whether the MCI and the control group can be discriminated automatically based on the acoustic features. The statistical analysis showed significant differences for most of the acoustic parameters (speech tempo, articulation rate, silent pause, hesitation ratio, length of utterance, pause-per-utterance ratio). The most significant differences between the two groups were found in the speech tempo in the delayed recall task, and in the number of pauses for the question-answering task. The fully automated version of the analysis process - that is, using the ASR-based features in combination with machine learning - was able to separate the two classes with an F1-score of 78.8%. The temporal analysis of spontaneous speech

  12. THE EMPIRICAL RESEARCH OF PROSODIC ORGANIZATION OF TROPES IN SPONTANEOUS PUBLIC SPEECH

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    Zubkova, O.S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the features of prosodic organization of tropes in spontaneous public speech, identified on the basis of empirical research, and analyzes the role of melody and intonema in the understanding of tropes, determines the value of a pause in the formation and perception of tropes, and studies the effect of prosodic factors on the interpretation of tropes.

  13. Verb retrieval in action naming and spontaneous speech in agrammatic and anemic aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, R; Jonkers, R

    1998-01-01

    The production of verbs in an action naming test and in spontaneous speech was evaluated in 16 aphasic patients: eight agrammatics and eight anomics. Action naming was also compared to object naming. The action naming test was controlled for factors known to be relevant for verb retrieval (i.e. word

  14. Effects of the Utterance length on Fluency of Conversational Speech in Stuttering Persian-Speaker Children and Adults

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    Tabassom A'zimi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: recently, researchers have increasingly turned to study the relation between stuttering and utterance length. This study investigates the effect of utterance length on the amount of speech dysfluency in stuttering Persian-speaking children and adults in conversational speech. The obtained results can pave the way to reach a better understanding of stuttering of child and adults, as well as finding more appropriate treatments. Materials & Methods: in this descriptive- analysis study, the participants were 15 stuttering Persian- speaker adults, upper from 15 years old, and 15 stuttering Persian- speaker children in the age range of 4-6. In this study, first 30 minutes sample of adults and child's spontaneous speech was provided and then utterances of each person studied for the amount of dysfluency and utterance length. The obtained information intered to computer via spss software and analyzed using paired T test. Results: In both groups of stuttering children and adults, with increase of utterance length, there was a significant increase in the amount of dysfluency. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that by increase of utterance length at the spontaneous speech level, stuttering children and adults had more dysfluency amount. Also, by increase of utterance length, dysfluency amount of stuttering children and adults increased samely.

  15. A Danish phonetically annotated spontaneous speech corpus (DanPASS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønnum, Nina

    2009-01-01

    A corpus is described consisting of non-scripted monologues and dialogues, recorded by 27 speakers, comprising a total of 73,227 running words, corresponding to 9 h and 46 min of speech. The monologues were recorded as one-way communication with an unseen partner where the speaker performed three......-narrow phonetic notation, a symbolic representation of the pitch relation between each stressed and post-tonic syllable, and a symbolic representation of the phrasal intonation....

  16. Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. Different FWM processes are observed, phasematching between fiber modes of orthogonal polarization, intermodal phasematching across bandgaps, and intramoda...

  17. The effect of genre on reporting speech : conversations and newspaper articles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Houwen, F.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on reported speech in two different genres: spoken conversation and newspaper articles. There are two basic structures that allow language users to report formerly uttered words: direct and indirect speech. Both structures serve to integrate former discourse into the ongoing

  18. Modal spectrum in spontaneous parametric down-conversion with noncollinear phase matching

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the effect of the down-conversion angle between the signal and idler beams in spontaneous parametric down-conversion on the bandwidth of the modal spectrum (Schmidt number) of the down-converted quantum state. For this purpose, we...

  19. Speech Recognition, Working Memory and Conversation in Children with Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibertsson, Tina; Hansson, Kristina; Asker-Arnason, Lena; Sahlen, Birgitta

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between speech recognition, working memory and conversational skills in a group of 13 children/adolescents with cochlear implants (CIs) between 11 and 19 years of age. Conversational skills were assessed in a referential communication task where the participants interacted with a hearing peer of the same age…

  20. Prosodic Contrasts in Ironic Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Prosodic features in spontaneous speech help disambiguate implied meaning not explicit in linguistic surface structure, but little research has examined how these signals manifest themselves in real conversations. Spontaneously produced verbal irony utterances generated between familiar speakers in conversational dyads were acoustically analyzed…

  1. Conversation electrified: ERP correlates of speech act recognition in underspecified utterances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa S Gisladottir

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize speech acts (verbal actions in conversation is critical for everyday interaction. However, utterances are often underspecified for the speech act they perform, requiring listeners to rely on the context to recognize the action. The goal of this study was to investigate the time-course of auditory speech act recognition in action-underspecified utterances and explore how sequential context (the prior action impacts this process. We hypothesized that speech acts are recognized early in the utterance to allow for quick transitions between turns in conversation. Event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded while participants listened to spoken dialogues and performed an action categorization task. The dialogues contained target utterances that each of which could deliver three distinct speech acts depending on the prior turn. The targets were identical across conditions, but differed in the type of speech act performed and how it fit into the larger action sequence. The ERP results show an early effect of action type, reflected by frontal positivities as early as 200 ms after target utterance onset. This indicates that speech act recognition begins early in the turn when the utterance has only been partially processed. Providing further support for early speech act recognition, actions in highly constraining contexts did not elicit an ERP effect to the utterance-final word. We take this to show that listeners can recognize the action before the final word through predictions at the speech act level. However, additional processing based on the complete utterance is required in more complex actions, as reflected by a posterior negativity at the final word when the speech act is in a less constraining context and a new action sequence is initiated. These findings demonstrate that sentence comprehension in conversational contexts crucially involves recognition of verbal action which begins as soon as it can.

  2. Conversation electrified: ERP correlates of speech act recognition in underspecified utterances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Rosa S; Chwilla, Dorothee J; Levinson, Stephen C

    2015-01-01

    The ability to recognize speech acts (verbal actions) in conversation is critical for everyday interaction. However, utterances are often underspecified for the speech act they perform, requiring listeners to rely on the context to recognize the action. The goal of this study was to investigate the time-course of auditory speech act recognition in action-underspecified utterances and explore how sequential context (the prior action) impacts this process. We hypothesized that speech acts are recognized early in the utterance to allow for quick transitions between turns in conversation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants listened to spoken dialogues and performed an action categorization task. The dialogues contained target utterances that each of which could deliver three distinct speech acts depending on the prior turn. The targets were identical across conditions, but differed in the type of speech act performed and how it fit into the larger action sequence. The ERP results show an early effect of action type, reflected by frontal positivities as early as 200 ms after target utterance onset. This indicates that speech act recognition begins early in the turn when the utterance has only been partially processed. Providing further support for early speech act recognition, actions in highly constraining contexts did not elicit an ERP effect to the utterance-final word. We take this to show that listeners can recognize the action before the final word through predictions at the speech act level. However, additional processing based on the complete utterance is required in more complex actions, as reflected by a posterior negativity at the final word when the speech act is in a less constraining context and a new action sequence is initiated. These findings demonstrate that sentence comprehension in conversational contexts crucially involves recognition of verbal action which begins as soon as it can.

  3. Early Recovery of Aphasia through Thrombolysis: The Significance of Spontaneous Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlanis, Giovanni; Ridolfi, Mariana; Polverino, Paola; Menichelli, Alina; Caruso, Paola; Naccarato, Marcello; Sartori, Arianna; Torelli, Lucio; Pesavento, Valentina; Manganotti, Paolo

    2018-03-22

    Aphasia is one of the most devastating stroke-related consequences for social interaction and daily activities. Aphasia recovery in acute stroke depends on the degree of reperfusion after thrombolysis or thrombectomy. As aphasia assessment tests are often time-consuming for patients with acute stroke, physicians have been developing rapid and simple tests. The aim of our study is to evaluate the improvement of language functions in the earliest stage in patients treated with thrombolysis and in nontreated patients using our rapid screening test. Our study is a single-center prospective observational study conducted at the Stroke Unit of the University Medical Hospital of Trieste (January-December 2016). Patients treated with thrombolysis and nontreated patients underwent 3 aphasia assessments through our rapid screening test (at baseline, 24 hours, and 72 hours). The screening test assesses spontaneous speech, oral comprehension of words, reading aloud and comprehension of written words, oral comprehension of sentences, naming, repetition of words and a sentence, and writing words. The study included 40 patients: 18 patients treated with thrombolysis and 22 nontreated patients. Both groups improved over time. Among all language parameters, spontaneous speech was statistically significant between 24 and 72 hours (P value = .012), and between baseline and 72 hours (P value = .017). Our study demonstrates that patients treated with thrombolysis experience greater improvement in language than the nontreated patients. The difference between the 2 groups is increasingly evident over time. Moreover, spontaneous speech is the parameter marked by the greatest improvement. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Experiment with Evaluation of Emotional Speech Conversion by Spectrograms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2010), s. 72-77 ISSN 1335-8871 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/0989 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : Signal processing * Speech synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.400, year: 2010

  5. Efficacy of melody-based aphasia therapy may strongly depend on rhythm and conversational speech formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Stahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Left-hemisphere stroke patients suffering from language and speech disorders are often able to sing entire pieces of text fluently. This finding has inspired a number of melody-based rehabilitation programs – most notable among them a treatment known as Melodic Intonation Therapy – as well as two fundamental research questions. When the experimental design focuses on one point in time (cross section, one may determine whether or not singing has an immediate effect on syllable production in patients with language and speech disorders. When the design focuses on changes over several points in time (longitudinal section, one may gain insight as to whether or not singing has a long-term effect on language and speech recovery. The current work addresses both of these questions with two separate experiments that investigate the interplay of melody, rhythm and lyric type in 32 patients with non-fluent aphasia and apraxia of speech (Stahl et al., 2011; Stahl et al., 2013. Taken together, the experiments deliver three main results. First, singing and rhythmic pacing proved to be equally effective in facilitating immediate syllable production and long-term language and speech recovery. Controlling for various influences such as prosody, syllable duration and phonetic complexity, the data did not reveal any advantage of singing over rhythmic speech. This result was independent of lesion size and lesion location in the patients. Second, patients with extensive left-sided basal ganglia lesions produced more correct syllables when their speech was paced by rhythmic drumbeats. This observation is consistent with the idea that regular auditory cues may partially compensate for corticostriatal damage and thereby improve speech-motor planning (Grahn & Watson, 2013. Third, conversational speech formulas and well-known song lyrics yielded higher rates of correct syllable production than novel word sequences – whether patients were singing or speaking

  6. The effect of genre on reporting speech: conversations and newspaper articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleur van der Houwen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on reported speech in two different genres: spoken conversation and newspaper articles. There are two basic structures that allow language users to report formerly uttered words: direct and indirect speech. Both structures serve to integrate former discourse into the ongoing discourse. In different genres, however, language users draw upon different language tools to meet their communicative aims. This study examines how this might affect the distribution of direct and indirect reports across conversations and newspaper articles. Two of various hypotheses that have been suggested for the different uses of direct and indirect reported speech are examined using qualitative and quantitative analyses: 1 that direct speech would be a ‘less complex' strategy than indirect speech, in the sense that the reporter does not need to make deictic adaptations if we take the ‘original' words as our starting point, and 2 that direct speech is a more involving strategy than indirect speech. While the statistical results confirm both hypotheses, the confirmation of the complexity hypothesis differs for the two genres studied and needs some refinement as will be show with further qualitative analyses.

  7. Acoustic and Lexical Representations for Affect Prediction in Spontaneous Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Houwei; Savran, Arman; Verma, Ragini; Nenkova, Ani

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate what representations of acoustics and word usage are most suitable for predicting dimensions of affect|AROUSAL, VALANCE, POWER and EXPECTANCY|in spontaneous interactions. Our experiments are based on the AVEC 2012 challenge dataset. For lexical representations, we compare corpus-independent features based on psychological word norms of emotional dimensions, as well as corpus-dependent representations. We find that corpus-dependent bag of words approach with mutual information between word and emotion dimensions is by far the best representation. For the analysis of acoustics, we zero in on the question of granularity. We confirm on our corpus that utterance-level features are more predictive than word-level features. Further, we study more detailed representations in which the utterance is divided into regions of interest (ROI), each with separate representation. We introduce two ROI representations, which significantly outperform less informed approaches. In addition we show that acoustic models of emotion can be improved considerably by taking into account annotator agreement and training the model on smaller but reliable dataset. Finally we discuss the potential for improving prediction by combining the lexical and acoustic modalities. Simple fusion methods do not lead to consistent improvements over lexical classifiers alone but improve over acoustic models.

  8. Speech-To-Text Conversion STT System Using Hidden Markov Model HMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Myat Mon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Speech is an easiest way to communicate with each other. Speech processing is widely used in many applications like security devices household appliances cellular phones ATM machines and computers. The human computer interface has been developed to communicate or interact conveniently for one who is suffering from some kind of disabilities. Speech-to-Text Conversion STT systems have a lot of benefits for the deaf or dumb people and find their applications in our daily lives. In the same way the aim of the system is to convert the input speech signals into the text output for the deaf or dumb students in the educational fields. This paper presents an approach to extract features by using Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC from the speech signals of isolated spoken words. And Hidden Markov Model HMM method is applied to train and test the audio files to get the recognized spoken word. The speech database is created by using MATLAB.Then the original speech signals are preprocessed and these speech samples are extracted to the feature vectors which are used as the observation sequences of the Hidden Markov Model HMM recognizer. The feature vectors are analyzed in the HMM depending on the number of states.

  9. Simulating spontaneous parametric down-conversion using classical light: Conference paper

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available of SPIE Volume 9194, Laser Beam Shaping XV, San Diego USA, August 2014 Simulating spontaneous parametric down-conversion using classical light Yingwen Zhanga, Melanie McLarena,b, Filippus S. Rouxa and Andrew Forbesa,b aCSIR National Laser Centre...

  10. Experimental verification of high spectral entanglement for pulsed waveguided spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avenhaus, M.; Chekhova, M. V.; Krivitsky, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    We study the spectral properties of spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in a periodically poled waveguided structure of potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) crystal pumped by ultrashort pulses. Our theoretical analysis reveals a strongly entangled and asymmetric structure of the two...

  11. Effects of a Conversation-Based Intervention on the Linguistic Skills of Children With Motor Speech Disorders Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gloria; Clarke, Michael T

    2017-07-12

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a conversation-based intervention on the expressive vocabulary and grammatical skills of children with severe motor speech disorders and expressive language delay who use augmentative and alternative communication. Eight children aged from 8 to 13 years participated in the study. After a baseline period, a conversation-based intervention was provided for each participant, in which they were supported to learn and use linguistic structures essential for the formation of clauses and the grammaticalization of their utterances, such as pronouns, verbs, and bound morphemes, in the context of personally meaningful and scaffolded conversations with trained clinicians. The conversations were videotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using the Systematic Analysis of Language Transcripts (SALT; Miller & Chapman, 1991). Results indicate that participants showed improvements in their use of spontaneous clauses, and a greater use of pronouns, verbs, and bound morphemes. These improvements were sustained and generalized to conversations with familiar partners. The results demonstrate the positive effects of the conversation-based intervention for improving the expressive vocabulary and grammatical skills of children with severe motor speech disorders and expressive language delay who use augmentative and alternative communication. Clinical and theoretical implications of conversation-based interventions are discussed and future research needs are identified. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5150113.

  12. Expressive Language during Conversational Speech in Boys with Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Joanne E.; Hennon, Elizabeth A.; Price, Johanna R.; Dear, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kathleen; Vandergrift, Nathan A.

    2007-01-01

    We compared the expressive syntax and vocabulary skills of 35 boys with fragile X syndrome and 27 younger typically developing boys who were at similar nonverbal mental levels. During a conversational speech sample, the boys with fragile X syndrome used shorter, less complex utterances and produced fewer different words than did the typically…

  13. The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has. …

  14. Good and bad in the hands of politicians: spontaneous gestures during positive and negative speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Casasanto

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the body-specificity hypothesis, people with different bodily characteristics should form correspondingly different mental representations, even in highly abstract conceptual domains. In a previous test of this proposal, right- and left-handers were found to associate positive ideas like intelligence, attractiveness, and honesty with their dominant side and negative ideas with their non-dominant side. The goal of the present study was to determine whether 'body-specific' associations of space and valence can be observed beyond the laboratory in spontaneous behavior, and whether these implicit associations have visible consequences.We analyzed speech and gesture (3012 spoken clauses, 1747 gestures from the final debates of the 2004 and 2008 US presidential elections, which involved two right-handers (Kerry, Bush and two left-handers (Obama, McCain. Blind, independent coding of speech and gesture allowed objective hypothesis testing. Right- and left-handed candidates showed contrasting associations between gesture and speech. In both of the left-handed candidates, left-hand gestures were associated more strongly with positive-valence clauses and right-hand gestures with negative-valence clauses; the opposite pattern was found in both right-handed candidates.Speakers associate positive messages more strongly with dominant hand gestures and negative messages with non-dominant hand gestures, revealing a hidden link between action and emotion. This pattern cannot be explained by conventions in language or culture, which associate 'good' with 'right' but not with 'left'; rather, results support and extend the body-specificity hypothesis. Furthermore, results suggest that the hand speakers use to gesture may have unexpected (and probably unintended communicative value, providing the listener with a subtle index of how the speaker feels about the content of the co-occurring speech.

  15. Hello Harlie: Enabling Speech Monitoring Through Chat-Bot Conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, David; Atay, Christina; Liddle, Jacki; Bradford, Dana; Lee, Helen; Rushin, Olivia; Mullins, Thomas; Angus, Dan; Wiles, Janet; McBride, Simon; Vogel, Adam

    2016-01-01

    People with neurological conditions such as Parkinson's disease and dementia are known to have difficulties in language and communication. This paper presents initial testing of an artificial conversational agent, called Harlie. Harlie runs on a smartphone and is able to converse with the user on a variety of topics. A description of the application and a sample dialog are provided to illustrate the various roles chat-bots can play in the management of neurological conditions. Harlie can be used for measuring voice and communication outcomes during the daily life of the user, and for gaining information about challenges encountered. Moreover, it is anticipated that she may also have an educational and support role.

  16. Social performance deficits in social anxiety disorder: reality during conversation and biased perception during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voncken, Marisol J; Bögels, Susan M

    2008-12-01

    Cognitive models emphasize that patients with social anxiety disorder (SAD) are mainly characterized by biased perception of their social performance. In addition, there is a growing body of evidence showing that SAD patients suffer from actual deficits in social interaction. To unravel what characterizes SAD patients the most, underestimation of social performance (defined as the discrepancy between self-perceived and observer-perceived social performance), or actual (observer-perceived) social performance, 48 patients with SAD and 27 normal control participants were observed during a speech and conversation. Consistent with the cognitive model of SAD, patients with SAD underestimated their social performance relative to control participants during the two interactions, but primarily during the speech. Actual social performance deficits were clearly apparent in the conversation but not in the speech. In conclusion, interactions that pull for more interpersonal skills, like a conversation, elicit more actual social performance deficits whereas, situations with a performance character, like a speech, bring about more cognitive distortions in patients with SAD.

  17. Development an Automatic Speech to Facial Animation Conversion for Improve Deaf Lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hamidreza Kasaei

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose design and initial implementation of a robust system which can automatically translates voice into text and text to sign language animations. Sign Language
    Translation Systems could significantly improve deaf lives especially in communications, exchange of information and employment of machine for translation conversations from one language to another has. Therefore, considering these points, it seems necessary to study the speech recognition. Usually, the voice recognition algorithms address three major challenges. The first is extracting feature form speech and the second is when limited sound gallery are available for recognition, and the final challenge is to improve speaker dependent to speaker independent voice recognition. Extracting feature form speech is an important stage in our method. Different procedures are available for extracting feature form speech. One of the commonest of which used in speech
    recognition systems is Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCCs. The algorithm starts with preprocessing and signal conditioning. Next extracting feature form speech using Cepstral coefficients will be done. Then the result of this process sends to segmentation part. Finally recognition part recognizes the words and then converting word recognized to facial animation. The project is still in progress and some new interesting methods are described in the current report.

  18. Conversion efficiency in the process of copolarized spontaneous four-wave mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B.; Rangel-Rojo, Raul

    2010-01-01

    We study the process of copolarized spontaneous four-wave mixing in single-mode optical fibers, with an emphasis on an analysis of the conversion efficiency. We consider both the monochromatic-pump and pulsed-pump regimes, as well as both the degenerate-pump and nondegenerate-pump configurations. We present analytical expressions for the conversion efficiency, which are given in terms of double integrals. In the case of pulsed pumps we take these expressions to closed analytical form with the help of certain approximations. We present results of numerical simulations, and compare them to values obtained from our analytical expressions, for the conversion efficiency as a function of several key experimental parameters.

  19. The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has.Previous research has shown that phonological neighbors impede auditory perception, but facilitate lexical production. As a result, words from dense neig...

  20. Contrast and Critique of Two Approaches to Discourse Analysis: Conversation Analysis and Speech Act Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Van Han

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Discourse analysis, as Murcia and Olshtain (2000 assume, is a vast study of language in use that extends beyond sentence level, and it involves a more cognitive and social perspective on language use and communication exchanges. Holding a wide range of phenomena about language with society, culture and thought, discourse analysis contains various approaches: speech act, pragmatics, conversation analysis, variation analysis, and critical discourse analysis. Each approach works in its different domain to discourse. For one dimension, it shares the same assumptions or general problems in discourse analysis with the other approaches: for instance, the explanation on how we organize language into units beyond sentence boundaries, or how language is used to convey information about the world, ourselves and human relationships (Schiffrin 1994: viii. For other dimensions, each approach holds its distinctive characteristics contributing to the vastness of discourse analysis. This paper will mainly discuss two approaches to discourse analysis- conversation analysis and speech act theory- and will attempt to point out some similarities as well as contrasting features between the two approaches, followed by a short reflection on their strengths and weaknesses in the essence of each approach. The organizational and discourse features in the exchanges among three teachers at the College of Finance and Customs in Vietnam will be analysed in terms of conversation analysis and speech act theory.

  1. A Comparison of the Use of Glottal Fry in the Spontaneous Speech of Young and Middle-Aged American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Gisele; Davidson, Ashira; Holczer, Rachelle; Kaplan, Sara; Paretzky, Adina

    2016-11-01

    To compare vocal fry use in spontaneous speech of young and middle-aged American women. This is a cross-sectional study. Subjects were 40 American women; 20 aged 18-25 years (mean = 22.9 years) and 20 aged 35-50 years (mean = 43.4 years). Participants were asked to describe all the steps involved in making a peanut butter and jelly sandwich and in doing laundry. Acoustical analysis of selected parameters and sentence position of vocal fry occurrences were performed. The acoustic parameters analyzed were mean, minimum and maximum fundamental frequency (F0), glottal fry/minute ratio, and sentence position of glottal fry. Values of minimum fundamental frequency clearly show that there was vocal fry in the participants' spontaneous speech samples. The average minimum F0 was 74.0 Hz (standard deviation [SD] = 5.6) for the younger women and 73.10 Hz (SD = 6.7) for the middle-aged women (P = 0.527). The mean glottal fry for the medial position and for the final position was similar for both groups. The mean glottal fry/minute ratio for young women was 13.8 (SD = 7.0), whereas for middle-aged women was 11.3 (SD = 7.5; P = 0.402). This study showed that all participants had at least one episode of glottal fry in their spontaneous speech sample. Both groups presented with vocal fry in their spontaneous speech, showing that vocal fry is present in the speech of young and middle-aged women. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Finite Verb Morphology in the Spontaneous Speech of Dutch-Speaking Children With Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Annemiek; Coene, Martine

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the acquisition of Dutch finite verb morphology is investigated in children with cochlear implants (CIs) with profound hearing loss and in children with hearing aids (HAs) with moderate to severe hearing loss. Comparing these two groups of children increases our insight into how hearing experience and audibility affect the acquisition of morphosyntax. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed of 48 children with CIs and 29 children with HAs, ages 4 to 7 years. These language samples were analyzed by means of standardized language analysis involving mean length of utterance, the number of finite verbs produced, and target-like subject-verb agreement. The outcomes were interpreted relative to expectations based on the performance of typically developing peers with normal hearing. Outcomes of all measures were correlated with hearing level in the group of HA users and age at implantation in the group of CI users. For both groups, the number of finite verbs that were produced in 50-utterance sample was on par with mean length of utterance and at the lower bound of the normal distribution. No significant differences were found between children with CIs and HAs on any of the measures under investigation. Yet, both groups produced more subject-verb agreement errors than are to be expected for typically developing hearing peers. No significant correlation was found between the hearing level of the children and the relevant measures of verb morphology, both with respect to the overall number of verbs that were used and the number of errors that children made. Within the group of CI users, the outcomes were significantly correlated with age at implantation. When producing finite verb morphology, profoundly deaf children wearing CIs perform similarly to their peers with moderate-to-severe hearing loss wearing HAs. Hearing loss negatively affects the acquisition of subject-verb agreement regardless of the hearing device (CI or HA) that the child is wearing. The

  3. Localization of one-photon state in space and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penin, A.N.; Reutova, T.A.; Sergienko, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    An experiment on one-photon state localization in space using a correlation technique in Spontaneous Parametric Down Conversion (SPDC) process is discussed. Results of measurements demonstrate an idea of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox for coordinate and momentum variables of photon states. Results of the experiment can be explained with the help of an advanced wave technique. The experiment is based on the idea that two-photon states of optical electromagnetic fields arising in the nonlinear process of the spontaneous parametric down conversion (spontaneous parametric light scattering) can be explained by quantum mechanical theory with the help of a single wave function

  4. Spontaneous speech: Quantifying daily communication in Spanish-speaking individuals with aphasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Martínez-Ferreiro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Observable disruptions in spontaneous speech are among the most prominent characteristics of aphasia. The potential of language production analyses in discourse contexts to reveal subtle language deficits has been progressively exploited, becoming essential for diagnosing language disorders (Vermeulen et al., 1989; Goodglass et al., 2000; Prins and Bastiaanse, 2004; Jaecks et al., 2012. Based on previous studies, short and/or fragmentary utterances, and consequently a shorter MLU, are expected in the speech of individuals with aphasia, together with a large proportions of incomplete sentences and a limited use of embeddings. Fewer verbs with a lower diversity (lower type/token ratio and fewer internal arguments are also predicted, as well as a low proportion of inflected verbs (Bastiaanse and Jonkers, 1998. However, this profile comes mainly from the study of individuals with prototypical aphasia types, mainly Broca’s aphasia, raising the question of how accurate spontaneous speech is to pinpoint deficits in individuals with less clear diagnoses. To address this question, we present the results of a spontaneous speech analysis of 25 Spanish-speaking subjects: 10 individuals with aphasia (IWAs, 7 male and 3 female (mean age: 64.2 in neural stable condition (> 1 year post-onset who suffered from a single CVA in the left hemisphere (Rosell, 2005, and 15 non-brain-damaged matched speakers (NBDs. In the aphasia group, 7 of the participants were diagnosed as non-fluent (1 motor aphasia, 4 transcortical motor aphasia or motor aphasia with signs of transcorticality, 2 mixed aphasia with motor predominance, and 3 of them as fluent (mixed aphasia with anomic predominance. The protocol for data collection included semi-standardized interviews, in which participants were asked 3 questions evoking past, present, and future events (last job, holidays, and hobbies. 300 words per participant were analyzed. The MLU over the total 300 words revealed a decreased

  5. Functionally Equivalent Variants in a Non-standard Variety and Their Implications for Universal Grammar: A Spontaneous Speech Corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Evelina Leivada; Evelina Leivada; Elena Papadopoulou; Elena Papadopoulou; Natalia Pavlou

    2017-01-01

    Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization ...

  6. Can prosody aid the automatic classification of dialog acts in conversational speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, E; Bates, R; Stolcke, A; Taylor, P; Jurafsky, D; Ries, K; Coccaro, N; Martin, R; Meteer, M; van Ess-Dykema, C

    1998-01-01

    Identifying whether an utterance is a statement, question, greeting, and so forth is integral to effective automatic understanding of natural dialog. Little is known, however, about how such dialog acts (DAs) can be automatically classified in truly natural conversation. This study asks whether current approaches, which use mainly word information, could be improved by adding prosodic information. The study is based on more than 1000 conversations from the Switchboard corpus. DAs were hand-annotated, and prosodic features (duration, pause, F0, energy, and speaking rate) were automatically extracted for each DA. In training, decision trees based on these features were inferred; trees were then applied to unseen test data to evaluate performance. Performance was evaluated for prosody models alone, and after combining the prosody models with word information--either from true words or from the output of an automatic speech recognizer. For an overall classification task, as well as three subtasks, prosody made significant contributions to classification. Feature-specific analyses further revealed that although canonical features (such as F0 for questions) were important, less obvious features could compensate if canonical features were removed. Finally, in each task, integrating the prosodic model with a DA-specific statistical language model improved performance over that of the language model alone, especially for the case of recognized words. Results suggest that DAs are redundantly marked in natural conversation, and that a variety of automatically extractable prosodic features could aid dialog processing in speech applications.

  7. Spontaneous Speech Events in Two Speech Databases of Human-Computer and Human-Human Dialogs in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Luis J.; Torres, M. Ines

    2006-01-01

    Previous works in English have revealed that disfluencies follow regular patterns and that incorporating them into the language model of a speech recognizer leads to lower perplexities and sometimes to a better performance. Although work on disfluency modeling has been applied outside the English community (e.g., in Japanese), as far as we know…

  8. One-Photon and Two-Photon Double-Slit Interferences in Spontaneous and Stimulated Parametric Down-Conversions

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, De-Zhong; Li, Zhuan; Zhai, Yan-Hua; Wang, Kaige

    2004-01-01

    We theoretically discuss one-photon and two-photon double-slit interferences for spontaneous and stimulated parametric down-conversions. We show that the two-photon sub-wavelength interference can exist in a general spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) for both type I and type II crystals. We propose an alternative way to observe sub-wavelength interference by a joint-intensity measurement which occurs for only type I crystal in a higher gain of SPDC. When a signal beam injects into ...

  9. Omission of definite and indefinite articles in the spontaneous speech of agrammatic speakers with Broca's aphasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havik, E.; Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cross-linguistic investigation of agrammatic speech in speakers of different languages allows us to tests theoretical accounts of the nature of agrammatism. A significant feature of the speech of many agrammatic speakers is a problem with article production. Mansson and Ahlsen (2001)

  10. Entangled photon pair generation by spontaneous parametric down-conversion in finite-length one-dimensional photonic crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Centini, M.; Peřina ml., Jan; Sciscione, L.; Sibilia, C.; Scalora, M.; Bloemer, M.J.; Bertolotti, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 72, 03 (2005), 033806/1-033806/11 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC P11.003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : photon pair * photonic crystals * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.997, year: 2005

  11. Role of volume and surface spontaneous parametric down-conversion in the generation of photon pairs in layered media

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrek, D.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 4 (2017), s. 1-13, č. článku 043828. ISSN 2469-9926 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface spontaneous * parametric down-conversion * photon pairs * layered media Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 2.925, year: 2016

  12. Emission of orbital-angular-momentum-entangled photon pairs in a nonlinear ring fiber utilizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Javůrek, D.; Svozilík, J.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), "043844-1"-"043844-12" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : photon pairs * orbital-angular-momentum-entangled * nonlinear ring fiber * spontaneous parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2014

  13. Perception of Emotion in Conversational Speech by Younger and Older Listeners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eSchmidt

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether age and/or differences in hearing sensitivity influence the perception of the emotion dimensions arousal (calm vs. aroused and valence (positive vs. negative attitude in conversational speech. To that end, this study specifically focused on the relationship between participants’ ratings of short affective utterances and the utterances’ acoustic parameters (pitch, intensity, and articulation rate known to be associated with the emotion dimensions arousal and valence. Stimuli consisted of short utterances taken from a corpus of conversational speech. In two rating tasks, younger and older adults either rated arousal or valence using a 5-point scale. Mean intensity was found to be the main cue participants used in the arousal task (i.e., higher mean intensity cueing higher levels of arousal while mean F0 was the main cue in the valence task (i.e., higher mean F0 being interpreted as more negative. Even though there were no overall age group differences in arousal or valence ratings, compared to younger adults, older adults responded less strongly to mean intensity differences cueing arousal and responded more strongly to differences in mean F0 cueing valence. Individual hearing sensitivity among the older adults did not modify the use of mean intensity as an arousal cue. However, individual hearing sensitivity generally affected valence ratings and modified the use of mean F0. We conclude that age differences in the interpretation of mean F0 as a cue for valence are likely due to age-related hearing loss, whereas age differences in rating arousal do not seem to be driven by hearing sensitivity differences between age groups (as measured by pure-tone audiometry.

  14. [Spontaneous speech prosody and discourse analysis in schizophrenia and Fronto Temporal Dementia (FTD) patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Angela; Felizzola Donado, Carlos Alberto; Matallana Eslava, Diana Lucía

    2015-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) in their linguistic variants share some language characteristics such as the lexical access difficulties, disordered speech with disruptions, many pauses, interruptions and reformulations. For the schizophrenia patients it reflects a difficulty of affect expression, while for the FTD patients it reflects a linguistic issue. This study, through an analysis of a series of cases assessed Clinic both in memory and on the Mental Health Unit of HUSI-PUJ (Hospital Universitario San Ignacio), with additional language assessment (analysis speech and acoustic analysis), present distinctive features of the DFT in its linguistic variants and schizophrenia that will guide the specialist in finding early markers of a differential diagnosis. In patients with FTD language variants, in 100% of cases there is a difficulty understanding linguistic structure of complex type; and important speech fluency problems. In patients with schizophrenia, there are significant alterations in the expression of the suprasegmental elements of speech, as well as disruptions in discourse. We present how depth language assessment allows to reassess some of the rules for the speech and prosody analysis of patients with dementia and schizophrenia; we suggest how elements of speech are useful in guiding the diagnosis and correlate functional compromise in everyday psychiatrist's practice. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Judgments of Emotion in Clear and Conversational Speech by Young Adults with Normal Hearing and Older Adults with Hearing Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Shae D.; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, we investigated the emotion perceived by young listeners with normal hearing (YNH listeners) and older adults with hearing impairment (OHI listeners) when listening to speech produced conversationally or in a clear speaking style. Method: The first experiment included 18 YNH listeners, and the second included 10 additional…

  16. Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus Sensitivity to Phonetic Competition in Receptive Language Processing: A Comparison of Clear and Conversational Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Myers, Emily

    2018-03-01

    The speech signal is rife with variations in phonetic ambiguity. For instance, when talkers speak in a conversational register, they demonstrate less articulatory precision, leading to greater potential for confusability at the phonetic level compared with a clear speech register. Current psycholinguistic models assume that ambiguous speech sounds activate more than one phonological category and that competition at prelexical levels cascades to lexical levels of processing. Imaging studies have shown that the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) is modulated by phonetic competition between simultaneously activated categories, with increases in activation for more ambiguous tokens. Yet, these studies have often used artificially manipulated speech and/or metalinguistic tasks, which arguably may recruit neural regions that are not critical for natural speech recognition. Indeed, a prominent model of speech processing, the dual-stream model, posits that the LIFG is not involved in prelexical processing in receptive language processing. In the current study, we exploited natural variation in phonetic competition in the speech signal to investigate the neural systems sensitive to phonetic competition as listeners engage in a receptive language task. Participants heard nonsense sentences spoken in either a clear or conversational register as neural activity was monitored using fMRI. Conversational sentences contained greater phonetic competition, as estimated by measures of vowel confusability, and these sentences also elicited greater activation in a region in the LIFG. Sentence-level phonetic competition metrics uniquely correlated with LIFG activity as well. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that the LIFG responds to competition at multiple levels of language processing and that recruitment of this region does not require an explicit phonological judgment.

  17. Using Others' Words: Conversational Use of Reported Speech by Individuals with Aphasia and Their Communication Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengst, Julie A.; Frame, Simone R.; Neuman-Stritzel, Tiffany; Gannaway, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Reported speech, wherein one quotes or paraphrases the speech of another, has been studied extensively as a set of linguistic and discourse practices. Researchers agree that reported speech is pervasive, found across languages, and used in diverse contexts. However, to date, there have been no studies of the use of reported speech among…

  18. Functionally Equivalent Variants in a Non-standard Variety and Their Implications for Universal Grammar: A Spontaneous Speech Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina Leivada

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization may result to grammatical hybridity, often manifested in the form of functionally equivalent variants in the repertoire of a single speaker. Recognizing the importance of working with corpora of spontaneous speech, this work investigates patterns of variation in the spontaneous production of five neurotypical, adult speakers of a non-standard variety in terms of three variants, each targeting one level of linguistic analysis: syntax, morphology, and phonology. The results reveal the existence of functionally equivalent variants across speakers and levels of analysis. We first discuss these findings in relation to the notions of competing, mixed, and fused grammars, and then we flesh out the implications that different values of the same variant carry for parametric approaches to Universal Grammar. We observe that intraspeaker realizations of different values of the same variant within the same syntactic environment are incompatible with the ‘triggering-a-single-value’ approach of parametric models, but we argue that they are compatible with the concept of Universal Grammar itself. Since the analysis of these variants is ultimately a way of investigating the status of Universal Grammar primitives, we conclude that claims about the alleged unfalsifiability of (the contents of Universal Grammar are unfounded.

  19. Functionally Equivalent Variants in a Non-standard Variety and Their Implications for Universal Grammar: A Spontaneous Speech Corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivada, Evelina; Papadopoulou, Elena; Pavlou, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Findings from the field of experimental linguistics have shown that a native speaker may judge a variant that is part of her grammar as unacceptable, but still use it productively in spontaneous speech. The process of eliciting acceptability judgments from speakers of non-standard languages is sometimes clouded by factors akin to prescriptive notions of grammatical correctness. It has been argued that standardization enhances the ability to make clear-cut judgments, while non-standardization may result to grammatical hybridity, often manifested in the form of functionally equivalent variants in the repertoire of a single speaker. Recognizing the importance of working with corpora of spontaneous speech, this work investigates patterns of variation in the spontaneous production of five neurotypical, adult speakers of a non-standard variety in terms of three variants, each targeting one level of linguistic analysis: syntax, morphology, and phonology. The results reveal the existence of functionally equivalent variants across speakers and levels of analysis. We first discuss these findings in relation to the notions of competing, mixed, and fused grammars, and then we flesh out the implications that different values of the same variant carry for parametric approaches to Universal Grammar. We observe that intraspeaker realizations of different values of the same variant within the same syntactic environment are incompatible with the 'triggering-a-single-value' approach of parametric models, but we argue that they are compatible with the concept of Universal Grammar itself. Since the analysis of these variants is ultimately a way of investigating the status of Universal Grammar primitives, we conclude that claims about the alleged unfalsifiability of (the contents of) Universal Grammar are unfounded.

  20. Do we notice when communication goes awry? An investigation of people's sensitivity to coherence in spontaneous conversation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Galantucci

    Full Text Available In the dominant theoretical framework, human communication is modeled as the faithful transmission of information. This implies that when people are involved in communicational exchanges, they should be sensitive to the success with which information is transmitted, easily detecting when conversations lack coherence. The expectation that humans are good at detecting conversational incoherence is in line with common intuition, but there are several reasons to suspect that it might be unrealistic. First, similar intuitions have been shown to be unrealistic for a number of psychological processes. Second, faithful information transmission may conflict with other conversational goals. Third, mechanisms supporting information transmission may themselves lead to cases of incoherence being missed. To ascertain the extent to which people are insensitive to patches of serious conversational incoherence, we generated such patches in the laboratory by repeatedly crossing two unrelated conversations. Across two studies, involving both narrowly and broadly focused conversations, between 27% and 42% of the conversants did not notice that their conversations had been crossed. The results of these studies suggest that it may indeed be unrealistic to model spontaneous conversation as faithful information transmission. Rather, our results are more consistent with models of communication that view it as involving noisy and error-prone inferential processes, serving multiple independent goals.

