Steele, S J
This discusses activities current in England under the abortion law of April 1968. In England and Wales in 1969 there were 54,013 recorded abortions and 15 related deaths. Since then both the number of deaths and the number of abortions have been increasing. This abortion increase is partly attributed to the adverse publicity regarding the pill which has caused many women to give up oral contraceptives. Complications have included incomplete removal of the products of conception, sepsis, hemorrhage, and perforation of the uterus. There have been wide variation in interpretations of the law by different hospitals and staffs. Sterilization operations are being done in increasing number for both men and women. Carefully worded consent forms are now in use to insure patient understanding and consent. Psychological changes may follow sterilization, but are relatively uncommon. Physicians should do all possible to help women avoid unwanted pregnancies and thereby reduce the demand for termination.
Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum
Many people believe human fetuses have the same moral status as adult human persons, that it is wrong to allow harm to befall things with this moral status, and thus voluntary, induced abortion is seriously morally wrong. Recently, many prochoice theorists have argued that this antiabortion stance is inconsistent; approximately 60% of human fetuses die from spontaneous abortion, far more than die from induced abortion, so if antiabortion theorists really believe that human fetuses have significant moral status, they have strong moral obligations to oppose spontaneous abortion. Yet, few antiabortion theorists devote any effort to doing so. Many prochoice theorists argue that to resolve this inconsistency, antiabortion theorists should abandon their opposition to induced abortion. Here, I argue that those who do not abandon their opposition to induced abortion but continue to neglect spontaneous abortion act immorally. Aristotle argues that moral responsibility requires both control and awareness; I argue that once an antiabortion theorist becomes aware of the frequency of spontaneous abortion, they have a strong moral obligation to redirect their efforts towards combating spontaneous abortion; failure to do so is morally monstrous. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A
Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of
Sato, Tomoko; Fujimori, Keiya; Sato, Akira; Ohto, Hitoshi
To investigate fetomaternal microchimerism in women with induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 76 healthy women who underwent dilation and curettage in the first trimester but had never had an abortion or male delivery before. Samples were collected at three time points: just before, 7 days after, and 30 days after abortion. Y chromosome-specific, nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the sex-determining region of Y (SRY) was used to test DNA extracted from buffy coat cells. DNA was also extracted from the chorion to determine sex. The sensitivity of our assay allowed detection of approximately one male cell in 100,000 female cells. Thirty-six male and 40 female chorions were obtained. Male DNA was found in 52.8% of women who had a male chorion before abortion, decreasing to 5.6% at 7 days after abortion. At 30 days after abortion, no male DNA was detected. Male DNA was never detected at any point from women with a female chorion. Fetal cells in the maternal circulation are undetectable 30 days after induced abortion or spontaneous pregnancy loss. Fetal cells may be harbored in maternal organs.
Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter
Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...
Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie
To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....
Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion
Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter
Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short ...
Ambühl, Lea Maria Margareta; Baandrup, Ulrik; Dybkær, Karen
, and 10.9% (95% CI; 10.1–11.7) for umbilical cord blood. Summary estimates for HPV prevalence of spontaneous abortions and spontaneous preterm deliveries, in cervix (spontaneous abortions: 24.5%, and pretermdeliveries: 47%, resp.) and placenta (spontaneous abortions: 24.9%, and preterm deliveries: 50......%, resp.), were identified to be higher compared to normal full-term pregnancies (푃 spontaneous abortion, spontaneous preterm...
Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.
Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... time periods are the relevant measure. We followed a cohort of first pregnancy planners from termination of birth control until pregnancy for a maximum of six menstrual cycles. The analyses include 181 pregnancies, of which 32 were subclinical pregnancies detected by hCG analysis only. During early...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...
Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen
BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...
Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...
Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah
STUDY QUESTION: Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? SUMMARY ANSWER: We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced...... abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk...... and spontaneous abortion over time. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995...
Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik
Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...
Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik
Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During...... the first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....
Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A; Karasek, Deborah; Adler, Nancy E; Mortensen, Laust H
Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk aversion, moreover, supposedly influences all decisions including those that individuals can and cannot report making. We argue that these circumstances, if real, would manifest in conscious and non-conscious decisions to invest in prospective offspring, and therefore affect incidence of induced and spontaneous abortion over time. Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995 through December 2009), yielded 1 351 800 gestations including 156 780 spontaneous as well as 233 280 induced abortions 9100 of which were clinically indicated. We use Box-Jenkins transfer functions to adjust the incidence of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions for autocorrelation (including seasonality), cohort size, and fetal as well as gestational anomalies over the 180-month test period. We use cross-correlation to test our hypothesized association. We find a positive association between spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. Limitations of our work include that even the world's best registration system
OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol......, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had...
given birth twice or more previously had increased odds ratio (OR), 1.78 (1.27-2.49), whereas women who were students had decreased OR, 0.55 (0.34-0.91) for having spontaneous abortions. Regarding lifestyle factors, the adjusted ORs among women who consumed 5 units or more alcohol per week or 375 mg......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...
, and caffeine consumption was studied using logistic regression analyzes while controlling for confounding variables. In addition stratified analyzes of the association between caffeine consumption and spontaneous abortion on the basis of cigarette and alcohol consumption were performed. RESULTS: Women who had......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...
A prospective study of patients with induced and spontaneous abortion to compare the microorganisms isolated from their endocervical canals was carried out at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital, Sagamu Nigeria over an eight year period, January 1997 to December 2004. There were 132 cases of abortion ...
Jacobs, P A; Hassold, T J; Henry, A; Pettay, D; Takaesu, N
In a series of 2922 karyotyped spontaneous abortions, 62 were found to be trisomic for chromosome 13, 46 having a simple trisomy and 16 a translocation trisomy. The epidemiology of this series of trisomy 13 conceptuses is presented and compared to that of trisomy 13 ascertained from other populations. In most compared parameters the trisomy 13 spontaneous abortions are very similar. However, there is no evidence in our material for the fall in proportion of trisomy 13 conceptuses at very adva...
Song, Lulu; Shen, Lijun; Mandiwa, Chrispin; Yang, Siyi; Liang, Yuan; Yuan, Jing; Wang, Youjie
The relationship between abortion and uterine fibroids has received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between number of induced and spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids in middle-aged and older Chinese women. A total of 14,595 retired female employees from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort study were included in our analysis. Information on induced and spontaneous abortions was collected by trained interviewers through face-to-face interviews. Diagnosis of uterine fibroids was based on ultrasound or self-reported physician diagnosis of uterine fibroids. Logistic regression models were used to explore the associations between number of induced and spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids. The prevalence of uterine fibroids was 15.1% among all participants. Higher number of induced abortions was associated with an increased risk of uterine fibroids (1 induced abortion: odds ratios [ORs] = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-1.48; 2 induced abortions: OR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.28-1.64; and ≥3 induced abortions: OR = 1.62, 95% CI 1.39-1.90). Compared with women without induced abortion, ORs for women with 1, 2, and ≥3 were 1.17 (95% CI 1.03-1.32), 1.21 (95% CI 1.06-1.39), and 1.36 (95% CI 1.15-1.61), respectively, after adjustment for potential confounders. No association was observed between the number of spontaneous abortions and the risk of uterine fibroids. The findings of this study showed that induced abortion may be an independent risk factor for uterine fibroids in middle-aged and older Chinese women.
Rodrigues, Márcia Melo Laet; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura
The insertion of male perspective in reproductive health is an international recommendation. The aim of this research was to know the men's feelings related to the abortion shared with their partners. The narrative analysis was the research method. The narratives of seventeen men were analysed. The spontaneous abortion related feelings were the loss related anguish and, the provoked abortion, the culpability related feelings and its consequences. Men who share the abortion experience with their partners require sensibility and professionals involvement. Their main care demands were related to the desire of favorable reception, to get emotional support as well as a whole and correct information about the process.
Moridi, Maryam; Ziaei, Saeideh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan
This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between ambient concentrations of air pollutants and first-trimester spontaneous abortion. This was a retrospective case–control study, which was conducted on 296 women from June 2010 to February 2011 in Tehran, Iran. Cases were 148 women who experienced a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of gestation while the controls were 148 pregnant women after 14 weeks of gestation and groups were matched on sociodemographics and obstetrics characteristics. The samples were recruited randomly from 10 hospitals. In total, pollutants concentrations were collected at 29 stations hourly throughout the study area. We estimated the mean exposure for each participant and investigated the association between spontaneous abortion and ambient pollutants. Findings demonstrated that the average of ambient air pollutants in the cases was significantly higher than in the controls (P abortion in the areas with higher concentrations of CO, NO₂, O₃ and PM₁₀ were 1.98, 0.96, 0.94 and 1.01, respectively (P abortion (P > 0.05). Our findings suggest that pregnant women exposed to ambient air pollutants may be at increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Confirmation by further research is needed.
Schwandt, Hilary M; Creanga, Andreea A; Danso, Kwabena A; Adanu, Richard M K; Agbenyega, Tsiri; Hindin, Michelle J
Despite having one of the most liberal abortion laws in sub-Saharan Africa, complications from induced abortion are the second leading cause of maternal mortality in Ghana. The sample is composed of patients with pregnancy termination complications in Ghana between June and July 2008. The majority of patients report having had a spontaneous abortion (75%; n=439), while 17% (n=100) and 8% (n=46) report having had an induced abortion or an ectopic pregnancy, respectively. Factors associated with women in each of the three groups were explored using multinomial logistic regression. When compared to women with spontaneous abortions, women with induced abortions were younger, poorer, more likely to report no religious affiliation, less likely to be married, more likely to report making the household decisions and more likely to fail to disclose this pregnancy to their partners. Within the induced abortion subsample, failure to disclose the most recent pregnancy was associated with already having children and autonomous household decision making. Identifying the individual and relationship characteristics of induced abortion patients is the first step toward targeted policies and programs aimed at reducing unsafe abortion in Ghana. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henriksen, T.B.; Hjollund, N.H.; Jensen, Tina Kold
The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions....... Women collected morning urine for 10 days from the first day of vaginal bleeding in each cycle. The authors detected 186 pregnancies: 131 resulted in childbirth, and 55 resulted in spontaneous abortion (34 detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin). Depending on the intake in the cycle...... of conception and the adjustment factors, female alcohol intake was associated with 2-3 times the adjusted risk of spontaneous abortion compared with no intake, and male alcohol intake was associated with 2-5 times the adjusted risk. Only the adjusted relative risks for 10 or more drinks/week compared...
Hviid, T V; Hylenius, S; Hoegh, A M
The etiology of a fraction of recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA) may involve immunological mechanisms. Aberrant profiles of Th1 and Th2 cytokines have been observed which are not present in uncomplicated pregnancies. Studies of classical HLA class I and II antigens in relation to RSA have...... (with three or more spontaneous abortions) and 47 fertile control couples were HLA-G genotyped by direct DNA sequencing and analyzed for specific polymorphisms. No statistically significant differences were observed in the distribution of HLA-G alleles between controls and RSA couples, however, 15...
Vieira Elisabeth Meloni
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the attitudes of low-income women towards abortion and contraception. A survey was conducted in 1992 with a total of 3,149 childbearing-age women living on the outskirts of the Greater Metropolitan São Paulo Area. The study focuses on a sub-sample of 583 women. Attitudes of sterilized and non-sterilized women are compared. Women, especially those sterilized, found the most important attribute of a contraceptive method to be its effectiveness. Women currently taking the pill were less likely than those sterilized to agree that sterilization was the best method because of its effectiveness. Sterilized women were less likely than non-sterilized women to trust the pill. Sterilized women were more likely than non-sterilized to have reported adverse effects from the pill. Most women found abortion unacceptable except in the case of risk to the woman's life. Women using more effective methods showed stronger negative attitudes towards abortion. The tendency to be sterilized while still young was associated with more negative attitudes towards abortion. Family planning activities in basic health care services should include individual counseling for contraceptive use.
Elisabeth Meloni Vieira
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the attitudes of low-income women towards abortion and contraception. A survey was conducted in 1992 with a total of 3,149 childbearing-age women living on the outskirts of the Greater Metropolitan São Paulo Area. The study focuses on a sub-sample of 583 women. Attitudes of sterilized and non-sterilized women are compared. Women, especially those sterilized, found the most important attribute of a contraceptive method to be its effectiveness. Women currently taking the pill were less likely than those sterilized to agree that sterilization was the best method because of its effectiveness. Sterilized women were less likely than non-sterilized women to trust the pill. Sterilized women were more likely than non-sterilized to have reported adverse effects from the pill. Most women found abortion unacceptable except in the case of risk to the woman's life. Women using more effective methods showed stronger negative attitudes towards abortion. The tendency to be sterilized while still young was associated with more negative attitudes towards abortion. Family planning activities in basic health care services should include individual counseling for contraceptive use.
Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik
the first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....
Haghparast, Elahe; Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Hassanzadeh, Ramezan
Spontaneous abortion is one of the most important complications of pregnancy with short and long adverse psychological effects on women. This study assesses the implications of a spontaneous abortion history has on women's psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy distress in subsequent pregnancy less than one years after spontaneous abortion. A case-control study was conducted on pregnant women of Babol city from September 2014 to May 2015. In this study, 100 pregnant women with spontaneous abortion history during a year ago and 100 pregnant women without spontaneous abortion history were enrolled. All the participants in two groups completed the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and pregnancy Distress Questionnaire (PDQ). Women with spontaneous abortion history had significantly higher mean of many subscales of SCL-90 (depression, anxiety, somatization, obsessive-compulsiveness, interpersonal sensitivity, psychoticism, hostility, paranoid, and Global Severity Index) more than women without spontaneous abortion history. Also, women with spontaneous abortion history had significantly higher mean of two subscales of PDQ concerns about birth and the baby, concerns about emotions and relationships) and total PDQ more than women without spontaneous abortion history. Pregnant women with less than a year after spontaneous abortion history are at risk of psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy distress more than controls. This study supports those implications for planning the post spontaneous abortion psychological care for women, especially women who wanted to be pregnant during 12 month after spontaneous abortion.
Muanda, Flory T; Sheehy, Odile; Bérard, Anick
Although antibiotics are widely used during pregnancy, evidence regarding their fetal safety remains limited. Our aim was to quantify the association between antibiotic exposure during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion. We conducted a nested case-control study within the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort (1998-2009). We excluded planned abortions and pregnancies exposed to fetotoxic drugs. Spontaneous abortion was defined as having a diagnosis or procedure related to spontaneous abortion before the 20th week of pregnancy. The index date was defined as the calendar date of the spontaneous abortion. Ten controls per case were randomly selected and matched by gestational age and year of pregnancy. Use of antibiotics was defined by filled prescriptions between the first day of gestation and the index date and was compared with (a) non-exposure and (b) exposure to penicillins or cephalosporins. We studied type of antibiotics separately using the same comparator groups. After adjustment for potential confounders, use of azithromycin (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-2.02; 110 exposed cases), clarithromycin (adjusted OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.90-2.91; 111 exposed cases), metronidazole (adjusted OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.27-2.26; 53 exposed cases), sulfonamides (adjusted OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.36-2.97; 30 exposed cases), tetracyclines (adjusted OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.97-3.41; 67 exposed cases) and quinolones (adjusted OR 2.72, 95% CI 2.27-3.27; 160 exposed cases) was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Similar results were found when we used penicillins or cephalosporins as the comparator group. After adjustment for potential confounders, use of macro-lides (excluding erythromycin), quinolones, tetracyclines, sulfonamides and metronidazole during early pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. Our findings may be of use to policy-makers to update guidelines for the treatment of infections during pregnancy. © 2017
Coleman, Mary Clayton
In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category.
Manolea, Maria Magdalena; Dijmărescu, Anda Lorena; Popescu, Florina Carmen; Novac, Marius Bogdan; DiŢescu, Damian
The aim of this study was the characterization of the implantation site through histological and immunohistochemical exams and the evaluation of the changes that appear in the pregnancies ended by spontaneous abortion compared to normal pregnancies ended by requested abortion. One hundred eight patients were divided in two groups: the study group that included 58 patients with spontaneous abortion and the control group that included 50 patients with requested abortion. There has been made uterine curettage in all the cases after a complete preoperative evaluation and the obtained product was sent for histopathological evaluation and immunohistochemical study using a VEGF antibody. Studying the histological sections, we noticed the vasculogenesis stages chronology and then according to the histological aspects of normal pregnancy we noticed the histological changes that occurred at the site of implantation in the cases with pathological pregnancies ended by miscarriage. Our results from this study seem to indicate a correlation between decidual vascular changes and the appearance of miscarriage. In pregnancies ended by miscarriage, we found delays in the trophoblast development according to the gestational age at which the event abortifacient happened. The study emphases the temporal differentiation of utero-placental angiogenesis comparing to villous vasculogenesis and angiogenesis in the first trimester miscarriage and normal pregnancy. At the control group, VEGF expression was positive in 88% of cases, while in the study group, pregnancies ended by spontaneous abortion, positive expression of VEGF was present in only 31% of cases. Our data suggest vascular disorders and are in concordance with other histological and ultrasound studies postulating the idea of a link between miscarriage and placental vascular bed pattern changes.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between the presence of anticardiolipin antibody and a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: clinical controlled study LOCATION: Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics - University of Campinas (UNICAMP SUBJECTS: 52 individuals with recurrent spontaneous abortion were included in Group 1 and 104 individuals with at least one live born child in Group 2. Elapsed time from last delivery to blood sampling varied from six months to two years. METHOD: Between November 1993 and November 1994, patients' blood samples were screened for anticardiolipin antibody by ELISA, as described by Triplett, Barna and Unger (1993. ANALYSIS: Chi-square and Fisher's Exact tests were used for statistical analysis. Student's "t" test was used to compare the means. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in the presence of the anticardiolipin antibody between Group I (zero and 2.9% and Group 2 (7.7 and 5.8%. CONCLUSION: There was no association between the presence of anticardiolipin antibody and recurrent spontaneous abortion.
Pakniyat, Abdolghader; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Moshar-Mowahed, Ghasem; Talebi, Fatimah
Spontaneous heterotopic pregnancy is a rare clinical condition in which intrauterine and extrauterine pregnancies occur at the same time. It is rare, estimated to occur in 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The case was a 38-year-old woman with spontaneously conceived heterotopic pregnancy. She was admitted to our center with hypovolemic shock. Focused assessment sonography for trauma examination in emergency department showed large amount of free fluid in peritoneal cavity. She was managed surgical laparotomy. Considering spontaneous pregnancies, physician should be aware of the possibility of heterotopic pregnancy in all reproductive age women, especially those with history of recent abortion. It can occur without any predisposing risk factors. Patients should be informed about possible side effects of nonprescription medicines, and also the health care centers must be safe peaceful environment for them without severe legal consequences.
Buss, L; Tolstrup, J; Munk, C; Bergholt, T; Ottesen, B; Grønbaek, M; Kjaer, S K
To assess the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, comparing two different data sources. To estimate the rate of spontaneous abortion over a 2-year period, and examine potential predictors of the risk for incident spontaneous abortion. We used interview data from a population-based prospective cohort study comprising 11,088 women and data from a linkage of the cohort with the Hospital Discharge Register to compare spontaneous abortions as reported in the interview with those identified in the register. Based on interview data, we estimated the rate of spontaneous abortion during the two-year follow-up. Finally, risk determinants for incident spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of logistic regression. A total of 654 spontaneous abortions before enrolment in the study were reported by the women compared to 531 abortions found in the register. More than 80% of the spontaneous abortions identified from both sources were recorded in the same year. During follow-up a total of 20.9% of pregnancies intended to be carried to term ended as a spontaneous abortion. In the risk factor analysis, we found that previous spontaneous abortion, being single, never having used oral contraceptives, and use of intrauterine device were associated with increased risk of subsequent spontaneous abortion. In addition, it was indicated that a short interpregnancy interval following a spontaneous abortion may confer an increased risk of abortion in the subsequent pregnancy. We found a high rate of spontaneous abortion in the present study and an acceptable agreement between information obtained by interview and register information. More than 25% of the spontaneous abortions were only reported by the women, and this could not be explained by erroneously reported induced abortions, and may be early, nonhospitalized abortions. We confirm that number of previous spontaneous abortions is a strong determinant, and our data may also indicate a role of previous contraceptive habits. A role of
Munire Erman Akar
Full Text Available We describe a rare case of fatal disseminated tuberculous peritonitis in a young woman with rapid progressive clinical course following spontaneous abortion of 20-week gestation. Clinical and laboratory findings were initially unremarkable. She underwent diagnostic laparoscopy which revealed numerous tiny implants on the peritoneum and viscera. Histopathology showed chronic caseating granulomas, and the tissue culture grew Mycobacterium tuberculosis. At fifth day of the antituberculous treatment multiorgan failure occurred in terms of pulmonary, hepatic, and renal insufficiency. She developed refractory metabolic acidosis with coagulopathy and pancytopenia, and she died of acute respiratory distress syndrome and septic shock on her twelfth day of hospitalization.
Traina, Evelyn; Daher, Silvia; Franchim, Camila Sommerauer; Fuziy, Juliana Aoki; Moron, Antônio Fernandes; Banzato, Priscilla Chamelete Andrade; Mattar, Rosiane
To assess a possible association between polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS) and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In this case-control study, 85 women with at least three previous spontaneous abortions without an identifiable cause (RSA Group) and 157 women with at least two previous term pregnancies without pathologies and no previous miscarriage (Control Group) were selected. An amount of 10 mL of peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture and genomic DNA was extracted by the DTAB/CTAB method, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) under specific conditions for this polymorphism and by amplification by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized with an ultraviolet light transilluminator and the gels were photographed. Differences in the PROGINS genotype and allele frequencies between groups were analyzed by the χ² test, with the level of significance set at p<0.05. The Odds Ratio (OR) was also used, with 95% confidence intervals 95%CI. PROGINS genotypic frequencies were 72.3% T1T1 and 27.7% T1T2 for the RSA group and 76.4% T1T1, 22.3% T1T2 and 1.3% T2T2 for the control group. There were no differences between groups when the genotype and allele frequencies were analyzed: respectively p=0.48 (OR: 0.8) and p=0.65 (OR: 0.9). Our results suggest that PROGINS polymorphism is not associated with RSA.
Aziza A. Saad
Full Text Available Reproductive health is exquisitely sensitive to characteristics of an individual’s environment including physical, biological, behavioral, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This study was launched to elucidate the effect of the exposure to chemical pollutants as aromatic amines viz. (benzidine, mono-acetyl benzidine, diacetyl benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine as well as the biological pollutants e.g., human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA through determination of MDA as a marker of oxidative stress and determination of some antioxidant markers. The results of the current study revealed that the aborter mothers were being exposed to environmental pollutants as aromatic amines which were manifested by the presence of benzidine, mono-acetyl-benzidine, di-acetyl-benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine in most of their urine samples, where the level of aromatic amines were more 13.6, 10, 15, and 4-folds than the control group, respectively. Also, the data suggest that in early pregnancy failure there is an increase in markers of oxidative stress and a probable decrease in maternal antioxidant defenses (22 nmol/ml and 17 mg/l, 550 U/l, respectively. Generation of ROS in large quantities, in the first trimester placenta which has limited antioxidant defenses may cause DNA damage, oxidation of protein and lipid resulting in extensive cell death. Also, it was demonstrated that high elevation of HCMV inhibits cytotrophoblasts proliferation, migration invasion and matrix metalloproteins (MMP expression. Obviously, placental toxicological responses are partly due to pharmaco/toxico dynamic responses to the chemicals. Conclusively, the aforementioned findings emphasis that, the exposures to environmental chemical and/or biological risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion.
Chao, Yuan; Weng, Lidong; Zeng, Rong
To investigate the correlation of genomic DNA methylation level with unexplained early spontaneous abortion and analyze the role of DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B. Forty-five villus samples from spontaneous abortion cases (with 33 maternal peripheral blood samples) and 44 villus samples from induced abortion (with 34 maternal peripheral blood samples) were examined with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) to measure the overall methylation level of the genomic DNA. The expressions of DNMT mRNAs were detected using fluorescence quantitative-PCR in the villus samples from 33 induced abortion cases and 30 spontaneous abortion cases. Genomic DNA methylation level was significantly lower in the villus in spontaneous abortion group than in induced abortion group (P0.05). The mean mRNA expression levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3A in the villus were significantly lower in spontaneous abortion group than in induced abortion group (P0.05). Insufficient genomic DNA methylation in the villus does exist in human early spontaneous abortion, and this insufficiency is probably associated with down-regulated expressions of DNMT1 and DNMT3A.
Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; A Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie
To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Cohort study. 1996-2002, Denmark. All first time participants, a total of 89 829 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were included in the present study. Overall, 4062 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion. Information on education, income and labour market attachment in the year before pregnancy was drawn from national registers. Spontaneous abortion, that is, fetal death within the first 22 weeks of pregnancy, was the outcome of interest. The authors estimated HRs of spontaneous abortion using Cox regression analysis with gestational age as the underlying time scale. Women with abortion when compared with women with >12 years of education (HR 1.19 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.34)). The HR estimates for the four lowest income quintiles were all increased (HRs between 1.09 and 1.15) as compared with the upper quintile but did not differ considerably from each other. In general, no statistically significant association was found between labour market attachment and the risk of spontaneous abortion; however, the group of women on disability pension had an increased HR of spontaneous abortion when compared with women who were employed (HR 1.32 (95% CI 0.82 to 2.13)). Educational level and income were inversely associated with the risk of spontaneous abortion. As these factors most likely are non-causally related to spontaneous abortion, the findings indicate that factors related to social position, probably of the environmental and behavioural type, may affect spontaneous abortion risk. The study highlights the need for studies addressing such exposures in order to prevent spontaneous abortions.
Potts, M; Masho, S W
Research in contraceptive technology, investments in family planning programs, and the availability of safe abortion are essential not only to control population growth and improve the health of mothers and children, but also to improve the status of women. At present, however, it is estimated that 25% of married women in sub-Saharan Africa, 18% in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 13% in Asia, the Middle East, and North Africa have an unmet need for contraception. Without rapid advances in access to family planning, more women will die during this decade from pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion than in any other decade in history. Although the 1994 Cairo Conference achieved consensus on a range of reproductive health issues, strategies for implementing and funding these programs remain undefined.
Lohse, Sarah Rytter; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Lohse, Nicolai
The purpose of this study is to validate the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion (SA) recorded in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP).......The purpose of this study is to validate the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion (SA) recorded in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP)....
Hjollund, N H; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K
Male-mediated spontaneous abortion has never been documented for humans. The welding of stainless steel is associated with the pulmonary absorption of hexavalent chromium, which has genotoxic effects on germ cells in rodents. Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among...
Hviid, T V; Hylenius, S; Hoegh, A M
not been conclusive. Furthermore, these antigens are not expressed in the placenta with the exception of HLA-C. However, HLA-G is expressed on especially invasive cytotrophoblasts and exists in both membrane and soluble forms. HLA-G may be involved in materno-fetal tolerance. Therefore, 61 RSA couples...... (with three or more spontaneous abortions) and 47 fertile control couples were HLA-G genotyped by direct DNA sequencing and analyzed for specific polymorphisms. No statistically significant differences were observed in the distribution of HLA-G alleles between controls and RSA couples, however, 15......-Weinberg equilibrium. Furthermore, the HLA-G alleles without the 14 bp sequence were prominent in the RSA males in contrast to the RSA women in whom alleles including the 14 bp sequence were frequently observed, especially as homozygotes. These results are discussed in relation to two hypotheses concerning HLA...
Howards, Penelope P; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Bech, Bodil H
BACKGROUND: Medications may be consumed periconceptionally before a woman knows she is pregnant. In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen) containing ephedrine (20 mg) and caffeine (200 mg) with spontaneous abortion (SAB) in the Danish National Birth...... pregnancy Letigen use on SAB. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The estimated maternal age-adjusted hazard ratio for SAB was 1.1 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.6) for any periconceptional Letigen use compared to no periconceptional use. CONCLUSIONS: Although Letigen has high levels of caffeine (the recommended 3 pills....../day are approximately equivalent to caffeine from 6 cups of coffee), periconceptional use does not appear to be associated with an appreciably increased hazard of clinically recognized SAB....
Gaskins, Audrey J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Hauser, Russ; Williams, Paige L; Gillman, Matthew W; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S; Missmer, Stacey A; Chavarro, Jorge E
To evaluate prospectively the relationship between prepregnancy folate intake and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Women in the Nurses' Health Study II who self-reported a pregnancy between 1992 and 2009 were included in this analysis. Dietary folate and supplement use was assessed every 4 years, starting in 1991, by a food frequency questionnaire. Pregnancies were self-reported with case pregnancies lost spontaneously (spontaneous abortion less than 20 weeks of gestation and stillbirth 20+ weeks of gestation) and comparison pregnancies ending in ectopic pregnancy, induced abortion, or live birth. Among the 11,072 women, 15,950 pregnancies were reported of which 2,756 (17.3%) ended in spontaneous abortion and 120 (0.8%) ended in stillbirth. Compared with women in the lowest quintile of prepregnancy folate intake (less than 285 micrograms/d), those in the highest quintile (greater than 851 micrograms/d) had a relative risk of spontaneous abortion of 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-1.02) after multivariable adjustment (P trend=.04). This association was primarily attributable to intake of folate from supplements. Compared with women without supplemental folate intake (0 micrograms/d), those in the highest category (greater than 730 micrograms/d) had a relative risk of spontaneous abortion of 0.80 (95% CI 0.71-0.90) after multivariable adjustment (P trend spontaneous abortion was consistent across gestational period of loss. A similar inverse trend was observed with the risk of stillbirth, which fell short of conventional significance (P trend=.06). Higher intake of folate from supplements was associated with reduced risk of spontaneous abortion. Women at risk of pregnancy should use supplemental folate for neural tube defect prevention and because it may decrease the risk of spontaneous abortion. : II.
Michels, Karin B; Xue, Fei; Colditz, Graham A; Willett, Walter C
Induced abortion has been inconsistently associated with breast cancer risk in case-control studies. Retrospective cohort studies using registry information in Scandinavia have not suggested an increase in the incidence of breast cancer, although data on individual reproductive factors were not accounted for. We examined the association between induced and spontaneous abortion and the incidence of breast cancer in a prospective cohort of young women, the Nurses' Health Study II. The study included 105 716 women 29 to 46 years old at the start of follow-up in 1993. Information on induced or spontaneous abortions was collected in 1993 and updated biennially. During 973 437 person-years of follow-up between 1993 and 2003, 1458 newly diagnosed cases of invasive breast cancer were ascertained. A total of 16 118 participants (15%) reported a history of induced abortion, and 21 753 (21%) reported a history of spontaneous abortions. The hazard ratio for breast cancer among women who had 1 or more induced abortions was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.88-1.17) after adjustment for established breast cancer risk factors; among women with 1 or more spontaneous abortions, the covariate-adjusted hazard ratio was 0.89 (95% confidence interval, 0.78-1.01). The relation between induced abortion and the incidence of breast cancer did not differ materially by number of abortions (P for trend = .98), age at abortion (P for trend = .68), parity (P for interaction = .54), or timing of abortion with respect to a full-term pregnancy (P for interaction = .10). Among this predominantly premenopausal population, neither induced nor spontaneous abortion was associated with the incidence of breast cancer.
Spira, A; Lazar, P
Parents of 751 children affected by cancer/leukemia, congenital heart disease, strawberry nevus or mental retardation have been investigated with respect to their reproductive history and their exposure to risk factors for spontaneous abortion. Differences between the four groups were established for the number of children in the sibship, the proportion of multigravidae and the spontaneous abortion rate among these women. The greatest differences were observed in the two groups of malformed children compared with the other two groups, being as marked in those with a severe malformation (heart defect) as in those with a benign one (strawberry nevus). Taking known risk factors for spontaneous abortion into account did not explain the observed differences. An etiological hypothesis is put forward which takes account of the high proportion of quantitative abnormalities of the karyotype associated with congenital heart disease and spontaneous abortion.
Bech, Bodil Hammer; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard
Dette studie undersøger, om brugen af antiepileptika under graviditeten kan øge risikoen for spontan abort eller dødfødsel. Resultaterne viser, at 16 ud af 100 gravide kvinder, som brugte antiepileptika, mistede fostret ved en spontan abort, mens det kun var 13 ud af 100 gravide kvinder, som ikke...... brugte antileptika. Der var dog forskel på, om de kvinder, der valgte at bruge antiepileptika under graviditeten, var diagnosticeret med epilepsi eller ej. I analyser alene af kvinder med epilepsi var der ingen forskel i risikoen for spontan abort, når kvinder, der indtog medicin i graviditeten, blev...... sammenlignet med kvinder, der ikke indtog medicin. Hos kvinder uden epilepsi havde de, der indtog medicin, en 30 % øget risiko for spontan abort sammenlignet med dem, der ikke indtog medicin. Forskellen kan måske forklares ved manglende kontrol for andre risikofaktorer (confounding). Analyserne tager højde...
Janosević, Dragana Radović; Lilić, Vekoslav; Basić, Hakija; Pavlović, Aleksandra Tubić; Stefanović, Milan; Milosević, Jelena
A repeated or habitual miscarriage (PSP) is defined as three or more consecutive losses of pregnancy. In the first three months of pregnancy, habitual miscarriages occur in about 1% of pregnant women, out of which 50% are of an unknown etiology. It is believed that among them, the greatest number is the consequence of an inadequate alloimmune response of a women to the pregnancy. The endocrine and immune systems are in a close interaction during the implantation and maintaining of pregnancy. This communication is the most obvious on endometrium of pregnancy decidua. The aim of the study was to identify the number and the subpopulation distribution of the decidual NK cells in the decidua by using an immunohistochemical method. The research included a group of 30 women who had had two spontaneous miscarriages consecutively in the first three months of their pregnancy, while the curettage after the third spontaneous abortion was histopathologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. The control group consisted of 20 women without a problematic reproductive anamnesis, who had had their pregnancy terminated for social reasons. The criteria for the eliminating from the research were the diagnosed uterus anomalies, positive screening on thrombophilia, as well as women suffering from diabetes melitus and the ones with the thyroid gland function disorder. The number and the phenotype structure of the uterus NK cells were significantly different between the decidua of a normal pregnancy and that in PSP. In the decidua in PSP, there were much more NK cells with the phenotype of the peripheral circulation CD57 and CD56dim, while in the decidua of the control group the dominant cells were the typical uNK cell subpopulation CD56bright. The above mentioned results show that the disregulation of the immunocompetent cells of the decidua, by creating an inadequate cytokine milieu, is one of the mechanism of rejecting the semiallogeneic blastocyst.
Full Text Available Background/Aim. A repeated or habitual miscarriage (PSP is defined as three or more consecutive losses of pregnancy. In the first three months of pregnancy, habitual miscarriages occur in about 1% of pregnant women, out of which 50% are of an unknown etiology. It is believed that among them, the greatest number is the consequence of an inadequate alloimmune response of a women to the pregnancy. The endocrine and immune systems are in a close interaction during the implantation and maintaining of pregnancy. This communication is the most obvious on endometrium of pregnancy decidua. The aim of the study was to identify the number and the subpopulation distribution of the decidual NK cells in the decidua by using an immunohistochemical method. Methods. The research included a group of 30 women who had had two spontaneous miscarriages consecutively in the first three months of their pregnancy, while the curettage after the third spontaneous abortion was histopathologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. The control group consisted of 20 women without a problematic reproductive anamnesis, who had had their pregnancy terminated for social reasons. The criteria for the eliminating from the research were the diagnosed uterus anomalies, positive screening on thrombophilia, as well as women suffering from diabetes melitus and the ones with the thyroid gland function disorder. Results. The number and the phenotype structure of the uterus NK cells were significantly different between the decidua of a normal pregnancy and that in PSP. In the decidua in PSP, there were much more NK cells with the phenotype of the peripheral circulation CD57 and CD56dim, while in the decidua of the control group the dominant cells were the typical uNK cell subpopulation CD56bright. Conclusion. The above mentioned results show that the disregulation of the immunocompetent cells of the decidua, by creating an inadequate cytokine milieu, is one of the mechanism of rejecting
Naeimi, Sirous; Ghiam, Alireza Fotouhi; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Dehaghani, Alamtaj Samsami; Amani, Dawar; Ghaderi, Abbas
IL-18 is a multifunctional cytokine capable of inducing either Th1 or Th2 polarization depending on the immunologic milieu. IL-18 is detected at the materno-fetal interface very soon in early pregnancy. Two polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL-18 gene at positions of -607 and -137 appear to have functional impacts. This study attempts to evaluate the frequency of these two polymorphisms in the IL-18 gene promoter in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and normal pregnant women. One hundred and two RSA patients and 103 healthy pregnant women were enrolled in this study. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the IL-18 gene at positions -607 (C/A) and -137 (G/C) were analyzed by the sequence-specific PCR method. There was no significant association between the allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies of the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the IL-18 gene promoter and RSA. The results of this study showed that IL-18 gene promoter polymorphisms at positions -607 and -137 did not confer susceptibility to RSA in southern Iranian patients.
Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; á Rogvi, Sofie; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Andersen, Per Kragh; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie
Objectives To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Design Cohort study. Setting 1996–2002, Denmark. Participants All first time participants, a total of 89 829 pregnant women, enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort were included in the present study. Overall, 4062 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortion. Information on education, income and labour market attachment in the year before pregnancy was dra...
Buss, L; Tolstrup, J; Munk, C
contraceptives, and use of intrauterine device were associated with increased risk of subsequent spontaneous abortion. In addition, it was indicated that a short interpregnancy interval following a spontaneous abortion may confer an increased risk of abortion in the subsequent pregnancy. CONCLUSION: We found...
Nakhai-Pour, Hamid Reza; Broy, Perrine; Bérard, Anick
The risk of relapse of depression or the diagnosis of some other psychiatric disorders during pregnancy necessitates the use of antidepressants despite possible adverse effects. Whether such use increases the risk of spontaneous abortion is still being debated. We evaluated the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to the use of antidepressants during pregnancy. Using a nested case-control study design, we obtained data from the Quebec Pregnancy Registry for 5124 women who had a clinically detected spontaneous abortion. For each case, we randomly selected 10 controls from the remaining women in the registry who were matched by the case's index date (date of spontaneous abortion) and gestational age at the time of spontaneous abortion. Use of antidepressants was defined by filled prescriptions and was compared with nonuse. We also studied the classes, types and doses of antidepressants. A total of 284 (5.5%) of the women who had a spontaneous abortion had at least one prescription for an antidepressant filled during the pregnancy, as compared with 1401 (2.7%) of the matched controls (odds ratio [OR] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.83-2.38). After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that the use of antidepressants during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.38-2.06). Stratified analyses showed that use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors alone (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.28-2.04), serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors alone (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34-3.30) and combined use of antidepressants from different classes (OR 3.51, 95% CI 2.20-5.61) were associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. When we looked at antidepressant use by type versus no use, paroxetine use alone (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.31-2.34) and venlafaxine use alone (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.34-3.30) were associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The use of antidepressants, especially paroxetine, venlafaxine or the
Maiken Ina Siegismund Kjaersgaard
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To estimate the risk of spontaneous abortion after use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy. METHODS: From the Danish Medical Birth Registry and the Danish National Hospital Registry, we identified all pregnancies leading to in- or outpatient contacts in Denmark from February 1997 to December 2008. The Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics provided information on the women's prescriptions for antidepressants during pregnancy. We obtained information on women who were diagnosed with depression from the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. Adjusted relative risks (aRR of spontaneous abortion were estimated according to exposure to antidepressants or maternal depression using binomial regression. RESULTS: Of the 1,005,319 pregnancies (547,300 women identified, 114,721 (11.4% ended in a spontaneous abortion. We identified 22,061 pregnancies exposed to antidepressants and 1,843 with a diagnosis of depression with no antidepressant use, of which 2,637 (12.0% and 205 (11.1% ended in a spontaneous abortion, respectively. Antidepressant exposure was associated with an aRR of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI 1.10-1.18 for spontaneous abortion compared with no exposure to antidepressants. Among women with a diagnosis of depression, the aRR for spontaneous abortion after any antidepressant exposure was 1.00 (95% CI 0.80-1.24. No individual selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI was associated with spontaneous abortions. In unadjusted analyses, we found that mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and duloxetine were associated with spontaneous abortions among women with depression but we had no information on potential differences in disease severity and only few pregnancies were exposed in the population. CONCLUSION: We identified a slightly increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with the use of antidepressants during pregnancy. However, among women with a diagnosis of depression, antidepressants in general or individual
Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Christensen, Jakob; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning
To estimate the risk of spontaneous abortion after use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy. From the Danish Medical Birth Registry and the Danish National Hospital Registry, we identified all pregnancies leading to in- or outpatient contacts in Denmark from February 1997 to December 2008. The Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics provided information on the women's prescriptions for antidepressants during pregnancy. We obtained information on women who were diagnosed with depression from the Danish Psychiatric Central Registry. Adjusted relative risks (aRR) of spontaneous abortion were estimated according to exposure to antidepressants or maternal depression using binomial regression. Of the 1,005,319 pregnancies (547,300 women) identified, 114,721 (11.4%) ended in a spontaneous abortion. We identified 22,061 pregnancies exposed to antidepressants and 1,843 with a diagnosis of depression with no antidepressant use, of which 2,637 (12.0%) and 205 (11.1%) ended in a spontaneous abortion, respectively. Antidepressant exposure was associated with an aRR of 1.14 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-1.18) for spontaneous abortion compared with no exposure to antidepressants. Among women with a diagnosis of depression, the aRR for spontaneous abortion after any antidepressant exposure was 1.00 (95% CI 0.80-1.24). No individual selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) was associated with spontaneous abortions. In unadjusted analyses, we found that mirtazapine, venlafaxine, and duloxetine were associated with spontaneous abortions among women with depression but we had no information on potential differences in disease severity and only few pregnancies were exposed in the population. We identified a slightly increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with the use of antidepressants during pregnancy. However, among women with a diagnosis of depression, antidepressants in general or individual SSRI in particular were not associated with
Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare
No less than 10% of clinically recognised pregnancies end as spontaneous abortions and the recurrence risk is high. Due to lack of data and appropriate study design only little is known about preventable causes of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of paternal...... and environmental factors by studying reproductive histories in population based cohorts. We based the study upon two cohorts. The 'abortion cohort' consisted of 55 259 women who had a hospitalised spontaneous abortion in Denmark between 1980 and 1992 and who had a subsequent non-terminated pregnancy. The 'birth...... the personal identification numbers and information stored in several population registers. Change of partner reduced the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion substantially (OR = 0.59; 95 CI 0.52-0.67), but also changes in social status or job reduced the recurrence risk significantly. Changing...
Full Text Available In the present study, using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of CD30 and CD30-L in 35 deciduas obtained from women following elective abortion during normal physiological gestation and in 60 deciduas obtained from women after spontaneous abortion with or without signs of inflammation. The main difference was noticed in the first trimester of gestation in which was found a decrease in CD30/CD30-L-positive decidual glandular and stromal cells in a greater number of cases of spontaneous abortions with respect to cases of physiological pregnancies (70% vs 50%, p<0.05. In addition, deciduas from spontaneous abortions with inflammation and without inflammation reacted similarly. The reduced expression of CD30 and CD30-L and their cellular pattern detected in the deciduas from spontaneous abortions suggest that the CD30/CD30-L system is crucial for preventing abortions in the first trimester. And furthermore, the distinctive expression of CD30/CD30- L in deciduas from physiological pregnancies may indicate that the CD30/CD30-L system exerts its main role in the first trimester.
