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Sample records for spontaneous abortion rsa

  1. Effectiveness of leukocyte immunotherapy in primary recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Foroughinia, Leila; Tavazoo, Fahimeh; Samsami Dehaghani, Alamtaj

    2007-09-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more sequential abortions before the twentieth week of gestation. There are evidences to support an allo-immunologic mechanism for RSA. One of the methods for treatment of RSA is leukocyte therapy; however there is still controversy about effectiveness of this method. To evaluate the effectiveness of leukocyte therapy for treatment of RSA. Ninety two non-pregnant women with at least three sequential abortions (60 primary & 32 secondary aborters) recognized as RSA were referred to our Laboratory for immunotherapy. All the cases were immunized by isolated lymphocytes from their husbands. Fifty to 100 million washed and resuspended mononuclear cells were injected by I.V., S.C., and I.D. route. The result of each injection was checked by WBC cross matching between couples after four weeks of injections. Immunization was repeated in fifth week to a maximum of 3 times if needed. Eighty one age-matched non-pregnant RSA women (52 primary and 29 secondary aborters) with at least three sequential abortions were also included in this study as controls. The control group was not immunized. 67 out of 92 (72.8%) immunized cases and 44 out of 81 controls (54.3%) showed a successful outcome of pregnancy (pRSA patients. Despite the current controversy and limitation of leukocyte therapy in RSA, the results of our investigation provide evidence supporting the use of allo-immunization in improving the outcome of pregnancy in primary RSA patients.

  2. Association between HLA-E gene polymorphism and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotoohi, Maryam; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Mirghanizadeh, Seyed Ali; Vakili, Mahmood; Samadi, Morteza

    2016-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E)is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens which expressed on extra villous cytotrophoblast, which interacts with NKG2A, is an inhibitory receptor on natural killer (NK) cells and leading to down regulation of immune response in the maternal-fetal interface and provides maternal immune tolerance of the fetus. This study was designated to investigate the gene frequencies of E0101 and E0103 in HLA-E gene in Iranian women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS-PCR) technique was carried out to detect polymorphism in exon 3 of the HLA-E gene in women with RSA and controls (n=200). Differences between groups were analyzed by SPSS19 software using (2) test. There was no significant difference in the allele frequencies of the HLA-E polymorphism between RSA and fertile controls but HLA-E 0101/0103 heterozygous genotype was found to be significantly higher in RSA group (p=0.006, OR=1.73), so this genotype might confer susceptibility to RSA. Our results suggest that HLA-E 0101/0103 heterozygous genotype leads to increase of RSA risk. It seems that by genotyping of HLA-E polymorphism, we can predict the risk of RSA in infertile women.

  3. Association of the IL4R single-nucleotide polymorphism I50V with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasolian, Fataneh; Abdollahi, Elham; Samadi, Morteza

    2014-07-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive abortions before the 20th week of gestation. There is increasing evidence to support an immunological mechanism for the occurrence of RSA. The purpose of our study was to examine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-4 receptor gene IL4R influence susceptibility to, recurrent spontaneous abortion. This is a case-control study. We recruited 200 patients with RSA (case group) using established diagnostic criteria and 200, normal individuals (control group) at the fertility and infertility center in Yazd city and Isfahan city during 2012 to 2013. We screened the I50V variant in IL-4R in patients and controls by PCR-RFLF method, and we performed an association analysis between I50V variant and RSA.the data was analyzed by spss 16 software using Chi-square test. No differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the I50V SNPs were identified between patients with RSA and healthy controls. The frequency of SNP in IL-4 receptor (I50V) in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion did not differ significantly compared with the control group. Analysis of IL4R SNP haplotypes or complex alleles suggested no dominant protection in patients with RSA.

  4. Association between lower frequency of R381Q variant (rs11209026) in IL-23 receptor gene and increased risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Elham; Tavasolian, Fataneh; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Mirghanizadeh, Seyed Ali; Azizi, Mohammdareza; Ghoryani, Mohsen; Samadi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions before the 20th week of gestation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the interleukin (IL)-23 receptor gene (IL-23R; rs11209026, 1142 G wild type → A reduced function, Arg381Gln, R381Q) and RSA. For the study, 200 RSA patients (confirmed using established diagnostic criteria) and 200 normal individuals in fertility and infertility centers in the cities of Yazd and Isfahan were recruited during a period from 2012-2013. Using PCR-RFLP, the R381Q variant was screened for in the IL-23R gene of the patients and controls. The results indicated there were significant differences in the frequency of this genetic variant in the patients versus the healthy controls, i.e. 2% and 7.5%, respectively (p value = 0.01; odds ratio = 0.25; CI = 95%). No significant difference was found for the G allelic frequency in patients with RSA and in the control group (p = 0.60). The A allelic frequency was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.01). Based on these findings, it is concluded that the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23 receptor (R381Q) in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is less than that found in normal control women.

  5. miR-520 promotes DNA-damage-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis by targeting PARP1 in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

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    Dong, Xiujuan; Yang, Long; Wang, Hui

    2017-04-01

    The establishment and maintenance of successful pregnancy mainly depends on trophoblast cells. Their dysfunction has been implicated in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), a major complication of pregnancy. However, the underlying mechanisms of trophoblasts dysfunction remain unclear. DNA-damage-induced cell apoptosis has been reported to play a vital role in cell death. In this study, we identified a novel microRNA (miR-520) in RSA progression via regulating trophoblast cell apoptosis. Microarray analysis showed that miR-520 was highly expressed in villus of RSA patients. By using flow cytometry analysis, we observed miR-520 expression was correlated with human trophoblast cell apoptosis in vitro, along with decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) expression. With the analysis of clinic samples, we observed that miR-520 level was negatively correlated with PARP1 level in RSA villus. In addition, overexpression of PARP1 restored the miR-520-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis in vitro. The status of chromosome in trophoblast implied that miR-520-promoted DNA-damage-induced cell apoptosis to regulate RSA progression. These results indicated that the level of miR-520 might associate with RSA by prompting trophoblast cell apoptosis via PARP1 dependent DNA-damage pathway.