  1. The retrieval and inflection of verbs in the spontaneous speech of fluent aphasic speakers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanse, Y.R.M.

    Fluent aphasia of the anomic and Wernicke's type is characterized by word retrieval difficulties. However, in fluent aphasic speech, grammatical deviations have been observed as well. There is debate as to whether these grammatical problems are caused by the word retrieval deficit, by an additional

  2. Polynomial Modeling of Child and Adult Intonation in German Spontaneous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    In a data set of 291 spontaneous utterances from German 5-year-olds, 7-year-olds and adults, nuclear pitch contours were labeled manually using the GToBI annotation system. Ten different contour types were identified.The fundamental frequency (F0) of these contours was modeled using third-order orthogonal polynomials, following an approach similar…

  3. Lexical Access in Persian Normal Speakers: Picture Naming, Verbal Fluency and Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Sadat Ghoreishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Lexical access is the process by which the basic conceptual, syntactical and morpho-phonological information of words are activated. Most studies of lexical access have focused on picture naming. There is hardly any previous research on other parameters of lexical access such as verbal fluency and analysis of connected speech in Persian normal participants. This study investigates the lexical access performance in normal speakers in different issues such as age, sex and education. Methods: The performance of 120 adult Persian speakers in three tasks including picture naming, verbal fluency and connected speech, was examined using "Persian Lexical Access Assessment Package”. The performance of participants between two gender groups (male/female, three education groups (below 5 years, above 12 years, between 5 and 12 years and three age groups (18-35 years, 36-55 years, 56-75 years were compared. Results: According to findings, picture naming increased with increasing education and decreased with increasing age. The performance of participants in phonological and semantic verbal fluency showed improvement with age and education. No significant difference was seen between males and females in verbal fluency task. In the analysis of connected speech there were no significant differences between different age and education groups and just mean length of utterance in males was significantly higher than females. Discussion: The findings could be a primitive scale for comparison between normal subjects and patients in lexical access tasks, furthermore it could be a horizon for planning of treatment goals in patients with word finding problem according to age, gender and education.

  4. Talker Differences in Clear and Conversational Speech: Perceived Sentence Clarity for Young Adults with Normal Hearing and Older Adults with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Morgan, Shae D.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine talker differences for subjectively rated speech clarity in clear versus conversational speech, to determine whether ratings differ for young adults with normal hearing (YNH listeners) and older adults with hearing impairment (OHI listeners), and to explore effects of certain talker characteristics…

  5. Joint Dictionary Learning-Based Non-Negative Matrix Factorization for Voice Conversion to Improve Speech Intelligibility After Oral Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Szu-Wei; Li, Pei-Chun; Lai, Ying-Hui; Yang, Cheng-Chien; Hsieh, Li-Chun; Tsao, Yu

    2017-11-01

    Objective: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient's speech may be distorted and difficult to understand. To overcome this problem, VC methods can be applied to convert the distorted speech such that it is clear and more intelligible. To design an effective VC method, two key points must be considered: 1) the amount of training data may be limited (because speaking for a long time is usually difficult for postoperative patients); 2) rapid conversion is desirable (for better communication). Methods: We propose a novel joint dictionary learning based non-negative matrix factorization (JD-NMF) algorithm. Compared to conventional VC techniques, JD-NMF can perform VC efficiently and effectively with only a small amount of training data. Results: The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed JD-NMF method not only achieves notably higher short-time objective intelligibility (STOI) scores (a standardized objective intelligibility evaluation metric) than those obtained using the original unconverted speech but is also significantly more efficient and effective than a conventional exemplar-based NMF VC method. Conclusion: The proposed JD-NMF method may outperform the state-of-the-art exemplar-based NMF VC method in terms of STOI scores under the desired scenario. Significance: We confirmed the advantages of the proposed joint training criterion for the NMF-based VC. Moreover, we verified that the proposed JD-NMF can effectively improve the speech intelligibility scores of oral surgery patients. Objective: This paper focuses on machine learning based voice conversion (VC) techniques for improving the speech intelligibility of surgical patients who have had parts of their articulators removed. Because of the removal of parts of the articulator, a patient

  6. Discourse Intonation and Information Structure: An Empirical Study of Existential There Constructions in Non-native Spontaneous Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Judit

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The management of given and new information is one of the key components of accomplishing coherence in oral discourse, which is claimed to be a problematic area for language learners (Celce-Murcia, Dörnyei, and Thurrell 1995: 14. Research on discourse intonation proposes that instead of the given/new dichotomy, givenness should be viewed as a continuum, with different types of accessibility (Baumann & Grice 2006. Moreover, Prince (1992 previously categorized information structure into Hearer-old/Hearer-new and Discourse-old/Discourse-new information. There is consensus on the fact that focus or prominence associated with new information is marked with nuclear pitch accent, and its main acoustic cue, fundamental frequency (f0 (Ward & Birner 2001: 120. Non-native intonation has been reported to display numerous differences in f0 range and patterns compared to native speech (Wennerstrom 1994; Baker 2010. This study is an attempt to address the issue of marking information structure in existential there sentences by means of f0 in non-native spontaneous speech. Data originates from task-based interactions in the Wildcat Corpus of Native- and Foreign-Accented English (Van Engen et al. 2010. This paper examines two issues: (1 information structure in relation to the notions of givenness and different types of accessibility (Baumann & Grice 2006 and to Prince’s (1992 multidimensional taxonomy and (2 the use of f0 peaks to mark the prominence of new information. Several differences were measured among native speakers regarding the use of f0, sentence type, and complexity.

  7. SOFTWARE EFFORT ESTIMATION FRAMEWORK TO IMPROVE ORGANIZATION PRODUCTIVITY USING EMOTION RECOGNITION OF SOFTWARE ENGINEERS IN SPONTANEOUS SPEECH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.V.A.N.S.S. Prabhakar Rao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Productivity is a very important part of any organisation in general and software industry in particular. Now a day’s Software Effort estimation is a challenging task. Both Effort and Productivity are inter-related to each other. This can be achieved from the employee’s of the organization. Every organisation requires emotionally stable employees in their firm for seamless and progressive working. Of course, in other industries this may be achieved without man power. But, software project development is labour intensive activity. Each line of code should be delivered from software engineer. Tools and techniques may helpful and act as aid or supplementary. Whatever be the reason software industry has been suffering with success rate. Software industry is facing lot of problems in delivering the project on time and within the estimated budget limit. If we want to estimate the required effort of the project it is significant to know the emotional state of the team member. The responsibility of ensuring emotional contentment falls on the human resource department and the department can deploy a series of systems to carry out its survey. This analysis can be done using a variety of tools, one such, is through study of emotion recognition. The data needed for this is readily available and collectable and can be an excellent source for the feedback systems. The challenge of recognition of emotion in speech is convoluted primarily due to the noisy recording condition, the variations in sentiment in sample space and exhibition of multiple emotions in a single sentence. The ambiguity in the labels of training set also increases the complexity of problem addressed. The existing models using probabilistic models have dominated the study but present a flaw in scalability due to statistical inefficiency. The problem of sentiment prediction in spontaneous speech can thus be addressed using a hybrid system comprising of a Convolution Neural Network and

  8. The entangled photons generation in third order nonlinearity of spontaneous parametric down conversion by whispering gallery mode resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jingming; Xiaver, Jolly

    2017-10-01

    We manipulated the simulation and apparatus to generate the entangled quantum photons by the enhanced higher quality factor in waveguide of whispering gallery mode resonator in silica microsphere. As the several nonlinear optics effects have been validated in micro-disk (lithium niobate materials based), others micro-cavity (microfiber and micro ring on the chip) and second harmonic generation (SHG) on the surface of silica microsphere because of the characterization of enhanced higher quality factor Q and smaller volume mode in these resonator. However until now for the second third nonlinearity of spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), third order nonlinearity of spontaneous parametric down conversion (TOSPDC) and spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) in whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator of silica microsphere rarely have not been fully investigated and verified to generate the triple and pair entangled photons where are widely applied on the applications of biosensor, quantum communications and spectroscopy, respectively. Specially, the features of silica microsphere have attracted many applications due to the simple fabrication, simplified materials melted by silica fiber. The work we demonstrated in this paper based on the breaking of the dispersion rules to make perfect phase matching in normal dispersion in silica microsphere depending on the blue laser spectrum in visible spectrum, then manipulated the modified size of microsphere to detune the pump laser of free spectral range (FSR) and both shift the geometrical dispersion are characterized in the variation of FSR given by (see PDF for equation), where n is refractive index, R is the microspheres radius and m is mode numbers in resonator, to compensate the materials dispersion given by (see PDF for equation), where c is the speed of light and λ is pump laser wavelength to fulfill the perfect phase matching in parametric down conversion regimes and the modeling fabrication coupling results also

  9. Versatile engineering of multimode squeezed states by optimizing the pump spectral profile in spontaneous parametric down-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzani, Francesco; Fabre, Claude; Treps, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    We study the quantum correlations induced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion of a frequency comb. We derive a theoretical method to find the output state corresponding to a pump with an arbitrary spectral profile. After applying it to the relevant example of a spectrally chirped pump, we run an optimization algorithm to numerically find the pump profiles maximizing some target functions. These include the number of independently squeezed modes and the variances of nullifiers defining cluster states used in many continuous-variable quantum information protocols. To assess the advantages of pump shaping in real experiments, we take into account the physical limitations of the pulse shaper.

  10. Speaking Spontaneously in the Modern Foreign Languages Classroom: Tools for Supporting Successful Target Language Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study into the conditions which promote spontaneous learner talk in the target language in the modern foreign languages (MFL) classroom. A qualitative case study approach was adopted. French lessons, with school students aged 11-16 years old, were observed and analysed with the aim of identifying tools and…

  11. A multimodal dataset of spontaneous speech and movement production on object affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatakis, Argiro; Pastra, Katerina

    2016-01-19

    In the longstanding effort of defining object affordances, a number of resources have been developed on objects and associated knowledge. These resources, however, have limited potential for modeling and generalization mainly due to the restricted, stimulus-bound data collection methodologies adopted. To-date, therefore, there exists no resource that truly captures object affordances in a direct, multimodal, and naturalistic way. Here, we present the first such resource of 'thinking aloud', spontaneously-generated verbal and motoric data on object affordances. This resource was developed from the reports of 124 participants divided into three behavioural experiments with visuo-tactile stimulation, which were captured audiovisually from two camera-views (frontal/profile). This methodology allowed the acquisition of approximately 95 hours of video, audio, and text data covering: object-feature-action data (e.g., perceptual features, namings, functions), Exploratory Acts (haptic manipulation for feature acquisition/verification), gestures and demonstrations for object/feature/action description, and reasoning patterns (e.g., justifications, analogies) for attributing a given characterization. The wealth and content of the data make this corpus a one-of-a-kind resource for the study and modeling of object affordances.

  12. An integrated analysis of speech and gestural characteristics in conversational child-computer interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Serdar; Montanari, Simona; Andersen, Elaine; Narayanan, Shrikanth S.

    2003-10-01

    Understanding the fine details of children's speech and gestural characteristics helps, among other things, in creating natural computer interfaces. We analyze the acoustic, lexical/non-lexical and spoken/gestural discourse characteristics of young children's speech using audio-video data gathered using a Wizard of Oz technique from 4 to 6 year old children engaged in resolving a series of age-appropriate cognitive challenges. Fundamental and formant frequencies exhibited greater variations between subjects consistent with previous results on read speech [Lee et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 105, 1455-1468 (1999)]. Also, our analysis showed that, in a given bandwidth, phonemic information contained in the speech of young child is significantly less than that of older ones and adults. To enable an integrated analysis, a multi-track annotation board was constructed using the ANVIL tool kit [M. Kipp, Eurospeech 1367-1370 (2001)]. Along with speech transcriptions and acoustic analysis, non-lexical and discourse characteristics, and child's gesture (facial expressions, body movements, hand/head movements) were annotated in a synchronized multilayer system. Initial results showed that younger children rely more on gestures to emphasize their verbal assertions. Younger children use non-lexical speech (e.g., um, huh) associated with frustration and pondering/reflecting more frequently than older ones. Younger children also repair more with humans than with computer.

  13. Children's Early Awareness of Comprehension as Evident in Their Spontaneous Corrections of Speech Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Henry M; Song, Ju-Hyun; Peskin-Shepherd, Hope

    2017-06-09

    A crucial human cognitive goal is to understand and to be understood. But understanding often takes active management. Two studies investigated early developmental processes of understanding management by focusing on young children's comprehension monitoring. We ask: When and how do young children actively monitor their comprehension of social-communicative interchanges and so seek to clarify and correct their own potential miscomprehension? Study 1 examined the parent-child conversations of 13 children studied longitudinally in everyday situations from the time the children were approximately 2 years through 3 years. Study 2 used a seminaturalistic situation in the laboratory to address these questions with more precision and control with 36 children aged 2-3 years. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  14. Interactional convergence in conversational storytelling: when reported speech is a cue of alignment and/or affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardiola, Mathilde; Bertrand, Roxane

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates how and when interactional convergence is established by participants in conversation. We analyze sequences of storytelling using an original method that combines Conversation Analysis and a corpus-based approach. In storytelling, the participant in the position of "listener" is expected to produce either generic or specific responses adapted to the storyteller's narrative. The listener's behavior produced within the current activity is a cue of his/her interactional alignment. We show here that the listener can produce a specific type of (aligned) response, which we term a reported speech utterance in echo. The participant who is not telling the story is nonetheless able to animate the characters, while reversing the usual asymmetric roles of storyteller and listener. The use of this device is a way for the listener to display his/her stance toward the events told by the storyteller. If the listener's stance is congruent with that of the storyteller, this reveals a high degree of affiliation between the participants. We present seventeen excerpts from a collection of 94 instances of Echo Reported Speech (ERS) which we examined using the concepts of alignment and affiliation in order to show how different kinds of convergent sequences are constructed. We demonstrate that this phenomenon is mainly used by the listener to align and affiliate with the storyteller by means of reformulative, enumerative, or overbidding ERS. We also show that in affiliative sequences, reported speech can be used by the listener in a humorous way in order to temporarily disalign. This disalignment constitutes a potential starting point for an oblique sequence, which, if accepted and continued by the storyteller, gives rise to a highly convergent sequence.

  15. Third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion in thin optical fibers as a photon-triplet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Maria [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico); Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Apartado Postal 2732, BC 22860 Ensenada (Mexico); Garay-Palmett, Karina; U' Ren, Alfred B. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, apdo. postal 70-543, DF 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2011-09-15

    We study the third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion (TOSPDC) process, as a means to generate entangled photon triplets. Specifically, we consider thin optical fibers as the nonlinear medium to be used as the basis for TOSPDC in configurations where phase matching is attained through the use of more than one fiber transverse modes. Our analysis in this paper, which follows from our earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 36, 190-192 (2011)], aims to supply experimentalists with the details required in order to design a TOSPDC photon-triplet source. Specifically, our analysis focuses on the photon triplet state, on the rate of emission, and on the TOSPDC phase-matching characteristics for the cases of frequency-degenerate and frequency nondegenerate TOSPDC.

  16. Third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion in thin optical fibers as a photon-triplet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corona, Maria; Garay-Palmett, Karina; U'Ren, Alfred B.

    2011-01-01

    We study the third-order spontaneous parametric down-conversion (TOSPDC) process, as a means to generate entangled photon triplets. Specifically, we consider thin optical fibers as the nonlinear medium to be used as the basis for TOSPDC in configurations where phase matching is attained through the use of more than one fiber transverse modes. Our analysis in this paper, which follows from our earlier paper [Opt. Lett. 36, 190-192 (2011)], aims to supply experimentalists with the details required in order to design a TOSPDC photon-triplet source. Specifically, our analysis focuses on the photon triplet state, on the rate of emission, and on the TOSPDC phase-matching characteristics for the cases of frequency-degenerate and frequency nondegenerate TOSPDC.

  17. Efficacy of melody-based aphasia therapy may strongly depend on rhythm and conversational speech formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Stahl

    2014-01-01

    Left-hemisphere stroke patients suffering from language and speech disorders are often able to sing entire pieces of text fluently. This finding has inspired a number of melody-based rehabilitation programs – most notable among them a treatment known as Melodic Intonation Therapy – as well as two fundamental research questions. When the experimental design focuses on one point in time (cross section), one may determine whether or not singing has an immediate effect on syllable production in p...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF AUTOMATED SPEECH RECOGNITION SYSTEM FOR EGYPTIAN ARABIC PHONE CONVERSATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Romanenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with description of several speech recognition systems for the Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. The research is based on the CALLHOME Egyptian corpus. The description of both systems, classic: based on Hidden Markov and Gaussian Mixture Models, and state-of-the-art: deep neural network acoustic models is given. We have demonstrated the contribution from the usage of speaker-dependent bottleneck features; for their extraction three extractors based on neural networks were trained. For their training three datasets in several languageswere used:Russian, English and differentArabic dialects.We have studied the possibility of application of a small Modern Standard Arabic (MSA corpus to derive phonetic transcriptions. The experiments have shown that application of the extractor obtained on the basis of the Russian dataset enables to increase significantly the quality of the Arabic speech recognition. We have also stated that the usage of phonetic transcriptions based on modern standard Arabic decreases recognition quality. Nevertheless, system operation results remain applicable in practice. In addition, we have carried out the study of obtained models application for the keywords searching problem solution. The systems obtained demonstrate good results as compared to those published before. Some ways to improve speech recognition are offered.

  19. Repair sequences in dysarthric conversational speech: a study in interactional phonetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Ben

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents some findings from a case study of repair sequences in conversations between a dysarthric speaker, Chris, and her interactional partners. It adopts the methodology of interactional phonetics, where turn design, sequence organization, and variation in phonetic parameters are analysed in unison. The analysis focused on the use of segmental and prosodic variation found during attempts by Chris to repair a previously identified trouble source. The results indicate that trouble sources were extremely common in the recorded conversations, but that repair attempts were almost always communicatively successful. Analysis of the fragments revealed that repair sequences are often collaborative achievements, with the participant's conversational partners signalling the specific trouble source within a turn, or providing feedback about repair attempts. It was also observed that successful repair attempts were not always simple repetitions of the trouble source, but varied in other linguistic areas. It is suggested that intelligibility repairs should be studied using both experimental and qualitative methods.

  20. Effects of a Conversation-Based Intervention on the Linguistic Skills of Children with Motor Speech Disorders Who Use Augmentative and Alternative Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Gloria; Clarke, Michael T.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a conversation-based intervention on the expressive vocabulary and grammatical skills of children with severe motor speech disorders and expressive language delay who use augmentative and alternative communication. Method: Eight children aged from 8 to 13 years participated in the study.…

  1. Characterizing Intonation Deficit in Motor Speech Disorders: An Autosegmental-Metrical Analysis of Spontaneous Speech in Hypokinetic Dysarthria, Ataxic Dysarthria, and Foreign Accent Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowit, Anja; Kuschmann, Anja

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The autosegmental-metrical (AM) framework represents an established methodology for intonational analysis in unimpaired speaker populations but has found little application in describing intonation in motor speech disorders (MSDs). This study compared the intonation patterns of unimpaired participants (CON) and those with Parkinson's…

  2. Speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity of 20 pre-school stuttering and non-stuttering children and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, B P

    2000-01-01

    This is the second in a series of reports concerning stuttering pre-school children enrolled in a longitudinal study; the first was Ryan (1992). Conversational samples of 20 stuttering and 20 non-stuttering pre-school children and their mothers were analysed for speaking rate, conversational speech acts, interruption, and linguistic complexity. Between-group analyses revealed few differences between either the two children or two mother groups. Within-group analyses indicated differences that involved conversational speech acts and linguistic complexity. Most stuttering occurred on statements (M = 32.3% stuttered) and questions (M = 20.9% stuttered). Stuttered and disfluent sentences had higher Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) (Lee, 1974) scores (M = 10.9, 12.9, respectively) than fluent sentences (M = 7.6). Multiple correlation analyses indicated that speaking rate of mothers (0.561) and normal disfluency of children (0.396) were major predictor variables.

  3. Clinical evaluation of conversational speech fluency in the acute phase of acquired childhood aphasia: does a fluency/nonfluency dichotomy exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, H R; Paquier, P F; Creten, W L; van Borsel, J; Catsman-Berrevoets, C E

    2001-05-01

    Traditional neurologic tenets claim that the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia is nonfluent irrespective of lesion location. In the past 20 years, however, several case studies have shown that fluent aphasic patterns can be observed in children with acquired childhood aphasia. But the question remains open as to whether the pattern of their speech characteristics is similar to the one described in adult aphasics as studies addressing spontaneous speech fluency characteristics in larger series of children with acquired childhood aphasia are scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate whether an analysis of spontaneous speech fluency as has previously been performed in adult aphasics by other investigators would also yield two distinct groups of aphasic children and, if so, whether the distribution of the different speech characteristics in both groups would reflect the rank order found in adults, that is, whether nonfluent verbal output characteristics would predominate in one group and fluent features in the other. Audiotaped and videotaped recordings of 24 cooperative children with acute acquired childhood aphasia unselected for age, gender, etiology, and aphasia severity ratings were analyzed according to 10 different speech characteristics. A cluster analysis (two-means clustering) was performed to seek the existence of two distinct groups of aphasic children. Results were confirmed, and exact P values were computed with Mann-Whitney U-tests. A two-means clustering created two distinct classes. Mann-Whitney U-tests ranked the speech characteristics according to their discriminating power between clusters. Comparing this rank order with the one previously found in adults revealed a high correlation (Spearman's rank correlation: r = .915, P uniformity of the clinical picture of acquired childhood aphasia are obsolete. Our findings corroborate data issued from several case reports of fluent acquired childhood aphasia and from the few studies

  4. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Fostering Spontaneous Visual Attention in Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Proof-of-Concept Study Comparing Singing and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Grace Anne; Abel, Larry Allen

    2018-01-22

    Children on the autism spectrum are reported to have lower rates of social gaze as early as toddlerhood, and this pattern persists across the lifespan. Finding ways to promote more natural and spontaneous engagement in social interactions may help to boost developmental opportunities in the child's home and community settings. This proof-of-concept study hypothesized that a video of a singer would elicit more attention to the performer, particularly to her face, than a video of her reading a story, and that the child's familiarity with the material would enhance attention. Sixteen children on the autism spectrum (7-10 years old) watched 4 videos 1 min long comprising a favorite song or story, and an unfamiliar song and story. Eye movements were recorded, and three-way repeated measures ANOVAs examined the proportion of total valid visual dwell time and fixations, in each trial and each target area. For proportion of both dwell time and fixation counts, children were significantly more likely to look at the performer's face and body and less at the prop during singing than story-telling and when familiar rather than unfamiliar material was presented. These findings raise important issues for supporting children to naturally initiate looking toward a person's face. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Children on the autism spectrum may have difficulty looking at people, particularly their faces. In this study, children watched videos of someone singing or reading a story. The results show that children look more at the person if they were singing and if the story was familiar to them. Using songs and familiar stories may be a way to help children with autism to naturally engage with others. © 2018 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Non-linear frequency scale mapping for voice conversion in text-to-speech system with cepstral description

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přibilová, Anna; Přibil, Jiří

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 12 (2006), s. 1691-1703 ISSN 0167-6393 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 277.001; GA AV ČR(CZ) 1QS108040569 Grant - others:MŠk(SK) 102/VTP/2000; MŠk(SK) 1/3107/06 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : signal processing * speech processing * speech synthesis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.678, year: 2006

  7. Filled Pause Refinement Based on the Pronunciation Probability for Lecture Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan-Hua; Ye, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, although automatic speech recognition has become quite proficient in recognizing or transcribing well-prepared fluent speech, the transcription of speech that contains many disfluencies remains problematic, such as spontaneous conversational and lecture speech. Filled pauses (FPs) are the most frequently occurring disfluencies in this type of speech. Most recent studies have shown that FPs are widely believed to increase the error rates for state-of-the-art speech transcription, primarily because most FPs are not well annotated or provided in training data transcriptions and because of the similarities in acoustic characteristics between FPs and some common non-content words. To enhance the speech transcription system, we propose a new automatic refinement approach to detect FPs in British English lecture speech transcription. This approach combines the pronunciation probabilities for each word in the dictionary and acoustic language model scores for FP refinement through a modified speech recognition forced-alignment framework. We evaluate the proposed approach on the Reith Lectures speech transcription task, in which only imperfect training transcriptions are available. Successful results are achieved for both the development and evaluation datasets. Acoustic models trained on different styles of speech genres have been investigated with respect to FP refinement. To further validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, speech transcription performance has also been examined using systems built on training data transcriptions with and without FP refinement. PMID:25860959

  8. Hierarchical temporal structure in music, speech and animal vocalizations: jazz is like a conversation, humpbacks sing like hermit thrushes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T; Bella, Simone Dalla; Médé, Butovens; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh

    2017-10-01

    Humans talk, sing and play music. Some species of birds and whales sing long and complex songs. All these behaviours and sounds exhibit hierarchical structure-syllables and notes are positioned within words and musical phrases, words and motives in sentences and musical phrases, and so on. We developed a new method to measure and compare hierarchical temporal structures in speech, song and music. The method identifies temporal events as peaks in the sound amplitude envelope, and quantifies event clustering across a range of timescales using Allan factor (AF) variance. AF variances were analysed and compared for over 200 different recordings from more than 16 different categories of signals, including recordings of speech in different contexts and languages, musical compositions and performances from different genres. Non-human vocalizations from two bird species and two types of marine mammals were also analysed for comparison. The resulting patterns of AF variance across timescales were distinct to each of four natural categories of complex sound: speech, popular music, classical music and complex animal vocalizations. Comparisons within and across categories indicated that nested clustering in longer timescales was more prominent when prosodic variation was greater, and when sounds came from interactions among individuals, including interactions between speakers, musicians, and even killer whales. Nested clustering also was more prominent for music compared with speech, and reflected beat structure for popular music and self-similarity across timescales for classical music. In summary, hierarchical temporal structures reflect the behavioural and social processes underlying complex vocalizations and musical performances. © 2017 The Author(s).

  9. Improved Vocabulary Production after Naming Therapy in Aphasia: Can Gains in Picture Naming Generalise to Connected Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen; Ralph, Matt Lambon

    2009-01-01

    Background: Naming accuracy for nouns and verbs in aphasia can vary across different elicitation contexts, for example, simple picture naming, composite picture description, narratives, and conversation. For some people with aphasia, naming may be more accurate to simple pictures as opposed to naming in spontaneous, connected speech; for others,…

  10. Introduction to the transverse spatial correlations in spontaneous parametric down-conversion through the biphoton birth zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneeloch, James; Howell, John C

    2016-01-01

    As a tutorial to the spatial aspects of spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC), we present a detailed first-principles derivation of the transverse correlation width of photon pairs in degenerate collinear SPDC. This width defines the size of a biphoton birth zone, the region where the signal and idler photons are likely to be found when conditioning on the position of the destroyed pump photon. Along the way, we discuss the quantum-optical calculation of the amplitude for the SPDC process, as well as its simplified form for nearly collinear degenerate phase matching. Following this, we show how this biphoton amplitude can be approximated with a double-Gaussian wavefunction, and give a brief discussion of the measurement statistics (and subsequent convenience) of such double-Gaussian wavefunctions. Next, we use this approximation to get a simplified estimation of the transverse correlation width, and compare it to more accurate calculations as well as experimental results. We then conclude with a discussion of the concept of a biphoton birth zone, using it to develop intuition for the tradeoff between the first-order spatial coherence and bipohoton correlations in SPDC. (tutorial)

  11. Stabiliteit spontane taal bij chronische milde afasie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolthuis, Nienke; Mendez Orellana, Carolina; Nouwens, Femke; Jonkers, Roel; Visch-Brink, Evy; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2014-01-01

    In aphasia, an analysis of spontaneous speech provides opportunities to establish the linguistic and communicative abilities, to create suitable therapy plans and to measure language progress. The current study investigated the stability of spontaneous speech within an interview of ten mild aphasic

  12. Machine Translation from Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Richard; Olive, Joseph; McCary, John; Christianson, Caitlin

    This chapter describes approaches for translation from speech. Translation from speech presents two new issues. First, of course, we must recognize the speech in the source language. Although speech recognition has improved considerably over the last three decades, it is still far from being a solved problem. In the best of conditions, when the speech comes from high quality, carefully enunciated speech, on common topics (such as speech read by a trained news broadcaster), the word error rate is typically on the order of 5%. Humans can typically transcribe speech like this with less than 1% disagreement between annotators, so even this best number is still far worse than human performance. However, the task gets much harder when anything changes from this ideal condition. Some of the conditions that cause higher error rate are, if the topic is somewhat unusual, or the speakers are not reading so that their speech is more spontaneous, or if the speakers have an accent or are speaking a dialect, or if there is any acoustic degradation, such as noise or reverberation. In these cases, the word error can increase significantly to 20%, 30%, or higher. Accordingly, most of this chapter discusses techniques for improving speech recognition accuracy, while one section discusses techniques for integrating speech recognition with translation.

  13. Perceived Liveliness and Speech Comprehensibility in Aphasia: The Effects of Direct Speech in Auditory Narratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in "healthy" communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to the comprehensibility, of speech.…

  14. The Role of Visual Speech Information in Supporting Perceptual Learning of Degraded Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Rachel V.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.

    2012-01-01

    Following cochlear implantation, hearing-impaired listeners must adapt to speech as heard through their prosthesis. Visual speech information (VSI; the lip and facial movements of speech) is typically available in everyday conversation. Here, we investigate whether learning to understand a popular auditory simulation of speech as transduced by a…

  15. Perceived liveliness and speech comprehensibility in aphasia : the effects of direct speech in auditory narratives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, Rimke; Bastiaanse, Roelien; Nickels, Lyndsey; Huiskes, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that in semi-spontaneous speech, individuals with Broca's and anomic aphasia produce relatively many direct speech constructions. It has been claimed that in 'healthy' communication direct speech constructions contribute to the liveliness, and indirectly to

  16. Speech Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech Problems KidsHealth / For Teens / Speech Problems What's in ... a person's ability to speak clearly. Some Common Speech and Language Disorders Stuttering is a problem that ...

  17. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Tavano

    Full Text Available Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs. SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech, it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  18. Automatic conversational scene analysis in children with Asperger syndrome/high-functioning autism and typically developing peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavano, Alessandro; Pesarin, Anna; Murino, Vittorio; Cristani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism fail to spontaneously attribute mental states to the self and others, a life-long phenotypic characteristic known as mindblindness. We hypothesized that mindblindness would affect the dynamics of conversational interaction. Using generative models, in particular Gaussian mixture models and observed influence models, conversations were coded as interacting Markov processes, operating on novel speech/silence patterns, termed Steady Conversational Periods (SCPs). SCPs assume that whenever an agent's process changes state (e.g., from silence to speech), it causes a general transition of the entire conversational process, forcing inter-actant synchronization. SCPs fed into observed influence models, which captured the conversational dynamics of children and adolescents with Asperger syndrome/High Functioning Autism, and age-matched typically developing participants. Analyzing the parameters of the models by means of discriminative classifiers, the dialogs of patients were successfully distinguished from those of control participants. We conclude that meaning-free speech/silence sequences, reflecting inter-actant synchronization, at least partially encode typical and atypical conversational dynamics. This suggests a direct influence of theory of mind abilities onto basic speech initiative behavior.

  19. Conversational interfaces for task-oriented spoken dialogues: design aspects influencing interaction quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niculescu, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the design and evaluation of speech-based conversational interfaces for task-oriented dialogues. Conversational interfaces are software programs enabling interaction with computer devices through natural language dialogue. Even though processing conversational speech is

  20. Speech Entrainment Compensates for Broca's Area Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Basilakos, Alexandra; Hickok, Gregory; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Speech entrainment (SE), the online mimicking of an audiovisual speech model, has been shown to increase speech fluency in patients with Broca's aphasia. However, not all individuals with aphasia benefit from SE. The purpose of this study was to identify patterns of cortical damage that predict a positive response SE's fluency-inducing effects. Forty-four chronic patients with left hemisphere stroke (15 female) were included in this study. Participants completed two tasks: 1) spontaneous speech production, and 2) audiovisual SE. Number of different words per minute was calculated as a speech output measure for each task, with the difference between SE and spontaneous speech conditions yielding a measure of fluency improvement. Voxel-wise lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) was used to relate the number of different words per minute for spontaneous speech, SE, and SE-related improvement to patterns of brain damage in order to predict lesion locations associated with the fluency-inducing response to speech entrainment. Individuals with Broca's aphasia demonstrated a significant increase in different words per minute during speech entrainment versus spontaneous speech. A similar pattern of improvement was not seen in patients with other types of aphasia. VLSM analysis revealed damage to the inferior frontal gyrus predicted this response. Results suggest that SE exerts its fluency-inducing effects by providing a surrogate target for speech production via internal monitoring processes. Clinically, these results add further support for the use of speech entrainment to improve speech production and may help select patients for speech entrainment treatment. PMID:25989443

  1. Speech Synthesis Applied to Language Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Bruce

    1981-01-01

    The experimental addition of speech output to computer-based Esperanto lessons using speech synthesized from text is described. Because of Esperanto's phonetic spelling and simple rhythm, it is particularly easy to describe the mechanisms of Esperanto synthesis. Attention is directed to how the text-to-speech conversion is performed and the ways…

  2. Investigation of the Reationship between Hand Gestures and Speech in Adults Who Stutter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Barikrou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gestures of the hands and arms have long been observed to accompany speech in spontaneous conversation. However, the way in which these two modes of expression are related in production is not yet fully understood. So, the present study aims to investigate the spontaneous gestures that accompany speech in adults who stutter in comparison to fluent controls.  Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional and comparative research, ten adults who stutter were selected randomly from speech and language pathology clinics and compared with ten healthy persons as control group who were matched with stutterers according to sex, age and education. The cartoon story-retelling task used to elicit spontaneous gestures that accompany speech. Participants were asked to watch the animation carefully and then retell the storyline in as much detail as possible to a listener sitting across from him or her and his or her narration was video recorded simultaneously. Then recorded utterances and gestures were analyzed. The statistical methods such as Kolmogorov- Smirnov and Independent t-test were used for data analyzing. Results: The results indicated that stutterers in comparison to controls in average use fewer iconic gestures in their narration (P=0.005. Also, stutterers in comparison to controls in average use fewer iconic gestures per each utterance and word (P=0.019. Furthermore, the execution of gesture production during moments of dysfluency revealed that more than 70% of the gestures produced with stuttering were frozen or abandoned at the moment of dysfluency. Conclusion: It seems gesture and speech have such an intricate and deep association that show similar frequency and timing patterns and move completely parallel to each other in such a way that deficit in speech results in deficiency in hand gesture.

  3. Represented Speech in Qualitative Health Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Represented speech refers to speech where we reference somebody. Represented speech is an important phenomenon in everyday conversation, health care communication, and qualitative research. This case will draw first from a case study on physicians’ workplace learning and second from a case study...... on nurses’ apprenticeship learning. The aim of the case is to guide the qualitative researcher to use own and others’ voices in the interview and to be sensitive to represented speech in everyday conversation. Moreover, reported speech matters to health professionals who aim to represent the voice...... of their patients. Qualitative researchers and students might learn to encourage interviewees to elaborate different voices or perspectives. Qualitative researchers working with natural speech might pay attention to how people talk and use represented speech. Finally, represented speech might be relevant...

  4. Speech Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry D. Gibson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Speech compression is a key technology underlying digital cellular communications, VoIP, voicemail, and voice response systems. We trace the evolution of speech coding based on the linear prediction model, highlight the key milestones in speech coding, and outline the structures of the most important speech coding standards. Current challenges, future research directions, fundamental limits on performance, and the critical open problem of speech coding for emergency first responders are all discussed.

  5. The psychologist as an interlocutor in autism spectrum disorder assessment: insights from a study of spontaneous prosody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Daniel; Lee, Chi-Chun; Black, Matthew P; Williams, Marian E; Lee, Sungbok; Levitt, Pat; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between prosodic speech cues and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) severity, hypothesizing a mutually interactive relationship between the speech characteristics of the psychologist and the child. The authors objectively quantified acoustic-prosodic cues of the psychologist and of the child with ASD during spontaneous interaction, establishing a methodology for future large-sample analysis. Speech acoustic-prosodic features were semiautomatically derived from segments of semistructured interviews (Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, ADOS; Lord, Rutter, DiLavore, & Risi, 1999; Lord et al., 2012) with 28 children who had previously been diagnosed with ASD. Prosody was quantified in terms of intonation, volume, rate, and voice quality. Research hypotheses were tested via correlation as well as hierarchical and predictive regression between ADOS severity and prosodic cues. Automatically extracted speech features demonstrated prosodic characteristics of dyadic interactions. As rated ASD severity increased, both the psychologist and the child demonstrated effects for turn-end pitch slope, and both spoke with atypical voice quality. The psychologist's acoustic cues predicted the child's symptom severity better than did the child's acoustic cues. The psychologist, acting as evaluator and interlocutor, was shown to adjust his or her behavior in predictable ways based on the child's social-communicative impairments. The results support future study of speech prosody of both interaction partners during spontaneous conversation, while using automatic computational methods that allow for scalable analysis on much larger corpora.

  6. Pattern recognition in speech and language processing

    CERN Document Server

    Chou, Wu

    2003-01-01

    Minimum Classification Error (MSE) Approach in Pattern Recognition, Wu ChouMinimum Bayes-Risk Methods in Automatic Speech Recognition, Vaibhava Goel and William ByrneA Decision Theoretic Formulation for Adaptive and Robust Automatic Speech Recognition, Qiang HuoSpeech Pattern Recognition Using Neural Networks, Shigeru KatagiriLarge Vocabulary Speech Recognition Based on Statistical Methods, Jean-Luc GauvainToward Spontaneous Speech Recognition and Understanding, Sadaoki FuruiSpeaker Authentication, Qi Li and Biing-Hwang JuangHMMs for Language Processing Problems, Ri

  7. Preparation of single-photon states via cavity-assisted spontaneous parametric down-conversion for quantum memory based on Y7LiF4:Nd3+ crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akatiev Dmitrii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the realization of a tunable single-photon source compatible with quantum memories based on isotopically pure Y7LiF4 crystals doped with Nd3+ ions. The source is based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion in a PPLN crystal placed in a resonator. The latter is formed by two mirrors which are transparent for the pump (532 nm and idler (1377 nm fields but high reflective for the signal field (867 nm. The width of the second-order cross-correlation function between the signal and idler photons is determined to be 1.5 ns for the cavity length of 8 cm, which corresponds to a cavity bandwidth of 100 MHz.

  8. Variability and Intelligibility of Clarified Speech to Different Listener Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silber, Ronnie F.