Gaskins, Audrey J; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Williams, Paige L; Toth, Thomas L; Missmer, Stacey A; Chavarro, Jorge E
Numerous studies have documented the negative effects of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on risk of pregnancy loss, yet whether prepregnancy alcohol intake affects the risk of spontaneous abortion is still unclear. This study aimed to assess prepregnancy alcohol intake and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Our prospective cohort study included 27,580 pregnancies reported by 17,929 women in the Nurses' Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. Alcohol intake was assessed in 1989 and 1991 and every 4 y thereafter with the use of a validated questionnaire. Women were classified into 5 categories of consumption: 0, 0.1-1.9, 2-4.9, 5-9.9, and ≥10 g/d (1 serving = ∼12 g). Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously (spontaneous abortion after gestation of abortion). Multivariable log-binomial regression models with generalized estimating equations were used to estimate RRs and 95% CIs. Incident spontaneous abortion and stillbirth were reported in 4326 (15.7%) and 205 (0.7%) pregnancies, respectively. Prepregnancy alcohol intake was not associated with spontaneous abortion. Compared with women who did not consume alcohol, the multivariable RRs (95% CIs) for increasing categories of alcohol intake among women who did consume alcohol were 1.04 (0.97, 1.12) for 0.1-1.9 g/d, 1.02 (0.94, 1.11) for 2-4.9 g/d, 1.01 (0.92, 1.10) for 5-9.9 g/d, and 0.98 (0.88, 1.09) for ≥10 g/d (P-trend = 0.45). Women who consumed ≥2 servings beer/wk before pregnancy had a 9% (95% CI: 1%, 17%) lower risk of spontaneous abortion than did women who consumed spontaneous abortion. Total alcohol and specific alcohol beverage intake before pregnancy were not associated with stillbirth. Prepregnancy alcohol intake was not related to risk of incident spontaneous abortion or stillbirth in women with no history of pregnancy loss. Our results provide reassuring evidence that low to moderate alcohol intake (≤12 g/d) before pregnancy initiation does
Cai, Yan; Wang, Jian; Yuan, Tai-Xian; Shi, Qiong; Weng, Ya-Guang; Wang, Ying-Xiong; Jiang, Hong-Yan; Liu, Zi-Jie
To investigate the expression of human spindle mitosis arrest deficiency gene (hsMAD2) in spontaneous abortion embryos and the relationship between low expression of hsMAD2 and numerical chromosomal aberration. METHODS Spontaneous abortion embryo tissues were collected, including 23 cases of once spontaneous abortion tissue and 10 cases of twice or more spontaneous abortion tissue and induced abortion embryos (35 cases) from the Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics of the Affiliated Hospitals of Chongqing University of Medical Science during the period of March 2006 to March 2007. FQ-PCR and western blot were used to evaluate the endogenous expression level of hsMAD2 mRNA and hsMAD2 protein; primary culturing of cells from the induced abortion embryos was conducted and 5 embryonic cells were selected by chromosomes karyotype analysis. Recombinant shRNA plasmids targeting hsMAD2 gene were constructed to inhibit the expression of endogenous hsMAD2 genes in embryonic cells which have normal karyotypes; the groups were defined as the first experimental group (transfected with pshRNA-hsMAD2-1) , the second experimental group (transfected with pshRNA-hsMAD2-2), the third experimental group (transfected with pshRNA-hsMAD2-3), the first control group (transfected with nothing), the second control group (transfected with pTZU6 + 1) and the independent group (transfected with pshRNA-N1). Interference efficiency was demonstrated by FQ-PCR and western blot; cell proliferation was measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay; cell-cycle was assessed by flow cytometry (FCM); the chromosome numbers were calculated to analyze the variation of chromosomes. (1) The mRNA levels of hsMAD2 in the once spontaneous abortion tissue, twice or more spontaneous abortion tissue and induced abortion tissue were 0.00879 +/- 0.00035, 0.00901 +/- 0.00033 and 0.00941 +/- 0.00026 respectively, and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) compared with each other; however, the
Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM was detected in 17 participants (18.1%. Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9% were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death. However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.
Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah
Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death. However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.
Bech, Bodil Hammer; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard
brugte antileptika. Der var dog forskel på, om de kvinder, der valgte at bruge antiepileptika under graviditeten, var diagnosticeret med epilepsi eller ej. I analyser alene af kvinder med epilepsi var der ingen forskel i risikoen for spontan abort, når kvinder, der indtog medicin i graviditeten, blev...... sammenlignet med kvinder, der ikke indtog medicin. Hos kvinder uden epilepsi havde de, der indtog medicin, en 30 % øget risiko for spontan abort sammenlignet med dem, der ikke indtog medicin. Forskellen kan måske forklares ved manglende kontrol for andre risikofaktorer (confounding). Analyserne tager højde...... for alder, samlivsforhold, indkomst, uddannelsesniveau, tidligere mental sygdom og tidligere stofmisbrug. Samlet indikerer undersøgelsen, at der generelt ikke er en øget risiko for at få en spontan abort ved brug af antiepileptika − i det mindste ikke for kvinder med epilepsi. Der blev ikke fundet nogen...
Lohse, Sarah Rytter; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Lohse, Nicolai
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to validate the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion (SA) recorded in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP). METHODS: We randomly selected patients registered in the DNRP with a diagnosis of SA between 1980 and 2008 from hospitals in the county of North...... the three patients with available data who did not fulfill the criteria for SA, one had an induced abortion and two had threatened abortion but did not miscarry. CONCLUSION: Registration of SA in the DNRP accurately reflects the diagnoses recorded in medical charts. The DNRP is a suitable source of data...
Rasch, V; Mary, V; Urassa, E
The objective of this study was to create sexual history profiles of women with illegally induced abortion (IA) and women with spontaneous abortion (SA) and describe the women's knowledge of, attitude to, and practice of contraception. The study was carried out in two settings, Temeke District...... the rate of ever users of contraception was low in both groups, although significantly lower among IA women than among SA women. Outcome of first pregnancy had been an induced abortion in significantly higher proportion of IA than of SA women. In conclusion, sexual intercourse before marriage is common...
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, some studies indicate the adverse effects of exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion with occupational exposure to organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study which was carried out in 2010 in one of the pharmaceutical factories located in the suburbs of Tehran. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and were exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents. Frequency of spontaneous abortion and duration of pregnancy were assessed in both two groups. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software using t-test, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results: In the present study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7%. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP. Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, review of the status of occupational exposure of workers can be helpful
Shen, Guo-song; Zhang, Su; He, Ping-ya
To investigate clinical value of single nucleotide polymorphism array (SNP-array) gene chip technique in diagnosis of genetics of recurrent spontaneous abortion(RSA). From January to October 2012, the 26 patients with more than twice of spontaneous abortion in Huzhou Maternal and Child Health Care Hospital were enrolled in this study(RSA group). Meanwhile 20 cases with induced abortion were taken as control group. All aborted tissues were analyzed with conventional cytogenetic karyotyping and SNP-array, respectively. Chorionic villus chromosomal examination was successfully done in 19 cases (73%, 19/26) , which 10 cases were found with chromosomal anomaly, the overall detection rate is 10/19. However, SNP-array analysis was successfully performed in all 26 cases. The overall rate of detection was 100%, and abnormalities were found in 15 cases, which reached the detection rate was 58% (15/26). Chorionic villus chromosomal examination was successfully done in 16 cases (16/20) in control group, and none of the resluts was chomosomal anomaly; SNP-array analysis was successfully performed in all 20 cases (20/20), and none was found abnormalities. SNP-array gene chip technique showed highly accurate feature, which could be used in cytogenetic diagnosis of recurrent spontaneous abortion.
El Behery, Manal M; Siam, Soha; Seksaka, Mahmoud A; Ibrahim, Zakia M
To determine whether interpregnancy interval after the first spontaneous abortion has an effect on reproductive performance of women in their next pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted on 4,619 women with history of spontaneous abortion in their first pregnancy. Of them 2,422 (52.4 %) conceived within 6 months of the miscarriage (group A) and 2,197 47.6 % after 12 months (group B). The primary outcome was abortion, live birth, termination, or ectopic pregnancy in the next pregnancy. Secondary outcomes were preterm delivery, low birth weight infants, caesarean section rate and occurrence of preeclampsia, placental abruption and induced labour in the second pregnancy. Women who conceived again within 6 months were less likely to have another abortion, termination, or ectopic pregnancy compared with women with interpregnancy interval more than 12 months. Women with an interpregnancy interval more than 12 months were less likely to have live birth in the second pregnancy and more likely to have a caesarean section, preterm delivery, or infant of low birth weight compared with women who conceived again within 6 months. Women who conceive within 6 months after their first spontaneous abortion have better reproductive outcomes and the lowest complication rates in their subsequent pregnancy.
Handal, Alexis J; Harlow, Sioban D
Abstract Background Research on the potentially adverse effects of occupational pesticide exposure on risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB) is limited, particularly among female agricultural workers residing in developing countries. Methods Reproductive histories were obtained from 217 Ecuadorian mothers participating in a study focusing on occupational pesticide exposure and children's neurobehavioral development. Only women with 2+ pregnancies were included in this study (n = 153). Gravidity, ...
Lauszus, Finn; Viftrup-Lund, Mette; Gade, Melina
Objective: We sought to determine whether metformin affects the rate of first trimester spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations in women with PCOS. Design. Consecutive series of metformin treated women with a questionnaire followup. Setting. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at H...
Sepidarkish, Mahdi; Almasi-Hashiani, Amir; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Vesali, Samira; Pirjani, Reihaneh; Samani, Reza O
To determine the impact of a history of spontaneous abortion on pre-eclampsia during a subsequent pregnancy. A cross-sectional study enrolled pregnant women admitted to obstetrics and gynecology wards at 103 hospitals in Tehran, Iran for delivery between July 6 and July 21, 2015. Consenting participants were interviewed by midwives; data were collected using a five-part questionnaire and patients' medical records were retrieved. Patient data were analyzed by multiple logistic regression to identify variables associated with increased odds of pre-eclampsia. In total, 5170 patients were interviewed and 252 had experienced pre-eclampsia. The number of previous spontaneous abortions was found to be associated with pre-eclampsia, and a higher number of previous spontaneous abortions was associated with increased odds of patients having experienced pre-eclampsia (adjusted odds ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.59; P=0.025). A history of spontaneous abortion was associated with increased odds of pre-eclampsia during a subsequent pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Knabl, Julia; Pestka, Aurelia; Huettenbrenner, Rebecca; Plosch, Torsten; Ensenauer, Regina; Welbergen, Lena; Hutter, Stefan; Guenthner-Biller, Maria; Jeschke, Udo
The liver X receptors (LXRs) have been shown to be crucially involved in maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and placentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern and frequency of LXR under normal physiological circumstances and in spontaneous abortion and/or recurrent
Full Text Available Context: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30.5% of 200 women had the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last six months (N = 30 and at least three recurrent pregnancy losses (N = 31. BV was diagnosed either by using Papanicolaou staining, Gram staining, or by culturing with BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis. Results: The presence of BV was statistically associated with the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last 6 months (P 0.05. These women were also evaluated in view of periods of gestation. Forty-seven (77% of 61 women had first trimester miscarriage (≤12 weeks and 14 (23% of 61 women had second trimester miscarriage (>12 weeks. There was a statistically significant relationship between BV and second trimester miscarriage (P 0.05. Conclusion: BV may contribute to spontaneous abortion and second trimester miscarriage.
Wang, Xiaoli; Chen, Xiaojiao; Feng, Xuejiao; Chang, Fei; Chen, Minjian; Xia, Yankai; Chen, Ling
Triclosan (TCS), an antibacterial agent, is identified in serum and urine of humans. Here, we show that the level of urinary TCS in 28.3% patients who had spontaneous abortion in mid-gestation were increased by 11.3-fold (high-TCS) compared with normal pregnancies. Oral administration of TCS (10 mg/kg/day) in mice (TCS mice) caused an equivalent urinary TCS level as those in the high-TCS abortion patients. The TCS-exposure from gestation day (GD) 5.5 caused dose-dependently fetal death during GD12.5-16.5 with decline of live fetal weight. GD15.5 TCS mice appeared placental thrombus and tissue necrosis with enhancement of platelet aggregation. The levels of placenta and plasma estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) mRNA and protein in TCS mice or high-TCS abortion patients were not altered, but their EST activities were significantly reduced compared to controls. Although the levels of serum estrogen (E2) in TCS mice and high-TCS abortion patients had no difference from controls, their ratio of sulfo-conjugated E2 and unconjugated E2 was reduced. The estrogen receptor antagonist ICI-182,780 prevented the enhanced platelet aggregation and placental thrombosis and attenuated the fetal death in TCS mice. The findings indicate that TCS-exposure might cause spontaneous abortion probably through inhibition of EST activity to produce placental thrombosis.
Full Text Available The liver X receptors (LXRs have been shown to be crucially involved in maternal-fetal cholesterol transport and placentation. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression pattern and frequency of LXR under normal physiological circumstances and in spontaneous abortion and/or recurrent miscarriage. A total of 29 (12 physiologic pregnancies/10 spontaneous abortions/7 recurrent miscarriages human pregnancies in first trimester were analysed for LXR expression. Expression changes were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for receptor and quantitative RT-PCR (TaqMan was performed to determine the level of LXR mRNA expression. We also stained for RXRα and PPARγ as possible heterodimers of LXR. LXR expression was downregulated in the syncytiotrophoblast of spontaneous abortion placentas compared to normal pregnancy. In recurrent miscarriage there was a trend for a downregulation. Decidua showed an even stronger downregulation in both groups. In the syncytiotrophoblast we found a positive correlation for the combination of LXR/PPARγ in abortions and a negative correlation for LXR/RXRα. In addition, double-immunofluorescence staining showed that LXR as well as RXRα and PPARγ are expressed by the extravillous trophoblast. Finally, RXRα and LXR showed coexpression in the same extravillous trophoblast cells. To conclude, our data show that LXR expression is decreased in miscarriage.
Gurevich, Pavel; Elhayany, Asher; Milovanov, Andrey P; Halperin, Reuvit; Kaganovsky, Ella; Zusman, Itzhak; Ben-Hur, Herzel
Morphologic changes in the placental barrier in spontaneous early abortions under the maternal-embryonic immune conflict, and the role of maternal immunoglobulins (Igs) in these changes. We examined chorionic villi and other tissues obtained from 54 aborts between weeks 3.5 and 8 of pregnancy. Material was divided into two groups. Group 1 (control) contained 15 medically recommended and spontaneous early aborts with no signs of inflammations or pathologic immune processes. Group 2 contained 39 spontaneous early aborts with acute chorionic villitis. Immunohistochemical and morphometric methods were used to study the Igs, different types of immunocompetent cells, and apoptosis-related components of the placental barrier. Acute villitis was found to be characterized by the destruction of all components of the chorionic villi, thrombovasculitis with apoptosis of the endothelium of capillaries and erythroblasts, mucous swelling of the basal membrane, and coagulation of the blood proteins. Due to destruction of the capillaries, the number of avasculate villi increased, and the average number of capillaries per villus decreased. The extremely high number of phagolysosomes with IgG and IgA in the villous monocytes in the group 2 indicates an increase in the phagocytic activity of monocytes against maternal Igs and may reflect the presence of mother-embryo immune conflict. Apoptosis of monocytes and a high number of promonocytes were seen accompanied by a high concentration of p53 protein. A large disturbance in the trophoblast occurred with disappearance of bcl-2 and the appearance of Fas ligand. Massive destruction of maternal Igs in embryonic monocytes and acute villitis in the placental barrier are manifested during the mother-embryo immune conflict, and this may be one of the reasons of spontaneous early abortions.
Modvig, J; Schmidt, L; Damsgaard, M T
abortion risk include biochemical assays as well as life table technique, although the latter appears in two different forms. The consequences of using either of these are discussed. It is concluded that no study design so far is appropriate for measuring the total risk of spontaneous abortion from early...... conception to the end of the 27th week. It is proposed that pregnancy may be considered to consist of two or three specific periods and that different study designs should concentrate on measuring the conditional risk within each period. A careful estimate using this principle leads to an estimate of total...
Mølgaard-Nielsen, Ditte; Svanström, Henrik; Melbye, Mads; Hviid, Anders; Pasternak, Björn
Vaginal candidiasis is common during pregnancy. Although intravaginal formulations of topical azole antifungals are first-line treatment for pregnant women, oral fluconazole is often used despite limited safety information. To study the association between oral fluconazole exposure during pregnancy and the risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth. Nationwide register-based cohort study in Denmark, 1997-2013. From a cohort of 1,405,663 pregnancies, oral fluconazole-exposed pregnancies were compared with up to 4 unexposed pregnancies matched on propensity score, maternal age, calendar year, and gestational age (based on gestational age at first day of treatment with eligible controls surviving through this date). To test for confounding by indication, pregnancies exposed to intravaginal formulations of topical azoles were used as an additional comparator group. Filled prescriptions for oral fluconazole were obtained from the National Prescription Register. Hazard ratios (HRs) for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, estimated using proportional hazards regression. Among 3315 women exposed to oral fluconazole from 7 through 22 weeks' gestation, 147 experienced a spontaneous abortion, compared with 563 among 13,246 unexposed matched women. There was a significantly increased risk of spontaneous abortion associated with fluconazole exposure (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.23-1.77). Among 5382 women exposed to fluconazole from gestational week 7 to birth, 21 experienced a stillbirth, compared with 77 among 21,506 unexposed matched women. There was no significant association between fluconazole exposure and stillbirth (HR, 1.32 [95% CI, 0.82-2.14]). Using topical azole exposure as the comparison, 130 of 2823 women exposed to fluconazole vs 118 of 2823 exposed to topical azoles had a spontaneous abortion (HR, 1.62 [95% CI, 1.26-2.07]); 20 of 4301 women exposed to fluconazole vs 22 of 4301 exposed to topical azoles had a stillbirth (HR, 1.18 [95% CI, 0.64-2.16]). In this nationwide
Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn L; Warvadekar, Janardan
This study aimed to understand women's pathways of seeking care for postabortion complications in Madhya Pradesh, India. The study recruited 786 women between July and November 2007. Data were collected on service provision, abortion-related complications, care-seeking behavior, knowledge about abortion legality and availability, methods used, symptoms, referral source, and out-of-pocket costs. Women seeking care for complications from induced abortion followed more complex pathways to treatment than women with complications of spontaneous abortion. More complex pathways were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs. Improving community awareness on legal aspects, safe abortion methods, and trained providers are necessary to reduce morbidity associated with unsafe abortion. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rasch, V; Mary, V; Urassa, E
The objective of this study was to create sexual history profiles of women with illegally induced abortion (IA) and women with spontaneous abortion (SA) and describe the women's knowledge of, attitude to, and practice of contraception. The study was carried out in two settings, Temeke District...... Hospital (TDH) and Muhimbili Medical Centre (MMC) in Dar es Salaam. At TDH 362/603 (60 per cent) were identified as IA and 241/603 (40 per cent) as SA. At MMC the figures were 68/220 (31 per cent) IA and 152/220 (69 per cent) SA. Both groups were well informed about modern contraception. As a contrast...... the rate of ever users of contraception was low in both groups, although significantly lower among IA women than among SA women. Outcome of first pregnancy had been an induced abortion in significantly higher proportion of IA than of SA women. In conclusion, sexual intercourse before marriage is common...
Full Text Available ACP1 (low molecular weight acid phosphatase genetic polymorphism has been studied in 173 women with a history of two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and in 1508 control subjects, including 482 normal pregnant women. The proportion of carriers of ACP1 *C allele (* A/ *C, *B/*C in women with a history of repeated spontaneous abortion is lower than in normal pregnant women and other control groups, Women with repeated spontaneous abortion show a specific decrease of ACPI S isoform concentration as compared to normal pregnant women, The other component of ACP I activity, the F isoform, does not show a significant difference between the two groups. The data suggest that women with ACP1 genotypes showing a high concentration of S isoform are relatively 'protected' against spontaneous abortion, Preliminary analysis of a sample of 352 normal puerperae along with their newborn babies supports this hypothesis,
Toth, Bettina; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kern, Meike; Rogenhofer, Nina; Berkmans, René; Rank, Andreas; Lohse, Peter; Friese, Klaus; Thaler, Christian J.
PROBLEM: Placental fibrin deposits in patients wih recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) indicate an exaggerated haemostatic response. This 'hypercoagulability' may involve pro-coagulant factors such as circulating microparticles (MPs). We investigated the relationship between circulating
Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Vestergaard, Mogens; S?rensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, J?rn; Christensen, Jakob; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Pedersen, Lars Henning
PURPOSE: To estimate the risk of spontaneous abortion after use of antidepressant medication during pregnancy. METHODS: From the Danish Medical Birth Registry and the Danish National Hospital Registry, we identified all pregnancies leading to in- or outpatient contacts in Denmark from February 1997 to December 2008. The Danish Registry of Medicinal Product Statistics provided information on the women's prescriptions for antidepressants during pregnancy. We obtained information on women who we...
Nielsen, Stine Yde; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
Q fever is a bacterial zoonosis caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii. It is well established that Q fever causes fetal loss in small ruminants. The suspicion has been raised that pregnant women may also experience adverse pregnancy outcome when the infection is acquired or reactivated during...... pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential association between serologic markers of infection with C. burnetii and spontaneous abortion....
Wax, Joseph R; Conroy, Kelley; Pinette, Michael G; Litton, Christian; Cartin, Angelina
When administered inappropriately, first-trimester misoprostol management of induced or spontaneous abortion can result in loss or damage of a continuing pregnancy. Despite these serious consequences, such misoprostol exposures continue to occur. Unfortunately, contributing factors and preventive measures receive little attention. We describe the cases of 4 women in whom misoprostol was inappropriately administered during management of induced and presumed spontaneous abortion. In each case, careful adherence to published clinical guidance could have avoided the exposures. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Tolstrup, J S; Kjær, S. K.; Munk, C
BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeine and alcohol is suspected to affect pregnancy outcome. Use of both stimulants is widespread and even minor effects on fetal viability are of public health interest. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population......-based cohort comprising 11088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n = 303) or who gave birth (n = 1381) during follow-up [mean time: 2.1 years (range: 1.6-3.4)] were selected. Associations between self-reported exposures to caffeine and/or alcohol...... at enrolment and spontaneous abortion were analysed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: Compared with women with a pre-pregnancy intake of caffeine per day, the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for spontaneous abortion was 1.26 (0.77-2.06), 1.45 (0.87-2.41), 1.44 (0.87-2.37) and 1...
Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K
A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.
Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.
A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss
Full Text Available Varicocele is still an enigma. Its effects on semen analysis, fertility and, more re-cently, early ejaculation and spontaneous abortion in spouses are not yet fully understood. In this retrospective study, we evaluated these four parameters (semen analysis, fertility, early ejacu-lation and spontaneous abortion among spouses in relation to varicocele and varicocelectomy during a 13-year period. A total of 1,711 patients with varicocele underwent varicocelectomy by high inguinal method (251 cases, subinguinal method (1,375 cases, scrotal method (34 cases, and subinguinal method with local anesthesia (38 cases. Our complication rate was acceptable. Sperm count, motility and morphology increased three months post operation in 55, 51, and 46%, respectively (P value 0.000, 0.000, and 0.015, respectively. Paternity was 56% after one year of post varicocelectomy follow-up. Only 7 out of 82 azoospermic men had sperm in their semen after varicocelectomy and only one of them with mild spermatogenic hypoplasia became a father. The spontaneous abortion rate in the spouses of respondents was 59%. Early ejaculation improved in 75% of the respondents. In conclusion, varicocelectomy does not improve sperm parameters in all men, but it improves pregnancy rate, early ejaculation, and scrotal pain.
Daniel, Sharon; Koren, Gideon; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Levy, Amalia
Experimental research of drug safety in pregnancy is generally not feasible because of ethical issues. Therefore, most of the information about drug safety in general and teratogenicity in particular is obtained through observational studies, which require careful methodologic design to obtain unbiased results. Immortal time bias occurs when some cases do not "survive" sufficient time in the study, and as such, they have reduced chances of being defined as "exposed" simply because the durations of their follow-ups were shorter. For example, studies that examine the risk for spontaneous abortions in women exposed to a drug during pregnancy are susceptible to immortal time bias because the chance of drug exposure increases the longer a pregnancy lasts. Therefore, the drug tested may falsely be found protective against the outcome tested. The objective of the current study was to illustrate the extent of immortal time bias using a cohort study of pregnancies assessing the risk for spontaneous abortions following nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug exposure. We assembled 3 databases containing data on spontaneous abortions, births and drug dispensions to create the present study's cohort. The risk for spontaneous abortion was assessed using 2 statistical analysis methods that were compared for 2 definitions of exposure (dichotomous, exposed vs unexposed, regular Cox regression vs Cox regression with time-varying exposure). Significant differences were found in the risk for spontaneous abortions between the 2 statistical methods, both for groups and for most specific nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (nonselective Cox inhibitors - hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.94 vs hazard ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.22 for dichotomous vs time-varying exposure analyses, respectively). Furthermore, a significant correlation was found between the median misclassified immortal time for each drug and the extent of the bias. Immortal time bias can
Azumaguchi, Atsushi; Henmi, Hirofumi; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Endo, Toshiaki; Saito, Tsuyoshi
The aim of this study was to clarify the role of dilatation and curettage (D&C) performed for spontaneous or induced abortion in the etiology of endometrial thinning. This was a retrospective and cross-sectional study of 310 infertile patients from January 2013 through December 2015. Endometrial thickness observed 5-7 days after ovulation in a natural menstrual cycle was correlated with the number of D&C noted in each patient's history. Study 1 was an investigation of patients without D&C (group A: n = 232) and patients with D&C performed for spontaneous abortion (group B: n = 46). Study 2 was an investigation of patients in group A and patients with D&C performed for induced abortion (group C: n = 32). A significant negative correlation (P spontaneous or induced abortion may play a causal role in endometrial thinning. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Peng, Y-B; Liu, H; Huang, S-H; Lai, H; Zhou, Q; Luo, Y; Zhang, Z-Y; Xi, B-R; Ouyang, X
The present study is aimed to explore the relationship between aberrant expression of heat shock protein 70 (HSP) and spontaneous abortion. 50 patients with spontaneous abortion and 50 patients with induced abortion were continuously selected based on the nearest matching principle, and the proportion of age and gestational age was 1:1. The decidual tissues were obtained, and the cell apoptosis was determined by TUNEL assay. Further, the expression of HSP70 was assayed by immune-histochemical staining, and the expression of HSP70 mRNA was detected by the RT-PCR approach. Apoptosis rate, HSP70 expression and HSP70 mRNA expression in the observation group were significantly higher than the control group. HSP70 might induce apoptosis so as to cause spontaneous abortion.
Maia S. Marin
Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.
Trabace, S; Nicotra, M; Cappellacci, S; Morellini, M; Muttinelli, C; Sbracia, M; Di Prima, M A; Masala, C
IgG anticardiolipin antibodies (ACL) have been shown to occur in a high proportion of women with repeated unexplained miscarriages. Forty-nine women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA), previously assayed for the presence of ACL by an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay, were typed for HLA-DR and DQ antigens by the classical microlymphocytotoxicity test. Twenty-five women were positive for ACL and 24 were negative. HLA-DR7 was found in 24.5% of 49 habitually aborting women vs. 28% of healthy controls; but the DR7 frequency was 40% in ACL positive patients vs. 8.3% in ACL negative patients (P = 0.011). These results show that in the Italian population an association between HLA-DR7 antigen and ACL is present in women with unexplained RSA, suggesting that HLA-DR genes might control the susceptibility to specific autoantibody production.
An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most health care providers advise counseling.
Seo, Sang Soo; Arokiyaraj, Selvaraj; Kim, Mi Kyung; Oh, Hea Young; Kwon, Minji; Kong, Ji Sook; Shin, Moon Kyung; Yu, Ye Lee; Lee, Jae Kwan
Objective. The purpose of this study was to (i) determine the cervical microbial composition in different abortion samples and to (ii) investigate the correlation between spontaneous abortion and cervical microbes in Korean women. Methods. We collected cervical swabs from women who had never undergone abortion ( N = 36), had spontaneous abortion ( N = 23), and had undergone induced abortion ( N = 88) and subjected those samples to 16S rRNA pyrosequencing. Further, factor analysis and correlation between cervical microbiota and spontaneous abortion were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Results. In spontaneous abortion women, 16 S rRNA gene sequences showed significant increases in Atopobium vaginae , Megasphaera spp., Gardnerella vaginalis , Leptotrichia amnionii , and Sneathia sanguinegens compared to women in nonabortion group. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, A. vaginae (OD = 11.27; 95% = 1.57-81) , L. amnionii (OD = 11.47; 95% = 1.22-107.94), S. sanguinegens (OD = 6.89; 95% = 1.07-44.33), and factor 1 microbes (OD = 16.4; 95% = 1.88-42.5) were strongly associated with spontaneous abortion. Conclusions. This study showed a high prevalence of L. amnionii, A. vaginae, S. sanguinegens , and factor 1 microbes in spontaneous abortion and association with spontaneous abortion in Korean women.
Ajayi, O O; Charles-Davies, M A; Arinola, O G
Environmental and endocrine factors have been implicated in the aetiology of recurrent abortion, with poorly understood roles. Luteal phase insufficiency marked with insufficient progesterone secretion has been reported. To define the involvement of progesterone, trace metals, and Vitamin E in pregnant women with history of recurrent spontaneous abortion. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 69 pregnant women aged 21-41 years with gestational age of 0-20 weeks in this case-control study. Thirty five (cases) and thirty four (controls) had previous and no history of recurrent spontaneous abortion respectively. Demographic characteristics and 10 mls of blood samples were obtained from each subject. Serum obtained was used for the determination of progesterone, zinc, copper, selenium, iron, magnesium, manganese, chromium, lead, cadmium, and serum vitamin E by standard methods. Results showed statistically significant decreases (pspontaneous abortion.
Brandi, Kristyn; Morgan, Jake R; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K; Perkins, Rebecca B; White, Katharine OʼConnell
To compare obstetric outcomes after failed hysteroscopic and laparoscopic sterilization. This retrospective cohort study examined pregnancy outcomes including live birth, preterm birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, therapeutic abortion, ectopic pregnancies, and gestational trophoblastic disease using a commercial claims administrative database for the years 2007-2013. We used a Z-test to compare pregnancy outcomes per 100 person-years based on type of sterilization. Cox proportional hazard models controlled for patient age, geographic region, urbanicity, comorbidities, and insurance type. We evaluated 997 pregnancy outcomes among 817 women from a total of 70,115 women with a history of either hysteroscopic sterilization (n=387 pregnancies/27,724 cases) or laparoscopic sterilization (n=610 pregnancies/42,391 cases). Women undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization were slightly older than, but otherwise similar to, women undergoing laparoscopic sterilization. The most common outcome was live birth, which was more likely after hysteroscopic sterilization compared with laparoscopic sterilization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.32, 95% CI 1.09-1.60). The rate of spontaneous abortion was not statistically significantly different between the two groups. Therapeutic abortion occurred more often after hysteroscopic sterilization (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49, 95% CI 1.10-2.01), whereas ectopic pregnancies occurred less often (adjusted hazard ratio 0.12, 95% CI 0.05-0.29) compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Hysteroscopic sterilization is associated with higher rates of live birth and lower rates of ectopic pregnancy compared with laparoscopic sterilization. Spontaneous abortion and preterm birth rates were similar in both groups. These data do not support an adverse effect of hysteroscopic sterilization on subsequent pregnancy outcomes.
Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.
Marinescu, Ileana P; Foarfă, Maria Camelia; Pîrlog, Mihail Cristian; Turculeanu, Adriana
Prenatal stress and depression affects 10-25% of pregnant women and is associated with disruption of fetal neurodevelopment, higher rates of placental abnormalities, preeclampsia, spontaneous abortion, or preterm birth. Markers of genetic vulnerability are catechol-O-methyltransferase, monoamine oxidase-A, variation of serotonin transporters, low levels of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, and brain derived neurotrophic factor Val66Met (BDNF), while hyperactivity of HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis and massive release of endogenous cortisol, regulated by metalloproteinase-1, -2, -3 and -9, and are involved both in depressive symptoms and neurodevelopmental abnormalities in fetus. In women with prenatal stress and depression which suffered spontaneous abortion were observed placental abnormalities as regular shape and necrotic villi, decidua with large areas of necrosis, acute inflammation and effusion areas correlated with increase in proinflammatory factors, immune deficit and infections, hyaline type fibrosis, intervilos and deciduous intense hemorrhage, associated with increase of vascular endothelial growth factor. Taking into account the important societal and economic costs becomes important for an interdisciplinary approach, in which pregnancy and its risks are a central point for women mental health.
Sun, Chan; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Tang, Chuan-Ling; Wang, Song-Cun; Piao, Hai-Lan; Tao, Yu; Zhu, Rui; Du, Mei-Rong; Li, Da-Jin
Spontaneous abortion is the most common complication of pregnancy. Immune activation and the subsequent inflammation-induced tissue injury are often observed at the maternal-fetal interface as the final pathological assault in recurrent spontaneous abortion. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for spontaneous abortion involving inflammation are not fully understood. Chemokine CCL28 and its receptors CCR3 and CCR10 are important regulators in inflammatory process. Here, we examined the expression of CCL28 and its receptors in decidual stromal cells (DSCs) by immunochemistry and flow cytometry (FCM), and compared their expression level in DSCs from normal pregnancy versus spontaneous abortion, and their relationship to inflammatory cytokines production by DSCs. We further analyzed regulation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines on CCL28 expression in DSCs by real-time polymerase chain reaction, In-cell Western and FCM. The effects of CCL28-CCR3/CCR10 interaction on DSC apoptosis was investigated by Annexin V staining and FCM analysis or DAPI staining and nuclear morphology. Higher levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-17A and tumor necrosis factor-α, and increased CCR3/CCR10 expression were observed in DSCs from spontaneous abortion compared with normal pregnancy. Treatment with inflammatory cytokines differently affected CCL28 and CCR3/CCR10 expression in DSCs. Human recombinant CCL28 promoted DSC apoptosis, which was eliminated by pretreatment with neutralizing antibodies against CCR3/CCR10 and CCL28. However, CCL28 did not affect DSC growth. These results suggest that the inflammation-promoted up-regulation of CCL28 and its receptors interaction in DSCs is involved in human spontaneous abortion via inducing DSC apoptosis.
Hasanzadeh-NazarAbadi, Mohammad; Baghbani, Fatemeh; Namazi, Iman; Mirzaee, Salmeh
Approximately 205 million pregnancies occur each year in the worldwide. On the other hand, Spontaneous abortion has been reported in 15-20% of all diagnosed pregnancies. The most common cause of spontaneous abortion is chromosomal abnormalities of the embryo. Robertsonian translocation carriers specially 21-14 are the most common balanced rearrangement among the carrier couples with the history of spontaneous abortion. In order to search for balanced chromosomal rearrangement and cytogenetic disorders, 10 members of related family with consanguinity marriage with the history of recurrent miscarriage were assessed. Cytogenetic evaluation on the basis G-banding technique at high resolution was performed in 3 couples and their related family with the history of idiopathic RSA in order to postulate any balanced chromosomal rearrangement. six members of them appeared with robertsonian balanced translocation between chromosome No.21 to No. 14 with the karyotype of 45, XX, t (14, 21) and 45, XY, t (14, 21), which this results are in agreement with several similar works which claimed that the risk of spontaneous abortion in couples with balanced chromosomal rearrangements is higher compared with general population. Considering to results of present study, it seems as if the cytogenetic analysis of couples with the history of recurrent abortions should be suggested compulsory to estimate the probable presence of any chromosomal rearrangement. This offer wills valuable information for genetic consulting.
Kanca, H; Walter, I; Miller, I; Schäfer-Somi, S; Izgur, H; Aslan, S
Aim of this study was to determine the intrauterine activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2 and -9 after cessation of the local effect of progesterone. For this purpose, pregnancy was terminated in 10 bitches at mid-gestation with the progesterone receptor antagonist aglepristone (10 mg/kg body weight, sc, Alizine®; Virbac, France) at two subsequent days (group IRA = induced resorption/abortion). The IRA group was divided into two subgroups (Group I, n = 5, days 25-35 of pregnancy; group II, n = 5, days 36-45). Five further bitches were introduced with beginning abortion (group SRA = spontaneous resorption/abortion). Seven healthy bitches between day 25 and 45 of gestation served as controls. After ovariohysterectomy at the end of abortion and between days 25 and 45 of gestation, respectively, the distribution and activity of collagenases were investigated by immunohistochemistry and gelatin zymography. At placental sites, MMP-2 activity in the endometrium was significantly lower in IRA groups than in the SRA group (33.7 ± 11.8% and 39.3 ± 5.4% vs 52.2 ± 10.2%, p < 0.05); however, MMP-2 expression was lowest in the control group (control: 21.4 ± 6.3%; p < 0.01) and similarly in the myometrium (controls: 13.1 ± 2.5%; p < 0.05). MMP-9 activity was also lower in the endometrium and myometrium of the control group in comparison to SRA and IRA groups (11.8 ± 3.2%; p < 0.01 and 28.4 ± 32.8%; p < 0.05). At interplacental sites, the amount of active collagenases in the myometrium was significantly lower in the control group. It is concluded that the blockade of the biological progesterone effect was associated with an increase in activity of both collagenases. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Bech, Bodil Hammer; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard; Howards, Penelope P; Sørensen, Merete Juul; Olsen, Jørn; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Vestergaard, Mogens; Christensen, Jakob
To determine whether use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion or stillbirth. Population based cohort study. Register based study in Denmark, 1997-2008. 983,305 pregnancies identified in the Danish medical birth register and the Danish national hospital discharge register from 1 February 1997 to 31 December 2008 were linked to the Danish Register of Medicinal Product Statistics to obtain information on use of antiepileptic drugs. Risk ratio of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth after use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy, estimated by using binomial regression adjusting for potential confounders of maternal age, cohabitation, income, education, history of severe mental disorder, and history of drug misuse. Antiepileptic drugs were used in a total of 4700 (0.5%) pregnancies. 16 out of 100 pregnant women using antiepileptics and 13 out of 100 pregnant women not using antiepileptics experienced a spontaneous abortion. After adjusting for potential confounders pregnant women using antiepileptics had a 13% higher risk of spontaneous abortions than pregnant women not using antiepileptics (adjusted risk ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.24). However, the risk of spontaneous abortion was not increased in women with an epilepsy diagnosis (0.98, 0.87 to 1.09), only in women without a diagnosis of epilepsy (1.30, 1.14 to 1.49). In an analysis including women with at least two pregnancies with discordant antiepileptic drug use (for example, use in the first pregnancy but not in the second), the adjusted hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion was 0.83 (0.69 to 1.00) for exposed pregnancies compared with unexposed pregnancies. Stillbirth was identified in 18 women who used antiepileptic drugs (unadjusted risk ratio 1.29, 0.80 to 2.10). Among women with epilepsy and when analysing the risk in antiepileptic drug discordant pregnancies in the same woman, we found no overall association between the use of
Frazier, Tyralynn; Hogue, Carol J Rowland; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Yount, Kathryn M; Pearce, Brad D
The Weathering Effect is a theory that links stress exposure, over the life-course, with racial disparities in reproductive outcomes, through the effects of social adversity on a woman's body. The concept of maternal "weathering" captures cumulative somatic and psychological adversities that can exacerbate the effects of aging. Much of the evidence for weathering comes from observational studies linking self-report measures with reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore biological mechanisms that underlie these observations. We focus on spontaneous abortion because this event is understudied despite evidence of racial disparities in this outcome. Spontaneous abortion is the most common pregnancy failure, and it happens early in pregnancy. Early pregnancy is a time most susceptible to the harmful effects of immune dysregulation that may, in part, result from adversities experienced before pregnancy begins. In exploring these mechanisms, we draw on well-defined signaling processes observed in the stressor-depression relationship. Pro-inflammatory dysregulation, for example, has particular relevance to immunological control occurring early in pregnancy. Early pregnancy immunologic changes affect the trajectories of pregnancy via control of trophoblastic invasion. Within the first few weeks of pregnancy, uterine derived cytokines operate within cytokine networks and play a critical role in this invasion. Programming for pro-inflammatory dysregulation can occur before conception. This dysregulation, brought into early pregnancy, has implications for viability and success of the index pregnancy. These patterns suggest early pregnancy health is susceptible to stress processing pathways that influence this immunologic control in the first six to eight weeks of pregnancy. In this review, we discuss the known mediating role of immune factors in the stressor-depression relationship. We also discuss how adversity experienced before the index pregnancy, or
Liu Jingzhu; Hu Jing; Zhang Shiping; Zhang Shuang; Lin Li; Fan Jing
Objective: To explore the relationship between recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and anti-β 2 - glycoprotein I (anti-β 2 -GP I) antibody. Methods: The levels of anti-β 2 -GP I antibody in serum from 81 RSA patients and 39 normal women were detected by ELISA. Results: The positive rate of anti-β 2 -GP I in RSA patients (42.0%) was obviously higher than that in normal women (7.7 %) (P 2 -GP I IgG in statistics between RSA patients (40.8%) and normal women (7.7%) (P 2 -GP I IgM in statistics between RSA patients and normal women (P>0.05). There was no difference of the positive rate of anti-β 2 -GP I in statistics between early and late, as well as between 2 times and more than 2 times abortions of RSA (P>0.05). Conclusion: The anti-β 2 -GP I antibody is related to RSA, and it may be regarded as a immunological assistant diagnostic index for RSA. (authors)
Huchon, Cyrille; Koskas, Martin; Agostini, Aubert; Akladios, Cherif; Alouini, Souhail; Bauville, Estelle; Bourdel, Nicolas; Fernandez, Hervé; Fritel, Xavier; Graesslin, Olivier; Legendre, Guillaume; Lucot, Jean-Philippe; Matheron, Isabelle; Panel, Pierre; Raiffort, Cyril; Fauconnier, Arnaud
Incomplete spontaneous abortions are defined by the intrauterine retention of the products of conception after their incomplete or partial expulsion. This condition may be managed by expectant care, medical treatment or surgery. Vacuum aspiration is currently the standard surgical treatment in most centers. However, operative hysteroscopy has the advantage over vacuum aspiration of allowing the direct visualization of the retained conception product, facilitating its elective removal while limiting surgical complications. Inadequately powered retrospective studies reported subsequent fertility to be higher in patients treated by operative hysteroscopy than in those treated by vacuum aspiration. These data require confirmation in a randomized controlled trial comparing fertility rates between women undergoing hysteroscopy and those undergoing vacuum aspiration for incomplete spontaneous abortion. After providing written informed consent, 572 women with incomplete spontaneous abortion recruited from 15 centers across France will undergo randomization by a centralized computer system for treatment by either vacuum aspiration or operative hysteroscopy. Patients will not be informed of the type of treatment that they receive and will be cared for during their hospital stay in accordance with standard practices at each center. The patients will be monitored for pregnancy or adverse effects by a telephone conversation or questionnaire sent by e-mail or post over a period of two years. In cases of complications, failure of the intervention or diagnosis of uterine cavity disease, patient care will be left to the discretion of the medical center team. If our hypothesis is confirmed, this study will provide evidence that the use of operative hysteroscopy can increase the number of pregnancies continuing beyond 22 weeks of gestation in the two-year period following incomplete spontaneous abortion without increasing the incidence of morbidity and peri- and postoperative
Ahmed, Salma; Ray, Ranjan
This study provides evidence on the principal determinants of pregnancy and abortion in India using a large country-wide district-level data set (DLHS 2007). The paper provides an economic framework for the analysis of pregnancy and abortion. The study distinguishes between induced and spontaneous abortion and compares the effects of their determinants. The results show that there are wide differences between induced and spontaneous abortions in terms of the sign and magnitude of the estimated effects of several of their determinants, most notably wealth, the woman's age and her desire for children. The study makes a methodological contribution by proposing a trivariate probit estimation framework that recognizes the joint dependence of pregnancy and induced and spontaneous abortion, and provides evidence in support of this joint dependence. The study reports an inverted U-shaped effect of a woman's age on her pregnancy and both forms of abortion. The turning point in each case is quite robust to the estimation framework. A significant effect of contextual variables, at the village level, constructed from the individual responses, on a woman's pregnancy is found. The effects are weaker in the case of induced abortion, and insignificant in the case of spontaneous abortion. The results are shown to be fairly robust. This paper extends the literature on the relation between son preference and fertility by examining the link between mother's son preference and desire for more children with abortion rates.
Liu, Yudong; Tang, Yan; Ye, Desheng; Ma, Weixu; Feng, Shuxian; Li, Xuelan; Zhou, Xingyu; Chen, Xin; Chen, Shiling
Currently, there is a growing concern regarding the safety of assisted reproductive technology (ART) due to increased risk of spontaneous abortion (SA) and imprinting disorders in ART-conceived offspring. Early investigations suggested that aberrant genetic imprinting may be related to pregnancy loss; however, few studies have used human tissue specimens. Here the DNA methylation patterns of 3 imprinted genes, including maternally inherited GRB10 and the paternally inherited IGF2 and PEG3 genes, were evaluated in human chorionic villus samples by pyrosequencing and bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction. The samples were divided into 4 groups: (1) SA of natural conception (NC; n = 84), (2) induced abortion of NC (n = 94), (3) SA after ART (n = 73), and (4) fetal reduction after ART (n = 86). The methylation levels and the percentages of abnormal methylation of the IGF2, GRB10, and PEG3 genes between the ART group and the NC group showed no significant difference. Both IGF2 and GRB10 genes showed higher methylation levels in the SA group compared to the non-SA group. Additionally, determining the single-nucleotide polymorphisms of 4 loci, including IGF2 rs3741205, rs3741206, rs3741211, and GRB10 rs2237457, showed that the TC+CC genotype of IGF2 rs3741211 had a 1.91-fold increased risk of SA after ART. However, there was no association between the mutant genotype of IGF2 rs3741211 and the methylation levels of IGF2 and H19, and ART might not affect the distribution of the abovementioned genotypes. It provides support for the opinion that genetic imprinting defects may be associated with SA, which might not be due to ART treatments.
Nunes, J P
Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment.
Full Text Available Background & Aim: Air pollution has been one of the threatening factors of human health during the last century. Particulate matters are the major air pollutants in urban areas. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of ambient particulate mattes on spontaneous abortion. Methods: This case-control study was conducted between June 2010 to February 2011 on 148 spontaneous abortion (case group and 148 pregnant women (control group in Tehran. From 22 regions of Tehran, 10 hospitals were randomly selected and samples were collected by simple random sampling from these hospitals. The mean of particulate matters was obtained from monitoring stations of Tehran Air Quality Control Company (TAQCC. Collected data was analyzed by the SPSS software using independent sample t-test, chi-square test, multiple and linear regression models. Results: Two groups in the study were matched in participants' age, husbands' age, age at first childbirth, educational level, family average income, previous type of delivery and the interval between deliveries, any previous abortion experience, body mass index, parity, duration of residence in Tehran and the amount of time spent at work and outside of home (P>0.05. On analyzing the collected data, it was revealed that the mean of ambient PM10 concentration in case group (94.4±39.22 micro gr/m3 was significantly higher than the control group (83.54±22.55 micro gr/m3 in T-test (P<0.001 and also the rate of abortion was higher in these areas (OR: 1.01, CI95%: 1.003-1.018. For assessing the relationship between gestational age and ambient PM10 concentration, linear regression method was used. Results indicated that there was a negative correlation between these variables. Conclusion: Findings of this study showed that there was a significant relationship between occurrence of spontaneous abortion and the ambient PM10 concentration.