  6. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  7. Relationship between recurrent spontaneous abortion and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingzhu; Hu Jing; Zhang Shiping; Zhang Shuang; Lin Li; Fan Jing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and anti-β 2 - glycoprotein I (anti-β 2 -GP I) antibody. Methods: The levels of anti-β 2 -GP I antibody in serum from 81 RSA patients and 39 normal women were detected by ELISA. Results: The positive rate of anti-β 2 -GP I in RSA patients (42.0%) was obviously higher than that in normal women (7.7 %) (P 2 -GP I IgG in statistics between RSA patients (40.8%) and normal women (7.7%) (P 2 -GP I IgM in statistics between RSA patients and normal women (P>0.05). There was no difference of the positive rate of anti-β 2 -GP I in statistics between early and late, as well as between 2 times and more than 2 times abortions of RSA (P>0.05). Conclusion: The anti-β 2 -GP I antibody is related to RSA, and it may be regarded as a immunological assistant diagnostic index for RSA. (authors)

  8. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  9. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  10. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  11. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  12. Massive immunoglobulin treatment in women with four or more recurrent spontaneous primary abortions of unexplained aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Kishida, T; Kobayashi, N; Kato, E H; Hoshi, N; Fujimoto, S

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of massive i.v. immunoglobulin (MIVIg) treatment for women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) due to unexplained aetiology. The study included nine women (11 pregnancies) with a history of four or more consecutive RSA with unexplained aetiology and no live births. The mean number of fetal losses was 4.5 (range 4-6 abortions). Over the course of 5 days, immunoglobulin (20 g/day) was infused i.v. at gestational weeks 4-7. No additional infusions were carried out. Two pregnancies out of the 11 conceptions resulted in missed abortions at gestational weeks 6 and 7 respectively. Mosaicism (46XX/ 48XX, +16, +20), and tetraploidy (92XXXX) were found by chromosome analyses of the two aborti. Eight out of the other nine pregnancies resulted in full term deliveries of healthy neonates. One pregnancy developed intrauterine growth retardation and fetal distress, resulting in a premature delivery (30 gestational weeks) by Caesarean section. Thus, excluding the two abortions with chromosome aberrations, the MIVIg treatment was effective in all nine pregnancies of RSA women with unexplained aetiology. This MIVIg treatment (100 g administered in early gestation) may be a beneficial alternative to previous IVIg infusion methods, and should be further evaluated in a multicentric, placebo-controlled study, employing a larger number of homogeneous patients who fall into a high risk category of first trimester abortions.

  13. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

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    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  14. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  15. Relation between some environmental pollutants and recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza A. Saad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health is exquisitely sensitive to characteristics of an individual’s environment including physical, biological, behavioral, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This study was launched to elucidate the effect of the exposure to chemical pollutants as aromatic amines viz. (benzidine, mono-acetyl benzidine, diacetyl benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine as well as the biological pollutants e.g., human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA through determination of MDA as a marker of oxidative stress and determination of some antioxidant markers. The results of the current study revealed that the aborter mothers were being exposed to environmental pollutants as aromatic amines which were manifested by the presence of benzidine, mono-acetyl-benzidine, di-acetyl-benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine in most of their urine samples, where the level of aromatic amines were more 13.6, 10, 15, and 4-folds than the control group, respectively. Also, the data suggest that in early pregnancy failure there is an increase in markers of oxidative stress and a probable decrease in maternal antioxidant defenses (22 nmol/ml and 17 mg/l, 550 U/l, respectively. Generation of ROS in large quantities, in the first trimester placenta which has limited antioxidant defenses may cause DNA damage, oxidation of protein and lipid resulting in extensive cell death. Also, it was demonstrated that high elevation of HCMV inhibits cytotrophoblasts proliferation, migration invasion and matrix metalloproteins (MMP expression. Obviously, placental toxicological responses are partly due to pharmaco/toxico dynamic responses to the chemicals. Conclusively, the aforementioned findings emphasis that, the exposures to environmental chemical and/or biological risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

  16. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION...

  17. ANTISPERM ANTIBODY IS A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUChong; CHENFu; LIULi; ZHAOFei-Sha

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the possible correlation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and spontaneous abortion, 68 women, aged 23-37, experienced 2-9 times of spontaneous abortion were tested for ASA by ELISA. 38 fertile women, aged 24-40, without history of abortion were employed as control.

  18. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  19. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  20. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  1. Evaluation of transcobalamin II rs1801198 and transcobalamin II receptor rs2336573 gene polymorphisms in recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Yazdani-Shahrbabaki, Vajiheh; Danesh, Hiva; Bizhani, Fatemeh; Taheri, Mohsen

    2018-03-14

    It has been proposed that transcobalamin 2 (TCN2) and the transcobalamin 2 receptor (TCN2R) are associated with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphism on RSA in a sample of Iranian population. This case-control study was done on 92 RSA patients and 93 normal, fertile women. Genotyping of the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 variants was done by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The findings showed no significant association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the risk/protection of RSA. Our results did not support an association between the TCN2 polymorphism and the risk of RSA in a sample of southeast Iranian population. Larger studies with different ethnicities are needed to evaluate the possible impact of TCN2 and TCN2R polymorphisms on the pathogenesis of RSA. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), a multifactorial condition, is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It has been proposed that genetic polymorphisms play a role in the pathogenesis of RSA. Few studies have examined the association between TNC2 and TCN2R polymorphisms and the RSA risk and the findings were inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to determine the possible association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the RSA in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. What do the results of the study add? The findings of the present case-control study did not support an association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the risk of RSA in a sample of the Iranian population. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and future research? The findings of this study may provide a basis for future studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities

  2. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During the ...

  3. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A; Karasek, Deborah; Adler, Nancy E; Mortensen, Laust H

    2016-05-01

    Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk aversion, moreover, supposedly influences all decisions including those that individuals can and cannot report making. We argue that these circumstances, if real, would manifest in conscious and non-conscious decisions to invest in prospective offspring, and therefore affect incidence of induced and spontaneous abortion over time. Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995 through December 2009), yielded 1 351 800 gestations including 156 780 spontaneous as well as 233 280 induced abortions 9100 of which were clinically indicated. We use Box-Jenkins transfer functions to adjust the incidence of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions for autocorrelation (including seasonality), cohort size, and fetal as well as gestational anomalies over the 180-month test period. We use cross-correlation to test our hypothesized association. We find a positive association between spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. Limitations of our work include that even the world's best registration system

  4. Cytogenetic analysis in 61 couples with spontaneous abortions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江静; 傅曼芬; 王德芬

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between spontaneous abortion and chromosomal abnormalities. Methods Couples who had one or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and had normal genitals were enrolled for cytogenetic karyotype analysis. Results In the 61 couples, the detected incidence was 11.5%, with five Robertsonian translocations, one reciprocal translocation, and one pericentric inversion of chromosome 7. Conclusion Chromosomal abnormalities may play an important role in fetal wastage.