    Two studies examined the modifications that adult speakers make in speech to disadvantaged listeners. Previous research that has focused on speech to the deaf individuals and to young children has shown that adults clarify speech when addressing these two populations. Acoustic measurements suggest that the signal undergoes similar changes for both populations. Perceptual tests corroborate these results for the deaf population, but are nonsystematic in developmental studies. The differences in the findings for these populations and the nonsystematic results in the developmental literature may be due to methodological factors. The present experiments addressed these methodological questions. Studies of speech to hearing impaired listeners have used read, nonsense, sentences, for which speakers received explicit clarification instructions and feedback, while in the child literature, excerpts of real-time conversations were used. Therefore, linguistic samples were not precisely matched. In this study, experiments used various linguistic materials. Experiment 1 used a children's story; experiment 2, nonsense sentences. Four mothers read both types of material in four ways: (1) in "normal" adult speech, (2) in "babytalk," (3) under the clarification instructions used in the "hearing impaired studies" (instructed clear speech) and (4) in (spontaneous) clear speech without instruction. No extra practice or feedback was given. Sentences were presented to 40 normal hearing college students with and without simultaneous masking noise. Results were separately tabulated for content and function words, and analyzed using standard statistical tests. The major finding in the study was individual variation in speaker intelligibility. "Real world" speakers vary in their baseline intelligibility. The four speakers also showed unique patterns of intelligibility as a function of each independent variable. Results were as follows. Nonsense sentences were less intelligible than story

  9. Semi-Automated Speech Transcription System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-31

    System) program and was trained on the Wall Street Journal task (described in [recogl], [recog2] and [recog3]). This speech recognizer is a time...quality of Wall Street Journal data (very high) and SWITCHBOARD data (poor), but also because the type of speech in broadcast data is also somewhere...between extremes of read text (the Wall Street Journal data) and spontaneous speech (SWITCHBOARD data). Dragon Systems’ SWITCHBOARD recognizer obtained a

  10. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  11. Speech-to-Speech Relay Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumer Guide Speech to Speech Relay Service Speech-to-Speech (STS) is one form of Telecommunications Relay Service (TRS). TRS is a service that allows persons with hearing and speech disabilities ...

  12. Speaking of Speech with the Disciplines: Collaborative Discussions about Collaborative Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, Josh

    2010-01-01

    As Lecturer of Speech in the Institute for Writing and Rhetoric at Dartmouth College, I have joined an ongoing conversation about speech that spans disciplines. This article takes a step back from looking at communication across the curriculum as a program and instead looks at one of the earliest stages of the process--conversations about speech…

  13. Speech endpoint detection with non-language speech sounds for generic speech processing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Matthew; Romanowski, Brian

    2009-05-01

    Non-language speech sounds (NLSS) are sounds produced by humans that do not carry linguistic information. Examples of these sounds are coughs, clicks, breaths, and filled pauses such as "uh" and "um" in English. NLSS are prominent in conversational speech, but can be a significant source of errors in speech processing applications. Traditionally, these sounds are ignored by speech endpoint detection algorithms, where speech regions are identified in the audio signal prior to processing. The ability to filter NLSS as a pre-processing step can significantly enhance the performance of many speech processing applications, such as speaker identification, language identification, and automatic speech recognition. In order to be used in all such applications, NLSS detection must be performed without the use of language models that provide knowledge of the phonology and lexical structure of speech. This is especially relevant to situations where the languages used in the audio are not known apriori. We present the results of preliminary experiments using data from American and British English speakers, in which segments of audio are classified as language speech sounds (LSS) or NLSS using a set of acoustic features designed for language-agnostic NLSS detection and a hidden-Markov model (HMM) to model speech generation. The results of these experiments indicate that the features and model used are capable of detection certain types of NLSS, such as breaths and clicks, while detection of other types of NLSS such as filled pauses will require future research.

  14. Spontaneous pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davari R

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease

  15. Tactile Modulation of Emotional Speech Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Salminen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally only speech communicates emotions via mobile phone. However, in daily communication the sense of touch mediates emotional information during conversation. The present aim was to study if tactile stimulation affects emotional ratings of speech when measured with scales of pleasantness, arousal, approachability, and dominance. In the Experiment 1 participants rated speech-only and speech-tactile stimuli. The tactile signal mimicked the amplitude changes of the speech. In the Experiment 2 the aim was to study whether the way the tactile signal was produced affected the ratings. The tactile signal either mimicked the amplitude changes of the speech sample in question, or the amplitude changes of another speech sample. Also, concurrent static vibration was included. The results showed that the speech-tactile stimuli were rated as more arousing and dominant than the speech-only stimuli. The speech-only stimuli were rated as more approachable than the speech-tactile stimuli, but only in the Experiment 1. Variations in tactile stimulation also affected the ratings. When the tactile stimulation was static vibration the speech-tactile stimuli were rated as more arousing than when the concurrent tactile stimulation was mimicking speech samples. The results suggest that tactile stimulation offers new ways of modulating and enriching the interpretation of speech.

  16. Introductory speeches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This CD is multimedia presentation of programme safety upgrading of Bohunice V1 NPP. This chapter consist of introductory commentary and 4 introductory speeches (video records): (1) Introductory speech of Vincent Pillar, Board chairman and director general of Slovak electric, Plc. (SE); (2) Introductory speech of Stefan Schmidt, director of SE - Bohunice Nuclear power plants; (3) Introductory speech of Jan Korec, Board chairman and director general of VUJE Trnava, Inc. - Engineering, Design and Research Organisation, Trnava; Introductory speech of Dietrich Kuschel, Senior vice-president of FRAMATOME ANP Project and Engineering

  17. Speech Characteristics and Intelligibility in Adults with Mild and Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens-Hofman, Marjolein C; Terband, Hayo; Snik, Ad F M; Maassen, Ben A M

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show reduced speech intelligibility, which affects their social interaction skills. This study aims to establish the main predictors of this reduced intelligibility in order to ultimately optimise management. METHOD: Spontaneous speech and

  18. Speech characteristics and intelligibility in adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppens-Hofman, , Marjolein; Terband, H.R.; Snik, A.F.M.; Maassen, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) often show reduced speech intelligibility, which affects their social interaction skills. This study aims to establish the main predictors of this reduced intelligibility in order to ultimately optimise management. Method: Spontaneous speech and

  19. Semi-spontaneous oral text production: measurements in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Marianne; Kristoffersen, Kristian Emil; Moen, Inger; Simonsen, Hanne Gram

    2009-12-01

    Functionally relevant assessment of the language production of speakers with aphasia should include assessment of connected speech production. Despite the ecological validity of everyday conversations, more controlled and monological types of texts may be easier to obtain and analyse in clinical practice. This article discusses some simple measurements for the analysis of semi-spontaneous oral text production by speakers with aphasia. Specifically, the measurements are related to the production of verbs and nouns, and the realization of different sentence types. The proposed measurements should be clinically relevant, easily applicable, and linguistically meaningful. The measurements have been applied to oral descriptions of the 'Cookie Theft' picture by eight monolingual Norwegian speakers, four with an anomic type of aphasia and four without any type of language impairment. Despite individual differences in both the clinical and the non-clinical group, most of the measurements seem to distinguish between speakers with and without aphasia.

  20. Do long-term tongue piercings affect speech quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinen, Esther; Birkholz, Peter; Willmes, Klaus; Neuschaefer-Rube, Christiane

    2017-10-01

    To explore possible effects of tongue piercing on perceived speech quality. Using a quasi-experimental design, we analyzed the effect of tongue piercing on speech in a perception experiment. Samples of spontaneous speech and read speech were recorded from 20 long-term pierced and 20 non-pierced individuals (10 males, 10 females each). The individuals having a tongue piercing were recorded with attached and removed piercing. The audio samples were blindly rated by 26 female and 20 male laypersons and by 5 female speech-language pathologists with regard to perceived speech quality along 5 dimensions: speech clarity, speech rate, prosody, rhythm and fluency. We found no statistically significant differences for any of the speech quality dimensions between the pierced and non-pierced individuals, neither for the read nor for the spontaneous speech. In addition, neither length nor position of piercing had a significant effect on speech quality. The removal of tongue piercings had no effects on speech performance either. Rating differences between laypersons and speech-language pathologists were not dependent on the presence of a tongue piercing. People are able to perfectly adapt their articulation to long-term tongue piercings such that their speech quality is not perceptually affected.

  1. Speech entrainment enables patients with Broca’s aphasia to produce fluent speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H. Isabel; Hudspeth, Sarah Grace; Holland, Audrey L.; Bonilha, Leonardo; Fromm, Davida; Rorden, Chris

    2012-01-01

    A distinguishing feature of Broca’s aphasia is non-fluent halting speech typically involving one to three words per utterance. Yet, despite such profound impairments, some patients can mimic audio-visual speech stimuli enabling them to produce fluent speech in real time. We call this effect ‘speech entrainment’ and reveal its neural mechanism as well as explore its usefulness as a treatment for speech production in Broca’s aphasia. In Experiment 1, 13 patients with Broca’s aphasia were tested in three conditions: (i) speech entrainment with audio-visual feedback where they attempted to mimic a speaker whose mouth was seen on an iPod screen; (ii) speech entrainment with audio-only feedback where patients mimicked heard speech; and (iii) spontaneous speech where patients spoke freely about assigned topics. The patients produced a greater variety of words using audio-visual feedback compared with audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. No difference was found between audio-only feedback and spontaneous speech. In Experiment 2, 10 of the 13 patients included in Experiment 1 and 20 control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine the neural mechanism that supports speech entrainment. Group results with patients and controls revealed greater bilateral cortical activation for speech produced during speech entrainment compared with spontaneous speech at the junction of the anterior insula and Brodmann area 47, in Brodmann area 37, and unilaterally in the left middle temporal gyrus and the dorsal portion of Broca’s area. Probabilistic white matter tracts constructed for these regions in the normal subjects revealed a structural network connected via the corpus callosum and ventral fibres through the extreme capsule. Unilateral areas were connected via the arcuate fasciculus. In Experiment 3, all patients included in Experiment 1 participated in a 6-week treatment phase using speech entrainment to improve speech production

  2. La pause dans la conversation en arabe marocain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia TOUIAQ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The work presented here focuses on how the structuring of spontaneous conversation is related to prosody. How the prosodic parameters, including the break, they fit into a logical demarcation, establishment and organization of parts of speech? To what extent are they relevant to the level of dis-course, intersubjective and interactional? Description of these data allowed us to understand different ways of structuring Moroccan spooked Arabic, prosodic point of view, but also in terms of thematic and interactional, without ever losing sight of the conversational speech is the location of enunciation issues to establish meaning. In the situation of a real conversation, the silence is an opportunity for a transfer of initiative or by speaking one or other of these contacts. On the other hand, the speaker who wishes to keep talking should avoid the use of the silent pause and use in preference to the filled pause. We hypothesize that one role of the silent pause is precisely to manage this aspect of the intersubjective and interactional space and to indicate whether a segment aims to allow the speaker to keep talking or given it to the caller.

  3. Neural Entrainment to Speech Modulates Speech Intelligibility

    OpenAIRE

    Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Baskent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and acoustic speech signal, listening task, and speech intelligibility have been observed repeatedly. However, a methodological bottleneck has prevented so far clarifying whether speech-brain entrainme...

  4. Características iniciais da comunicação verbal de pré-escolares com Alterações Específicas do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem em fala espontânea Primary characteristics of the verbal communication of preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment in spontaneous speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Maria Befi-Lopes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar desempenho fonológico de pré-escolares com Alterações Específicas do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem (AEDL em fala espontânea. MÉTODOS: Foram sujeitos 27 crianças com AEDL, entre três anos e cinco anos e 11 meses, em tratamento fonoaudiológico. Foram selecionados aqueles que realizaram ao menos 50% da avaliação da fonologia a partir de provas de nomeação e imitação de palavras, ou que apresentaram inteligibilidade de fala passível de análise. Foram coletadas amostras de fala na prova de pragmática e no discurso eliciado por figuras. Foram realizadas análises a partir da utilização de processos fonológicos do desenvolvimento de linguagem (PD e idiossincráticos (PI. RESULTADOS: A estatística descritiva (médias de PD e PI indicou grande variabilidade intra-grupos. Não houve variação em número de processos conforme a idade (PD: p=0,38; PI: p=0,72, porém houve predominância de PD em todas as idades, nas duas provas aplicadas (Z=-6,327; pPURPOSE: To verify the phonological performance of preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment (SLI in spontaneous speech. METHODS: The subjects were 27 children with SLI with ages between three years and five years and 11 months, who attended Speech-Language Pathology therapy. The subjects who carried out at least 50% of the phonological assessment or who had speech intelligibility that allowed analysis were selected. Speech samples were obtained from a pragmatics evaluation and from elicited discourse. Analyses considered the use of developmental (DP and idiossyncratic phonological processes (IP in spontaneous speech. RESULTS: The descriptive statistics (mean DP and IP showed large within-group variability. There was no variation in the number of processes according to age (DP: p=0.38; IP: p=0.72, but there was a prevalence of DP in all ages, in both tests (Z=-6.327; p<0.001. The occurrence of DP and IP was higher in the pragmatics evaluation (p<0.001, situation in

  5. Pronunciation Modeling for Large Vocabulary Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantor, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The large pronunciation variability of words in conversational speech is one of the major causes of low accuracy in automatic speech recognition (ASR). Many pronunciation modeling approaches have been developed to address this problem. Some explicitly manipulate the pronunciation dictionary as well as the set of the units used to define the…

  6. Speech Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are placed in the mouth, much like an orthodontic retainer. The two most common types are 1) the speech bulb and 2) the palatal lift. The speech bulb is designed to partially close off the space between the soft palate and the throat. The palatal lift appliance serves to lift the soft palate to a ...

  7. Speech coding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravishankar, C., Hughes Network Systems, Germantown, MD

    1998-05-08

    Speech is the predominant means of communication between human beings and since the invention of the telephone by Alexander Graham Bell in 1876, speech services have remained to be the core service in almost all telecommunication systems. Original analog methods of telephony had the disadvantage of speech signal getting corrupted by noise, cross-talk and distortion Long haul transmissions which use repeaters to compensate for the loss in signal strength on transmission links also increase the associated noise and distortion. On the other hand digital transmission is relatively immune to noise, cross-talk and distortion primarily because of the capability to faithfully regenerate digital signal at each repeater purely based on a binary decision. Hence end-to-end performance of the digital link essentially becomes independent of the length and operating frequency bands of the link Hence from a transmission point of view digital transmission has been the preferred approach due to its higher immunity to noise. The need to carry digital speech became extremely important from a service provision point of view as well. Modem requirements have introduced the need for robust, flexible and secure services that can carry a multitude of signal types (such as voice, data and video) without a fundamental change in infrastructure. Such a requirement could not have been easily met without the advent of digital transmission systems, thereby requiring speech to be coded digitally. The term Speech Coding is often referred to techniques that represent or code speech signals either directly as a waveform or as a set of parameters by analyzing the speech signal. In either case, the codes are transmitted to the distant end where speech is reconstructed or synthesized using the received set of codes. A more generic term that is applicable to these techniques that is often interchangeably used with speech coding is the term voice coding. This term is more generic in the sense that the

  8. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  9. Hearing speech in music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth-Reino Ekström

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The masking effect of a piano composition, played at different speeds and in different octaves, on speech-perception thresholds was investigated in 15 normal-hearing and 14 moderately-hearing-impaired subjects. Running speech (just follow conversation, JFC testing and use of hearing aids increased the everyday validity of the findings. A comparison was made with standard audiometric noises [International Collegium of Rehabilitative Audiology (ICRA noise and speech spectrum-filtered noise (SPN]. All masking sounds, music or noise, were presented at the same equivalent sound level (50 dBA. The results showed a significant effect of piano performance speed and octave (P<.01. Low octave and fast tempo had the largest effect; and high octave and slow tempo, the smallest. Music had a lower masking effect than did ICRA noise with two or six speakers at normal vocal effort (P<.01 and SPN (P<.05. Subjects with hearing loss had higher masked thresholds than the normal-hearing subjects (P<.01, but there were smaller differences between masking conditions (P<.01. It is pointed out that music offers an interesting opportunity for studying masking under realistic conditions, where spectral and temporal features can be varied independently. The results have implications for composing music with vocal parts, designing acoustic environments and creating a balance between speech perception and privacy in social settings.

  10. Indian accent text-to-speech system for web browsing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    3.1 Background. Text-to-speech (TSS) conversion has to be performed in two steps: (a) text to phoneme con- version and (b) phoneme to speech conversion. In the second step, we .... forms with memory constraints, such as DOS. .... for noise-like sounds, (e) five amplitudes for various bands of energy in the noise spectrum,.

  11. Neural entrainment to speech modulates speech intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and

  12. Neural Entrainment to Speech Modulates Speech Intelligibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riecke, Lars; Formisano, Elia; Sorger, Bettina; Baskent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Speech is crucial for communication in everyday life. Speech-brain entrainment, the alignment of neural activity to the slow temporal fluctuations (envelope) of acoustic speech input, is a ubiquitous element of current theories of speech processing. Associations between speech-brain entrainment and

  13. Dramatic Effects of Speech Task on Motor and Linguistic Planning in Severely Dysfluent Parkinsonian Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Cameron, Krista; Sidtis, John J.

    2012-01-01

    In motor speech disorders, dysarthric features impacting intelligibility, articulation, fluency and voice emerge more saliently in conversation than in repetition, reading or singing. A role of the basal ganglia in these task discrepancies has been identified. Further, more recent studies of naturalistic speech in basal ganglia dysfunction have…

  14. Measuring Speech Comprehensibility in Students with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany; Camarata, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: There is an ongoing need to develop assessments of spontaneous speech that focus on whether the child's utterances are comprehensible to listeners. This study sought to identify the attributes of a stable ratings-based measure of speech comprehensibility, which enabled examining the criterion-related validity of an orthography-based…

  15. The Motivational Function of Private Speech: An Experimental Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Dios, M. J.; Montero, I.

    Recently, some works have been published exploring the role of private speech as a tool for motivation, reaching beyond the classical research on its regulatory function for cognitive processes such as attention or executive function. In fact, the authors' own previous research has shown that a moderate account of spontaneous private speech of…

  16. Minimal Pair Distinctions and Intelligibility in Preschool Children with and without Speech Sound Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Megan M.; Gotzke, Carrie L.

    2011-01-01

    Listeners' identification of young children's productions of minimally contrastive words and predictive relationships between accurately identified words and intelligibility scores obtained from a 100-word spontaneous speech sample were determined for 36 children with typically developing speech (TDS) and 36 children with speech sound disorders…

  17. Improving the teaching of children with severe speech-language difficulties by introducing an Authoring Concept Mapping Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kicken, Ria; Ernes, Elise; Hoogenberg-Engbers, Ilja

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on case studies in which an Authoring Concept Mapping Kit was incorporated as a didactic tool in the teaching of children with severe speech-language difficulties. The Kit was introduced to replace methods such as topic webs, or complement others such as conversation exchange......’ practice has been transformed and improved. The children’s perspective on the topic comes through in the teachers’ opinions. Concept mapping turned out to enhance meaning negotiation, active inquiry and collaboration during teaching interactive learning language. Teachers reported that it had great impact...... on children’s language development, vocabulary and spontaneous speech, while it had minimal impact on the way activities were performed in everyday classes....

  18. Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... here Home » Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Apraxia of Speech On this page: What is apraxia of speech? ... additional information about apraxia of speech? What is apraxia of speech? Apraxia of speech (AOS)—also known as acquired ...

  19. Automated Story Capture From Conversational Speech

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gordon, Andrew S; Ganesan, Kavita

    2005-01-01

    While storytelling has long been recognized as an important part of effective knowledge management in organizations, knowledge management technologies have generally not distinguished between stories...

  20. Speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob; Chen, Jingdong

    2006-01-01

    We live in a noisy world! In all applications (telecommunications, hands-free communications, recording, human-machine interfaces, etc.) that require at least one microphone, the signal of interest is usually contaminated by noise and reverberation. As a result, the microphone signal has to be ""cleaned"" with digital signal processing tools before it is played out, transmitted, or stored.This book is about speech enhancement. Different well-known and state-of-the-art methods for noise reduction, with one or multiple microphones, are discussed. By speech enhancement, we mean not only noise red

  1. Automatic Smoker Detection from Telephone Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavijeh, Amir Hossein Poorjam; Hesaraki, Soheila; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic smoking habit detection from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using i-vector and non-negative factor analysis (NFA) frameworks, which yield low-dimensional representation of utterances by applying factor analysis on G...

  2. Grapheme-to-phoneme Conversion in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    Tools for mapping between written words and phonetic forms are essential components in many applications of speech technology, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis (TTS). Simple converters can be derived from annotated speech corpora using machine learning, and such tools...... are available for almost all European languages and a great number of others. Whereas their performance is adequate for ASR and for low-quality TTS, their lack of precision makes them unfit for linguistic research purposes such as phonetic annotation of spontaneous speech recordings. A common method...

  3. Speech Enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benesty, Jacob; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    and their performance bounded and assessed in terms of noise reduction and speech distortion. The book shows how various filter designs can be obtained in this framework, including the maximum SNR, Wiener, LCMV, and MVDR filters, and how these can be applied in various contexts, like in single-channel and multichannel...

  4. Speech Intelligibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas

    Speech intelligibility (SI) is important for different fields of research, engineering and diagnostics in order to quantify very different phenomena like the quality of recordings, communication and playback devices, the reverberation of auditoria, characteristics of hearing impairment, benefit using hearing aids or combinations of these things.

  5. 78 FR 49717 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...] Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities... Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay...

  6. Spontaneous Tumor Lysis Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Weeks MD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS is a known complication of malignancy and its treatment. The incidence varies on malignancy type, but is most common with hematologic neoplasms during cytotoxic treatment. Spontaneous TLS is thought to be rare. This case study is of a 62-year-old female admitted with multisystem organ failure, with subsequent diagnosis of aggressive B cell lymphoma. On admission, laboratory abnormalities included renal failure, elevated uric acid (20.7 mg/dL, and 3+ amorphous urates on urinalysis. Oliguric renal failure persisted despite aggressive hydration and diuretic use, requiring initiation of hemodialysis prior to chemotherapy. Antihyperuricemic therapy and hemodialysis were used to resolve hyperuricemia. However, due to multisystem organ dysfunction syndrome with extremely poor prognosis, the patient ultimately expired in the setting of a terminal ventilator wean. Although our patient did not meet current TLS criteria, she required hemodialysis due to uric acid nephropathy, a complication of TLS. This poses the clinical question of whether adequate diagnostic criteria exist for spontaneous TLS and if the lack of currently accepted guidelines has resulted in the underestimation of its incidence. Allopurinol and rasburicase are commonly used for prevention and treatment of TLS. Although both drugs decrease uric acid levels, allopurinol mechanistically prevents formation of the substrate rasburicase acts to solubilize. These drugs were administered together in our patient, although no established guidelines recommend combined use. This raises the clinical question of whether combined therapy is truly beneficial or, conversely, detrimental to patient outcomes.

  7. Clear Speech Modifications in Children Aged 6-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Griffin Lijding

    Modifications to speech production made by adult talkers in response to instructions to speak clearly have been well documented in the literature. Targeting adult populations has been motivated by efforts to improve speech production for the benefit of the communication partners, however, many adults also have communication partners who are children. Surprisingly, there is limited literature on whether children can change their speech production when cued to speak clearly. Pettinato, Tuomainen, Granlund, and Hazan (2016) showed that by age 12, children exhibited enlarged vowel space areas and reduced articulation rate when prompted to speak clearly, but did not produce any other adult-like clear speech modifications in connected speech. Moreover, Syrett and Kawahara (2013) suggested that preschoolers produced longer and more intense vowels when prompted to speak clearly at the word level. These findings contrasted with adult talkers who show significant temporal and spectral differences between speech produced in control and clear speech conditions. Therefore, it was the purpose of this study to analyze changes in temporal and spectral characteristics of speech production that children aged 6-10 made in these experimental conditions. It is important to elucidate the clear speech profile of this population to better understand which adult-like clear speech modifications they make spontaneously and which modifications are still developing. Understanding these baselines will advance future studies that measure the impact of more explicit instructions and children's abilities to better accommodate their interlocutors, which is a critical component of children's pragmatic and speech-motor development.

  8. 78 FR 49693 - Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ...] Speech-to-Speech and Internet Protocol (IP) Speech-to-Speech Telecommunications Relay Services; Telecommunications Relay Services and Speech-to-Speech Services for Individuals With Hearing and Speech Disabilities... amends telecommunications relay services (TRS) mandatory minimum standards applicable to Speech- to...

  9. Didactic speech synthesizer – acoustic module, formants model

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, João Paulo; Fernandes, Anildo

    2013-01-01

    Text-to-speech synthesis is the main subject treated in this work. It will be presented the constitution of a generic text-to-speech system conversion, explained the functions of the various modules and described the development techniques using the formants model. The development of a didactic formant synthesiser under Matlab environment will also be described. This didactic synthesiser is intended for a didactic understanding of the formant model of speech production.

  10. Prediction and constraint in audiovisual speech perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peelle, Jonathan E.; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    During face-to-face conversational speech listeners must efficiently process a rapid and complex stream of multisensory information. Visual speech can serve as a critical complement to auditory information because it provides cues to both the timing of the incoming acoustic signal (the amplitude envelope, influencing attention and perceptual sensitivity) and its content (place and manner of articulation, constraining lexical selection). Here we review behavioral and neurophysiological evidence regarding listeners' use of visual speech information. Multisensory integration of audiovisual speech cues improves recognition accuracy, particularly for speech in noise. Even when speech is intelligible based solely on auditory information, adding visual information may reduce the cognitive demands placed on listeners through increasing precision of prediction. Electrophysiological studies demonstrate oscillatory cortical entrainment to speech in auditory cortex is enhanced when visual speech is present, increasing sensitivity to important acoustic cues. Neuroimaging studies also suggest increased activity in auditory cortex when congruent visual information is available, but additionally emphasize the involvement of heteromodal regions of posterior superior temporal sulcus as playing a role in integrative processing. We interpret these findings in a framework of temporally-focused lexical competition in which visual speech information affects auditory processing to increase sensitivity to auditory information through an early integration mechanism, and a late integration stage that incorporates specific information about a speaker's articulators to constrain the number of possible candidates in a spoken utterance. Ultimately it is words compatible with both auditory and visual information that most strongly determine successful speech perception during everyday listening. Thus, audiovisual speech perception is accomplished through multiple stages of integration, supported

  11. Word-by-word entrainment of speech rhythm during joint story building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himberg, Tommi; Hirvenkari, Lotta; Mandel, Anne; Hari, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Movements and behavior synchronize during social interaction at many levels, often unintentionally. During smooth conversation, for example, participants adapt to each others' speech rates. Here we aimed to find out to which extent speakers adapt their turn-taking rhythms during a story-building game. Nine sex-matched dyads of adults (12 males, 6 females) created two 5-min stories by contributing to them alternatingly one word at a time. The participants were located in different rooms, with audio connection during one story and audiovisual during the other. They were free to select the topic of the story. Although the participants received no instructions regarding the timing of the story building, their word rhythms were highly entrained (øverlineR = 0.70, p story, independently of whether the subjects were connected via audio-only or audiovisual link. The observed entrainment was of similar strength as typical entrainment in finger-tapping tasks where participants are specifically instructed to synchronize their behavior. Thus, speech seems to spontaneously induce strong entrainment between the conversation partners, likely reflecting automatic alignment of their semantic and syntactic processes.

  12. Speech Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Morariu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of speech recognition by pattern recognition techniques. Learning consists in determining the unique characteristics of a word (cepstral coefficients by eliminating those characteristics that are different from one word to another. For learning and recognition, the system will build a dictionary of words by determining the characteristics of each word to be used in the recognition. Determining the characteristics of an audio signal consists in the following steps: noise removal, sampling it, applying Hamming window, switching to frequency domain through Fourier transform, calculating the magnitude spectrum, filtering data, determining cepstral coefficients.

  13. Role of neural network models for developing speech systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These prosody models are further examined for applications such as text to speech synthesis, speech recognition, speaker recognition and language identification. Neural network models in voice conversion system are explored for capturing the mapping functions between source and target speakers at source, system and ...

  14. Treating Speech Comprehensibility in Students with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Camarata, Stephen; Woynaroski, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether a particular type of therapy (Broad Target Speech Recasts, BTSR) was superior to a contrast treatment in facilitating speech comprehensibility in conversations of students with Down syndrome who began treatment with initially high verbal imitation. Method: We randomly assigned 51 5- to 12-year-old students to…

  15. The Role of the Right Hemisphere in Speech Act Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this research the role of the RH in the comprehension of speech acts (or illocutionary force) was examined. Two split-screen experiments were conducted in which participants made lexical decisions for lateralized targets after reading a brief conversation remark. On one-half of the trials the target word named the speech act performed with the…

  16. Developmental profile of speech-language and communicative functions in an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B; Vollmann, Ralf; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D; Green, Vanessa A; van der Meer, Larah; Wolin, Thomas; Einspieler, Christa

    2014-08-01

    We assessed various aspects of speech-language and communicative functions of an individual with the preserved speech variant of Rett syndrome (RTT) to describe her developmental profile over a period of 11 years. For this study, we incorporated the following data resources and methods to assess speech-language and communicative functions during pre-, peri- and post-regressional development: retrospective video analyses, medical history data, parental checklists and diaries, standardized tests on vocabulary and grammar, spontaneous speech samples and picture stories to elicit narrative competences. Despite achieving speech-language milestones, atypical behaviours were present at all times. We observed a unique developmental speech-language trajectory (including the RTT typical regression) affecting all linguistic and socio-communicative sub-domains in the receptive as well as the expressive modality. Future research should take into consideration a potentially considerable discordance between formal and functional language use by interpreting communicative acts on a more cautionary note.

  17. Fast Keyword Spotting in Telephone Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nouza

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, we present a system designed for detecting keywords in telephone speech. We focus not only on achieving high accuracy but also on very short processing time. The keyword spotting system can run in three modes: a an off-line mode requiring less than 0.1xRT, b an on-line mode with minimum (2 s latency, and c a repeated spotting mode, in which pre-computed values allow for additional acceleration. Its performance is evaluated on recordings of Czech spontaneous telephone speech using rather large and complex keyword lists.

  18. Speech-recognition interfaces for music information retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Masataka

    2005-09-01

    This paper describes two hands-free music information retrieval (MIR) systems that enable a user to retrieve and play back a musical piece by saying its title or the artist's name. Although various interfaces for MIR have been proposed, speech-recognition interfaces suitable for retrieving musical pieces have not been studied. Our MIR-based jukebox systems employ two different speech-recognition interfaces for MIR, speech completion and speech spotter, which exploit intentionally controlled nonverbal speech information in original ways. The first is a music retrieval system with the speech-completion interface that is suitable for music stores and car-driving situations. When a user only remembers part of the name of a musical piece or an artist and utters only a remembered fragment, the system helps the user recall and enter the name by completing the fragment. The second is a background-music playback system with the speech-spotter interface that can enrich human-human conversation. When a user is talking to another person, the system allows the user to enter voice commands for music playback control by spotting a special voice-command utterance in face-to-face or telephone conversations. Experimental results from use of these systems have demonstrated the effectiveness of the speech-completion and speech-spotter interfaces. (Video clips: http://staff.aist.go.jp/m.goto/MIR/speech-if.html)

  19. Conversion disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000954.htm Conversion disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Conversion disorder is a mental condition in which a person ...

  20. Clear speech and lexical competition in younger and older adult listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated whether clear speech reduces the cognitive demands of lexical competition by crossing speaking style with lexical difficulty. Younger and older adults identified more words in clear versus conversational speech and more easy words than hard words. An initial analysis suggested that the effect of lexical difficulty was reduced in clear speech, but more detailed analyses within each age group showed this interaction was significant only for older adults. The results also showed that both groups improved over the course of the task and that clear speech was particularly helpful for individuals with poorer hearing: for younger adults, clear speech eliminated hearing-related differences that affected performance on conversational speech. For older adults, clear speech was generally more helpful to listeners with poorer hearing. These results suggest that clear speech affords perceptual benefits to all listeners and, for older adults, mitigates the cognitive challenge associated with identifying words with many phonological neighbors.

  1. Standardization of Speech Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-jun Li

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech corpus is the basis for analyzing the characteristics of speech signals and developing speech synthesis and recognition systems. In China, almost all speech research and development affiliations are developing their own speech corpora. We have so many different kinds numbers of Chinese speech corpora that it is important to be able to conveniently share these speech corpora to avoid wasting time and money and to make research work more efficient. The primary goal of this research is to find a standard scheme which can make the corpus be established more efficiently and be used or shared more easily. A huge speech corpus on 10 regional accented Chinese, RASC863 (a Regional Accent Speech Corpus funded by National 863 Project will be exemplified to illuminate the standardization of speech corpus production.

  2. Family Worlds: Couple Satisfaction, Parenting Style, and Mothers' and Fathers' Speech to Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relations between certain family context variables and the conversational behavior of 36 parents who were playing with their 3 year olds. Transcripts were coded for types of conversational functions and structure of parent speech. Marital satisfaction was associated with aspects of parent speech. (LB)

  3. Functional assessment and treatment of perseverative speech about restricted topics in an adolescent with Asperger syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Wayne W; Rodriguez, Nicole M; Owen, Todd M

    2013-01-01

    A functional analysis showed that a 14-year-old boy with Asperger syndrome displayed perseverative speech (or "restricted interests") reinforced by attention. To promote appropriate speech in a turn-taking format, we implemented differential reinforcement (DR) of nonperseverative speech and DR of on-topic speech within a multiple schedule with stimuli that signaled the contingencies in effect and who was to select the topic. Both treatments reduced perseverative speech, but only DR of on-topic speech increased appropriate turn taking during conversation. Treatment effects were maintained when implemented by family members and novel therapists. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  4. Telephone based speech interfaces in the developing world, from the perspective of human-human communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available recently, before computers systems were able to synthesize or recognize speech, speech was a capability unique to humans. The human brain has developed to differentiate between human speech and other audio occurrences. Therefore, the slowly- evolving... human brain reacts in certain ways to voice stimuli, and has certain expectations regarding communication by voice. Nass affirms that the human brain operates using the same mechanisms when interacting with speech interfaces as when conversing...

  5. Recognition memory in noise for speech of varying intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Rachael C; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which noise impacts normal-hearing young adults' speech processing of sentences that vary in intelligibility. Intelligibility and recognition memory in noise were examined for conversational and clear speech sentences recorded in quiet (quiet speech, QS) and in response to the environmental noise (noise-adapted speech, NAS). Results showed that (1) increased intelligibility through conversational-to-clear speech modifications led to improved recognition memory and (2) NAS presented a more naturalistic speech adaptation to noise compared to QS, leading to more accurate word recognition and enhanced sentence recognition memory. These results demonstrate that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech enhance speech-in-noise processing beyond word recognition. Effortful speech processing in challenging listening environments can thus be improved by speaking style adaptations on the part of the talker. In addition to enhanced intelligibility, a substantial improvement in recognition memory can be achieved through speaker adaptations to the environment and to the listener when in adverse conditions.

  6. Speech and music perception with the new fine structure speech coding strategy: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldner, Christoph; Riss, Dominik; Brunner, Markus; Durisin, Martin; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Hamzavi, Jafar-Sasan

    2007-12-01

    Taking into account the excellent results with significant improvements in the speech tests and the very high satisfaction of the patients using the new strategy, this first implementation of a fine structure strategy could offer a new quality of hearing with cochlear implants (CIs). This study consisted of an intra-individual comparison of speech recognition, music perception and patient preference when subjects used two different speech coding strategies with a MedEl Pulsar CI: continuous interleaved sampling (CIS) and the new fine structure processing (FSP) strategy. In contrast to envelope-based strategies, the FSP strategy also delivers subtle pitch and timing differences of sound to the user and is thereby supposed to enhance speech perception in noise and increase the quality of music perception. This was a prospective study assessing performance with two different speech coding strategies. The setting was a CI programme at an academic tertiary referral centre. Fourteen post-lingually deaf patients using a MedEl Pulsar CI with a mean CI experience of 0.98 years were supplied with the new FSP speech coding strategy. Subjects consecutively used the two different speech coding strategies. Speech and music tests were performed with the previously fitted CIS strategy, immediately after fitting with the new FSP strategy and 4, 8 and 12 weeks later. The main outcome measures were individual performance and subjective assessment of two different speech processors. Speech and music test scores improved statistically significantly after conversion from CIS to FSP strategy. Twelve of 14 patients preferred the new FSP speech processing strategy over the CIS strategy.

  7. Conversational topics in transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Borsel, John; Cayzeele, Miet; Heirman, Eva; T'sjoen, Guy

    2014-06-01

    Abstract In general, speech language therapy for transsexual persons focuses on pitch and pitch variation and more recently also on resonance. Other communicative aspects are dealt with far less often, especially language. This study investigated to what extent conversational topics might need attention in therapy for transsexual persons. A total of 111 males, 116 females, 28 male-to-female and 18 female-to-male transsexuals were asked to indicate on a list with 34 topics how often they speak about each topic (never, sometimes, often) in conversations with males, with females and in a gender mixed group. Results showed that transsexual persons behave in accordance with the desired gender. However, they also tend to adopt a position depending on the gender of their conversational partner. It can be concluded that in general it is not necessary to pay attention to conversational topics in therapy for transsexual persons.

  8. Analysis of Intonation Patterns in Cantonese Aphasia Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tan; Lam, Wang Kong; Kong, Anthony Pak Hin; Law, Sam Po

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents a study on intonation patterns in Cantonese aphasia speech. The speech materials were spontaneous discourse recorded from seven pairs of aphasic and unimpaired speakers. Hidden Markov model based forced alignment was applied to obtain syllable-level time alignments. The pitch level of each syllable was determined and normalized according to the given tone identity of the syllable. Linear regression of the normalized pitch levels was performed to describe the intonation patterns of sentences. It was found that aphasic speech has a higher percentage of sentences with increasing pitch. This trend was found to be more prominent in story-telling than descriptive discourses.

  9. Spontaneous pneumothorax in weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J

    1995-06-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.

  10. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  11. Speech Analysis of Bengali Speaking Children with Repaired Cleft Lip & Palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Madhushree; Kumar, Suman; Chatterjee, Indranil; Maheshwari, Neha

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims at analyzing speech samples of four Bengali speaking children with repaired cleft palates with a view to differentiate between the misarticulations arising out of a deficit in linguistic skills and structural or motoric limitations. Spontaneous speech samples were collected and subjected to a number of linguistic analyses…

  12. Consonant and Syllable Structure Patterns in Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Developmental Change in Three Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacks, Adam; Marquardt, Thomas P.; Davis, Barbara L.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in consonant and syllable-level error patterns of three children diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) were investigated in a 3-year longitudinal study. Spontaneous speech samples were analyzed to assess the accuracy of consonants and syllables. Consonant accuracy was low overall, with most frequent errors on middle- and…

  13. Do Native Speakers of North American and Singapore English Differentially Perceive Comprehensibility in Second Language Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Shintani, Natsuko

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the extent to which native speakers of North American and Singapore English differentially perceive the comprehensibility (ease of understanding) of second language (L2) speech. Spontaneous speech samples elicited from 50 Japanese learners of English with various proficiency levels were first rated by 10 Canadian and 10…

  14. Tools for the assessment of childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubiani, Marileda Barichello; Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso; Keske-Soares, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the literature on the main tools used to evaluate childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). The search strategy includes Scopus, PubMed, and Embase databases. Empirical studies that used tools for assessing CAS were selected. Articles were selected by two independent researchers. The search retrieved 695 articles, out of which 12 were included in the study. Five tools were identified: Verbal Motor Production Assessment for Children, Dynamic Evaluation of Motor Speech Skill, The Orofacial Praxis Test, Kaufman Speech Praxis Test for Children, and Madison Speech Assessment Protocol. There are few instruments available for CAS assessment and most of them are intended to assess praxis and/or orofacial movements, sequences of orofacial movements, articulation of syllables and phonemes, spontaneous speech, and prosody. There are some tests for assessment and diagnosis of CAS. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted at the national level, as well as protocols to assess and assist in an accurate diagnosis.