6 centers participated in a randomized comparison of the TCu 220C, Lippes Loop D, and Copper 7 intrauterine devices inserted immediately following spontaneous abortion. A total of 1060 insertions were performed with no perforations detected within the 1st 48 hours; only 9 subjects had complaints. At 390 and 750 days the continuation rates of all devices were equal. The expulsion rates were much lower than those with insertion immediately following the delivery of the placenta. There were no ectopic pregnancies reported and the incidence of pelvic inflammatory disease was low. It can be concluded that IUD insertion following spontaneous abortion in subjects with no signs of pelvic infection is safe and not associated with uterine perforation or a subsequent increased risk of pelvic inflammatory disease.
Parveen, Shagufta; Panicker, M M; Gupta, Pawan Kumar
A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hosseini, Seyed Abbas; Farsi Zaban, Masoumeh
The Health outcomes of an individual depend on his /her life position. The purpose of the present paper aimed to study spontaneous abortion (as a high risk factor among rural pregnant) due to their life status. The study was conducted among 40 young rural pregnant women, 12 to 20 years old by implementing a questionnaire during 2012 to 2013 in four villages in southeast of Iran. The women were exposed to high-risk factors such as shortage or lack of drinking water, high pressure electric power sources and chemicals released from burning gas both from cooking and cars as a fuel. The data were collected from the pregnant women coming into clinics. Results of the t-test and chi-square identified significant (P electric power source, pregnant women had 95% and 20% piped drinking water in villages of Iranshahr and Sarbaz, respectively. No houses in both villages were equipped with the gas fuel system. The findings suggest that a completely programmed surveillance program should be undertaken to implemented remedy in environmental shortages for pregnant rural women.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. METHODS: Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus <35 were eligible for the meta-analysis. No statistical difference was found in risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77. CONCLUSIONS: ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.
Mahdavipour, Marzieh; Zarei, Saeed; Fatemi, Ramina; Edalatkhah, Haleh; Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Idali, Farah
Background: Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA) is caused by multiple genetic and non-genetic factors. Around 50% of the RSA cases have no known etiology and are considered as Unexplained RSA (URSA). Estrogens, via binding to their receptors, play an important role in female reproduction. This study aimed to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; +1082G/A, +1730G/A and rs1256030 C/T) in the estrogen receptor beta (ESR2) gene are associated with susceptibility to URSA in a population of Iranian women. Methods: In this case-control study, the study groups consisted of 240 subjects with a history of URSA and 102 fertile women as controls. Serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and estradiol (E2) were measured on day 2–3 of menstrual cycle. Two functional SNPs, +1082G/A (a silent mutation in exon 5) and +1730G/A (3′ untranslated region of the exon 8), and one intron, rs1256030C/T, in the ESR2 gene were genotyped, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results: Serum levels of LH were significantly increased in URSA women. No significant differences in distribution of +1082G/A, +1730G/A and rs1256030C/T between URSA and control groups were observed. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the studied SNPs on ESR2 gene may not be associated with URSA. PMID:28706612
Qin, Jun-Zhen; Pang, Li-Hong; Li, Min-Qing; Xu, Jing; Zhou, Xing
Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART) are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77). ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.
Full Text Available Background: Immunotherapy with paternal lymphocytes plays an important role in preventing recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA and is an effective treatment for it. This kind of treatment is performed as an immunotherapy method in several centers in the world. It attributes to the production of anti-paternal cytotoxic antibodies (APCAs in women with RSA. Production of APCA after lymphocyte immunotherapy (LIT in RSA patients gives them a better chance for successful pregnancy. Regarding the important effect of trace elements on the function of the immune system, we tried to investigate the correlation between serum zinc level and the success of LIT in RSA. Materials and Methods: Serum zinc concentration was determined in two groups of RSA patients using atomic absorption spectrophotometer systems. Group (a that responded to the paternal lymphocytes and their cross-match test was positive, and group (b that had no response to the paternal lymphocytes immunizations and their cross-match test was negative. Results: Serum zinc levels in group (a patients were 74.98 ± 11.88 μg/dl, which was significantly higher than those in group (b with the zinc concentration of 64.22 ± 9.22 μg/dl. Conclusions: Zinc deficiency may be one of the substantial causes of negative results for LIT in RSA patients. Therefore, compensation of zinc defect before LIT can be a promising approach to improve the immune response in patients.
Piao, Jin; Ning, Jing; Chambers, Christina D; Xu, Ronghui
Evaluating and understanding the risk and safety of using medications for autoimmune disease in a woman during her pregnancy will help both clinicians and pregnant women to make better treatment decisions. However, utilizing spontaneous abortion (SAB) data collected in observational studies of pregnancy to derive valid inference poses two major challenges. First, the data from the observational cohort are not random samples of the target population due to the sampling mechanism. Pregnant women with early SAB are more likely to be excluded from the cohort, and there may be substantial differences between the observed SAB time and those in the target population. Second, the observed data are heterogeneous and contain a "cured" proportion. In this article, we consider semiparametric models to simultaneously estimate the probability of being cured and the distribution of time to SAB for the uncured subgroup. To derive the maximum likelihood estimators, we appropriately adjust the sampling bias in the likelihood function and develop an expectation-maximization algorithm to overcome the computational challenge. We apply the empirical process theory to prove the consistency and asymptotic normality of the estimators. We examine the finite sample performance of the proposed estimators in simulation studies and illustrate the proposed method through an application to SAB data from pregnant women. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Maesawa, Yoko; Yamada, Hideto; Deguchi, Masashi; Ebina, Yasuhiko
The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the presence of history of biochemical pregnancy (BP) was associated with clinical characteristics and the subsequent pregnancy outcome among women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). One-hundred and seventy-five RSA women with two or more clinical pregnancy losses were enrolled. The clinical characteristics were compared between 164 women with history of 0-1 BP (Group A) and 11 women with two or more BP (Group B). The frequency of previous pregnancy loss and history of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer in Group B was higher than that in Group A; while frequency of secondary RSA in Group B was lower than Group A. The subsequent pregnancy outcome was assessed prospectively; and live-birth rate in Group A (72.9%) was higher (p < 0.05) than that in Group B (41.7%). The incidence of reproductive failure (58.3%, p < 0.05) and spontaneous abortion with normal chromosome (25.0%, p = 0.050) in Group B was higher than those (27.1 and 5.9%, respectively) in Group A. RSA women with two or more BP had higher risk of reproductive failure and spontaneous abortion with normal chromosome together with lower chance of live-birth. The results of the present study involve important information and are helpful for clinical practitioners.
. Conclusão: para uma investigação completa dos fatores associados ao aborto espontâneo recorrente faz-se necessária a inclusão do fator aloimune, sem a qual a maior parte dos casos não terá etiologia esclarecida.Purpose: to identify recurrent spontaneous abortion- associated factors. Subjects: one hundred seventy-five outpatients were investigated from March 1993 to March 1997 at the "Ambulatório de Aborto Recorrente CAISM/UNICAMP". All of them had had three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and/or two abortions and were 35 years or more old. Methods: the investigation protocol included: couple's karyotype; hysterosalpingography, serial plasma progesterone levels and/or endometrial biopsy; toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, brucelosis, lues and cytomegalovirus serum tests; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis cultures of cervical discharge; TSH and thyroid hormone levels; fasting glucose; autoantibody panel, anti-HLA antibody search by microlymphocytotoxicity crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor detection. Husband's evaluation included: physical evaluation, lues, Chagas' disease, B and C hepatitis and AIDS serum tests, microlymphocytotoxicity crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor detection. Results: alloimmune etiology was the most frequently found factor (86.3% of studied patients, represented by negative crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor below 50%. The second most frequently found factor was cervical incompetence (22.8%, followed by hormonal factor (21.2%, mainly represented by luteal insufficiency. Some patients were found to have more than one etiologic factor. Conclusion: the investigation of recurrent spontaneous abortion-associated factors must include alloimmune etiology. Most cases will remain unexplained without this investigation.
Full Text Available Background: Congenital toxoplasmosis is an important cause of spontaneous abortion worldwide. However, there is limited information on detection and genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. The aim of this study is the molecular detection and genotypic characterization of T. gondii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded fetoplacental tissues (FFPTs of women with RSA that have referred to the Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: This experimental research was undertaken on 210 FFPTs of women with RSA. The information of the patients was collected from the archives of Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran, Iran. After DNA extraction, the presence of T. gondii was examined by nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the GRA6 gene. Genotyping was performed on positive samples using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP that targeted the GRA6 and SAG3 genes. Sequencing was conducted on two GRA6 positive samples. Results: T. gondii DNA was detected in 3.8% (8/210 of the samples. Genotyping showed that all positive samples belonged to type III of the T. gondii genotype. Sequencing two genomic DNAs of the GRA6 gene revealed 99% similarity with each other and 99-100% similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. There were six patients with histories of more than three abortions; one patient had a healthy girl and another patient had two previous abortions. Abortions occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy in seven patients and in the second trimester of pregnancy in one patient. Conclusion: The results of this study have indicated that genotype III is the predominant type of T. gondii in women with RSA in Tehran, Iran. Also, our findings suggest that toxoplasmosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of RSA. However, further studies are needed to elucidate a clear relationship between T. gondii
Abdoli, Amir; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Soltanghoraee, Haleh; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh
Background Congenital toxoplasmosis is an important cause of spontaneous abortion worldwide. However, there is limited information on detection and genotypic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The aim of this study is the molecular detection and genotypic characterization of T. gondii in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded fetoplacental tissues (FFPTs) of women with RSA that have referred to the Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods This experimental research was undertaken on 210 FFPTs of women with RSA. The information of the patients was collected from the archives of Avicenna Research Institute in Tehran, Iran. After DNA extraction, the presence of T. gondii was examined by nested polymerase chain reaction targeting the GRA6 gene. Genotyping was performed on positive samples using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) that targeted the GRA6 and SAG3 genes. Sequencing was conducted on two GRA6 positive samples. Results T. gondii DNA was detected in 3.8% (8/210) of the samples. Genotyping showed that all positive samples belonged to type III of the T. gondii genotype. Sequencing two genomic DNAs of the GRA6 gene revealed 99% similarity with each other and 99-100% similarity with T. gondii sequences deposited in GenBank. There were six patients with histories of more than three abortions; one patient had a healthy girl and another patient had two previous abortions. Abortions occurred in the first trimester of pregnancy in seven patients and in the second trimester of pregnancy in one patient. Conclusion The results of this study have indicated that genotype III is the predominant type of T. gondii in women with RSA in Tehran, Iran. Also, our findings suggest that toxoplasmosis may play a role in the pathogenesis of RSA. However, further studies are needed to elucidate a clear relationship between T. gondii infection and RSA. PMID
Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M; Pereira, Perla M; Kubota, Ananka M; Silva, Thaiomara A; Reis, Jucilene L; Miyashita, Gerson S; D'Almeida, Vânia; Allen, Robert H; Stabler, Sally P
The pathophysiology of spontaneous abortion is complex and may involve the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We evaluated the predictors of spontaneous abortion in Brazilian pregnant women. The effects of age, gestational age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol ingestion, use of multivitamins and concentrations of vitamins (folate, cobalamin and vitamin B6) and vitamin-dependent metabolites were analyzed. Study population included 100 healthy women that attended pre-natal care in 2 health centers of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and in whom pregnancy outcome was known. Folate and cobalamin status was measured in blood specimens collected between 4 and 16 weeks. The genotypes for 8 gene polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Eighty-eight women had normal pregnancy outcome (Group 1), while 12 experienced a miscarriage after blood collection (Group 2). Increased methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations were found in Group 2 (median [25th-75th percentile]=274 [149-425] nmol/l) relative to Group 1 (138 [98-185]) (PMMA, cystathionine, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol ingestion and use of multivitamins the risk of abortion was significantly associated with MMA (OR [95% CI]=3.80 [1.36, 10.62] per quartile increase in MMA), BMI (OR [95% CI]=5.49 [1.29, 23.39] per quartile) and gestational age (OR [95% CI]=0.10 [0.01, 0.77] per increase of interval in gestational age). Increased serum MMA and BMI concentrations are associated with spontaneous abortion in Brazilian women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Idani, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Khanjani, Narges
Living in areas with high air pollution may have adverse effects on human health. There are few studies about the association between breathing polluted air and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Middle East. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between air pollution and spontaneous abortion, premature birth, and stillbirth in Ahvaz. A time-series study was conducted. Data about spontaneous abortion, premature deliveries, and stillbirth was collected from Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital. Air pollution data including NO, CO, NO 2 , PM 10 , SO 2 , O 3 , and climate data were, respectively, collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Khuzestan Province Meteorology Office from March 2008 until March 2015. The relationship between air pollutants with the number of abortions, premature births, and stillbirths was found using a quasi-Poisson distributed lag model, adjusted by trend, seasonality, temperature, relative humidity, weekdays, and holidays. The average daily dust in Ahvaz on 7.2% days of the year was higher than 500 μg/m 3 (very dangerous). Findings from this study indicate a significant association between each 10-unit increase in SO 2 and spontaneous abortion in lag 0 and 9 days. There was a significant relation between each 10-unit increase in NO 2 and CO, and premature birth in lag 0. Also, we found a significant association between each 10-unit increase in CO and premature delivery in lag 1; PM 10 and premature delivery in lags 10, 11, and 12; and NO and premature delivery in lags 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, and 13 (p value polluted air during pregnancy may increase adverse pregnancy outcomes and stillbirth. Pregnant women should avoid polluted air.
Kazama, Tomohiko; Itabashi, Etsuko; Fujii, Shinya; Nakamura, Takahiro; Toriyama, Kinya
Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is an important agricultural trait characterized by lack of functional pollen, and caused by ectopic and defective mitochondrial gene expression. The pollen function in CMS plants is restored by the presence of nuclear-encoded restorer of fertility (Rf) genes. Previously, we cloned Rf2, which restores the fertility of Lead Rice (LD)-type CMS rice. However, neither the function of Rf2 nor the identity of the mitochondrial gene causing CMS has been determined in LD-CMS rice. Here, we show that the mitochondrial gene orf79 acts as a CMS-associated gene in LD-CMS rice, similar to its role in BT-CMS rice originating from Chinsurah Boro II, and Rf2 weakly restores fertility in BT-CMS rice. We also show that RF2 promotes degradation of atp6-orf79 RNA in a different manner from that of RF1, which is the Rf gene product in BT-CMS rice. The amount of ORF79 protein in LD-CMS rice was one-twentieth of the amount in BT-CMS rice. The difference in ORF79 protein levels probably accounts for the mild and severe pollen defects in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. In the presence of Rf2, accumulation of ORF79 was reduced to almost zero and 25% in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively, which probably accounts for the complete and weak fertility restoration abilities of Rf2 in LD-CMS and BT-CMS rice, respectively. These observations indicate that the amount of ORF79 influences the pollen fertility in two strains of rice in which CMS is induced by orf79. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Klausen, Susanne M
This article examines the struggle over abortion law reform that preceded the enactment in 1975 of the first statutory law on abortion in South Africa. The ruling National Party government produced legislation intended to eliminate access to doctors willing to procure abortions in an attempt to prevent young, unmarried white women from engaging in premarital (hetero) sexual activity. It was also aimed at strictly regulating the medical profession’s actions with regards to abortion. The production of the abortion legislation was directly influenced by international struggles for accessible abortion and, more broadly, sexual liberation. The regime believed South Africa was being infiltrated by Western "immorality" and the abortion law was an attempt to buttress racist heteropatriarchal apartheid culture. Examining the abortion controversy highlights the global circulation of ideas about reproduction in the twentieth century and foregrounds a neglected dimension of the history of sexual regulation in apartheid South Africa: the disciplining and regulation of white female reproductive sexuality.
Harlow Sioban D
Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the potentially adverse effects of occupational pesticide exposure on risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB is limited, particularly among female agricultural workers residing in developing countries. Methods Reproductive histories were obtained from 217 Ecuadorian mothers participating in a study focusing on occupational pesticide exposure and children's neurobehavioral development. Only women with 2+ pregnancies were included in this study (n = 153. Gravidity, parity and frequency of SAB were compared between women with and without a history of working in the cut-flower industry in the previous 6 years. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the relation between SAB and employment in the flower industry adjusting for maternal age. Results In comparison to women not working in the flower industry, women working in the flower industry were significantly younger (27 versus 32 years and of lower gravidity (3.3 versus 4.5 and reported more pregnancy losses. A 2.6 (95% CI: 1.03-6.7 fold increase in the odds of pregnancy loss among exposed women was observed after adjusting for age. Odds of reporting an SAB increased with duration of flower employment, increasing to 3.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 8.8 among women working 4 to 6 years in the flower industry compared to women who did not work in the flower industry. Conclusion This exploratory analysis suggests a potential adverse association between employment in the cut-flower industry and SAB. Study limitations include the absence of a temporal relation between exposure and SAB, no quantification of specific pesticides, and residual confounding such as physical stressors (i.e., standing. Considering that approximately half of the Ecuadorian flower laborers are women, our results emphasize the need for an evaluating the reproductive health effects of employment in the flower industry on reproductive health in this population.
Ibrahim, I N; Mamman, A I; Adaji, S E; Hassan, A; Babadoko, A A
Spontaneous abortion (SA) is a common complication of pregnancy. Presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA), one of the antiphospholipid antibodies, has been associated with SA in many studies, especially in Caucasians. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of LA in women with SA in ABUTH, Zaria. A cohort of 100 consecutive women presenting with SA with no history of thrombotic episodes were enrolled into the study. Prothrombin time (PT), kaolin clotting time (KCT), and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) were conducted on samples of all the participants. Eight patients had prolonged APTT, and after a 50:50 mixture of their plasma with pooled control plasma, four (50%) had uncorrected APTT. Staclot® (a hexagonal-phase phospholipid) test and calculated Rosner index for prolonged KCT were used for the confirmation of LA in samples with uncorrected APTT after mixing studies. We analyzed 100 women with one or more SA with a mean age of 31.0 ± 3.8 years. Nearly 4% and 3% of the participants were LA positive with Staclot® and KCT tests, respectively. Patients with LA were more likely to have had a past history of preeclampsia/eclampsia, small for gestational age deliveries, and previous SA (prevalence odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) of 1.9 (0.2, 20.1), 3.2 (0.3, 34.3), and 1.4 (0.1-13.6), respectively. The PT, APTT, and KCT were significantly prolonged in patients with LA (P ≤ 0.001 for each, respectively). LA may be one of the causes of SA and other adverse pregnancy outcomes such as preeclampsia/eclampsia and small for date deliveries. It is recommended that patients with prolonged APTT, uncorrected with 50:50 mixing study with pooled control plasma, should be evaluated further for LA.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We attempt to ascertain if the 3 linked single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the Progesterone Receptor (PR gene (exon 1: G 1031 C; S344T, exon 4: G 1978 T; L660V and exon 5: C 2310 T; H770H and the PROGINS insertion in the intron G, between exons 7 and 8, are associated with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion (RSA in the Indian population. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 143 women with RSA and 150 controls were sequenced for all the 8 exons looking for the above 3 linked SNPs of the PR gene earlier implicated in the RSA, as well as for any new SNPs that may be possibly found in the Indian population. PROGINS insertion was screened by electrophoresis. We did not find any new mutations, not observed earlier, in our population. Further, we did not find significant role of the *2 allele (representing the mutant allele at the three SNP loci or the T2 allele (PROGINS insertion in the manifestation of RSA. We also did not find an LD pattern between each of the 3 SNPs and the PROGINS insertion. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the PR gene mutations may not play any exclusive role in the manifestation of RSA, and instead, given significantly higher frequency of the *2 allele among the normal women, we surmise if it does not really confer a protective role among the Indian populations, albeit further studies are required in the heterogeneous populations of this region before making any conclusive statement.
Full Text Available Objective: To characterize double and multiple aneuploidies in spontaneous abortions (SAB. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of cytogenetics data obtained by culturing/harvesting products of the conception material at our center from 2006 to 2009 was performed. The abnormal cytogenetic results, maternal age, gestational age, and previous pregnancy history were recorded and compared. Results: Double and multiple aneuploidies are rare, however, a high percentage of double (4.6% and multiple (0.4% chromosomal aneuploidies were observed in our study of 1502 cases of SAB. Of 1502 cases of SAB evaluated, 70 cases (4.6% showed double aneuploidy, whereas 6 cases (0.4% had multiple aneuploidies. The chromosomes most frequently involved in double aneuploidy in the decreasing order were 21, 16, ± X, 22, 18, 13, and 15. The most frequent chromosome combinations observed were: Loss of X/21 (8.5%, 21/22 (4.4%, 16/21 (4.4%, and 7/16 (4.4%. The chromosome combinations in multiple aneuploidy included trisomy of chromosomes X/5/8, 8/20/22, 16/20/22, 14/21/22, and loss of X with 21/21 and 7/21. These abnormalities were significantly observed in women between the age group 40-44 years (59.2%. A high success rate (94% of obtaining metaphase cells was observed in this study mainly due to the use of direct and long-term cultures. Conclusions: We observed a high percentage of double (4.6% and multiple (0.4% aneuploidies, frequently involving the acrocentic chromosomes 13, 15, 21, and 22 and nonacrocentric chromosomes X, 16, and 18.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood lead has been associated with an elevated risk of miscarriage. The plasmatic fraction of lead represents the toxicologically active fraction of lead. Women with a tendency to have a higher plasma/whole blood Pb ratio could tend towards an elevated risk of miscarriage due to a higher plasma Pb for a given whole blood Pb and would consequently have a history of spontaneous abortion. Methods We studied 207 pregnant Mexico City residents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, originally recruited for two cohorts between 1997 and 2004. Criteria for inclusion in this study were having had at least one previous pregnancy, and having valid plasma and blood Pb measurements. Pb was measured in whole blood and plasma by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using ultra-clean techniques. History of miscarriage in previous pregnancies was obtained by interview. The incidence rate of spontaneous abortion was defined as the proportion of previous pregnancies that resulted in miscarriage. Data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression models featuring the incidence rate of spontaneous abortion as the outcome and continuous or categorized plasma/blood Pb ratios as predictor variables. All models were adjusted for age and schooling. Additionally, logistic regression models featuring inclusion in the study sample as the outcome were fitted to assess potential selection bias. Results The mean number of miscarriages was 0.42 (range 0 to 4; mean Pb concentrations were 62.4 and 0.14 μg/L in whole blood and plasma respectively. Mean plasma/blood Pb ratio was 0.22%. We estimated that a 0.1% increment in the plasma/blood Pb ratio lead was associated to a 12% greater incidence of spontaneous abortion (p = 0.02. Women in the upper tertile of the plasma/blood Pb ratio had twice the incidence rate of those in the lower tertile (p = 0.02. Conditional on recruitment cohort, inclusion in the study sample was unrelated to observable
T.E. Cohen-Overbeek (Titia); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M.E.M. Den Ouden; L. Pijpers (Leendert); M.G. Jahoda (M.); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy)
markdownabstractAbstract Maternal age related and procedure-related fetal abortion rates were studied in 384 women aged 36 and over scheduled for transabdominal chorionic villus sampling (TA-CVS) at 12-14 weeks of gestation. The pre-TA-CVS abortion rate within 30 days of intake (at 6-10 weeks of
Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; OlaOlorun, Funmilola; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Tsui, Amy Ong
Although it is well known that post-abortion contraceptive use is high when family planning services are provided following spontaneous or induced abortions, this relationship remains unclear in Brazil and similar settings with restrictive abortion laws. Our study aims to assess whether contraceptive use is associated with access to family planning services in the six-month period post-abortion, in a setting where laws towards abortion are highly restrictive. This prospective cohort study recruited 147 women hospitalized for emergency treatment following spontaneous or induced abortion in Brazil. These women were then followed up for six months (761 observations). Women responded to monthly telephone interviews about contraceptive use and the utilization of family planning services (measured by the utilization of medical consultation and receipt of contraceptive counseling). Generalized Estimating Equations were used to analyze the effect of family planning services and other covariates on contraceptive use over the six-month period post-abortion. Women who reported utilization of both medical consultation and contraceptive counseling in the same month had higher odds of reporting contraceptive use during the six-month period post-abortion, when compared with those who did not use these family planning services [adjusted aOR = 1.93, 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.13-3.30]. Accessing either service alone did not contribute to contraceptive use. Age (25-34 vs. 15-24 years) was also statistically associated with contraceptive use. Pregnancy planning status, desire to have more children and education did not contribute to contraceptive use. In restrictive abortion settings, family planning services offered in the six-month post-abortion period contribute to contraceptive use, if not restricted to simple counseling. Medical consultation, in the absence of contraceptive counseling, makes no difference. Immediate initiation of a contraceptive that suits women's pregnancy
Full Text Available Background: Recurrent spontaneous abortion is one of the diseases that can lead to physical, psychological, and, economical problems for both individuals and society. Recently a few numbers of genetic polymorphisms in kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR gene are examined that can endanger the life of the fetus in pregnant women. Objective: The risk of KDR gene polymorphisms was investigated in Iranian women with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. Materials and Methods: A case controlled study was performed. One hundred idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion patients with at least two consecutive pregnancy losses before 20 weeks of gestational age with normal karyotypes were included in the study. Also, 100 healthy women with at least one natural pregnancy were studied as control group. Two functional SNPs located in KDR gene; rs1870377 (Q472H, and rs2305948 (V297I as well as one tag SNP in the intron region (rs6838752 were genotyped by using PCR based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP technique. Haplotype frequency was determined for these three SNPs’ genotypes. Analysis of genetic STRUCTURE and K means clustering were performed to study genetic variation. Results: Functional SNP (rs1870377 was highly linked to tag SNP (rs6838752 (D´ value=0. 214; χ2 = 16.44, p<0. 001. K means clustering showed that k = 8 as the best fit for the optimal number of genetic subgroups in our studied materials. This result was in agreement with Neighbor Joining cluster analysis. Conclusion: In our study, the allele and genotype frequencies were not associated with RSA between patient and control individuals. Inconsistent results in different populations with different allele frequencies among RSA patients and controls may be due to ethnic variation and used sample size.
Zheng, Danni; Li, Chunyan; Wu, Taiwen; Tang, Kun
Spontaneous abortion (SA) is one of the prevalent negative reproductive outcomes among women around the world, which is a great challenge faced by maternal health promotion. The present study is aimed to explore the association between SA and socioeconomic status (SES) and provides reference for policy makers to improve strategies on maternal health promotion. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted with baseline data from a large-scale population-based cohort study of 0.5 million people from 10 geographically diverse areas of China recruited from 2004 to 2008. The study collected data from 84,531 women aged 35-45 years old in the baseline survey of China Kadoorie Biobank. Participants were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire, and information on demographic-socioeconomic as well as reproductive health status was collected. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI, estimated by a multistep logistic regression, were used to approximate the associations between SA occurrence and characteristics of SES. A stratification analysis was also applied to find out how SES influenced women's reproductive health outcomes differently between rural and urban areas. The model was adjusted for age at study date, tea consumption, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and number of induced abortion. The risk of SA in rural was 1.68 times greater than in urban (AOR = 1.68, 95%CI: 1.54-1.84). Women with high income had a decreased risk of SA when compared with that of women with low income (AOR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.84-0.97). Compared with women in low educational attainment, women in higher educational attainment had a lower prevalence of SA (AOR = 0.90, 95%CI: 0.82-0.98). The risk of SA only reduced in factory worker (AOR = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.53-0.66) and professional worker (AOR = 0.75, 95%CI: 0.66-0.84) compared with agriculture and related workers. After stratifying by rural/urban, the association between income and SA in urban (AOR = 0.88, 95%CI: 0.78-0.99) was
María del Rosario Rodríguez-Guillén; Luisa Torres-Sánchez; Jia Chen; Marcia Galván-Portillo; Julia Blanco-Muñoz; Miriam Aracely Anaya; Irma Silva-Zolezzi; María A Hernández-Valero; Lizbeth López-Carrillo
OBJECTIVE: To asses the association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitami...
Y Varghaiyan; H Hadi neduoshan; A Aflatoonian; A Mirghanizadeh; S Najafi
Introduction: Various immunological abnormalities have been reported in women with RSA of unknown aetiologies including autoimmune abnormalities and increased cellular immunity such as elevated natural killer (NK) , Th1 and Th17 cell levels. Th17 and Th1 cells play a central role during inflammation. Th1 cells product cytokines IFN-γ, IL-2 and Th17 cells mainly cytokines IL-17A, F, IL-22. The aim of this study is evaluation of Th1 and Th17 activity in women with recurrent spontaneous abortion...
Tamam F. Matter; Fadel A. Sharif
Human leukocyte antigens (HLA)-G and HLA-E are non-classical HLA class I antigens expressed on extravillous cytotrophoblast that invades decidua in the uterus during pregnancy and are postulated to help in maternal immunotolerance of the fetus. Published results on the relation between HLA-G and HLA-E polymorphisms and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) are, however, controversial. This study was initiated in order to investigate whether HLA-G (G*0103, G*0104 and G0105N) and HLA...
Full Text Available Background : Rejection of semiallogenic foetus in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA has been postulated to be a consequence of genetic and immunological phenomena. Aim: To evaluate the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles in RSA in Indian couples. Settings and Design : A case-control study. Materials and Methods : Eighty-one randomly selected couples with unexplained three or more RSAs and a control group of 97 couples with live birth belonging to the same ethnic background, referred to the Gynaecology Department, KEM Hospital were included in the case-control study. Serological HLA A and B typing was done followed by molecular subtypes, defined using PCR-SSOP technique for HLA A, B, and C in 40 couples and DRB1FNx01 and DQB1FNx01 in 28 couples which were then compared with appropriate case 46 and 88 controls. Results : Serologically A3 (15.43% vs . 4.43%; odds ratio (OR = 4.34; P = 0.0002 and B17 (25.3% vs . 11.34%; OR = 3.49; P = 0.0001 were increased. Haplotype A1-B17 was significantly increased. Molecular subtyping revealed that AFNx01030102 (11.25% vs . 4.34%; OR = 3.00; P = 0.07, BFNx015701 (11.25% vs . 1.08%; OR = 13.10; P = 0.003, CwFNx01120201 (25% vs . 4.34%; OR = 10.50; P = 2.05E-05, HLA DRB1FNx01030101 (17.85% vs . 3.40%; OR = 7.6; P = 0.0001, DRB1FNx01150101 (32.14% vs . 13.63%; OR = 4.8; P = 0.0003, and DQB1FNx01060101 (35.71% vs . 29.34%; OR = 2.3; P = 0.004 were significantly increased in patients. A differential association was noticed when compared with reported world RSA patients. Conclusion: The HLA alleles AFNx01030101, BFNx015701, CwFNx01120201, DRB1FNx01030101, and DRB1FNx01150101 as well as their associated ancestral haplotype may play a significant role in development of RSA in India.
Bastit i Costa, M A
Abortion is the termination of pregnancy prior to the 180th day, during which time the fetus is not yet viable outside the womb. Spontaneous abortion is the body's expulsion of a fetus during the 1st months of pregnancy. It is usually not very painful, does not involve much bleeding, and is rarely complicated by infection. Spontaneous abortion is much more frequent at the outset of pregnancy and may occur unnoticed. Its causes are unknown in over half of cases. The most important causes are developmental problems in the products of conception. Causes of spontaneous abortions of maternal etiology are most frequently uterine malposition or malformation. Serious illness in the mother is a less common cause of spontaneous abortion than once believed. Induced abortion is caused by the destruction of a normally implanted and healthy embryo. Its complications are related to the amount of bleeding or the introduction of germs from outside which can spread rapidly. Placental retention is a danger of all induced abortions. Induced abortion is common and in some countries it even creates demographic problems. Abortion is legal in many countries as an expression of the right to choose, but in others it is only legal on therapeutic grounds. Defenders and detractors of abortion have written extensively about it, with some works being sincere and some only tactical. The great majority of moralists are opposed to abortion, while biologists and scientists are divided on the question. The Spanish penal code punishes all persons who cause the death of a fetus or impede the process of gestation. The Catholic Church has considered abortion a homicide and against divine and natural laws. Legal or illegal, it is certain that the number of abortions increases each day. In the face of this reality, the need is for measures to avoid abortion whenever possible. Sex education in schools, full information on contraceptive methods and creation of family planning centers are some means of
Full Text Available Immunological mechanisms have been proposed to underlie the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. Vitamin D has a potent immunomodulatory effect, which may affect pregnancy outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH D] concentration and vitamin D receptor (VDR expression in the decidual tissues of RSA patients. Thirty women with RSA (RSA group and thirty women undergoing elective abortion (control group were recruited during 2016 from gynecology outpatient clinics. We measured 25(OH D, interleukin (IL-17, IL-23, transforming growth factor β (TGF-β, VDR and 1-α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1 in decidual tissues collected during the abortion procedure. In the RSA group, 25(OH D and TGF-β were significantly decreased while IL-17 and IL-23 were significantly increased compared with the control group. VDR expression was significantly decreased in the RSA group compared with the control group. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant negative correlation between 25(OH D in decidual tissues and RSA. These results indicated that vitamin D concentrations in the decidua are associated with inflammatory cytokine production, suggesting that vitamin D and VDR may play a role in the etiology of RSA.
Lee, Bokim; Jung, Hye-Sun
The researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion among working women in South Korea. One thousand working women were selected from a database of those eligible for maternity benefits under the National Employment Insurance Plan. Study results showed that handling heavy items during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for general characteristics of the participants and their work environment. A collective effort is needed on the parts of employers, employees, occupational health nurses, and the government to protect working women from lifting heavy items while pregnant. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Variability of male fertility expression in the AS-1 line, a somaclonal variant obtained from tissue culture of CMS-plant, and in the progeny of revenant '124-1' obtained from fertile tiller, which developed on CMS-plant transferred from the field to the greenhouse, was investigated. Both revertants were characterized by similar expression of male fertility during plant ontogenesis: the panicle on the main tiller was almost completely sterile whereas formation of fertile pollen grains and seed set were observed on the panicles of the shoot tillers. A clear basipetal gradient of male fertility was manifested on all panicles: the base had significantly higher per cent of fertile pollen grains in comparison with the middle part, while in the top the anthers were either absent or had few sterile pollen grains. Such an ontogenetically-regulated restoration of male fertility was controlled by nuclear genes and could be transferred through the pollen in crosses with progenitor CMS-line. Growing of AS-1 plants in the growth chambers simultaneously under a long (16/8 and a short (12/12 daylength conditions demonstrated that differences of fertility level in different tillers was not caused by change of photoperiod during plant ontogenesis and functioning of photoperiod-sensitive fertility restoring gene. Whereas, the ontogenetically-regulated expression of male fertility in both revenants was temperature-dependent and was clearly manifested under relatively cool conditions during 2-week period before the beginning of anthesis of the first panicle (average daily temperature 21°C. The increase of the average daily temperature by 2-3 С resulted in sharp increase of male fertility level. Possibility of using AS-1 line in a new "two-line system" of hybrid seed production, which require only two lines (sterile mutant and fertility restorer, is discussed.
Peng, Fanli; Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng; Peng, Danhong; Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong
Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were
clandestine abortions. Late complications and sequelae may include chronic abdominal pain, menstrual disturbances, secondary sterility, or inability to have sexual relations because of vaginal lesions caused by caustic agents. Later pregnancies may be ectopic, or may spontaneously abort because of cervical lesions caused by trauma. Psychic sequelae may include depression or confusion. Information and contraceptive services should be made available to young girls to prevent illegal abortions. Social legislation should be modified to assist future mothers.
Results: Out of 51 subjects, 18 had positive Anti-TPO-Ab, of which -10 were among the cases and 8 belonged to the controls. Out of 18 women with positive AntiTG-Ab, 11 cases were in the control group and 7 were in the cases. The differences between the control group and the amounts of Anti-TPO-Abs (P=0.468 and Anti-TG-Abs (P=0.675 were not swignificant. Conclusion: The results revealed that there is no association between abortion and presence of antithyroid antibodies in mother’s serum. Other abortion causes such as various kinds of infections and smoking might be involved which requires more research.
Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to explore the interaction between environment and CD28/B7 pathway to provide the potential epidemiology for prevention and treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. Methods: The retrospective study included 630 RSA cases and 1320 healthy women during their middle and late prenatal care. Their living environment was investigated, and the influence of environmental factors on pregnancy abortion was analyzed. The genomic DNAs were extracted from the study subjects, and the polymorphisms of CD28 and B7 were analyzed. Finally, the interaction of gene and environment on RSA was analyzed with the logistic regression analyses. Results: The multi-variate regression analysis indicated that vitamin supplement, intake of fresh fruits or vegetables, night shift, staying up late, history miscarriage, as well as history induced abortion were, independently, risk factors for RSA (all P< 0.05. Moreover, rs3116496 (T>C, rs3181098 (G>A and rs3181100 (G>C of CD28, rs1915087 (C>T of B7-2, as well as rs6804441 (A>G and rs41271391 (G>T of B7-1 were correlated with modified RSA risk (all P< 0.05. The haplotypes TGT and TAG could also regulate the risk of RSA (both P< 0.05. The synthetic influences of the aforementioned SNPs and environmental factors could also significantly affect the susceptibility to RSA (all P< 0.05. Conclusion: The interaction of environment and SNPs of CD28/B7 pathway on RSA risk was distinct from CD28/B7 pathway or environment alone.
Wang, Guiling; Sun, Jing
This study was aimed to explore the interaction between environment and CD28/B7 pathway to provide the potential epidemiology for prevention and treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The retrospective study included 630 RSA cases and 1320 healthy women during their middle and late prenatal care. Their living environment was investigated, and the influence of environmental factors on pregnancy abortion was analyzed. The genomic DNAs were extracted from the study subjects, and the polymorphisms of CD28 and B7 were analyzed. Finally, the interaction of gene and environment on RSA was analyzed with the logistic regression analyses. The multi-variate regression analysis indicated that vitamin supplement, intake of fresh fruits or vegetables, night shift, staying up late, history miscarriage, as well as history induced abortion were, independently, risk factors for RSA (all PC), rs3181098 (G>A) and rs3181100 (G>C) of CD28, rs1915087 (C>T) of B7-2, as well as rs6804441 (A>G) and rs41271391 (G>T) of B7-1 were correlated with modified RSA risk (all P< 0.05). The haplotypes TGT and TAG could also regulate the risk of RSA (both P< 0.05). The synthetic influences of the aforementioned SNPs and environmental factors could also significantly affect the susceptibility to RSA (all P< 0.05). The interaction of environment and SNPs of CD28/B7 pathway on RSA risk was distinct from CD28/B7 pathway or environment alone. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.
D. C. Kilpatrick
Full Text Available The mean birthweight of babies eventually born to couples with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA is allegedly lower if the parents have a high degree of HLA antigen sharing (Reznikoff-Etievant et al., 1991, but this relationship has not been independently confirmed. We have re-investigated this question by analysing data from 36 families. In 22 instances, we were able to relate birthweight directly to feto-maternal HLA compatibility for the first time in such families. We were unable to confirm any appreciable influence of paternal or feto-maternal HLA sharing on birthweight or placental weight and conclude that RSA families do not differ markedly from normal families in this respect.
Sagot, P; Bignon, J D; Cesbron, A; Laurent, F X; Adjou, C; Muller, J Y
Twenty-two nulli- all primipara who had had previous repeated spontaneous abortions and who did not have anti-HLA antibodies for the partner, received immunological treatment consisting of a single transfusion of the partner's lymphocytes in the third week of pregnancy, and giving natural progesterone supplements after the kinetic of Beta-HCG in the plasma had been assessed. The number of pregnancies which went to terme (94% success) was significantly better than those obtained in our first protocol which was to give one to three transfusions of the partner's lymphocytes before the pregnancy started (58% success rare after 24 treatments). Apart from obtaining much better results the second protocol made it possible to avoid giving a significant number of useless transfusions (22% of pre-conceptual transfusions were not followed by a pregnancy at all).
Li, Song; Wang, Lei; Xing, Zhifang; Huang, Yanping; Miao, Zengmin
This study aimed to determine the express level of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF- α ) in the decidual tissue and peripheral blood of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Eighty RSA patients and 100 control women were recruited in this study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was applied to determine the expression level of TNF- α in peripheral blood and decidual tissues from both groups. Additionally, the expression level of TNF- α was compared between RSA patients with different numbers of abortions, as well as primary and secondary RSA patients. The expression level of TNF- α in peripheral blood and decidual tissues of RSA patients was significantly higher compared to the controls (p blood and decidual tissues at a similar level to patients who had experienced RSA three times (p > 0.05), but significantly lower than patients who had experienced RSA more than three times (p blood and decidual tissues was significantly higher in the secondary RSA patients, when compared with primary RSA patients (p tissue and peripheral blood may be one of the causes of RSA and therefore could be used as a clinical indicator.
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to determine the express level of tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α in the decidual tissue and peripheral blood of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. Material and methods: Eighty RSA patients and 100 control women were recruited in this study. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was applied to determine the expression level of TNF-α in peripheral blood and decidual tissues from both groups. Additionally, the expression level of TNF-α was compared between RSA patients with different numbers of abortions, as well as primary and secondary RSA patients. Results: The expression level of TNF-α in peripheral blood and decidual tissues of RSA patients was significantly higher compared to the controls (p 0.05, but significantly lower than patients who had experienced RSA more than three times (p < 0.001. The expression level of TNF-α in peripheral blood and decidual tissues was significantly higher in the secondary RSA patients, when compared with primary RSA patients (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Taken together, the relatively high expression level of TNF-α in decidual tissue and peripheral blood may be one of the causes of RSA and therefore could be used as a clinical indicator.
Liu, Yinglin; Liu, Yukun; Li, Xuejiao; Jiao, Xuedan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Jianping
To examine peak serum levels of the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) for prediction of early pregnancy outcomes among women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). In a retrospective study, the medical records of pregnant women with a history of RSA treated at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, China, between January 2011 and July 2013 were reviewed. Serum β-hCG had been measured twice weekly from 5 to 13weeks of pregnancy, and pregnancy was monitored by transvaginal ultrasonography to 13(+6)weeks. Optimal cutoff for peak β-hCG level was determined by receiver operator characteristic curve analysis and Youden index. Women were divided into four groups on the basis of optimal peak β-hCG cutoff and pregnancy outcome (pregnancy at 13weeks or spontaneous abortion). Peak β-hCG levels and length of pregnancy at this peak were examined. Overall, 1240 patients were included. The optimal cutoff value of peak β-hCG was 88 468IU/L, with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for successful pregnancy of 95.6%, 88.0%, 95.6%, and 89.0%, respectively. A faster rise in β-hCG, higher peak β-hCG, and longer pregnancy length at peak β-hCG were associated with successful early pregnancy. A cutoff value of serum β-hCG of 88 000IU/L could be used to predict early pregnancy outcomes for women with a history of RSA. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Associations of lifetime active and passive smoking with spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy: a cross-sectional analysis of historical data from the Women's Health Initiative.
Hyland, Andrew; Piazza, Kenneth M; Hovey, Kathleen M; Ockene, Judith K; Andrews, Christopher A; Rivard, Cheryl; Wactawski-Wende, Jean
To examine the associations between tobacco exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes using quantitative measures of lifetime active smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure. Historical reproductive data on 80 762 women who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study were examined with a cross-sectional analysis. We assessed self-reported lifetime active and passive tobacco smoke exposure, self-reported spontaneous abortions, stillbirths and ectopic pregnancies. When compared with never-smoking women, participants who were ever active smokers during their reproductive years had ORs (OR) of 1.16 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.26) for 1 or more spontaneous abortions, 1.44 (95% CI 1.20 to 1.73) for 1 or more stillbirths, and 1.43 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.86) for 1 or more ectopic pregnancies. Never-smoking women participants with the highest levels of lifetime SHS exposure, including childhood >10 years, adult home >20 years and adult work exposure >10 years, when compared with never-smoking women with no SHS exposure had adjusted ORs of 1.17 (95% CI 1.05 to 1.30) for spontaneous abortion, 1.55 (95% CI 1.21 to 1.97) for stillbirth, and 1.61 (95% CI 1.16 to 2.24) for ectopic pregnancy. Women who were ever-smokers during their reproductive years had significantly greater estimates of risk for spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Never-smoking women with the highest levels of lifetime exposure to SHS had significantly increased estimates of risk for spontaneous abortion, stillbirth and tubal ectopic pregnancy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Schwandt, Hilary M; Skinner, Joanna; Hebert, Luciana Estelle; Cobb, Lisa; Saad, Abdulmumin; Odeku, Mojisola
Fertility is high in Nigeria and contraceptive use is low. Little is known about how urban Nigerians perceive the risk of contraceptive use in relation to pregnancy and birth. This study examines and compares the risk perception of family planning methods and pregnancy related scenarios among urban Nigerians. A total of 26 focus group discussions with 243 participants were conducted in September and October 2010 in Ibadan and Kaduna. The groups were stratified by sex, age, family planning use, and city. Study participants were asked to identify the risk associated with six different family planning methods and four pregnancy related risks. The data were coded in ATLAS.ti 6 and analyzed using the thematic content analysis approach. The ten family planning and pregnancy related items ranked as follows from most to least risky: sterilization, abortion, getting pregnant soon after having a baby (no birth spacing), pill, IUD, injectable, having a birth under 18 years of age (teenage motherhood), condom use, having six children, and fertility awareness methods. Risk of family planning methods was often categorized in terms of side effects and complications. Positive perceptions of teenage motherhood and having many children influenced the low ranking of these items. Inadequate birth spacing was rated as more risky than all contraceptive methods and pregnancy related events except for sterilization and abortion. Some of the participants' risk perceptions of contraceptives and pregnancy related scenarios does not correspond to actual risk of methods and practices. Instead, the items' perceived riskiness largely correspond with prevailing social norms. However, there was a high level of understanding of the risks of inadequate birth spacing. This study is not a randomized control trial so the study has not been registered as such.