  5. Evaluation of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) G22A gene polymorphism with recurrent spontaneous abortion among Egyptian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Gabal, Khadiga; Katta, Maha; Ibrahim, Raghda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adenosine and deoxyadenosine metabolism is influenced by adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme. ADA increases in different diseases and is considered as one of the markers for cell-mediated immunity. Pregnancy is associated with depressed cell-mediated immunity. The level of ADA expression, which seems to play a key role in maintaining pregnancy, is influenced by adenosine deaminase G22A gene polymorphism. We aimed in our study to evaluate the association of ADA G22A gene polymorphism with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in Egyptian women. Material and methods Adenosine deaminase G22A gene polymorphism was genotyped in 40 patients (age range 22-39 years) with a history of RSA, selected from those attending the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinic of Beni-Suef University Hospital, and 20 age-matched healthy women as a control group, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results In our study, no statistically significant difference was found between RSA patients and control group as regards ADA G22A genotypes (p = 0.653) and alleles (p = 0.697). A comparison of the frequencies of ADA alleles in RSA patients as regards the below-35-years-old age group revealed that ADA 2(A) allele was associated with a low risk for RSA in patients aged 35 years old or younger (p = 0.008). Conclusions In conclusion, our study revealed an age-dependent protective value of ADA 2(A) allele in recurrent spontaneous abortions among the Egyptian population. PMID:29204093

  6. The -2549 insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of VEGF is associated with the risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

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    Hashemi, Mohammad; Danesh, Hiva; Bizhani, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Bahari, Gholamreza; Tabasi, Farhad; Taheri, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common health problem affecting women of reproductive age. Altered expression of vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) has been associated with spontaneous abortion. The present case-control study aimed to evaluate the impact of the 18-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism (rs35569394) in the promoter region of the VEGF gene on idiopathic RSA. Genomic DNA from 93 patients with RSA and 93 healthy fertile women of southeastern Iran was isolated using the salting-out method. Genotyping of the rs35569394 variant was performed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The findings indicated that the VEGF 18-bp ins/del variant significantly increased the risk of RSA under codominant (ins/ins vs. del/del; OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.31-6.22, P=0.019), dominant (del/ins+ins/ins vs. del/del; OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.20-4.01, P=0.015) and allelic (ins vs. del; OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.25-2.88, P=0.003) inheritance models. In summary, the findings propose a significant association between the VEGF 18-bp ins/del polymorphism and risk of RSA in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. Further studies on larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are required to validate the present findings.

  7. Expression of AIF-1 and RANTES in Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion and Possible Association with Alloimmune Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and >8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.

  8. Up-regulated expression of Tim-3/Gal-9 at maternal-fetal interface in pregnant woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fan-fan; Zuo, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Hao, Hai-yan; Dang, Jing; Jiang, Min; He, Meng-zhou; Deng, Dong-rui

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3)/Galectin (Gal)-9 pathway and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) was studied. Thirty-one pregnant women with RSA and 27 normal early gravidas were investigated to detect the levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas by Western blotting. Meanwhile, the concentration of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 in peripheral blood plasma was determined by ELISA in 25 healthy fertile non-pregnant controls, the normal early gravidas and pregnant women with RSA mentioned above, respectively. It was found that the relative expression levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas were significantly increased in pregnant women with RSA as compared with those in the normal early gravidas. The concentration of IL-4 in peripheral blood plasma of pregnant women with RSA was lower than that of the normal early gravidas (Ppregnant controls (Ppregnant women with RSA was significantly higher than that of the normal early gravidas (Ppregnant controls (P<0.05). It was suggested that the overexpression of Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway may be related to the pathogenesis of RSA.

  9. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....

  10. Spontaneous Abortion and a Diet Drug Containing Caffeine and Ephedrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howards, Penelope P; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Bech, Bodil H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medications may be consumed periconceptionally before a woman knows she is pregnant. In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen) containing ephedrine (20 mg) and caffeine (200 mg) with spontaneous abortion (SAB) in the Danish National Birth...

  11. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category.

  12. HLA allele associations in idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion patients from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Shankarkumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rejection of semiallogenic foetus in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA has been postulated to be a consequence of genetic and immunological phenomena. Aim: To evaluate the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles in RSA in Indian couples. Settings and Design : A case-control study. Materials and Methods : Eighty-one randomly selected couples with unexplained three or more RSAs and a control group of 97 couples with live birth belonging to the same ethnic background, referred to the Gynaecology Department, KEM Hospital were included in the case-control study. Serological HLA A and B typing was done followed by molecular subtypes, defined using PCR-SSOP technique for HLA A, B, and C in 40 couples and DRB1FNx01 and DQB1FNx01 in 28 couples which were then compared with appropriate case 46 and 88 controls. Results : Serologically A3 (15.43% vs . 4.43%; odds ratio (OR = 4.34; P = 0.0002 and B17 (25.3% vs . 11.34%; OR = 3.49; P = 0.0001 were increased. Haplotype A1-B17 was significantly increased. Molecular subtyping revealed that AFNx01030102 (11.25% vs . 4.34%; OR = 3.00; P = 0.07, BFNx015701 (11.25% vs . 1.08%; OR = 13.10; P = 0.003, CwFNx01120201 (25% vs . 4.34%; OR = 10.50; P = 2.05E-05, HLA DRB1FNx01030101 (17.85% vs . 3.40%; OR = 7.6; P = 0.0001, DRB1FNx01150101 (32.14% vs . 13.63%; OR = 4.8; P = 0.0003, and DQB1FNx01060101 (35.71% vs . 29.34%; OR = 2.3; P = 0.004 were significantly increased in patients. A differential association was noticed when compared with reported world RSA patients. Conclusion: The HLA alleles AFNx01030101, BFNx015701, CwFNx01120201, DRB1FNx01030101, and DRB1FNx01150101 as well as their associated ancestral haplotype may play a significant role in development of RSA in India.

  13. Factors Analysis of Spontaneous Abortion after Thawed-vitrified Blastocysts Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong YANG; Zheng-yi SUN; Cheng-yan DENG; Qi YU; Fang-fang HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors resulting in spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen-thawing blastocysts. Methods A total of 108 cases transferring vitrified blastocysts were divided into two groups: abortion group (n =20) and ongoing group (n=88). Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was performed in 12 cases of the abortion.Results The overall spontaneous abortion rate was 18.50%(20/108) and the early spontaneous rate was 16.67%(18/108). ,4 significant difference in maternal age was observed (abortion group: 33.3±4.0 years, ongoing group: 31.0±3.6 years, P=0.02). No difference in other parameters was found. Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was obtained for 12 cases, and 2 specimens were contaminated. Seven of ten patients had abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion The underlying cause of spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen thawing blastocysts appears to be abnormal karyotypes.Advancing maternal age seems to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

  14. Male Factors and socioeconomic indicators correlate with the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    and environmental factors by studying reproductive histories in population based cohorts. We based the study upon two cohorts. The 'abortion cohort' consisted of 55 259 women who had a hospitalised spontaneous abortion in Denmark between 1980 and 1992 and who had a subsequent non-terminated pregnancy. The 'birth...... the municipality of residence to a low risk area (based upon the geographical distribution of spontaneous abortions) reduced the risk of spontaneous abortion in both cohorts. A paternal effect on the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion cannot be ruled out but environmental factors also play a role.......No less than 10% of clinically recognised pregnancies end as spontaneous abortions and the recurrence risk is high. Due to lack of data and appropriate study design only little is known about preventable causes of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of paternal...