  15. Speech recognition using articulatory and excitation source features

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the contribution of articulatory and excitation source information in discriminating sound units. The authors focus on excitation source component of speech -- and the dynamics of various articulators during speech production -- for enhancement of speech recognition (SR) performance. Speech recognition is analyzed for read, extempore, and conversation modes of speech. Five groups of articulatory features (AFs) are explored for speech recognition, in addition to conventional spectral features. Each chapter provides the motivation for exploring the specific feature for SR task, discusses the methods to extract those features, and finally suggests appropriate models to capture the sound unit specific knowledge from the proposed features. The authors close by discussing various combinations of spectral, articulatory and source features, and the desired models to enhance the performance of SR systems.

  16. Speech and Language Developmental Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language Speech and Language Developmental Milestones On this page: How do speech ... and language developmental milestones? How do speech and language develop? The first 3 years of life, when ...

  17. Delayed Speech or Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Speech or Language Development KidsHealth / For Parents / Delayed Speech ... their child is right on schedule. How Are Speech and Language Different? Speech is the verbal expression ...

  18. Resultados na percepção de fala após conversão do Spectra® para Freedom® Result on speech perception after conversion from Spectra® to Freedom®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Tereza de Matos Magalhães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available As novas tecnologias do processador Freedom® foram criadas para proporcionar melhorias no processamento do som acústico de entrada, não apenas para novos usuários, como para gerações anteriores de implante coclear. OBJETIVO: Identificar a contribuição da tecnologia do processador de fala Freedom® para implante coclear multicanal, Nucleus22®, no desempenho de percepção de fala no silêncio e no ruído, e nos limiares audiométricos. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: A forma de estudo foi de coorte histórico com corte transversal. Dezessete pacientes preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Antes de iniciar os testes, o último mapa em uso com o Spectra® foi revisto e otimizado e o funcionamento do processador foi verificado. Os testes de fala foram apresentados a 60dBNPS em material gravado: monossílabos; frases em apresentação aberta no silêncio; e no ruído (SNR = 0dB. Foram realizadas audiometrias em campo livre com ambos os processadores de fala. A análise estatística utilizou testes não-paramétricos. RESULTADOS: Quando analisada a contribuição do Freedom® para pacientes com Nucleus22®, observa-se diferença estatisticamente significativa em todos os testes de percepção de fala e em todos os limiares audiométricos. CONCLUSÃO: A tecnologia contribuiu no desempenho de percepção de fala e nos limiares audiométricos dos pacientes usuários de Nucleus22®.New technology in the Freedom® speech processor for cochlear implants was developed to improve how incoming acoustic sound is processed; this applies not only for new users, but also for previous generations of cochlear implants. AIM: To identify the contribution of this technology - the Nucleus 22® - on speech perception tests in silence and in noise, and on audiometric thresholds. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort study was undertaken. Seventeen patients were selected. The last map based on the Spectra® was revised and optimized before starting the tests. Troubleshooting

  19. Speech level shift in Japanese and Slovene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina BAJRAMI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In verbal communication, we always aim to establish and maintain harmonious relations with others. Proper use of expressions and the choice of the way we speak are closely connected with politeness. In Japanese speech level is a level of formality or politeness in conversation, which is expressed by the use of linguistic forms (formal vs. informal within and at the end of an utterance and the use of honorific expressions. In Slovene the level of formality or politeness in conversation is mainly expressed by the use of formal language and general colloquial language. Speech level shift is a shift from one speech level to another – e.g. from a formal style to an informal, etc. According to previous research, these shifts express speaker's psychological distance and a change of attitude towards a hearer. In this paper I will first briefly present the theoretical framework of politeness and an outline of speech levels in Japanese and Slovene. I will then present the data and the method used in this study. Finally, I will present and discuss the results of the analysis of both Japanese and Slovene conversation.

  20. Speech and Communication Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Speech problems like stuttering Developmental disabilities Learning disorders Autism spectrum disorder Brain injury Stroke Some speech and communication problems may be genetic. Often, no one knows the causes. By first grade, about 5 percent of children ...

  1. Speech disorders - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... after age 4 (I want...I want my doll. I...I see you.) Putting in (interjecting) extra ... may outgrow milder forms of speech disorders. Speech therapy may help with more severe symptoms or any ...

  2. Long-term temporal tracking of speech rate affects spoken-word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baese-Berk, Melissa M; Heffner, Christopher C; Dilley, Laura C; Pitt, Mark A; Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin

    2014-08-01

    Humans unconsciously track a wide array of distributional characteristics in their sensory environment. Recent research in spoken-language processing has demonstrated that the speech rate surrounding a target region within an utterance influences which words, and how many words, listeners hear later in that utterance. On the basis of hypotheses that listeners track timing information in speech over long timescales, we investigated the possibility that the perception of words is sensitive to speech rate over such a timescale (e.g., an extended conversation). Results demonstrated that listeners tracked variation in the overall pace of speech over an extended duration (analogous to that of a conversation that listeners might have outside the lab) and that this global speech rate influenced which words listeners reported hearing. The effects of speech rate became stronger over time. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that neural entrainment by speech occurs on multiple timescales, some lasting more than an hour. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Progressive apraxia of speech as a window into the study of speech planning processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganaro, Marina; Croisier, Michèle; Bagou, Odile; Assal, Frédéric

    2012-09-01

    We present a 3-year follow-up study of a patient with progressive apraxia of speech (PAoS), aimed at investigating whether the theoretical organization of phonetic encoding is reflected in the progressive disruption of speech. As decreased speech rate was the most striking pattern of disruption during the first 2 years, durational analyses were carried out longitudinally on syllables excised from spontaneous, repetition and reading speech samples. The crucial result of the present study is the demonstration of an effect of syllable frequency on duration: the progressive disruption of articulation rate did not affect all syllables in the same way, but followed a gradient that was function of the frequency of use of syllable-sized motor programs. The combination of data from this case of PAoS with previous psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic data, points to a frequency organization of syllable-sized speech-motor plans. In this study we also illustrate how studying PAoS can be exploited in theoretical and clinical investigations of phonetic encoding as it represents a unique opportunity to investigate speech while it progressively disrupts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching communication aid use in everyday conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    2017-01-01

    This Conversation Analysis study investigated how a speech and language therapist (SLT) created opportunities for communication aid use in multiparty conversation. An SLT interacted with a child with multiple disabilities and her grandparents in a home setting, using a bliss board. The analyses......’s moves using board indications, vocalisations, gaze, head movements, and smiles. The analysed practice creates opportunities for teaching and possibly also for learning how to use a communication aid....

  5. Conversion frequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauteret, C.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental evidence of short wavelength for laser inertial confinement has strongly increased the interest in high efficiency harmonic conversion of powerful Nd: glass lasers. This work describes our high power harmonic conversion experiments performed using the same laser apparatus for doubling, tripling the three high power 1064 nm P102, OCTAL and PHEBUS lasers. In addition to the understanding the physics of harmonic conversion, this work includes the basic concepts allows us to improve the technique such as non colinear schemes, to extend this method to other frequencies (fourth generation) and to predict some physical limits [fr

  6. Speech evaluation in children with temporomandibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Aparecida Pizolato

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD on speech in children, and to verify the influence of occlusal characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Speech and dental occlusal characteristics were assessed in 152 Brazilian children (78 boys and 74 girls, aged 8 to 12 (mean age 10.05 ± 1.39 years with or without TMD signs and symptoms. The clinical signs were evaluated using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD (axis I and the symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire. The following groups were formed: Group TMD (n=40, TMD signs and symptoms (Group S and S, n=68, TMD signs or symptoms (Group S or S, n=33, and without signs and symptoms (Group N, n=11. Articulatory speech disorders were diagnosed during spontaneous speech and repetition of the words using the "Phonological Assessment of Child Speech" for the Portuguese language. It was also applied a list of 40 phonological balanced words, read by the speech pathologist and repeated by the children. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, Fisher's exact or Chi-square tests (α=0.05. RESULTS: A slight prevalence of articulatory disturbances, such as substitutions, omissions and distortions of the sibilants /s/ and /z/, and no deviations in jaw lateral movements were observed. Reduction of vertical amplitude was found in 10 children, the prevalence being greater in TMD signs and symptoms children than in the normal children. The tongue protrusion in phonemes /t/, /d/, /n/, /l/ and frontal lips in phonemes /s/ and /z/ were the most prevalent visual alterations. There was a high percentage of dental occlusal alterations. CONCLUSIONS: There was no association between TMD and speech disorders. Occlusal alterations may be factors of influence, allowing distortions and frontal lisp in phonemes /s/ and /z/ and inadequate tongue position in phonemes /t/; /d/; /n/; /l/.

  7. Speech disfluencies in children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Kurt; Van Eerdenbrugh, Sabine

    Speech and language development in individuals with Down syndrome is often delayed and/or disordered and speech disfluencies appear to be more common. These disfluencies have been labeled over time as stuttering, cluttering or both. were usually generated from studies with adults or a mixed age group, quite often using different methodologies, making it difficult to compare findings. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the speech disfluencies of a group, only consisting of children with Down Syndrome between 3 and 13 years of age. Participants consisted of 26 Dutch-speaking children with DS. Spontaneous speech samples were collected and 50 utterances were analyzed for each child. Types of disfluencies were identified and classified into stuttering-like (SLD) and other disfluencies (OD). The criterion of three or more SLD per 100 syllables (cf. Ambrose & Yairi, 1999) was used to identify stuttering. Additional parameters such as mean articulation rate (MAR), ratio of disfluencies, and telescoping (cf. Coppens-Hofman et al., 2013) were used to identify cluttering and to differentiate between stuttering and cluttering. Approximately 30 percent of children with DS between 3 and 13 years of age in this study stutter, which is much higher than the prevalence in normally developing children. Moreover, this study showed that the speech of children with DS has a different distribution of types of disfluencies than the speech of normally developing children. Although different cluttering-like characteristics were found in the speech of young children with DS, none of them could be identified as cluttering or cluttering-stuttering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategic conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Asher

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Models of conversation that rely on a strong notion of cooperation don’t apply to strategic conversation — that is, to conversation where the agents’ motives don’t align, such as courtroom cross examination and political debate. We provide a game-theoretic framework that provides an analysis of both cooperative and strategic conversation. Our analysis features a new notion of safety that applies to implicatures: an implicature is safe when it can be reliably treated as a matter of public record. We explore the safety of implicatures within cooperative and non cooperative settings. We then provide a symbolic model enabling us (i to prove a correspondence result between a characterisation of conversation in terms of an alignment of players’ preferences and one where Gricean principles of cooperative conversation like Sincerity hold, and (ii to show when an implicature is safe and when it is not. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.6.2 BibTeX info

  9. Surgical speech disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Tianjie; Sie, Kathleen C Y

    2014-11-01

    Most speech disorders of childhood are treated with speech therapy. However, two conditions, ankyloglossia and velopharyngeal dysfunction, may be amenable to surgical intervention. It is important for surgeons to work with experienced speech language pathologists to diagnose the speech disorder. Children with articulation disorders related to ankyloglossia may benefit from frenuloplasty. Children with velopharyngeal dysfunction should have standardized clinical evaluation and instrumental asseessment of velopharyngeal function. Surgeons should develop a treatment protocol to optimize speech outcomes while minimizing morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Digital speech processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2014-01-01

    Digital Speech Processing Using Matlab deals with digital speech pattern recognition, speech production model, speech feature extraction, and speech compression. The book is written in a manner that is suitable for beginners pursuing basic research in digital speech processing. Matlab illustrations are provided for most topics to enable better understanding of concepts. This book also deals with the basic pattern recognition techniques (illustrated with speech signals using Matlab) such as PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, HMM, GMM, BPN, and KSOM.

  11. Spontaneous uterine rupture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Rupture of a gravid uterus is a surgical emergency. Predisposing factors include a scarred uterus. Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus during pregnancy is a rare occurrence. We hereby present the case of a spontaneous complete uterine rupture at a gestational age of 34 weeks in a 35 year old patient ...

  12. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fullam, L

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous\\/primary intracranial hypotension is characterised by orthostatic headache and is associated with characteristic magnetic resonance imaging findings. CASE REPORT: We present a case report of a patient with typical symptoms and classical radiological images. DISCUSSION: Spontaneous intracranial hypotension is an under-recognised cause of headache and can be diagnosed by history of typical orthostatic headache and findings on MRI brain.

  13. Direct Conversion of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R

    1964-01-01

    Topics include: direct versus dynamic energy conversion; laws governing energy conversion; thermoelectricity; thermionic conversion; magnetohydrodynamic conversion; chemical batteries; the fuel cell; solar cells; nuclear batteries; and advanced concepts including ferroelectric conversion and thermomagnetic conversion.

  14. Getting the Cocktail Party Started: Masking Effects in Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Samuel; McGettigan, Carolyn; Agnew, Zarinah K; Rosen, Stuart; Scott, Sophie K

    2016-03-01

    Spoken conversations typically take place in noisy environments, and different kinds of masking sounds place differing demands on cognitive resources. Previous studies, examining the modulation of neural activity associated with the properties of competing sounds, have shown that additional speech streams engage the superior temporal gyrus. However, the absence of a condition in which target speech was heard without additional masking made it difficult to identify brain networks specific to masking and to ascertain the extent to which competing speech was processed equivalently to target speech. In this study, we scanned young healthy adults with continuous fMRI, while they listened to stories masked by sounds that differed in their similarity to speech. We show that auditory attention and control networks are activated during attentive listening to masked speech in the absence of an overt behavioral task. We demonstrate that competing speech is processed predominantly in the left hemisphere within the same pathway as target speech but is not treated equivalently within that stream and that individuals who perform better in speech in noise tasks activate the left mid-posterior superior temporal gyrus more. Finally, we identify neural responses associated with the onset of sounds in the auditory environment; activity was found within right lateralized frontal regions consistent with a phasic alerting response. Taken together, these results provide a comprehensive account of the neural processes involved in listening in noise.

  15. Managing the reaction effects of speech disorders on speech ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... persons having speech disorders. Speech disorders must be treated so that speech defectives will be helped out of their speech problems and be prevented from becoming obsessed by frustrations resulting from their speech disorders. African Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology and Sport Facilitation Vol. 6 2004: 91-95 ...

  16. Type of speech material affects Acceptable Noise Level test outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xaver eKoch

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Acceptable Noise Level (ANL test, in which individuals indicate what level of noise they are willing to put up with while following speech, has been used to guide hearing aid fitting decisions and has been found to relate to prospective hearing aid use. Unlike objective measures of speech perception ability, ANL outcome is not related to individual hearing loss or age, but rather reflects an individual's inherent acceptance of competing noise while listening to speech. As such, the measure may predict aspects of hearing aid success. Crucially, however, recent studies have questioned its repeatability (test-retest reliability. The first question for this study was whether the inconsistent results regarding the repeatability of the ANL test may be due to differences in speech material types used in previous studies. Second, it is unclear whether meaningfulness and semantic coherence of the speech modify ANL outcome. To investigate these questions, we compared ANLs obtained with three types of materials: the International Speech Test Signal (ISTS, which is non-meaningful and semantically non-coherent by definition, passages consisting of concatenated meaningful standard audiology sentences, and longer fragments taken from conversational speech. We included conversational speech as this type of speech material is most representative of everyday listening. Additionally, we investigated whether ANL outcomes, obtained with these three different speech materials, were associated with self-reported limitations due to hearing problems and listening effort in everyday life, as assessed by a questionnaire. ANL data were collected for 57 relatively good-hearing adult participants with an age range representative for hearing aid users. Results showed that meaningfulness, but not semantic coherence of the speech material affected ANL. Less noise was accepted for the non-meaningful ISTS signal than for the meaningful speech materials. ANL repeatability was

  17. Speech Processing and Recognition (SPaRe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    parameters such as duration, audio /video bitrates, audio /video codecs , audio channels, and sample rates. These parameters are automatically populated in the...used to segment each conversation into utterance level audio and transcript files. First, all speech data from the English interviewers and all...News Corpus [12]. The TDT4 corpus includes approximately 200 hours of Mandarin audio with closed-captions, or approximate transcripts. These

  18. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, Aniko; Moses, Haifa

    2016-01-01

    Speech alarms have been used extensively in aviation and included in International Building Codes (IBC) and National Fire Protection Association's (NFPA) Life Safety Code. However, they have not been implemented on space vehicles. Previous studies conducted at NASA JSC showed that speech alarms lead to faster identification and higher accuracy. This research evaluated updated speech and tone alerts in a laboratory environment and in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) in a realistic setup.

  19. Frontal and temporal contributions to understanding the iconic co-speech gestures that accompany speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Mok, Eva H; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Small, Steven L

    2014-03-01

    In everyday conversation, listeners often rely on a speaker's gestures to clarify any ambiguities in the verbal message. Using fMRI during naturalistic story comprehension, we examined which brain regions in the listener are sensitive to speakers' iconic gestures. We focused on iconic gestures that contribute information not found in the speaker's talk, compared with those that convey information redundant with the speaker's talk. We found that three regions-left inferior frontal gyrus triangular (IFGTr) and opercular (IFGOp) portions, and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (MTGp)--responded more strongly when gestures added information to nonspecific language, compared with when they conveyed the same information in more specific language; in other words, when gesture disambiguated speech as opposed to reinforced it. An increased BOLD response was not found in these regions when the nonspecific language was produced without gesture, suggesting that IFGTr, IFGOp, and MTGp are involved in integrating semantic information across gesture and speech. In addition, we found that activity in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STSp), previously thought to be involved in gesture-speech integration, was not sensitive to the gesture-speech relation. Together, these findings clarify the neurobiology of gesture-speech integration and contribute to an emerging picture of how listeners glean meaning from gestures that accompany speech. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Automatic Smoker Detection from Telephone Speech Signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alavijeh, Amir Hossein Poorjam; Hesaraki, Soheila; Safavi, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an automatic smoking habit detection from spontaneous telephone speech signals. In this method, each utterance is modeled using i-vector and non-negative factor analysis (NFA) frameworks, which yield low-dimensional representation of utterances by applying factor analysis...... on Gaussian mixture model means and weights respectively. Each framework is evaluated using different classification algorithms to detect the smoker speakers. Finally, score-level fusion of the i-vector-based and the NFA-based recognizers is considered to improve the classification accuracy. The proposed...... method is evaluated on telephone speech signals of speakers whose smoking habits are known drawn from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 2008 and 2010 Speaker Recognition Evaluation databases. Experimental results over 1194 utterances show the effectiveness of the proposed approach...

  1. Speech disorder prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miladis Fornaris-Méndez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Language therapy has trafficked from a medical focus until a preventive focus. However, difficulties are evidenced in the development of this last task, because he is devoted bigger space to the correction of the disorders of the language. Because the speech disorders is the dysfunction with more frequently appearance, acquires special importance the preventive work that is developed to avoid its appearance. Speech education since early age of the childhood makes work easier for prevent the appearance of speech disorders in the children. The present work has as objective to offer different activities for the prevention of the speech disorders.

  2. Principles of speech coding

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunfunmi, Tokunbo

    2010-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that all forms of communication-including voice-will be transmitted through packet-switched networks based on the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the design of modern devices that rely on speech interfaces, such as cell phones and PDAs, requires a complete and up-to-date understanding of the basics of speech coding. Outlines key signal processing algorithms used to mitigate impairments to speech quality in VoIP networksOffering a detailed yet easily accessible introduction to the field, Principles of Speech Coding provides an in-depth examination of the

  3. Grapheme-to-phoneme Conversion in Theory and Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    are available for almost all European languages and a great number of others. Whereas their performance is adequate for ASR and for low-quality TTS, their lack of precision makes them unfit for linguistic research purposes such as phonetic annotation of spontaneous speech recordings. A common method...

  4. Conversion Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacov Rofé

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Conversion disorder remains a mystery that has only become more complicated with the decline of the scientific status of psychoanalysis (e.g., Piper, Lillevik, & Kritzer, 2008; Rofé, 2008 and recent neurological findings suggest that this behavior is controlled by biological mechanisms (van Beilen, Vogt, & Leenders, 2010. Moreover, existing theories have difficulty explaining the efficacy of various interventions, such as psychoanalysis, behavior therapy, drug therapy and religious therapy. This article reviews research and clinical evidence pertaining to both the development and treatment of conversion disorder and shows that this seemingly incompatible evidence can be integrated within a new theory, the Rational-Choice Theory of Neurosis (RCTN; Rofé, 2010. Despite the striking differences, RCTN continues Freud's framework of thinking as it employs a new concept of repression and replaces the unconscious with self-deception. Moreover, it incorporates Freud's idea, implicitly expressed in his theory, that neurotic disorders are, in fact, rational behaviors.

  5. Conversational sensemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Webberley, Will; Braines, Dave

    2015-05-01

    Recent advances in natural language question-answering systems and context-aware mobile apps create opportunities for improved sensemaking in a tactical setting. Users equipped with mobile devices act as both sensors (able to acquire information) and effectors (able to act in situ), operating alone or in collectives. The currently- dominant technical approaches follow either a pull model (e.g. Apple's Siri or IBM's Watson which respond to users' natural language queries) or a push model (e.g. Google's Now which sends notifications to a user based on their context). There is growing recognition that users need more flexible styles of conversational interaction, where they are able to freely ask or tell, be asked or told, seek explanations and clarifications. Ideally such conversations should involve a mix of human and machine agents, able to collaborate in collective sensemaking activities with as few barriers as possible. Desirable capabilities include adding new knowledge, collaboratively building models, invoking specific services, and drawing inferences. As a step towards this goal, we collect evidence from a number of recent pilot studies including natural experiments (e.g. situation awareness in the context of organised protests) and synthetic experiments (e.g. human and machine agents collaborating in information seeking and spot reporting). We identify some principles and areas of future research for "conversational sensemaking".

  6. Conversational sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Alun; Gwilliams, Chris; Parizas, Christos; Pizzocaro, Diego; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Braines, Dave

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in sensing technologies, mobile devices and context-aware user interfaces have made it pos- sible to represent information fusion and situational awareness for Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities as a conversational process among actors at or near the tactical edges of a network. Motivated by use cases in the domain of Company Intelligence Support Team (CoIST) tasks, this paper presents an approach to information collection, fusion and sense-making based on the use of natural language (NL) and controlled nat- ural language (CNL) to support richer forms of human-machine interaction. The approach uses a conversational protocol to facilitate a ow of collaborative messages from NL to CNL and back again in support of interactions such as: turning eyewitness reports from human observers into actionable information (from both soldier and civilian sources); fusing information from humans and physical sensors (with associated quality metadata); and assisting human analysts to make the best use of available sensing assets in an area of interest (governed by man- agement and security policies). CNL is used as a common formal knowledge representation for both machine and human agents to support reasoning, semantic information fusion and generation of rationale for inferences, in ways that remain transparent to human users. Examples are provided of various alternative styles for user feedback, including NL, CNL and graphical feedback. A pilot experiment with human subjects shows that a prototype conversational agent is able to gather usable CNL information from untrained human subjects.

  7. Listening with Your Eyes: The Importance of Speech-Related Gestures in the Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Tony

    2003-01-01

    Argues nonverbal communication (NVC) forms an important part of everyday speech transmission and should occupy a more central position in second and foreign language teaching than it currently does. Examines the role played by NVC in a three-turn conversational exchange and the literature supporting the notion that speech-related gestures have a…

  8. Temporal Context in Speech Processing and Attentional Stream Selection: A Behavioral and Neural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golumbic, Elana M. Zion; Poeppel, David; Schroeder, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    The human capacity for processing speech is remarkable, especially given that information in speech unfolds over multiple time scales concurrently. Similarly notable is our ability to filter out of extraneous sounds and focus our attention on one conversation, epitomized by the "Cocktail Party" effect. Yet, the neural mechanisms underlying on-line…

  9. Multiple genetic switches spontaneously modulating bacterial mutability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Randal N

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All life forms need both high genetic stability to survive as species and a degree of mutability to evolve for adaptation, but little is known about how the organisms balance the two seemingly conflicting aspects of life: genetic stability and mutability. The DNA mismatch repair (MMR system is essential for maintaining genetic stability and defects in MMR lead to high mutability. Evolution is driven by genetic novelty, such as point mutation and lateral gene transfer, both of which require genetic mutability. However, normally a functional MMR system would strongly inhibit such genomic changes. Our previous work indicated that MMR gene allele conversion between functional and non-functional states through copy number changes of small tandem repeats could occur spontaneously via slipped-strand mis-pairing during DNA replication and therefore may play a role of genetic switches to modulate the bacterial mutability at the population level. The open question was: when the conversion from functional to defective MMR is prohibited, will bacteria still be able to evolve by accepting laterally transferred DNA or accumulating mutations? Results To prohibit allele conversion, we "locked" the MMR genes through nucleotide replacements. We then scored changes in bacterial mutability and found that Salmonella strains with MMR locked at the functional state had significantly decreased mutability. To determine the generalizability of this kind of mutability 'switching' among a wider range of bacteria, we examined the distribution of tandem repeats within MMR genes in over 100 bacterial species and found that multiple genetic switches might exist in these bacteria and may spontaneously modulate bacterial mutability during evolution. Conclusions MMR allele conversion through repeats-mediated slipped-strand mis-pairing may function as a spontaneous mechanism to switch between high genetic stability and mutability during bacterial evolution.

  10. Advertising and Free Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Allen, Ed.; Johnson, M. Bruce, Ed.

    The articles collected in this book originated at a conference at which legal and economic scholars discussed the issue of First Amendment protection for commercial speech. The first article, in arguing for freedom for commercial speech, finds inconsistent and untenable the arguments of those who advocate freedom from regulation for political…

  11. Physics and Speech Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckworth, M.; Lowe, T. L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes development and content of a speech science course taught to speech therapists for two years, modified by feedback from those two classes. Presents basic topics and concepts covered. Evaluates a team teaching approach as well as the efficacy of teaching physics relevant to vocational interests. (JM)

  12. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  13. Speech Quality Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    2.271 Sound Patterns of English, N. Chomsky and H. Halle, Haper zi Row, New York, 1968. 12.281 "Speech Synthesis by Rule," J. N. Holmes, I. G...L. H. Nakatani, B. J. McDermott, "Effect of Pitch and Formant Manipulations on Speech Quality," Bell Telephone Laboratories, Technical Memorandum, 72

  14. Speech and Language Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grade and has recently been diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech—or CAS. CAS is a speech disorder marked ... 800.242.5338 | http://www.cleftline.org Childhood Apraxia of Speech Association of North America | CASANA http://www.apraxia- ...

  15. Free Speech. No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Peter E., Ed.

    This issue of "Free Speech" contains the following articles: "Daniel Schoor Relieved of Reporting Duties" by Laurence Stern, "The Sellout at CBS" by Michael Harrington, "Defending Dan Schorr" by Tome Wicker, "Speech to the Washington Press Club, February 25, 1976" by Daniel Schorr, "Funds…

  16. Private Speech in Ballet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Dale

    2006-01-01

    Authoritarian teaching practices in ballet inhibit the use of private speech. This paper highlights the critical importance of private speech in the cognitive development of young ballet students, within what is largely a non-verbal art form. It draws upon research by Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky and contemporary socioculturalists, to…

  17. Ear, Hearing and Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2000-01-01

    An introduction is given to the the anatomy and the function of the ear, basic psychoacoustic matters (hearing threshold, loudness, masking), the speech signal and speech intelligibility. The lecture note is written for the course: Fundamentals of Acoustics and Noise Control (51001)...

  18. Priorities of Dialogic Speech Teaching Methodology at Higher Non-Linguistic School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Asanavičienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with a number of relevant methodological issues. First of all, the author analyses psychological peculiarities of dialogic speech and states that the dialogue is the product of at least two persons. Therefore, in this view, dialogic speech, unlike monologic speech, happens impromptu and is not prepared in advance. Dialogic speech is mainly of situational character. The linguistic nature of dialogic speech, in the author’s opinion, lies in the process of exchanging replications, which are coherent in structural and functional character. The author classifies dialogue groups by the number of replications and communicative parameters. The basic goal of dialogic speech teaching is developing the abilities and skills which enable to exchange replications. The author distinguishes two basic stages of dialogic speech teaching: 1. Training of abilities to exchange replications during communicative exercises. 2. Development of skills by training the capability to perform exercises of creative nature during a group dialogue, conversation or debate.

  19. Children's Perception of Conversational and Clear American-English Vowels in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Dorothy

    A handful of studies have examined children's perception of clear speech in the presence of background noise. Although accurate vowel perception is important for listeners' comprehension, no study has focused on whether vowels uttered in clear speech aid intelligibility for children listeners. In the present study, American-English (AE) speaking children repeated the AE vowels /epsilon, ae, alpha, lambda in the nonsense word /g[schwa]bVp[schwa]/ in phrases produced in conversational and clear speech by two female AE-speaking adults. The recordings of the adults' speech were presented at a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -6 dB to 15 AE-speaking children (ages 5.0-8.5) in an examination of whether the accuracy of AE school-age children's vowel identification in noise is more accurate when utterances are produced in clear speech than in conversational speech. Effects of the particular vowel uttered and talker effects were also examined. Clear speech vowels were repeated significantly more accurately (87%) than conversational speech vowels (59%), suggesting that clear speech aids children's vowel identification. Results varied as a function of the talker and particular vowel uttered. Child listeners repeated one talker's vowels more accurately than the other's and front vowels more accurately than central and back vowels. The findings support the use of clear speech for enhancing adult-to-child communication in AE, particularly in noisy environments.

  20. Oscillatory Brain Responses Reflect Anticipation during Comprehension of Speech Acts in Spoken Dialog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisladottir, Rosa S; Bögels, Sara; Levinson, Stephen C

    2018-01-01

    Everyday conversation requires listeners to quickly recognize verbal actions, so-called speech acts , from the underspecified linguistic code and prepare a relevant response within the tight time constraints of turn-taking. The goal of this study was to determine the time-course of speech act recognition by investigating oscillatory EEG activity during comprehension of spoken dialog. Participants listened to short, spoken dialogs with target utterances that delivered three distinct speech acts (Answers, Declinations, Pre-offers). The targets were identical across conditions at lexico-syntactic and phonetic/prosodic levels but differed in the pragmatic interpretation of the speech act performed. Speech act comprehension was associated with reduced power in the alpha/beta bands just prior to Declination speech acts, relative to Answers and Pre-offers. In addition, we observed reduced power in the theta band during the beginning of Declinations, relative to Answers. Based on the role of alpha and beta desynchronization in anticipatory processes, the results are taken to indicate that anticipation plays a role in speech act recognition. Anticipation of speech acts could be critical for efficient turn-taking, allowing interactants to quickly recognize speech acts and respond within the tight time frame characteristic of conversation. The results show that anticipatory processes can be triggered by the characteristics of the interaction, including the speech act type.

  1. Oscillatory Brain Responses Reflect Anticipation during Comprehension of Speech Acts in Spoken Dialog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa S. Gisladottir

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Everyday conversation requires listeners to quickly recognize verbal actions, so-called speech acts, from the underspecified linguistic code and prepare a relevant response within the tight time constraints of turn-taking. The goal of this study was to determine the time-course of speech act recognition by investigating oscillatory EEG activity during comprehension of spoken dialog. Participants listened to short, spoken dialogs with target utterances that delivered three distinct speech acts (Answers, Declinations, Pre-offers. The targets were identical across conditions at lexico-syntactic and phonetic/prosodic levels but differed in the pragmatic interpretation of the speech act performed. Speech act comprehension was associated with reduced power in the alpha/beta bands just prior to Declination speech acts, relative to Answers and Pre-offers. In addition, we observed reduced power in the theta band during the beginning of Declinations, relative to Answers. Based on the role of alpha and beta desynchronization in anticipatory processes, the results are taken to indicate that anticipation plays a role in speech act recognition. Anticipation of speech acts could be critical for efficient turn-taking, allowing interactants to quickly recognize speech acts and respond within the tight time frame characteristic of conversation. The results show that anticipatory processes can be triggered by the characteristics of the interaction, including the speech act type.

  2. An optimal speech processor for efficient human speech ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our experimental findings suggest that the auditory filterbank in human ear functions as a near-optimal speech processor for achieving efficient speech communication between humans. Keywords. Human speech communication; articulatory gestures; auditory filterbank; mutual information. 1. Introduction. Speech is one of ...

  3. Musician advantage for speech-on-speech perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Başkent, Deniz; Gaudrain, Etienne

    Evidence for transfer of musical training to better perception of speech in noise has been mixed. Unlike speech-in-noise, speech-on-speech perception utilizes many of the skills that musical training improves, such as better pitch perception and stream segregation, as well as use of higher-level

  4. Genre and Everyday Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Frans

    2015-01-01

    The paper outlines the analysis of speech genres synchronically and diachronically and exemplifies how speech genres are emulated and transformed in an analysis of a piece of literary fiction by the Danish author Katrine Marie Guldager......The paper outlines the analysis of speech genres synchronically and diachronically and exemplifies how speech genres are emulated and transformed in an analysis of a piece of literary fiction by the Danish author Katrine Marie Guldager...

  5. Dissociating speech perception and comprehension at reduced levels of awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Matthew H.; Coleman, Martin R.; Absalom, Anthony R.; Rodd, Jennifer M.; Johnsrude, Ingrid S.; Matta, Basil F.; Owen, Adrian M.; Menon, David K.

    2007-01-01

    We used functional MRI and the anesthetic agent propofol to assess the relationship among neural responses to speech, successful comprehension, and conscious awareness. Volunteers were scanned while listening to sentences containing ambiguous words, matched sentences without ambiguous words, and signal-correlated noise (SCN). During three scanning sessions, participants were nonsedated (awake), lightly sedated (a slowed response to conversation), and deeply sedated (no conversational response...

  6. Spontaneous Atraumatic Mediastinal Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morkos Iskander BSc, BMBS, MRCS, PGCertMedEd

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous atraumatic mediastinal hematomas are rare. We present a case of a previously fit and well middle-aged lady who presented with acute breathlessness and an increasing neck swelling and spontaneous neck bruising. On plain chest radiograph, widening of the mediastinum was noted. The bruising was later confirmed to be secondary to mediastinal hematoma. This life-threatening diagnostic conundrum was managed conservatively with a multidisciplinary team approach involving upper gastrointestinal and thoracic surgeons, gastroenterologists, radiologists, intensivists, and hematologists along with a variety of diagnostic modalities. A review of literature is also presented to help surgeons manage such challenging and complicated cases.

  7. Speech Communication and Signal Processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on 'Auditory-like filter bank: An optimal speech processor for efficient human speech commu- nication', Ghosh et al argue that the auditory filter bank in human ear is a near-optimal speech processor for efficient speech communication between human beings. They use mutual informa- tion criterion to design the optimal filter ...

  8. Environmental Contamination of Normal Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Trevor A.

    1990-01-01

    Environmentally contaminated speech errors (irrelevant words or phrases derived from the speaker's environment and erroneously incorporated into speech) are hypothesized to occur at a high level of speech processing, but with a relatively late insertion point. The data indicate that speech production processes are not independent of other…

  9. Quantitative study of spontaneous eye blinks and eye tics in Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); M. Azzolini; J.A. de Vries; W.H. Groeneveld; J. Passchier (Jan); B.J.M. van de Wetering (Ben)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractSpontaneous eye blink rate and frequency of eye tics were studied in nine Tourette patients during periods of rest, conversation, and video watching. In comparison with controls, the Tourette patients showed a significantly higher blink rate during rest

  10. Speech processing in mobile environments

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on speech processing in the presence of low-bit rate coding and varying background environments. The methods presented in the book exploit the speech events which are robust in noisy environments. Accurate estimation of these crucial events will be useful for carrying out various speech tasks such as speech recognition, speaker recognition and speech rate modification in mobile environments. The authors provide insights into designing and developing robust methods to process the speech in mobile environments. Covering temporal and spectral enhancement methods to minimize the effect of noise and examining methods and models on speech and speaker recognition applications in mobile environments.

  11. Hidden Hearing Loss and Computational Models of the Auditory Pathway: Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-28

    Title: Hidden Hearing Loss and Computational Models of the Auditory Pathway: Predicting Speech Intelligibility Decline Christopher J. Smalt...to utilize computational models of the auditory periphery and auditory cortex to study the effect of low spontaneous rate ANF loss on the cortical...representation of speech intelligibility in noise. The auditory-periphery model of Zilany et al. (JASA 2009,2014) is used to make predictions of

  12. Hybrid methodological approach to context-dependent speech recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragiša Mišković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of contextual information in speech recognition has been acknowledged for a long time now, it has remained clearly underutilized even in state-of-the-art speech recognition systems. This article introduces a novel, methodologically hybrid approach to the research question of context-dependent speech recognition in human–machine interaction. To the extent that it is hybrid, the approach integrates aspects of both statistical and representational paradigms. We extend the standard statistical pattern-matching approach with a cognitively inspired and analytically tractable model with explanatory power. This methodological extension allows for accounting for contextual information which is otherwise unavailable in speech recognition systems, and using it to improve post-processing of recognition hypotheses. The article introduces an algorithm for evaluation of recognition hypotheses, illustrates it for concrete interaction domains, and discusses its implementation within two prototype conversational agents.

  13. Dysarthria and broader motor speech deficits in Dravet syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Samantha J; Brown, Amy; Arpone, Marta; Anderson, Vicki; Morgan, Angela T; Scheffer, Ingrid E

    2017-02-21

    To analyze the oral motor, speech, and language phenotype in 20 children and adults with Dravet syndrome (DS) associated with mutations in SCN1A . Fifteen verbal and 5 minimally verbal DS patients with SCN1A mutations (aged 15 months-28 years) underwent a tailored assessment battery. Speech was characterized by imprecise articulation, abnormal nasal resonance, voice, and pitch, and prosody errors. Half of verbal patients had moderate to severely impaired conversational speech intelligibility. Oral motor impairment, motor planning/programming difficulties, and poor postural control were typical. Nonverbal individuals had intentional communication. Cognitive skills varied markedly, with intellectual functioning ranging from the low average range to severe intellectual disability. Language impairment was congruent with cognition. We describe a distinctive speech, language, and oral motor phenotype in children and adults with DS associated with mutations in SCN1A. Recognizing this phenotype will guide therapeutic intervention in patients with DS. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. Recalibrating the context for reported speech and thought

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemann, Trine; Wagner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how speakers who are about to produce, or in the midst of producing, reported speech and thought (RT), temporarily abandon the production of RT to include other material. Using Conversation Analysis, we identify three positions in which RT is abandoned temporarily...

  15. Spontaneous Appendicocutaneous Fistula I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M T0k0de* MB, BS and. Dr 0. A. AWOj0bi+ FMCS (Nig). ABSTRACT. Ruptured appendicitis is not a common cause of spontaneous enterocutaneous fistula. A case of ruptured retrocaecal appendicitis presenting as an enterocutaneous fistula in a Nigerian woman is presented. The literature on this disorder is also reviewed.