Chassang, M; Baudin, G; Delotte, J; Trastour, C; Bongain, A; Chevallier, Patrick
Post-abortum hemorrhage is a common clinical situation and etiological diagnosis has to be made early to avoid further complications such as persistent bleeding, infection or adhesions that may compromise fertility. Retained products of conception are the most common cause of bleeding. The diagnosis is based on endovaginal color doppler ultrasound showing a thickened and hypervascular endometrial echo-complex extending partly to the myometrium. The main differential diagnosis is uterine arteriovenous malformation, mostly iatrogenic. Diagnosis is based on the presence of myometrial confluent cystic lesions filled with turbulent and high velocity arterial flow on endovaginal color doppler ultrasound. The distinction between these two etiologies of post-abortion bleeding is mandatory because of totally different treatment: typically medical and/or surgical in case of retained products of conception and by selective arterial embolization in case of vascular malformation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Liu, Yudong; Zheng, Haiyan; Guo, Pingping; Feng, Shuxian; Zhou, Xingyu; Ye, Desheng; Chen, Xin; Chen, Shiling
The aim of this study was to explore the association of the DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT)-3A and DNMT3B promoter polymorphisms with the risk of human spontaneous abortion after assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) and natural conception. We collected tissues from women who underwent abortion procedures: (a) chorionic villus samples (CVS) and muscle samples (MS) from spontaneous abortions conceived by ART and natural cycle (study group), n = 152; and (b) CVS and MS from normal early pregnancy and second trimester (control group), n = 155. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -448A > G in the DNMT3A promoter region and -149C/T polymorphism of DNMT3B were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed by sequencing. The allele frequency of -448A among pregnancy loss group and control group was 34.2 % vs. 16.5 %, respectively. Compared with GG carriers, the DNMT3A -448AA homozygotes had an about 16-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion [odds ratio (OR) = 16.130, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 3.665-70.984], and AG heterozygotes had an OR of 2.027 (95 % CI, 1.247-3.293). However, the distribution of -448A > G in individuals derived from ART pregnancies was not statistically significantly compared with those derived from spontaneous pregnancies (P = 0.661). For DNMT3B, we observed genotype frequencies of 100 % (TT) in the study group and the control group. The DNMT3A -448A > G polymorphism may be a novel functional SNP and contribute to its genetic susceptibility to spontaneous abortion in Chinese women, and ART may not affect the distribution of -448A > G in pregnancy loss and normal pregnancy. The observed TT genotype of DMNT3B suggests that this is the predominant genotype of this population. The findings provide new insights into the etiology of human spontaneous abortion.
Zheng, Hai-Yan; Tang, Yan; Niu, Jing; Li, Pu; Ye, De-Sheng; Chen, Xin; Shi, Xiao-Yun; Li, Li; Chen, Shi-Ling
Do assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) affect DNA methylation of imprinted genes and does aberrant methylation of imprinted genes account for the incidence of human spontaneous abortion (SA)? Our results show that imprinting errors of imprinted genes may contribute to human SA, and the occurrence of aberrant methylation of imprinted genes in ART pregnancies was comparable with that in natural pregnancies. Animal data and human studies demonstrated that in vitro culture of embryos can cause methylation defects in individual genes, which might affect subsequent embryonic development and contribute to SA. However, our previous studies showed an abnormal methylation pattern of PEG1 in human aborted chrionic villus samples (CVS) but an increased occurrence of aberrant methylation in CVS from ART-derived pregnancies was not observed. CVS were collected from women who underwent abortion procedures in the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Nanfang Hospital from May 2008 to July 2011. Muscle samples (MS) were obtained from aborted fetuses and stillbirths. The samples were divided into four experimental groups: (A) SA/stillbirth after ART (n = 75), (B) multi-fetal reduction after ART (n = 73), (C) SA/stillbirth of natural pregnancies (n = 90) and (D) induced abortion (IA) of natural pregnancies (n = 82). The mean ± SD age of patients was 31.0 ± 4.1 (range: 18-45 years). The DNA methylation patterns of one paternally methylated (H19) and two maternally methylated (LIT1 and SNRPN) genes were analyzed in CVS and MS using pyrosequencing and bisulfite sequencing PCR. Clear hypo-methylation (90%) were not detected in LIT1 and SNRPN but two regions of hyper-methylation (91.7 and 91.4%) were observed in H19. The mean percentage of methylation in the SA samples (groups A and C) was higher than that in the IA samples (groups B and D; P<0.05). Box plot analyses showed that in the 165 SA samples, methylation values for 40/495 (8.1%) differentially methylated regions of the
Full Text Available Objective: To study miR-155 expression in villus tissue of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion and its relationship with apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules. Methods: 40 cases of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion were selected as URSA group, 30 cases of normal early pregnant women receiving artificial abortion were selected as control group, and villus tissue was collected to detect expression levels of miR-155, apoptosis molecules (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax, Bad, Fas and FasL and angiogenesis molecules (HIF-1 α, VEGF and sFlt-1. Results: MiR-155 expression level in villus tissue of URSA group was significantly lower than that of control group and the more the times of abortion, the lower the miR-155 expression level; pro-apoptosis molecules Bax, Bad, Fas and FasL expression levels in villus tissue of URSA group were higher than those of control group and negatively correlated with miR-155 expression level, and anti-apoptosis genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression levels were lower than those of control group and positively correlated with miR-155 expression level; HIF-1 α and VEGF expression levels in villus tissue of URSA group were lower than those of control group and positively correlated with miR-155 expression level, and sFlt-1 expression level was higher than that of control group and negatively correlated with miR-155 expression level. Conclusions: MiR-155 is lowly expressed in villus tissue of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion, and miR-155 may be involved in the occurrence and development of the disease through regulating the expression of apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules.
Zhang, Yuanyuan; Yang, Chunfeng; Fu, Shuai; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Shining; Li, Yiyang; Du, Meirong; Zhang, Jianping
The NOD2 gene, encoding intracellular paternal recognition receptor (PRR) also called caspase activation and recruitment domain 15 (CARD15), is mutated in Crohn’s disease, an autoimmune-disorder. Unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) involved in complex auto-immune disorder. However, little is known about the expression of NOD2 protein at maternal-fetal interface with URSA patients. Our aim was to compare the expression levels of NOD2 in the decidual stromal cells (DSCs) from pati...
Full Text Available Introduction: One of the causes of recurrent spontaneous abortions (RSA is an infection by the toxoplasmosis Protozoa. In comparison, we present detailed results using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods of detection. In this study, it was tried to detect Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii by real-time PCR methods in patients with RSA. Methods: Amniotic fluid sampling was performed in the 16-20th weeks of gestation in 50 pregnant women with a history of RSA. The extracted deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA samples were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: In all the cases, the detection of T. gondii was negative in the peripheral blood, and amniotic fluid samples by using the molecular methods (real-time PCR. Using the serological detection methods, 6% of patients were diagnosed as positive for the immunoglobulin M (IgM antibody. In addition, the IgG antibody was positive in 46% of the patients. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the serological methods lack specificity.
Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert
From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Penelope P Howards
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Medications may be consumed periconceptionally before a woman knows she is pregnant. In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen containing ephedrine (20 mg and caffeine (200 mg with spontaneous abortion (SAB in the Danish National Birth Cohort. METHODS: Women were recruited during their first prenatal visit from 1996-2002. Pre-conception and early pregnancy medication use was reported on the enrollment form, and pregnancy outcome was determined by linking the mother's Civil Registration Number to the Medical Birth Registry and the National Hospital Discharge Register. Of 97,903 eligible pregnancies, 4,443 ended in SAB between 5 and 20 completed gestational weeks, inclusive. Letigen use was reported for 565 pregnancies. Cox regression models accounting for left truncation were fit to estimate the effect of pre-conception and early pregnancy Letigen use on SAB. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The estimated maternal age-adjusted hazard ratio for SAB was 1.1 (95% confidence interval 0.8-1.6 for any periconceptional Letigen use compared to no periconceptional use. CONCLUSIONS: Although Letigen has high levels of caffeine (the recommended 3 pills/day are approximately equivalent to caffeine from 6 cups of coffee, periconceptional use does not appear to be associated with an appreciably increased hazard of clinically recognized SAB.
with induced abortion did well after evacuation and antibiotics. Discussion. It has been estimated that up to 20% of reco~ nised pregnancies end in spontaneous abortion , and this usually occurs in the first trimester. The uterus is not efficient at emptying its contents in early pregnancy, so that abortion is often compli-.
Wang, Hong; Cao, Qingying; Ge, Jun; Liu, Chunmiao; Ma, Yanhong; Meng, Yuciu; Wang, Yuxin; Zhao, Xiaoli; Liu, Ru; Li, Caixia; Wang, Yu; Zhong, Julia; Ju, Weina; Jenkins, Edmund C; Brown, W Ted; Zhong, Nanbert
Spontaneous abortion (SA) occurs before 20 gestational weeks. Approximately, half of recurrent SA has no identifiable cause. No report has yet been investigated the possible involvement of lncRNA in pregnancy loss. Sixteen pairs of pregnancies with spontaneous abortions (SA) and induced abortions (IA) were studied. Embryonic sacs and decidua were collected for each pregnancy. A Human LncRNA Array was employed to profile genomewide lncRNAs, which were then validated by RT-PCR. Differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified. Biological pathways were categorized into six major groups: infection and inflammation, metabolism, signaling and transcriptional regulation, smooth muscle contraction, cell process, and coagulation. Infection and inflammation pathways regulated by lncRNAs were determined as the predominant pathogenetic factors underlying the SA. Finding that antisense lncRNAs have been either up- or down-regulated suggests that they may have both cis- and trans-regulations. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Fatima, Nishat; Ahmed, S H; Salhan, Sudha; Rehman, S M F; Kaur, Jatinder; Owais, M; Chauhan, Shyam S
We investigated the expression of methyl transferase G9a and methylated histone H3-K9 in fresh human decidual/endometrial tissue of 12 normal early pregnancies and 15 unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (URSA). The samples were obtained through dilatation and curettage and collected as per strict inclusion-exclusion criteria. The tissue was subjected to immunohistochemical analysis (IHC), western blotting (WB) and RT-PCR analysis. The results demonstrated methyl transferase G9a to have a lower expression in abortions when compared with that in normal pregnancy (P K9 was significantly lower (P < 0.0001) in URSA tissues than in controls. This study suggests that methylation may cause URSA and indicates the need for further work to explore the role of methylation in URSA and its possible prevention through locally acting methylating/demethylating agents.
Wu, Yuan; Chambers, Christina D.; Xu, Ronghui
This work was motivated by observational studies in pregnancy with spontaneous abortion (SAB) as outcome. Clearly some women experience the SAB event but the rest do not. In addition, the data are left truncated due to the way pregnant women are recruited into these studies. For those women who do experience SAB, their exact event times are sometimes unknown. Finally, a small percentage of the women are lost to follow-up during their pregnancy. All these give rise to data that are left trunca...
María del Rosario Rodríguez-Guillén
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To asses the association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitamins respectively, was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP and serum homocysteine levels by HPLC. RESULTS: Carriers of MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes respectively showed an increased risk of SA (OR 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 20.9 and OR 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.6. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the role of MTHFR polymorphisms as a risk factor for SA, regardless of dietary intake of B vitamins.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre aborto espontáneo (AE y el consumo dietético de vitaminas B en mujeres mexicanas portadoras de los polimorfismos de la metilentetrahidrofolato reductasa (MTHFR (677 C>T y 1298 A>C. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un diseño de casos y controles anidados en una cohorte, se comparó la ingesta dietética materna de vitaminas B y folato, los polimorfismos maternos de la MTHFR y la concentración sérica de homocisteina de 23 casos de AE ( 20 semanas. RESULTADOS: Las portadoras de los genotipos MTHFR 677TT y 1298AC presentaron un incremento significativo en el riesgo de AE (RM 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; IC 95%: 1.2, 20.9 RM 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; IC95%: 1.1, 26.6, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Nuestros resultados apoyan el papel de la mutación de la MTHFR como posible factor de riesgo para el AE, independientemente del consumo de vitaminas B.
Ji Hyae Lim
Full Text Available Cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in maternal circulation have been proposed as potential markers for noninvasive monitoring of the placental condition during the pregnancy. However, the correlation of and change in cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA in spontaneous abortion (SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy have not yet been reported. Therefore, we investigated cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy.A nested case-control study was conducted with maternal plasma collected from 268 women in their first trimester of pregnancy. Subjects included 41 SA with normal fetal karyotype, 26 SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, and 201 normal controls. The unmethylated PDE9A gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free fetal DNA. The GAPDH gene was used to measure the maternal plasma levels of cell-free total DNA. The diagnostic accuracy was measured using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves. Levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were significantly higher in both SA women with normal fetal karyotype and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy in comparison with the normal controls (P<0.001 in both. The correlation between cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA levels was stronger in the normal controls (r = 0.843, P<0.001 than in SA women with normal karyotype (r = 0.465, P = 0.002 and SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy (r = 0.412, P = 0.037. The area under the ROC curve for cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA was 0.898 (95% CI, 0.852-0.945 and 0.939 (95% CI, 0.903-0.975, respectively.Significantly high levels of cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA were found in SA women with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy. Our findings suggest that cell-free fetal DNA and cell-free total DNA may be useful biomarkers for the prediction of SA with fetal chromosomal aneuploidy, regardless of fetal
Adu-Dapaah, H. K.; Singh, B. B.; Fatokun, C. A.
Three completely-sterile cowpea mutants IT85D-3625, IT85D-3628, IT85D-3641 obtained from spontaneous mutation and gamma irradiation were-characterized. Reciprocal crosses between them and fertile plants failed to set pods. These lines showed significant differences with respect to various traits such as number of pollen grain per anther, anther length and width, plant height, anther indehiscence,unopened flower buds, and premature abortion of pods and seeds. The major cause of sterility was chromosome aberrations. Complete sterility in each of the three lines was conditioned by a simple recessive gene pair. Sterility in each of the three mutants was associated with floral aberrations. The symbols cs 1 , cs 2 and cs 3 are being assigned to IT85D-3625, IT85D-2628 and IT85D-3641 respectively. The three mutants were homogeneous with reference to sterility inheritance. (au)
Full Text Available Background: Disorders in immune system regulation may result in pregnancy abnormalities such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. This study aims to determine the ratio of regulatory T (Treg and T helper (Th 17 cells in unexplained RSA (URSA women during proliferative and secretory phases of their menstrual cycles compared to healthy non-pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 25 women with URSA and 35 healthy, non-pregnant women were enrolled. The percentage of Th17 and Treg cells in participants peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. Results: The percentage of Th17 cells and their related cytokines in serum (IL-17A were higher in the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycles of URSA women compared to the control women. However, a lower percentage of Treg cells and their related cytokines in serum, transforming growth factor (TGF β1 and interleukin (IL-10 were detected in the proliferative but not the secretory phase of the URSA group. The ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg was higher in the URSA group than the control group. We observed an increased ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg during the proliferative and secretory phases in URSA women. Conclusion: The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells during the proliferative phase of menstrual cycles in the URSA group may be considered a cause for spontaneous abortion.
Trias Fargas, M
This study seeks to establish the failure rate of sterilizations in the Profamilia pilot clinic in Bogota, and analyzes the chronology of the resulting pregnancies and their possible causes and the reactions of the women who became pregnant. 31,828 sterilizations were performed in the clinic between 1973 and 1980, 8% of them minilaparotomies. 272 of 290 pregnancies diagnosed after sterilization were method failures, the other 18 having begun before the operation. Almost 60% of the pregnancies occurred within 1 year of the operation, and all but 4% occurred within 4 years. The rate calculated on the basis of the 1st 12,000 sterilizations, 142 of which were followed by pregnancies due to method failure, was 1.18%, or 1 case per 85 operations. The average age of the women who became pregnant was 31.0 years, compared to the average of 33.4 years for all women undergoing sterilization. Possible reasons for the failures are discussed, including incomplete follow-up, defective materials, surgical skill, and the performance of operations by students. Analyses of 157 cases of reinterventions indicate that 27% of the failures resulted from human error and the rest from method imperfections including incomplete occlusion of the tube, recanalization, and refistulization. 7.35% of the pregnancies were ectopic. 33.8% of the women who became pregnant bore children, 11.7% had spontaneous abortions, and 54.5% sought induced abortions.
Prior to 1976, voluntary female sterilization was 1 of the regular family planning services offered in Chile. After that the Ministry of Public Health declared that it could not be considered a fertility regulation activity and could thus be performed only for health reasons. Between 1971-75, there was almost a 6-fold increase in the number of sterilizations performed at the Valdivia Regional Hospital, with a rise to 2400 procedures. Such an unprecedented increase in voluntary sterilization prompted this study. The results are based on a 1976 survey of women sterilized between 1971-75 at the Valdivia Regional Hospital. Personal interviews were conducted. The number of voluntary sterilizations there during the aforementioned period showed a sustained upward trend; the number of births increased only moderately during that time. The data on sterilization in the Valdivia area is compared to that collected by the Santiago study. Age, marital status, place of origin or residence, education, and religion were compared. Socioeconomic and occupational data were also examined. 9 of 10 women in Valdivia were from low-income families. This agrees closely with the Santiago data. About 1/4 of the women in both samples were employed outside the home. Also in both samples, about 1/2 of the spouses of sterilized women were blue collar workers; only 1/5 or less were white collar, and very few were professionals. About 52% in Valdivia and 45% in Santiago had borne 7 or more viable offspring. The average number of spontaneous abortions was also similar. A significantly higher percentage (P0.01) of Valdivia women used contraceptives. There are some general trends apparent in both groups as to the reasons for sterilization; most were prompted by difficult socioeconomic conditions. 37.9% of the Santiago women felt their families were complete and 27.3% of the other group cited the same reason. Other reasons were medical, failure of contraception, problems with spouse, and other. Medical
On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi
pathogens (Brucella, Leptospira, PPV PRRSV), but Arcobacter spp, were recovered from 23/55 abortions. Co-infections with Streptococcus suis, Escherichia coli, and haemolytic streptococci were observed in 7/23 Arcobacter-positive fetuses, and in 4/32 Arcobacter-negative fetuses, Histopathological analyses...
Full Text Available Abstract Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently used antidepressants during pregnancy. There are conflicting results about their influence on pregnancy outcomes. The goal of this study was to update our previous meta-analysis about pregnancy outcomes following exposure to SSRIs. For this purpose, all relevant databases were searched from 1990 to March 2012 for studies investigating the pregnancy outcomes following exposure to any therapeutic dosage of any SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, fluvoxamine during pregnancy. Types of outcome investigated were spontaneous abortion, major malformations, cardiovascular malformations, and minor malformations. A total of 25 studies met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OD values are 1.87 (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.33, P
Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently used antidepressants during pregnancy. There are conflicting results about their influence on pregnancy outcomes.The goal of this study was to update our previous meta-analysis about pregnancy outcomes following exposure to SSRIs. For this purpose, all relevant databases were searched from 1990 to March 2012 for studies investigating the pregnancy outcomes following exposure to any therapeutic dosage of any SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, fluvoxamine during pregnancy. Types of outcome investigated were spontaneousabortion, major malformations, cardiovascular malformations, and minor malformations. A total of 25 studies met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OD values are 1.87 (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.33, P< 0.0001 for spontaneous abortion, 1.272 (95%CI: 1.098 to 1.474, P = 0.0014 for major malformations, 1.192 (95% CI: 0.39 to 3.644, P=0.7578 for cardiovascular malformations, and 1.36 (95% CI: 0.61 to 3.04, P= 0.4498 for minor malformations. The results demonstrated that SSRIs increase the risk of spontaneousabortion and major malformations during pregnancy while they don’t increase the risk of cardiovascular malformations and minor malformations. Our previous meta-analysis only showed an increase in the risk of spontaneous abortion following the use of SSRIs duringpregnancy. This might be due to increase in the number of studies included or addition of two new SSRIs (citalopram and escitalopram. The message to researchers is to try considering SSRIs individually during pregnancy to reduce heterogeneity, although all are aware ofinevitable limitations to study on pregnant mothers.
Yuan, Jing; Li, Jian; Huang, Shi-Yun; Sun, Xin
The objective was to investigate the subsets of natural killer T (NKT)-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the peripheral blood (PB) and/or decidual tissue of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The percentages of NKT-like cells in the PB and deciduas of URSA patients in early pregnancy and in the PB of nonpregnant women were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (Th1 cytokine) and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, in the PB and decidual tissue was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most percentages of subsets of NKT-like cells (CD3(+)CD56(+), CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+)) in the PB and deciduas were significantly greater in URSA patients than in normal pregnant and nonpregnant women. A cut-off value of 3.75% for the increased percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB appeared to be predictive of pregnancy failure. Moreover, we found that in the decidua, IFN-γ expression was significantly higher, while IL-4 and IL-10 expression was significantly lower in URSA patients compared with those with a normal pregnancy. The ratio of decidual Th1/Th2 cytokines in URSA patients was significantly increased compared with that in normal pregnant women. Decidual IL-4 expression correlated negatively with the percentages of blood CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells and the decidual CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells. NKT-like cells may play an important role in maintaining normal pregnancy. Measurement of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB may provide a potential tool for assessing patients' risk of spontaneous abortion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Daniel Lorber Rolnik
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as anormalidades cromossômicas em material de abortamento espontâneo. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se compilação retrospectiva da análise de cariótipo em lâmina corada com Banda G por microscopia óptica e em material de 428 produtos de abortamento encaminhados para estudo. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 145 resultados normais (33,9% e 237 resultados anormais (55,4%. Em 46 amostras não houve crescimento celular (10,7%. As anormalidades numéricas foram as mais frequentes, destacando-se a trissomia do 16 (41 casos, a triplodia (27 casos, a monossomia do X (26 casos, a tetraploidia (13 casos e a trissomia do 15 (13 casos. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações citogenéticas representam importante causa de perdas gestacionais e sua detecção auxilia o aconselhamento genético do casal. A trissomia do cromossomo 16 é a alteração mais frequentemente encontrada.OBJECTIVE: To describe chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion material. METHODS: A retrospective compilation of karyotype analysis of slides stained with Band G was carried out by optical microscopy with materials of 428 abortion products referred for study. RESULTS: There were 145 normal results (33.9% and 237 abnormal results (55.4%. In 46 samples there was no cell growth (10.7%. Numerical abnormalities were the most frequent, especially trisomy 16 (41 cases, triplodia (27 cases, monosomy X (26 cases, tetraploidy (13 cases and trisomy 15 (13 cases. CONCLUSION: Cytogenetic alterations are an important cause of pregnancy loss and their detection helps the genetic counseling to the couple. Trisomy 16 is the most often found change.
Andréa Cristina de Moraes
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o desempenho da citogenética e das técnicas de hibridização in situ fluorescente (FISH e reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR no estudo das aneuploidias cromossômicas numéricas e na determinação do sexo fetal em amostras de abortos espontâneos. MÉTODOS: duzentos e dezenove amostras de produtos de abortos espontâneos foram submetidas a estudo citogenético. Deste total, 40 amostras foram também submetidas à técnica de PCR-nested para a determinação do sexo fetal: 32 foram selecionadas devido à falha de crescimento no estudo citogenético e oito foram escolhidas ao acaso. Vinte amostras foram selecionadas para detecção de aneuploidias cromossômicas pela técnica de FISH, utilizando-se sondas para os cromossomos 13, 18, 21, X e Y: 13 casos foram submetidos a FISH devido à falha de crescimento no estudo citogenético e sete foram escolhidos ao acaso. Foi calculada a taxa de sucesso (obtenção de cariótipo de cada técnica. Para comparação das taxas de sucesso foi utilizado o teste de chi2, sendo considerados significantes resultados com pPURPOSE: to evaluate the performance of cytogenetic analysis, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH and polymerase chain reaction (PCR in the study of numerical chromosomal anomalies and in fetal sex determination of spontaneous abortion material. METHODS: cytogenetic analysis was performed on 219 spontaneous abortion specimens. Forty of these cases were also submitted to fetal sex determination using nested-PCR. Thirty-two of these cases were selected due to failed cytogenetic culture and the other eight were selected randomly. Twenty samples were submitted to the FISH technique, using probes for chromosomes 13, 18, 21, X and Y. Thirteen of these samples were selected due to failed cytogenetic culture and the other seven were randomly selected. The success rates of each technique were compared using the chi2 test and an established p<0.05 level of significance. The
Rackow, Beth W.; Rhee, Maria C.; Taylor, Hugh S.
Objectives Laparoscopic tubal sterilization with bipolar coagulation is a common and effective method of contraception, and a procedure much used to teach laparoscopic surgical skills to Obstetrics and Gynaecology residents (trainees); but it has an inherent risk of failure. This study investigated the long-term failure rate of this procedure when performed by Obstetrics and Gynaecology residents on women treated in their teaching clinics. Methods From 1991 to 1994, Obstetrics and Gynaecology residents carried out 386 laparoscopic tubal sterilizations with bipolar coagulation at Yale-New Haven Hospital. Six to nine years after the procedure, the women concerned were contacted by telephone and data were collected about sterilization failure. Results Two failures of laparoscopic tubal sterilization with bipolar coagulation were identified: an ectopic pregnancy and a spontaneous abortion. For this time period, the long-term sterilization failure rate was 1.9% (0–4.4%). Conclusions The long-term sterilization failure rate for laparoscopic tubal sterilization with bipolar coagulation performed by residents is comparable to the results of prior studies. These findings can be used to properly counsel women at a teaching clinic about the risks of sterilization failure with this procedure, and attest to the adequacy of residents’ training and supervision. PMID:18465476
Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity
Clark, D.A.; Chaput, A.; Tutton, D.
The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of allograft and unexplained spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. Previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (IL 2). A deficiency of these suppressor cells was associated with implants of xenogeneic Mus caroli embryos in the Mus musculus uterus which are infiltrated by maternal lymphoid cells and aborted. A deficiency of such suppressor cells in the lymph nodes draining the uterus of CBA/J females in the process of aborting their semi-allogeneic CBA x DBA/2 F 1 progeny has also been shown. CBA/J females possess significantly lower levels of decidua-associated non-T suppressor cells on day 8.5 to 10.5 of allopregnancy than do mothers that will produce large litters of live babies. The F 1 embryos are infiltrated by maternal lymphocytes prior to abortion, and the infiltration and abortion rate appears to be augmented by pre-immunization with paternal DBA/2 spleen cells. The CBA/J x DBA/2J mating combination provides a model of spontaneous abortion in which immunologic factors play an important role and demonstrates that the association between deficiency of decidua-associated suppressor cells and xenopregnancy failure also holds true for the failure of allopregnancies resulting from natural within-species mating
Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...
Darney, Blair G; VanDerhei, Deborah; Weaver, Marcia R; Stevens, Nancy G; Prager, Sarah W
Including support staff in practice change initiatives is a promising strategy to successfully implement new reproductive health services. The Resident Training Initiative in Miscarriage Management (RTI-MM) is an intervention designed to facilitate implementation of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) for management of spontaneous abortion. The purpose of this study was to identify training program components that enhanced interprofessional training and provide lessons learned for engaging support staff in implementing uterine evacuation services. We conducted a secondary analysis of qualitative data to identify themes within three broad areas: interprofessional education, the role of support staff, and RTI-MM program components that facilitated support staff engagement in the process of implementing MVA services. We identified three key themes around interprofessional training and the role of support staff: "Training together is rare," "Support staff are crucial to practice change," and "Transparency, peers and champions." We present lessons learned that may be transferrable to other clinic sites: engage site leadership in a commitment to interprofessional training; engage support staff as teachers and learners and in shared values and building professionalism. This manuscript adds to what is known about how to employ interprofessional education and training to engage support staff in reproductive health services practice change initiatives. Lessons learned may provide guidance to clinical sites interested in interprofessional training, improving service delivery, or implementing new services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Jiayong; Zhang, Hongping; Xu, Xiaomin; Ma, Weide; Li, Jianxin; Xia, Shuqi; Wang, Hai; Shen, Xiaolu
To assess the association of human leukocyte antigen DQ gene polymorphisms with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA) among ethnic Han Chinese from Wenzhou region. Fifty couples with URSA (URSA group) and 66 couples with normal pregnancy history (control group) were recruited. The alleles of HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction with specific sequence primers (PCR-SSP) in all subjects. The frequency distribution of HLA-DQ alleles, odds ratios (OR) between each group and sharing of HLA-DQ alleles were calculated. The frequency distribution of HLA-DQB1*03:03 allele in the females with URSA was significantly higher than that healthy females (21.00% vs. 9.85%, OR=2.433, 95%CI: 1.232-4.894, χ(2)=5.657, PHLA-DQA1 alleles in couples with URSA was increased compared with the control group (70.27% vs. 44.64%, OR=2.931, 95%CI: 1.216-7.067, PHLA-DQA1 alleles may contribute to the susceptibility of URSA among ethnic Han Chinese from Wenzhou region. The allele of HLA-DQB1*03:03 in the females may be predisposing factor for URSA. However, the HLA-DQB1*05:02 allele in both gender and HLA-DQB1*05:03 allele in females may confer a protective effect.
Dong, Xiujuan; Yang, Long; Wang, Hui
The establishment and maintenance of successful pregnancy mainly depends on trophoblast cells. Their dysfunction has been implicated in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), a major complication of pregnancy. However, the underlying mechanisms of trophoblasts dysfunction remain unclear. DNA-damage-induced cell apoptosis has been reported to play a vital role in cell death. In this study, we identified a novel microRNA (miR-520) in RSA progression via regulating trophoblast cell apoptosis. Microarray analysis showed that miR-520 was highly expressed in villus of RSA patients. By using flow cytometry analysis, we observed miR-520 expression was correlated with human trophoblast cell apoptosis in vitro, along with decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) expression. With the analysis of clinic samples, we observed that miR-520 level was negatively correlated with PARP1 level in RSA villus. In addition, overexpression of PARP1 restored the miR-520-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis in vitro. The status of chromosome in trophoblast implied that miR-520-promoted DNA-damage-induced cell apoptosis to regulate RSA progression. These results indicated that the level of miR-520 might associate with RSA by prompting trophoblast cell apoptosis via PARP1 dependent DNA-damage pathway.
Hosseini, Samira; Shokri, Fazel; Pour, Soheila Ansari; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan
Systemic monitoring of immune system may not precisely outline the local immune status in the uterus. This survey is a continuation of our previous studies on potential usefulness of menstrual blood (MB) immunophenotyping as a tool for investigation of immunological disturbances in pregnancy-related disorders. Peripheral blood (PB) and MB from healthy fertile (n = 15), unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA; n = 15), and unexplained infertile women (n = 8) were collected simultaneously in the second day of their menstrual cycle and frequency of natural killer T (NKT)-like cell subpopulations were assessed by flow cytometry. Menstrual blood of all experimental groups contained higher percentage of TCRαβ + , CD45RO + , and CD16 - NKT-like cells compared to corresponding PB. Frequency of MB NKT-like cells in unexplained infertile participants was lower than fertile and URSA groups. Compared to normal participants, patients with URSA had lower frequency of PB TCRαβ + and higher CD16 + , while in infertile woman frequencies of PB CD45RO + , CD45RO - , CD16 - , IL17 + , and MB CD45RO + NKT-like cells were lower. Although, PB and MB seemingly have the same histological nature, our results showed that MB contained different composition of NKT-like subsets with different cytokine profiles and could be viewed as one potential biological sample for evaluation of patients with infertility and URSA.
Fan, Qin'e; Zhang, Juanjuan; Cui, Yu; Wang, Chaoyun; Xie, Yongjun; Wang, Qiurong; Wu, Libing
The current study was aimed to investigate the association of CLTA-4/Foxp3 polymorphisms and chromosomal abnormalities with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) risk in a Chinese Han population. Altogether, 1284 RSA women and 1046 women with normal pregnancy were incorporated in this study. The polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was implemented to genotype the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within CTLA4 and Foxp3. Moreover, the cytogenetic diagnosis was performed in line with the standards of G banding karyotype. As a consequence, rs231775 and rs3087243 of CTLA4, as well as rs2232365 and rs2232368 of Foxp3, all appeared to modify the risk of RSA. Besides, significant differences were found between the ratio of structural abnormality and that of numerical abnormality (P 3) than normal karyotypes. Of note, the synergic effects of the genotypes and chromosomal abnormality all tallied with the sub-multiplication model (OR chromosome × OR SNP > OR chromosome+SNP ), while rs2232365 GG and chromosomal aberration impacted the RSA risk in a super-multiplicative way that OR chromosome × OR SNP < OR chromosome+SNP . In conclusion, susceptibility to RSA was subject to the synthetic regulation of chromosomal aberrations and genetic mutations within CLTA-4 and Foxp3, suggesting that the conduction of karyotype analysis and genetic detection for RSA patients could effectively guide effective RSA counseling and sound child rearing.
Beucher, G; Dolley, P; Carles, G; Salaun, F; Asselin, I; Dreyfus, M
State of knowledge about misoprostol's use out of its marketing authorization during the first trimester of pregnancy, in early miscarriage or to induce abortion or medical termination of pregnancy. French and English publications were searched using PubMed, Cochrane Library and international learned societies recommendations. Cervical ripening prior to surgical uterine evacuation during the first trimester of pregnancy facilitates cervical dilatation and reduces operative time and uterine retention risk. Misoprostol, mifepristone and osmotic cervical dilators are equally efficient. Concerning first trimester miscarriage, surgical uterine evacuation remains the most effective and the quickest method of treatment (EL 1). Depending on the clinical situation, medical treatment using misoprostol (missed miscarriage) or expectative attitude (incomplete miscarriage) does not increase the risk of complications, neither haemorrhagic nor infectious (EL 1). However, these alternatives generally require longer outpatient follow-up, which leads to more consultations, prolonged bleeding and not planned surgical procedures (EL 1). Concerning missed miscarriage, a vaginal dose of 800 μg of misoprostol, possibly repeated 24 to 48 hours later, seems to offer the best efficiency/tolerance ratio (EL 2). Concerning early abortion, medical method is a safe and efficient alternative to surgery (EL 2). Success rates are inversely proportional to gestational age (EL 2). According to the modalities of its marketing authorization, 400 μg of misoprostol can only be given by oral route, for less than 7 weeks of amenorrhea (WA) pregnancies and after 36 to 48 hours following 600 mg of mifepristone (EL 1). However, 200mg of mifepristone is as efficient as 600 mg (EL 1). Beyond 7WA, misoprostol buccal dissolution (sublingual or prejugal) or vaginal administration are more efficient and better tolerated than oral ingestion (EL 1). Between 7 and 9WA, the best protocol in terms of efficiency and
Kalfayan, S. H.
Spacecraft sterilization is a vital factor in projects for the successful biological exploration of other planets. The microorganisms of major concern are the fungi and bacteria. Sterilization procedures are oriented toward the destruction of bacterial spores. Gaseous sterilants are examined, giving attention to formaldehyde, beta-propiolactone, ethylene oxide, and the chemistry of the bactericidal action of sterilants. Radiation has been seriously considered as another method for spacecraft sterilization. Dry heat sterilization is discussed together with the effects of ethylene oxide decontamination and dry heat sterilization on materials.
Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.
Full Text Available Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea.Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012, we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB and menstrual aberration (MA among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs were estimated.Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties.Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.
Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.
Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye
Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.
Full Text Available Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA is a health problem that affects approximately 1% to 5% reproductive age woman. Yet, in around half of these patients, the mechanism for RSA is unexplained. Recent studies have indicated that placental ischemia/hypoxia and endothelial dysfunction are important factors in miscarriage. Other studies have indicated that the level and expression of soluble FMS-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt1 is increased under a hypoxic environment. However, decreased sFlt-1 in the maternal circulation during the first trimester has recently been proposed as a potential marker for identifying risk of pregnancy loss. In this prospective study clinical samples were obtained within a short time after the fetal death, protein expression and maternal serum levels of sFlt1 were assessed and compared to samples taken from those with normal pregnancies. Our results indicate that levels of VEGF and sFlt-1 are both increased in women during early pregnancy compared women that are not pregnant (p<0.05 indicating that VEGF and sFlt-1 are both associated with pregnancy. More importantly, we detected a significant (p<0.05 increase in sFlt1 and VEGF levels and expression in the RSA patients who suffered subsequent miscarriages compare to controls. These results demonstrate that there is likely a relationship between VEGF, sFlt-1 and RSA suggesting that the high levels and over expression of sFlt-1 and VEGF might be associated with the pathogenesis of RSA.
... Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Induced Abortion Patient Education FAQs Induced Abortion Patient ... given for the procedure? Before the procedure, local anesthesia is given to numb the cervix. Sedatives may ...
May 1, 2001 ... magnitude of abortion and abortion-related complications as a reﬂection of the fertility behaviour of the population impose a great burden on the meagre available resources and poorly functioning health delivery systems. The major complication of both induced and spontaneous abortion is incompleteness ...
As a psychoanalyst the author takes exception to a paper by Menne and Moersch entitled: "Psychoanalytical Experiences from the Supervision of Pregnancy Counseling," concerning the counseling of abortion applicants under West German Law No. 218. He disagrees with much of the psychoanalytical interpretations of women's desire for children and desire for abortion. Where the authors reason too much from the psychoanalytical viewpoint in the counseling situation this author accuses them of overlooking sociocritical arguments which find more elbow-room in the Law allowing "internal conflict" and "social counseling" as reasons for abortion. He accuses them of adhering too much to the letter of the law and urges them to resolve their not-so-easy task by helping the applicant achieve her desire for abortion as skillfully and responsibly as possible within the letter of that law.
Notes that difficult questions arise concerning the use of sterilization for alleged eugenic and euthenic purposes. Thus, how reversible sterilization will be used with relation to the poor, mentally ill, mentally retarded, criminals, and minors, is questioned. (Author/AM)
Donahue, James G; Kieke, Burney A; King, Jennifer P; DeStefano, Frank; Mascola, Maria A; Irving, Stephanie A; Cheetham, T Craig; Glanz, Jason M; Jackson, Lisa A; Klein, Nicola P; Naleway, Allison L; Weintraub, Eric; Belongia, Edward A
Inactivated influenza vaccine is recommended in any stage of pregnancy, but evidence of safety in early pregnancy is limited, including for vaccines containing A/H1N1pdm2009 (pH1N1) antigen. We sought to determine if receipt of vaccine containing pH1N1 was associated with spontaneous abortion (SAB). We conducted a case-control study over two influenza seasons (2010-11, 2011-12) in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Cases had SAB and controls had live births or stillbirths and were matched on site, date of last menstrual period, and age. Of 919 potential cases identified using diagnosis codes, 485 were eligible and confirmed by medical record review. Exposure was defined as vaccination with inactivated influenza vaccine before the SAB date; the primary exposure window was the 1-28days before the SAB. The overall adjusted odds ratio (aOR) was 2.0 (95% CI, 1.1-3.6) for vaccine receipt in the 28-day exposure window; there was no association in other exposure windows. In season-specific analyses, the aOR in the 1-28days was 3.7 (95% CI 1.4-9.4) in 2010-11 and 1.4 (95% CI 0.6-3.3) in 2011-12. The association was modified by influenza vaccination in the prior season (post hoc analysis). Among women who received pH1N1-containing vaccine in the previous influenza season, the aOR in the 1-28days was 7.7 (95% CI 2.2-27.3); the aOR was 1.3 (95% CI 0.7-2.7) among women not vaccinated in the previous season. This effect modification was observed in each season. SAB was associated with influenza vaccination in the preceding 28days. The association was significant only among women vaccinated in the previous influenza season with pH1N1-containing vaccine. This study does not and cannot establish a causal relationship between repeated influenza vaccination and SAB, but further research is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hemminki, E; Rasimus, A; Forssas, E
The purpose of this paper was to describe the transition of sterilization in Finland from an eugenic tool to a contraceptive. Historical data were drawn from earlier reports in Finnish. Numbers of and reasons for sterilizations since 1950 were collected from nationwide sterilization statistics. Prevalence, characteristics of sterilized women, and women's satisfaction with sterilizations were studied from a 1994 nationwide survey (74% response rate). Logistic regression was used for adjustments. In the first half of the 20th century, eugenic ideology had influence in Finland as in other parts of Europe, and the 1935 and 1950 sterilization laws had an eugenic spirit. Regardless of this, the numbers of eugenic sterilizations remained low, and in practice, family planning was the main reason for sterilization. Nonetheless, prior to 1970 not all sterilizations were freely chosen, because sterilizations were sometimes used as a precondition for abortion. Female sterilizations showed remarkable fluctuation over time. Male sterilizations have been rare. The reasons stipulated by the law did not explain the numbers of sterilizations. In a 1994 survey, 9% of Finnish women reported they were using sterilization as their current contraceptive method (n = 189). Compared to women using other contraceptive methods, sterilized women were older, had had more births and pregnancies, and came from lower social classes. Sterilized women were satisfied with their sterilization, but there were women (8.5%) who regretted it. In conclusion, sterilizations have been and are likely to continue to be an important family planning method in Finland. The extreme gender ratio suggests a need for promoting male sterilizations, and women's expressed regrets suggest consideration of a higher age limit.
Cox Sterile Products, Inc.'s Rapid Heat Transfer Sterilizer employs a heat exchange process that induces rapid air movement; the air becomes the heat transfer medium, maintaining a uniform temperature of 375 degrees Fahrenheit. It features pushbutton controls for three timing cycles for different instrument loads, a six-minute cycle for standard unpackaged instruments, eight minutes for certain specialized dental/medical instruments and 12 minutes for packaged instruments which can then be stored in a drawer in sterile condition. System will stay at 375 degrees all day. Continuous operation is not expensive because of the sterilizer's very low power requirements.
Canário, Catarina; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Ricou, Miguel
Background: The psychological impact of abortion is a controversial issue. While some studies indicate that women who had elective abortions present lower psychological distress when compared with those who had spontaneous or therapeutic abortions, other studies found abortion to be associated with significant psychological distress. Objectives: To assess psychological adjustment (emotional disorder, trauma symptoms and couple relationship) one and six months after abortion,...
In the long-term prospective controlled study reported here, 1509 general practitioners and 795 gynaecologists in England, Scotland and Wales are cooperating in providing information on the sequelae of abortion, especially on the problems of later pregnancies, subfertility and all reported morbidity, in particular psychiatric illness. Morbidity within 21 days after induced abortion, and considered to be related to induced abortion, was found in 10% of 6105 women who had an induced abortion in their index pregnancy, and there were major complications in 2.1%. The main factors affecting morbidity were the place of operation, gestation at termination, the method of termination, sterilization at the time of operation, and smoking habits. Several differences between National Health Service and private sector operations were found which could affect the morbidity rates. Possible means of reducing early morbidity are discussed. The outcome of the first post-index pregnancy in 745 women whose index pregnancy had ended in induced abortion and in 1339 controls was also compared. There was no statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Further analysis of a large number of pregnancies is required to permit confident interpretation of these observations.
A large number of induced abortions exist in central Serbia, in spite of the fact that modern science made new methods and devices for the birth control available, which are more acceptable both from the medical and personal point of view. This fact shows contradictory situation and opens several questions. The crucial being: why do wome rely on abortion and do not use modern contraception? In research done in 1991--it refers to Belgrade and it includes four hundred women--confirmed was the accepted hypothesis that the extension of induced abortion developed from the discordance between comprehension of the need of birth control and the way it should be accomplished. The main causes of the discordance are insufficient knowledge about modern contraception, phychological barriers, insufficient cultural level (general, health, sex) of the population and lack of institutionalized contemporary concept fof family planning. Duration of prevalence of induced abortions indicates that underlying causes of frequency are numerous and stable over time. Considering this, and the slowness of any spontaneous change, it may be expected that the problem of abortions will be present in the years to come. However, duration of abortion prevalence will depend, to a large extent, on the ability and willingness of the State to cope with this issue.
... its own before the 20th week of pregnancy. Surgical abortion uses surgery to end a pregnancy. ... happens, another dose of the medicine or a surgical abortion procedure may need to be done. Physical recovery ...