  15. Balanced Chromosomal Translocation of Chromosomes 6 and 7: A Rare Male Factor of Spontaneous Abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sefa Resim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carriers of structural chromosomal rearrangements such as Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and producing offspring with genetic abnormalities. Case Report: We report a man with balanced chromosomal translocations located at 6p22, and 7q22. His wife has a history of four spontaneous abortions. Conclusion: Couples with a history of abortions should be investigated cytogenetically, after other causes of miscarriages are excluded. The possibility of spontaneous abortions can be reduced with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD before embryo transfer.

  16. Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K

    2000-01-01

    Male-mediated spontaneous abortion has never been documented for humans. The welding of stainless steel is associated with the pulmonary absorption of hexavalent chromium, which has genotoxic effects on germ cells in rodents. Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among...

  17. Use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger, om brugen af antiepileptika under graviditeten kan øge risikoen for spontan abort eller dødfødsel. Resultaterne viser, at 16 ud af 100 gravide kvinder, som brugte antiepileptika, mistede fostret ved en spontan abort, mens det kun var 13 ud af 100 gravide kvinder, som ikke...

  18. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T.B.; Hjollund, N.H.; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions...... in Denmark in 1992-1994, 430 couples without previous pregnancy attempts were enrolled when birth control was discontinued, and they were followed until a clinically recognized pregnancy or for six menstrual cycles. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in monthly questionnaires...... with no intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss....

  19. Spontaneous abortion: a prospective cohort study of younger women from the general population in Denmark. Validation, occurrence and risk determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, L; Tolstrup, J; Munk, C

    2006-01-01

    -based prospective cohort study comprising 11,088 women and data from a linkage of the cohort with the Hospital Discharge Register to compare spontaneous abortions as reported in the interview with those identified in the register. Based on interview data, we estimated the rate of spontaneous abortion during the two......-year follow-up. Finally, risk determinants for incident spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 654 spontaneous abortions before enrolment in the study were reported by the women compared to 531 abortions found in the register. More than 80% of the spontaneous...... abortions identified from both sources were recorded in the same year. During follow-up a total of 20.9% of pregnancies intended to be carried to term ended as a spontaneous abortion. In the risk factor analysis, we found that previous spontaneous abortion, being single, never having used oral...

  20. HLA-G polymorphisms in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Hylenius, S; Hoegh, A M

    2002-01-01

    % of the RSA women carried the HLA-G*0106 allele compared to 2% of the control women. The 14 bp deletion polymorphism in exon 8 was investigated separately. There were a greater number of heterozygotes for the 14 bp polymorphism in the group of fertile control women than expected, according to Hardy-Weinberg...... equilibrium. Furthermore, the HLA-G alleles without the 14 bp sequence were prominent in the RSA males in contrast to the RSA women in whom alleles including the 14 bp sequence were frequently observed, especially as homozygotes. These results are discussed in relation to two hypotheses concerning HLA...

  1. Increase of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-fang; YU Xue-wen; JIN Hui; LI Xu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 protein expression level in decidua andconcentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in serum in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion,threatened abortion, and compare the levels with healthy pregnant women. Methods: Thirty-seven women with unexplainedearly spontaneous abortion, 27 women with threatened abortion, and 34 healthy pregnant women undergoing artificial abortionof pregnancy at 6 - 10 weeks of gestation were selected. Decidual samples were collected when women were undergoing arti-ficial abortion, and blood samples were collected at the same time. The level of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 indecidua was detected by flow cytometer, and the concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in sera was mea-sured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ercentages of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1positive decidual cells were 16.42 ± 7.10 Mean ± SD for women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion and 13.14 ±6.30 for healthy pregnant women ( P < 0.05). Serum oncentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was signifi-cantly higher in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion than in healthy pregnant women and in women withthreatened abortion, and no difference was found between healthy pregnant women and women with threatened abortion.Conclusion: Women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion present significantly higher expression of tumor necrosisfactor receptor 1 than healthy pregnant women, suggesting that over-expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 may cont-ribute to the development of early spontaneous abortion.

  2. Variations in T-helper 17 and Regulatory T Cells during The Menstrual Cycle in Peripheral Blood of Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sereshki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders in immune system regulation may result in pregnancy abnormalities such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. This study aims to determine the ratio of regulatory T (Treg and T helper (Th 17 cells in unexplained RSA (URSA women during proliferative and secretory phases of their menstrual cycles compared to healthy non-pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 25 women with URSA and 35 healthy, non-pregnant women were enrolled. The percentage of Th17 and Treg cells in participants peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. Results: The percentage of Th17 cells and their related cytokines in serum (IL-17A were higher in the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycles of URSA women compared to the control women. However, a lower percentage of Treg cells and their related cytokines in serum, transforming growth factor (TGF β1 and interleukin (IL-10 were detected in the proliferative but not the secretory phase of the URSA group. The ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg was higher in the URSA group than the control group. We observed an increased ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg during the proliferative and secretory phases in URSA women. Conclusion: The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells during the proliferative phase of menstrual cycles in the URSA group may be considered a cause for spontaneous abortion.

  3. [Decidual natural killer cells in recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosević, Dragana Radović; Lilić, Vekoslav; Basić, Hakija; Pavlović, Aleksandra Tubić; Stefanović, Milan; Milosević, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    A repeated or habitual miscarriage (PSP) is defined as three or more consecutive losses of pregnancy. In the first three months of pregnancy, habitual miscarriages occur in about 1% of pregnant women, out of which 50% are of an unknown etiology. It is believed that among them, the greatest number is the consequence of an inadequate alloimmune response of a women to the pregnancy. The endocrine and immune systems are in a close interaction during the implantation and maintaining of pregnancy. This communication is the most obvious on endometrium of pregnancy decidua. The aim of the study was to identify the number and the subpopulation distribution of the decidual NK cells in the decidua by using an immunohistochemical method. The research included a group of 30 women who had had two spontaneous miscarriages consecutively in the first three months of their pregnancy, while the curettage after the third spontaneous abortion was histopathologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. The control group consisted of 20 women without a problematic reproductive anamnesis, who had had their pregnancy terminated for social reasons. The criteria for the eliminating from the research were the diagnosed uterus anomalies, positive screening on thrombophilia, as well as women suffering from diabetes melitus and the ones with the thyroid gland function disorder. The number and the phenotype structure of the uterus NK cells were significantly different between the decidua of a normal pregnancy and that in PSP. In the decidua in PSP, there were much more NK cells with the phenotype of the peripheral circulation CD57 and CD56dim, while in the decidua of the control group the dominant cells were the typical uNK cell subpopulation CD56bright. The above mentioned results show that the disregulation of the immunocompetent cells of the decidua, by creating an inadequate cytokine milieu, is one of the mechanism of rejecting the semiallogeneic blastocyst.