  16. [Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Edna; Caly, Wanda Regina

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis occurs in 30% of patients with ascites due to cirrhosis leading to high morbidity and mortality rates. The pathogenesis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is related to altered host defenses observed in end-stage liver disease, overgrowth of microorganisms, and bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen to mesenteric lymph nodes. Clinical manifestations vary from severe to slight or absent, demanding analysis of the ascitic fluid. The diagnosis is confirmed by a number of neutrophils over 250/mm3 associated or not to bacterial growth in culture of an ascites sample. Enterobacteriae prevail and Escherichia coli has been the most frequent bacterium reported. Mortality rates decreased markedly in the last two decades due to early diagnosis and prompt antibiotic treatment. Third generation intravenous cephalosporins are effective in 70% to 95% of the cases. Recurrence of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is common and can be prevented by the continuous use of oral norfloxacin. The development of bacterial resistance demands the search for new options in the prophylaxis of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; probiotics are a promising new approach, but deserve further evaluation. Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is recommended for patients with cirrhosis and ascites shortly after an acute episode of gastrointestinal bleeding.

  17. Spontaneous Grammar Explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjoo, Hong Sing; Lewis, Marilyn

    1998-01-01

    Describes one New Zealand university language teacher's reflection on her own grammar explanations to university-level students of Bahasa Indonesian. Examines form-focused instruction through the teacher's spontaneous answers to students' questions about the form of the language they are studying. The teacher's experiences show that it takes time…

  18. EDITORIAL SPONTANEOUS BACTERIAL PERITONITIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...

  19. Spontaneous dimensional reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, Steven

    2012-10-01

    Over the past few years, evidence has begun to accumulate suggesting that spacetime may undergo a "spontaneous dimensional reduction" to two dimensions near the Planck scale. I review some of this evidence, and discuss the (still very speculative) proposal that the underlying mechanism may be related to short-distance focusing of light rays by quantum fluctuations.

  20. Effects of speech clarity on recognition memory for spoken sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Engen, Kristin J; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smiljanic, Rajka

    2012-01-01

    Extensive research shows that inter-talker variability (i.e., changing the talker) affects recognition memory for speech signals. However, relatively little is known about the consequences of intra-talker variability (i.e. changes in speaking style within a talker) on the encoding of speech signals in memory. It is well established that speakers can modulate the characteristics of their own speech and produce a listener-oriented, intelligibility-enhancing speaking style in response to communication demands (e.g., when speaking to listeners with hearing impairment or non-native speakers of the language). Here we conducted two experiments to examine the role of speaking style variation in spoken language processing. First, we examined the extent to which clear speech provided benefits in challenging listening environments (i.e. speech-in-noise). Second, we compared recognition memory for sentences produced in conversational and clear speaking styles. In both experiments, semantically normal and anomalous sentences were included to investigate the role of higher-level linguistic information in the processing of speaking style variability. The results show that acoustic-phonetic modifications implemented in listener-oriented speech lead to improved speech recognition in challenging listening conditions and, crucially, to a substantial enhancement in recognition memory for sentences.

  1. Speech and Communication Changes Reported by People with Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalling, Ellika; Johansson, Kerstin; Hartelius, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Changes in communicative functions are common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but there are only limited data provided by individuals with PD on how these changes are perceived, what their consequences are, and what type of intervention is provided. To present self-reported information about speech and communication, the impact on communicative participation, and the amount and type of speech-language pathology services received by people with PD. Respondents with PD recruited via the Swedish Parkinson's Disease Society filled out a questionnaire accessed via a Web link or provided in a paper version. Of 188 respondents, 92.5% reported at least one symptom related to communication; the most common symptoms were weak voice, word-finding difficulties, imprecise articulation, and getting off topic in conversation. The speech and communication problems resulted in restricted communicative participation for between a quarter and a third of the respondents, and their speech caused embarrassment sometimes or more often to more than half. Forty-five percent of the respondents had received speech-language pathology services. Most respondents reported both speech and language symptoms, and many experienced restricted communicative participation. Access to speech-language pathology services is still inadequate. Services should also address cognitive/linguistic aspects to meet the needs of people with PD. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Perceptual learning of speech under optimal and adverse conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2014-02-01

    Humans have a remarkable ability to understand spoken language despite the large amount of variability in speech. Previous research has shown that listeners can use lexical information to guide their interpretation of atypical sounds in speech (Norris, McQueen, & Cutler, 2003). This kind of lexically induced perceptual learning enables people to adjust to the variations in utterances due to talker-specific characteristics, such as individual identity and dialect. The current study investigated perceptual learning in two optimal conditions: conversational speech (Experiment 1) versus clear speech (Experiment 2), and three adverse conditions: noise (Experiment 3a) versus two cognitive loads (Experiments 4a and 4b). Perceptual learning occurred in the two optimal conditions and in the two cognitive load conditions, but not in the noise condition. Furthermore, perceptual learning occurred only in the first of two sessions for each participant, and only for atypical /s/ sounds and not for atypical /f/ sounds. This pattern of learning and nonlearning reflects a balance between flexibility and stability that the speech system must have to deal with speech variability in the diverse conditions that speech is encountered. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Speech and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hallucinations/Delusions Pain Skeletal & Bone Health Skin Changes Sleep Disorders Small Handwriting Speech & Swallowing Problems Urinary Incontinence Vision Changes Weight Management Diagnosis Treatment Help Us Make a Difference We need your ...

  4. Anxiety and ritualized speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalljee, Mansur; Cook, Mark

    1975-01-01

    The experiment examines the effects on a number of words that seem irrelevant to semantic communication. The Units of Ritualized Speech (URSs) considered are: 'I mean', 'in fact', 'really', 'sort of', 'well' and 'you know'. (Editor)

  5. Speech impairment (adult)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Elsevier; 2016:chap 13. Kirshner HS. Dysarthria and apraxia of speech. In: Daroff RB, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, Pomeroy SL, eds. Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ...

  6. Trainable Videorealistic Speech Animation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ezzat, Tony F

    2002-01-01

    .... After processing the corpus automatically, a visual speech module is learned from the data that is capable of synthesizing the human subject's mouth littering entirely novel utterances that were not...

  7. Speech perception as categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Lori L; Lotto, Andrew J

    2010-07-01

    Speech perception (SP) most commonly refers to the perceptual mapping from the highly variable acoustic speech signal to a linguistic representation, whether it be phonemes, diphones, syllables, or words. This is an example of categorization, in that potentially discriminable speech sounds are assigned to functionally equivalent classes. In this tutorial, we present some of the main challenges to our understanding of the categorization of speech sounds and the conceptualization of SP that has resulted from these challenges. We focus here on issues and experiments that define open research questions relevant to phoneme categorization, arguing that SP is best understood as perceptual categorization, a position that places SP in direct contact with research from other areas of perception and cognition.

  8. Methods for Mining and Summarizing Text Conversations

    CERN Document Server

    Carenini, Giuseppe; Murray, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Due to the Internet Revolution, human conversational data -- in written forms -- are accumulating at a phenomenal rate. At the same time, improvements in speech technology enable many spoken conversations to be transcribed. Individuals and organizations engage in email exchanges, face-to-face meetings, blogging, texting and other social media activities. The advances in natural language processing provide ample opportunities for these "informal documents" to be analyzed and mined, thus creating numerous new and valuable applications. This book presents a set of computational methods

  9. Charisma in business speeches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver; Brem, Alexander; Novák-Tót, Eszter

    2016-01-01

    to business speeches. Consistent with the public opinion, our findings are indicative of Steve Jobs being a more charismatic speaker than Mark Zuckerberg. Beyond previous studies, our data suggest that rhythm and emphatic accentuation are also involved in conveying charisma. Furthermore, the differences...... between Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg and the investor- and customer-related sections of their speeches support the modern understanding of charisma as a gradual, multiparametric, and context-sensitive concept....

  10. Speech spectrum envelope modeling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vích, Robert; Vondra, Martin

    Vol. 4775, - (2007), s. 129-137 ISSN 0302-9743. [COST Action 2102 International Workshop. Vietri sul Mare, 29.03.2007-31.03.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) 1ET301710509 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : speech * speech processing * cepstral analysis Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.302, year: 2005

  11. Baby Sign but Not Spontaneous Gesture Predicts Later Vocabulary in Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özçaliskan, Seyda; Adamson, Lauren B.; Dimitrova, Nevena; Bailey, Jhonelle; Schmuck, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Early spontaneous gesture, specifically deictic gesture, predicts subsequent vocabulary development in typically developing (TD) children. Here, we ask whether deictic gesture plays a similar role in predicting later vocabulary size in children with Down Syndrome (DS), who have been shown to have difficulties in speech production, but strengths in…

  12. A grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 English use of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... assessment tool for the grammatical analysis of the spontaneous L2 speech of four schizophrenics and four (non-psychotic) controls who were matched to the schizophrenics in terms of age, gender and first language (L1) and L2 dialects. Following a comparison of the types and frequency of the two groups' phonological, ...

  13. Memory for speech and speech for memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J L; Kutz, K J

    1975-03-01

    Thirty kindergarteners, 15 who substituted /w/ for /r/ and 15 with correct articulation, received two perception tests and a memory test that included /w/ and /r/ in minimally contrastive syllables. Although both groups had nearly perfect perception of the experimenter's productions of /w/ and /r/, misarticulating subjects perceived their own tape-recorded w/r productions as /w/. In the memory task these same misarticulating subjects committed significantly more /w/-/r/ confusions in unspoken recall. The discussion considers why people subvocally rehearse; a developmental period in which children do not rehearse; ways subvocalization may aid recall, including motor and acoustic encoding; an echoic store that provides additional recall support if subjects rehearse vocally, and perception of self- and other- produced phonemes by misarticulating children-including its relevance to a motor theory of perception. Evidence is presented that speech for memory can be sufficiently impaired to cause memory disorder. Conceptions that restrict speech disorder to an impairment of communication are challenged.

  14. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; McAuliffe, Michael; Haber, Graham

    2013-01-01

    This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  15. Can mergers-in-progress be unmerged in speech accommodation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly eBabel

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines spontaneous phonetic accommodation of a dialect with distinct categories by speakers who are in the process of merging those categories. We focus on the merger of the NEAR and SQUARE lexical sets in New Zealand English, presenting New Zealand participants with an unmerged speaker of Australian English. Mergers-in-progress are a uniquely interesting sound change as they showcase the asymmetry between speech perception and production. Yet, we examine mergers using spontaneous phonetic imitation, which is phenomenon that is necessarily a behavior where perceptual input influences speech production. Phonetic imitation is quantified by a perceptual measure and an acoustic calculation of mergedness using a Pillai-Bartlett trace. The results from both analyses indicate spontaneous phonetic imitation is moderated by extra-linguistic factors such as the valence of assigned conditions and social bias. We also find evidence for a decrease in the degree of mergedness in post-exposure productions. Taken together, our results suggest that under the appropriate conditions New Zealanders phonetically accommodate to Australian English and that in the process of speech imitation, mergers-in-progress can, but do not consistently, become less merged.

  16. Emotion Estimation in Speech Using a 3D Emotion Space Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Grimm, Michael; Kroschel, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we discussed the recognition of emotions in spontaneous speech. We used a general framework motivated by emotion psychology to describe emotions by means of three emotion "primitives" (attributes), namely valence, activation, and dominance. With these emotion primitives, we proposed a real-valued three-dimensional emotion space concept to overcome the limitations in the state-of-the-art emotion categorization. We tested the method on the basis of 893 spontaneous emotional utte...

  17. Spontaneous healing of spontaneous coronary artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almafragi, Amar; Convens, Carl; Heuvel, Paul Van Den

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a rare cause of acute coronary syndrome and sudden cardiac death. It should be suspected in every healthy young woman without cardiac risk factors, especially during the peripartum or postpartum periods. It is important to check for a history of drug abuse, collagen vascular disease or blunt trauma of the chest. Coronary angiography is essential for diagnosis and early management. We wonder whether thrombolysis might aggravate coronary dissection. All types of treatment (medical therapy, percutaneous intervention or surgery) improve the prognosis without affecting survival times if used appropriately according to the clinical stability and the angiographic features of the involved coronary arteries. Prompt recognition and targeted treatment improve outcomes. We report a case of SCAD in a young female free of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, who presented six hours after thrombolysis for ST elevation myocardial infarction. Coronary angiography showed a dissection of the left anterior descending and immediate branch. She had successful coronary artery bypass grafting, with complete healing of left anterior descending dissection.

  18. Spontaneous regression of intracranial malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Tokutomi, Takashi; Eguchi, Gihachirou; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Tomie; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.

    1988-01-01

    In a 46-year-old female with a 1-month history of gait and speech disturbances, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated mass lesions of slightly high density in the left basal ganglia and left frontal lobe. The lesions were markedly enhanced by contrast medium. The patient received no specific treatment, but her clinical manifestations gradually abated and the lesions decreased in size. Five months after her initial examination, the lesions were absent on CT scans; only a small area of low density remained. Residual clinical symptoms included mild right hemiparesis and aphasia. After 14 months the patient again deteriorated, and a CT scan revealed mass lesions in the right frontal lobe and the pons. However, no enhancement was observed in the previously affected regions. A biopsy revealed malignant lymphoma. Despite treatment with steroids and radiation, the patient's clinical status progressively worsened and she died 27 months after initial presentation. Seven other cases of spontaneous regression of primary malignant lymphoma have been reported. In this case, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression was not clear, but changes in immunologic status may have been involved. (author)

  19. Computer-based speech therapy for childhood speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, Lisa; Erickson, Shane; Morris, Meg E

    2017-07-01

    With the current worldwide workforce shortage of Speech-Language Pathologists, new and innovative ways of delivering therapy to children with speech sound disorders are needed. Computer-based speech therapy may be an effective and viable means of addressing service access issues for children with speech sound disorders. To evaluate the efficacy of computer-based speech therapy programs for children with speech sound disorders. Studies reporting the efficacy of computer-based speech therapy programs were identified via a systematic, computerised database search. Key study characteristics, results, main findings and details of computer-based speech therapy programs were extracted. The methodological quality was evaluated using a structured critical appraisal tool. 14 studies were identified and a total of 11 computer-based speech therapy programs were evaluated. The results showed that computer-based speech therapy is associated with positive clinical changes for some children with speech sound disorders. There is a need for collaborative research between computer engineers and clinicians, particularly during the design and development of computer-based speech therapy programs. Evaluation using rigorous experimental designs is required to understand the benefits of computer-based speech therapy. The reader will be able to 1) discuss how computerbased speech therapy has the potential to improve service access for children with speech sound disorders, 2) explain the ways in which computer-based speech therapy programs may enhance traditional tabletop therapy and 3) compare the features of computer-based speech therapy programs designed for different client populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Speech processing system demonstrated by positron emission tomography (PET). A review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Shigeru; Naito, Yasushi; Kojima, Hisayoshi

    1996-01-01

    We review the literature on speech processing in the central nervous system as demonstrated by positron emission tomography (PET). Activation study using PET has been proved to be a useful and non-invasive method of investigating the speech processing system in normal subjects. In speech recognition, the auditory association areas and lexico-semantic areas called Wernicke's area play important roles. Broca's area, motor areas, supplementary motor cortices and the prefrontal area have been proved to be related to speech output. Visual speech stimulation activates not only the visual association areas but also the temporal region and prefrontal area, especially in lexico-semantic processing. Higher level speech processing, such as conversation which includes auditory processing, vocalization and thinking, activates broad areas in both hemispheres. This paper also discusses problems to be resolved in the future. (author) 42 refs

  1. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  2. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  3. Indonesian Text-To-Speech System Using Diphone Concatenative Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the design and develop a database of Indonesian diphone synthesis using speech segment of recorded voice to be converted from text to speech and save it as audio file like WAV or MP3. In designing and develop a database of Indonesian diphone there are several steps to follow; First, developed Diphone database includes: create a list of sample of words consisting of diphones organized by prioritizing looking diphone located in the middle of a word if not at the beginning or end; recording the samples of words by segmentation. ;create diphones made with a tool Diphone Studio 1.3. Second, develop system using Microsoft Visual Delphi 6.0, includes: the conversion system from the input of numbers, acronyms, words, and sentences into representations diphone. There are two kinds of conversion (process alleged in analyzing the Indonesian text-to-speech system. One is to convert the text to be sounded to phonem and two, to convert the phonem to speech. Method used in this research is called Diphone Concatenative synthesis, in which recorded sound segments are collected. Every segment consists of a diphone (2 phonems. This synthesizer may produce voice with high level of naturalness. The Indonesian Text to Speech system can differentiate special phonemes like in ‘Beda’ and ‘Bedak’ but sample of other spesific words is necessary to put into the system. This Indonesia TTS system can handle texts with abbreviation, there is the facility to add such words.

  4. Speech Alarms Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandor, A.; Moses, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Currently on the International Space Station (ISS) and other space vehicles Caution & Warning (C&W) alerts are represented with various auditory tones that correspond to the type of event. This system relies on the crew's ability to remember what each tone represents in a high stress, high workload environment when responding to the alert. Furthermore, crew receive a year or more in advance of the mission that makes remembering the semantic meaning of the alerts more difficult. The current system works for missions conducted close to Earth where ground operators can assist as needed. On long duration missions, however, they will need to work off-nominal events autonomously. There is evidence that speech alarms may be easier and faster to recognize, especially during an off-nominal event. The Information Presentation Directed Research Project (FY07-FY09) funded by the Human Research Program included several studies investigating C&W alerts. The studies evaluated tone alerts currently in use with NASA flight deck displays along with candidate speech alerts. A follow-on study used four types of speech alerts to investigate how quickly various types of auditory alerts with and without a speech component - either at the beginning or at the end of the tone - can be identified. Even though crew were familiar with the tone alert from training or direct mission experience, alerts starting with a speech component were identified faster than alerts starting with a tone. The current study replicated the results from the previous study in a more rigorous experimental design to determine if the candidate speech alarms are ready for transition to operations or if more research is needed. Four types of alarms (caution, warning, fire, and depressurization) were presented to participants in both tone and speech formats in laboratory settings and later in the Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA). In the laboratory study, the alerts were presented by software and participants were

  5. Intelligibility of speech of children with speech and sound disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Ivetac, Tina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine speech intelligibility of children with primary speech and sound disorders aged 3 to 6 years in everyday life. The research problem is based on the degree to which parents or guardians, immediate family members (sister, brother, grandparents), extended family members (aunt, uncle, cousin), child's friends, other acquaintances, child's teachers and strangers understand the speech of children with speech sound disorders. We examined whether the level ...

  6. Phenomenology of neutron-antineutron conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Susan; Yan, Xinshuai

    2018-03-01

    We consider the possibility of neutron-antineutron (n -n ¯ ) conversion, in which the change of a neutron into an antineutron is mediated by an external source, as can occur in a scattering process. We develop the connections between n -n ¯ conversion and n -n ¯ oscillation, in which a neutron spontaneously transforms into an antineutron, noting that if n -n ¯ oscillation occurs in a theory with baryon number minus lepton number (B-L) violation, then n -n ¯ conversion can occur also. We show how an experimental limit on n -n ¯ conversion could connect concretely to a limit on n -n ¯ oscillation, and vice versa, using effective field theory techniques and baryon matrix elements computed in the MIT bag model.

  7. Language modeling for automatic speech recognition of inflective languages an applications-oriented approach using lexical data

    CERN Document Server

    Donaj, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    This book covers language modeling and automatic speech recognition for inflective languages (e.g. Slavic languages), which represent roughly half of the languages spoken in Europe. These languages do not perform as well as English in speech recognition systems and it is therefore harder to develop an application with sufficient quality for the end user. The authors describe the most important language features for the development of a speech recognition system. This is then presented through the analysis of errors in the system and the development of language models and their inclusion in speech recognition systems, which specifically address the errors that are relevant for targeted applications. The error analysis is done with regard to morphological characteristics of the word in the recognized sentences. The book is oriented towards speech recognition with large vocabularies and continuous and even spontaneous speech. Today such applications work with a rather small number of languages compared to the nu...

  8. A Technique for Estimating Intensity of Emotional Expressions and Speaking Styles in Speech Based on Multiple-Regression HSMM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose, Takashi; Kobayashi, Takao

    In this paper, we propose a technique for estimating the degree or intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles appearing in speech. The key idea is based on a style control technique for speech synthesis using a multiple regression hidden semi-Markov model (MRHSMM), and the proposed technique can be viewed as the inverse of the style control. In the proposed technique, the acoustic features of spectrum, power, fundamental frequency, and duration are simultaneously modeled using the MRHSMM. We derive an algorithm for estimating explanatory variables of the MRHSMM, each of which represents the degree or intensity of emotional expressions and speaking styles appearing in acoustic features of speech, based on a maximum likelihood criterion. We show experimental results to demonstrate the ability of the proposed technique using two types of speech data, simulated emotional speech and spontaneous speech with different speaking styles. It is found that the estimated values have correlation with human perception.

  9. Why Go to Speech Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Language Pathologists Physicians Employers Tweet Why Go To Speech Therapy? Parents of Preschoolers Parents of School-Age ... amount of success to be expected. Choosing a Speech-Language Pathologist The key to success with any ...

  10. Tackling the complexity in speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    section includes four carefully selected chapters. They deal with facets of speech production, speech acoustics, and/or speech perception or recognition, place them in an integrated phonetic-phonological perspective, and relate them in more or less explicit ways to aspects of speech technology. Therefore......, we hope that this volume can help speech scientists with traditional training in phonetics and phonology to keep up with the latest developments in speech technology. In the opposite direction, speech researchers starting from a technological perspective will hopefully get inspired by reading about...... the questions, phenomena, and communicative functions that are currently addressed in phonetics and phonology. Either way, the future of speech research lies in international, interdisciplinary collaborations, and our volume is meant to reflect and facilitate such collaborations...

  11. Maria Montessori on Speech Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David A.

    1973-01-01

    Montessori's theory of education, as related to speech communication skills learning, is explored for insights into speech and language acquisition, pedagogical procedure for teaching spoken vocabulary, and the educational environment which encourages children's free interaction and confidence in communication. (CH)

  12. Speech spectrogram expert

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johannsen, J.; Macallister, J.; Michalek, T.; Ross, S.

    1983-01-01

    Various authors have pointed out that humans can become quite adept at deriving phonetic transcriptions from speech spectrograms (as good as 90percent accuracy at the phoneme level). The authors describe an expert system which attempts to simulate this performance. The speech spectrogram expert (spex) is actually a society made up of three experts: a 2-dimensional vision expert, an acoustic-phonetic expert, and a phonetics expert. The visual reasoning expert finds important visual features of the spectrogram. The acoustic-phonetic expert reasons about how visual features relates to phonemes, and about how phonemes change visually in different contexts. The phonetics expert reasons about allowable phoneme sequences and transformations, and deduces an english spelling for phoneme strings. The speech spectrogram expert is highly interactive, allowing users to investigate hypotheses and edit rules. 10 references.

  13. RECOGNISING SPEECH ACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phyllis Kaburise

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Speech Act Theory (SAT, a theory in pragmatics, is an attempt to describe what happens during linguistic interactions. Inherent within SAT is the idea that language forms and intentions are relatively formulaic and that there is a direct correspondence between sentence forms (for example, in terms of structure and lexicon and the function or meaning of an utterance. The contention offered in this paper is that when such a correspondence does not exist, as in indirect speech utterances, this creates challenges for English second language speakers and may result in miscommunication. This arises because indirect speech acts allow speakers to employ various pragmatic devices such as inference, implicature, presuppositions and context clues to transmit their messages. Such devices, operating within the non-literal level of language competence, may pose challenges for ESL learners.

  14. The Effect of Clear Speech on Temporal Metrics of Rhythm in Spanish-Accented Speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Alison; Ferguson, Sarah Hargus; Akhund, Ali; Moeyaert, Mariola

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of temporal rhythm in native American English talkers and Spanish-accented English talkers producing clear (hyperarticulated) speech and typical, conversational-style speech. Five acoustic measures of comparative vocalic and consonantal interval duration ("temporal metrics") were obtained from speech samples of 40 adult men and women (half native and half Spanish-accented talkers). In conversational-style speech, vocalic-based metrics differed significantly between native and Spanish-accented talkers, consistent with phonotactic differences between the two native languages. In clear speech, however, all metric values from the Spanish-accented talkers became more English-like and no longer differed significantly from those observed in the native English talkers. Post-hoc analysis revealed that native English talkers increased the duration of both weak and strong vowels in clear speech, whereas the Spanish-accented talkers increased the duration of strong vowels without changing the duration of weak vowels. Listener ease of understanding, as perceived by monolingual English speakers, was significantly improved in clear- compared with conversational-style speech for all talkers. The acoustic data help to explain the changes that result from use of clear speech in nonnative speakers. Together with the improved listener ease of understanding, these data strongly support the further exploration of clear speech as a clinical tool to improve prosody and hence, interpersonal communication, in nonnative speakers.

  15. The Nationwide Speech Project: A multi-talker multi-dialect speech corpus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clopper, Cynthia G.; Pisoni, David B.

    2004-05-01

    Most research on regional phonological variation relies on field recordings of interview speech. Recent research on the perception of dialect variation by naive listeners, however, has relied on read sentence materials in order to control for phonological and lexical content and syntax. The Nationwide Speech Project corpus was designed to obtain a large amount of speech from a number of talkers representing different regional varieties of American English. Five male and five female talkers from each of six different dialect regions in the United States were recorded reading isolated words, sentences, and passages, and in conversations with the experimenter. The talkers ranged in age from 18 and 25 years old and they were all monolingual native speakers of American English. They had lived their entire life in one dialect region and both of their parents were raised in the same region. Results of an acoustic analysis of the vowel spaces of the talkers included in the Nationwide Speech Project will be presented. [Work supported by NIH.

  16. The chairman's speech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The paper contains a transcript of a speech by the chairman of the UKAEA, to mark the publication of the 1985/6 annual report. The topics discussed in the speech include: the Chernobyl accident and its effect on public attitudes to nuclear power, management and disposal of radioactive waste, the operation of UKAEA as a trading fund, and the UKAEA development programmes. The development programmes include work on the following: fast reactor technology, thermal reactors, reactor safety, health and safety aspects of water cooled reactors, the Joint European Torus, and under-lying research. (U.K.)

  17. Designing speech for a recipient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Kerstin

    is investigated on three candidates for so-called ‘simplified registers’: speech to children (also called motherese or baby talk), speech to foreigners (also called foreigner talk) and speech to robots. The volume integrates research from various disciplines, such as psychology, sociolinguistics...

  18. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Information is carried in changes of a signal. The paper starts with revis- iting Dudley's concept of the carrier nature of speech. It points to its close connection to modulation spectra of speech and argues against short-term spectral envelopes as dominant carriers of the linguistic information in speech. The history of ...

  19. Speech Communication and Signal Processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Communicating with a machine in a natural mode such as speech brings out not only several technological challenges, but also limitations in our understanding of how people communicate so effortlessly. The key is to understand the distinction between speech processing (as is done in human communication) and speech ...

  20. Spontaneous Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan, Sameer K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A young man presented with a painful and swollen thigh, without any history of trauma, illness, coagulopathic medication or recent exertional exercise. Preliminary imaging delineated a haematoma in the anterior thigh, without any fractures or muscle trauma. Emergent fasciotomies were performed. No pathology could be identified intra-operatively, or on follow-up imaging. A review of thigh compartment syndromes described in literature is presented in a table. Emergency physicians and traumatologists should be cognisant of spontaneous atraumatic presentations of thigh compartment syndrome, to ensure prompt referral and definitive management of this limb-threatening condition. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:134-138].

  1. Ethnicity as Conversational Style. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 55.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannen, Deborah

    The relationship of one aspect of conversational style, the degree of directness in the sending and interpretation of messages, to ethnicity was investigated in a comparison of the communication styles of Greeks and Americans. It was hypothesized that Greeks tend to be more indirect in speech than Americans, and that English speakers of Greek…

  2. Gesturing through Time: Holds and Intermodal Timing in the Stream of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park-Doob, Mischa Alan

    2010-01-01

    Most previous work examining co-speech gestures (the spontaneous bodily movements and configurations we engage in during speaking) has emphasized the importance of their most "salient" or energetically expressive moments, known as gesture "strokes" (Kendon 1980). In contrast, in this dissertation I explore the potential functions of intervals of…

  3. Media Criticism Group Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, E. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To integrate speaking practice with rhetorical theory. Type of speech: Persuasive. Point value: 100 points (i.e., 30 points based on peer evaluations, 30 points based on individual performance, 40 points based on the group presentation), which is 25% of course grade. Requirements: (a) References: 7-10; (b) Length: 20-30 minutes; (c)…

  4. Expectations and speech intelligibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babel, Molly; Russell, Jamie

    2015-05-01

    Socio-indexical cues and paralinguistic information are often beneficial to speech processing as this information assists listeners in parsing the speech stream. Associations that particular populations speak in a certain speech style can, however, make it such that socio-indexical cues have a cost. In this study, native speakers of Canadian English who identify as Chinese Canadian and White Canadian read sentences that were presented to listeners in noise. Half of the sentences were presented with a visual-prime in the form of a photo of the speaker and half were presented in control trials with fixation crosses. Sentences produced by Chinese Canadians showed an intelligibility cost in the face-prime condition, whereas sentences produced by White Canadians did not. In an accentedness rating task, listeners rated White Canadians as less accented in the face-prime trials, but Chinese Canadians showed no such change in perceived accentedness. These results suggest a misalignment between an expected and an observed speech signal for the face-prime trials, which indicates that social information about a speaker can trigger linguistic associations that come with processing benefits and costs.

  5. Visualizing structures of speech expressiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Jensen, Karl Kristoffer; Graugaard, Lars

    2008-01-01

    vowels and consonants, and which converts the speech energy into visual particles that form complex visual structures, provides us with a mean to present the expressiveness of speech into a visual mode. This system is presented in an artwork whose scenario is inspired from the reasons of language......Speech is both beautiful and informative. In this work, a conceptual study of the speech, through investigation of the tower of Babel, the archetypal phonemes, and a study of the reasons of uses of language is undertaken in order to create an artistic work investigating the nature of speech...

  6. Brain-inspired speech segmentation for automatic speech recognition using the speech envelope as a temporal reference

    OpenAIRE

    Byeongwook Lee; Kwang-Hyun Cho

    2016-01-01

    Speech segmentation is a crucial step in automatic speech recognition because additional speech analyses are performed for each framed speech segment. Conventional segmentation techniques primarily segment speech using a fixed frame size for computational simplicity. However, this approach is insufficient for capturing the quasi-regular structure of speech, which causes substantial recognition failure in noisy environments. How does the brain handle quasi-regular structured speech and maintai...

  7. Acoustic Study of Acted Emotions in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong

    An extensive set of carefully recorded utterances provided a speech database for investigating acoustic correlates among eight emotional states. Four professional actors and four professional actresses simulated the emotional states of joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, sadness, hate, fear, and depression. The values of 14 acoustic parameters were extracted from analyses of the simulated portrayals. Normalization of the parameters was made to reduce the talker-dependence. Correlates of emotion were investigated by means of principal components analysis. Sadness and depression were found to be "ambiguous" with respect to each other, but "unique" with respect to joy and anger in the principal components space. Joy, conversation, nervousness, anger, hate, and fear did not separate well in the space and so exhibited ambiguity with respect to one another. The different talkers expressed joy, anger, sadness, and depression more consistently than the other four emotions. The analysis results were compared with the results of a subjective study using the same speech database and considerable consistency between the two was found.

  8. Representation of speech variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Tessa; Holt, Rachael F

    2017-07-01

    Speech signals provide both linguistic information (e.g., words and sentences) as well as information about the speaker who produced the message (i.e., social-indexical information). Listeners store highly detailed representations of these speech signals, which are simultaneously indexed with linguistic and social category membership. A variety of methodologies-forced-choice categorization, rating, and free classification-have shed light on listeners' cognitive-perceptual representations of the social-indexical information present in the speech signal. Specifically, listeners can accurately identify some talker characteristics, including native language status, approximate age, sex, and gender. Additionally, listeners have sensitivity to other speaker characteristics-such as sexual orientation, regional dialect, native language for non-native speakers, race, and ethnicity-but listeners tend to be less accurate or more variable at categorizing or rating speakers based on these constructs. However, studies have not necessarily incorporated more recent conceptions of these constructs (e.g., separating listeners' perceptions of race vs ethnicity) or speakers who do not fit squarely into specific categories (e.g., for sex perception, intersex individuals; for gender perception, genderqueer speakers; for race perception, multiracial speakers). Additional research on how the intersections of social-indexical categories influence speech perception is also needed. As the field moves forward, scholars from a variety of disciplines should be incorporated into investigations of how listeners' extract and represent facets of personal identity from speech. Further, the impact of these representations on our interactions with one another in contexts outside of the laboratory should continue to be explored. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1434. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1434 This article is categorized under: Linguistics > Language Acquisition Linguistics > Language in Mind and Brain Psychology

  9. Nobel peace speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FRYE

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nobel Peace Prize has long been considered the premier peace prize in the world. According to Geir Lundestad, Secretary of the Nobel Committee, of the 300 some peace prizes awarded worldwide, “none is in any way as well known and as highly respected as the Nobel Peace Prize” (Lundestad, 2001. Nobel peace speech is a unique and significant international site of public discourse committed to articulating the universal grammar of peace. Spanning over 100 years of sociopolitical history on the world stage, Nobel Peace Laureates richly represent an important cross-section of domestic and international issues increasingly germane to many publics. Communication scholars’ interest in this rhetorical genre has increased in the past decade. Yet, the norm has been to analyze a single speech artifact from a prestigious or controversial winner rather than examine the collection of speeches for generic commonalities of import. In this essay, we analyze the discourse of Nobel peace speech inductively and argue that the organizing principle of the Nobel peace speech genre is the repetitive form of normative liberal principles and values that function as rhetorical topoi. These topoi include freedom and justice and appeal to the inviolable, inborn right of human beings to exercise certain political and civil liberties and the expectation of equality of protection from totalitarian and tyrannical abuses. The significance of this essay to contemporary communication theory is to expand our theoretical understanding of rhetoric’s role in the maintenance and development of an international and cross-cultural vocabulary for the grammar of peace.

  10. Speech and the right hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, E M

    1991-01-01

    Two facts are well recognized: the location of the speech centre with respect to handedness and early brain damage, and the involvement of the right hemisphere in certain cognitive functions including verbal humour, metaphor interpretation, spatial reasoning and abstract concepts. The importance of the right hemisphere in speech is suggested by pathological studies, blood flow parameters and analysis of learning strategies. An insult to the right hemisphere following left hemisphere damage can affect residual language abilities and may activate non-propositional inner speech. The prosody of speech comprehension even more so than of speech production-identifying the voice, its affective components, gestural interpretation and monitoring one's own speech-may be an essentially right hemisphere task. Errors of a visuospatial type may occur in the learning process. Ease of learning by actors and when learning foreign languages is achieved by marrying speech with gesture and intonation, thereby adopting a right hemisphere strategy.

  11. Metaheuristic applications to speech enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Kunche, Prajna

    2016-01-01

    This book serves as a basic reference for those interested in the application of metaheuristics to speech enhancement. The major goal of the book is to explain the basic concepts of optimization methods and their use in heuristic optimization in speech enhancement to scientists, practicing engineers, and academic researchers in speech processing. The authors discuss why it has been a challenging problem for researchers to develop new enhancement algorithms that aid in the quality and intelligibility of degraded speech. They present powerful optimization methods to speech enhancement that can help to solve the noise reduction problems. Readers will be able to understand the fundamentals of speech processing as well as the optimization techniques, how the speech enhancement algorithms are implemented by utilizing optimization methods, and will be given the tools to develop new algorithms. The authors also provide a comprehensive literature survey regarding the topic.

  12. Relationship between speech motor control and speech intelligibility in children with speech sound disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind Kumar; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Yu, Vickie Y; Kadis, Darren S; Kroll, Robert; Pang, Elizabeth W; De Nil, Luc F

    2013-01-01

    The current study was undertaken to investigate the impact of speech motor issues on the speech intelligibility of children with moderate to severe speech sound disorders (SSD) within the context of the PROMPT intervention approach. The word-level Children's Speech Intelligibility Measure (CSIM), the sentence-level Beginner's Intelligibility Test (BIT) and tests of speech motor control and articulation proficiency were administered to 12 children (3:11 to 6:7 years) before and after PROMPT therapy. PROMPT treatment was provided for 45 min twice a week for 8 weeks. Twenty-four naïve adult listeners aged 22-46 years judged the intelligibility of the words and sentences. For CSIM, each time a recorded word was played to the listeners they were asked to look at a list of 12 words (multiple-choice format) and circle the word while for BIT sentences, the listeners were asked to write down everything they heard. Words correctly circled (CSIM) or transcribed (BIT) were averaged across three naïve judges to calculate percentage speech intelligibility. Speech intelligibility at both the word and sentence level was significantly correlated with speech motor control, but not articulatory proficiency. Further, the severity of speech motor planning and sequencing issues may potentially be a limiting factor in connected speech intelligibility and highlights the need to target these issues early and directly in treatment. The reader will be able to: (1) outline the advantages and disadvantages of using word- and sentence-level speech intelligibility tests; (2) describe the impact of speech motor control and articulatory proficiency on speech intelligibility; and (3) describe how speech motor control and speech intelligibility data may provide critical information to aid treatment planning. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Measuring word complexity in speech screening: single-word sampling to identify phonological delay/disorder in preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carolyn; Cohen, Wendy

    2012-01-01

    Children's speech sound development is assessed by comparing speech production with the typical development of speech sounds based on a child's age and developmental profile. One widely used method of sampling is to elicit a single-word sample along with connected speech. Words produced spontaneously rather than imitated may give a more accurate indication of a child's speech development. A published word complexity measure can be used to score later-developing speech sounds and more complex word patterns. There is a need for a screening word list that is quick to administer and reliably differentiates children with typically developing speech from children with patterns of delayed/disordered speech. To identify a short word list based on word complexity that could be spontaneously named by most typically developing children aged 3;00-5;05 years. One hundred and five children aged between 3;00 and 5;05 years from three local authority nursery schools took part in the study. Items from a published speech assessment were modified and extended to include a range of phonemic targets in different word positions in 78 monosyllabic and polysyllabic words. The 78 words were ranked both by phonemic/phonetic complexity as measured by word complexity and by ease of spontaneous production. The ten most complex words (hereafter Triage 10) were named spontaneously by more than 90% of the children. There was no significant difference between the complexity measures for five identified age groups when the data were examined in 6-month groups. A qualitative analysis revealed eight children with profiles of phonological delay or disorder. When these children were considered separately, there was a statistically significant difference (p speech from those with delayed or disordered speech patterns. The Triage 10 words can be used as a screening tool for triage and general assessment and have the potential to monitor progress during intervention. Further testing is being undertaken to

  14. Conversation, Development, and Gender: A Study of Changes in Children's Concepts of Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Patrick J.; Bjornberg, Marina

    2010-01-01

    One hundred thirty-three children, average age 9.58 years, were read vignettes describing a moral transgression and then discussed what would constitute a fair punishment. Children's gender influenced conversation dynamics (use of interruption and other simultaneous speech) but not conversation content (justifications for judgments). All children…

  15. Assessment of speech intelligibility in background noise and reverberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    impairment. In this thesis, two sentence-based tests for speech intelligibility in Danish were developed. The first test is the Conversational Language Understanding Evaluation (CLUE), which is based on the principles of the original American-English Hearing in Noise Test (HINT). The second test...... is a modified version of CLUE where the speech material and the scoring rules have been reconsidered. An extensive validation of the modified test was conducted with both normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. The validation showed that the test produces reliable results for both groups of listeners....... An important deviation between the two new tests and the original HINT is a new procedure used for equalizing the intelligibility of the speech material during the development process. This procedure produces more accurately equalized sentences than achieved with the original HINT procedure. This study also...