Pawde, Anuya A; Ambadkar, Arun; Chauhan, Anahita R
Medical method of abortion (MMA) is a safe, efficient, and affordable method of abortion. However, incomplete abortion is a known side effect. To study incomplete abortion due to medication abortion and compare to spontaneous incomplete abortion and to study referral practices and prescriptions in cases of incomplete abortion following MMA. Prospective observational study of 100 women with first trimester incomplete abortion, divided into two groups (spontaneous or following MMA), was administered a questionnaire which included information regarding onset of bleeding, treatment received, use of medications for abortion, its prescription, and administration. Comparison of two groups was done using Fisher exact test (SPSS 21.0 software). Thirty percent of incomplete abortions were seen following MMA; possible reasons being self-administration or prescription by unregistered practitioners, lack of examination, incorrect dosage and drugs, and lack of follow-up. Complications such as collapse, blood requirement, and fever were significantly higher in these patients compared to spontaneous abortion group. The side effects of incomplete abortions following MMA can be avoided by the following standard guidelines. Self medication, over- the-counter use, and prescription by unregistered doctors should be discouraged and reported, and need of follow-up should be emphasized.
Abortion is common. Data on abortion rates are inexact but can be used to explore trends. Globally, the estimated rate in the period 2010-2014 was 35 abortions per 1000 women (aged 15-44 years), five points less than the rate of 40 for the period 1990-1994. Abortion laws vary around the world but are generally more restrictive in developing countries. Restrictive laws do not necessarily deter women from seeking abortion but often lead to unsafe practice with significant mortality and morbidity. While a legal framework for abortion is a prerequisite for availability, many laws, which are not evidence based, restrict availability and delay access. Abortion should be available in the interests of public health and any legal framework should be as permissive as possible in order to promote access. In the absence of legal access, harm reduction strategies are needed to reduce abortion-related mortality and morbidity. Abortion can be performed surgically (in the first trimester, by manual or electric vacuum aspiration) or with medication: both are safe and effective. Cervical priming facilitates surgery and reduces the risk of incomplete abortion. Diagnosis of incomplete abortion should be made on clinical grounds, not by ultrasound. Septic abortion is a common cause of maternal death almost always following unsafe abortion and thus largely preventable. While routine follow-up after abortion is unnecessary, all women should be offered a contraceptive method immediately after the abortion. This, together with improved education and other interventions, may succeed in reducing unintended pregnancy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Kopp, J. [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence & Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Johannes Gutenberg University, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Machado, P. A. N., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Maltoni, M. [Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC, Calle Nicolás Cabrera 13-15, Cantoblanco E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Schwetz, T. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)
We characterize statistically the indications of a presence of one or more light sterile neutrinos from MiniBooNE and LSND data, together with the reactor and gallium anomalies, in the global context. The compatibility of the aforementioned signals with null results from solar, atmospheric, reactor, and accelerator experiments is evaluated. We conclude that a severe tension is present in the global fit, and therefore the addition of eV-scale sterile neutrinos does not satisfactorily explain the anomalies.
Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Edith; Bernardin, Jeanne; Black, Amanda; Dunn, Sheila; Fitzsimmons, Brian; Norman, Wendy V; Pymar, Helen; Soon, Judith; Trouton, Konia; Wagner, Marie-Soleil; Wiebe, Ellen; Gold, Karen; Murray, Marie-Ève; Winikoff, Beverly; Reeves, Matthew
This guideline reviews the evidence relating to the provision of first-trimester medical induced abortion, including patient eligibility, counselling, and consent; evidence-based regimens; and special considerations for clinicians providing medical abortion care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, registered nurses, midwives, residents, and other healthcare providers who currently or intend to provide pregnancy options counselling, medical abortion care, or family planning services. Women with an unintended first trimester pregnancy. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane Library between July 2015 and November 2015 using appropriately controlled vocabulary (MeSH search terms: Induced Abortion, Medical Abortion, Mifepristone, Misoprostol, Methotrexate). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from June 1986 to November 2015 in English. Additionally, existing guidelines from other countries were consulted for review. A grey literature search was not required. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force for Preventive Medicine rating scale (Table 1). Medical abortion is safe and effective. Complications from medical abortion are rare. Access and costs will be dependent on provincial and territorial funding for combination mifepristone/misoprostol and provider availability. Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care Introduction Pre-procedure care Medical abortion regimens Providing medical abortion Post-abortion care. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada/La Société des obstétriciens et gynécologues du Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cecatti, José Guilherme; Guerra, Gláucia Virgínia de Queiroz Lins; Sousa, Maria Helena de; Menezes, Greice Maria de Souza
To evaluate the prevalence of spontaneous and induced abortion reported by a sample of Brazilian women interviewed in the National Demographic Health Survey of 1996. This was a secondary analysis of the Brazilian DHS-96 database, with information from interviews with a representative sample of 12,612 women about their reproductive life, focusing on the prevalence of spontaneous and induced abortion in the last five years and the associated factors for the various regions of the country and for Brazil as a whole. The sampling method was implemented with a strategy selection in two stages, one for the households and the other for women. The prevalence of spontaneous and induced abortion was estimated for Brazil and regions, and the socio-demographic characteristics of the women were analyzed as a function of the abortion's experience. A multinomial regression model analysis was used for the identification of factors independently associated with both types of abortion; their OR and respective 95% CI are reported. The prevalence of reported spontaneous abortion was 14% and the prevalence of induced abortion was 2.4% for the country as a whole. The state with the highest prevalence of induced abortion was Rio de Janeiro with 6.5%, followed by the Northeast region with 3.1%. The places with the lowest prevalence were the state of São Paulo and the South region. Both spontaneous and induced abortion showed higher prevalences with increasing age of the women studied. Being from the urban area (OR=1.5; 95%CI=1.0-2.3), having had more than one live child (OR=2.2; 95%CI=1.5-3.2) and being non-white (OR=1.4; 95%CI=1.0-1.8) were the main risk factors for induced abortion. The non-modifiable risk factors for induced abortion identified in this study indicate the need for improvement of educational and contraceptive actions, with priority for these specific demographic groups.
Márcia Melo Laet Rodrigues
. The narrative analysis was the research method. The narratives of seventeen men were analysed. The spontaneous abortion related feelings were the loss related anguish and, the provoked abortion, the culpability related feelings and its consequences. Men who share the abortion experience with their partners require sensibility and professionals involvement. Their main care demands were related to the desire of favorable reception, to get emotional support as well as a whole and correct information about the process.
Dec 12, 2008 ... surgical abortion at one month gestation without any complication. The second pregnancy which was a year prior resulted in a spontaneous miscarriage at two months followed by evacuation of retained products of conception with no post abortion complications. Antibiotics were taken following both.
complications of abortions in the hospital. 2. To determine the association of the following risk factors with immediate complication of abortions: Delay in arriving to the hospital (W 1 day or > 1 day),delay in initiating treatment after arrival to the hospital (W 1hour or > 1 hour) ,mode of onset of the abortion (spontaneous or ...
Frank, Steven A
Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.
Rašević Mirjana M.
Full Text Available Is voluntary sterilization as a birth control method accepted in Serbia? This is certainly a question that is being imposed for research, regardless of the fact that voluntary sterilization is neither accessible nor promoted. Most importantly because there is no understanding in the social nor political sphere for legalization of voluntary sterilization as a form of birth control, apart from the clear necessity for this, first, step. They are: the recognition that voluntary sterilization is an efficient and safe birth control method, respectability of basic human as well as sexual and reproductive rights, spreading of sterilization as a form of birth control among population of both developed and developing countries and an epidemic diffusion of repeated induced abortions in Serbia. Thus individual recognition of the advantages of relying on voluntary sterilization, in a non-encouraging atmosphere, certainly represents one more argument to enable couples to prevent conception by sterilization. Since it was impossible to carry out a representative research among the population of men and women who are at risk for conception, an attempt was made to obtain a reply to the set question among women who decided to induce abortion. It was done out of at least two reasons. The first being that women with induced abortion in their reproductive history were the target group for voluntary sterilization. The second reason was based on the assumption that bringing a decision on induced abortion is preceded by the reconsideration of an earlier adopted strategy regarding children, giving birth and contraception and thus its rational component is revealed more and therefore more easily measurable. The research was carried out in the University Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology 'Narodni front' in Belgrade from January 21st o March 1st 2002, and included 296 women. By comparing the social and demographic characteristics of the female respondents, as well as
Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Pereira, Pedro Paulo; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de; Zugaib, Marcelo
Pregnancy has a symbolic meaning for each woman. It varies according to personality structure and is related to women's previous life experiences. the aim was to characterize the women that suffered abortion, asking about anxiety and depression, looking for guilty feelings after abortion, and to compare results between women who suffered spontaneous abortion and those who had intentional abortion. fifty women with spontaneous and fifty with induced abortion were interviewed 30 days after the procedure. A semistructured questionnaire with open and closed-end questions and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were administered. woman who induced abortion revealed to be more anxious (mean 11) and depressed (mean 8.3) than woman with spontaneous abortion (means 8.7 and 6.1 respectively, pabortion were more anxious and depressed, as shown by later life events, full of problematic feelings and the need for psychological support.
A historical review of the legislation of abortion in America leads to the paramount 1973 amendment by the Supreme Court to legalize abortion. The 16 year old decision is currently up for reconsideration. As compared to the consensus of other countries who have similar policies, in the United States, the issue of abortion is still highly controversial. The Reagan era reflected an attitude of "anti-choice" that was further propagated by Reagan appointees. However, only 1 in 10 Americans believes abortion is murder as many are pro-choice. It is also observed that women who work outside the home are more likely to favor the right to choose an abortion than women who stay home. Compared to England and Wales, contraceptive measures are more limited and expensive in the U.S., and consequently, the overall ratio of abortions to live births is higher in the United States. As well, contraception remains elusive to the American teenager, and as a result, 80% of the 1.1 million teenage pregnancies are unwanted and 450,000 terminate their pregnancies. The final Supreme Court decision is expected at the end of June, and few expect a reversal of the 1973 decision. A possible decision may turn the authority to dictate the legal status of abortions back to the state. If this would happen, as with the situation of contraception, teenagers would be the hardest hit group and might be forced to seek illegal abortions or cross state lines.
Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens
Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...
Van der Merwe, J V; Roux, J P
South Africa's Abortion and Sterilization Act No 2 (1975) authorizes sterilization for severely retarded women provided the procedure is performed in a state hospital, certified by 2 medical practitioners (1 a psychiatrist), and the parent or guardian gives informed consent. Since 1975, 152 sterilizations (140 female, 12 male) have been performed under the provisions of this Act at Pretoria's H F Verwoerd Hospital. 92% of the patients were under 20 years of age. The majority were classified as profoundly or severely retarded (74) or moderately severely retarded (68). There were 20 patients with Down's syndrome and 22 with cerebral palsy. Hysterectomy was the method of choice in the 109 women in whom menstrual hygiene was a pertinent factor; the remaining 31 women were sterilized by tubal ligation. 98% of the parents or guardians of hysterectomy acceptors surveyed were satisfied with their decision and its outcome. Several indicated their daughter was more calm, cooperative, productive, and less irritable once relieved of her menstrual periods. A multidisciplinary team approach to the decision making process and the individualization of each case are essential to protect the rights of the mentally retarded. Factors such as the psychological trauma likely to result from pregnancy and childbirth, an inability to use contraception, and unsuitability to rear a child must be demonstrated. To ensure that legislation pertaining to the sterilization of the mentally retarded does not lead to abuse, inputs from the mental health professions are required.
Maiti Mrinal K
Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of hybrid rice technology has significantly increased global rice production during the last three decades. Approximately 90% of the commercially cultivated rice hybrids have been derived through three-line breeding involving the use of WA-CMS lines. It is believed that during the 21st century, hybrid rice technology will make significant contributions to ensure global food security. This study examined the poorly understood molecular basis of the WA-CMS system in rice. Results RFLPs were detected for atp6 and orfB genes in sterile and fertile rice lines, with one copy of each in the mt-genome. The RNA profile was identical in both lines for atp6, but an additional longer orfB transcript was identified in sterile lines. 5' RACE analysis of the long orfB transcript revealed it was 370 bp longer than the normal transcript, with no indication it was chimeric when compared to the genomic DNA sequence. cDNA clones of the longer orfB transcript in sterile lines were sequenced and the transcript was determined unedited. Sterile lines were crossed with the restorer and maintainer lines, and fertile and sterile F1 hybrids were respectively generated. Both hybrids contained two types of orfB transcripts. However, the long transcript underwent editing in the fertile F1 hybrids and remained unedited in the sterile lines. Additionally, the editing of the 1.1 kb orfB transcript co-segregated with fertility restoring alleles in a segregating population of F2 progeny; and the presence of unedited long orfB transcripts was detected in the sterile plants from the F2 segregating population. Conclusion This study helped to assign plausible operative factors responsible for male-sterility in the WA cytoplasm of rice. A new point of departure to dissect the mechanisms governing the CMS-WA system in rice has been identified, which can be applied to further harness the opportunities afforded by hybrid vigor in rice.
Madebo, T; G/Tsadic, T
A six month prospective study on various aspects of abortion was conducted from April 1, 1991 to Sept. 30, 1991 in Sidamo Regional Hospital (Yirgalem). A total of 185 cases of abortion were seen. Of these, 64 (35%) were induced and 121 (65%) were spontaneous. There were 2 deaths in the illegally induced group abortion, 1 death in the other group. Induced abortion was higher in age group 20-24 (61%), single (65%), unemployed (70%), nulliparous (48%) and 7-12 grade educational level (67%). The pregnancy was unwanted in all cases of induced abortion and in 50 (41%) of the spontaneous cases. The common instruments used for inducing abortion were plastic catheters (58%) and metallic instruments (32%). The abortionists were mainly health workers (55%). The mean hospital stay was 6.3 days for illegally induced and 2.1 days for spontaneous abortions. The incidence of septic abortion was found to be statistically significantly higher in induced than in spontaneous abortion (p 0.05). The type of anaesthesia and required procedure are also analyzed in this study. Eighty-eight percent of the study population did not use any type of contraception. The role of contraception in preventing unwanted pregnancy and therefore induced abortion is discussed.
The following guidelines for pre-sterilization counseling have been adopted by the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception: 1) emphasize that sterilization is permanent; 2) involve both partners in the decision making and present male sterilization as a viable option; 3) even if sterilization is requested, also present the range of long-term reversible methods available; 4) inform the client of failure rates associated with female sterilization and the associated risk of ectopic pregnancy; 5) emphasize that sterilization provides no protection against sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus; 6) screen candidates for risk factors of post-sterilization regret, including young age and sterilization at the time of abortion or delivery; 7) fully explain the surgical procedure, preoperative instructions, surgical site, timing of the procedure, type of anesthesia, surgical risks, and length of recovery; 8) describe the possibility of unrelated changes in menstruation; 9) answer all questions; 10) discuss the positive effects on sexuality once concerns about unwanted pregnancy are removed; and 11) provide printed educational materials that the couple can review privately.
Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G
Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) frequent]y occurs in patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites. It is defined as an infection of previously sterile ascitic fluid without any demonstrable intrabdominal source of infection. It is now internationally agreed that a polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell count in the ascitic fluid of over 250 ...
Duprez, D; Fortuna, P
nonretentional endometritis. The condition should be treated with antibiotics and ice. Postoperative hemorrhage is unusual and is most frequently caused by retention. Psychological complications of abortion can be minimized by effective counseling. The counselor should seek to identify any history of psychological pathology or particularly stressful current situation. A certain amount of regret is a normal psychic response to abortion, but more serious symptoms such as suicidal thoughts or obvious depression may indicate the need for specialized care. Experience demonstrates that serious psychic reactions are rare and that a population at high risk can be defined. It includes very ambivalent women, those coerced into abortion, and those at the legal time limit. Women with a recent history of death or illness of a child, intrauterine death in the preceding pregnancy, or spontaneous abortions are also at risk.
Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn
BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...
Sun, L; Lv, H; Wei, W; Zhang, D; Guan, Y
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a main cause of infertility, particularly in high-risk settings such as spontaneous abortions (SAB). We aimed to evaluate the effect of genetic polymorphisms in ACE and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) on the occurrence of SAB in PCOS. One hundred and forty-two PCOS patients (83 women have a history of one or more unexplained SAB, 59 women have successfully live births) and 107 healthy controls matched for age and body mass index were included in the study. Levels of PAI-1, LH, FSH, testosterone, fasting glucose and insulin were measured. ACE deletion (D)/insertion (I) and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphisms were performed. The D/D and/or 4G/4G genotype frequency, the D or 4G allelic frequency, the combination of the ACE D/D and PAI-1 4G/5G, D/I and 4G/4G genotypes of PCOS patients with SAB women were statistically higher than non-SAB group (p4G/4G or D/D genotype of PCOS with SAB patients had significantly higher PAI-1 levels than non-SAB women. The ACE D/I and PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphisms might represent risk factor in PCOS with SAB. Homozygosity for ACE D or PAI-1 4G polymorphisms as well as compound carrier status are significant positive explanatory variable for PCOS patients with SAB, which may result in increased PAI-1 concentrations and hypofibrinolysis and contribute to early pregnancy loss.
swab cultured staphylococcus aureus. Blood and urine culture was sterile. Lumbosacral plain radiography showed no abnormality. She was commenced on intravenous clavulinic acid potentated amoxycillin injection,. 1.2grams twelve hourly and metronidozole injection. 500mg eight hourly. Diclofenac potassium tablets.
Kathpalia, S K
Prior to legalization of abortion, induced abortions were performed in an illegal manner and that resulted in many complications hence abortion was legalized in India in 1971 and the number of induced abortions has been gradually increasing since then. One way of preventing abortions is to provide family planning services to these abortion seekers so that same is not repeated. The study was performed to find out the acceptance of contraception after abortion. A prospective study was performed over a period of five years from 2010 to 2014. The study group included all the cases reporting for abortion. A proforma was filled in detail to find out the type of contraception being used before pregnancy and acceptance of contraception after abortion. The existing facilities were also evaluated. 1228 abortions were performed over a period of five years. 94.5% of abortions were during the first trimester. 39.9% had not used any contraceptive before, contraceptives used were natural and barrier which had high failure. The main indication for seeking abortion was failure of contraception and completion of family. 39.6% of patients accepted sterilization as a method of contraception. The existing post abortion family planning services are inadequate. Post abortion period is one which is important to prevent subsequent abortions and family planning services after abortion need to be strengthened.
The determinants (factors) studied were: delay in arrival to the hospital, delay in starting treatment, type of onset of abortion (induced or spontaneous), gestation at onset of abortion, age, marital status, literacy and parity. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Mekane Hiwet Maternity Hospital, Asmara, Eritrea
Septic sacroilitis is a rare complication of abortion. We present a 34 year old woman, who presented with three days history of pain in the right buttock, inability to walk and a large induration over the right sacro-illac joint. These followed spontaneous abortion at 21 weeks gestational age. Nigerian Journal of Surgical ...
Stuart, Gretchen S; Ramesh, Shanthi S
Female sterilization is relied on by nearly one in three women aged 35-44 years in the United States. Sterilization procedures are among the most common procedures that obstetrician-gynecologists perform. The most frequent sterilization procedures include postpartum tubal ligation, laparoscopic tubal disruption or salpingectomy, and hysteroscopic tubal occlusion. The informed consent process for sterilization is crucial and requires shared decision-making between the patient and the health care provider. Counseling should include the specific risks and benefits of the specific surgical approaches. Additionally, women should be counseled on the alternatives to sterilization, including intrauterine contraceptives and subdermal contraceptive implants. Complications, including unplanned pregnancy after successful female sterilization, are rare. The objectives of this Clinical Expert Series are to describe the epidemiology of female sterilization, access to postpartum sterilization, advances in interval sterilization techniques, and clinical considerations in caring for women requesting sterilization.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1 was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in
Steven A. Frank
Full Text Available Many human males produce dysfunctional sperm. Various plants frequently abort pollen. Hybrid matings often produce sterile males. Widespread male sterility is puzzling. Natural selection prunes reproductive failure. Puzzling failure implies something that we do not understand about how organisms are designed. Solving the puzzle reveals the hidden processes of design.
Full Text Available Background. This contribution describes the history of the abortion pill, its introduction in the world and in our country. On the basis of the findings of the studies, carried out since the early ’80s, the authors provide the indications and contraindications for the application of the method.Conclusions. The most efficient method for termination of an early pregnancy with least adverse side effects is the combination of drugs, viz. 1 tablet of mifepristone (200 mg administered orally and 4 tablets (4 × 200 mcg of misoprostol applied vaginally.
Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M; Sidze, Estelle M
Over six million induced abortions were reported in Africa in 2008 with over two million induced abortions occurring in Eastern Africa. Although a significant proportion of women in the region procure more than one abortion during their reproductive period, there is a dearth of research on factors associated with repeat abortion. Data for this study come from the Magnitude and Incidence of Unsafe Abortion Study conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center in Kenya in 2012. The study used a nationally-representative sample of 350 facilities (level II to level VI) that offer post-abortion services for complications following induced and spontaneous abortions. A prospective morbidity survey tool was used by health providers in 328 facilities to collect information on socio-demographic charateristics, reproductive health history and contraceptive use at conception for all patients presenting for post-abortion services. Our analysis is based on data recorded on 769 women who were classified as having had an induced abortion. About 16 % of women seeking post abortion services for an induced abortion reported to have had a previous induced abortion. Being separated or divorced or widowed, having no education, having unwanted pregnancy, having 1-2 prior births and using traditional methods of contraception were associated with a higher likelihood of a repeat induced abortion. The findings point to the need to address the reasons why women with first time induced abortion do not have the necessary information to prevent unintended pregnancies and further induced abortions. Possible explanations linked to the quality of post-abortion family planning and coverage of long-acting methods should be explored.
Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; Tsui, Amy Ong; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura
We aimed to determine whether current contraceptive use is affected by a history of abortion for women from a country with abortion-restricted laws. This is an analysis of 2006 Brazil Demographic and Health Survey. Nonpregnant women whose first pregnancy occurred in the previous 5 years were selected for this study (n = 2,181). We used propensity score matching to compare current contraceptive use among women with induced or spontaneous abortion and women with no abortion. We found differences in the use, but women with a history of abortion did not report more effective contraceptive than women with no abortion, as we expected.
Camargo, Rodrigo S; Santana, Danielly S; Cecatti, José G; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Tedesco, Ricardo P; Melo, Elias F; Sousa, Maria H
To evaluate the reported occurrence of spontaneous and induced abortion, and abortion-associated severe maternal morbidity in Brazil. A secondary analysis of the 2006 Brazilian Demographic Health Survey was conducted. Interview data on women's experience of spontaneous/induced abortion and associated factors were analyzed overall and by geographic region. Multinomial logistic regression was performed to identify factors independently associated with abortion. The risk of associated severe maternal morbidity was estimated. The reported lifetime rates of spontaneous and induced abortion were 13.3% and 2.3%, respectively, and were highest in the north (4.3%) and northeast (3.5%). The rate of spontaneous abortion was higher among women aged 40-49 years (odds ratio [OR] 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.30) and among those with 0 or 1 children or delivery (OR 1.97; 95% CI, 1.36-2.85 vs OR 1.98; 95% CI, 1.37-2.86). Induced abortion was not associated with sociodemographic factors. Abortion significantly increased the risk of complications (hemorrhage and infection). Spontaneous abortion was significantly associated with parity and maternal age. Abortion in general carried a higher risk of severe maternal complications. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Briozzo, L; Vidiella, G; Rodríguez, F; Gorgoroso, M; Faúndes, A; Pons, J E
Worldwide, 13% of maternal deaths are caused by complications of spontaneous or induced abortion, 29% in Uruguay and nearly half (48%) in the Pereira Rossell Hospital. This paper describes a risk reduction strategy for unsafe abortions in Montevideo, Uruguay, where over one-fourth of maternal deaths are caused by unsafe abortion. Although abortion is not legal in Uruguay, women desiring abortions can be counseled before and immediately after to reduce the risk of injury. Women contemplating abortion were invited to attend a "before-abortion" and an "after-abortion" visit at a reproductive health polyclinic. At the "before-abortion" visit, gestational age, condition of the fetus and pathologies were diagnosed and the risks associated with the use of different abortion methods (based on the best available scientific evidence) were described. The "after-abortion" visit allowed for checking for possible complications and offering contraception. From March 2004 through June 2005, 675 women attended the "before-abortion" and 495 the "after-abortion" visit, the number increasing over time. Some women (3.5%) decided not to abort, others were either not pregnant, the fetus/embryo was dead or the woman had a condition that permitted legal termination of pregnancy in the hospital (7.5%). Most women, however, aborted. All women used vaginal misoprostol in the doses recommended in the medical literature. There were no serious complications (one mild infection and two hemorrhages not requiring transfusion). The strategy is effective in reducing unsafe abortions and their health consequences.
Blais, Lucie; Kettani, Fatima-Zohra; Forget, Amélie
Are women with asthma, and more specifically those with severe or uncontrolled asthma, at higher risk of spontaneous and induced abortions? Pregnant women with asthma, notably when uncontrolled, are at higher risk of spontaneous abortion. Only one study has examined the association between asthma and spontaneous and induced abortions and revealed a modest increase in the risk of spontaneous abortions, particularly in women with more severe asthma and those with previous exacerbations, and a marginal decrease in the risk of induced abortions. A cohort of pregnancies from asthmatic (n = 15,107) and non-asthmatic (n = 34,331) women was reconstructed by linking three administrative databases from Quebec (Canada), between 1992 and 2002. The cohort included 7870 spontaneous abortions, 14,596 induced abortions and 26,972 live births. Pregnant women with and without asthma were analyzed. Asthma was defined by at least one asthma diagnosis and one dispensed prescription for an asthma medication in the 2 years prior to or during pregnancy. Asthma severity and control were assessed using validated indexes in the year before the 20th week of pregnancy or the termination of the pregnancy. Logistic polytomous regression models were used to estimate the relationship between asthma and asthma severity and control on the risk of abortion, while adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of spontaneous and induced abortions was 15.9 and 29.5%, respectively. Maternal asthma was associated with an increased risk of a spontaneous abortion [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33-1.49] and a decreased risk of induced abortions (OR = 0.92; 0.88-0.97). No association was observed between asthma severity and abortion, while uncontrolled asthma increased the risk of a spontaneous abortion by 26% (95% CI: 14-41%) and the risk of induced abortions by 11% (95% CI: 1-21%). It is possible that the study results were confounded by imbalances between groups in variables
Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.
Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies
Full Text Available In a historical cohort study we evaluated the effects of spontaneous abortion on subsequent pregnancy outcome. 1693 pregnant women were classifield in three groups: 1100: without any prior pregnancy, group 1; 550: with history of one spontaneous abortion (G2A1, group 2; 43: with two or more prior spontaneous abortions and no other prior pregnancies, group 3. We collected data through interview, patient's records and physical examination. We matched the patients according to their age subgroups, history of chronic disease, drug administration and radiation during current pregnancy and familial marriage. Then we compared adverse outcome of present pregnancy in group 1 and 2 with the women without prior pregnancy. We analysed the data with Chi-square and Fisher's exact methods. In this study we concluded that history of one spontaneous abortion had no effect on subsequent pregnancy except on prolonged ROM (P<0.000, but history of two or more abortions significantly affects occurrence of stillbirth (RR=29, P=0.003 and placenta previa (RR=8.5, P=0.03. These findings suggest that pregnant women with history of two or more spontaneous abortion need special prenatal care.
Chen, S-H; Chung, N-J; Wang, Y-N; Lee, C-L; Lee, Y-L; Tsai, P-F
A study of male sterility over a period of three consecutive years on a conifer species endemic to Taiwan, Taiwania cryptomerioides Hayata (Taxodiaceae), was done for this article. With the aids of fluorescence and electron microscopic observations, the ontogenic processes in the fertile and sterile microsporangia are compared, using samples collected from Chitou Experimental Forest and Yeou-Shoei-Keng Clonal Orchard of the National Taiwan University, Nantou, Taiwan. The development of male strobili occurred from August to the end of March. Microsporogenesis starts with the formation of the archesporium and ends with the maturation of 2-celled pollen grains within the dehiscing microsporangium. Before meiosis, there was no significant difference in ultrastructure between the fertile and sterile microsporangia. Asynchronous pollen development with various tetrad forms may occur in the same microsporangium of either fertile or sterile strobili. However, a callose wall was observable in the fertile dyad and tetrad, but not in the sterile one. After dissolution of the callose wall, the fertile microspores were released into the locule, while some sterile microspores still retained as tetrads or dyads with intertwining of exine walls in the proximal faces. As a result, there was no well developed lamellated endexine and no granulate ectexine or intine in the sterile microspores. Eventually, the intracellular structures in sterile microspores were dramatically collapsed before anthesis. The present study shows that the abortion in pollen development is possibly attributed to the absence of the callose wall. The importance of this structure to the male sterility of T. cryptomerioides is discussed.
Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important model crop plants whose heterosis has been well exploited in commercial hybrid seed production via a variety of types of male sterile lines. Hybrid rice cultivation area is steadily expanding around the world, especially in Southern Asia. Characterization of genes and proteins related to male sterility aims to understand how and why the male sterility occurs, and which proteins are the key players for microspores abortion. Recently, a series of genes and proteins related to cytoplasmic male sterility, photoperiod sensitive male sterility, self-incompatibility and other types of microspores deterioration have been characterized through genetics or proteomics. Especially the latter, offers us a powerful and high throughput approach to discern the novel proteins involving in male-sterile pathways which may help us to breed artificial male-sterile system. This represents an alternative tool to meet the critical challenge of further development of hybrid rice. In this paper, we reviewed the recent developments in our understanding of male sterility in rice hybrid production across gene, protein and integrated network levels, and also, present a perspective on the engineering of male sterile lines for hybrid rice production.
Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.
This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, 'Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification' 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization - Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches' 3. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch' 4. ISO Draft TR, 'Sterilization of health care products - Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits'
Boersma, A A; Meyboom-de Jong, B
We describe five pitfalls of medical abortion: ectopic pregnancy not terminated after misoprostol, but without negative side-effects; long-term vaginal blood loss with suspicious retained products which disappeared spontaneously; a patient with uterus myomatatosus with severe pain and retained products in the uterus; repetition of misoprostol because of retained products in the uterus after two weeks and an allergic reaction to methotrexate. Despite these pitfalls, there are enough benefits to consider medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol as a safe method with a high success rate of more than 91% and a good alternative for surgical abortion. An invasive procedure is not necessary, there are no long-term complications and it can be performed at an earlier stage, which makes it more acceptable in society. In Curaçao, where abortion is legally restricted, medical abortion is performed with methotrexate and misoprostol. In countries where abortion is legal, mifepristone and misoprostol are the first choice.
Abazajian, Kevork N.
Sterile neutrinos are natural extensions to the standard model of particle physics in neutrino mass generation mechanisms. If they are relatively light, less than approximately 10 keV, they can alter cosmology significantly, from the early Universe to the matter and radiation energy density today. Here, we review the cosmological role such light sterile neutrinos can play from the early Universe, including production of keV-scale sterile neutrinos as dark matter candidates, and dynamics of light eV-scale sterile neutrinos during the weakly-coupled active neutrino era. We review proposed signatures of light sterile neutrinos in cosmic microwave background and large scale structure data. We also discuss keV-scale sterile neutrino dark matter decay signatures in X-ray observations, including recent candidate ∼3.5 keV X-ray line detections consistent with the decay of a ∼7 keV sterile neutrino dark matter particle.
Perez Duarte, A E
Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other
Li, Na-Na; Chen, Xin-Lin; Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiao-Hong; Deng, Ying; Zhu, Jun
To explore the association between maternal abortion history and congenital heart defect (CHD) risk in subsequent pregnancies. A multihospital-based case-control study was conducted. The cases included 370 women whose fetuses were diagnosed with CHDs. The controls were 413 women with fetuses without an apparent malformation in the same hospital. All of the participants were investigated by trained interviewers. Univariate analysis was performed, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to calculate odds ratio and 95% confidence interval to evaluate the risk of maternal abortion history on CHD risk. There were no statistically significant positive associations between maternal abortion (induced abortion and spontaneous abortion) occurrence and the risk of CHDs. There were no statistically significant positive associations between the number of maternal abortions (induced and spontaneous) and the risk of congenital heart defects. Maternal abortion history may not be associated with fetal CHDs.
Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Charlette, Lena; Pandav, Chandrakant S
Induced abortion has been legal in India on a broad range of medical and social grounds since 1980s. Often, induced abortion is resorted to as a means for contraception, and has a potential to be misused for sex selective feticide. We assessed the rates, trends, causes and determinants of induced abortions from 2008-12 in a rural community of northern India. Present study is a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2008-12. The data was retrieved from the Health and Management Information System maintained at Ballabgarh. Cause of abortion was self-reported by the women who underwent abortion. Of the 11,102 pregnancies, 1,226 (11%) culminated as abortions of which 425 (3.8%) were induced abortions. Spontaneous abortion rate (7.2%) was twice that of induced abortion rate (3.8%). Both abortion rates had an increasing trend during the course of the study period. Self-reported reasons for opting for induced abortions were bleeding per vaginum (23%), unwanted pregnancy (16%), and unviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasonography (11%). Eight percent of the induced abortions were due to the female sex of the fetus. About 11% of the abortions were performed beyond 20 weeks of gestation which was the upper legal permissible gestational age for performing induced abortions in India. About 10% of the abortions were performed by unqualified practitioners. Caste, wealth index, birth order and size of the village population were the factors that were significantly associated with induced abortion. Though the abortion rate was low, the proportionate contribution of induced abortion was more than what could be expected. Unsafe and sex selective abortion, though illegal, was prevalent. Upper caste and higher socio-economic status families were more likely to opt for induced abortion.
Correia, Divanise Suruagy; Monteiro, Vera Grácia Neumann; Cavalcante, Jairo Calado; Maia, Eulália Maria Chaves
This study aimed to identify the knowledge about induced abortion complications and its relation to age. This is a cross-sectional study performed in schools of Maceió, state of Alagoas, Brazil, with students 12 to 19 years old. The sample was calculated considering post-abortion curettage data. The Epi Info computer program was used for data analysis. From 2,592 female adolescents studied 65.64% didn't know about any complications of induced abortion. The most mentioned complications were death and sterility. Clinical manifestations of abortion were wrongly mentioned by them as complications. Signification was found between the knowledge of the complications sterility, hemorrhage, and age. Death was significant fo rgirls under 15 and sterility for the older ones. The conclusion is that female adolescents don't have a correct knowledge of induced abortion complications, which shows the risk suffered by the ones that induce it. Thus, there is a need to further clarify the issue and for sexual education.
... Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) PDF Reproductive Health Access Project Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - English PDF Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - ...
Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M H
Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies upon power disparities and inequalities for its formation. In this paper, we identify social and political processes that favour the emergence, perpetuation and normalisation of abortion stigma. We hypothesise that abortion transgresses three cherished 'feminine' ideals: perpetual fecundity; the inevitability of motherhood; and instinctive nurturing. We offer examples of how abortion stigma is generated through popular and medical discourses, government and political structures, institutions, communities and via personal interactions. Finally, we propose a research agenda to reveal, measure and map the diverse manifestations of abortion stigma and its impact on women's health.
Full Text Available Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications.A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed.A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD age of 27.12 (5.97 years. The majority of abortions (95.5% were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%. Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%, tender uterus (11.3%, septic shock (3.9% and pelvic peritonitis (2.4% were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2% of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%. There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively.Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care
Öhman, Malin Charlotta; Andersen, Lars Franch
Regret of sterilization is inversely correlated to age at the time of sterilization. The minimum age for legal sterilization in Denmark has recently been lowered to 18 years. In Denmark surgical refertilization has almost completely been replaced by in vitro fertilization (IVF). In recent literature pregnancy results after surgical refertilization are easily comparable to IVF. Refertilization may in some cases be advantageous to IVF treatment. Women requesting reversal of sterilization should be offered individualized evaluation and differentiated treatment. It is recommended that surgical refertilization is performed at very few centres.
Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne
Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…
Freijo, Jose L.
A transportable device designed to sterilize medical material and wastes by gamma irradiation is described. The sterilizer is formed by three modules: one of the modules contains the gamma source and can be removed to transport and transfer the source, the other modules are designed to introduce and draw out the materials to be irradiated
Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J
It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially.
The government of Iran announced in November 1990, in an abrupt reversal of previous policies, the legislation of sterilization and its provision free-of-charge upon request, as well as the distribution of other contraceptive gratis. At the time of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 the government adopted a pronatalist policy, family planning programs were interrupted, legal ages of marriage were lowered, and barriers against polygamy were loosened. Iran had a 3.5% growth rate in 1990 and a total fertility rate of 6.3 lifetime births/woman. After the end of the war between Iran and Iraq in 1988, the population explosion became an obstacle to reconstruction. In 1950, the population numbered 14.2 million; by 1970 it had doubled to 28.4 million. In 1990, the country had 54.6 million people. According to a 1990 UN assessment the population will soar to 100 million by 2020. Over 8 million live in Tehran where overcrowding, traffic congestion, air pollution, and high living costs are the norm. the 1989 National Birth Control Policy Summary adopted targets to reduce the average number of lifetime births per woman to 4 children and natural growth rate to 2.3% by 2011, and to provide family planning to 24% of reproductive-age women whereby 1 million conceptions would be prevented. Indirect measures to curb fertility include raising literacy promoting the education of girls, improving the status and health conditions of women, and reducing maternal and child mortality. A media campaign has started to encourage a small family model. The low legal, social, educational, and employment status of women poses obstacles to this plan, however, the revision of laws that conflict with these goals has been urged. In other Islamic countries such as Turkey, Tunisia, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, female sterilization is legal. Abortion in Iran remains banned except for saving the life of the mother.
Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?
Hisel, L M
This review traces the discussion of abortion in the US through 10 of the best books published on the subject in the past 25 years. The first book considered is Daniel Callahan's "Abortion: Law, Choice and Morality," which was published in 1970. Next is book of essays also published in 1970: "The Morality of Abortion: Legal and Historical Perspectives," which was edited by John T. Noonan, Jr., who became a prominent opponent to the Roe decision. It is noted that Roman Catholics would find the essay by Bernard Haring especially interesting since Haring supported the Church's position on abortion but called for acceptance of contraception. Third on the list is historian James C. Mohr's review of "Abortion in America: The Origins and Evolution of National Policy," which was printed five years after the Roe decision. Selection four is "Enemies of Choice: The Right-to-Life Movement and Its Threat to Abortion" by Andrew Merton. This 1981 publication singled out a concern about sexuality as the overriding motivator for anti-abortion groups. Two years later, Beverly Wildung Harrison published a ground-breaking, feminist, moral analysis of abortion entitled "Our Right to Choose: Toward a New Ethic of Abortion. This was followed by a more empirical and sociopolitical feminist analysis in Kristin Luker's 1984 "Abortion and the Politics of Motherhood." The seventh book is by another feminist, Rosalind Pollack Petchesky, whose work "Abortion and Women's Choice: The State, Sexuality, and Reproductive Freedom" was first published in 1984 and reprinted in 1990. The eighth important book was "Abortion and Catholicism: The American Debate," edited by Thomas A. Shannon and Patricia Beattie Jung. Rounding out the list are the 1992 work "Life Itself: Abortion in the American Mind" by Roger Rosenblatt and Ronald Dworkin's 1993 "Life's Dominion: An Argument About Abortion, Euthanasia, and Individual Freedom."
Wellisch, Lawren; Chor, Julie
Abortion is an extremely common procedure in the United States, with approximately 2% of women having an abortion before age 19 years. Although most pediatricians do not provide abortions, many will care for a young woman who is either considering an abortion or has already had one; therefore, the pediatrician should be able to provide accurate and appropriate counseling about this option. To provide the best care for adolescent patients considering abortion, pediatricians must be knowledgeable of aspects of abortion that are universal to all women and have an understanding of considerations specific to the adolescent patient. The purpose of this article is to (1) review recent statistics about teenagers and abortion, (2) explain the different types of abortion available to teenagers who desire to terminate an unwanted pregnancy, (3) discuss aspects of abortion unique to the adolescent population, such as insurance coverage and parental involvement laws, and (4) address common misconceptions about abortion. [Pediatr Ann. 2015;44(9):384-385,388,390,392.]. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
Shasha, Shaul M
The term "eugenics" was coined by Francis Galton in 1883 and was defined as the science of the improvement of the human race by better breeding. "Positive eugenics" referred to methods of encouraging the "most fit" to reproduce more often, while "negative eugenics" was related to ways of discouraging or preventing the "less fit" from reproducing by birth control and sterilization. Many western countries adopted eugenics programs including Britain, Canada, Norway, Australia, Switzerland and others. In Sweden more then 62,000 "unfits" were forcibly sterilized. Many states in the U.S.A. had adopted marriage laws with eugenics criteria including forced sterilization. Approximately 64,000 individuals were sterilized. Eugenics considerations also lay behind the adoption of the Immigration Restriction Act of 1924. The Largest plan on eugenics was adopted by the Nazi regime in Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people, who were viewed as being "unfit", were forcibly sterilized by different methods: Surgical sterilization or castration with severe complications and high mortality rates. X-ray irradiation. The method was suggested by Brack, and tested by Schuman using prisoners in Block No. 10 in Auschwitz and Birkenau. Experiments were also performed by Brack on prisoners using the "window method". "Klauberg method"--injection of irritating materials into the uterus. Experiments were conducted using the plant Caladium Seguinum which was believed to have sterilization and castration properties.
Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.
,449) and the unemployment rate in Denmark beginning in January 1995 and ending in December 2009. Our statistical methods controlled for temporal patterns in spontaneous abortion (e.g., seasonality, trend) and changes in the population of pregnancies at risk of loss. Unexpected increases in the unemployment rate preceded...... in elective abortions and in the cohort composition of high-risk pregnancies did not account for results. It appears that in Denmark, ambient stressors as common as increasing unemployment may precede a population-level increase in spontaneous abortion....
Nahid Golmakani; Maryam Ahmadi; Negar Asgharipour; Habibollah Esmaeli
Background & aim: Emotional intelligence (EQ) is one of the factors influencing post-abortion grief and bereavement. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the level of EQ and post-abortion grief and bereavement in women referred to the hospitals affiliated to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This correlational study was conducted on 60 women with spontaneous abortion admitted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Imam Reza, Ghaem, and Omolbanin hospita...
Polaino Lorente, Aquilino
The author explores the possible relationship between psychopathology and abortion. The paper starts with the updating of epidemiological data regarding the incidence of abortion, especially in the current Spanish society. In this partnership there are three sections in the study of these possible relations between the abortion and the psychopathology: (a) in the new emerging sexual behaviour, especially among young people, and psychopathological factors possibly determining their sexual behaviour; (b) in the psychological and psychopathological context that makes the decision to abort, in regard to the factors of the couple and their families of origin and social context, and (c) in the frequent psychopathological disorders that seem to arise from the abortion, according to recent data reported by many researchers in the international scientific community. The study of the so-called Post-Abortion Syndrome (PAS) puts an end to this cooperation, distinguishing psychopathological profile characteristic that distinguishes the various stages of this syndrome.
Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; McEvoy, Fintan
and hydrocephalus is reported in an equine foetus spontaneously aborted at gestation day 224. The cause of abortion was considered to be intrauterine death caused by umbilical cord torsions and subsequent compromised blood flow, but the aetiology of the malformation could not be determined. A detailed history...
Xu, Baihui; Zhang, Jie; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Chen, Yuhong; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang
Epidemiologic studies have suggested that abortion may cause long term health consequences such as cardiovascular disease. Until recently, studies focusing on the association between history of abortion and metabolic diseases were limited. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between history of abortion and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women. A cross-sectional survey was performed in 6302 women (age ≥ 40 years) in Shanghai. Standardized questionnaire was used to obtain the information about reproductive histories. Overall, we observed a positive association between history of induced abortion and the prevalence of MetS, independent of potential confounding factors. A multivariable-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to those without a history of induced abortion, women with a history of induced abortion remained at 1.25 times more likely to have MetS (OR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.06-1.47, P spontaneous abortion and the prevalence of MetS was observed. Compared to those without a history of spontaneous abortion, the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio associated with a history of spontaneous abortion for MetS was 0.88 (95% CI = 0.65-1.19, P > 0.05).
... If pregnancy does occur, the risk of an ectopic pregnancy is higher than in women who did not ... pregnant. Also, the risk of problems, such as ectopic pregnancy, is increased. What are some alternatives to sterilization? ...
Reyes Frias, L.
Since 1980 the National Institute of Nuclear Research counts with an Industrial Gamma Irradiator, for the sterilization of raw materials and finished products. Through several means has been promoted the use of this technology as alternative to conventional methods of sterilization as well as steam treatment and ethylene oxide. As a result of the made promotion this irradiator has come to its saturation limit being the sterilization irradiation one of the main services that National Institute of Nuclear Research offers to producer enterprises of disposable materials of medical use also of raw materials for the elaboration of cosmetic products and pharmaceuticals as well as dehydrated foods. It is presented the trend to the sterilization service by irradiation showed by the compilation data in a survey made by potential customers. (Author)
Pflug, I. J.
Discussion of various techniques of sterilization of space flight hardware using either destructive heating or the action of chemicals. Factors considered in the dry-heat destruction of microorganisms include the effects of microbial water content, temperature, the physicochemical properties of the microorganism and adjacent support, and nature of the surrounding gas atmosphere. Dry-heat destruction rates of microorganisms on the surface, between mated surface areas, or buried in the solid material of space vehicle hardware are reviewed, along with alternative dry-heat sterilization cycles, thermodynamic considerations, and considerations of final sterilization-process design. Discussed sterilization chemicals include ethylene oxide, formaldehyde, methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfoxide, peracetic acid, and beta-propiolactone.