  4. Twin RSA

    OpenAIRE

    Lenstra, Arjen K.; Weger, De; Benjamin, M. M.

    2005-01-01

    We introduce Twin RSA, pairs of RSA moduli (n, n+ 2), and formulate several questions related to it. Our main questions are: is Twin RSA secure, and what is it good for? © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005.

  5. HLA-G polymorphisms in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Hylenius, S; Hoegh, A M

    2002-01-01

    % of the RSA women carried the HLA-G*0106 allele compared to 2% of the control women. The 14 bp deletion polymorphism in exon 8 was investigated separately. There were a greater number of heterozygotes for the 14 bp polymorphism in the group of fertile control women than expected, according to Hardy-Weinberg...

  6. Role of Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Polymorphism and X-Inactivation in the Manifestation of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions in Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, Meka; Dasgupta, Shilpi; Sirisha, Pisapati V. S.; Andal Bhaskar, Sadaranga; Tarakeswari, Surapaneni; Singh, Lalji; Reddy, B. Mohan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CAG repeat polymorphism and X-chromosome Inactivation (XCI) pattern in Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions among Indian women which has not been hitherto explored. 117 RSA cases and 224 Controls were included in the study. Cases were recruited from two different hospitals - Lakshmi Fertility Clinic, Nellore and Fernandez Maternity Hospital, Hyderabad. Controls were roughly matched for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The CAG repeats of the Androgen Receptor gene were genotyped using a PCR-based assay and were analysed using the GeneMapper software to determine the CAG repeat length. XCI analysis was also carried out to assess the inactivation percentages. RSA cases had a significantly greater frequency of allele sizes in the polymorphic range above 19 repeats (p = 0.006), which is the median value of the controls, and in the biallelic mean range above 21 repeats (p = 0.002). We found no evidence of abnormal incidence of skewed X-inactivation. We conclude that longer CAG repeat lengths are associated with increased odds for RSA with statistical power estimated to be ∼90%. PMID:21423805

  7. Measurement of total risk of spontaneous abortion: the virtue of conditional risk estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modvig, J; Schmidt, L; Damsgaard, M T

    1990-01-01

    The concepts, methods, and problems of measuring spontaneous abortion risk are reviewed. The problems touched on include the process of pregnancy verification, the changes in risk by gestational age and maternal age, and the presence of induced abortions. Methods used in studies of spontaneous...... abortion risk include biochemical assays as well as life table technique, although the latter appears in two different forms. The consequences of using either of these are discussed. It is concluded that no study design so far is appropriate for measuring the total risk of spontaneous abortion from early...... conception to the end of the 27th week. It is proposed that pregnancy may be considered to consist of two or three specific periods and that different study designs should concentrate on measuring the conditional risk within each period. A careful estimate using this principle leads to an estimate of total...

  8. Immunoexpression of CD30 and CD30 ligand in deciduas from spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Trovato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of CD30 and CD30-L in 35 deciduas obtained from women following elective abortion during normal physiological gestation and in 60 deciduas obtained from women after spontaneous abortion with or without signs of inflammation. The main difference was noticed in the first trimester of gestation in which was found a decrease in CD30/CD30-L-positive decidual glandular and stromal cells in a greater number of cases of spontaneous abortions with respect to cases of physiological pregnancies (70% vs 50%, p<0.05. In addition, deciduas from spontaneous abortions with inflammation and without inflammation reacted similarly. The reduced expression of CD30 and CD30-L and their cellular pattern detected in the deciduas from spontaneous abortions suggest that the CD30/CD30-L system is crucial for preventing abortions in the first trimester. And furthermore, the distinctive expression of CD30/CD30- L in deciduas from physiological pregnancies may indicate that the CD30/CD30-L system exerts its main role in the first trimester.

  9. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.

  10. Validation of spontaneous abortion diagnoses in the Danish National Registry of Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Sarah Rytter; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Lohse, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to validate the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion (SA) recorded in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP). METHODS: We randomly selected patients registered in the DNRP with a diagnosis of SA between 1980 and 2008 from hospitals in the county of North...... the three patients with available data who did not fulfill the criteria for SA, one had an induced abortion and two had threatened abortion but did not miscarry. CONCLUSION: Registration of SA in the DNRP accurately reflects the diagnoses recorded in medical charts. The DNRP is a suitable source of data...

  11. Sexual history and contraception among women with induced and spontaneous abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Mary, V; Urassa, E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create sexual history profiles of women with illegally induced abortion (IA) and women with spontaneous abortion (SA) and describe the women's knowledge of, attitude to, and practice of contraception. The study was carried out in two settings, Temeke District...... the rate of ever users of contraception was low in both groups, although significantly lower among IA women than among SA women. Outcome of first pregnancy had been an induced abortion in significantly higher proportion of IA than of SA women. In conclusion, sexual intercourse before marriage is common...

  12. Assessment of Relationship between Spontaneous Abortion and Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, some studies indicate the adverse effects of exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion with occupational exposure to organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study which was carried out in 2010 in one of the pharmaceutical factories located in the suburbs of Tehran. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and were exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents. Frequency of spontaneous abortion and duration of pregnancy were assessed in both two groups. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software using t-test, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results: In the present study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7%. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP. Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, review of the status of occupational exposure of workers can be helpful

  13. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E L

    1989-01-01

    If you are pregnant and near 40 years old there is 1/137 chance that your child may have Down's syndrome, or 1/65 chance he will have a physical or mental problem. There are tests that can indicate these problems but they increase the risk of spontaneous abortion. A woman should not be forced to carry an unwanted child, and the needs of childless couples should not be addressed in abortion discussions. The Roe v. Wade case made the distinction of not having to determine when life begins, but when it can be sustained outside the body. The Missouri statute states that human life begins at conception, an unborn child has protectable life interests and the parents of that child have protectable life interests of the unborn child in relation to life, health and its well being. States that are really concerned with the interests of unborn children should improve prenatal care, educate teens on contraception, AIDS, and be concerned about violent behavior and smoking. Voters in Michigan and Arkansas approved a law to stop the use of public funds for abortion, other than saving the mother's life. Pro- choice advocates are concerned that the conservative appointees to the supreme court will reverse the previous decision.