  16. Towards personalized speech synthesis for augmentative and alternative communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Timothy; Bunnell, H Timothy; Patel, Rupal

    2014-09-01

    Text-to-speech options on augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices are limited. Often, several individuals in a group setting use the same synthetic voice. This lack of customization may limit technology adoption and social integration. This paper describes our efforts to generate personalized synthesis for users with profoundly limited speech motor control. Existing voice banking and voice conversion techniques rely on recordings of clearly articulated speech from the target talker, which cannot be obtained from this population. Our VocaliD approach extracts prosodic properties from the target talker's source function and applies these features to a surrogate talker's database, generating a synthetic voice with the vocal identity of the target talker and the clarity of the surrogate talker. Promising intelligibility results suggest areas of further development for improved personalization.

  17. Memory for speech and voice identity in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Flavie A V; Badcock, Johanna C

    2009-12-01

    Memories of conversations are composed of what was said (speech content) and information about the speaker's voice (speaker identity). In the current study, we examined whether patients with schizophrenia would show difficulties integrating speech content and speaker identity in memory, as measured in a gender-identity (male/female) recognition task. Forty-one patients and a comparison group of 20 healthy controls took part in the study. In contrast to controls, patients demonstrated greater impairments in memory for female, but not male, voices. These results are consistent with studies of speech perception that show that female voices have more complex "vocal" characteristics and require greater integration compared with male voices, and with the context memory hypothesis of schizophrenia which suggests that memory binding impairments may result in degraded or incomplete representations of memory traces as the task requirements become increasing complex.

  18. Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joash, Dr.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology is not only rare but an important cause of new daily persistent headaches among young & middle age individuals. The Etiology & Pathogenesis is generally caused by spinal CSF leak. Precise cause remains largely unknown, underlying structural weakness of spinal meninges is suspected. There are several MR Signs of Intracranial Hypotension that include:- diffuse pachymeningeal (dural) enhancement; bilateral subdural, effusion/hematomas; Downward displacement of brain; enlargement of pituitary gland; Engorgement of dural venous sinuses; prominence of spinal epidural venous plexus and Venous sinus thrombosis & isolated cortical vein thrombosis. The sum of volumes of intracranial blood, CSF & cerebral tissue must remain constant in an intact cranium. Treatment in Many cases can be resolved spontaneously or by use Conservative approach that include bed rest, oral hydration, caffeine intake and use of abdominal binder. Imaging Modalities for Detection of CSF leakage include CT myelography, Radioisotope cisternography, MR myelography, MR imaging and Intrathecal Gd-enhanced MR

  19. Spontaneous wave packet reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghirardi, G.C.

    1994-06-01

    There are taken into account the main conceptual difficulties met by standard quantum mechanics in dealing with physical processes involving macroscopic system. It is stressed how J.A.Wheeler's remarks and lucid analysis have been relevant to pinpoint and to bring to its extreme consequences the puzzling aspects of quantum phenomena. It is shown how the recently proposed models of spontaneous dynamical reduction represent a consistent way to overcome the conceptual difficulties of the standard theory. Obviously, many nontrivial problems remain open, the first and more relevant one being that of generalizing the model theories considered to the relativistic case. This is the challenge of the dynamical reduction program. 43 refs, 2 figs

  20. Are individuals with Parkinson's disease capable of speech-motor learning? - A preliminary evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaipa, Ramesh; Jones, Richard D; Robb, Michael P

    2016-07-01

    The benefits of different practice conditions in limb-based rehabilitation of motor disorders are well documented. Conversely, the role of practice structure in the treatment of motor-based speech disorders has only been minimally investigated. Considering this limitation, the current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of selected practice conditions in spatial and temporal learning of novel speech utterances in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Participants included 16 individuals with PD who were randomly and equally assigned to constant, variable, random, and blocked practice conditions. Participants in all four groups practiced a speech phrase for two consecutive days, and reproduced the speech phrase on the third day without further practice or feedback. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between participants across the four practice conditions with respect to either spatial or temporal learning of the speech phrase. Overall, PD participants demonstrated diminished spatial and temporal learning in comparison to healthy controls. Tests of strength of association between participants' demographic/clinical characteristics and speech-motor learning outcomes did not reveal any significant correlations. The findings from the current study suggest that repeated practice facilitates speech-motor learning in individuals with PD irrespective of the type of practice. Clinicians need to be cautious in applying practice conditions to treat speech deficits associated with PD based on the findings of non-speech-motor learning tasks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of speech distortion on the excitability of articulatory motor cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Helen E; Kennedy-Higgins, Daniel; Hogan, John; Devlin, Joseph T; Adank, Patti

    2016-03-01

    It has become increasingly evident that human motor circuits are active during speech perception. However, the conditions under which the motor system modulates speech perception are not clear. Two prominent accounts make distinct predictions for how listening to speech engages speech motor representations. The first account suggests that the motor system is most strongly activated when observing familiar actions (Pickering and Garrod, 2013). Conversely, Wilson and Knoblich's account asserts that motor excitability is greatest when observing less familiar, ambiguous actions (Wilson and Knoblich, 2005). We investigated these predictions using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Stimulation of the lip and hand representations in the left primary motor cortex elicited motor evoked potentials (MEPs) indexing the excitability of the underlying motor representation. MEPs for lip, but not for hand, were larger during perception of distorted speech produced using a tongue depressor, relative to naturally produced speech. Additional somatotopic facilitation yielded significantly larger MEPs during perception of lip-articulated distorted speech sounds relative to distorted tongue-articulated sounds. Critically, there was a positive correlation between MEP size and the perception of distorted speech sounds. These findings were consistent with predictions made by Wilson & Knoblich (Wilson and Knoblich, 2005), and provide direct evidence of increased motor excitability when speech perception is difficult. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. General theory of spontaneous emission near exceptional points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pick, Adi; Zhen, Bo; Miller, Owen D; Hsu, Chia W; Hernandez, Felipe; Rodriguez, Alejandro W; Soljačić, Marin; Johnson, Steven G

    2017-05-29

    We present a general theory of spontaneous emission at exceptional points (EPs)-exotic degeneracies in non-Hermitian systems. Our theory extends beyond spontaneous emission to any light-matter interaction described by the local density of states (e.g., absorption, thermal emission, and nonlinear frequency conversion). Whereas traditional spontaneous-emission theories imply infinite enhancement factors at EPs, we derive finite bounds on the enhancement, proving maximum enhancement of 4 in passive systems with second-order EPs and significantly larger enhancements (exceeding 400×) in gain-aided and higher-order EP systems. In contrast to non-degenerate resonances, which are typically associated with Lorentzian emission curves in systems with low losses, EPs are associated with non-Lorentzian lineshapes, leading to enhancements that scale nonlinearly with the resonance quality factor. Our theory can be applied to dispersive media, with proper normalization of the resonant modes.

  3. Radial modal dependence of the azimuthal spectrum after parametric down-conversion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zhang, Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The radial degrees of freedom of the biphoton states that are produced in spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) in the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) basis are investigated, theoretically and experimentally. We calculated the theoretical azimuthal...

  4. Speech Motor Control in Fluent and Dysfluent Speech Production of an Individual with Apraxia of Speech and Broca's Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.; Bose, Arpita; Square, Paula A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2007-01-01

    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is typically described as a motor-speech disorder with clinically well-defined symptoms, but without a clear understanding of the underlying problems in motor control. A number of studies have compared the speech of subjects with AOS to the fluent speech of controls, but only a few have included speech movement data and if…

  5. The emergence of a partner-focused question in aided interaction. A case study of participation in conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilesjö, Maja Sigurd; Norén, Niklas

    of Conversation Analysis (CA) are utilized to examine an instance of interaction during which a speech and language therapist demonstrates how to ask a question using a communication board together with a child with severe physical and speech impairment and a moderate intellectual disability. The analysis shows...

  6. Population responses in primary auditory cortex simultaneously represent the temporal envelope and periodicity features in natural speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel A; Nicol, Trent; White-Schwoch, Travis; Zecker, Steven; Kraus, Nina

    2017-05-01

    Speech perception relies on a listener's ability to simultaneously resolve multiple temporal features in the speech signal. Little is known regarding neural mechanisms that enable the simultaneous coding of concurrent temporal features in speech. Here we show that two categories of temporal features in speech, the low-frequency speech envelope and periodicity cues, are processed by distinct neural mechanisms within the same population of cortical neurons. We measured population activity in primary auditory cortex of anesthetized guinea pig in response to three variants of a naturally produced sentence. Results show that the envelope of population responses closely tracks the speech envelope, and this cortical activity more closely reflects wider bandwidths of the speech envelope compared to narrow bands. Additionally, neuronal populations represent the fundamental frequency of speech robustly with phase-locked responses. Importantly, these two temporal features of speech are simultaneously observed within neuronal ensembles in auditory cortex in response to clear, conversation, and compressed speech exemplars. Results show that auditory cortical neurons are adept at simultaneously resolving multiple temporal features in extended speech sentences using discrete coding mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective spatial attention modulates bottom-up informational masking of speech

    OpenAIRE

    Carlile, Simon; Corkhill, Caitlin

    2015-01-01

    To hear out a conversation against other talkers listeners overcome energetic and informational masking. Largely attributed to top-down processes, information masking has also been demonstrated using unintelligible speech and amplitude-modulated maskers suggesting bottom-up processes. We examined the role of speech-like amplitude modulations in information masking using a spatial masking release paradigm. Separating a target talker from two masker talkers produced a 20?dB improvement in speec...

  8. Predicting automatic speech recognition performance over communication channels from instrumental speech quality and intelligibility scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallardo, L.F.; Möller, S.; Beerends, J.

    2017-01-01

    The performance of automatic speech recognition based on coded-decoded speech heavily depends on the quality of the transmitted signals, determined by channel impairments. This paper examines relationships between speech recognition performance and measurements of speech quality and intelligibility

  9. Spontaneous compactification to homogeneous spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourao, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The spontaneous compactification of extra dimensions to compact homogeneous spaces is studied. The methods developed within the framework of coset space dimensional reduction scheme and the most general form of invariant metrics are used to find solutions of spontaneous compactification equations

  10. Screening for spontaneous preterm birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Os, M.A.; van Dam, A.J.E.M.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. In this thesis studies on spontaneous preterm birth are presented. The main objective was to investigate the predictive capacity of mid-trimester cervical length measurement for spontaneous preterm birth in a

  11. Sensorimotor Interactions in Speech Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M Shiller

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Auditory input is essential for normal speech development and plays a key role in speech production throughout the life span. In traditional models, auditory input plays two critical roles: 1 establishing the acoustic correlates of speech sounds that serve, in part, as the targets of speech production, and 2 as a source of feedback about a talker's own speech outcomes. This talk will focus on both of these roles, describing a series of studies that examine the capacity of children and adults to adapt to real-time manipulations of auditory feedback during speech production. In one study, we examined sensory and motor adaptation to a manipulation of auditory feedback during production of the fricative “s”. In contrast to prior accounts, adaptive changes were observed not only in speech motor output but also in subjects' perception of the sound. In a second study, speech adaptation was examined following a period of auditory–perceptual training targeting the perception of vowels. The perceptual training was found to systematically improve subjects' motor adaptation response to altered auditory feedback during speech production. The results of both studies support the idea that perceptual and motor processes are tightly coupled in speech production learning, and that the degree and nature of this coupling may change with development.

  12. Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Erik

    2007-01-01

    research -for example investigations of loudness perception in hearing impaired listeners. Most research has been focused on speech and sounds at medium input-levels (e.g., 60-65 dB SPL). It is well documented that for speech at conversational levels, hearing aid-users prefer the signal to be amplified......, such prescriptions are based mainly on logic, as there is limited evidence on what type of amplification is best for these input-levels. The focus of the PhD-project has been on hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals. Previous research, investigating the preferred listening levels for soft and loud......Hearing aid processing of loud speech and noise signals: Consequences for loudness perception and listening comfort. Sound processing in hearing aids is determined by the fitting rule. The fitting rule describes how the hearing aid should amplify speech and sounds in the surroundings...

  13. Speech is Golden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Danish municipalities are ready to begin to adopt automatic speech recognition, but at the same time remain nervous following a long series of bad business cases in the recent past. Complaints are voiced over costly licences and low service levels, typical effects of a de facto monopoly...... on the supply side. The present article reports on a new public action strategy which has taken shape in the course of 2013-14. While Denmark is a small language area, our public sector is well organised and has considerable purchasing power. Across this past year, Danish local authorities have organised around...... the speech technology challenge, they have formulated a number of joint questions and new requirements to be met by suppliers and have deliberately worked towards formulating tendering material which will allow fair competition. Public researchers have contributed to this work, including the author...

  14. Speech is Golden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Henrichsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    on the supply side. The present article reports on a new public action strategy which has taken shape in the course of 2013-14. While Denmark is a small language area, our public sector is well organised and has considerable purchasing power. Across this past year, Danish local authorities have organised around...... the speech technology challenge, they have formulated a number of joint questions and new requirements to be met by suppliers and have deliberately worked towards formulating tendering material which will allow fair competition. Public researchers have contributed to this work, including the author...... of the present article, in the role of economically neutral advisers. The aim of the initiative is to pave the way for the first profitable contract in the field - which we hope to see in 2014 - an event which would precisely break the present deadlock and open up a billion EUR market for speech technology...

  15. Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum: Hamman Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushank Chadha, BS

    2018-04-01

    significant fat stranding. The image also showed an intraluminal stent traversing the gastric antrum and gastric pylorus with no indication of obstruction. Circumferential mural thickening of the gastric antrum and body were consistent with the patient’s history of gastric adenocarcinoma. The shotty perigastric lymph nodes with associated fat stranding, along the greater curvature of the distal gastric body suggested local regional nodal metastases and possible peritoneal carcinomatosis. The thoracic CT scans showed extensive pneumomediastinum that tracked into the soft tissues of the neck, which given the history of vomiting also raised concern for esophageal perforation. There was still no evidence of mediastinal abscess or fat stranding. Additionally, a left subclavian vein port catheter, which terminates with tip at the cavoatrial junction of the superior vena cava can also be seen on the image. Discussion: Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum, also known as Hamman syndrome, is defined by the uncommon incidence of free air in the mediastinum due to the bursting of alveoli, as a result of extended spells of shouting, coughing, or vomiting.1,2 The condition is diagnosed when a clear cause (aerodigestive rupture, barotrauma, infection secondary to gas-forming organisms3 for pneumomediastinum cannot be clearly identified on diagnostic studies. Macklin and Macklin were the first to note the pathogenesis of the syndrome and explained that the common denominator to spontaneous pneumomediastinum was that increased alveolar pressure leads to alveolar rupture.3 Common clinical findings for spontaneous pneumomediastinum include: chest pain, dyspnea, cough, and emesis.4 The condition is not always readily recognized on initial presentation in part for its rare incidence, estimated to be approximately 1 in every 44,500 ED patients3and also because of the non-specific presenting symptoms. For this patient, there was no clear singular cause, and therefore she received care for spontaneous

  16. Multilevel Analysis in Analyzing Speech Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddattu, Vasudeva; Krishna, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The speech produced by human vocal tract is a complex acoustic signal, with diverse applications in phonetics, speech synthesis, automatic speech recognition, speaker identification, communication aids, speech pathology, speech perception, machine translation, hearing research, rehabilitation and assessment of communication disorders and many…

  17. Speech and voice rehabilitation in selected patients fitted with a bone anchored hearing aid (BAHA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J

    1996-01-01

    With the Birmingham osseointegrated implant programme there have been several patients with severe pre-lingual conductive hearing loss. The majority of these have been patients with Treacher Collins syndrome. There are characteristic features of speech and voice in those with long-standing conductive hearing loss. In addition, the associated abnormalities of jaw, teeth and palate may amplify the problem. There may be spontaneous improvement in features such as voice pitch, quality and intensity following the fitting of a BAHA. However, in those with a pre-lingual hearing impairment, speech therapy may be necessary. Patients assessed as suitable for BAHA have a full assessment of communication skills including audio recording of speech and voice. Post-operative training improves auditory discrimination and perception and is followed by training in the production of the newly perceived speech sounds.

  18. Accurate referential communication and its relation with private and social speech in a naturalistic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau, Dolors; Boada, Humbert

    2004-11-01

    Research into human communication has been grouped under two traditions: referential and sociolinguistic. The study of a communication behavior simultaneously from both paradigms appears to be absent. Basically, this paper analyzes the use of private and social speech, through both a referential task (Word Pairs) and a naturalistic dyadic setting (Lego-set) administered to a sample of 64 children from grades 3 and 5. All children, of 8 and 10 years of age, used speech that was not adapted to the decoder, and thus ineffective for interpersonal communication, in both referential and sociolinguistic communication. Pairs of high-skill referential encoders used significantly more task-relevant social speech, that is, cognitively more complex, than did low-skill dyads in the naturalistic context. High-skill referential encoder dyads showed a trend to produce more inaudible private speech than did low-skill ones during spontaneous communication. Gender did not affect the results.

  19. Neurophysiology of Speech Differences in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L.; Molfese, Peter J.; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes. PMID:25090016

  20. IBM MASTOR SYSTEM: Multilingual Automatic Speech-to-speech Translator

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Yuqing; Gu, Liang; Zhou, Bowen; Sarikaya, Ruhi; Afify, Mohamed; Kuo, Hong-Kwang; Zhu, Wei-zhong; Deng, Yonggang; Prosser, Charles; Zhang, Wei

    2006-01-01

    .... Challenges include speech recognition and machine translation in adverse environments, lack of training data and linguistic resources for under-studied languages, and the need to rapidly develop...

  1. [Improving speech comprehension using a new cochlear implant speech processor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Deile, J; Kortmann, T; Hoppe, U; Hessel, H; Morsnowski, A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this multicenter clinical field study was to assess the benefits of the new Freedom 24 sound processor for cochlear implant (CI) users implanted with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant system. The study included 48 postlingually profoundly deaf experienced CI users who demonstrated speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor on the Oldenburg sentence test (OLSA) in quiet conditions of at least 80% correct scores and who were able to perform adaptive speech threshold testing using the OLSA in noisy conditions. Following baseline measures of speech comprehension performance with their current speech processor, subjects were upgraded to the Freedom 24 speech processor. After a take-home trial period of at least 2 weeks, subject performance was evaluated by measuring the speech reception threshold with the Freiburg multisyllabic word test and speech intelligibility with the Freiburg monosyllabic word test at 50 dB and 70 dB in the sound field. The results demonstrated highly significant benefits for speech comprehension with the new speech processor. Significant benefits for speech comprehension were also demonstrated with the new speech processor when tested in competing background noise.In contrast, use of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (APHAB) did not prove to be a suitably sensitive assessment tool for comparative subjective self-assessment of hearing benefits with each processor. Use of the preprocessing algorithm known as adaptive dynamic range optimization (ADRO) in the Freedom 24 led to additional improvements over the standard upgrade map for speech comprehension in quiet and showed equivalent performance in noise. Through use of the preprocessing beam-forming algorithm BEAM, subjects demonstrated a highly significant improved signal-to-noise ratio for speech comprehension thresholds (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio for 50% speech comprehension scores) when tested with an adaptive procedure using the Oldenburg

  2. Neurophysiology of speech differences in childhood apraxia of speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Jonathan L; Molfese, Peter J; Gumkowski, Nina; Sorcinelli, Andrea; Harwood, Vanessa; Irwin, Julia R; Landi, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a picture naming task of simple and complex words in children with typical speech and with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). Results reveal reduced amplitude prior to speaking complex (multisyllabic) words relative to simple (monosyllabic) words for the CAS group over the right hemisphere during a time window thought to reflect phonological encoding of word forms. Group differences were also observed prior to production of spoken tokens regardless of word complexity during a time window just prior to speech onset (thought to reflect motor planning/programming). Results suggest differences in pre-speech neurolinguistic processes.

  3. The effect of vowel height on Voice Onset Time in stop consonants in CV sequences in spontaneous Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Johannes; Tøndering, John

    2013-01-01

    Voice onset time has been reported to vary with the height of vowels following the stop consonant. This paper investigates the effects of vowel height on VOT in Danish CV sequences with stop consonants in Danish spontaneous speech. A significant effect of vowel height on VOT was found...

  4. The Effect of Loud Voice and Clear Speech on the Use of Vocal Fry in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Alison; Akhund, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of clear speech and loud voice on the use of vocal fry in women. Twenty healthy-voiced young women who used a moderate amount of vocal fry when reading aloud in conversational-style speech (defined as a minimum of three occurrences per sentence) also read the same stimuli in loud voice and clear speech. The occurrence of vocal fry was assessed in the three speaking styles. Intensity and fundamental frequency levels in each condition were obtained to help interpret the findings. A statistically significant reduction in the use of vocal fry was found in loud and clear conditions compared to conversational style. However, a significantly greater reduction in use of vocal fry was obtained in clear speech than in loud voice. The increased intensity and mean F0 in loud and clear speech only partially explain the decrease in use of vocal fry. Women who use vocal fry in typical speech may persist in its use when speaking more loudly, although not when speaking more clearly. Apparently, different phonatory strategies are used for the two speaking styles. Further research is needed to clarify the laryngeal dynamics of clear speech. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. HUMAN SPEECH: A RESTRICTED USE OF THE MAMMALIAN LARYNX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titze, Ingo R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Speech has been hailed as unique to human evolution. While the inventory of distinct sounds producible with vocal tract articulators is a great advantage in human oral communication, it is argued here that the larynx as a sound source in speech is limited in its range and capability because a low fundamental frequency is ideal for phonemic intelligibility and source-filter independence. Method Four existing data sets were combined to make an argument regarding exclusive use of the larynx for speech: (1) range of fundamental frequency, (2) laryngeal muscle activation, (3) vocal fold length in relation to sarcomere length of the major laryngeal muscles, and (4) vocal fold morphological development. Results Limited data support the notion that speech tends to produce a contracture of the larynx. The morphological design of the human vocal folds, like that of primates and other mammals, is optimized for vocal communication over distances for which higher fundamental frequency, higher intensity, and fewer unvoiced segments are utilized than in conversational speech. Conclusion The positive message is that raising one’s voice to call, shout, or sing, or executing pitch glides to stretch the vocal folds, can counteract this trend toward a contracted state. PMID:27397113

  6. Rehabilitation of Oronasal Speech Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Shemshadi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Oronasal region, as an important organ of taste and smell, being respected for its impact on the resonace, which is crucial for any normal speech production. Different congenital, acquired and/or developmentalpdefect, may not only have impacts on the quality of respiration, phonation, resonance, also on the process of a normal speech. This article will enable readers to have more focus in such important neuroanatomical speech zones disorders and their respective proper rehabilitation methods in different derangements. Among all other defects, oronasal malfunctionings would definitely has an influence on the oronasal sound resonance and furtherly render impairments on a normal speech production. Rehabilitative approach by speech and language pathologist is highly recommended to alleviate most of oronasal speech disorders.

  7. Speech and the Right Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. R. Critchley

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Two facts are well recognized: the location of the speech centre with respect to handedness and early brain damage, and the involvement of the right hemisphere in certain cognitive functions including verbal humour, metaphor interpretation, spatial reasoning and abstract concepts. The importance of the right hemisphere in speech is suggested by pathological studies, blood flow parameters and analysis of learning strategies. An insult to the right hemisphere following left hemisphere damage can affect residual language abilities and may activate non-propositional inner speech. The prosody of speech comprehension even more so than of speech production—identifying the voice, its affective components, gestural interpretation and monitoring one's own speech—may be an essentially right hemisphere task. Errors of a visuospatial type may occur in the learning process. Ease of learning by actors and when learning foreign languages is achieved by marrying speech with gesture and intonation, thereby adopting a right hemisphere strategy.

  8. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  9. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  10. Spontaneous intracranial hypotension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haritanti, A.; Karacostas, D.; Drevelengas, A.; Kanellopoulos, V.; Paraskevopoulou, E.; Lefkopoulos, A.; Economou, I.; Dimitriadis, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH) is an uncommon but increasingly recognized syndrome. Orthostatic headache with typical findings on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the key to diagnosis. Delayed diagnosis of this condition may subject patients to unnecessary procedures and prolong morbidity. We describe six patients with SIH and outline the important clinical and neuroimaging findings. They were all relatively young, 20-54 years old, with clearly orthostatic headache, minimal neurological signs (only abducent nerve paresis in two) and diffuse pachymeningeal gadolinium enhancement on brain MRI, while two of them presented subdural hygromas. Spinal MRI was helpful in detecting a cervical cerebrospinal fluid leak in three patients and dilatation of the vertebral venous plexus with extradural fluid collection in another. Conservative management resulted in rapid resolution of symptoms in five patients (10 days-3 weeks) and in one who developed cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, the condition resolved in 2 months. However, this rapid clinical improvement was not accompanied by an analogous regression of the brain MR findings that persisted on a longer follow-up. Along with recent literature data, our patients further point out that SIH, to be correctly diagnosed, necessitates increased alertness by the attending physician, in the evaluation of headaches

  11. Spontaneous lateral temporal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncbilek, Gokhan; Calis, Mert; Akalan, Nejat

    2013-01-01

    A spontaneous encephalocele is one that develops either because of embryological maldevelopment or from a poorly understood postnatal process that permits brain herniation to occur. We here report a rare case of lateral temporal encephalocele extending to the infratemporal fossa under the zygomatic arch. At birth, the infant was noted to have a large cystic mass in the right side of the face. After being operated on initially in another center in the newborn period, the patient was referred to our clinic with a diagnosis of temporal encephalocele. He was 6 months old at the time of admission. Computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging studies revealed a 8 × 9 cm fluid-filled, multiloculated cystic mass at the right infratemporal fossa. No intracranial pathology or connection is seen. The patient was operated on to reduce the distortion effect of the growing mass. The histopathological examination of the sac revealed well-differentiated mature glial tissue stained with glial fibrillary acid protein. This rare clinical presentation of encephaloceles should be taken into consideration during the evaluation of the lateral facial masses in the infancy period, and possible intracranial connection should be ruled out before surgery to avoid complications.

  12. Speech Recognition on Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Zheng-Hua; Lindberg, Børge

    2010-01-01

    The enthusiasm of deploying automatic speech recognition (ASR) on mobile devices is driven both by remarkable advances in ASR technology and by the demand for efficient user interfaces on such devices as mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). This chapter presents an overview of ASR...... in the mobile context covering motivations, challenges, fundamental techniques and applications. Three ASR architectures are introduced: embedded speech recognition, distributed speech recognition and network speech recognition. Their pros and cons and implementation issues are discussed. Applications within...... command and control, text entry and search are presented with an emphasis on mobile text entry....

  13. Psychotic speech: a neurolinguistic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, A; Wales, R J

    1994-06-01

    The existence of an aphasia-like language disorder in psychotic speech has been the subject of much debate. This paper argues that a discrete language disorder could be an important cause of the disturbance seen in psychotic speech. A review is presented of classical clinical descriptions and experimental studies that have explored the similarities between psychotic language impairment and aphasic speech. The paper proposes neurolinguistic tasks which may be used in future studies to elicit subtle language impairments in psychotic speech. The usefulness of a neurolinguistic model for further research in the aetiology and treatment of psychosis is discussed.

  14. Phonetic Consequences of Speech Disfluency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shriberg, Elizabeth E

    1999-01-01

    .... Analyses of American English show that disfluency affects a variety of phonetic aspects of speech, including segment durations, intonation, voice quality, vowel quality, and coarticulation patterns...

  15. An investigation of co-speech gesture production during action description in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, Rebecca A; Poliakoff, Ellen; Galpin, Adam; Dick, Jeremy P R; Holler, Judith

    2011-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) can impact enormously on speech communication. One aspect of non-verbal behaviour closely tied to speech is co-speech gesture production. In healthy people, co-speech gestures can add significant meaning and emphasis to speech. There is, however, little research into how this important channel of communication is affected in PD. The present study provides a systematic analysis of co-speech gestures which spontaneously accompany the description of actions in a group of PD patients (N = 23, Hoehn and Yahr Stage III or less) and age-matched healthy controls (N = 22). The analysis considers different co-speech gesture types, using established classification schemes from the field of gesture research. The analysis focuses on the rate of these gestures as well as on their qualitative nature. In doing so, the analysis attempts to overcome several methodological shortcomings of research in this area. Contrary to expectation, gesture rate was not significantly affected in our patient group, with relatively mild PD. This indicates that co-speech gestures could compensate for speech problems. However, while gesture rate seems unaffected, the qualitative precision of gestures representing actions was significantly reduced. This study demonstrates the feasibility of carrying out fine-grained, detailed analyses of gestures in PD and offers insights into an as yet neglected facet of communication in patients with PD. Based on the present findings, an important next step is the closer investigation of the qualitative changes in gesture (including different communicative situations) and an analysis of the heterogeneity in co-speech gesture production in PD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Predicting an Individual’s Gestures from the Interlocutor’s Co-occurring Gestures and Related Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Overlapping speech and gestures are common in face-to-face conversations and have been interpreted as a sign of synchronization between conversation participants. A number of gestures are even mirrored or mimicked. Therefore, we hypothesize that the gestures of a subject can contribute to the pre...

  17. Current trends in multilingual speech processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    ; speech-to-speech translation; language identification. ... interest owing to two strong driving forces. Firstly, technical advances in speech recognition and synthesis are posing new challenges and opportunities to researchers.

  18. Speech Recognition: How Do We Teach It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barksdale, Karl

    2002-01-01

    States that growing use of speech recognition software has made voice writing an essential computer skill. Describes how to present the topic, develop basic speech recognition skills, and teach speech recognition outlining, writing, proofreading, and editing. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  19. Speech and Language Problems in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children vary in their development of speech and language skills. Health care professionals have lists of milestones ... it may be due to a speech or language disorder. Children who have speech disorders may have ...

  20. Bilateral spontaneous carotid artery dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townend, Bradley Scott; Traves, Laura; Crimmins, Denis

    2005-06-01

    Bilateral internal carotid artery dissections have been reported, but spontaneous bilateral dissections are rare. Internal carotid artery dissection can present with a spectrum of symptoms ranging from headache to completed stroke. Two cases of spontaneous bilateral carotid artery dissection are presented, one with headache and minimal symptoms and the other with a stroke syndrome. No cause could be found in either case, making the dissections completely spontaneous. Bilateral internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) should be considered in young patients with unexplained head and neck pain with or without focal neurological symptoms and signs. The increasing availability of imaging would sustain the higher index of suspicion.

  1. Propositional speech in unselected stroke: The effect of genre and external support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Bonnie; Young, Breanne; Pinsker, Donna; Robinson, Gail A

    2015-01-01

    Distinguished from nominal language, propositional language generation refers to the spontaneous and voluntary aspect of language that introduces novel concepts to a specific context. Propositional language can be impaired in a range of neurological disorders, including stroke, despite well-preserved nominal language. Although external support can increase speech rate in patients with reduced propositional speech, no specific investigation of propositional speech has been carried out in unselected stroke patients. The current study investigated propositional language in an unselected post-acute stroke group (N = 18) with mild cognitive impairment and prominent executive dysfunction, but without significant aphasia. Specifically, we investigated whether genre or external support affected the number of words, sentences, and novel ideas produced, compared to healthy controls (N = 27). Results showed that discourse genre was not associated with differential performances. By contrast, speech quantity increased without external support although, for stroke patients, speech novelty decreased. Overall, the novelty deficit in unselected stroke patients highlights the importance of assessing cognition and propositional speech. Our findings suggest that for stroke patients with mild cognitive deficits, including executive dysfunction, introducing external support improved speech quality but not quantity. Implications for both assessment and rehabilitation of social communication are discussed.

  2. Speech-Based Human and Service Robot Interaction: An Application for Mexican Dysarthric People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Omar Caballero Morales

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder due to weakness or poor coordination of the speech muscles. This condition can be caused by a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or by a degenerative neurological disease. Commonly, people with this disorder also have muscular dystrophy, which restricts their use of switches or keyboards for communication or control of assistive devices (i.e., an electric wheelchair or a service robot. In this case, speech recognition is an attractive alternative for interaction and control of service robots, despite the difficulty of achieving robust recognition performance. In this paper we present a speech recognition system for human and service robot interaction for Mexican Spanish dysarthric speakers. The core of the system consisted of a Speaker Adaptive (SA recognition system trained with normal-speech. Features such as on-line control of the language model perplexity and the adding of vocabulary, contribute to high recognition performance. Others, such as assessment and text-to-speech (TTS synthesis, contribute to a more complete interaction with a service robot. Live tests were performed with two mild dysarthric speakers, achieving recognition accuracies of 90–95% for spontaneous speech and 95–100% of accomplished simulated service robot tasks.

  3. An optimal speech processor for efficient human speech ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    above, the speech signal is recorded at 21739 Hz for English subjects and 20000 Hz for. Cantonese and Georgian subjects. We downsampled the speech signals to 16 kHz for our anal- ysis. Using these parallel acoustic and articulatory data from Cantonese and Georgian, we will be able to examine our communication ...

  4. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid-Ahmed Selouani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  5. Alternative Speech Communication System for Persons with Severe Speech Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selouani, Sid-Ahmed; Sidi Yakoub, Mohammed; O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    2009-12-01

    Assistive speech-enabled systems are proposed to help both French and English speaking persons with various speech disorders. The proposed assistive systems use automatic speech recognition (ASR) and speech synthesis in order to enhance the quality of communication. These systems aim at improving the intelligibility of pathologic speech making it as natural as possible and close to the original voice of the speaker. The resynthesized utterances use new basic units, a new concatenating algorithm and a grafting technique to correct the poorly pronounced phonemes. The ASR responses are uttered by the new speech synthesis system in order to convey an intelligible message to listeners. Experiments involving four American speakers with severe dysarthria and two Acadian French speakers with sound substitution disorders (SSDs) are carried out to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methods. An improvement of the Perceptual Evaluation of the Speech Quality (PESQ) value of 5% and more than 20% is achieved by the speech synthesis systems that deal with SSD and dysarthria, respectively.

  6. Multimodal Speech Capture System for Speech Rehabilitation and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebkhi, Nordine; Desai, Dhyey; Islam, Mohammad; Lu, Jun; Wilson, Kimberly; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2017-11-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are trained to correct articulation of people diagnosed with motor speech disorders by analyzing articulators' motion and assessing speech outcome while patients speak. To assist SLPs in this task, we are presenting the multimodal speech capture system (MSCS) that records and displays kinematics of key speech articulators, the tongue and lips, along with voice, using unobtrusive methods. Collected speech modalities, tongue motion, lips gestures, and voice are visualized not only in real-time to provide patients with instant feedback but also offline to allow SLPs to perform post-analysis of articulators' motion, particularly the tongue, with its prominent but hardly visible role in articulation. We describe the MSCS hardware and software components, and demonstrate its basic visualization capabilities by a healthy individual repeating the words "Hello World." A proof-of-concept prototype has been successfully developed for this purpose, and will be used in future clinical studies to evaluate its potential impact on accelerating speech rehabilitation by enabling patients to speak naturally. Pattern matching algorithms to be applied to the collected data can provide patients with quantitative and objective feedback on their speech performance, unlike current methods that are mostly subjective, and may vary from one SLP to another.

  7. Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jonkers, Roel; Jalvingh, Fedor; Bastiaanse, Yvonne

    Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients Roelant Adriaan Ossewaarde1,2, Roel Jonkers1, Fedor Jalvingh1,3, Roelien Bastiaanse1 1CLCG, University of Groningen (NL); 2HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht (NL); 33St. Marienhospital - Vechta, Geriatric Clinic Vechta

  8. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  9. Temporal plasticity in auditory cortex improves neural discrimination of speech sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineer, Crystal T; Shetake, Jai A; Engineer, Navzer D; Vrana, Will A; Wolf, Jordan T; Kilgard, Michael P

    Many individuals with language learning impairments exhibit temporal processing deficits and degraded neural responses to speech sounds. Auditory training can improve both the neural and behavioral deficits, though significant deficits remain. Recent evidence suggests that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with rehabilitative therapies enhances both cortical plasticity and recovery of normal function. We predicted that pairing VNS with rapid tone trains would enhance the primary auditory cortex (A1) response to unpaired novel speech sounds. VNS was paired with tone trains 300 times per day for 20 days in adult rats. Responses to isolated speech sounds, compressed speech sounds, word sequences, and compressed word sequences were recorded in A1 following the completion of VNS-tone train pairing. Pairing VNS with rapid tone trains resulted in stronger, faster, and more discriminable A1 responses to speech sounds presented at conversational rates. This study extends previous findings by documenting that VNS paired with rapid tone trains altered the neural response to novel unpaired speech sounds. Future studies are necessary to determine whether pairing VNS with appropriate auditory stimuli could potentially be used to improve both neural responses to speech sounds and speech perception in individuals with receptive language disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Auditory Modeling for Noisy Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ...) has used its existing technology in phonetic speech recognition, audio signal processing, and multilingual language translation to design and demonstrate an advanced audio interface for speech...

  11. Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodan Paramanathan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Vinodan Paramanathan, Ardalan ZolnourianQueen's Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Burton on Trent, Staffordshire DE13 0RB, UKAbstract: Spontaneous intraorbital hematoma is an uncommon clinical entity seen in ophthalmology practice. It is poorly represented in the literature. Current evidence attributes it to orbital trauma, neoplasm, vascular malformations, acute sinusitis, and systemic abnormalities. A 65-year-old female presented with spontaneous intraorbital hematoma manifesting as severe ocular pains, eyelid edema, proptosis, and diplopia, without a history of trauma. Computer tomography demonstrated a fairly well defined extraconal lesion with opacification of the paranasal sinuses. The principal differential based on all findings was that of a spreading sinus infection and an extraconal tumor. An unprecedented finding of a spontaneous orbital hematoma was discovered when the patient was taken to theater. We discuss the rarity of this condition and its management.Keywords: hemorrhage, ophthalmology, spontaneous, intra-orbital, hematoma

  12. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...

  13. Physics of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rax, Jean-Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This book gathers courses on the physics of energy conversion proposed in France and abroad, and mainly in the Orsay Faculty of Science and in the Ecole Polytechnique. It more particularly addresses the study of concepts and methods related to the physics of irreversible processes, within a perspective of identification and analysis of mechanisms of entropy production, and the description and physical analysis of principles and limitations of magneto-hydrodynamic, thermoelectric, thermo-ionic, photovoltaic and electrochemical generators. The chapters address the following issues and themes: conversion and dissipation (conservation and conversion, collisions, fluctuations and transport), energy and entropy (conservation and evolution, Boltzmann and Gibbs factors), Markovian evolutions (Markovian processes, energy conversion and transitions, Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck kinetic equations), dissipative flows (thermodynamic flows and forces, energy conversion and linear transport), heat and chemical engines (Carnot heat engine, Van't Hoff heat engine, endo-reversible heat engines), magneto hydrodynamic conversion (electro-hydrodynamic conversion, Alfven-Saha plasma model, magneto-hydrodynamic coupling, Hall and Faraday converters), thermo-ionic conversion (Lorentz-Sommerfeld models of metals, Richardson-Dushman relationship, Langmuir and Schottky diodes), thermo-electric conversion (conventional semiconductor model, thermo-electric effects, thermo-electric engines), photovoltaic conversion (Planck model of heat radiation, photovoltaic conversion, photovoltaic P-N junction), and electrochemical conversion (Nernst model of redox equilibrium, over-voltage and polarizations, fuel cells)

  14. Teaching Speech Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teaching Speech Acts

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that pragmatic ability must become part of what we teach in the classroom if we are to realize the goals of communicative competence for our students. I review the research on pragmatics, especially those articles that point to the effectiveness of teaching pragmatics in an explicit manner, and those that posit methods for teaching. I also note two areas of scholarship that address classroom needs—the use of authentic data and appropriate assessment tools. The essay concludes with a summary of my own experience teaching speech acts in an advanced-level Portuguese class.