Antell, Karen; Deshmukh, Prium; Brown, Elizabeth J
Female sterilization procedures include postpartum partial salpingectomy via cesarean or minilaparotomy incision, interval laparoscopic procedures, or hysteroscopic placement of microinserts. Rates of failure and serious complications are low and comparable among the various methods. A hysteroscopic procedure requires a 3-month confirmatory hysterosalpingogram before it is considered effective for contraception. Hysteroscopic sterilization has been shown to be associated with a higher reoperation rate than laparoscopic procedures. For male sterilization, vasectomy is a noninvasive and highly effective method. Vasectomy is an outpatient procedure performed under local anesthesia. The procedure requires confirmation of azoospermia with a semen analysis 8 to 16 weeks after the procedure. Patients who are considering sterilization should be counseled about all the available options and the permanent nature of such procedures. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Ilic, Milena; Vlajinac, Hristina; Marinkovic, Jelena; Sipetic-Grujicic, Sandra
The aim of the present study was to examine if certain aspects of a woman's experience of abortion might be associated with the risk of breast cancer. The case-control study was conducted in Kragujevac (Serbia) during the period 2004-2005. The case group (191 women) consisted of patients with newly diagnosed first primary breast cancer, which was histologically confirmed. The control group (191 women), individually matched by age (± 2 years), hospital admittance and place of residence (rural/urban) to the respective cases, was selected from female patients admitted for other diseases. The analysis was restricted to parous women (168 cases and 171 controls). Breast cancer risk was reduced among women who had a history of any abortion (adjusted OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.88). The protective effect was found for both induced abortion (adjusted OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.25-0.90) and spontaneous abortion (adjusted OR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10-0.98). It seems that these associations did not depend on the number of abortions, age at first abortion, or gestational age at first aborted pregnancy. Our study suggests that even short pregnancies ending in abortion add to the protection against breast cancer.
Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan
Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060
To find the latest and most accurate information on aspects of induced abortion. A literature survey was carried out in which five aspects of abortion were scrutinised: risk to life, risk of breast cancer, risk to mental health, risk to future fertility, and fetal pain. Abortion is clearly safer than childbirth. There is no evidence of an association between abortion and breast cancer. Women who have abortions are not at increased risk of mental health problems over and above women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. There is no negative effect of abortion on a woman's subsequent fertility. It is not possible for a fetus to perceive pain before 24 weeks' gestation. Misinformation on abortion is widespread. Literature and websites are cited to demonstrate how data have been manipulated and misquoted or just ignored. Citation of non-peer reviewed articles is also common. Mandates insisting on provision of inaccurate information in some US State laws are presented. Attention is drawn to how women can be misled by Crisis Pregnancy Centres. There is extensive promulgation of misinformation on abortion by those who oppose abortion. Much of this misinformation is based on distorted interpretation of the scientific literature.
Beck, Jeffrey A.
The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.
Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.
Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance
Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute
Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient's perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents' guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11-16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households' poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014.
Ilboudo, Patrick G C; Greco, Giulia; Sundby, Johanne; Torsvik, Gaute
Little is known about the costs and consequences of abortions to women and their households. Our aim was to study both costs and consequences of induced and spontaneous abortions and complications. We carried out a cross-sectional study between February and September 2012 in Ouagadougou, the capital city of Burkina Faso. Quantitative data of 305 women whose pregnancy ended with either an induced or a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic, asset ownership, medical and health expenditures including pre-referral costs following the patient’s perspective. Descriptive analysis and regression analysis of costs were performed. We found that women with induced abortion were often single or never married, younger, more educated and had earlier pregnancies than women with spontaneous abortion. They also tended to be more often under parents’ guardianship compared with women with spontaneous abortion. Women with induced abortion paid much more money to obtain abortion and treatment of the resulting complications compared with women with spontaneous abortion: US$89 (44 252 CFA ie franc of the African Financial Community) vs US$56 (27 668 CFA). The results also suggested that payments associated with induced abortion were catastrophic as they consumed 15% of the gross domestic product per capita. Additionally, 11–16% of total households appeared to have resorted to coping strategies in order to face costs. Both induced and spontaneous abortions may incur high expenses with short-term economic repercussions on households’ poverty. Actions are needed in order to reduce the financial burden of abortion costs and promote an effective use of contraceptives. PMID:24829315
Volkas, R. R.
Model-building issues raised by the prospect of light sterile neutrinos are discussed in a pedagogical way. I first review the naive proposal that sterile neutrinos be identified with “right handed neutrinos”. A critical discussion of the simple expedient of adding three gauge singlet fermions to the usual minimal standard model matter content is followed by an examination of right handed neutrinos in extended theories. I introduce the terminology of “fully sterile” and “weakly sterile” to classify varieties usually conflated under the sterile neutrino banner. After introducing the concepts of “technical naturalness” and plain “naturalness”, the unbearable lightness of being a sterile neutrino is confronted. This problem is used to motivate mirror neutrinos, whose connection with pairwise maximal mixing is emphasised. Some brief remarks about phenomenology are made throughout. The impossibility of identifying the sole sterile neutrino of the currently favoured 2 + 2 and 3 + 1 phenomenological constructs as a lone gauge singlet fermion added to the minimal standard model is explained. Finally, I remark on the beauty and subtlety of light sterile neutrino cosmology.
Kaluska, I.; Stuglik, Z.
Overview of sterilization methods of medical devices has been given, with the special stress put on radiation sterilization. A typical validation program for radiation sterilization has been shown and also a comparison of European and ISO standards concerning radiation sterilization has been discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs
Background Hysteroscopic tubal sterilization is a minimally invasive alternative to laparoscopic tubal ligation for women who want permanent contraception. The procedures involves non-surgical placement of permanent microinserts into both fallopian tubes. Patients must use alternative contraception for at least 3 months postprocedure until tubal occlusion is confirmed. Compared to tubal ligation, potential advantages of the hysteroscopic procedure are that it can be performed in 10 minutes in an office setting without the use of general or even local anesthesia. Objective The objective of this analysis was to determine the effectiveness and safety of hysteroscopic tubal sterilization compared with tubal ligation for permanent female sterilization. Data Sources A standard systematic literature search was conducted for studies published from January 1, 2008, until December 11, 2012. Review Methods Observational studies, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), systematic reviews and meta-analyses with 1 month or more of follow-up were examined. Outcomes included failure/pregnancy rates, adverse events, and patient satisfaction. Results No RCTs were identified. Two systematic reviews covered 22 observational studies of hysteroscopic sterilization. Only 1 (N = 93) of these 22 studies compared hysteroscopic sterilization to laparoscopic tubal ligation. Two other noncomparative case series not included in the systematic reviews were also identified. In the absence of comparative studies, data on tubal ligation were derived for this analysis from the CREST study, a large, multicentre, prospective, noncomparative observational study in the United States (GRADE low). Overall, hysteroscopic sterilization is associated with lower pregnancy rates and lower complication rates compared to tubal ligation. No deaths have been reported for hysteroscopic sterilization. Limitations A lack of long-term follow-up for hysteroscopic sterilization and a paucity of studies that directly
Dou Liping; Tang Canming; Yue Jieyu; Wang Qingya
Pollens of Sumian 22 were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at a dose of 20Gy, then fertilized to pistil and harvested seed. Three male-sterile lines were selected from M 1 plants, their anther observed by paraffin slice technique. Although there were some different characteristics during the abortion anther development, the abortion was consistent: the abortion stage from the development periods of pollen mother cells to microspore, pollen mother cells, tapetum, middle layer cells and the shape of anther were affected, the results contained micronucleus and double nucleus, cytoplasm expansion during the period of meiosis, tapetum and middle layer cells and so on were abnormal. (authors)
Okonofua, Friday; Omo-Aghoja, Lawrence; Bello, Zainab; Osughe, Mary; Agholor, Kingsley
To determine the proportion of all clinically confirmed pregnancies that end as induced abortion in a cohort of pregnant women in Nigeria. A total of 490 women who attended prenatal clinics at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were interviewed with the preceding birth technique (PBT) on the outcomes of their previous pregnancies, including abortions. Of the 490 women, 384 women (78.4%) reported previous abortions. A total of 1883 previous pregnancies were reported by the women, of which 914 ended in abortion, 545 in live births, and 421 in stillbirths, with 3 unclassified. The total abortion ratio was 914/1842 (49.6%), when 41 women who reported no previous pregnancies were excluded. Of the 914 abortions, 751 (82.25) were induced abortions, 146 (16.0%) were spontaneous abortions, 9 (0.98%) were missed abortions, and 8 were unclassified. Results of logistic regression analysis showed that women aged 25-29 years were 4 times more likely to report induced abortion compared with older women. Induced abortion was found to be highly prevalent in this region of Nigeria, according to self-reports of women who were asked questions on abortion in the context of medical care. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moss, Chailee; Isley, Michelle M
Sterilization is a frequently used method of contraception. Female sterilization is performed 3 times more frequently than male sterilization, and it can be performed immediately postpartum or as an interval procedure. Methods include mechanical occlusion, coagulation, or tubal excision. Female sterilization can be performed using an abdominal approach, or via laparoscopy or hysteroscopy. When an abdominal approach or laparoscopy is used, sterilization occurs immediately. When hysteroscopy is used, tubal occlusion occurs over time, and additional testing is needed to confirm tubal occlusion. Comprehensive counseling about sterilization should include discussion about male sterilization (vasectomy) and long-acting reversible contraceptive methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal’s national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in nearly 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion
Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal's national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in approximately 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating
Winer, Norbert; Resche-Rigon, Mathieu; Morin, Christine; Ville, Yves; Rozenberg, Patrick
To examine whether a first or second trimester induced abortion with misoprostol influences the risk of late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies. Case-control study in a teaching hospital from January 2005 to June 2006. The cases had singleton pregnancies delivered at 16-36 weeks of gestation after spontaneous late abortions, preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membrane, or induction of labor for preterm premature rupture of membrane before 37 weeks. The control group was composed of the two consecutive spontaneous singleton deliveries at >or=37 weeks of gestation after each new case (ratio 2/1). The principal outcome measure was late abortion or preterm delivery. The association between late abortion or preterm delivery and a previous induced abortion with misoprostol was first assessed with the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test. Conditional logistic regression models adapted for clustered data were then further used to quantify the effect size, measured by estimated odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The study included 245 cases and 490 controls. There was no significant difference in mean maternal age, number of pregnancies, parity, smoking, or history of first trimester miscarriage between cases and controls. However, a history of late abortion or previous preterm delivery was significantly more frequent among cases than controls. Forty (16.3%) cases and 56 (11.5%) controls had a history of cervical ripening with misoprostol before vacuum curettage or evacuation, or of medical abortion by misoprostol alone or with mifepristone (OR 1.51, 95% CI: 0.95-2.39; p=0.08). After adjustment for maternal age and number of pregnancies with a multivariable conditional regression model, the adjusted OR was estimated at 1.33 (95% CI: 0.81-2.17; p=0.25). Despite the need for prudence, these results provide some reassurance that induced abortion with misoprostol during the first or second trimester of pregnancy is
As of July 1991 abortion is still legal in Poland. Currently the Polish Parliament has taken a break from the debate because the issue is so important that any decision must not be made in past. There is strong pressure from the Catholic Church to eliminate access to abortion. In the fall the Polish people will vote for and elect their first truly democratic Parliament. Abortion does not seem to be playing as important a role as other political issues. In 1956 a law was passed that allowed a woman to have an abortion for medical or social reasons. This law resulted in allowing women in Poland to use abortion as their primary form of contraception. The vast majority of the abortions were performed under the social justification. Then, when democracy same to Poland with the help of the Catholic Church, an unprecedented debate in the mass media, churches, and educational institutions was stirred up. The government attempted to stay out of the debate at first. But as people from different side of the debate saw that they had an opportunity to influence things in their favor, they began to politicize the issue. Currently there are 4 different drafts of the new Polish abortion law. 3 of them radically condemn abortion while the 4th condemns it as a method of family planning, but allows to terminate pregnancies in order to save the life of the mother.
PREVIOUS SECOND TRIMESTER ABORTION: A risk factor for third trimester uterine rupture in three ... for accurate diagnosis of uterine rupture. KEY WORDS: Induced second trimester abortion - Previous uterine surgery - Uterine rupture. ..... scarred uterus during second trimester misoprostol- induced labour for a missed ...
Bjerregaard, P; Kristensen, L M; Kiil-Nielsen, J; Egelund, B; Kollemorten, I K
The purpose of the study was to seek knowledge about the reasons for the very high rate of legal abortions in Greenland. In four municipalities in the Disko Bay region of West Greenland all pregnant women were asked to fill in a questionnaire. Due to organisational problems only 39% of the women were asked to participate and a total of 82 women seeking abortion and 175 women who wished to continue the pregnancy were enrolled in the study. A few Danish women (22) were subsequently removed from the study base. The women who wanted an abortion were more often than the other women single, their knowledge of Danish as a second language was poorer, and they less often had a job. Although the age distributions of the two groups were similar the women who wanted an abortion had more often been pregnant before (more births and more abortions). The women who wanted an abortion more often than the other women reported having been drunk, having had a pelvic inflammation or VD, and having been admitted to hospital. Half of the women who wanted an abortion reported that they had forgotten to use their contraception and one fourth were opposed to the use of contraception. There seems not to be a well defined high risk group for legal abortion but a general need for a more realistic view on contraception.
Breitbart, V; Rogers, M K; Vanderhei, D
Medical abortion with mifepristone and methotrexate regimens may be offered in a variety of American medical practice settings. In this article the new provider will find information on all aspects of the patient care delivery system for medical abortion, including physical space requirements, staffing and training, patient flow, cost, security, marketing, and quality assurance. Because of the limited published data available regarding logistic issues surrounding abortion care, the information in this article derives largely from the experiences of providers who have established medical abortion practices in their offices or clinics. Its goals are to help make the initial start-up phase briefer and more rewarding for new providers, to offer helpful guidelines for incorporation of medical abortion into practice, and to encourage more practitioners to see the benefits of adding this option to their practices.
Counseling and education are correlated with women's satisfaction with all abortion care. They often assume a larger role in medical abortion because the patient is a more active participant in the abortion process. This article aims to enhance the practitioner's expertise in providing the information and care necessary for women considering early abortion with medical regimens. It offers general counseling guidelines and several likely clinical scenarios regarding the decision-making process, the screening of patients, and the initial and follow-up visits. Through effective communication, practitioners can provide the information and support that patients need to complete the abortion process safely and can help to strengthen women's confidence in managing their reproductive health experiences.
This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap
Jackson, L N
Only recently has the value and importance of sterilization as an effective method of birth control come to be widely recognized in Britian. Credit for this recognition is largely due to the initiative of Dr. C. P. Blacker, chairman of the Simon Population Trust. The Trust's sterilization project was conceived by him and, heralded by an article in The Lancet on 30 April 1966, was launched at a press conference in London in May of that year. Since then the Project has gone from strength to strength. It first function was to make known how voluntary sterilization can help to solve or prevent family problems and to facilitate its practice in Britian. The project has also been concerned to correct the erroneous belief, still held by a dwindling number of medical and law persons, that sterilization is against the law. A prerequisite was to enlist cooperative surgeons all over the country, whose names are now being sent on request to family doctors wishing to refer men for sterilization. The project is concerned mainly with male, rather than female, sterilization. The reason for this is that, when the relative simplicity of vasectomy as compared with tubal ligation is explained to them most couples choose vasectomy. Information about sterilization is supplied not only to applicants but also to university and hospital authorities, surgeons, health and welfare workers, family planning clinics. Forms of consent are provided for the couple concerned, and a follow-up inquiry is being conducted on a substantial scale among men who have been sterilized through the agency of the Project. Though this inquiry is far from complete, replies so far received indicate almost universal satisfaction with the results of the operation. Indeed, with the fear of unwanted pregnancies removed, many couples report that marital harmony is increased. It is known that at least 2000 men have already been sterilized through the mediation of this Project and, as family doctors become increasingly
Boersma, A. A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.
We describe jive pitfalls of medical abortion: ectopic pregnancy not terminated after misoprostol, but without negative side-effects; long-term vaginal blood loss with suspicious retained products which disappeared spontaneously; a patient with uterus myomatatosus with severe pain and retained
Thomas W. Hilgers, M.D., testifying to the Australian Royal Commission on Human Relationships in 1975, alleged that liberal abortions laws in the U.S. caused more deaths among women of childbearing age than they prevented. This inference was subsequently challenged because his analysis used a misleading extrapolation of linear regression, applied information from 2 incomparable data sets, and selected unreasonable item intervals for comparisons. On October 14, 1981, Hilgers testified before the U.S. Senate Subcommittee on the Constitution. He stated that America's legal abortion policy has had no measurable beneficial effect on maternal deaths and also implied that "natural pregnancy" was safer than induced abortion. These inferences were based on his recent analysis of abortion mortality with the use of national data from 1940 to 1978. Exception is still taken with Hilgers' inferences for the following reasons: neglect of risk associated with the last half of pregnancy; use of provisional 1978 data; selection of inappropriate states and time intervals; absence of the most appropriate references; use of relative frequency rather than absolute numbers; and aggregation of abortion mortality with maternal mortality. Contrary to the statements by Hilgers, the availability of legal abortion has had a measurable impact on deaths among American women of reproductive age. In 1965, even before the availability of legal abortion, deaths of women from all types of abortion (legal, illegal, and spontaneous) began to decline more rapidly than deaths from other pregnancy related causes. In 1970 the decline of abortion mortality rapidly accelerated and generally continued through 1976. In sum, legalized abortion has had a definite impact on the health of American women of childbearing age who are faced with unwanted pregnancies.
Full Text Available A case with bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax was presented. Etiology, mechanism, and treatment were discussed on the review of literature. Spontaneous Pneumothorax is a clinical entity resulting from a sudden non traumatic rupture of the lung. Biach reported in 1880 that 78% of 916 patients with spontaneous pneumothorax had tuberculosis. Kjergaard emphasized 1932 the primary importance of subpleural bleb disease. Currently the clinical spectrum of spontaneous pneumothorax seems to have entered a third era with the recognition of the interstitial lung disease and AIDS as a significant etiology. Standard treatment is including: observation, thoracocentesis, tube thoracostomy. Chemical pleurodesis, bullectomy or wedge resection of lung with pleural abrasion and occasionally pleurectomy. Little information has been reported regarding the efficacy of such treatment in spontaneous pneumothorax secondary to non bleb disease
Togzhan Yezlankyzy; Shokan Niazbekov
Abortion is one of the most controversial and talked problem of our time. It is discussed in classrooms, work places and even on the internet. The definition of abortion is the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus as the spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Kazakhstan’s health organization records 300 thousand abortions every year. Abortion problem is unlikely to care a...
Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Hee Sug; Ji, Hoon; Suh, Jung Ho
Cervical abortion is a spontaneous abortion of an intrauterine pregnancy into the cervical canal where the abortus is retained by a closed external os, causing distension of the cervical canal. Cervical abortion should be distinguished from the cervical pregnancy. We present a case of cervical abortion diagnosed preoperatively by transvaginal sonography and color doppler imaging, and treated by dilatation and curettage. Charateristic transvaginal sonographic findings and identification of subtrophoblastic blood flow by color doppler imaging could allow differentiation of the cevical aborition from the cervical pregnancy
Perception of guilt and remorse is tied to the complicated question of what is an abortion. There is no doubt that abortion practices have had a long and complex history. Abortion is, in fact, a 'mobile' category, whose definition and identification depends on several factors and is related to the context and - not least - the complex question of identifying the actual voluntariness of the act. The frequency of spontaneous abortions, due to -excessive force or working conditions, and the inevitability of the appeal to the interruption of pregnancy in the absence of other means of fertility control methods, allowed a widespread lack of guilt, testified also by language even in the mid-twenties, when the fascist regime begins to structure a policy that culminates, during the thirties, in unprecedented emphasis on the role and the female body in an exclusively procreative function and configuration of maternity as a patriotic duty particularly enshrined in the new Penal code of 1930.
Fileviez Pérez, Pavel; Murgui, Clara
We revisit the relation between the neutrino masses and the spontaneous breaking of the B-L gauge symmetry. We discuss the main scenarios for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and point out two simple mechanisms for neutrino masses. In this context the neutrino masses can be generated either at tree level or at quantum level and one predicts the existence of very light sterile neutrinos with masses below the eV scale. The predictions for lepton number violating processes such as μ → e and μ → eγ are discussed in detail. The impact from the cosmological constraints on the effective number of relativistic degree of freedom is investigated.
The development of male sterility is one of the most important steps in hybrid seed production. Several methods for the abortion of pollens based on conventional as well as genetic engineering are reported for the various crop species. Here we have investigated the use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology to silence a ...
Medoff, Marshall H.
This study examines the effect restrictive state abortion laws have on the pregnancy resolution decisions of women with unintended pregnancies. The empirical results find that the abortion ratio and the abortion rate of unintended pregnancies are more sensitive to increases in the abortion price than previous estimates that analyzed total pregnancies (unintended and intended). A Medicaid funding restriction has very little effect on a state's abortion rate of unintended pregnancies, but cause...
Kelkar, Prabhakar M.
Johnson and Johnson is the world leader in sterilization science and technology. A special group of scientists and technologists are engaged in the development of new methods of sterilization, worldwide monitoring of sterilization processes, equipment and approvals for all types of sterilization processes. Kilmer Conference in the alternate year for the benefit of all those involved in improvement in sterilization science is held. Cobalt-60 gamma radiation for sterilization of medical products on commercial scale is used. This kind of mammoth task can only be achieved through systematic method of planning, auditing, expert review and approval of facilities
AJRH Managing Editor
In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...
Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this
Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob
While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion
Ohannessian, A; Jamin, C
To establish guidelines of the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians about post-abortion contraception. A systematic review of the literature about post-abortion contraception was performed on Medline and Cochrane Database between 1978 and March 2016. The guidelines of the French and foreign scientific societies were also consulted. After an abortion, if the woman wishes to use a contraception, it should be started as soon as possible because of the very early ovulation resumption. The contraception choice must be done in accordance with the woman's expectations and lifestyle. The contraindications of each contraception must be respected. The long-acting reversible contraception, intra-uterine device (IUD) and implant, could be preferred (grade C) as the efficacy is not dependent on compliance. Thus, they could better prevent repeat abortion (LE3). In case of surgical abortion, IUD should be proposed and inserted immediately after the procedure (grade A), as well as the implant (grade B). In case of medical abortion, the implant can be inserted from the day of mifépristone, the IUD after an ultrasound examination confirming the success of the abortion (no continuing pregnancy or retained sac) (grade C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The author conducted a survey of one hundred women in Zadar seeking an abortion during the first trimester ofpregnancy. His purpose was to determine the women's motives for seeking abortions and evaluate their knowledge on abortion and the fetus. He found that the majority lacked a clear understanding of abortion techniques as well as fetal development. After an informative conversation, twelve of the women decided against having abortions. The author concluded that great ignorance, inhumane ...
Jatlaoui, Tara C; Shah, Jill; Mandel, Michele G; Krashin, Jamie W; Suchdev, Danielle B; Jamieson, Denise J; Pazol, Karen
Since 1969, CDC has conducted abortion surveillance to document the number and characteristics of women obtaining legal induced abortions in the United States. 2014. Each year, CDC requests abortion data from the central health agencies of 52 reporting areas (the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City). The reporting areas provide this information voluntarily. For 2014, data were received from 49 reporting areas. For trend analysis, abortion data were evaluated from 48 areas that reported data every year during 2005-2014. Census and natality data, respectively, were used to calculate abortion rates (number of abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years) and ratios (number of abortions per 1,000 live births). A total of 652,639 abortions were reported to CDC for 2014. Of these abortions, 98.4% were from the 48 reporting areas that provided data every year during 2005-2014. Among these 48 reporting areas, the abortion rate for 2014 was 12.1 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, and the abortion ratio was 186 abortions per 1,000 live births. From 2013 to 2014, the total number and rate of reported abortions decreased 2%, and the ratio decreased 7%. From 2005 to 2014, the total number, rate, and ratio of reported abortions decreased 21%, 22%, and 21%, respectively. In 2014, all three measures reached their lowest level for the entire period of analysis (2005-2014). In 2014 and throughout the period of analysis, women in their 20s accounted for the majority of abortions and had the highest abortion rates; women in their 30s and older accounted for a much smaller percentage of abortions and had lower abortion rates. In 2014, women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years accounted for 32.2% and 26.7% of all reported abortions, respectively, and had abortion rates of 21.3 and 18.4 abortions per 1,000 women aged 20-24 and 25-29 years, respectively. In contrast, women aged 30-34, 35-39, and ≥40 years accounted for 17.1%, 9.7%, and 3.6% of all reported abortions
Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperatureâtime regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...
Koskinen, David Jason [Univ. College London, Bloomsbury (United Kingdom)
The Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS) is a long-baseline accelerator neutrino experiment designed to measure properties of neutrino oscillation. Using a high intensity muon neutrino beam, produced by the Neutrinos at Main Injector (NuMI) complex at Fermilab, MINOS makes two measurements of neutrino interactions. The first measurement is made using the Near Detector situated at Fermilab and the second is made using the Far Detector located in the Soudan Underground laboratory in northern Minnesota. The primary goal of MINOS is to verify, and measure the properties of, neutrino oscillation between the two detectors using the v μ→ Vτ transition. A complementary measurement can be made to search for the existence of sterile neutrinos; an oft theorized, but experimentally unvalidated particle. The following thesis will show the results of a sterile neutrino search using MINOS RunI and RunII data totaling ~2.5 x 1020 protons on target. Due to the theoretical nature of sterile neutrinos, complete formalism that covers transition probabilities for the three known active states with the addition of a sterile state is also presented.
The U.S. State Department's Agency for International Development (AID) is spending more than $143 million this year for population control measures in over 70 nations around the world and it is estimated that as much as $10 million was spent in one year for surgical sterilization procedures. (JC)
Full Text Available Although cotton genic male sterility (GMS plays an important role in the utilization of hybrid vigor, its precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. To characterize the molecular events of pollen abortion, transcriptome analysis, combined with histological observations, was conducted in the cotton GMS line, Yu98-8A. A total of 2,412 genes were identified as significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs before and during the critical pollen abortion stages. Bioinformatics and biochemical analysis showed that the DEGs mainly associated with sugars and starch metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation, and plant endogenous hormones play a critical and complicated role in pollen abortion. These findings extend a better understanding of the molecular events involved in the regulation of pollen abortion in genic male sterile cotton, which may provide a foundation for further research studies on cotton heterosis breeding.
Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle
The prevalence of domestic violence and abortion in India is high, yet little is known about the relationship between these experiences. Data from two linked data sets, India's 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) and a follow-up survey in 2002-2003, were analyzed. The analysis examines how the experience of physical violence affects the subsequent uptake of abortion, and how the experience of abortion affects subsequent experience of physical, sexual, and verbal violence. Women who experienced physical violence have significantly higher odds of reporting a subsequent induced abortion, whereas women who had an induced abortion have significantly higher odds of reporting subsequent sexual and verbal violence. There was no significant relationship between domestic violence and spontaneous abortion. © The Author(s) 2016.
The article considers three theses about postabortion regret which seek to illustrate its pertinence to reasoning about abortion, and which are often deployed, either explicitly or implicitly, to dissuade women out of that reproductive choice. The first is that postabortion regret renders an abortion morally unjustified. The second is that that a relatively high incidence of postabortion regret-compared with a lower incidence of postnatal regret in the relevant comparator field-is good evidence for the moral impermissibility of abortion choice. The third is that high rates of postabortion regret suggest that abortion is not the most prudent or welfare-maximising choice for the woman concerned. All three theses argue for the compellingness of knowledge about postabortion regret in moral and practical reasoning about abortion, especially from the pregnant woman's point of view. This article argues that all three theses are flawed. In particular, it seeks to remind readers that feelings of regret directed at past decisions are often decoupled from the fact of the matter about their moral or rational justification. Moreover, certain features of reproductive decisions in particular make regret an especially unsuitable yardstick for actual justification in this context, and even less epistemically reliable as evidence for a lack of justification than it may be in other fields of decision-making. The implication is that rates of postabortion regret, even if they can be presumed to be higher than rates of postnatal regret, are not as pertinent to moral and practical reasoning about abortion as is sometimes suggested.
Bulienko, S.D.; Fogel, P.I.
Significant changes are shown to occur in the level of sex hormones in blood at the risk of spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or the mole. Determining the levels of estradiol, progesterone, chorial gonadotropin and testosterone in the blood serum using RIA yields immediate information on the hormonal function of the fetoplacental unit. This has diagnostic significance and can be used as a criterion for the application of complementary hormonal therapy when there is a risk of abortion or premature delivery. (author)
Smith, T W
In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics
Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori
Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood. This stratified legitimacy can perpetuate socially-inflected inequality of access and normative gendered sexuality. Additionally, we argue that the practice by physicians of distinguishing among abortions can legitimate legislative practices that regulate and restrict some kinds of abortion, further constraining abortion access. © American Sociological Association 2016.
Full Text Available Abortion is seen as an immoral and unjust act by many. Nonetheless these views are under pressure to conform to the learned opinion on abortion. A variety of prestigious in the field of applied ethics support abortion in one way or another. And it is a dogma of modern liberalism that even if one is personally opposed to abortion, one must accept the neutral solution of its public permissibility. The present article defends the thesis that abortion is immoral and unjust against these contentions. With regards to the moral status of abortion, it argues that the prohibition of abortion is off a piece with the prohibition of killing generally, which is characterized by protecting all human beings equally. With regards to the compatibility of abortion permissibility with liberalism, the article argues that such a compromise is not neutral, but heavily rigged in favor of the interests and world-views of abortion proponents.
Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea
Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982
Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea
In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.
Lisa M Vallely
Full Text Available In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion.Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information.Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119 of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119 of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported.In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sterilization wrap. 880.6850 Section 880.6850 Food... § 880.6850 Sterilization wrap. (a) Identification. A sterilization wrap (pack, sterilization wrapper... sterilized by a health care provider. It is intended to allow sterilization of the enclosed medical device...
Heeck, Julian; Rodejohann, Werner
Lepton mixing, which requires physics beyond the Standard Model, is surprisingly compatible with a minimal, symmetryless and unbiased approach, called anarchy. This contrasts with highly involved flavor symmetry models. On the other hand, hints for light sterile neutrinos have emerged from a variety of independent experiments and observations. If confirmed, their existence would represent a groundbreaking discovery, calling for a theoretical interpretation. We discuss anarchy in the two-neutrino eV-scale seesaw framework. The distributions of mixing angles and masses according to anarchy are in agreement with global fits for the active and sterile neutrino parameters. Our minimal and economical scenario predicts the absence of neutrinoless double beta decay and one vanishing neutrino mass, and can therefore be tested in future experiments.
Wang, Yao; Sun, Yun; Di, Wen; Kuang, Yan-Ping; Xu, Bing
To establish an effective and safe clinical fertility strategy by investigating the relationship between abortion history and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. In the present retrospective cohort study, data from IVF treatment cycles performed at a reproductive center in China between October 1, 2014, and October 31, 2015, were assessed. Outcomes were compared between women with a history of induced abortion and those without. There were 1532 IVF treatment cycles included; 454 patients had a history of induced abortion and 1078 did not. The spontaneous abortion rate was significantly higher (30/170 [17.6%] vs 41/420 [9.8%]; P=0.002) and the endometrium was significantly thinner (8.8 ± 1.8 vs 9.7 ± 1.8 cm; P=0.001) among patients with a history of induced abortion compared with those without. In a subgroup analysis of patients with a history of induced abortion, women who had undergone surgical abortions had a lower live delivery rate compared with medical abortions (29/76 [38%] vs 101/378 [27%]; P=0.039). Further, women who had a history of more than two surgical abortions had lower live delivery and clinical pregnancy rates (both Pabortion was associated with worse IVF outcomes, especially a history of more than two surgical abortions. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Warakamin, Suwanna; Boonthai, Nongluk; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj
Abortion is illegal in Thailand unless the woman's health is at risk or pregnancy is due to rape. This study, carried out in 1999 in 787 government hospitals, examined the magnitude and profile of abortion in Thailand, using data collected prospectively through a review of 45,990 case records (of which 28.5% were classified as induced and 71.5% as spontaneous abortions) and face-to-face interviews with a sub-set of 1854 women patients. The estimated induced abortion ratio was 19.5 per 1000 live births. Almost half the induced abortions were in young women under 25 years of age, many of whom had little or no access to contraception. Socio-economic reasons accounted for 60.2% of abortions. Serious complications were observed in almost a third of cases, especially following abortions performed by non-health personnel. Government physicians' current provision of induced abortion went beyond the provisions of the law in almost half of cases, most commonly for intrauterine death and for congenital anomalies. The paper proposes a framework for policy discussions of the grey areas of maternal and fetal indications leading to legal reform, in order to facilitate safe abortion. A recommendation to amend the abortion law has been proposed to the Ministry of Public Health and the Thai Medical Council.
In the UK in 1988, 13.3% of abortions were performed at 13 weeks' gestation or later. Reasons for this delay, in addition to the diagnosis through amniocentesis of a fetal abnormality, include late recognition of pregnancy, a change of mind about completing the pregnancy, a failure of primary care physicians to entertain the diagnosis of pregnancy, travel or financial problems, and referral difficulties and scheduling delays. Women with little education and very young women are most likely to present for late abortions. From 13-16 weeks, dilatation and evacuation is the safest method of pregnancy termination. The procedure can be made easier through preparation of the cervix with a prostaglandin pessary or Foley catheter. After 16 weeks, an instillation method is recommended; prostaglandin administration can be intro- or extra-amniotic. Complication rates at 13-19 weeks are 14.5/1000 for vaginal methods of abortion and 7.2/1000 for prostaglandin methods. The risk of complications is 3 times higher for women who have 2nd-trimester abortions through the National Health Service. Although it is not realistic to expect that late abortions ever can be eliminated, improved sex education and contraceptive reliability as well as reforms in the National Health Service could reduce the number substantially. To reduce delay, it is suggested that the National Health Service set up satellite day care units and 1-2 central units in each region to deal quickly with midtrimester abortions. Delays would be further reduced by legislation to allow abortion on request in at least the 1st trimester of pregnancy.
A survey is given of two different types of genetically controlled male sterility in higher plants. 'Functional' male sterility is due to the action of mutated genes causing a misdifferentiation of the growing points in different specific ways. Under the influence of the genes of this group either the stamens or the archespore tissues are not differentiated. In other mutants functionable male germ cells are produced but cannot be used for fertilizing the egg cells because the anthers remain closed or anthers and stigma become spatially separated from each other. Other genes of the group are responsible for the transformation of stamens into carpels, i.e. for a change of the hermaphrodite flower into a unisexually female one. A second type of male sterility is due to the action of ms genes influencing the course of micro-sporogenesis directly. They cause the breakdown of this process in a specific meiotic stage characteristic for each gene of the group. This breakdown is introduced by the degeneration of PMCs, microspores, or pollen grains preventing the production of male germ cells. The female sex organs remain uninfluenced. (author)
Parmar, Divya; Leone, Tiziana; Coast, Ernestina; Murray, Susan Fairley; Hukin, Eleanor; Vwalika, Bellington
Unsafe abortion is a significant but preventable cause of maternal mortality. Although induced abortion has been legal in Zambia since 1972, many women still face logistical, financial, social, and legal obstacles to access safe abortion services, and undergo unsafe abortion instead. This study provides the first estimates of costs of post abortion care (PAC) after an unsafe abortion and the cost of safe abortion in Zambia. In the absence of routinely collected data on abortions, we used multiple data sources: key informant interviews, medical records and hospital logbooks. We estimated the costs of providing safe abortion and PAC services at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka and then projected these costs to generate indicative cost estimates for Zambia. Due to unavailability of data on the actual number of safe abortions and PAC cases in Zambia, we used estimates from previous studies and from other similar countries, and checked the robustness of our estimates with sensitivity analyses. We found that PAC following an unsafe abortion can cost 2.5 times more than safe abortion care. The Zambian health system could save as much as US$0.4 million annually if those women currently treated for an unsafe abortion instead had a safe abortion.
Rocca, Corinne H; Puri, Mahesh; Harper, Cynthia C; Blum, Maya; Dulal, Bishnu; Henderson, Jillian T
To assess the contraceptive information received and methods chosen, received, and used among women having abortions one decade after legalization of abortion in Nepal. We examined postabortion contraception with questionnaires at baseline and six months among women obtaining legal abortions (n=838) at four facilities in 2011. Multivariate regression analysis was used to measure factors associated with method information, choice, receipt, and use. One-third of participants received no information on effective methods, and 56% left facilities without a method. The majority of women who chose to use injectables and pills were able to do so (88% and 75%, respectively). However, only 44% of women choosing long-acting reversible contraceptives and 5% choosing sterilization had initiated use of the method by six months. Levels of contraceptive use after medical abortion were on par with those after aspiration abortion. Nulliparous women were far less likely than parous women to receive information and use methods. Women living without husbands or partners were also less likely to receive information and supplies, or to use methods. Improvements in postabortion counseling and provision are needed. Ensuring that women choosing long-acting and permanent contraceptive methods are able to obtain either them or interim methods is essential. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of unintended pregnancies, induced abortions and associated risk factors in women who have been admitted to hospitals in Hatay. Method: The subjects of this cross-sectional study were women who had been admitted to hospitals for the purposes of delivery or abortion, during a month-long period. A structured questionnaire was taken by 635 women. Unintended pregnancy was dependent variable. The independent variables were: age, husband’s age, civil status, total number of pregnancies, employment, use of family planning methods and family planning consultation services. Chi-square and Student's t-test were used to analyze of data. Results:21.4% of women reported using a family planning method when they got pregnant and 15.1% of the women said they did not want to be this pregnant. Ages of the women and their husbands, as well as the total number of pregnancies, were higher among unintended pregnancies (p<0.05. The frequency of unintended pregnancies increased where the husbands were unemployed, education levels of the couple were low, women were single or not officially married, disabled, or did not receive consultancy from their family physicians about family planning (p<0.05. 45.8% of all unintended pregnancies happened without the use of any family planning methods (p<0.01. 10.4% ended with spontaneous abortions and 4.25% were ended with induced abortions. The primary reason given for induced abortion was economic difficulties (44%. Conclusion: Unintended pregnancy rate is high in Hatay. It is estimated that almost half of all induced abortions are reported as spontaneous or therapeutic abortions.
Hiersch, Liran; Ashwal, Eran; Aviram, Amir; Rayman, Shlomi; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Yogev, Yariv
To determine the association between single previous abortion and pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women. A retrospective cohort study of all nulliparous women who delivered in a university-affiliated tertiary hospital (2009-2014). Pregnancy outcome of women with single previous first trimester abortion (study group) was compared to those of primigravida (control group). Of the 44 371 deliveries during the study period, 14 498 (32.6%) were of nulliparous women, of them 1501 (10.3%) had single previous abortion (abortion was independently associated with induction of labor (OR = 1.31, 95%C.I 1.04-1.63, p = 0.01), cesarean section (OR = 1.38, 95%C.I 1.18-1.60, p abortion no difference in pregnancy outcome was observed between those with previous induced termination of pregnancy and spontaneous abortion, except for increased risk for retained placenta in those with previous spontaneous abortion. Single early previous abortion in nulliparous women was associated with higher rate of induction of labor, cesarean section and retained placenta compared to primigravida women.
Campbell, N B; Franco, K; Jurs, S
Sexual attitudes and behavior of adolescent females have been the topic of much interest over the past decade. Feelings about contraception, conception, and abortion have been described in relation to the adolescents' beliefs about the possibility of becoming pregnant, who will or will not "protect" them, and the influence of significant others on their decision making. This study explores differences in 35 women who had abortions during their teenage years with 36 women whose abortions occurred after the age of twenty. A demographic questionnaire, the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory, and the Beck Depression Inventory were completed by women who were members of a patient-led support group. Premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and distressing symptoms postabortion are reported. Specific differences in perceptions of coercion, preabortion suicidal ideation, and nightmares post-abortion were found in the adolescent group. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders as well as drug abuse and psychotic delusions were found to be significantly higher in the group who aborted as teenagers. Hypotheses regarding the influences of adolescent development on mother/child relationships, power struggles, and the use of fantasy as a coping device are explored.
In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...
Setting: Selected public and private health facilities offering post abortion care services in Machakos and Trans Nzoia Counties. Subjects: ... abortion care. Therefore, understanding abortion-related stigma is a critical step to designing measures to address barriers to women accessing safe reproductive health services.
Hogue, C J; Cates, W; Tietze, C
This review of the longterm impact of induced abortion on reproductive function includes a comprehensive survey of the published and the preliminary literature. Over 200 anecdotal, descriptive, and observational epidemiologic reports were reviewed, and more than 150 studies in 11 languages from 21 countries that employed 1 of 4 standard research designs were identified. With these investigations as the foundation, the influence of induced abortion on secondary infertility, ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, shortened gestation, low birth weight, complications of pregnancy or delivery, and infant outcome were evaluated. The data from each of these investigations were systematically reexamined. In cases where the data were incomplete, additional information was requested from the authors. These studies were categorized by such factors as their research design, the type of abortion procedure used, and whether potential confounding variables were considered. To compare the relative power of studies, the 95% confidence interval around the point estimate of relative risk was calculated where possible. Studies that failed to consider the many confounding factors associated with both induced abortion and adverse pregnancy outcome were of limited value because women who obtain induced abortions differ substantially from those who do not. Results from these studies usually indicated a higher risk estimate than results from better designed, controlled investigations. Relying more heavily on the latter, the following were among the findings: 1) secondary infertility, which may be a rare late effect of a complicated abortion, occurs so infrequently that its risk is not significantly elevated, even in studies capable of detecting a 2-fold rise in relative risk; 2) ectopic pregnancy, which also may be a rare late effect of an abortion complicated by infection or trauma, occurs so infrequently that its risk is not significantly elevated in studies capable of detecting a 2
Abortion has been a reality in women's lives since the beginning of recorded history, typically with a high risk of fatal consequences, until the last century when evolutions in the field of medicine, including techniques of safe abortion and effective methods of family planning, could have ended the need to seek unsafe abortion. The context of women's lives globally is an important but often ignored variable, increasingly recognised in evolving human rights especially related to gender and reproduction. International and regional human rights instruments are being invoked where national laws result in violations of human rights such as health and life. The individual right to conscientious objection must be respected and better understood, and is not absolute. Health professional organisations have a role to play in clarifying responsibilities consistent with national laws and respecting reproductive rights. Seeking common ground using evidence rather than polarised opinion can assist the future focus. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...
The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...
Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien
Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors
Mei, Q.; Zhou, X.; Liu, C.
Twelve different Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile (CMS) lines were crossed with 18 rice varieties. From the hybrid with japonica rice Nongken 58, twelve homokaryotic-heteroplasmic male sterile lines were developed in B7F1 after successive back crossing and selection for stable male sterility and desirable agronomic traits such as flowering habit and high out crossing rate. The experimental results demonstrated that expression of the CMS factors were influenced by the corresponding nuclear genes. Three pollen abortion types, including the typical, the spherical and the stained abortion, were observed in the homokaryotic-heteroplasmic male sterile lines. Formation of the aborted pollen grains was influenced by the interaction among specific cytoplasmic and the corresponding nuclear genes. As the CMS carriers, these homokaryotic-heteroplasmic lines will have significant impact on the utilization of multiple types of CMS in hybrid rice breeding. What is more important is that these CMS lines are the invaluable materials for the investigation of the molecular mechanism of CMS formation in rice. (author)
Maxwell, Joseph W.
Attitudes toward the desirability of abortion were significaantly related to sex, college, classification, level of church activity, residence background, family size, exposure to abortion, and attitude toward premarital sex. The data suggest an increasing acceptance of abortion in the future. (Author)
Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.