  14. Bacterial vaginosis in association with spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Isik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30.5% of 200 women had the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last six months (N = 30 and at least three recurrent pregnancy losses (N = 31. BV was diagnosed either by using Papanicolaou staining, Gram staining, or by culturing with BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis. Results: The presence of BV was statistically associated with the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last 6 months (P 0.05. These women were also evaluated in view of periods of gestation. Forty-seven (77% of 61 women had first trimester miscarriage (≤12 weeks and 14 (23% of 61 women had second trimester miscarriage (>12 weeks. There was a statistically significant relationship between BV and second trimester miscarriage (P 0.05. Conclusion: BV may contribute to spontaneous abortion and second trimester miscarriage.

  15. The relationship between spontaneous abortion and female workers in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heechan; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Rhie, Jeongbae; Lim, Sinye; Kang, Yun-Dan; Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Hyungryul; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Roh, Sangchul

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between job type and the risk for spontaneous abortion to assess the reproductive toxicity of female workers in the semiconductor industry. A questionnaire survey was administered to current female workers of two semiconductor manufacturing plants in Korea. We included female workers who became pregnant at least 6 months after the start of their employment with the company. The pregnancy outcomes of 2,242 female workers who experienced 4,037 pregnancies were investigated. Personnel records were used to assign the subjects to one of three groups: fabrication process workers, packaging process workers, and clerical workers. To adjust for within-person correlations between pregnancies, a generalized estimating equation was used. The logistic regression analysis was limited to the first pregnancy after joining the company to satisfy the assumption of independence among pregnancies. Moreover, we stratified the analysis by time period (pregnancy in the years prior to 2008 vs. after 2009) to reflect differences in occupational exposure based on semiconductor production periods. The risk for spontaneous abortion in female semiconductor workers was not significantly higher for fabrication and packaging process workers than for clerical workers. However, when we stratified by time period, the odds ratio for spontaneous abortion was significantly higher for packaging process workers who became pregnant prior to 2008 when compared with clerical workers (odds ratio: 2.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-4.81). When examining the pregnancies of female semiconductor workers that occurred prior to 2008, packaging process workers showed a significantly higher risk for spontaneous abortions than did clerical workers. The two semiconductor production periods in our study (prior to 2008 vs. after 2009) had different automated processes, chemical exposure levels, and working environments. Thus, the conditions prior to 2008 may have increased the

  16. The placental barrier in allogenic immune conflict in spontaneous early abortions: immunohistochemical and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Pavel; Elhayany, Asher; Milovanov, Andrey P; Halperin, Reuvit; Kaganovsky, Ella; Zusman, Itzhak; Ben-Hur, Herzel

    2007-11-01

    Morphologic changes in the placental barrier in spontaneous early abortions under the maternal-embryonic immune conflict, and the role of maternal immunoglobulins (Igs) in these changes. We examined chorionic villi and other tissues obtained from 54 aborts between weeks 3.5 and 8 of pregnancy. Material was divided into two groups. Group 1 (control) contained 15 medically recommended and spontaneous early aborts with no signs of inflammations or pathologic immune processes. Group 2 contained 39 spontaneous early aborts with acute chorionic villitis. Immunohistochemical and morphometric methods were used to study the Igs, different types of immunocompetent cells, and apoptosis-related components of the placental barrier. Acute villitis was found to be characterized by the destruction of all components of the chorionic villi, thrombovasculitis with apoptosis of the endothelium of capillaries and erythroblasts, mucous swelling of the basal membrane, and coagulation of the blood proteins. Due to destruction of the capillaries, the number of avasculate villi increased, and the average number of capillaries per villus decreased. The extremely high number of phagolysosomes with IgG and IgA in the villous monocytes in the group 2 indicates an increase in the phagocytic activity of monocytes against maternal Igs and may reflect the presence of mother-embryo immune conflict. Apoptosis of monocytes and a high number of promonocytes were seen accompanied by a high concentration of p53 protein. A large disturbance in the trophoblast occurred with disappearance of bcl-2 and the appearance of Fas ligand. Massive destruction of maternal Igs in embryonic monocytes and acute villitis in the placental barrier are manifested during the mother-embryo immune conflict, and this may be one of the reasons of spontaneous early abortions.

  17. Change of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Hua Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and investigate the change state of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Methods: A total of 92 patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion in our hospital from June 2013 to July 2015 were selected as the observation group and 92 women with health delivery history at the same time were selected as the control group,then the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of two groups were detected and compared and the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were compared too. Results:The peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of observation group and control group all had obvious differences,and those blood indexes levels' differences of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were obvious too, all P<0.05 and the differences were significant. Conclusions: The T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion show abnormal state and the differences of detection results of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times are relatively obvious,so those indexes should be monitored and improved intentinonally.

  18. Metformin exposure in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortions in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn; Viftrup-Lund, Mette; Gade, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine whether metformin affects the rate of first trimester spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations in women with PCOS. Design. Consecutive series of metformin treated women with a questionnaire followup. Setting. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at H...... is comparable with the risk in the general population. Our low incidence of malformations warrants further investigation on adverse and beneficial effects of metformin during pregnancy....

  19. Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth and Hyperthyroidism: A Danish Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pregnancy loss in women suffering from hyperthyroidism has been described in case reports, but the risk of pregnancy loss caused by maternal hyperthyroidism in a population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal hyperthyroidism and pregnancy loss in a population-based cohort study. Study Design All pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 leading to hospital visits (n = 1,062,862) were identified in nationwide registers together with information on maternal hyperthyroidism for up to 2 years after the pregnancy [hospital diagnosis/prescription of antithyroid drug (ATD)]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for spontaneous abortion (gestational age hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before/during the pregnancy (n = 5,229), spontaneous abortion occurred more often both in women treated before the pregnancy alone [aHR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18-1.40)] and in women treated with ATD in early pregnancy [1.18 (1.07-1.31)]. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and treated for the first time in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (n = 2,361), there was a high risk that the pregnancy under study had terminated with a stillbirth [2.12 (1.30-3.47)]. Conclusions Both early (spontaneous abortion) and late (stillbirth) pregnancy loss were more common in women suffering from hyperthyroidism. Inadequately treated hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may have been involved in spontaneous abortion, and undetected high maternal thyroid hormone levels present in late pregnancy may have attributed to an increased risk of stillbirth. PMID:25538898

  20. Complications and the effect of varicocelectomy on semen analysis, fertility, early ejaculation and spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is still an enigma. Its effects on semen analysis, fertility and, more re-cently, early ejaculation and spontaneous abortion in spouses are not yet fully understood. In this retrospective study, we evaluated these four parameters (semen analysis, fertility, early ejacu-lation and spontaneous abortion among spouses in relation to varicocele and varicocelectomy during a 13-year period. A total of 1,711 patients with varicocele underwent varicocelectomy by high inguinal method (251 cases, subinguinal method (1,375 cases, scrotal method (34 cases, and subinguinal method with local anesthesia (38 cases. Our complication rate was acceptable. Sperm count, motility and morphology increased three months post operation in 55, 51, and 46%, respectively (P value 0.000, 0.000, and 0.015, respectively. Paternity was 56% after one year of post varicocelectomy follow-up. Only 7 out of 82 azoospermic men had sperm in their semen after varicocelectomy and only one of them with mild spermatogenic hypoplasia became a father. The spontaneous abortion rate in the spouses of respondents was 59%. Early ejaculation improved in 75% of the respondents. In conclusion, varicocelectomy does not improve sperm parameters in all men, but it improves pregnancy rate, early ejaculation, and scrotal pain.