  15. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  16. Spontaneity and international marketing performance

    OpenAIRE

    Souchon, Anne L.; Hughes, Paul; Farrell, Andrew M.; Nemkova, Ekaterina; Oliveira, Joao S.

    2016-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to ascertain how today’s international marketers can perform better on the global scene by harnessing spontaneity. Design/methodology/approach – The authors draw on contingency theory to develop a model of the spontaneity – international marketing performance relationship, and identify three potential m...

  17. Improvements of the One-to-Many Eigenvoice Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtani, Yamato; Toda, Tomoki; Saruwatari, Hiroshi; Shikano, Kiyohiro

    We have developed a one-to-many eigenvoice conversion (EVC) system that allows us to convert a single source speaker's voice into an arbitrary target speaker's voice using an eigenvoice Gaussian mixture model (EV-GMM). This system is capable of effectively building a conversion model for an arbitrary target speaker by adapting the EV-GMM using only a small amount of speech data uttered by the target speaker in a text-independent manner. However, the conversion performance is still insufficient for the following reasons: 1) the excitation signal is not precisely modeled; 2) the oversmoothing of the converted spectrum causes muffled sounds in converted speech; and 3) the conversion model is affected by redundant acoustic variations among a lot of pre-stored target speakers used for building the EV-GMM. In order to address these problems, we apply the following promising techniques to one-to-many EVC: 1) mixed excitation; 2) a conversion algorithm considering global variance; and 3) adaptive training of the EV-GMM. The experimental results demonstrate that the conversion performance of one-to-many EVC is significantly improved by integrating all of these techniques into the one-to-many EVC system.

  18. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next ...

  19. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  20. Methods of Teaching Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Bailey, Glenn A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces the history and development of speech recognition, addresses its role in the business curriculum, outlines related national and state standards, describes instructional strategies, and discusses the assessment of student achievement in speech recognition classes. Methods: Research methods included a synthesis of…

  1. Speech recognition from spectral dynamics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Some of the history of gradual infusion of the modulation spectrum concept into Automatic recognition of speech (ASR) comes next, pointing to the relationship of modulation spectrum processing to wellaccepted ASR techniques such as dynamic speech features or RelAtive SpecTrAl (RASTA) filtering. Next, the frequency ...

  2. Indirect speech acts in English

    OpenAIRE

    Василина, В. Н.

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with indirect speech acts in Englishspeaking discourse. Different approaches to their analysis and the reasons for their use are discussed. It is argued that the choice of the form of speech actsdepends on the parameters of communicative partners.

  3. Speech Prosody in Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casper, Maureen A.; Raphael, Lawrence J.; Harris, Katherine S.; Geibel, Jennifer M.

    2007-01-01

    Persons with cerebellar ataxia exhibit changes in physical coordination and speech and voice production. Previously, these alterations of speech and voice production were described primarily via perceptual coordinates. In this study, the spatial-temporal properties of syllable production were examined in 12 speakers, six of whom were healthy…

  4. Perceptual Learning of Interrupted Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benard, Michel Ruben; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    The intelligibility of periodically interrupted speech improves once the silent gaps are filled with noise bursts. This improvement has been attributed to phonemic restoration, a top-down repair mechanism that helps intelligibility of degraded speech in daily life. Two hypotheses were investigated

  5. Iterated multidimensional wave conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brizard, A. J.; Tracy, E. R.; Johnston, D.; Kaufman, A. N.; Richardson, A. S.; Zobin, N.

    2011-01-01

    Mode conversion can occur repeatedly in a two-dimensional cavity (e.g., the poloidal cross section of an axisymmetric tokamak). We report on two novel concepts that allow for a complete and global visualization of the ray evolution under iterated conversions. First, iterated conversion is discussed in terms of ray-induced maps from the two-dimensional conversion surface to itself (which can be visualized in terms of three-dimensional rooms). Second, the two-dimensional conversion surface is shown to possess a symplectic structure derived from Dirac constraints associated with the two dispersion surfaces of the interacting waves.

  6. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  7. VOCAL DEVELOPMENT AS A MAIN CONDITION IN EARLY SPEECH AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne HOLM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is the evident positive vocal development in pre-lingual deaf children, who underwent a Cochlea Implantation in early age. The presented research compares the vocal speech expressions of three hearing impaired children and two children with normal hearing from 10 months to 5 years. Comparisons of the spontaneous vocal expressions were conducted by sonagraphic analyses. The awareness of the own voice as well as the voices of others is essential for the child’s continuous vocal development from crying to speech. Supra-segmental factors, such as rhythm, dynamics and melody play a very important role in this development.

  8. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF INDEPENDENT PHONOLOGICAL MEASURES OF 2-YEAR-OLD SPEECH: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Marie WITTLER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Within the field of speech-language pathology, many assume commonly used informal speech sound measures are reliable. However, lack of scientific evidence to support this assumption is problematic. Speech-language pathologists often use informal speech sound analyses for establishing baseline behaviors from which therapeutic progress can be measured. Few researchers have examined the test-retest reliability of informal phonological measures when evaluating the speech productions of young children. Clinically, data regarding these measures are critical for facilitating evidence-based decision making for speech-language assessment and treatment. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to identify the evidence-base regarding temporal reliability of two such informal speech sound measures, phonetic inventory and word shape analysis, with two-year-old children. Methods: The researchers examined analyses conducted from conversational speech samples taken exactly one week apart for three children 29- to 33-months of age. The videotaped 20-minute play-based conversational samples were completed while the children interacted with their mothers. The samples were then transcribed using the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA and analyzed using the two informal measures noted above. Results: Based on visual inspection of the data, the test-retest reliability of initial consonant and consonant cluster productions was unstable between the two conversational samples. However, phonetic inventories for final consonants and word shape analyses were relatively stable over time. Conclusion: Although more data is needed, the results of this study indicate that academic faculty, clinical educators, and practicing speech-language pathologists should be cautious when interpreting informal speech sound analyses based on play-based communication samples of young children.

  9. Conversational Pedagogy: Exploring Interactions between a Teaching Artist and Young Learners during Visual Arts Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhoff, Angela

    2013-01-01

    In many early childhood classrooms, visual arts experiences occur around a communal arts table. A shared workspace allows for spontaneous conversation and exploration of the art-making process of peers and teachers. In this setting, conversation can play an important role in visual arts experiences as children explore new media, skills, and ideas.…

  10. Conversation therapy for aphasia: a qualitative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons-Mackie, Nina; Savage, Meghan C; Worrall, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A diverse literature addresses elements of conversation therapy in aphasia including intervention rooted in conversation analysis, partner training, group therapy and behavioural intervention. Currently there is no resource for clinicians or researchers that defines and organizes this information into a coherent synopsis describing various conversation therapy practices. To organize information from varied sources into a descriptive overview of conversation therapy for aphasia. Academic search engines were employed to identify research articles published between 1950 and September 2013 reporting on conversation therapy for aphasia. Thirty articles met criteria for review and were identified as primary sources for the qualitative review. Using qualitative methodology, relevant data were extracted from articles and categories were identified to create a descriptive taxonomy of conversation therapy for aphasia. Conversation interventions were divided into descriptive categories including: treatment participants (person with aphasia, partner, dyad), primary guiding orientation (conversation analysis, social model, behavioural, relationship centred), service delivery (individual, group), focus of intervention (generic/individualized; problem/solution oriented; compensatory), training methods (explicit/implicit; external/embedded), activities or tasks, and outcomes measured. Finally, articles were categorized by research design. There was marked variation in conversation therapy approaches and outcome measures reported and a notable gap in information about one-on-one conversation therapy for individuals with aphasia. This review provides a description of various conversation therapy approaches and identified gaps in the existing literature. Valid measures of natural conversation, research on one-on-one conversation approaches for individuals with aphasia, and a systematic body of evidence consisting of high quality research are needed. © 2014 Royal College of Speech

  11. A case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Hisanori; Harada, Kiyoshi; Uozumi, Tohru; Kuwabara, Satoshi.

    1983-01-01

    The authors experienced a case of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy diagnosed by CT scan with metrizamide and Conray. Patient was 23-year-old male who had been in good health until one month before admission, when he began to have headache and tinnitus. He noticed bilateral visual acuity was decreased about one week before admission and vomiting appeared two days before admission. He was admitted to our hospital because of bilateral papilledema and remarkable hydrocephalus diagnosed by CT scan. On admission, no abnormal neurological signs except for bilateral papilledema were noted. Immediately, right ventricular drainage was performed. Pressure of the ventricle was over 300mmH 2 O and CSF was clear. PVG and PEG disclosed an another cavity behind the third ventricle, which was communicated with the third ventricle, and occlusion of aqueduct of Sylvius. Metrizamide CT scan and Conray CT scan showed a communication between this cavity and quadrigeminal and supracerebellar cisterns. On these neuroradiological findings, the diagnosis of obstructive hydrocephalus due to benign aqueduct stenosis accompanied with spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was obtained. Spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy was noticed to produce arrest of hydrocephalus, but with our case, spontaneous regression of such symptoms did not appeared. By surgical ventriculocisternostomy (method by Torkildsen, Dandy, or Scarff), arrest of hydrocephalus was seen in about 50 to 70 per cent, which was the same results as those of spontaneous ventriculocisternostomy. It is concluded that VP shunt or VA shunt is thought to be better treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus than the various kinds of surgical ventriculocisternostomy. (J.P.N.)

  12. Optical antenna enhanced spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleston, Michael S; Messer, Kevin; Zhang, Liming; Yablonovitch, Eli; Wu, Ming C

    2015-02-10

    Atoms and molecules are too small to act as efficient antennas for their own emission wavelengths. By providing an external optical antenna, the balance can be shifted; spontaneous emission could become faster than stimulated emission, which is handicapped by practically achievable pump intensities. In our experiments, InGaAsP nanorods emitting at ∼ 200 THz optical frequency show a spontaneous emission intensity enhancement of 35 × corresponding to a spontaneous emission rate speedup ∼ 115 ×, for antenna gap spacing, d = 40 nm. Classical antenna theory predicts ∼ 2,500 × spontaneous emission speedup at d ∼ 10 nm, proportional to 1/d(2). Unfortunately, at d antenna efficiency drops below 50%, owing to optical spreading resistance, exacerbated by the anomalous skin effect (electron surface collisions). Quantum dipole oscillations in the emitter excited state produce an optical ac equivalent circuit current, I(o) = qω|x(o)|/d, feeding the antenna-enhanced spontaneous emission, where q|x(o)| is the dipole matrix element. Despite the quantum-mechanical origin of the drive current, antenna theory makes no reference to the Purcell effect nor to local density of states models. Moreover, plasmonic effects are minor at 200 THz, producing only a small shift of antenna resonance frequency.

  13. Visual Speech Fills in Both Discrimination and Identification of Non-Intact Auditory Speech in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerger, Susan; Damian, Markus F.; McAlpine, Rachel P.; Abdi, Herve

    2018-01-01

    To communicate, children must discriminate and identify speech sounds. Because visual speech plays an important role in this process, we explored how visual speech influences phoneme discrimination and identification by children. Critical items had intact visual speech (e.g. baez) coupled to non-intact (excised onsets) auditory speech (signified…

  14. Coevolution of Human Speech and Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horan, R.D.; Bulte, E.H.; Shogren, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    We propose a paleoeconomic coevolutionary explanation for the origin of speech in modern humans. The coevolutionary process, in which trade facilitates speech and speech facilitates trade, gives rise to multiple stable trajectories. While a `trade-speech¿ equilibrium is not an inevitable outcome for

  15. Automated Speech Rate Measurement in Dysarthria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Heidi; Dekens, Tomas; Van Nuffelen, Gwen; Latacz, Lukas; Verhelst, Werner; De Bodt, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, a new algorithm for automated determination of speech rate (SR) in dysarthric speech is evaluated. We investigated how reliably the algorithm calculates the SR of dysarthric speech samples when compared with calculation performed by speech-language pathologists. Method: The new algorithm was trained and tested using Dutch…

  16. The "Checkers" Speech and Televised Political Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaningam, Carl

    Richard Nixon's 1952 "Checkers" speech was an innovative use of television for political communication. Like television news itself, the campaign fund crisis behind the speech can be thought of in the same terms as other television melodrama, with the speech serving as its climactic episode. The speech adapted well to television because…

  17. Predicting masking release of lateralized speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabot-Leclerc, Alexandre; MacDonald, Ewen; Dau, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Locsei et al. (2015) [Speech in Noise Workshop, Copenhagen, 46] measured ˝ speech reception thresholds (SRTs) in anechoic conditions where the target speech and the maskers were lateralized using interaural time delays. The maskers were speech-shaped noise (SSN) and reversed babble with 2, 4, or 8...

  18. Speech-Language Therapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Speech-Language Therapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Speech-Language Therapy What's in ... coughing, gagging, and refusing foods. Specialists in Speech-Language Therapy Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), often informally known as ...

  19. Neural and Behavioral Mechanisms of Clear Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Jenna Silver

    2017-01-01

    Clear speech is a speaking style that has been shown to improve intelligibility in adverse listening conditions, for various listener and talker populations. Clear-speech phonetic enhancements include a slowed speech rate, expanded vowel space, and expanded pitch range. Although clear-speech phonetic enhancements have been demonstrated across a…

  20. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2000-10-19

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  1. Speech recovery device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankle, Christen M.

    2004-04-20

    There is provided an apparatus and method for assisting speech recovery in people with inability to speak due to aphasia, apraxia or another condition with similar effect. A hollow, rigid, thin-walled tube with semi-circular or semi-elliptical cut out shapes at each open end is positioned such that one end mates with the throat/voice box area of the neck of the assistor and the other end mates with the throat/voice box area of the assisted. The speaking person (assistor) makes sounds that produce standing wave vibrations at the same frequency in the vocal cords of the assisted person. Driving the assisted person's vocal cords with the assisted person being able to hear the correct tone enables the assisted person to speak by simply amplifying the vibration of membranes in their throat.

  2. Theater, Speech, Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Vitez

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers a medium as a substantial translator: an intermediary between the producers and receivers of a communicational act. A medium is a material support to the spiritual potential of human sources. If the medium is a support to meaning, then the relations between different media can be interpreted as a space for making sense of these meanings, a generator of sense: it means that the interaction of substances creates an intermedial space that conceives of a contextualization of specific meaningful elements in order to combine them into the sense of a communicational intervention. The theater itself is multimedia. A theatrical event is a communicational act based on a combination of several autonomous structures: text, scenography, light design, sound, directing, literary interpretation, speech, and, of course, the one that contains all of these: the actor in a human body. The actor is a physical and symbolic, anatomic, and emblematic figure in the synesthetic theatrical act because he reunites in his body all the essential principles and components of theater itself. The actor is an audio-visual being, made of kinetic energy, speech, and human spirit. The actor’s body, as a source, instrument, and goal of the theater, becomes an intersection of sound and light. However, theater as intermedial art is no intermediate practice; it must be seen as interposing bodies between conceivers and receivers, between authors and auditors. The body is not self-evident; the body in contemporary art forms is being redefined as a privilege. The art needs bodily dimensions to explore the medial qualities of substances: because it is alive, it returns to studying biology. The fact that theater is an archaic art form is also the purest promise of its future.

  3. Speech enhancement theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Loizou, Philipos C

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile devices and hearing devices, including hearing aids and cochlear implants, there is a growing and pressing need to design algorithms that can improve speech intelligibility without sacrificing quality. Responding to this need, Speech Enhancement: Theory and Practice, Second Edition introduces readers to the basic problems of speech enhancement and the various algorithms proposed to solve these problems. Updated and expanded, this second edition of the bestselling textbook broadens its scope to include evaluation measures and enhancement algorithms aimed at impr

  4. Computational neuroanatomy of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory

    2012-01-05

    Speech production has been studied predominantly from within two traditions, psycholinguistics and motor control. These traditions have rarely interacted, and the resulting chasm between these approaches seems to reflect a level of analysis difference: whereas motor control is concerned with lower-level articulatory control, psycholinguistics focuses on higher-level linguistic processing. However, closer examination of both approaches reveals a substantial convergence of ideas. The goal of this article is to integrate psycholinguistic and motor control approaches to speech production. The result of this synthesis is a neuroanatomically grounded, hierarchical state feedback control model of speech production.

  5. Visual speech influences speech perception immediately but not automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitterer, Holger; Reinisch, Eva

    2017-02-01

    Two experiments examined the time course of the use of auditory and visual speech cues to spoken word recognition using an eye-tracking paradigm. Results of the first experiment showed that the use of visual speech cues from lipreading is reduced if concurrently presented pictures require a division of attentional resources. This reduction was evident even when listeners' eye gaze was on the speaker rather than the (static) pictures. Experiment 2 used a deictic hand gesture to foster attention to the speaker. At the same time, the visual processing load was reduced by keeping the visual display constant over a fixed number of successive trials. Under these conditions, the visual speech cues from lipreading were used. Moreover, the eye-tracking data indicated that visual information was used immediately and even earlier than auditory information. In combination, these data indicate that visual speech cues are not used automatically, but if they are used, they are used immediately.

  6. Dialogue Act Segmentation for Vietnamese Human-Human Conversational Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Ngo, Thi Lan; Pham, Khac Linh; Cao, Minh Son; Pham, Son Bao; Phan, Xuan Hieu

    2017-01-01

    Dialog act identification plays an important role in understanding conversations. It has been widely applied in many fields such as dialogue systems, automatic machine translation, automatic speech recognition, and especially useful in systems with human-computer natural language dialogue interfaces such as virtual assistants and chatbots. The first step of identifying dialog act is identifying the boundary of the dialog act in utterances. In this paper, we focus on segmenting the utterance a...

  7. INTEGRATING MACHINE TRANSLATION AND SPEECH SYNTHESIS COMPONENT FOR ENGLISH TO DRAVIDIAN LANGUAGE SPEECH TO SPEECH TRANSLATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. SANGEETHA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an interface between the machine translation and speech synthesis system for converting English speech to Tamil text in English to Tamil speech to speech translation system. The speech translation system consists of three modules: automatic speech recognition, machine translation and text to speech synthesis. Many procedures for incorporation of speech recognition and machine translation have been projected. Still speech synthesis system has not yet been measured. In this paper, we focus on integration of machine translation and speech synthesis, and report a subjective evaluation to investigate the impact of speech synthesis, machine translation and the integration of machine translation and speech synthesis components. Here we implement a hybrid machine translation (combination of rule based and statistical machine translation and concatenative syllable based speech synthesis technique. In order to retain the naturalness and intelligibility of synthesized speech Auto Associative Neural Network (AANN prosody prediction is used in this work. The results of this system investigation demonstrate that the naturalness and intelligibility of the synthesized speech are strongly influenced by the fluency and correctness of the translated text.

  8. AN INTELLIGENT CONVERSATION AGENT FOR HEALTH CARE DOMAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karpagam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human Computer Interaction is one of the pervasive application areas of computer science to develop with multimodal interaction for information sharings. The conversation agent acts as the major core area for developing interfaces between a system and user with applied AI for proper responses. In this paper, the interactive system plays a vital role in improving knowledge in the domain of health through the intelligent interface between machine and human with text and speech. The primary aim is to enrich the knowledge and help the user in the domain of health using conversation agent to offer immediate response with human companion feel.

  9. On literary narratives, fictionality, and the rules of conversation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Buckett

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available "Writing, when properly managed (as you may be sure I thirik mine is is but a different name for conversation" - "thus Laurence Sterne in Trist Shandy ( 1767. Such statements provoke an examination of possible links between literary narratives and iinguistic models of oral communication. Recent developments in the field of pragmatics, in particular Speech Acts, Deixis and H. P.Grice's Logic and Conversation, provide concepts and structurai principles which could prove useful to literary criticism. This comment, for instance, by Roland Barthes might suggest the need to resort to the theory of deixis: Il ne peut y avoir de recit sans narratetir et sans auditeur.

  10. Spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuster, M.J.; Saez, J.; Perez-Paya, F.J.; Fernandez, F.

    1997-01-01

    To assess the role of CT in the etiologic diagnosis of spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. The CT findings are described in 13 patients presenting subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage. Those patients in whom the bleeding was not spontaneous were excluded. Surgical confirmation was obtained in nine cases. In 11 of the 13 cases (84.6%), involving five adenocarcinomas, five angiomyolipoma, two complicated cysts and one case of panarterities nodosa, CT disclosed the underlying pathology. In two cases (15.4%), it only revealed the extension of the hematoma, but gave no clue to its origin. CT is the technique of choice when spontaneous subcapsular and perirrenal hemorrhage is suspected since, in most cases, it reveals the underlying pathology. (Author)

  11. PHONETIC AND ALLOPHONIC TEXT PROCESSING IN BELARUSIAN AND RUSSIAN SPEECH SYNTHESIZER FOR MOBILE PLATFORMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. S. Hetsevich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes methods of «grapheme – phoneme» and «phoneme – allophone» conversions for Belarusian and Russian speech synthesis. For speech synthesizers on mobile platforms, the rule-based method has been selected. The article describes text processing algorithms at the input phase and rules for «grapheme – phoneme» and «phoneme – allophone» conversions, providing allophone chains for an acoustic processor. The developed algorithms were evaluated with respect to the reference-class stationary Multiphone text-to-speech synthesis system. The test data demonstrates a high accuracy level: over 80% for word processing, over 98% for phoneme processing and over 96% for allophone processing (for Belarusian and Russian languages. The subsequent work will be devoted to the improvement of practical realization of the developed algorithms.

  12. Dissenting in Reflective Conversations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Boulus, Nina

    2011-01-01

    a methodological reflective approach that provides space for taking seriously uncertainties experienced in the field as these can be a catalyst for learning and sharpening our theoretical and empirical skills as action researchers. Through first-person inquiry, we investigate how our reflective conversations...... gradually evolved into second-person inquiry. We argue that enacting second-person reflective conversations renders alternative strategies for handling uncertainties through articulation of the tacit assumptions within particular empirical situations. Finally, we argue that reflective conversations should...

  13. The Cultural Meaning of Traditional Expressions in Daily Speech of Using Community at Banyuwangi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Suyitno

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe a variety of traditional expressions used by Using community at Banyuwangi in speaking. The variety of expressions is studied from the form, usage, and cultural meaning in communication. The data of traditional expression speech presented in the description sources from conversation of Using community in various speech situations. The result of the study shows that there are 6 categories of traditional expressions used in the Using speech community. The variety of the expressions used by the speaker to express a message, thoughts, feelings, or opinions to the speaking participan. Various things that can be conveyed through expression are praise, anger, aggravation, suggestions or advice, and pleasure. Using community utilizes the expressions to criticize, comment, ridicule, reassuring, stated, praising, reprimanding or blaming, complaining, remind, advise, and ask or beg. All of them are reflecting Using community culture in daily speech.

  14. The impact of language co-activation on L1 and L2 speech fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Christopher; Sprenger, Simone A; Schmid, Monika S

    2015-10-01

    Fluent speech depends on the availability of well-established linguistic knowledge and routines for speech planning and articulation. A lack of speech fluency in late second-language (L2) learners may point to a deficiency of these representations, due to incomplete acquisition. Experiments on bilingual language processing have shown, however, that there are strong reasons to believe that multilingual speakers experience co-activation of the languages they speak. We have studied to what degree language co-activation affects fluency in the speech of bilinguals, comparing a monolingual German control group with two bilingual groups: 1) first-language (L1) attriters, who have fully acquired German before emigrating to an L2 English environment, and 2) immersed L2 learners of German (L1: English). We have analysed the temporal fluency and the incidence of disfluency markers (pauses, repetitions and self-corrections) in spontaneous film retellings. Our findings show that learners to speak more slowly than controls and attriters. Also, on each count, the speech of at least one of the bilingual groups contains more disfluency markers than the retellings of the control group. Generally speaking, both bilingual groups-learners and attriters-are equally (dis)fluent and significantly more disfluent than the monolingual speakers. Given that the L1 attriters are unaffected by incomplete acquisition, we interpret these findings as evidence for language competition during speech production. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Silent reading of direct versus indirect speech activates voice-selective areas in the auditory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Bo; Belin, Pascal; Scheepers, Christoph

    2011-10-01

    In human communication, direct speech (e.g., Mary said: "I'm hungry") is perceived to be more vivid than indirect speech (e.g., Mary said [that] she was hungry). However, for silent reading, the representational consequences of this distinction are still unclear. Although many of us share the intuition of an "inner voice," particularly during silent reading of direct speech statements in text, there has been little direct empirical confirmation of this experience so far. Combining fMRI with eye tracking in human volunteers, we show that silent reading of direct versus indirect speech engenders differential brain activation in voice-selective areas of the auditory cortex. This suggests that readers are indeed more likely to engage in perceptual simulations (or spontaneous imagery) of the reported speaker's voice when reading direct speech as opposed to meaning-equivalent indirect speech statements as part of a more vivid representation of the former. Our results may be interpreted in line with embodied cognition and form a starting point for more sophisticated interdisciplinary research on the nature of auditory mental simulation during reading.

  16. The contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data: acoustic and articulatory analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Roberta Michelon; Mota, Helena Bolli; Berti, Larissa Cristina

    2017-06-08

    This study used acoustic and articulatory analyses to characterize the contrast between alveolar and velar stops with typical speech data, comparing the parameters (acoustic and articulatory) of adults and children with typical speech development. The sample consisted of 20 adults and 15 children with typical speech development. The analyzed corpus was organized through five repetitions of each target-word (/'kap ə/, /'tapə/, /'galo/ e /'daɾə/). These words were inserted into a carrier phrase and the participant was asked to name them spontaneously. Simultaneous audio and video data were recorded (tongue ultrasound images). The data was submitted to acoustic analyses (voice onset time; spectral peak and burst spectral moments; vowel/consonant transition and relative duration measures) and articulatory analyses (proportion of significant axes of the anterior and posterior tongue regions and description of tongue curves). Acoustic and articulatory parameters were effective to indicate the contrast between alveolar and velar stops, mainly in the adult group. Both speech analyses showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. The acoustic and articulatory parameters provided signals to characterize the phonic contrast of speech. One of the main findings in the comparison between adult and child speech was evidence of articulatory refinement/maturation even after the period of segment acquisition.

  17. How Do Chinese Speakers of English Manage Rapport in Extended Concurrent Speech?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weihua

    2017-01-01

    Little research has focused on extended concurrent speech, unexpected floor taking, or topic switching, since it has been deemed rare (Schegloff 2000. "Overlapping talk and the organization of turn-taking for conversation." "Language in Society" 29(1). 1-63.) or inappropriate (Goldberg 1990." Interrupting the discourse on…

  18. Apraxia of Speech: Perceptual Analysis of Trisyllabic Word Productions across Repeated Sampling Occasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauszycki, Shannon C.; Wambaugh, Julie L.; Cameron, Rosalea M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Early apraxia of speech (AOS) research has characterized errors as being variable, resulting in a number of different error types being produced on repeated productions of the same stimuli. Conversely, recent research has uncovered greater consistency in errors, but there are limited data examining sound errors over time (more than one…

  19. Classification of cooperative and competitive overlaps in speech using cues from the context, overlapper, and overlappee

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Truong, Khiet Phuong

    One of the major properties of overlapping speech is that it can be perceived as competitive or cooperative. For the development of real-time spoken dialog systems and the analysis of affective and social human behavior in conversations, it is important to (automatically) distinguish between these

  20. Voice and Fluency Changes as a Function of Speech Task and Deep Brain Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana; Rogers, Tiffany; Godier, Violette; Tagliati, Michele; Sidtis, John J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Speaking, which naturally occurs in different modes or "tasks" such as conversation and repetition, relies on intact basal ganglia nuclei. Recent studies suggest that voice and fluency parameters are differentially affected by speech task. In this study, the authors examine the effects of subcortical functionality on voice and fluency,…

  1. Language and Communication in the Absence of Speech: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogow, Sally M.

    This case study reports on the language development of a child with severe speech and multiple handicaps resulting from "severe epileptic encephalopathy" who is, however, able to competently read, write, and comprehend two languages (English and Cantonese) but does not initiate conversations. Data were gathered as a result of weekly home visits…

  2. Computers and conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Luff, Paul; Gilbert, Nigel G

    1986-01-01

    In the past few years a branch of sociology, conversation analysis, has begun to have a significant impact on the design of human*b1computer interaction (HCI). The investigation of human*b1human dialogue has emerged as a fruitful foundation for interactive system design.****This book includes eleven original chapters by leading researchers who are applying conversation analysis to HCI. The fundamentals of conversation analysis are outlined, a number of systems are described, and a critical view of their value for HCI is offered.****Computers and Conversation will be of interest to all concerne

  3. Spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspepsia with mild, stabbing epigastric discomfort without history of trauma is a very common symptom that emergency physicians see in their daily practice. Vascular emergencies, mostly the aortic dissection and aneurysm, are always described in the differential diagnosis with persistent symptoms. Isolated celiac artery dissection occurring spontaneously is a very rare diagnosis. The involvement of branch vessels is generally observed and patients show various clinical signs and symptoms according to the involved branch vessel. Here we are presenting a case with spontaneous isolated celiac artery dissection, without any branch vessel involvement or visceral damage, detected by computed tomography scans taken on admission.

  4. Spontaneous waves in muscle fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, Stefan; Kruse, Karsten [Department of Theoretical Physics, Saarland University, 66041 Saarbruecken (Germany); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Street 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany)

    2007-11-15

    Mechanical oscillations are important for many cellular processes, e.g. the beating of cilia and flagella or the sensation of sound by hair cells. These dynamic states originate from spontaneous oscillations of molecular motors. A particularly clear example of such oscillations has been observed in muscle fibers under non-physiological conditions. In that case, motor oscillations lead to contraction waves along the fiber. By a macroscopic analysis of muscle fiber dynamics we find that the spontaneous waves involve non-hydrodynamic modes. A simple microscopic model of sarcomere dynamics highlights mechanical aspects of the motor dynamics and fits with the experimental observations.

  5. Relative Contributions of the Dorsal vs. Ventral Speech Streams to Speech Perception are Context Dependent: a lesion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corianne Rogalsky

    2014-04-01

    , (iii two sentence comprehension tasks (sentence-picture matching, plausibility judgments, and (iv two sensory-motor tasks (a non-word repetition task and BDAE repetition subtest. Our results indicate that the neural bases of speech perception are task-dependent. The syllable discrimination and sensory-motor tasks all identified a dorsal temporal-parietal voxel cluster, including area Spt, primary auditory and somatosensory cortex. Conversely, the auditory comprehension task identified left mid-temporal regions. This suggest that syllable discrimination deficits do not stem from impairments in the perceptual analysis of speech sounds but rather involve temporary maintenance of the stimulus trace and/or the similarity comparison process. The ventral stream (anterior and posterior clusters in the superior and middle temporal gyri, were associated with both sentence tasks. However, the dorsal stream’s involvement was more selective: inferior frontal regions were identified in the sentence–to-picture matching task, not the semantic plausibility task. Within the sentence-to-picture matching task, these inferior frontal regions were only identified by the trials with the most difficult sentences. This suggests that the dorsal stream’s contribution to sentence comprehension is not driven by perception per se. These initial findings highlight the task-dependent nature of speech processing, challenge claims regarding any specific motor region being critical for speech perception, and refute the notion that speech perception relies on dorsal stream auditory-motor systems.

  6. Comprehension of synthetic speech and digitized natural speech by adults with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hux, Karen; Knollman-Porter, Kelly; Brown, Jessica; Wallace, Sarah E

    2017-09-01

    Using text-to-speech technology to provide simultaneous written and auditory content presentation may help compensate for chronic reading challenges if people with aphasia can understand synthetic speech output; however, inherent auditory comprehension challenges experienced by people with aphasia may make understanding synthetic speech difficult. This study's purpose was to compare the preferences and auditory comprehension accuracy of people with aphasia when listening to sentences generated with digitized natural speech, Alex synthetic speech (i.e., Macintosh platform), or David synthetic speech (i.e., Windows platform). The methodology required each of 20 participants with aphasia to select one of four images corresponding in meaning to each of 60 sentences comprising three stimulus sets. Results revealed significantly better accuracy given digitized natural speech than either synthetic speech option; however, individual participant performance analyses revealed three patterns: (a) comparable accuracy regardless of speech condition for 30% of participants, (b) comparable accuracy between digitized natural speech and one, but not both, synthetic speech option for 45% of participants, and (c) greater accuracy with digitized natural speech than with either synthetic speech option for remaining participants. Ranking and Likert-scale rating data revealed a preference for digitized natural speech and David synthetic speech over Alex synthetic speech. Results suggest many individuals with aphasia can comprehend synthetic speech options available on popular operating systems. Further examination of synthetic speech use to support reading comprehension through text-to-speech technology is thus warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. STRUCTURAL AND STRATEGIC ASPECTS OF PROFESSIONALLY ORIENTED SPEECH OF A PSYCHOLOGIST MEDIATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Levchyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents characteristic speech patterns of psychologist-mediator on the basis of five staged model of his professional speech behavior that involves the following five speech activities: introductory talks with the conflict parties; clarifying of the parties’ positions; finding the optimal solution to the problem; persuasion in the legality of a compromise; execution of the agreement between the parties. Each of these stages of the mediation process in terms of mental and speech activities of a specialist have been analyzed and subsequently the structure of mediator’s communication has been derived. The concept of a "strategy of verbal behavior" considering professional activity of a psychologist-mediator has been described in terms of its correlation with the type of negotiation behaviors of disputants. The basic types of opponents’ behavior in negotiations ‒ namely avoidance, concession, denial, aggression have been specified. The compliance of strategy of speech of mediator’s behavior to his chosen style of mediation has been discovered. The tactics and logic of mediator’s speech behavior according to the stages of mediation conversation have been determined. It has been found out that the mediator’s tactics implies application of specific professional speech skills to conduct a dialogue in accordance with the chosen strategy as well as emotional and verbal reaction of conflict sides in the process of communication.

  8. Psychometric properties of Conversion Disorder Scale- Revised (CDS) for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen

    2017-05-01

    To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (pconversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.

  9. Electrical current nanogeneration driven by spontaneous nanofluidic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, R; Mercuri, M; Berli, C L A; Bellino, M G

    2018-02-15

    Exploiting natural phenomena is a central route for providing electricity to sustainably drive wearable electronics. Here we report a nano-scale water-driven energy generator that produces tiny electrical currents from spontaneous wetting-drying oscillations in mesoporous thin films. The system was fabricated with a wormlike mesoporous silica film, which was packed in between Cu and silicon contacts. The nanogenerator runs autonomously when a water droplet is laid over the film close to the Cu electrode, as water infiltration into the film under the electrode produces a direct-current. Wetting-drying cycles, which are spontaneously triggered by water evaporation, are perfectly correlated to the generated electrical current. The autonomous water displacement through the film yields a sustained energy conversion until the droplet reservoir vanishes. This novel water-driven nanogenerator opens new alternatives for versatile, mobile and cost-effective self-powering of nanosystems and nanodevices.

  10. Conversation et Television (Conversation and Television)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadde, Jean-Pierre

    1977-01-01

    Czechosovakian television has just presented a series of French Conversation Classes using audiovisual techniques and starring Czech actors and actresses. The setting of each dialog is in Czechoslovakia, and the situations are those in which a Czech would use French in his or her native land. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  11. Spatial localization of speech segments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian Lykkegaard

    1999-01-01

    Much is known about human localization of simple stimuli like sinusoids, clicks, broadband noise and narrowband noise in quiet. Less is known about human localization in noise. Even less is known about localization of speech and very few previous studies have reported data from localization...... of speech in noise. This study attempts to answer the question: ``Are there certain features of speech which have an impact on the human ability to determine the spatial location of a speaker in the horizontal plane under adverse noise conditions?''. The study consists of an extensive literature survey...... the task of the experiment. The psychoacoustical experiment used naturally-spoken Danish consonant-vowel combinations as targets presented in diffuse speech-shaped noise at a peak SNR of -10 dB. The subjects were normal hearing persons. The experiment took place in an anechoic chamber where eight...

  12. Comparison of speech and language therapy techniques for speech problems in Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Herd, CP; Tomlinson, CL; Deane, KHO; Brady, MC; Smith, CH; Sackley, CM; Clarke, CE

    2012-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease commonly suffer from speech and voice difficulties such as impaired articulation and reduced loudness. Speech and language therapy (SLT) aims to improve the intelligibility of speech with behavioural treatment techniques or instrumental aids.

  13. Effect of informational content of noise on speech representation in the aging midbrain and cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Jonathan Z.; Anderson, Samira

    2016-01-01

    The ability to understand speech is significantly degraded by aging, particularly in noisy environments. One way that older adults cope with this hearing difficulty is through the use of contextual cues. Several behavioral studies have shown that older adults are better at following a conversation when the target speech signal has high contextual content or when the background distractor is not meaningful. Specifically, older adults gain significant benefit in focusing on and understanding speech if the background is spoken by a talker in a language that is not comprehensible to them (i.e., a foreign language). To understand better the neural mechanisms underlying this benefit in older adults, we investigated aging effects on midbrain and cortical encoding of speech when in the presence of a single competing talker speaking in a language that is meaningful or meaningless to the listener (i.e., English vs. Dutch). Our results suggest that neural processing is strongly affected by the informational content of noise. Specifically, older listeners' cortical responses to the attended speech signal are less deteriorated when the competing speech signal is an incomprehensible language rather than when it is their native language. Conversely, temporal processing in the midbrain is affected by different backgrounds only during rapid changes in speech and only in younger listeners. Additionally, we found that cognitive decline is associated with an increase in cortical envelope tracking, suggesting an age-related over (or inefficient) use of cognitive resources that may explain their difficulty in processing speech targets while trying to ignore interfering noise. PMID:27605531

  14. Human Papillomavirus Infection as a Possible Cause of Spontaneous Abortion and Spontaneous Preterm Delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen

    2016-01-01

    , and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...

  15. Analysis of the Roles and the Dynamics of Breathy and Whispery Voice Qualities in Dialogue Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Norihiro Hagita; Carlos Toshinori Ishi; Hiroshi Ishiguro

    2010-01-01

    Breathy and whispery voices are nonmodal phonations produced by an air escape through the glottis and may carry important linguistic or paralinguistic information (intentions, attitudes, and emotions), depending on the language. Analyses on spontaneous dialogue speech utterances of several speakers show that breathy and whispery voices are related with the expression of a variety of emotion- or attitude-related paralinguistic information. Potential acoustic parameters for characterizing breat...

  16. Mesoscale Architecture Shapes Initiation and Richness of Spontaneous Network Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okujeni, Samora; Kandler, Steffen; Egert, Ulrich

    2017-04-05

    Spontaneous activity in the absence of external input, including propagating waves of activity, is a robust feature of neuronal networks in vivo and in vitro The neurophysiological and anatomical requirements for initiation and persistence of such activity, however, are poorly understood, as is their role in the function of neuronal networks. Computational network studies indicate that clustered connectivity may foster the generation, maintenance, and richness of spontaneous activity. Since this mesoscale architecture cannot be systematically modified in intact tissue, testing these predictions is impracticable in vivo Here, we investigate how the mesoscale structure shapes spontaneous activity in generic networks of rat cortical neurons in vitro In these networks, neurons spontaneously arrange into local clusters with high neurite density and form fasciculating long-range axons. We modified this structure by modulation of protein kinase C, an enzyme regulating neurite growth and cell migration. Inhibition of protein kinase C reduced neuronal aggregation and fasciculation of axons, i.e., promoted uniform architecture. Conversely, activation of protein kinase C promoted aggregation of neurons into clusters, local connectivity, and bundling of long-range axons. Supporting predictions from theory, clustered networks were more spontaneously active and generated diverse activity patterns. Neurons within clusters received stronger synaptic inputs and displayed increased membrane potential fluctuations. Intensified clustering promoted the initiation of synchronous bursting events but entailed incomplete network recruitment. Moderately clustered networks appear optimal for initiation and propagation of diverse patterns of activity. Our findings support a crucial role of the mesoscale architectures in the regulation of spontaneous activity dynamics. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Computational studies predict richer and persisting spatiotemporal patterns of spontaneous activity in

  17. Censored: Whistleblowers and impossible speech

    OpenAIRE

    Kenny, Kate

    2017-01-01

    What happens to a person who speaks out about corruption in their organization, and finds themselves excluded from their profession? In this article, I argue that whistleblowers experience exclusions because they have engaged in ‘impossible speech’, that is, a speech act considered to be unacceptable or illegitimate. Drawing on Butler’s theories of recognition and censorship, I show how norms of acceptable speech working through recruitment practices, alongside the actions of colleagues, can ...