Deren, Wang; Meizhen, Fang
Modern biological science often needs various fine strike devices which are often made from non-toxic transparent plastic. The application of high temperature steam to the sterilization as a traditional methods often causes deformation and colour change. When chemicals are applied to the sterilization residure of chemical grain often causes toxicity. Only application of radiation to the sterilization can overcome this faults and carry out with sterility assurance at room temperature. In this research 1.3 MeV electron beam coming from Model JJ-2 accelerator was applied for sterilization to 96-well tissue culture plates. After clean packaging the plates were irradiated with 31.7 XGy and operational voltage 1.3 MeV and 100 μA on the PY device. Repeated tests demonstrate that the products are sterile. The output is 2 x 10 5 pieces for each year. (author)
Molina, R; López, I
In order to gain insight into the characteristics of sterilized women evaluating at the same time the effects of sterilization, 70 patients who underwent sterilization in an Obstetrics Unit were studied. The clinical records were analyzed and a questionnaire comprising general knowledge, attitudes, and conduct was applied. Women over 30 and with a parity of 4 or more predominated. There was a low frequency of abortions reported but this information is not reliable. The educational level was lower than the average for the Metropolitan Region and pointed to a more precocious initiation in sexual relationships than was found in a previous similar study. Religion proved to be no obstacle for sterilization nor was attendance to church subsequently diminished. A negative moral feeling towards the operation nearly disappeared following surgery. The fear of sexual dissatisfaction in husbands decreased following surgery and a similar effect was seen with regard to negative self-image. There were no changes in marital relations nor in their satisfaction. (author's modified)
Zamanian, Maryam; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Zolala, Farzaneh
Abortion is a sensitive issue; many cultures disapprove of it, which leads to under-reporting. This study sought to estimate the rate of abortion visibility in the city of Kerman, Iran-that is, the percentage of acquaintances who knew about a particular abortion. For estimating the visibility rate, it is crucial to use the network scale-up method, which is a new, indirect method of estimating sensitive behaviours more accurately. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Kerman, Iran using various methods to ensure the cooperation of clinicians and women. A total of 222 women who had had an abortion within the previous year (74 elective, 74 medical and 74 spontaneous abortions) were recruited. Participants were asked how many of their acquaintances were aware of their abortion. Abortion visibility was estimated by abortion type. 95% CIs were calculated by a bootstrap procedure. A zero-inflated negative binomial regression analysis was conducted to assess the variables related to visibility. The visibility (95% CI) of elective, medical and spontaneous abortion was 8% (6% to 10%), 60% (54% to 66%) and 50% (43% to 57%), respectively. Women and consanguineal family were more likely to be aware of the abortion than men and affinal family. Non-family members had a low probability of knowing about the abortion, except in elective cases. Abortion type, marital status, sex of the acquaintance and closeness of the relationship were the most important determinants of abortion visibility in the final multifactorial model. This study shows the visibility rate to be low, but it does differ among social network members and by the type of abortion in question. This difference might be explained through social and cultural norms as well as stigma surrounding abortion. The low visibility rate might explain the low estimates of abortion rates found in other studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence
The standards for quality management systems recognize that, for certain processes used in manufacturing, the effectiveness of the process cannot be fully verified by subsequent inspection and testing of the product. Sterilization is an example of such a process. For this reason, sterilization processes are validated for use, the performance of sterilization process is monitored routinely and the equipment is maintained according to ISO 13 485. Different aspects of this norm are presented
Bartz, Deborah; Greenberg, James A
Unintended pregnancies are expensive for patients and for society in terms of medical costs, the cost of caring for more children, and the cost to personal and professional goals. Sterilization is the most common contraceptive method utilized by couples in the United States. Given technological advances over the past few decades, male and female surgical sterilization has become a safe, convenient, easy, and highly effective birth control method for the long term. This article reviews current male and female sterilization options. PMID:18701927
Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E
Illegal abortion is known to be a major contributor to maternal mortality. The objective of the study was firstly to identify women with illegally induced abortion, (IA) and to compare them with women admitted with a spontaneous abortion (SA) or receiving antenatal care (AC), and secondly...... to describe the circumstances which characterized the abortion. The population of this cross-sectional questionnaire study comprised patients from Temeke District Hospital, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. After an in-depth confidential interview, 603 women with incomplete abortion were divided into two groups: 362...
Bakri, A.; Mehta, K.; Lance, D.R.
Exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the method of choice for rendering insects reproductively sterile for area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes that integrate the sterile insect technique (SIT). Gamma radiation from isotopic sources (cobalt-60 or caesium-137) is most often used, but high-energy electrons and X-rays are other practical options. Insect irradiation is safe and reliable when established safety and quality-assurance guidelines are followed. The key processing parameter is absorbed dose, which must be tightly controlled to ensure that treated insects are sufficiently sterile in their reproductive cells and yet able to compete for mates with wild insects. To that end, accurate dosimetry (measurement of absorbed dose) is critical. Irradiation data generated since the 1950s, covering over 300 arthropod species, indicate that the dose needed for sterilization of arthropods varies from less than 5 Gy for blaberid cockroaches to 300 Gy or more for some arctiid and pyralid moths. Factors such as oxygen level, and insect age and stage during irradiation, and many others, influence both the absorbed dose required for sterilization and the viability of irradiated insects. Consideration of these factors in the design of irradiation protocols can help to find a balance between the sterility and competitiveness of insects produced for programmes that release sterile insects. Many programmes apply 'precautionary' radiation doses to increase the security margin of sterilization, but this overdosing often lowers competitiveness to the point where the overall induced sterility in the wild population is reduced significantly. (author)
Font-Ribera, Laia; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Salvador, Joaquin; Borrell, Carme
In induced abortion, the method, the risk of complications and the economic cost of the abortion are determined by gestational age. The aim of this study was to describe the determinants of induced abortion delay until the second trimester of pregnancy in Barcelona. We performed a cross-sectional study of induced abortions due to the physical or mental health of the woman (Barcelona, 2004-2005; N=9,175). The city's induced abortion register provided data on gestational age at abortion (dependent variable), educational level, age, cohabitation with the partner, number of children previous abortions, and type of center. Adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) were calculated with log-binomial regression models. A total of 7.7% of induced abortions were second-trimester abortions and 99.3% were performed in private centers. Compared with women with a university education, those with primary education or less had an aPR of 1.8 (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 1.4-2.2) of delaying the abortion until the second trimester. A higher proportion of second-trimester abortions were also recorded in women aged less than 18 years old (aPR=2.6; 95%CI: 2.0-3.4), women not cohabiting with their partners (aRP=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) and in public centers (aPR=2.8; 95% CI: 2.2-3.7). No differences were found in induced abortion delay among women with previous abortions and those without. Induced abortion delay until the second trimester of pregnancy was associated with low educational level, young ages, not cohabiting with a partner, and public centers. This study demonstrates the existence of socioeconomic inequalities in access conditions to abortion services.
Ketting, E; Visser, A P
This article gives a review of the main factors that are related to the low abortion rate in the Netherlands. Attention is payed to figures on abortion and the use of contraceptive methods since the beginning of the 1960s up to the end of the 1980s. The strong acceptance of family planning was influenced by changing values regarding sexuality and the family, the transition from an agricultural to a modern industrial society, rapid economic growth, declining influence of the churches on daily life, introduction of modern mass media and the increased general educational level. The introduction of modern contraceptives (mainly the pill and contraceptive sterilization) was stimulated by a strong voluntary family planning movement, fear for overpopulation, a positive role of GPs, and the public health insurance system. A reduction of unwanted pregnancies has been accomplished through successful strategies for the prevention of teenage pregnancy (including sex education, open discussions on sexuality in mass media, educational campaigns and low barrier services) as well as through wide acceptance of sterilization. The Dutch experience with family planning shows the following characteristics: a strong wish to reduce reliance on abortion, ongoing sexual and contraceptive education related to the actual experiences of the target groups, and low barrier family planning services.
Camus, E; Nisand, I
In France, induced abortion was legalized under certain conditions since the January 1975 and December 1979 laws suspended the effects of Article 317 of the French Penal Code that forbade induced abortion. For more than 15 years, induced abortion has been part of current gynecological practice. Adverse effects of abortions have been reduced. In the upcoming years, the interest in drug-induced abortion and abortion under local anesthesia will increase due to a concern for reducing risks that deteriorate physical integrity and women's gynecological/obstetrical future. Induced abortion still remains a very important act, if not serious, in a woman's life. Prevention of induced abortion remains the absolute medical objective and is necessary for information campaigns on contraceptives, especially among youth. If accessible and equal access to induced abortion is becoming a reality in France, abortion will always remain a failure and proof for women that they have recourse to abortion. Induced abortions have remained relatively stable in France (170,000 in 1980; 181,154 in 1991). The abortion rate ranges from 20 to 25 per 100 live births. 50% of women of reproductive age will have an induced abortion in their life. The fertility rate in France has been 1.8 since 1976. First trimester abortion-related mortality is less than 1/100,000. Abortion-related mortality increases with gestational age (0.5/100,000 at 8 weeks vs. 1.1/100,000 at 12 weeks). It is also associated with the anesthesia used (0.15 for local anesthesia vs. 0.58 for general anesthesia). The leading causes of abortion-related mortality are infection, pulmonary embolism, and anesthetic accidents. Immediate complications of induced abortion are anesthetic accidents, hemorrhage, uterine perforations, accumulation of blood in the uterus, cervical tears, and vagal discomfort. In France, the induced abortion related-perforation rate is between 0.2% and 1.2%. Perforation is more likely after 10 weeks and under
Nguyen Thanh Binh
In recent years, the abortion rate in Vietnam has been likely rising. In rural area, this rate is a bit higher than in urban one. Young age groups’ abortion rate is relatively high and ofter higher than older age groups. The main reason is due to their limited awareness of contraceptive methods. Low education level also affects the abortion. The abortion of people at low education level is relatively high, but people with elementary school graduation has the lowest rate of abortion. The North...
14 Aug 1971 ... The literature on the pros and cons of therapeutic abortion must by now virtually fill an average- sized library. Every expert in every field has had his say, sometimes by invitation and sometimes unasked, yet we seem to be no nearer the answer than when we started. The legal boffins have put their case, the ...
Jun 1, 2014 ... unwanted pregnancy, abortion and adoption of children, and the laws relating to them.. Results: Participants felt that ... education of the young girl would be disrupted, if paternity of pregnancy is in dispute, or if it would save the ... Married young women, 15-24 years, rural/urban. 3. Married women, 25-49 ...
presentation, she noticed coital bleeding; it was mildI self with no associated dizziness or dyspareunis. She had been treated with drugs on many occasions at hospitals as well as over the counter medicaiions with no improvement. Eight years prior to presentation, she had an induced abortion at about 14 weeks of gestaiion ...
Claudia Escobar García
This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.
Guttmacher, Alan F.; And Others
A roundtable discussion on legal abortion includes Dr. Alan F. Guttmacher, President of The Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Robert Hall, Associate Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Christopher Tietze, a diretor of The Population Council, and Harriet Pilpel, a lawyer.…
Jun 1, 2014 ... unwanted pregnancy, abortion and adoption of children, and the laws relating to them.. Results: Participants felt that there was high .... of cultural differences, formative research was first conducted and a set of ..... paternity, there is a problem of the stigma of bearing a child who would be regarded as a ...
Borsari, Cristina Mendes Gigliotti; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Lucia, Mara Cristina Souza de; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira; Zugaib, Marcelo
To compare and analyze socioeconomic aspects and the emotional experience of women with spontaneous or induced abortion and in women living in the outskirts of São Paulo. A prospective case-control study carried out from July 2008 to March 2010, involving semi-structured interviews with women who presented a previous diagnosis of abortion and who had been admitted to two public hospitals in the outskirts of São Paulo. The study included 100 women with diagnosis of abortion and were hospitalized for curettage. Eleven women who reported induced abortion (11%) represented the case group. The control group (n=22) was selected at a 2:1 ratio according to the following procedure: for every case of induced abortion, the next two cases of spontaneous abortion at the same hospital. A semistructured interview was conducted with questions regarding emotional aspects and family, social and economic context. The women with induced abortion compared to the group with spontaneous abortion had lower educational level, with more frequent elementary level (82 versus 36%, p=0.04), lower income (median, R$ 1,000.00 versus R$ 1,400.00, p=0.04), lower personal income (median, R$ 200.00 versus R$ 333.00, p=0.04), higher frequency of negative feelings upon suspicion (82 versus 22%, p=0.004) and confirmation (72 versus 22%, p=0.03) of pregnancy. Among women looking for health care in hospitals in the outskirts of São Paulo, induced abortion is related to unfavorable socioeconomic conditions, which affects the emotional experiences of suspicion and confirmation of pregnancy.
Nyboe Andersen, A; Damm, P; Tabor, A
Within 24 hours after abortion, 62 patients with a mean gestational age of 19 weeks, who had either induced (n = 50) or spontaneous (n = 12) abortions were randomly allocated to three groups: Group 1, bromocriptine 2.5 mg twice daily for 2 weeks; Group 2, placebo tablets 1 tablet twice daily for 2.......01), in serum prolactin (PRL) (p less than 0.001) and in the subjective assessment score of breast pain (p less than 0.01) and milk secretion (p less than 0.01). Alleviation of breast pain and prevention of milk secretion appears to be indicated after second-trimester abortion, and treatment with bromocriptine...
Pantera, Eugene A., Jr.; Schuster, George S.
At present, there is no specific recommendation for sterilization of extracted human teeth used in dental technique courses. The purpose of this study was to determine whether autoclaving would be effective in the sterilization of extracted teeth without compromising the characteristics that make their use in clinical simulations desirable. (MLW)
Pavel Fileviez Pérez
Full Text Available We revisit the relation between the neutrino masses and the spontaneous breaking of the B–L gauge symmetry. We discuss the main scenarios for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos and point out two simple mechanisms for neutrino masses. In this context the neutrino masses can be generated either at tree level or at quantum level and one predicts the existence of very light sterile neutrinos with masses below the eV scale. The predictions for lepton number violating processes such as μ→e and μ→eγ are discussed in detail. The impact from the cosmological constraints on the effective number of relativistic degree of freedom is investigated.
Nonnenmacher, Daniele; Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Azevedo, George Dantas de; Dutra, Elza Maria do Socorro; Rebouças, Melina Séfora Souza; Luci, Mara Cristina Souza de; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira
to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (pabortion was associated with the partner's absence at the time pregnancy was confirmed (p = 0.02) and, in Sao Paulo-SP, with their negative reaction to news of the pregnancy (p = 0.04) and lack of participation in the abortion process (p abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health.
Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung
The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.
Insect pests have caused an increasing problem in agriculture and human health through crop losses and disease transmission to man and livestock. Intervention to ensure food security and human health has relied on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies to keep the pests population below economic injury levels. IPM integrate a variety of methods, but there has been over-reliance on chemical control following the discovery of insecticidal properties of DDT. It is now realized that, maintaining pest populations at controlled levels is unsustainable and eradication options is now being considered. Although the Sterile Insect Technique(SIT) could be used for insect suppression, it is gaining favour in the elimination (eradication) of the target pest population through Areawide-based IPM (Author)
Ernst, Robert R.; Shull, James J.
The duration of the equilibration period between admission of water vapor and subsequent introduction of gaseous ethylene oxide to an evacuated sterilizer chamber was studied with respect to its effect on the inactivation of spores of Bacillus subtilis var. niger under simulated practical conditions. Introduction of a water-adsorbing cotton barrier between the spores and an incoming gas mixture of water vapor and ethylene oxide caused a marked increase in the observed thermochemical death time of the spore populations. This effect was negated by admission of water vapor one or more minutes prior to introduction of ethylene oxide gas. Increases in temperature and relative humidity of the system promoted passage of water vapor through the cotton barriers and diminished their effect. PMID:13890660
Lim, Limin; Wong, Hungchew; Yong, Euleong; Singh, Kuldip
Teenage abortions predispose women to adverse pregnancy outcomes in subsequent pregnancies such as anemia, stillbirths, preterm deliveries and low birth weight babies. We aim to profile the women presenting for abortions in our institution and determine risk factors for late presentation for abortions. In this retrospective cohort study, all women who underwent an abortion at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from 2005 to 2009 were recruited. Data was obtained from a prepared questionnaire during the mandatory pre-abortion counseling sessions. Profiles of women aged singlehood, nulliparity and lack of prior usage of contraception. Teenagers are more likely to have no prior contraceptive usage and to present late for abortions. Lack of proper sexual education and awareness of contraceptive measures may have a major contributory factor to such a trend in teenage abortions. Recommendations have been made in order to curb this societal problem. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Congressional legislation seeking to overturn US government restrictions on international family planning assistance face a possible presidential veto. Dating back to the Reagan years, the 1984 Mexico City Policy prohibits foreign nongovernmental organizations (NGO) receiving US money from performing or actively promoting abortion as a family planning method. Even if abortion is legal in that particular country, the agency involved may not even discuss abortion as one of the medical options of a pregnant woman. In line with the Mexico City Policy, the US has withdrawn funding from both the International Planned Parenthood Federation, the largest NGO in the population field, and the Family Planning International Assistance, the international division of the Planned Parenthood federation of America. One of the effects of the Mexico City Policy has been to make family planning more controversial, and to increase opposition to birth control. In addition to the Mexico City Policy, the Reagan years also saw the implementation of a policy that denies funding to the UNFPA, charged by the US of "co-managing" China's population program that engages in coercive abortion and involuntary sterilization. The UNFPA has denied such charges. So far, President George Bush -- previously a supporter of family planning programs -- has sided with opponents of abortion, and has threatened a veto threat may soon be tested, since Congress has drafted a foreign aid appropriations bill that has includes a measure saying that NGOs should be treated in the same manner as their governments, which are exempt from the Mexico City Policy so long as US funds are not used to support abortions.
Ziraba, Abdhalah Kasiira; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Levandowski, Brooke A; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Mutua, Michael; Mohamed, Shukri F; Egesa, Caroline; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W
Complications due to unsafe abortion cause high maternal morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. This study describes post-abortion complication severity and associated factors in Kenya. A nationally representative sample of 326 health facilities was included in the survey. All regional and national referral hospitals and a random sample of lower level facilities were selected. Data were collected from 2,625 women presenting with abortion complications. A complication severity indicator was developed as the main outcome variable for this paper and described by women's socio-demographic characteristics and other variables. Ordered logistic regression models were used for multivariable analyses. Over three quarters of abortions clients presented with moderate or severe complications. About 65% of abortion complications were managed by manual or electronic vacuum aspiration, 8% by dilation and curettage, 8% misoprostol and 19% by forceps and fingers. The odds of having moderate or severe complications for mistimed pregnancies were 43% higher than for wanted pregnancies (OR, 1.43; CI 1.01-2.03). For those who never wanted any more children the odds for having a severe complication was 2 times (CI 1.36-3.01) higher compared to those who wanted the pregnancy then. Women who reported inducing the abortion had 2.4 times higher odds of having a severe complication compared to those who reported that it was spontaneous (OR, 2.39; CI 1.72-3.34). Women who had a delay of more than 6 hours to get to a health facility had at least 2 times higher odds of having a moderate/severe complication compared to those who sought care within 6 hours from onset of complications. A delay of 7-48 hours was associated with OR, 2.12 (CI 1.42-3.17); a delay of 3-7 days OR, 2.01 (CI 1.34-2.99) and a delay of more than 7 days, OR 2.35 (CI 1.45-3.79). Moderate and severe post-abortion complications are common in Kenya and a sizeable proportion of these are not properly managed
Hansen, Rasmus S. L.; Vogl, Stefan
Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.
Full Text Available Sterile endophthalmitis appears as an infrequent complication of intravitreal injections and seems to develop mainly in the context of the off-label use of drugs that have not been conceived for intravitreous administration. The aetiology of sterile endophthalmitis, independently of the administered drug, remains uncertain and a multifactorial origin cannot be discarded. Sterile inflammation secondary both to intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide and to intravitreal bevacizumab share many characteristics such as the acute and painless vision loss present in the big majority of the cases. Dense vitreous opacity is a common factor, while anterior segment inflammation appears to be mild to moderate. In eyes with sterile endophthalmitis, visual acuity improves progressively as the intraocular inflammation reduces without any specific treatment. If by any chance the ophthalmologist is not convinced by the sterile origin of the inflammation, this complication must be treated as an acute endophthalmitis because of the devastating visual prognosis of this intraocular infection in the absence of therapy.
Hansen, Rasmus S L; Vogl, Stefan
Sterile neutrinos produced through oscillations are a well motivated dark matter candidate, but recent constraints from observations have ruled out most of the parameter space. We analyze the impact of new interactions on the evolution of keV sterile neutrino dark matter in the early Universe. Based on general considerations we find a mechanism which thermalizes the sterile neutrinos after an initial production by oscillations. The thermalization of sterile neutrinos is accompanied by dark entropy production which increases the yield of dark matter and leads to a lower characteristic momentum. This resolves the growing tensions with structure formation and x-ray observations and even revives simple nonresonant production as a viable way to produce sterile neutrino dark matter. We investigate the parameters required for the realization of the thermalization mechanism in a representative model and find that a simple estimate based on energy and entropy conservation describes the mechanism well.
Albright, C. F.; Gillerman, J. B.
Electrolytic water sterilizer controls microbial contamination in manned spacecraft. Individual sterilizer cells are self-contained and require no external power or control. The sterilizer generates silver ions which do not impart an unpleasant taste to water.
Kottow Lang, Miguel Hugo
Voluntarily induced abortion has been under permanent dispute and legal regulations, because societies invariably condemn extramarital pregnancies. In recent decades, a measure of societal tolerance has led to decriminalize and legalize abortion in accordance with one of two models: a more restricted and conservative model known as therapeutic abortion, and the model that accepts voluntary abortion within the first trimester of pregnancy. Liberalization of abortion aims at ending clandestine abortions and decriminalizes the practice in order to increase reproductive education and accessibility of contraceptive methods, dissuade women from interrupting their pregnancy and, ultimately, make abortion a medically safe procedure within the boundaries of the law, inspired by efforts to reduce the incidence of this practice. The current legal initiative to decriminalize abortion in Chile proposes a notably rigid set of indications which would not resolve the three main objectives that need to be considered: 1) Establish the legal framework of abortion; 2) Contribute to reduce social unrest; 3) Solve the public health issue of clandestine, illegal abortions. Debate must urgently be opened to include alternatives in line with the general tendency to respect women's decision within the first trimester of pregnancy.
Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula
This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.
On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.
A technique of ambulatory abortion for first trimester pregnancies by vacuum suction curettage under local anesthesia with intracervical block is described. The apparatus and relevant problems are discussed. A shortened speculum devised by the author and considered an improvement for this procedure, and a simplified sterile field are described. The complication rate of 0.48% based on 5641 reported cases is very low: there were no deaths, two cases of uterine perforation, 14 of incomplete abortion, 20 of infection, 1 of depression, no cervical lacerations; 27 patients were hospitalized. The advantages of this method are safety, simplicity, minimal blood loss and immediate recovery. It is preferable to the usual dilatation and curettage, does not require general anesthesia and can be used in small clinics or in hospitals on an ambulatory basis. PMID:4758593
Introduction: Spontaneous abortion (SA) is a common complication of pregnancy. Presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA), one of the antiphospholipid antibodies, has been associated with SA in many studies, especially in Caucasians. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of LA in women with SA in ABUTH, ...
Full Text Available We report the case of a 29-year old G3P1+1 woman with a spontaneously conceived live twin tubal ectopic pregnancy. Her history was significant for infertility for 11 years after an induced abortion. Pelvic ultrasound scan showed live twin ectopic pregnancy and a partial salpingectomy was done.
Edwards, R B
This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.
The author reports on current German court rulings on whether non-medically indicated abortions (although not prohibited by law and therefore not actionable) should be financed via the compulsory health insurance scheme or by the Federal Government. 1. The social welfare court at Dortmund ruled that current legislation governing the financing of welfare expenditure violates the Federal German constitution, and has, therefore, referred this matter to the Federal Constitutional Court. However, the Federal Constitutional Court turned down the referral and dismissed the case, since an application for declaring a Federal law null and void can be filed by the Federal Government or by a Federal Land Government or by at least one-third of the total number of members of the Federal German Parliament (Bundestag) only. This means that the current proceedings at the Dortmund social welfare court must continue. The plaintiff pleads to prohibit the compulsory health insurance scheme authorities from defraying the expenses for performing foeticide via legally permitted abortion without medical indication. 2. The Federal Land Government of Baden-Württemberg is the only Land Government of the Federal Republic of Germany that does not grant any financial aid towards performing non-medically indicated (albeit not legally actionable) abortions. Hence, the Baden-Württemberg Administrative Courts turned down the plea filed by a woman government servant towards paying such aid. The court decision was based on the judge's opinion that even the principle of equality before the law guaranteed by the Constitution would not compel the Land Government to emulate the example of the other Land Governments who are agreeable to bearing abortion costs.
Claudia Escobar García
Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.
Hviid, T V; Hylenius, S; Hoegh, A M
% of the RSA women carried the HLA-G*0106 allele compared to 2% of the control women. The 14 bp deletion polymorphism in exon 8 was investigated separately. There were a greater number of heterozygotes for the 14 bp polymorphism in the group of fertile control women than expected, according to Hardy......-Weinberg equilibrium. Furthermore, the HLA-G alleles without the 14 bp sequence were prominent in the RSA males in contrast to the RSA women in whom alleles including the 14 bp sequence were frequently observed, especially as homozygotes. These results are discussed in relation to two hypotheses concerning HLA...
KAMYAB S.D. AZARI S.D. NATEGH R
Full Text Available Two hundred pa t ient s o f t he l ow socioe conomic g roup wi th an aborti on o f the f i r s t t r i mest e r were stud 1ed . The s ter i l e produc ts o f concept ion were c ul t ured on Gr e e n Monke y Kidney ti s sue cul t ure f or v i r a l de t e c - tion. Four po s i t i ve Herpe s virus, two positive Rubella"nv~ru s and t hree pos i tive unidentifie d Entero v irus l ike Vlrus were obtained The sera of 192 of these patients were titrated for Rubella antibody. The sera of a control group of 150 normal pregnant women were titrated for Rubella antibody and 8.8 per cent of these patients had a negative titre and 21.3 per cent , 1 had a tltre over 40
Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
to the DNBC from October 1, 1997 to March 31, 1999 and interviewed subsequently. The pregnant women were recruited in first half of pregnancy and interviewed about pre-pregnant body size, obstetric history, exposures in pregnancy, and socio-demographic factors. Pregnancies were followed-up regarding...
Conclusion: According to the result of this study there was not any association between HP infection and miscarriage. We recommend more studies with larger sample size for determining the effect of CagA positive strains on miscarriage.
Full Text Available Recurrent pregnancy loss, defined as a pregnancy failure occurring before 24 weeks of gestation more than two or three times according to most definitions, is a fertility defect encountered in 1-5% of the patients. This defect is of course of multifactorial origin. Among the possible origins of recurrent pregnancy loss are uterine structural defaults, defective ploidy control of the embryo, defective immunological dialog between the embryo (or the fetus and the uterus sometimes in relation with immunological disorders (such as autoimmune diseases, thrombophilia, and free radical metabolism imbalance. Numerous studies attempted to correlate variants of genes supposed to be intervening in the different facets of the early maternal-fetal or maternal-embryonic dialog, and eventually modify the outcome of fertilization, leading to success or failure of post-implantation development. The objective of the present review is to portray the major genes and gene polymorphisms studied for their putative association with recurrent pregnancy loss. Most of these genes have been studied as candidate genes for which strong biological arguments were put forward as to their putative involvement in recurrent pregnancy loss. They were mostly studied by genetic analysis, often in various populations of different ethnic origins, throughout the world. Some of these studies were available only in English as abstracts and were nevertheless used if the information was given with enough detail. With the space being too short to depict all the available literature, different major pathways releva nt to the scientific question are presented without any attempt to hide the fact that discordant views often aroused for a given gene.
Madsen, Mia; Jørgensen, Tina; Jensen, Mette Lundsby
We investigated the association between exercise during pregnancy and risk of miscarriage among more than 90,000 pregnant women. Information on exposures was obtained by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews. A relation was found between the amount of exercise and the risk of miscarriag...
Madsen, Mia; Jørgensen, Tina; Jensen, Mette Lundsby
We investigated the association between exercise during pregnancy and risk of miscarriage among more than 90,000 pregnant women. Information on exposures was obtained by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews. A relation was found between the amount of exercise and the risk of miscarriag...
Madsen, Mia; Jørgensen, Tina; Jensen, Mette Lundsby
We investigated the association between exercise during pregnancy and risk of miscarriage among more than 90,000 pregnant women. Information on exposures was obtained by means of computer-assisted telephone interviews. A relation was found between the amount of exercise and the risk of miscarriage...
Soulat, C; Gelly, M
While medical abortion is now available in non hospital facilities, abortions by vacuum aspiration remain illegal in non hospital settings. It is therefore important to assess through the literature the real risks associated with this method. All the most recent and large-scale studies showed that legal abortion by vacuum aspiration is an extremely safe procedure. It is less risky than other medical or surgical procedures performed outside the hospital. According to the studies, the death rate varies from 0 to 0.7 per 100,000 abortions, and is smaller when the procedure is done under local anesthesia than general anesthesia. The overall early complication rate (hemorrhage, uterine perforation, cervical injury) is between 0.01 and 1.16%. Complications are not more frequent than with medical abortions. In view of these low complication rates, surgical abortion by vacuum aspiration could be performed outside the hospital setting in France, as it is the case in many other countries.
Shoesmith, Gary L.
This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645
Muraro, R M
Recent warnings by the UN Fund for Population Activities about the rapid growth of the world population and the overwhelming role in it played by impoverished women in developing countries are of interest to all women in Latin America. According to the document, Third World Women require drastic improvements in their socioeconomic positions in order to achieve reductions in their family sizes and avoid an increase in the world population from 5 billion at present to 10 billion in 2025, which would be a disaster for the planet. The document states that much of the environmental damage that would occur would be attributable to the combination of poverty and rapid population increase. If the proportion of the world's women using contraceptives increases from the current 45% to 58% by the year 2000, the world population in 2025 will be 8.5 billion. The document recommends that the amount of money invested in family planning be greatly increased by 2000 in order to make possible increased use of family planning. It appears, however, that much of the funding for family planning is under the control of private organizations and is used to serve the interests of foreign countries. The 2 principal private family planning organizations in Brazil, for example, received 18.2 million US dollars between 1978--84, which were used largely to finance a campaign of mass sterilization. Brazil's rate of population growth, which was 2.1% in 1980-85 and 1.8% in 1990, is expected to drop to 1.6% in 1995. With the decline in the rate of growth, the population will be 170 million in 2000 instead of the 220 million projected using data from the 1970s. A much higher proportion of fertile-aged women in Brazil is sterilized than in the US or Europe . Closer examination of the premises behind family planning policies shows them to be questionable. The premise that population density affects the environment is questionable; Japan, West Germany, and Holland have some of the highest population
Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
This thesis deals with ethical aspects of abortion. In the theoretical part, I focus first on the definition of the term abortion and its legal history. I also follow the use and development of contraception and review certain legal and medical conditions necessary for performing the procedure. I try to define ethics, discuss moral judgment and some ethical concepts. I list some of the groups fighting for the annulment of law that legalizes abortion in the Czech Republic. Further, I turn my a...
Feng Chenxia; Zhou Weimin; Leng Yongbin
Beam abort signal is a timing signal of the SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) storage ring. It is used to synchronize BPM processor Libera logging beam position data to identify beam abort source and improve the stability of accelerator. The concept design and engineering design of beam abort trigger module are introduced in this paper, and lab test results of this module using RF signal source also presented. Online beam test results show that this module has achieved design goal, could be used to log beam position data before beam abort. (authors)
Dalvie, Suchitra S
This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection.
Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25 to 70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning in achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70 to 80 0 C (bacon to 53 0 C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurrence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40 0 C to -20 0 C). Radappertized foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for 'wholesomeness' (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effects of radappertization on the 'wholesomeness' characteristics of these foods. (author)
Josephson, Edward S.
Radiation sterilization of food (radappertization) requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough (25-70 kGy) to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance. Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability (long term storage without refrigeration). Except for dry products in which autolysis is negligible, the radappertization process also requires that the food be heated to an internal temperature of 70-80°C (bacon to 53°C) to inactivate autolytic enzymes which catalyze spoilage during storage without refrigeration. To minimize the occurence of irradiation induced off-flavors and odors, undesirable color changes, and textural and nutritional losses from exposure to the high doses required for radappertization, the foods are vacuum sealed and irradiated frozen (-40°C to -20°C). Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" (safety for consumption) of radappertized foods, no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.
Gipson, Jessica D.; Becker, Davida; Mishtal, Joanna Z.; Norris, Alison H.
Nearly 20% of the 208 million pregnancies that occur annually are aborted. More than half of these (21.6 million) are unsafe, resulting in 47,000 abortion-related deaths each year. Accurate reports on the prevalence of abortion, the conditions under which it occurs, and the experiences women have in obtaining abortions are essential to addressing unsafe abortion globally. It is difficult, however, to obtain accurate and reliable reports of attitudes and practices given that abortion is often ...
Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation for appr......Several standards are recently approved or are under development by the standard organizations ISO and CEN in the field of radiation sterilization. Particularly in Europe these standards define new requirements on some issues and on other issues they emphasize the necessary documentation...... for approval of radiation sterilized products. The impact of these standards on the radiation sterilization is discussed, with special attention given to a few special issues, mainly traceability and uncertainty of measurement results....
Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj
Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.
Goonewardene, Sanchia; Persad, Raj
Sterile pyuria is a common entity. Yet there are no guidelines to address this issue. We have conducted a systematic review over 20 years and reviewed the results. Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis and management are developed based on these results.
AJRH Managing Editor
Department of Population, Family and Reproductive Health, School of Public health, University of Ghana, Legon, Accra,. Ghana1 ... years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in women's experiences of abortion and access to safe abortion care. ..... cultural and religious attitudes towards induced.
Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D
Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications
The present methods of regulating medical devices under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act in the United States of America are outlined. Reference is made to the position of drugs sterilized by irradiation. Surgical sutures and surgical dressings are regulated as drugs. Some details are given of proposed changes in the Act. The subject is further discussed under the headings: sterility assurance, and biocompatibility. (U.K.)
Radiation sterilization has several merits that it is a positively effective sterilization method, it can be used to sterilize low heat-resistant containers and high gas barrier films, and there is no possibility of residual chemicals being left in the packages. It has been commercially used in 'Bag in a Box' and some food containers. The γ ray and an electron beam are commonly used in radiation sterilization. The γ ray can sterilize large size containers and containers with complex shapes or sealed containers due to its strong transmission capability. However, since the equipment tends to be large and expensive, it is generally used in off production lines. On the other hand, it is possible to install and electron beam system on food production lines since the food can be processed in a short time due to its high beam coefficient and its ease of maintenance, even though an electron beam has limited usage such as sterilizing relatively thin materials and surface sterilization due to the weak transmission. A typical sterilization dose is approximately 10-30 kGy. Direct effects impacting packaging materials, particularly plastics, include scission of polymer links, cross-linkage between polymers, and generating radiolysis products such as hydrogen, methane, aliphatic hydrocarbons, etc. Furthermore, under the existence of oxygen, the oxygen radicals generated by the radiation will oxidize and peroxidize polymer chains and will generate alcohol and carbonyl groups, which shear polymer links, and generate oxygen containing low molecular compounds. As a result, degradation of physical strength such as elongation and seal strength, generating foreign odor, and an increase in global migration values shown in an elution test are sometimes evident. The food packages have different shapes, materials, additives, number of microorganisms and purpose. Therefor the effects of radiation, the optimum dose and so on must be investigated on the individual package. (J.P.N.)
Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.
In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6. The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2. The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.
Kairiyama, E.; Horak, C.; Spinosa, M.; Pachado, J.; Schwint, O.
In the treatment of burns or accidental loss of skin, cadaveric skin allografts provide an alternative to temporarily cover a wounded area. The skin bank facility is indispensable for burn care. The first human skin bank was established in Argentina in 1989; later, 3 more banks were established. A careful donor selection is carried out according to the national regulation in order to prevent transmissible diseases. As cadaveric human skin is naturally highly contaminated, a final sterilization is necessary to reach a sterility assurance level (SAL) of 10 -6 . The sterilization dose for 106 batches of processed human skin was determined on the basis of the Code of Practice for the Radiation Sterilization of Tissue Allografts: Requirements for Validation and Routine Control (2004) and ISO 11137-2 (2006). They ranged from 17.6 to 33.4 kGy for bioburdens of >10-162.700 CFU/100 cm 2 . The presence of Gram negative bacteria was checked for each produced batch. From the analysis of the experimental results, it was observed that the bioburden range was very wide and consequently the estimated sterilization doses too. If this is the case, the determination of a tissue-specific dose per production batch is necessary to achieve a specified requirement of SAL. Otherwise if the dose of 25 kGy is preselected, a standardized method for substantiation of this dose should be done to confirm the radiation sterilization process.
Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao; Muramatsu, Nobuyuki; Oohinata, Hiroshi; Ohara, Tadahiko; Oh-ike, Terui; Matsuhashi, Tetsujiro.
For buckwheat noodle in which taste is important and its main material, buckwheat flour, the ordinary sterilization by heating or ozone cannot be applied. The number of the bacteria sticking to buckwheat flour is much more as compared with that of wheat flour, and is 10 5 -10 7 per 1 g. The effective countermeasures are not yet found. Also noxious insects are apt to infect buckwheat flour. It has been known that radiation is effective for the sterilization of flavorings. In this study, the microorganism contamination of buckwheat flour and sterilization dose, the change of taste and properties after irradiation, and the capability of storage were examined, and the results are reported. The bacteria in buckwheat flour were mostly Erwinia which forms yellow colonies, and is plant-parasitic bacteria having sugar fermentation function, and also some Enterobacer, Klebsiella and Aspergillus were found. When gamma ray was irradiated on buckwheat flour, it was sterilized to less than 10 3 per 1 g bacteria at the dose of 5 kGy, and microorganisms were almost sterilized at 10 kGy. With the electron beam of 3 MeV, the effect of sterilization somewhat decreased. The noodle-making property of irradiated buckwheat flour, and the taste and storage capability of the noodle of irradiated flour were tested. (K.I.)
Wullen, B; Mühlhöfer, A; Luz, H; Zoller, W G
A 30-year-old woman was referred to our clinic because she had developed recurrent spontaneous hematomas of both calves within the last 2 months. 6 months earlier the patient had developed an ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome after ovarian stimulation treatment and intrauterine insemination. Shortly afterwards a missed abortion (8 (th) week) had been diagnosed. A curettage was carried out. Routine coagulation tests confirmed a prolongation of aPTT to 90 s and a lupus anticoagulant. A high-titre factor VIII inhibitor (56 Bethesda units) was identified. Given these facts an acquired post-partum hemophilia was diagnosed. The patient was treated with prednisolone and immunoglobulins. The aPTT shortened to normal values. The factor VIII inhibitor and lupus anticoagulant disappeared. There were no further hematomas. The simultaneous occurrence of antibodies in an altered immune state such as pregnancy is well known. In our case, acquired factor VIII inhibitor was found after an early abortion. Treatment with steroids and immunoglobulines led to the disappearance of factor VIII inhibitor and lupus anticoagulant.
Di Nucci, Ezio
This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally......'s scenarios have some valuable future or admitted that killing them is not seriously morally wrong. Finally, if "valuable future" is interpreted as referring to objective standards, one ends up with implausible and unpalatable moral claims....
A state of the art of surgical method of abortion focusing on safety and practical aspects. A systematic review of French-speaking or English-speaking evidence-based literature about surgical methods of abortion was performed using Pubmed, Cochrane and international recommendations. Surgical abortion is efficient and safe regardless of gestational age, even before 7 weeks gestation (EL2). A systematic prophylactic antibiotics should be preferred to a targeted antibiotic prophylaxis (grade A). In women under 25 years, doxycycline is preferred (grade C) due to the high prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis. Systematic cervical preparation is recommended for reducing the incidence of complications from vacuum aspiration (grade A). Misoprostol is a first-line agent (grade A). When misoprostol is used before a vacuum aspiration, a dose of 400 mcg is recommended. The choice of vaginal route or sublingual administration should be left to the woman: (i) the vaginal route 3 hours before the procedure has a good efficiency/safety ratio (grade A); (ii) the sublingual administration 1 to 3 hours before the procedure has a higher efficiency (EL1). The patient should be warned of more common gastrointestinal side effects. The addition of mifepristone 200mg 24 to 48hours before the procedure is interesting for pregnancies between 12 and 14 weeks gestations (EL2). The systematic use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is recommended for limiting the operative and postoperative pain (grade B). Routine vaginal application of an antiseptic prior to the procedure cannot be recommended (grade B). The type of anesthesia (general or local) should be left up to the woman after explanation of the benefit-risk ratio (grade B). Paracervical local anesthesia (PLA) is recommended before performing a vacuum aspiration under local anesthesia (grade A). The electric or manual vacuum methods are very effective, safe and acceptable to women (grade A). Before 9 weeks gestation
Aug 14, 1971 ... elhlcal, legal, religious, social, demographic and humanitarian, ... REASONS FOR CHANGING THE LAW. Criminal Abortion. One of the main arguments in favour of legalizing abortion and of extending ·its indications is that the present .... asking a new attitude of us: that we honestly face and assume.
Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others
This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new…
Culwell, Kelly R; Hurwitz, Manuelle
The latest World Health Organization data estimate that the total number of unsafe abortions globally has increased to 21.6 million in 2008. There is increasing recognition by the international community of the importance of the contribution of unsafe abortion to maternal mortality. However, the barriers to delivery of safe abortion services are many. In 68 countries, home to 26% of the world's population, abortion is prohibited altogether or only permitted to save a woman's life. Even in countries with more liberal abortion legal frameworks, additional social, economic, and health systems barriers and the stigma surrounding abortion prevent adequate access to safe abortion services and postabortion care. While much has been achieved to reduce the barriers to comprehensive abortion care, much remains to be done. Only through the concerted action of public, private, and civil society partners can we ensure that women have access to services that are safe, affordable, confidential, and stigma free. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korejo, R.; Noorani, K.J.; Bhutta, S.
Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)
Ilboudo, Patrick Gc; Somda, Serge Ma; Sundby, Johanne
Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42-19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08-11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03-0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted.
Sánchez-Siancas, Luis E; Rodríguez-Medina, Angélica; Piscoya, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support and induced abortion among young women in Lima, Peru. In addition, prevalence and incidence of induced abortion was estimated. A cross-sectional study enrolling women aged 18-25 years from maternal health centers in Southern Lima, Peru, was conducted. Induced abortion was defined as the difference between the total number of pregnancies ended in abortion and the number of spontaneous abortions; whereas perceived social support was assessed using the DUKE-UNC scale. Prevalence and incidence of induced abortion (per 100 person-years risk) was estimated, and the association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. A total of 298 women were enrolled, mean age 21.7 (± 2.2) years. Low levels of social support were found in 43.6% (95%CI 38.0%-49.3%), and 17.4% (95%CI: 13.1%- 21.8%) women reported at least one induced abortion. The incidence of induced abortion was 2.37 (95%CI: 1.81-3.11) per 100 person-years risk. The multivariable model showed evidence of the association between low perceived social support and induced abortion (RR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.14-3.30) after controlling for confounders. There was evidence of an association between low perceived social support and induced abortion among women aged 18 to 25 years. Incidence of induced abortion was similar or even greater than rates of countries where abortion is legal. Strategies to increase social support and reduce induced abortion rates are needed.
Newton, Danielle; Bayly, Chris; McNamee, Kathleen; Hardiman, Annarella; Bismark, Marie; Webster, Amy; Keogh, Louise
Depending on availability, many Australian women seeking an abortion will be faced with the choice between surgical or medical abortion. Little is known about the factors that influence Australian women's choice of method. Through the perspectives of abortion service providers, this study aimed to explore the factors that contribute to Australian women's decision to have a surgical or medical abortion. In 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen Victorian-based key informants (KIs) directly providing or working within a service offering medical abortion. Ten KIs were working at a service that also provided surgical abortion. Interviews were semi-structured, conducted face-to-face or over the telephone, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. KIs described varying levels of awareness of medical abortion, with poorer awareness in regional areas. When it comes to accessing information, women were informed by: their own research (often online); their own experiences and the experiences of others; and advice from health professionals. Women's reasons for choosing surgical or medical abortion range from the pragmatic (timing and location of the method, support at home) to the subjective (perceived risk, emotional impact, privacy, control, and physical ability). Women benefit from an alternative to surgical abortion and are well-placed to choose between the two methods, however, challenges remain to ensure that all women are enabled to make an informed choice. KIs identify the need to: promote the availability of medical abortion; address misconceptions about this method; and increase general practitioner involvement in the provision of medical abortion. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.
Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.
A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298
Henshaw, S K
This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries
Wiebe, E R; Trouton, K J; Fielding, S L; Grant, H; Henderson, A
To examine the differences in anxiety levels and attitudes towards abortion between women having an early medical abortion and women having a surgical (manual vacuum aspiration) abortion. Women who presented for an early medical abortion or a surgical abortion at an urban, free-standing abortion clinic were invited to participate in this study. Fifty-nine women having a medical abortion and 43 women having a surgical abortion answered questionnaires before their scheduled abortion, and again 2 to 4 weeks after the abortion. Thirty women were interviewed about their answers. Anxiety levels were similar in both groups before the abortion procedure. Anti-choice views about abortion were seen in 60.5% of women having a medical abortion and in 37.3% of women having a surgical abortion (P = .027). Women who were pro-choice had a mean anxiety score of 5.0 (range, 0-10) before and 2.7 after the abortion, whereas women who were anti-choice had a mean anxiety score of 5.2 before and 4.4 after the abortion (P = .005). It is important for providers of abortion care to understand that women undergoing a medical abortion may be more ambivalent about abortion than women undergoing a surgical abortion, and women who are anti-choice but having an abortion may have unresolved anxiety after the procedure.
Wang, X.; Lou, P.; Bonnema, A.B.; Yang, Boujun; He, H.; Zhang, Y.; Fang, Z.
The dominant male sterility gene Ms-cd1 (c, cabbage; d, dominant) was identified as a spontaneous mutation in the spring cabbage line 79-399-3. The Ms-cd1 gene is successfully applied in hybrid seed production of several Brassica oleracea cultivars in China. Amplified fragment length polymorphism
Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette
Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma * ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.