  1. Arsenic exposure in pregnant mice disrupts placental vasculogenesis and causes spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenjie; Greenwell, Robert J; Brooks, Diane M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Beall, Howard D; Coffin, J Douglas

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic is an abundant toxicant in ground water and soil around areas with extractive industries. Human epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to developmental defects and miscarriage. The placenta is known to utilize vasculogenesis to develop its circulation. The hypothesis tested here states the following: arsenic exposure causes placental dysmorphogenesis and defective placental vasculogenesis resulting in placental insufficiency and subsequent spontaneous abortion. To test this hypothesis, pregnant mice were exposed to sodium arsenite (AsIII) through drinking water from conception through weanling stages. Neonatal assessment of birth rates, pup weights, and litter sizes in arsenic exposed and control mothers revealed that AsIII-exposed mothers had only 40% the fecundity of controls. Preterm analysis at E12.5 revealed a loss of fecundity at E12.5 from either 20 ppm or greater exposures to AsIII. There was no loss of fecundity at E7.5 suggesting that spontaneous abortion occurs during placentation. Histomorphometry on E12.5 placentae from arsenic-exposed mice revealed placental dysplasia especially in the vasculature. These results suggest that arsenic toxicity is causative for mammalian spontaneous abortion by virtue of aberrant placental vasculogenesis and placental insufficiency.

  2. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  3. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss

  4. Expression of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoform in Chorionic Villi in the Early Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the early spontaneous abortion. , in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of iNOS in trophoblasts in the early pregnancy with and without spontaneous abortion (group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ ). By light microscopy and computer color magic image analysis system (CMIAS), light density (D) and the positive cell number per statistic square (N/S) in situ hybridization were used to analyze the positive cell index, while total positive cells (N) and the positive unit (Pu) were used in immunohistochemistry. By in situ hybridization, D and N/S in trophoblasts were 0. 35±0. 028, 0. 07±0. 011 respectively in group Ⅰ and 0. 18±0. 016,0. 015±0. 003 in group Ⅱ . In terms of immunohistochemical staining, N and Pu were 0. 058±±0. 007, 11. 94±2. 01 in group Ⅰ and 0. 013±0. 009, 1. 08±0. 35 in group Ⅱ in trophoblasts. Significant differences existed between two groups. It is concluded that the higher nitric oxide produced by the higher expression of iNOS in trophoblasts might play an important role in the early spontaneous abortion.

  5. Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most health care providers advise counseling.

  6. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  7. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor "Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on abortion. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) clinic licensing, e.g., requiring outpatient health care facilities in which abortions are performed, to have malpractice liability insurance; 2) comprehensive statues, which require parental notification before minor may obtain abortions, mandate abortion counseling to all women 24 hours before the abortion can be performed and prohibit disciplining or discharging a state employee for refusing to provide abortion counseling; 3) fetal personhood and rights, e.g. providing that life is vested in each person at fertilization; 4) fetal research and remains; 5) gender of fetus, which regulate abortions relative to sex selection in pregnancies; 6) harassment regulation; 7) informed consent and waiting periods detailing the risks and alternatives to abortion, and the 24-hour waiting period; 8) insurance coverage, e.g., eliminating language banning the coverage of abortions for state workers, and prohibiting disclosure by a health insurance carrier to the employer of a claimant that the claimant had a surgical abortion; 9) legality of abortion, urging Congress to reject he Freedom of Choice Act; 10) parental consent and notification; 11) postviability requirements; 12) public funding; 13) reporting requirements; 14) reproductive rights, and 15) spousal and paternal consent and notification.

  8. Polimorfismo do gene dos receptores de progesterona e o aborto espontâneo de repetição Progesterone receptor gene polymorphism and recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Évelyn Traina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar se polimorfismos dos genes que codificam o receptor de progesterona (PROGINS estão relacionados à ocorrência de aborto espontâneo de repetição (AER. MÉTODOS: em estudo caso-controle, foram selecionados 85 pacientes com antecedente de pelo menos três abortos precoces sem etiologia definida (Grupo Caso e 157 mulheres com história de pelo menos duas gestações de termo sem intercorrências e sem passado de abortamento (Grupo Controle. Realizada coleta de 10 mL de sangue por punção venosa periférica e extração de DNA pela técnica DTAB/CTAB. As genotipagens foram feitas por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR, nas condições de ciclagem específica para o polimorfismo em estudo, seguida de amplificação em gel de agarose a 2%. A visualização das bandas foi feita sob luz ultravioleta e os géis foram fotografados. As diferenças genotípicas e alélicas entre os dois grupos para o polimorfismo PROGINS foram calculadas pelo teste de χ2, adotando-se como nível de significância valores de pPURPOSE: to assess a possible association between polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. METHODS: in this case-control study, 85 women with at least three previous spontaneous abortions without an identifiable cause (RSA Group and 157 women with at least two previous term pregnancies without pathologies and no previous miscarriage (Control Group were selected. An amount of 10 mL of peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture and genomic DNA was extracted by the DTAB/CTAB method, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR under specific conditions for this polymorphism and by amplification by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized with an ultraviolet light transilluminator and the gels were photographed. Differences in the PROGINS genotype and allele frequencies between groups were analyzed by the χ2 test, with the level of significance set

  9. Study on the homocysteine metabolism of patients with unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the metabolism abnormality of homocysteine(Hcy) in unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion(URSA).Methods:The level of Hcy in sera was measured with hyperpressure liquid chromatography(HPLC);Folic acid and vitamin B12 were detected by radioimmune assay;anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was detected by ELISA.Results:(1)The level of serum Hcy in URSA group was significantly higher than that in control group,showing a statistical significant difference(P<0.01).The level of Hcy was correlated with ages,but not correlated with areas,numbers of miscarriage,gestation age,primary or secondary abortions.(2)The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in URSA group were significantly lower than those in control group.The levels of serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were not correlated with age,area,numbers of miscarriage and abortion periods.(3)ACA positive rate in URSA was significantly higher than that in control group.The level of Hcy in ACA(+) group was significantly higher than that in ACA(-) group among URSA patients.Conclusions:Hyperhomocysteinemia,low folic acid state,and ACA were all the independent risk factors for URSA.Lacking of folic acid and vitamin B12 is one of the important causes of hyperhomocysteinemia.ACA and hyperhomocysteinemia may have synergistic action in the occurrence of URSA.