  18. Identifying Deceptive Speech Across Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-25

    collection of deceptive and non-deceptive speech recorded from interviews between native speaker of Mandarin and of English instructed to answer...report, such as final, technical, interim, memorandum, master’s thesis, progress , quarterly, research, special, group study, etc. 3. DATES COVERED...non-deceptive speech recorded from interviews between native speaker of Mandarin and of English and are currently completing the use of this data to

  19. Dimensional Emotion Recognition from Spontaneous Head Gestures for Interaction with Sensitive Artificial Listeners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunes, Hatice; Pantic, Maja; Allbeck, Jan; Badler, Norman; Bickmore, Timothy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Safonova, Alla

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on dimensional prediction of emotions from spontaneous conversational head gestures. It maps the amount and direction of head motion, and occurrences of head nods and shakes into arousal, expectation, intensity, power and valence level of the observed subject as there has been

  20. Are the Concepts of Dynamic Equilibrium and the Thermodynamic Criteria for Spontaneity, Nonspontaneity, and Equilibrium Compatible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Lee J.; Raff, Lionel M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic spontaneity-equilibrium criteria require that in a single-reaction system, reactions in either the forward or reverse direction at equilibrium be nonspontaneous. Conversely, the concept of dynamic equilibrium holds that forward and reverse reactions both occur at equal rates at equilibrium to the extent allowed by kinetic…

  1. Hydrothermal conversion of biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knezevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents research of hydrothermal conversion of biomass (HTC). In this process, hot compressed water (subcritical water) is used as the reaction medium. Therefore this technique is suitable for conversion of wet biomass/ waste streams. By working at high pressures, the evaporation of

  2. Conversations in African Philosophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Conversational philosophy is articulated by Jonathan O. Chimakonam as the new wave of philosophical practice both in “place” and in “space”. This journal adopts and promotes this approach to philosophizing for African philosophy. Readers are encouraged to submit their conversational piece (maximum of 2000 words) ...

  3. Energy conversion alternatives study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shure, L. T.

    1979-01-01

    Comparison of coal based energy systems is given. Study identifies and compares various advanced energy conversion systems using coal or coal derived fuels for baselaoad electric power generation. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) reports provede government, industry, and general public with technically consistent basis for comparison of system's options of interest for fossilfired electric-utility application.

  4. The Conversation Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Acy L.

    2012-01-01

    The conversation class occupies a unique place in the process of learning English as a second or foreign language. From the author's own experience in conducting special conversation classes with Persian-speaking adults, he has drawn up a number of simple but important guidelines, some of which he hopes may provide helpful suggestions for the…

  5. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  6. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  7. Shell theorem for spontaneous emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2013-01-01

    and therefore is given exactly by the dipole approximation theory. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorems of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides insights into the physics of mesoscopic emitters as well as great simplifications in practical calculations....

  8. Prediction of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Karolien

    2002-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is a major goal in obstetrics to lower the incidence of spontaneous preterm birth (SPB) and related neonatal morbidity and mortality. One of the principal objectives is to discover early markers that would allow us to identify

  9. EAMJ Dec. Spontaneous.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-12-12

    Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.

  10. Spontaneous fission of superheavy nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the Yukawa-plus-exponential potential. The microscopic shell and pairing corrections are obtained using the Strutinsky and BCS approaches and the cranking formulae yield the inertia tensor. Finally, the WKB method is used to calculate penetrabilities and spontaneous fission half-lives. Calculations are performed for the ...

  11. Externalizing the private experience of pain: a role for co-speech gestures in pain communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbotham, Samantha; Lloyd, Donna M; Holler, Judith; Wearden, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Despite the importance of effective pain communication, talking about pain represents a major challenge for patients and clinicians because pain is a private and subjective experience. Focusing primarily on acute pain, this article considers the limitations of current methods of obtaining information about the sensory characteristics of pain and suggests that spontaneously produced "co-speech hand gestures" may constitute an important source of information here. Although this is a relatively new area of research, we present recent empirical evidence that reveals that co-speech gestures contain important information about pain that can both add to and clarify speech. Following this, we discuss how these findings might eventually lead to a greater understanding of the sensory characteristics of pain, and to improvements in treatment and support for pain sufferers. We hope that this article will stimulate further research and discussion of this previously overlooked dimension of pain communication.

  12. Political conversations on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Political conversations are according to theories on deliberative democracy essential to well-functioning democracies. Traditionally these conversations have taken place in face-to-face settings, in e.g. party meetings and town meetings. However, social media such as Facebook and Twitter offers new...... possibilities for online political conversations between citizens and politicians. This paper examines the presence on Facebook and Twitter of Members of the Danish national Parliament, the Folketing, and focusses on a quantitative mapping of the political conversation activities taking place in the threads...... following Facebook posts from Danish Members of Parliament (MPs). The paper shows that, in comparison with previous findings from other countries, Danish MPs have a relatively high degree of engagement in political conversations with citizens on Facebook – and that a large number of citizens follow MPs...

  13. Exploring Australian speech-language pathologists' use and perceptions ofnon-speech oral motor exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbach, Anna F; Rose, Tanya A; Cheah, Mynn

    2018-01-29

    To explore Australian speech-language pathologists' use of non-speech oral motor exercises, and rationales for using/not using non-speech oral motor exercises in clinical practice. A total of 124 speech-language pathologists practising in Australia, working with paediatric and/or adult clients with speech sound difficulties, completed an online survey. The majority of speech-language pathologists reported that they did not use non-speech oral motor exercises when working with paediatric or adult clients with speech sound difficulties. However, more than half of the speech-language pathologists working with adult clients who have dysarthria reported using non-speech oral motor exercises with this population. The most frequently reported rationale for using non-speech oral motor exercises in speech sound difficulty management was to improve awareness/placement of articulators. The majority of speech-language pathologists agreed there is no clear clinical or research evidence base to support non-speech oral motor exercise use with clients who have speech sound difficulties. This study provides an overview of Australian speech-language pathologists' reported use and perceptions of non-speech oral motor exercises' applicability and efficacy in treating paediatric and adult clients who have speech sound difficulties. The research findings provide speech-language pathologists with insight into how and why non-speech oral motor exercises are currently used, and adds to the knowledge base regarding Australian speech-language pathology practice of non-speech oral motor exercises in the treatment of speech sound difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-speech oral motor exercises refer to oral motor activities which do not involve speech, but involve the manipulation or stimulation of oral structures including the lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate. Non-speech oral motor exercises are intended to improve the function (e.g., movement, strength) of oral structures. The

  14. Enhancement of speech signals - with a focus on voiced speech models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørholm, Sidsel Marie

    This thesis deals with speech enhancement, i.e., noise reduction in speech signals. This has applications in, e.g., hearing aids and teleconference systems. We consider a signal-driven approach to speech enhancement where a model of the speech is assumed and filters are generated based on this mo......This thesis deals with speech enhancement, i.e., noise reduction in speech signals. This has applications in, e.g., hearing aids and teleconference systems. We consider a signal-driven approach to speech enhancement where a model of the speech is assumed and filters are generated based...

  15. Stuttering inhibition via altered auditory feedback during scripted telephone conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudock, Daniel; Kalinowski, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Overt stuttering is inhibited by approximately 80% when people who stutter read aloud as they hear an altered form of their speech feedback to them. However, levels of stuttering inhibition vary from 60% to 100% depending on speaking situation and signal presentation. For example, binaural presentations of delayed auditory feedback (DAF) and frequency-altered feedback (FAF) have been shown to reduce stuttering by approximately 57% during scripted telephone conversations. To examine stuttering frequency under monaural auditory feedback with one combination of DAF with FAF (COMBO-2) and two combinations of DAF with FAF (COMBO-4) during scripted telephone conversations. Nine adult participants who stutter called 15 local businesses during scripted telephone conversations; each condition consisted of five randomized telephone calls. Conditions consisted of (1) baseline (i.e. non-altered feedback), (2) COMBO-2 (i.e. 50-ms delay with a half octave spectral shift up), and (3) COMBO-4 (i.e. 200-ms delay and a half octave spectral shift down in addition to the COMBO-2). Participants wore a supra-aural headset with a dynamic condenser microphone while holding a receiver to their contralateral ear when making telephone calls. Stuttering was significantly reduced during both altered auditory feedback (AAF) conditions by approximately 65%. Furthermore, a greater reduction in stuttering was revealed during the COMBO with four effects (74%) as compared with the COMBO with two effects (63%). Results from the current study support prior research reporting decreased stuttering under AAF during scripted telephone conversations. Findings that stuttering was significantly reduced to a greater extent under the COMBO with four effects condition suggest that second signals reduce stuttering along a continuum. Additionally, findings support prior research results of decreased stuttering frequency under AAF during hierarchically difficult speaking situations. Clinical application of these

  16. Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Elmahdy, Mohamed; Minker, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Novel Techniques for Dialectal Arabic Speech describes approaches to improve automatic speech recognition for dialectal Arabic. Since speech resources for dialectal Arabic speech recognition are very sparse, the authors describe how existing Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) speech data can be applied to dialectal Arabic speech recognition, while assuming that MSA is always a second language for all Arabic speakers. In this book, Egyptian Colloquial Arabic (ECA) has been chosen as a typical Arabic dialect. ECA is the first ranked Arabic dialect in terms of number of speakers, and a high quality ECA speech corpus with accurate phonetic transcription has been collected. MSA acoustic models were trained using news broadcast speech. In order to cross-lingually use MSA in dialectal Arabic speech recognition, the authors have normalized the phoneme sets for MSA and ECA. After this normalization, they have applied state-of-the-art acoustic model adaptation techniques like Maximum Likelihood Linear Regression (MLLR) and M...

  17. Neural bases of accented speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patti eAdank

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of unfamiliar regional and foreign accents represents a challenging task for the speech perception system (Adank, Evans, Stuart-Smith, & Scott, 2009; Floccia, Goslin, Girard, & Konopczynski, 2006. Despite the frequency with which we encounter such accents, the neural mechanisms supporting successful perception of accented speech are poorly understood. Nonetheless, candidate neural substrates involved in processing speech in challenging listening conditions, including accented speech, are beginning to be identified. This review will outline neural bases associated with perception of accented speech in the light of current models of speech perception, and compare these data to brain areas associated with processing other speech distortions. We will subsequently evaluate competing models of speech processing with regards to neural processing of accented speech. See Cristia et al. (2012 for an in-depth overview of behavioural aspects of accent processing.

  18. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  19. Neural pathways for visual speech perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne E Bernstein

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the questions, what levels of speech can be perceived visually, and how is visual speech represented by the brain? Review of the literature leads to the conclusions that every level of psycholinguistic speech structure (i.e., phonetic features, phonemes, syllables, words, and prosody can be perceived visually, although individuals differ in their abilities to do so; and that there are visual modality-specific representations of speech qua speech in higher-level vision brain areas. That is, the visual system represents the modal patterns of visual speech. The suggestion that the auditory speech pathway receives and represents visual speech is examined in light of neuroimaging evidence on the auditory speech pathways. We outline the generally agreed-upon organization of the visual ventral and dorsal pathways and examine several types of visual processing that might be related to speech through those pathways, specifically, face and body, orthography, and sign language processing. In this context, we examine the visual speech processing literature, which reveals widespread diverse patterns activity in posterior temporal cortices in response to visual speech stimuli. We outline a model of the visual and auditory speech pathways and make several suggestions: (1 The visual perception of speech relies on visual pathway representations of speech qua speech. (2 A proposed site of these representations, the temporal visual speech area (TVSA has been demonstrated in posterior temporal cortex, ventral and posterior to multisensory posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS. (3 Given that visual speech has dynamic and configural features, its representations in feedforward visual pathways are expected to integrate these features, possibly in TVSA.

  20. Mistaking minds and machines: How speech affects dehumanization and anthropomorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Juliana; Epley, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Treating a human mind like a machine is an essential component of dehumanization, whereas attributing a humanlike mind to a machine is an essential component of anthropomorphism. Here we tested how a cue closely connected to a person's actual mental experience-a humanlike voice-affects the likelihood of mistaking a person for a machine, or a machine for a person. We predicted that paralinguistic cues in speech are particularly likely to convey the presence of a humanlike mind, such that removing voice from communication (leaving only text) would increase the likelihood of mistaking the text's creator for a machine. Conversely, adding voice to a computer-generated script (resulting in speech) would increase the likelihood of mistaking the text's creator for a human. Four experiments confirmed these hypotheses, demonstrating that people are more likely to infer a human (vs. computer) creator when they hear a voice expressing thoughts than when they read the same thoughts in text. Adding human visual cues to text (i.e., seeing a person perform a script in a subtitled video clip), did not increase the likelihood of inferring a human creator compared with only reading text, suggesting that defining features of personhood may be conveyed more clearly in speech (Experiments 1 and 2). Removing the naturalistic paralinguistic cues that convey humanlike capacity for thinking and feeling, such as varied pace and intonation, eliminates the humanizing effect of speech (Experiment 4). We discuss implications for dehumanizing others through text-based media, and for anthropomorphizing machines through speech-based media. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Impact of cognitive function and dysarthria on spoken language and perceived speech severity in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenaughty, Lynda

    Purpose: The current study sought to investigate the separate effects of dysarthria and cognitive status on global speech timing, speech hesitation, and linguistic complexity characteristics and how these speech behaviors impose on listener impressions for three connected speech tasks presumed to differ in cognitive-linguistic demand for four carefully defined speaker groups; 1) MS with cognitive deficits (MSCI), 2) MS with clinically diagnosed dysarthria and intact cognition (MSDYS), 3) MS without dysarthria or cognitive deficits (MS), and 4) healthy talkers (CON). The relationship between neuropsychological test scores and speech-language production and perceptual variables for speakers with cognitive deficits was also explored. Methods: 48 speakers, including 36 individuals reporting a neurological diagnosis of MS and 12 healthy talkers participated. The three MS groups and control group each contained 12 speakers (8 women and 4 men). Cognitive function was quantified using standard clinical tests of memory, information processing speed, and executive function. A standard z-score of ≤ -1.50 indicated deficits in a given cognitive domain. Three certified speech-language pathologists determined the clinical diagnosis of dysarthria for speakers with MS. Experimental speech tasks of interest included audio-recordings of an oral reading of the Grandfather passage and two spontaneous speech samples in the form of Familiar and Unfamiliar descriptive discourse. Various measures of spoken language were of interest. Suprasegmental acoustic measures included speech and articulatory rate. Linguistic speech hesitation measures included pause frequency (i.e., silent and filled pauses), mean silent pause duration, grammatical appropriateness of pauses, and interjection frequency. For the two discourse samples, three standard measures of language complexity were obtained including subordination index, inter-sentence cohesion adequacy, and lexical diversity. Ten listeners

  2. Spontaneous Retropharyngeal Emphysema: A Case Report | Chi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is a rare clinical condition in pediatric otolaryngology. The predominant symptoms are sore throat, odynophagia, dysphagia, and neck pain. Here, we report a case of spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysema. Keywords: Iatrogenic injury, retropharyngeal emphysema, spontaneous retropharyngeal emphysem, trauma ...

  3. La maladie de Grisel : Spontaneous atlantoaxial subluxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; Robinson, PH; Hermens, RAEC

    Objective: "La maladie de Grisel" (Grisel's syndrome) is a spontaneously occurring atlantoaxial subluxation with torticollis. We present a case of atlantoaxial subluxation occurring in a 20-year period of pharyngoplasty surgery. The occurrence of a "spontaneous" atlantoaxial subluxation after oral

  4. A wireless brain-machine interface for real-time speech synthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank H Guenther

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs involving electrodes implanted into the human cerebral cortex have recently been developed in an attempt to restore function to profoundly paralyzed individuals. Current BMIs for restoring communication can provide important capabilities via a typing process, but unfortunately they are only capable of slow communication rates. In the current study we use a novel approach to speech restoration in which we decode continuous auditory parameters for a real-time speech synthesizer from neuronal activity in motor cortex during attempted speech.Neural signals recorded by a Neurotrophic Electrode implanted in a speech-related region of the left precentral gyrus of a human volunteer suffering from locked-in syndrome, characterized by near-total paralysis with spared cognition, were transmitted wirelessly across the scalp and used to drive a speech synthesizer. A Kalman filter-based decoder translated the neural signals generated during attempted speech into continuous parameters for controlling a synthesizer that provided immediate (within 50 ms auditory feedback of the decoded sound. Accuracy of the volunteer's vowel productions with the synthesizer improved quickly with practice, with a 25% improvement in average hit rate (from 45% to 70% and 46% decrease in average endpoint error from the first to the last block of a three-vowel task.Our results support the feasibility of neural prostheses that may have the potential to provide near-conversational synthetic speech output for individuals with severely impaired speech motor control. They also provide an initial glimpse into the functional properties of neurons in speech motor cortical areas.

  5. Uranium conversion; Urankonvertering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliver, Lena; Peterson, Jenny; Wilhelmsen, Katarina [Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-03-15

    FOI, has performed a study on uranium conversion processes that are of importance in the production of different uranium compounds in the nuclear industry. The same conversion processes are of interest both when production of nuclear fuel and production of fissile material for nuclear weapons are considered. Countries that have nuclear weapons ambitions, with the intention to produce highly enriched uranium for weapons purposes, need some degree of uranium conversion capability depending on the uranium feed material available. This report describes the processes that are needed from uranium mining and milling to the different conversion processes for converting uranium ore concentrate to uranium hexafluoride. Uranium hexafluoride is the uranium compound used in most enrichment facilities. The processes needed to produce uranium dioxide for use in nuclear fuel and the processes needed to convert different uranium compounds to uranium metal - the form of uranium that is used in a nuclear weapon - are also presented. The production of uranium ore concentrate from uranium ore is included since uranium ore concentrate is the feed material required for a uranium conversion facility. Both the chemistry and principles or the different uranium conversion processes and the equipment needed in the processes are described. Since most of the equipment that is used in a uranium conversion facility is similar to that used in conventional chemical industry, it is difficult to determine if certain equipment is considered for uranium conversion or not. However, the chemical conversion processes where UF{sub 6} and UF{sub 4} are present require equipment that is made of corrosion resistant material.

  6. Speak Up: Increasing Conversational Volume in a Child with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Edgerton, Leigh; Wine, Byron

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in social interactions are a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder. This study examined one relatively uncommon aspect of social interactions that has not received much attention from the literature: appropriate conversational volume. Conversational speech volume was measured using a commercially available application, and a package intervention was developed that consisted of feedback from the voice measuring application, signaling from a wrist bracelet, and differential reinforcemen...

  7. Energy conversion statics

    CERN Document Server

    Messerle, H K; Declaris, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Energy Conversion Statics deals with equilibrium situations and processes linking equilibrium states. A development of the basic theory of energy conversion statics and its applications is presented. In the applications the emphasis is on processes involving electrical energy. The text commences by introducing the general concept of energy with a survey of primary and secondary energy forms, their availability, and use. The second chapter presents the basic laws of energy conversion. Four postulates defining the overall range of applicability of the general theory are set out, demonstrating th

  8. Uranium Conversion & Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpius, Peter Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-06

    The isotopes of uranium that are found in nature, and hence in ‘fresh’ Yellowcake’, are not in relative proportions that are suitable for power or weapons applications. The goal of conversion then is to transform the U3O8 yellowcake into UF6. Conversion and enrichment of uranium is usually required to obtain material with enough 235U to be usable as fuel in a reactor or weapon. The cost, size, and complexity of practical conversion and enrichment facilities aid in nonproliferation by design.

  9. Postoperative conversion disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Kola; Ali, Sameer; Gahtan, Vivian; Gorji, Reza; Li, Fenghua; Nussmeier, Nancy A

    2016-05-01

    Conversion disorder is a psychiatric disorder in which psychological stress causes neurologic deficits. A 28-year-old female surgical patient had uneventful general anesthesia and emergence but developed conversion disorder 1 hour postoperatively. She reported difficulty speaking, right-hand numbness and weakness, and right-leg paralysis. Neurologic examination and imaging revealed no neuronal damage, herniation, hemorrhage, or stroke. The patient mentioned failing examinations the day before surgery and discontinuing her prescribed antidepressant medication, leading us to diagnose conversion disorder, with eventual confirmation by neuroimaging and follow-up examinations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Model for Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ayres, Phil

    2012-01-01

    This essay discusses models. It examines what models are, the roles models perform and suggests various intentions that underlie their construction and use. It discusses how models act as a conversational partner, and how they support various forms of conversation within the conversational activity...... of design. Three distinctions are drawn through which to develop this discussion of models in an architectural context. An examination of these distinctions serves to nuance particular characteristics and roles of models, the modelling activity itself and those engaged in it....

  11. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  12. Uranium conversion wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.; Dellamano, J.C.

    1989-12-01

    A set of mathematical equations was developed and used to estimate the radiological significance of each radionuclide potentially present in the uranium refining industry effluents. The equations described the evolution in time of the radionuclides activities in the uranium fuel cycle, from mining and milling, through the yellowcake, till the conversion effluents. Some radionuclides that are not usually monitored in conversion effluents (e.g. Pa-231 and Ac-227) were found to be potentially relevant from the radiological point of view in conversion facilities, and are certainly relevant in mining and milling industry, at least in a few waste streams. (author) [pt

  13. Prediction of speech intelligibility based on an auditory preprocessing model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Forup Corlin; Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Dau, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    Classical speech intelligibility models, such as the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII) are based on calculations on the physical acoustic signals. The present study predicts speech intelligibility by combining a psychoacoustically validated model of auditory...

  14. Contextual variability during speech-in-speech recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Susanne; Bradlow, Ann R

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the influence of background language variation on speech recognition. English listeners performed an English sentence recognition task in either "pure" background conditions in which all trials had either English or Dutch background babble or in mixed background conditions in which the background language varied across trials (i.e., a mix of English and Dutch or one of these background languages mixed with quiet trials). This design allowed the authors to compare performance on identical trials across pure and mixed conditions. The data reveal that speech-in-speech recognition is sensitive to contextual variation in terms of the target-background language (mis)match depending on the relative ease/difficulty of the test trials in relation to the surrounding trials.

  15. Feasibility of automated speech sample collection with stuttering children using interactive voice response (IVR) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Adam P; Block, Susan; Kefalianos, Elaina; Onslow, Mark; Eadie, Patricia; Barth, Ben; Conway, Laura; Mundt, James C; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the feasibility of adopting automated interactive voice response (IVR) technology for remotely capturing standardized speech samples from stuttering children. Participants were 10 6-year-old stuttering children. Their parents called a toll-free number from their homes and were prompted to elicit speech from their children using a standard protocol involving conversation, picture description and games. The automated IVR system was implemented using an off-the-shelf telephony software program and delivered by a standard desktop computer. The software infrastructure utilizes voice over internet protocol. Speech samples were automatically recorded during the calls. Video recordings were simultaneously acquired in the home at the time of the call to evaluate the fidelity of the telephone collected samples. Key outcome measures included syllables spoken, percentage of syllables stuttered and an overall rating of stuttering severity using a 10-point scale. Data revealed a high level of relative reliability in terms of intra-class correlation between the video and telephone acquired samples on all outcome measures during the conversation task. Findings were less consistent for speech samples during picture description and games. Results suggest that IVR technology can be used successfully to automate remote capture of child speech samples.

  16. Spontaneous regression of intracranial malignant lymphoma. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojo, Nobuto; Tokutomi, Takashi; Eguchi, Gihachirou; Takagi, Shigeyuki; Matsumoto, Tomie; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki; Shigemori, Minoru.

    1988-05-01

    In a 46-year-old female with a 1-month history of gait and speech disturbances, computed tomography (CT) demonstrated mass lesions of slightly high density in the left basal ganglia and left frontal lobe. The lesions were markedly enhanced by contrast medium. The patient received no specific treatment, but her clinical manifestations gradually abated and the lesions decreased in size. Five months after her initial examination, the lesions were absent on CT scans; only a small area of low density remained. Residual clinical symptoms included mild right hemiparesis and aphasia. After 14 months the patient again deteriorated, and a CT scan revealed mass lesions in the right frontal lobe and the pons. However, no enhancement was observed in the previously affected regions. A biopsy revealed malignant lymphoma. Despite treatment with steroids and radiation, the patient's clinical status progressively worsened and she died 27 months after initial presentation. Seven other cases of spontaneous regression of primary malignant lymphoma have been reported. In this case, the mechanism of the spontaneous regression was not clear, but changes in immunologic status may have been involved.

  17. Systematics of spontaneous positron lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Reus, T. de; Reinhardt, J.; Mueller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-08-01

    Dynamical and spontaneous positron emission are investigated for heavy-ion collisions with long time delay using a semiclassical description. Numerical results and analytical expressions for the characteristic quantities of the resulting spontaneous positron line, i.e., its position, width, and cross section, are compared. The expected behaviour of the line position and cross section and its visibility against the spectrum of dynamically created positrons is discussed in dependence of the united charge Zsub(u) of projectile and target nucleus in a range of systems from Zsub(u)=180 up to Zsub(u)=188. The results are confronted with presently available experimental data, and possible implications on further experiments are worked out. (orig.)

  18. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  19. Spontaneous regression of colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kihara, Kyoichi; Fujita, Shin; Ohshiro, Taihei; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Sekine, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A case of spontaneous regression of transverse colon cancer is reported. A 64-year-old man was diagnosed as having cancer of the transverse colon at a local hospital. Initial and second colonoscopy examinations revealed a typical cancer of the transverse colon, which was diagnosed as moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma. The patient underwent right hemicolectomy 6 weeks after the initial colonoscopy. The resected specimen showed only a scar at the tumor site, and no cancerous tissue was proven histologically. The patient is alive with no evidence of recurrence 1 year after surgery. Although an antitumor immune response is the most likely explanation, the exact nature of the phenomenon was unclear. We describe this rare case and review the literature pertaining to spontaneous regression of colorectal cancer. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudmik, Luke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epistaxis is a common otolaryngology emergency and is often controlled with first-line interventions such as cautery, hemostatic agents, or anterior nasal packing. A subset of patients will continue to bleed and require more aggressive therapy. Methods: Intractable spontaneous epistaxis was traditionally managed with posterior nasal packing and prolonged hospital admission. In an effort to reduce patient morbidity and shorten hospital stay, surgical and endovascular techniques have gained popularity. A literature review was conducted. Results: Transnasal endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and arterial embolization provide excellent control rates but the decision to choose one over the other can be challenging. The role of transnasal endoscopic anterior ethmoid artery ligation is unclear but may be considered in certain cases when bleeding localizes to the ethmoid region. Conclusion: This article will focus on the management of intractable spontaneous epistaxis and discuss the role of endoscopic arterial ligation and embolization as it pertains to this challenging clinical scenario. PMID:22391084

  1. Voice Activity Detection. Fundamentals and Speech Recognition System Robustness

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J.; Gorriz, J. M.; Segura, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter has shown an overview of the main challenges in robust speech detection and a review of the state of the art and applications. VADs are frequently used in a number of applications including speech coding, speech enhancement and speech recognition. A precise VAD extracts a set of discriminative speech features from the noisy speech and formulates the decision in terms of well defined rule. The chapter has summarized three robust VAD methods that yield high speech/non-speech discri...

  2. Spontaneous baryogenesis in warm inflation

    OpenAIRE

    Brandenberger, Robert H.; Yamaguchi, Masahide

    2003-01-01

    We discuss spontaneous baryogenesis in the warm inflation scenario. In contrast with standard inflation models, radiation always exists in the warm inflation scenario, and the inflaton must be directly coupled to it. Also, the transition to the post-inflationary radiation dominated phase is smooth and the entropy is not significantly increased at the end of the period of inflation. In addition, after the period of warm inflation ends, the inflaton does not oscillate coherently but slowly roll...

  3. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  4. Conversational flow promotes solidarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Postmes, Tom; Gordijn, Ernestine H

    2013-01-01

    Social interaction is fundamental to the development of various aspects of "we-ness". Previous research has focused on the role the content of interaction plays in establishing feelings of unity, belongingness and shared reality (a cluster of variables referred to as solidarity here). The present paper is less concerned with content, but focuses on the form of social interaction. We propose that the degree to which conversations flow smoothly or not is, of itself, a cue to solidarity. We test this hypothesis in samples of unacquainted and acquainted dyads who communicate via headsets. Conversational flow is disrupted by introducing a delay in the auditory feedback (vs. no delay). Results of three studies show that smoothly coordinated conversations (compared with disrupted conversations and a control condition) increase feelings of belonging and perceptions of group entitativity, independently of conversation content. These effects are driven by the subjective experience of conversational flow. Our data suggest that this process occurs largely beyond individuals' control. We conclude that the form of social interaction is a powerful cue for inferring group solidarity. Implications for the impact of modern communication technology on developing a shared social identity are discussed.

  5. Direct energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, Z.; Kramar, J.

    1975-01-01

    The current state of research of direct energy conversion is briefly discussed and a more detailed description is given of MHD and thermionic energy conversion. Current and prospective values of characteristic variables of various energy conversion methods are listed. MHD generators produce terminal voltage of the same order as turbogenerators while other generators for direct energy conversion only produce voltages of 0.1 to 1.5 V so that the respective elements must be parallel-connected. From the point of view of current density, thermionic conversion having the emitter surface value in the order of 10 A/cm 2 ranks first. As for MHD generators, main attention is devoted to open-cycle generators with combustion products as the working medium. It is envisaged that after 1980 MHD power plants will be commissioned having an electric output of up to 500 MW. By 1990, the construction should be started of basic MHD power plants with a total thermal efficiency of about 55%. The research of thermionic conversion focused on practical applications has mainly been concentrated on nuclear power converters. Nuclear or isotope converters have already been built and used in a number of specific applications as low-power sources, e.g., in space exploration, etc. Preparations are under way for applying high-power sources in telecommunication satellites (USSR, USA). (Z.S.)

  6. Speech serial control in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria: Effects of sequence length and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J Reilly

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated the processes responsible for selection of sounds and syllables during production of speech sequences in 10 adults with hypokinetic dysarthria from Parkinson’s disease, 5 adults with ataxic dysarthria, and 14 healthy control speakers. Speech production data from a choice reaction time task were analyzed to evaluate the effects of sequence length and practice on speech sound sequencing. Speakers produced sequences that were between one and five syllables in length over five experimental runs of 60 trials each. In contrast to the healthy speakers, speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria demonstrated exaggerated sequence length effects for both inter-syllable intervals (ISIs and speech error rates. Conversely, speakers with ataxic dysarthria failed to demonstrate a sequence length effect on ISIs and were also the only group that did not exhibit practice-related changes in ISIs and speech error rates over the five experimental runs. The exaggerated sequence length effects in the hypokinetic speakers with Parkinson’s disease are consistent with an impairment of action selection during speech sequence production. The absent length effects observed in the speakers with ataxic dysarthria is consistent with previous findings that indicate a limited capacity to buffer speech sequences in advance of their execution. In addition, the lack of practice effects in these speakers suggests that learning-related improvements in the production rate and accuracy of speech sequences involves processing by structures of the cerebellum. Together, the current findings inform models of serial control for speech in healthy speakers and support the notion that sequencing deficits contribute to speech symptoms in speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. In addition, these findings indicate that speech sequencing is differentially impaired in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria.

  7. Speech serial control in healthy speakers and speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria: effects of sequence length and practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kevin J.; Spencer, Kristie A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the processes responsible for selection of sounds and syllables during production of speech sequences in 10 adults with hypokinetic dysarthria from Parkinson’s disease, five adults with ataxic dysarthria, and 14 healthy control speakers. Speech production data from a choice reaction time task were analyzed to evaluate the effects of sequence length and practice on speech sound sequencing. Speakers produced sequences that were between one and five syllables in length over five experimental runs of 60 trials each. In contrast to the healthy speakers, speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria demonstrated exaggerated sequence length effects for both inter-syllable intervals (ISIs) and speech error rates. Conversely, speakers with ataxic dysarthria failed to demonstrate a sequence length effect on ISIs and were also the only group that did not exhibit practice-related changes in ISIs and speech error rates over the five experimental runs. The exaggerated sequence length effects in the hypokinetic speakers with Parkinson’s disease are consistent with an impairment of action selection during speech sequence production. The absent length effects observed in the speakers with ataxic dysarthria is consistent with previous findings that indicate a limited capacity to buffer speech sequences in advance of their execution. In addition, the lack of practice effects in these speakers suggests that learning-related improvements in the production rate and accuracy of speech sequences involves processing by structures of the cerebellum. Together, the current findings inform models of serial control for speech in healthy speakers and support the notion that sequencing deficits contribute to speech symptoms in speakers with hypokinetic or ataxic dysarthria. In addition, these findings indicate that speech sequencing is differentially impaired in hypokinetic and ataxic dysarthria. PMID:24137121

  8. Speech Inconsistency in Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech, Language Impairment, and Speech Delay: Depends on the Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Hogan, Tiffany P.; Green, Jordan R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The current research sought to determine (a) if speech inconsistency is a core feature of childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) or if it is driven by comorbid language impairment that affects a large subset of children with CAS and (b) if speech inconsistency is a sensitive and specific diagnostic marker that can differentiate between CAS and…

  9. Speech Recognition: Its Place in Business Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szul, Linda F.; Bouder, Michele

    2003-01-01

    Suggests uses of speech recognition devices in the classroom for students with disabilities. Compares speech recognition software packages and provides guidelines for selection and teaching. (Contains 14 references.) (SK)

  10. Speech input interfaces for anaesthesia records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Alexandre; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2009-01-01

    Speech recognition as a medical transcript tool is now common in hospitals and is steadily increasing......Speech recognition as a medical transcript tool is now common in hospitals and is steadily increasing...

  11. Modeling speech intelligibility in adverse conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Torsten

    2012-01-01

    by the normal as well as impaired auditory system. Jørgensen and Dau [(2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 130, 1475-1487] proposed the speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) in an attempt to overcome the limitations of the classical speech transmission index (STI) and speech intelligibility index (SII......) in conditions with nonlinearly processed speech. Instead of considering the reduction of the temporal modulation energy as the intelligibility metric, as assumed in the STI, the sEPSM applies the signal-to-noise ratio in the envelope domain (SNRenv). This metric was shown to be the key for predicting...... the intelligibility of reverberant speech as well as noisy speech processed by spectral subtraction. However, the sEPSM cannot account for speech subjected to phase jitter, a condition in which the spectral structure of speech is destroyed, while the broadband temporal envelope is kept largely intact. In contrast...

  12. Common neural substrates support speech and non-speech vocal tract gestures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Soo-Eun; Kenney, Mary Kay; Loucks, Torrey M J; Poletto, Christopher J; Ludlow, Christy L

    2009-08-01

    The issue of whether speech is supported by the same neural substrates as non-speech vocal tract gestures has been contentious. In this fMRI study we tested whether producing non-speech vocal tract gestures in humans shares the same functional neuroanatomy as non-sense speech syllables. Production of non-speech vocal tract gestures, devoid of phonological content but similar to speech in that they had familiar acoustic and somatosensory targets, was compared to the production of speech syllables without meaning. Brain activation related to overt production was captured with BOLD fMRI using a sparse sampling design for both conditions. Speech and non-speech were compared using voxel-wise whole brain analyses, and ROI analyses focused on frontal and temporoparietal structures previously reported to support speech production. Results showed substantial activation overlap between speech and non-speech function in regions. Although non-speech gesture production showed greater extent and amplitude of activation in the regions examined, both speech and non-speech showed comparable left laterality in activation for both target perception and production. These findings posit a more general role of the previously proposed "auditory dorsal stream" in the left hemisphere--to support the production of vocal tract gestures that are not limited to speech processing.

  13. Poor Speech Perception Is Not a Core Deficit of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Cabbage, Kathryn; Green, Jordan R.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is hypothesized to arise from deficits in speech motor planning and programming, but the influence of abnormal speech perception in CAS on these processes is debated. This study examined speech perception abilities among children with CAS with and without language impairment compared to those with…

  14. The treatment of apraxia of speech : Speech and music therapy, an innovative joint effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkmans, Josephus Johannes Stephanus

    2016-01-01

    Apraxia of Speech (AoS) is a neurogenic speech disorder. A wide variety of behavioural methods have been developed to treat AoS. Various therapy programmes use musical elements to improve speech production. A unique therapy programme combining elements of speech therapy and music therapy is called

  15. Motor Speech Phenotypes of Frontotemporal Dementia, Primary Progressive Aphasia, and Progressive Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Matthew L.; Brodtmann, Amy; Darby, David; Vogel, Adam P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Our purpose was to create a comprehensive review of speech impairment in frontotemporal dementia (FTD), primary progressive aphasia (PPA), and progressive apraxia of speech in order to identify the most effective measures for diagnosis and monitoring, and to elucidate associations between speech and neuroimaging. Method: Speech and…

  16. Listeners Experience Linguistic Masking Release in Noise-Vocoded Speech-in-Speech Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Navin; Kokkinakis, Kostas; Williams, Brittany T.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether listeners with normal hearing perceiving noise-vocoded speech-in-speech demonstrate better intelligibility of target speech when the background speech was mismatched in language (linguistic release from masking [LRM]) and/or location (spatial release from masking [SRM]) relative to the…

  17. Visual context enhanced. The joint contribution of iconic gestures and visible speech to degraded speech comprehension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drijvers, L.; Özyürek, A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated whether and to what extent iconic co-speech gestures contribute to information from visible speech to enhance degraded speech comprehension at different levels of noise-vocoding. Previous studies of the contributions of these 2 visual articulators to speech

  18. Inner Speech's Relationship with Overt Speech in Poststroke Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Brielle C.; Geva, Sharon; Warburton, Elizabeth A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Relatively preserved inner speech alongside poor overt speech has been documented in some persons with aphasia (PWA), but the relationship of overt speech with inner speech is still largely unclear, as few studies have directly investigated these factors. The present study investigates the relationship of relatively preserved inner speech…

  19. Predicting Speech Intelligibility with a Multiple Speech Subsystems Approach in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimin; Hustad, Katherine C.; Weismer, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Speech acoustic characteristics of children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined with a multiple speech subsystems approach; speech intelligibility was evaluated using a prediction model in which acoustic measures were selected to represent three speech subsystems. Method: Nine acoustic variables reflecting different subsystems, and…

  20. The Use of Non-Specific Comments in a Conversation Aid for Non-Speaking People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, John; Morrison, Zara

    1995-01-01

    TALK (Talk Aid using pre-Loaded Knowledge) is a computer system linked to a speech synthesizer which enables nonspeaking people to engage in real-time social conversation. TALK provides categories of general comments that can be used whenever a suitable specific response is unavailable. Results are reported of a study evaluating effectiveness of…