Leslie M Turner
Full Text Available Hybrid dysfunction, a common feature of reproductive barriers between species, is often caused by negative epistasis between loci ("Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibilities". The nature and complexity of hybrid incompatibilities remain poorly understood because identifying interacting loci that affect complex phenotypes is difficult. With subspecies in the early stages of speciation, an array of genetic tools, and detailed knowledge of reproductive biology, house mice (Mus musculus provide a model system for dissecting hybrid incompatibilities. Male hybrids between M. musculus subspecies often show reduced fertility. Previous studies identified loci and several X chromosome-autosome interactions that contribute to sterility. To characterize the genetic basis of hybrid sterility in detail, we used a systems genetics approach, integrating mapping of gene expression traits with sterility phenotypes and QTL. We measured genome-wide testis expression in 305 male F2s from a cross between wild-derived inbred strains of M. musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus. We identified several thousand cis- and trans-acting QTL contributing to expression variation (eQTL. Many trans eQTL cluster into eleven 'hotspots,' seven of which co-localize with QTL for sterility phenotypes identified in the cross. The number and clustering of trans eQTL-but not cis eQTL-were substantially lower when mapping was restricted to a 'fertile' subset of mice, providing evidence that trans eQTL hotspots are related to sterility. Functional annotation of transcripts with eQTL provides insights into the biological processes disrupted by sterility loci and guides prioritization of candidate genes. Using a conditional mapping approach, we identified eQTL dependent on interactions between loci, revealing a complex system of epistasis. Our results illuminate established patterns, including the role of the X chromosome in hybrid sterility. The integrated mapping approach we employed is
Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai
Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264
In January 1958 the 1st abortion law was passed in Czechoslovakia. At that time it was a progressive law. However, as time went on and other European countries developed their own abortion policies, the law become more outdated. The main failing was that women were not in charge of the final abortion decision, it had to be made by a commission. As a result, a new law went into effect in January 1987 that was more liberal. This new law allowed abortion twice a year for free unless the woman was more than 8 weeks pregnant. Between 8 and 12 weeks there was a fee of 500 crowns. For women under 16 parental permission is required and for women 16-18 parents are notified after the procedure. After the law was passed there was an increase in reported numbers of abortions, but the figures are not very accurate because of unusual recording methods. Abortion (42-55 days) is contrasted with menstrual regulation (42 days) and the figure of 157,912 also includes extrauterine pregnancies. After the democratic reforms of November 1989, strong anti-choice groups began a campaign to end abortion. To date this has resulted in a Advisory Commission that is charged with the responsibility of looking at the abortion issue with the Federal Deputy Prime minister. The commission's recommendations were: 1) the situation is considered critical (that abortion is still allowed and government funded), 2) absolute prohibition of abortion is not recommended, 3) the majority of citizens should be able to adopt any legal measures, 4) abortion should not be government supported except to save the woman's life or in cases of sexual crimes, 5) the law should also serve an educational function, 6) artificial interruption of pregnancy should be renamed to artificial termination of pregnancy. Finally the commission recommended that longterm preventive measures should focus on education. Public opinion indicates that 61% of citizens recognize a woman's right to abortion, while only 4% favor absolute
The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to
Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.
to approximate the denominator of pregnancies at risk of elective abortion. We used linear regression methods to identify trend and seasonal patterns. Results: Despite an overall declining trend, teenage women show a rising proportion of pregnancies that end in an elective termination (56% to 67%, 1995 to 2009......Background: Elective abortions show a secular decline in high income countries. That general pattern, however, may mask meaningful differences—and a potentially rising trend—among age, income, and other racial/ethnic groups. We explore these differences in Denmark, a high-income, low......-fertility country with excellent data on terminations and births. Methods: We examined monthly elective abortions (n = 225,287) from 1995 to 2009, by maternal age, parity, income level and mother’s country of origin. We applied time-series methods to live births as well as spontaneous and elective abortions...
Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.
Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.
Jandová, A; Cifra, M; Pokorný, J; Nedbalová, M; Dohnalová, A; Kobilková, J; Cocek, A
Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.
The sterilization of medical products by ionizing radiation is a well-established industrial process in a number of technologically advanced countries. It is indeed encouraging to note the rate of growth experienced during the past fifteen years. Starting with the first commercial plant in the early sixties in the USA there are to date more than sixty large facilities of this kind located in USA, Canada, Australia and the countries of Europe including USSR. The geographical distribution of these sterilization plants is rather unbalanced. In this respect Europe is far ahead of the other continents of the world, with about 65% of all sterilization plants, followed by North and South America with 17%, Asia with 8%, Australia and New Zealand with 9% and Africa with only 1%. During the last 10 years the IAEA has actively contributed to the development of radiation sterilization practices and technology in the Member States, with particular emphasis on the developing countries. Such promotional efforts have been made by (a) supporting co-ordinated research to accumulate relevant technical information, (b) organizing scientific meetings and training courses, (c) providing technical expertise in the form of fellowships and expert services, (d) providing technical assistance to conduct market surveys and economic feasibility assessment, (e) scientific publications, including technical manuals and proceedings reports, and (f) assistance in the formulation of an international 'Code of Practice' for standardization of the manufacturing practices for radiation sterilized medical products to meet the specified requirements of the various national Pharmacopoeias and of the international consumer market
Avcioglu, Sümeyra Nergiz; Altinkaya, Sündüz Özlem; Küçük, Mert; Zafer, Emre; Sezer, Selda Demircan; Yüksel, Hasan
Each year, an estimated 529 000 maternal deaths occur worldwide. In literature, it is known that maternal mortality can occur during pregnancy, peripartum and also in postpartum period. Although very rare, maternal deaths may occur after spontaneous abortion. In present case, 37 year old G5P4 (Caesarean Section) women was admitted to Adnan Menderes University, Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic with diagnosis of missed abortion at 18 weeks' gestation. She had been hospitalized in the public maternity hospital for five days due to abortus incipience and prolapse of amnion membranes but had no contractions. Fetal heart beats ceased at the second day of hospitalization. Medically induced abortion was recommended but not accepted by the patient. At the fifth day of hospitalization, she was referred to our clinic due to deterioration of general health condition, low blood pressure and tachycardia. In emergency department, it was determined that she was not oriented, had confusion, had blood pressure of 49/25 mmHg and tachycardia. In ultrasonographic examination, 18 week in utero ex fetus was determined and there was free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. The free fluid was suspected to be amniotic fluid due to rupture of uterus. Laparotomy was performed, no uterine rupture, hematoma or atony was observed. However during laparotomy, a very bad smelling odor, might be due to septicemia, was felt in the operation room. Cardiac arrest occurred during that operation. In autopsy report, it was concluded that maternal death was because of remaining of inutero ex fetus for a long time. In conclusion, although very rare, maternal deaths after spontaneous abortion may occur. Because spontaneous abortion is a common outcome of pregnancy, continued careful, strict monitoring and immediate treatment of especially second trimester spontaneous abortion is recommended to prevent related, disappointing, unexpected maternal deaths.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...
Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng
To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.
Full Text Available Objective: to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. Methods: semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: in both capitals, the women who induced an abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (p<0.01 in Natal; p = 0.02 in São Paulo-SP and, simultaneously, as the one who could have avoided it (p < 0.01 in Natal; p = 0.03 in São Paulo. In Natal-RN, induced abortion was associated with the partner's absence at the time pregnancy was confirmed (p = 0.02 and, in Sao Paulo-SP, with their negative reaction to news of the pregnancy (p = 0.04 and lack of participation in the abortion process (p < 0.01. Conclusion: despite having achieved independence, women still regard male participation in the abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health.
Gripaios, Ben Matthew
We consider field-theoretic models of a warped extra dimension with multiple throats, in which fermions that are singlets of the Standard Model gauge group propagate in a separate throat from the Standard Model fields, which we call the sterile throat. The singlets mix with Standard Model fields via interactions localized on the UV brane that connects the two throats. This leads to three, light, mostly-active, Majorana neutrinos via a higher-dimensional see-saw mechanism, together with Kaluza-Klein towers of mostly-sterile neutrinos, whose scale is set by the warp factor in the sterile throat and can be very low if the throat is deep. We suggest that a model of this kind may explain all the neutrino data, reconciling the LSND result with astrophysical constraints.
Bhatti, Khadijah Z; Nguyen, Antoinette T; Stuart, Gretchen S
Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early nonsurgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. In this commentary, we will review the history, current evidence-based regimen, and regulation of medical abortion. We will then examine current proposed and existing abortion reversal legislation. The objective of this commentary is to ensure physicians are armed with rigorous evidence to inform patients, communities, and policy makers about the safety of medical abortion. Furthermore, given the current paucity of evidence for medical abortion reversal, physicians and policy makers can dispel bad science and misinformation and advocate against medical abortion reversal legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fetters, Tamara; Samandari, Ghazaleh
Although Cambodia now permits elective abortion, scarcity of research on this topic means that information on abortion incidence is limited to regional estimates. This estimation model combines national survey data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) with national prospective data of abortion procedures from government health facilities, collected in 2005 and 2010, to calculate the national incidence of safe and unsafe abortion. According to DHS, the proportion of all induced abortions that took place in a health facility in the five years preceding each survey increased from almost 52% to 60%. Projecting from facility-based abortions to national estimates, the national abortion rate increased from 21 to 28 per 1000 women aged 15-44. The abortion ratio also increased from 19 to 28 per 100 live births. This research quantifies an increase in safely induced abortions in Cambodia and provides a deeper understanding of induced abortion trends in Cambodia.
Full Text Available This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill – PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.
Di Nucci, Ezio
I argue that it is possible for prospective mothers to wrong prospective fathers by bearing their child; and that lifting paternal liability for child support does not correct the wrong inflicted to fathers. It is therefore sometimes wrong for prospective mothers to bear a child, or so I argue here. I show that my argument for considering the legitimate interests of prospective fathers is not a unique exception to an obvious right to procreate. It is, rather, part of a growing consensus that procreation can be morally problematic and that generally talking of rights in this context might not be warranted. Finally, I argue that giving up a right to procreate does not imply nor suggest giving up on women's absolute right to abort, which I defend. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Charef, A.; Boussaha, A.
The feasibility of using high energy ionizing radiation for the sterilization of hydrocortisone acetate was investigated. Hydrocortisone acetate in the form of powder was exposed to different dose levels of gamma radiation using a Cobalt-60 source. The irradiated samples were examined by various physico-chemical techniques in order to detect possible radiolysis products. It was of interest to know if one could insure sterility and retain biological properties of the drug by suitable choice of radiation dose. The results showed that a 10 KGy radiation dose causes no change in the physico-chemical properties of the drug and is sufficient to obtain contaminant-free product
Myran, Daniel T; Carew, Caitlin L; Tang, Jingyang; Whyte, Helena; Fisher, William A
Lack of providers is a barrier to accessing abortion in Canada. The factors influencing the number of abortion providers are poorly understood. In this study, we assessed the attitudes and intentions of medical students towards abortion training and provision to gain insight into the future supply of abortion providers. We surveyed first, second, and third year medical students at an Ontario university to determine their intentions to train in and provide abortion services during different stages of training and in future practice. We assessed students' attitudes and intentions towards training in and providing abortions, their perceptions of social support, their perceived ability to receive training in and to provide abortion services, and their attitudes towards the legality of abortion. Surveys were completed by 337 of 508 potential respondents (66.7%). The responses indicated that the students in the survey held relatively positive attitudes towards the legality and availability of abortion in Canada. Respondents had significantly more positive attitudes towards first trimester medical abortions (and a greater intention to provide them) than towards second trimester surgical abortions. Thirty-five percent of students planned to enter a specialty in which they could perform abortions, but fewer than 30% of these students planned to provide any type of abortion. Intentions to provide abortions were correlated with positive attitudes toward abortion in general and greater perceived social support for abortion provision. A small proportion of students sampled intended both to enter a specialty in which abortion would be within the scope of practice and to provide abortion services. Lack of perceived social support for providing abortions and the perceived inability to obtain abortion training or to logistically provide abortions were identified as two potentially modifiable barriers to abortion provision. We propose increasing education on abortion provision and
Purgina, A.; Shmakova, V.
The problem of abortion now has adopted a special social significance. Many countries has the laws regulating an abortion. In Russia this law exists in a very liberal state. Statistics of abortions is disappointing. It is not only a medical but also a social problem which roots lies in the moral aspect of society. The Church considers the abortion as a mortal sin since ancient times. We tried to consider the history of the fight against abortion and its appropriateness.
Gerdts, Caitlin; DePi?eres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene
Background Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. Methods In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic ...
Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob
Background: While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major ...
Sakata, Tadashi; Oshino, Takeshi; Miura, Shinya; Tomabechi, Mari; Tsunaga, Yuta; Higashitani, Nahoko; Miyazawa, Yutaka; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Masao; Higashitani, Atsushi
With global warming, plant high temperature injury is becoming an increasingly serious problem. In wheat, barley, and various other commercially important crops, the early phase of anther development is especially susceptible to high temperatures. Activation of auxin biosynthesis with increased temperatures has been reported in certain plant tissues. In contrast, we here found that under high temperature conditions, endogenous auxin levels specifically decreased in the developing anthers of barley and Arabidopsis. In addition, expression of the YUCCA auxin biosynthesis genes was repressed by increasing temperatures. Application of auxin completely reversed male sterility in both plant species. These findings suggest that tissue-specific auxin reduction is the primary cause of high temperature injury, which leads to the abortion of pollen development. Thus, the application of auxin may help sustain steady yields of crops despite future climate change.
Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja
Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system.
This study developed an abortion attitude scale and abortion knowledge inventory that may be utilized by health educators, counselors, and researchers for assessing attitudes toward abortion and knowledge about it. (SK)
The topic of abortion stigma has caught the attention of researchers and activists working on reproductive health and rights around the world. But as research on abortion stigma grows, I fear that the concept is in danger of becoming so large and all-encompassing that it may mask deeply rooted inequalities. In addition, abortion stigma may be seen as too complex and tangled an issue, thereby leading to paralysis. It is important that we become more precise in our understanding of abortion stigma so that we can carry out better research to understand and measure it, design interventions to mitigate it, and evaluate those interventions. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vikhlayeva, E M; Nikolaeva, E
In Russia, the fact that many women consider abortion their main or only effective means of fertility regulation has led to prevailing high rates of abortion. A pilot study was undertaken, therefore, to determine why this situation exists and how to decrease the incidence of abortion. Physicians gathered data using a standardized questionnaire administered during interviews with 352 women (221 from Moscow and 131 from rural areas) who had just had an abortion. Most women were employed in the labor force as were most husbands (partners) and parents of the women. Most of the women reported early first coitus, and 49% were married before age 20. More than 80% of the women had children, but only a third of all previous pregnancies had been carried to term. Most abortions occurred because women were worried about their ability to afford another child or about their health status or that of their husband. In fact, approximately 40% of the women presented with inflammatory diseases and infections of the vulva, vagina, uterus, or adnexes. Most women received their first contraceptive counseling after their first delivery or abortion, but only 30% of urban women and 18% of the rural women were using modern contraceptives (condoms) at the time of the unwanted conception. Most women received their information about contraceptives from the mass media, from medical personnel, or from friends although they indicated they would have preferred to have received sex education in school. Most women decided on their own to have an abortion, and 76% experienced psychological pain in conjunction with the procedure. However, 42.3% indicated they would resort to abortion in the future. This study concluded that the Ministry of Health should make provision of information on contraception a priority.
The Abortion (Amendment) Bill in the British House of Commons would lower the maximum limit for termination of pregnancy from 28 to 18 weeks. Supporters of the bill assert that Britain allows termination of pregnancy later than any other European country, and that in Britain over 90% of all late abortions are of fetuses without phisical abnormality. The 28-week limit is considered anachronoistic by doctors since neonatal care has made possible survival at 24 weeks. A similar bill in the House of Lords would reduce the limit to 24 weeks. Making early abortions more easily available would help reduce late abortions. Statistics indicate that women who have abortions late in their pregnancies tend to be young. In 1986, 172,286 abortions were performed in England and Wales. Of these, 144,857, or 84%, were performed before the 13th week. A total of 8276 (5%) were performed after 18 weeks. Of these, 3688 (45% of late abortions) were on nonresidents who traveled to Britain because of legal restrictions in their own country. This means that 4594 late abortions were performed on residents of England and Wales in 1986. This was 3% of the total, with 14% of this number on grounds of fetal abnormality. About 40% of the rest were in women under the age of 20, with 6% (239) on girls under 16. A 1984 study concluded that more counseling and information should be provided for young women. Education in contraception for young women is less than ideal and likely to become less available as economic restraints reduce the number of family planning clinics. Postcoital contraception should be taught more as an emergency proceedure. Prompt, dispassionate physician counseling, wider provision of National Health Service facilities, and uniform service in all districts would also be beneficial.
Wimmer Ernst A
Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.
Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Raffelt, Georg G.
The presence of light particles beyond the standard model's three neutrino species can profoundly impact the physics of decoupling and primordial nucleosynthesis. I review the observational signatures of extra light species, present constraints from recent data, and discuss the implications of po...... of possible sterile neutrinos with O(eV)-masses for cosmology....
Factors that impact on product bioburden (population of diable microorganisms on or in product and/or sterile barrier system) are: Raw materials, components, product design and size, manufacturing process, manufacturing equipment, manufacturing environment and manufacturing location. Presented lecture describes all these factors in details
Devan, Alena V. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)
MINOS, Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search, is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment in the NuMI muon neutrino beam at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, IL. It consists of two detectors, a near detector positioned 1 km from the source of the beam and a far detector 734 km away in Minnesota. MINOS is primarily designed to observe muon neutrino disappearance resulting from three flavor oscillations. The Standard Model of Particle Physics predicts that neutrinos oscillate between three active flavors as they propagate through space. This means that a muon-type neutrino has a certain probability to later interact as a different type of neutrino. In the standard picture, the neutrino oscillation probabilities depend only on three neutrino flavors and two mass splittings, Δm2. An anomaly was observed by the LSND and MiniBooNE experiments that suggests the existence of a fourth, sterile neutrino flavor that does not interact through any of the known Standard Model interactions. Oscillations into a theoretical sterile flavor may be observed by a deficit in neutral current interactions in the MINOS detectors. A distortion in the charged current energy spectrum might also be visible if oscillations into the sterile flavor are driven by a large mass-squared difference, ms2 ~ 1 eV2. The results of the 2013 sterile neutrino search are presented here.
寺崎, 克志; Katsushi, Terasaki; 経営学部経営学科
Under a government budget constraint export subsidies automatically sterilize distortions caused by import tariffs, i.e., without the cost of the trade policy implementation the policy mix of export subsidies and import tariffs with budget constraint makes the economy effective.
Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ashley Rae Smith
Full Text Available Natural floral organ degeneration or abortion results in unisexual or fully sterile flowers, while abiotic stresses lead to sterility after initiation of floral reproductive organs. Since normal flower development is essential for plant sexual reproduction and crop yield, it is imperative to have a better understanding of plant sterility under regular and stress conditions. Here, we review the functions of ABC genes together with their downstream genes in floral organ degeneration and the formation of unisexual flowers in Arabidopsis and several agriculturally significant cereal grains. We further explore the roles of hormones, including auxin, brassinosteroids, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid, and ethylene, in floral organ formation and fertility. We show that alterations in genes affecting hormone biosynthesis, hormone transport and perception cause loss of stamens/carpels, abnormal floral organ development, poor pollen production, which consequently result in unisexual flowers and male/female sterility. Moreover, abiotic stresses, such as heat, cold, and drought, commonly affect floral organ development and fertility. Sterility is induced by abiotic stresses mostly in male floral organ development, particularly during meiosis, tapetum development, anthesis, dehiscence, and fertilization. A variety of genes including those involved in heat shock, hormone signaling, cold tolerance, metabolisms of starch and sucrose, meiosis, and tapetum development are essential for plants to maintain normal fertility under abiotic stress conditions. Further elucidation of cellular, biochemical and molecular mechanisms about regulation of fertility will improve yield and quality for many agriculturally valuable crops.
Full Text Available Background: This study was undertaken to determine if there were different abortionrates between normal and abnormal yolk sacs.Materials and Methods: In this cohort study, the yolk sac characteristics of 193 consecutivepregnant women, of 5-6.5 weeks gestation, with normal body mass index (BMI were prospectivelyevaluated. All patients underwent two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasonography, whichwas performed by the same sonographer. We considered the following yolk sac characteristicsas normal for classification: diameter: 2-5 mm; round shape; absence of degenerative changes;equal number with embryos; echogenic rim and hypoechoic center. Yolk sacs that had diameterssmaller than 2 mm or larger than 5 mm; a shape that was not round (i.e., oval or distorted;the presence of degenerative changes; hyper- or hypo-echogenic rim; hyperechoic center andunequal number with embryos were considered abnormal. Based on the above classification,patients were divided into two groups, study (abnormal yolk sac and control (normal yolksac. The study group contained 22 cases and the control group consisted of 164 cases. The primaryoutcome measure was the abortion rate between both groups. Chi-square and students’ttest were used for data analysis.Results: A total of 193 cases were evaluated. We excluded 2 cases. Among the remaining191 cases, 22 (11.51% had abnormal yolk sacs of which spontaneous abortion occurredin 14 (63.63% cases. In the control group, out of 169 (89.49% cases, spontaneous abortionwas noted in 6 (3.55%. There was a statistically significant difference in abortionrates between the two groups (p=0.000.Conclusion: According to the results of this study, it is obvious that abnormal yolk saccharacteristics are associated with spontaneous abortion.
A new dimension has been added to the use of radiation in the medical field with the introduction of radiation as a sterilizing agent. Its use in diagnosis through radioactive tracers or X-rays and in therapy administered with the most sophisticated of electrical machines or radioisotope units, is familiar in the hospital world, being well established therein. In contrast, the application of radiation sterilization is in industry where the installation of large radiation sources is already commonplace in many countries. The beginnings in the early 1950's centered on the Van de Graaff machine and linear accelerators and the pioneering efforts of Ethicon Inc. here in the United States must be recognized. However, although sterilization with electron beams is still current practice in a number of plants, the use of gamma rays from cobalt-60 is preferred. The first steps in this direction were taken by the U.K.A.E.A. which, in common with similar organizations elsewhere, was attempting to exploit the tremendous potential for cobalt-60 production arising through the rapid construction of nuclear reactors. The first full-scale commercial gamma plant was commissioned in the U.K. in 1960. It reached a loading of 500,000 curies before its demolition after twelve years of operation. The process gained rapid acceptance within industry and approval by health authorities because it provided a ''cold'' sterilization method combining the property of lethal effect with penetration. Its immediate impact occurred in the introduction of disposable products making it possible, for example, to use heat-labile plastics and new packaging materials and package designs. Certainly, the technique has proved complementary to sterilization methods based on heat and to the use of chemical agents, in particular ethylene oxide gas
Sutton, Barbara; Borland, Elizabeth
In recent years, there have been calls in activist spaces to 'queer' abortion rights advocacy and to incorporate non-normative notions of gender identity and sexuality into abortion struggles and services. Argentina provides an interesting site in which to examine these developments, since there is a longstanding movement for abortion rights in a context of illegal abortion and a recent ground-breaking Gender Identity Law that recognises key trans rights. In this paper, we analyse public documents from the abortion rights movement's main coalition - the National Campaign for the Right to Legal, Safe and Free Abortion - alongside interviews with 19 Campaign activists to examine shifts and tensions in contemporary abortion rights activism. We trace the incorporation of trans-inclusive language into the newly proposed abortion rights bill and conclude by pointing to contextual factors that may limit or enhance the further queering of abortion rights.
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sterilization. 96.73 Section 96.73 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION BLOCK GRANTS Social Services Block Grants § 96.73 Sterilization. If a State authorizes sterilization as a family planning service, it must comply...
Gaspari, A L; Ortensi, A; Parlangeli, V; Pellizzari, G; Setti, C; Lania, M
Tubal sterilization techniques that spare the fimbriae and cause the least amount of tubal destruction offer the best chance for reversal of sterilization. Patients seeking reversal of sterilization should be carefully selected. Surgical technique and equipment are important factors in reversal procedures; microsurgical techniques are shown to be more effective than macroscopic techniques.
Gerdts, Caitlin; DePiñeres, Teresa; Hajri, Selma; Harries, Jane; Hossain, Altaf; Puri, Mahesh; Vohra, Divya; Foster, Diana Greene
Factors such as poverty, stigma, lack of knowledge about the legal status of abortion, and geographical distance from a provider may prevent women from accessing safe abortion services, even where abortion is legal. Data on the consequences of abortion denial outside of the US, however, are scarce. In this article we present data from studies among women seeking legal abortion services in four countries (Colombia, Nepal, South Africa and Tunisia) to assess sociodemographic characteristics of legal abortion seekers, as well as the frequency and reasons that women are denied abortion care. The proportion of women denied abortion services and the reasons for which they were denied varied widely by country. In Colombia, 2% of women surveyed did not receive the abortions they were seeking; in South Africa, 45% of women did not receive abortions on the day they were seeking abortion services. In both Tunisia and Nepal, 26% of women were denied their wanted abortions. The denial of legal abortion services may have serious consequences for women's health and wellbeing. Additional evidence on the risk factors for presenting later in pregnancy, predictors of seeking unsafe illegal abortion, and the health consequences of illegal abortion and childbirth after an unwanted pregnancy is needed. Such data would assist the development of programmes and policies aimed at increasing access to and utilisation of safe abortion services where abortion is legal, and harm reduction models for women who are unable to access legal abortion services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
The article compares two different methods for the sterilization of spices, namely radiosterilization and sterilization with steam. The first method applies ionizing radiation which can alter the chemical composition of the products. Tests have shown, however, that radiation doses up to 10 kGy will not induce the formation of carcinogenic agents in the foodstuffs, or of toxic substances, and thus are a wholesome method of preservation. Any modifications of taste, color or smell, or loss of vitamins, can be avoided by proper dose control and standard irradiation conditions. Sterilization by steam is a method achieving substantial suppression of the formation of germs, aerobic spores, yeasts, mould, and gramnegative germs, while preserving in most cases the essential oils. It may result in sensoric alterations, i.e affect the color, smell or taste, but in general the spices thus treated preserved their characteristic properties. The method is a good alternative to radiosterilization. The article adds some concluding information on mandatory labelling of irradiated food imported from third countries
Akse, James R.; Dahl, Roger W.; Wheeler, Richard R., Jr.
A fully functional, microgravity-compatible microwave sterilization and depyrogenation system (MSDS) prototype was developed that is capable of producing medical-grade water (MGW) without expendable supplies, using NASA potable water that currently is available aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and will be available for Lunar and planetary missions in the future. The microwave- based, continuous MSDS efficiently couples microwaves to a single-phase, pressurized, flowing water stream that is rapidly heated above 150 C. Under these conditions, water is rapidly sterilized. Endotoxins, significant biological toxins that originate from the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria and which represent another defining MGW requirement, are also deactivated (i.e., depyrogenated) albeit more slowly, with such deactivation representing a more difficult challenge than sterilization. Several innovations culminated in the successful MSDS prototype design. The most significant is the antenna-directed microwave heating of a water stream flowing through a microwave sterilization chamber (MSC). Novel antenna designs were developed to increase microwave transmission efficiency. These improvements resulted in greater than 95-percent absorption of incident microwaves. In addition, incorporation of recuperative heat exchangers (RHxs) in the design reduced the microwave power required to heat a water stream flowing at 15 mL/min to 170 C to only 50 W. Further improvements in energy efficiency involved the employment of a second antenna to redirect reflected microwaves back into the MSC, eliminating the need for a water load and simplifying MSDS design. A quick connect (QC) is another innovation that can be sterilized and depyrogenated at temperature, and then cooled using a unique flow design, allowing collection of MGW at atmospheric pressure and 80 C. The final innovation was the use of in-line mixers incorporated in the flow path to disrupt laminar flow and increase contact time
Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly
Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited.
Appelbaum, P S
The US Supreme Court's decision in Planned Parenthood v. Casey leaves an uncertain future for abortion as a constitutional right. By a vote of 1, Roe v. Wade could be overturned. Without Roe, the states would be free to legislate their own abortion laws, including the outlawing of abortion except when a pregnancy threatens the life or health of the pregnant woman. Psychiatrists could be thrust into the abortion process to certify the threats to life or health on mental health grounds, as they did more than 2 decades ago before Roe. What should psychiatrists' response be? What little empirical data exists reveals almost no basis for individualized determinations of the likelihood of harm if an abortion is denied. There are obvious situations where psychiatry can play a useful role: 1) for women with histories of postpartum depression or psychosis who may be at high risk for a repetition of those conditions, and 2) for women severely mentally disordered who require medications to control their symptoms and are faced with the prospect of decompensation if they terminate their medication to avoid harming the fetus. Some psychiatrists argue that if psychiatric certification provides the only method to obtain abortions, psychiatrists should assist women in whatever way possible, even if that means being dishonest about the likely consequences of a pregnancy, for abortion would be in the longterm psychosocial interest of the woman. In a democratic society, disregarding the laws means disregarding the will of the people. Personal beliefs about social policy also justifies the denial of mental health claims for the psychiatrist who believes that it is in the best interest of the woman to carry the fetus to term. Roe saved psychiatry from this ethical morass; its demise will be unpleasant.
Behroozi-Lak, T; Derakhshan-Aydenloo, S; Broomand, F
Abortion, spontaneous or induced, is a common complication of pregnancy and exploration of available and safe regimens for medical abortion in developing countries seems crucial. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of letrozole in combination with misoprostol in women eligible for legal therapeutic abortion with gestational age ≤14weeks. This clinical randomized trial was conducted on 78 women who were candidate of medical abortion and eligible for legal abortion with gestational age ≤14 weeks that were randomly divided into two groups of case and controls. Case group received daily oral dose of 10mg letrozole for three days followed by vaginal misoprostol. In control group the patients received only vaginal misoprostol. The rate of complete abortion, induction-of-abortion time, and side-effects were assessed. Complete abortion was observed in 30 patients (76.9%) in case group and 9 (23.1%) cases were failed. In control group there was 16 (41.03%) complete abortions and 23 (58.97%) cases were failed to abort. Patients with gestational age of between 6 and 10 weeks did not show significant difference in both groups (P=0.134). Regarding pregnancy remnants there were significant differences between two groups (P=0.034). The time form admission to discharge in case groups were significantly shorter than those in control group (P=0.001). The indication for curettage in case group was significantly less than control group (P=0.001). A 3-day course of letrozole (10mg/daily) followed by misoprostol was associated with a higher complete abortion and lower curettage rates and reduction in time from admission to discharge in women with gestational age ≤14 weeks compared to misoprostol alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gupta, A S; Datta, N; Ghosh, D
A case of inversion of the uterus following abortion is reported. The 35-year old patient, admitted October 10, 1978 to the Medical College and Hospitals in Calcutta, India was referred by a private practitioner with a history of amenorrhea for 16 weeks, bleeding for 3 days, expulsion of the fetus 3 days earlier, and something coming down per vaginum for 2 days. The patient was para 4+0 (all full term normal deliveries) and home delivery for the last child 1 1/2 years earlier. She had a history of regular menstrual periods. Her general condition was poor. The examination revealed a gangrenous mass coming out of the vulva with a very offensive smell. There was a raw surface on which placenta like tissue was attached. No active bleeding was seen. Fundus and cervix of the uterus could not be felt. On rectal examination the uterus could not be felt, a cup-like depression was felt at the site of the uterus. The provision diagnosis was inversion of uterus following abortion. Treatment was started with sedatives and antibiotics, and arrangements were made for a blood transfusion. The vaginal mass was covered with glycerine and acriflavine gauze, and a hysterectomy was decided upon after improvement of her general condition and control of the infection. On October 14th, the patient was placed in knee chest position and posterior vaginal wall was retracted with Sims' speculum when the inverted lump was spontaneously reduced within the vagina. The inverted uterus was felt in the region of the vaginal vault. Glycerine acriflavine pack was given which was taken out and repack was given daily until the operation. The hysterectomy was performed on October 23rd. The abdomen was opened up by a transverse incision and the pelvis was explored. In the region of the uterus a cup-shaped depression was noted. Tubes and ovaries of both sides were seen hanging laterally from the cupped area. The left tube was found congested and thickened. Reduction of uterus was done by making a vertical
Polis, Chelsea B; Mhango, Chisale; Philbin, Jesse; Chimwaza, Wanangwa; Chipeta, Effie; Msusa, Ausbert
In Malawi, abortion is legal only if performed to save a woman's life; other attempts to procure an abortion are punishable by 7-14 years imprisonment. Most induced abortions in Malawi are performed under unsafe conditions, contributing to Malawi's high maternal mortality ratio. Malawians are currently debating whether to provide additional exceptions under which an abortion may be legally obtained. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2009 (equivalent to 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44), but changes since 2009, including dramatic increases in contraceptive prevalence, may have impacted abortion rates. We conducted a nationally representative survey of health facilities to estimate the number of cases of post-abortion care, as well as a survey of knowledgeable informants to estimate the probability of needing and obtaining post-abortion care following induced abortion. These data were combined with national population and fertility data to determine current estimates of induced abortion and unintended pregnancy in Malawi using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. We estimate that approximately 141,044 (95% CI: 121,161-160,928) induced abortions occurred in Malawi in 2015, translating to a national rate of 38 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49 (95% CI: 32 to 43); which varied by geographical zone (range: 28-61). We estimate that 53% of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended, and that 30% of unintended pregnancies end in abortion. Given the challenges of estimating induced abortion, and the assumptions required for calculation, results should be viewed as approximate estimates, rather than exact measures. The estimated abortion rate in 2015 is higher than in 2009 (potentially due to methodological differences), but similar to recent estimates from nearby countries including Tanzania (36), Uganda (39), and regional estimates in Eastern and Southern Africa (34-35). Over half of pregnancies in Malawi are unintended. Our
Bankole, Akinrinola; Adewole, Isaac F; Hussain, Rubina; Awolude, Olutosin; Singh, Susheela; Akinyemi, Joshua O
Because of Nigeria's low contraceptive prevalence, a substantial number of women have unintended pregnancies, many of which are resolved through clandestine abortion, despite the country's restrictive abortion law. Up-to-date estimates of abortion incidence are needed. A widely used indirect methodology was used to estimate the incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in Nigeria in 2012. Data on provision of abortion and postabortion care were collected from a nationally representative sample of 772 health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have unsafe abortions experience complications and obtain treatment were collected from 194 health care professionals with a broad understanding of the abortion context in Nigeria. An estimated 1.25 million induced abortions occurred in Nigeria in 2012, equivalent to a rate of 33 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49. The estimated unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women aged 15-49. Fifty-six percent of unintended pregnancies were resolved by abortion. About 212,000 women were treated for complications of unsafe abortion, representing a treatment rate of 5.6 per 1,000 women of reproductive age, and an additional 285,000 experienced serious health consequences but did not receive the treatment they needed. Levels of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion continue to be high in Nigeria. Improvements in access to contraceptive services and in the provision of safe abortion and postabortion care services (as permitted by law) may help reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.
Møller, Birger R.; Kristiansen, Frank V.; Thorsen, Poul
In a prospective open study the sterility of the uterine cavity was evaluated in 99 women admitted for hysterectomy. The indications for hysterectomy were in most cases persistent irregular vaginal bleeding and fibromyomas of the uterus. Samples for both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, Chlamydia ...... which may play a causative role in endometritis. The results indicate that inflammation of the uterine cavity should be evaluated by hysteroscopic examination before hysterectomy is undertaken in patients with persistent irregular vaginal bleeding. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Mar...
Liao, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Hong
We study the production of heavy sterile neutrino N , e+e-→N ν (ν ¯), at the Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) and its l j j signal in its decay to three charged fermions. We study background events for this process which are mainly events coming from W pair production. We study the production of a single heavy sterile neutrino and the sensitivity of CEPC to the mixing of the sterile neutrino with active neutrinos. We study the production of two degenerate heavy sterile neutrinos in a low energy seesaw model by taking into account the constraints on mixings of sterile neutrinos from the neutrinoless double β decay experiment and the masses and mixings of active neutrinos. We show that CEPC under proposal has a good sensitivity to the mixing of sterile neutrinos with active neutrinos for a mass of a sterile neutrino around 100 GeV.
This article talks about the position on abortion held by Catholics for a Free Choice (CFFC). The discussion is based on an electronic mail message sent in response to a question on a Church reform listserve discussion group. CFCC believes that abortion is a serious matter that requires reflection, including dialogue with partners and trusted advisors. In a Catholic theological context and in the realm of morality, respect for women's right to abortion should be based on these facts: 1) there is no firm position within the Catholic Church on when the fetus becomes a person; 2) the principle of probabilism in Roman Catholicism holds that where the Church cannot speak definitively on a matter of fact, the consciences of individual Catholics must be primary and respected; and 3) the absolute prohibition on abortion by the Church is not infallible. For CFFC, a central value in this complex matter is the recognition that women are competent, capable moral agents who must be recognized as having the moral and legal right to make the decision about whether or not to have an abortion with minimal state intervention.
The decision to seek an abortion is never easy. Women have different reasons for choosing an abortion and their social, economic and religious background may influence how they cope. Furthermore, once pregnant, the alternatives of childbirth and adoption or keeping the baby may not be psychologically neutral. Research studies in this area have been hampered by methodological problems, but most of the better-quality studies have shown no increased risk of mental health problems in women having an abortion. A consistent finding has been that of pre-existing mental illness and subsequent mental health problems after either abortion or childbirth. Furthermore, studies have shown that only a minority of women experience any lasting sadness or regret. Risk factors for this include ambivalence about the decision, level of social support and whether or not the pregnancy was originally intended. More robust, definitive research studies are required on mental health after abortion and alternative outcomes such as childbirth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Of 881 Chinese handwritten volumes with medical texts of the 17th through mid-20th century held by Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin and Ethnologisches Museum Berlin-Dahlem, 48 volumes include prescriptions for induced abortion. A comparison shows that these records are significantly different from references to abortion in Chinese printed medical texts of pre-modern times. For example, the percentage of recipes recommended for artificial abortions in handwritten texts is significantly higher than those in printed medical books. Authors of handwritten texts used 25 terms to designate artificial abortion, with the term da tai [see text], lit.: "to strike the fetus", occurring most frequently. Its meaning is well defined, in contrast to other terms used, such as duo tai [see text], lit: "to make a fetus fall", xia tai [see text], lit. "to bring a fetus down", und duan chan [see text], lit., to interrupt birthing", which is mostly used to indicate a temporary or permanent sterilization. Pre-modern Chinese medicine has not generally abstained from inducing abortions; physicians showed a differentiating attitude. While abortions were descibed as "things a [physician with an attitude of] humaneness will not do", in case a pregnancy was seen as too risky for a woman she was offered medication to terminate this pregnancy. The commercial application of abortifacients has been recorded in China since ancient times. A request for such services has continued over time for various reasons, including so-called illegitimate pregnancies, and those by nuns, widows and prostitutes. In general, recipes to induce abortions documented in printed medical literature have mild effects and are to be ingested orally. In comparison, those recommended in handwritten texts are rather toxic. Possibly to minimize the negative side-effects of such medication, practitioners of folk medicine developed mechanical devices to perform "external", i.e., vaginal approaches.
Lithur, Nana Oye
Traditional and cultural values, social perceptions, religious teachings and criminalisation have facilitated stigmatisation of abortion in Ghana. Abortion is illegal in Ghana except in three instances. Though the law allows for performance of abortion in three circumstances, the Ghana reproductive health service policy did not have any induced legal abortion services component to cover the three exceptions until it was revised in 2003. The policy only had 'unsafe and post-abortion' care components, and abortions performed in health facilities operated by the Ghana Health Service were performed under this component. Though the policy has been revised, women and girls who need abortion services in Ghana more often resort to the backstreet dangerous methods and procedures. Criminalisation of abortion and those who perform abortions has contributed to unsafe abortion, the second leading cause of maternal deaths in Ghana. Most of these are performed outside the formal health service structures. Traditionally, abortion is perceived as a shameful act and the community may shun and give a woman who has caused anabortion derogatory names. Would provision of legal abortion services be culturally acceptable within a Ghanaian community? Yes, if they are made aware of the reproductive health benefits of providing safe abortion services. Three major strategies that would help to destigmatise abortion in the community are (1) the liberal interpretation of the three exceptions to the law on abortion; (2) expanding community awareness of its reproductive health benefits; and (3) improving and increasing access to legal abortion services within the formal health facilities.
Duncan, Jack A.; Moffett, Catherine F.
Abortion counseling is now legally within the purview of the school counselor. It is therefore essential that counselors determine their role in abortion counseling, the kind of training necessary, and whether professional organizations should develop counseling guidelines. (RP)
Jones, Benjamin J.P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)
Measurements of neutrino oscillations at short baselines contain an intriguing set of experimental anomalies that may be suggestive of new physics such as the existence of sterile neutrinos. This three-part thesis presents research directed towards understanding these anomalies and searching for sterile neutrino oscillations. Part I contains a theoretical discussion of neutrino coherence properties. The open-quantum-system picture of neutrino beams, which allows a rigorous prediction of coherence distances for accelerator neutrinos, is presented. Validity of the standard treatment of active and sterile neutrino oscillations at short baselines is verified, and non-standard coherence loss effects at longer baselines are predicted. Part II concerns liquid argon detector development for the MicroBooNE experiment, which will search for short-baseline oscillations in the Booster Neutrino Beam at Fermilab. Topics include characterization and installation of the MicroBooNE optical system; test-stand measurements of liquid argon optical properties with dissolved impurities; optimization of wavelength-shifting coatings for liquid argon scintillation light detection; testing and deployment of high-voltage surge arrestors to protect TPC field cages; and software development for optical and TPC simulation and reconstruction. Part III presents a search for sterile neutrinos using the IceCube neutrino telescope, which has collected a large sample of atmospheric-neutrino-induced events in the 1-10 TeV energy range. Sterile neutrinos would modify the detected neutrino flux shape via MSW-resonant oscillations. Following a careful treatment of systematic uncertainties in the sample, no evidence for MSW-resonant oscillations is observed, and exclusion limits on 3+1 model parameter space are derived. Under the mixing assumptions made, the 90% confidence level exclusion limit extends to sin22θ24 ≤ 0.02 at m2 ~ 0.3 eV2, and the LSND and Mini
Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Souzas, Raquel; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves
Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...
Marnejon, T; Sarac, S; Cropp, A J
Spontaneous pneumothorax is infrequently caused by strenuous exertion. To our knowledge there has only been one case of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting reported in the medical literature. We describe three consecutive cases of spontaneous pneumothorax associated with weightlifting. We postulate that spontaneous pneumothorax in these patients may be secondary to improper breathing techniques. It is important that physicians and weight trainers be aware of the association between weight lifting and spontaneous pneumothorax and assure that proper instruction is given to athletes who work with weights.
Levandowski, Brooke A; Mhango, Chisale; Kuchingale, Edgar; Lunguzi, Juliana; Katengeza, Hans; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Singh, Susheela
Abortion is legally restricted in Malawi, and no data are available on the incidence of the procedure. The Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology was used to estimate levels of induced abortion in Malawi in 2009. Data on provision of postabortion care were collected from 166 public, nongovernmental and private health facilities, and estimates of the likelihood that women who have abortions experience complications and seek care were obtained from 56 key informants. Data from these surveys and from the 2010 Malawi Demographic and Health Survey were used to calculate abortion rates and ratios, and rates of pregnancy and unintended pregnancy. Approximately 18,700 women in Malawi were treated in health facilities for complications of induced abortion in 2009. An estimated 67,300 induced abortions were performed, equivalent to a rate of 23 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and an abortion ratio of 12 per 100 live births. The abortion rate was higher in the North (35 per 1,000) than in the Central region or the South (20-23 per 1,000). The unintended pregnancy rate in 2010 was 139 per 1,000 women aged 15-44, and an estimated 52% of all pregnancies were unintended. Unsafe abortion is common in Malawi. Interventions are needed to help women and couples avoid unwanted pregnancy, reduce the need for unsafe abortion and decrease maternal mortality.
60% of more than 2000 women surveyed by the Picker Institute who underwent induced abortion procedures rated the quality of their care as excellent. Another third reported their care as being either very good or good. The survey also found that the quality of abortion care is comparable to other outpatient surgery. However, the high quality of care women receive from abortion providers is lost in the hostile anti-abortion climate created by threatening protesters outside of clinics and the murder of 7 clinic workers and physicians who performed abortions. Abortion opponents fail to acknowledge that legal abortion is a medical procedure which protects women's health and saves their lives. Before abortion was legalized in the US, countless women were either rendered unable to reproduce or died from abortion-related complications. Efforts to outlaw abortion persist despite it being widely recognized by medical experts as one of the most safe medical procedures currently performed in the US. When state legislatures target abortion providers with unduly strict regulations, abortion becomes prohibitively expensive and difficult to obtain.
Van Heerden (1964) successfully reduced the abortion rate of a flock, where no system of selection against aborters was practised, by eliminating. Table I. Reproduction dota of normally reproducing and aborting Angora goat does and their progeny. Normal Dams. Aborline Dams. Danr. Progcny l)arn. Progeny. Number of ...
Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn
The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…
Bardis, Panos D.
This report hypothesized that Indian university students approve of abortion, that religiosity neutralizes the influence of education in abortion attitudes, and that Indian students are more liberal in their attitudes on abortion than American Catholic students. To test these hypotheses, the author collected data from 150 students from two…
AJRH Managing Editor
Mifepristone and misoprostol, the two main abortion pills are widely available in Nigeria and have been reported to be highly effective in Nigerian women6. However, the extent to which women use abortion pills to self-induce abortions has not yet been investigated in Nigeria. We believe this would be sizeable in view of the ...
Traditional and cultural values, social perceptions, religious teachings and criminalisation have facilitated stigmatisation of abortion in Ghana. Abortion is illegal in Ghana except in three instances. Though the law allows for performance of abortion in three circumstances, the Ghana reproductive health service policy did not ...