  10. Does caffeine and alcohol intake before pregnancy predict the occurrence of spontaneous abortion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Kjær, S. K.; Munk, C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeine and alcohol is suspected to affect pregnancy outcome. Use of both stimulants is widespread and even minor effects on fetal viability are of public health interest. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population.......72 (1.00-2.96) for a pre-pregnancy intake on 75-300, 301-500, 501-900 and >900 mg caffeine per day respectively (P = 0.05 for trend). A pre-pregnancy intake of alcohol was not a predictor for spontaneous abortion. CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of caffeine prior to pregnancy seems to be associated......-based cohort comprising 11088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n = 303) or who gave birth (n = 1381) during follow-up [mean time: 2.1 years (range: 1.6-3.4)] were selected. Associations between self-reported exposures to caffeine and/or alcohol...

  11. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and transcobalamin genetic polymorphisms in human spontaneous abortion: biological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg Henrik

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.

  12. Weathering the storm; a review of pre-pregnancy stress and risk of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Tyralynn; Hogue, Carol J Rowland; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Yount, Kathryn M; Pearce, Brad D

    2018-06-01

    The Weathering Effect is a theory that links stress exposure, over the life-course, with racial disparities in reproductive outcomes, through the effects of social adversity on a woman's body. The concept of maternal "weathering" captures cumulative somatic and psychological adversities that can exacerbate the effects of aging. Much of the evidence for weathering comes from observational studies linking self-report measures with reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore biological mechanisms that underlie these observations. We focus on spontaneous abortion because this event is understudied despite evidence of racial disparities in this outcome. Spontaneous abortion is the most common pregnancy failure, and it happens early in pregnancy. Early pregnancy is a time most susceptible to the harmful effects of immune dysregulation that may, in part, result from adversities experienced before pregnancy begins. In exploring these mechanisms, we draw on well-defined signaling processes observed in the stressor-depression relationship. Pro-inflammatory dysregulation, for example, has particular relevance to immunological control occurring early in pregnancy. Early pregnancy immunologic changes affect the trajectories of pregnancy via control of trophoblastic invasion. Within the first few weeks of pregnancy, uterine derived cytokines operate within cytokine networks and play a critical role in this invasion. Programming for pro-inflammatory dysregulation can occur before conception. This dysregulation, brought into early pregnancy, has implications for viability and success of the index pregnancy. These patterns suggest early pregnancy health is susceptible to stress processing pathways that influence this immunologic control in the first six to eight weeks of pregnancy. In this review, we discuss the known mediating role of immune factors in the stressor-depression relationship. We also discuss how adversity experienced before the index pregnancy, or

  13. Aberrant Expression of TNF-α and TGF-β1 mRNA in Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-fen HU; Hong-chu BAO; Feng-chuan ZHU; Cai-ling YOU

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the aberrant expressions of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and placental tissues in patients with early spontaneous abortionMethods Using the technique of semi-quantitative reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), TNF-α mRNA and TGF-β1 mRNA in PBMCs were measured in spontaneous abortion group (30 cases), normal pregnancy group (25 cases) and nonpregnant group (25 cases). The expressive intension of TNF-α protein and TGF-β1 protein in placental tissues was also identified by immunohistochemistry.Results Both levels of TNF-α mRNA and TGF-β1 mRNA expressed in PBMCs were significantly different between the three groups respectively (P<0. 05). Levels of TNF-α in syncytiotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic cells of the two aborted groups were substantially higher than those of the non-pregnant group (P<0. 01), but the levels of TGF-β1 in syncytiotrophoblastic cells of the two aborted groups were markedly lower than those of the non-pregnant group (P<0. 01).Conclusion There is potential relation between TGF-β1 at the fetomaternal interface and spontaneous abortion. TGF-β1 may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy,and low-level expression of TGF-β1 may be associated with pregnancy failure.

  14. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  15. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes of Patients with History of First-Trimester Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a history of first-trimester recurrent spontaneous abortion (FRSA is regarded as a risk factor in antenatal care, the characteristic of subsequent pregnancy outcome is not clearly elucidated. Here, a retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 492 singleton pregnant women. 164 of them with the history of FRSA were enrolled in study group, compared to 328 deliveries without the history of FRSA. For maternal outcomes, patients in the study group delivered earlier with mean gestational age and the incidences of cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage were higher compared to the control group. For placental outcomes, the incidence of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC in the study group increased in terms of late-onset preeclampsia, oligohydramnios, early-onset fetal growth restriction, and second-trimester abortion. Patients in the study group were more likely to suffer from placenta accreta, placenta increta, and placenta percreta. For perinatal outcomes, the proportion of birth defects of newborns in the study group was greater. At last, logistic regression analyses showed that the history of FRSA was an independent risk factor for cesarean section and pregnancy complications. In conclusion, women with the history of FRSA are often exposed to an elevated incidence of maternal-placental-perinatal adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  16. Relation between parvovirus B19 infection and fetal mortality and spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Zahra; Esghaei, Maryam; Keyvani, Hossein; Shabani, Fateme; Sarmadi, Fateme; Mollaie, Hamidreza; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Infection with parvovirus B19 may cause fetal losses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of parvovirus B19 in formalin fixed placental tissues in lost fetuses using real-time PCR method. In this cross-sectional study, 100 formalin fixed placental tissues with unknown cause of fetal death were determined using real-time PCR method after DNA extraction. Six out of 100 cases (6%) were positive for parvovirus B19 using real-time PCR. Gestational age of all positive cases was less than 20 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks. Three cases have a history of abortion and all of positive cases were collected in spring. Mean age of positive cases were 28 years. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can infect red precursor cells and induces apoptosis or lyses these cells that resulting in anemia and congestive heart failure leading to fetal death. Management of parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women is important because immediate diagnosis and transfusion in hydropsic fetuses can decrease the risk of fetal death.

  17. Increased leukemia, lymphoma, and spontaneous abortion in Western New York following a flood disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janerich, D.T.; Stark, A.D.; Greenwald, P.; Burnett, W.S.; Jacobson, H.I.; McCusker, J.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health was asked in September 1978 of investigate a cluster of leukemias and lymphomas in a rural town in western New York State of less than 1,000 people. Four cases of these diseases had been diagnosed in the town's population in the previous 10 months. Residents were concerned about environmental hazards such as background radiation and contamination of their water supply. A total environmental study of the area was not feasible or warranted, but certain environmental studies of the area were conducted. No environmental health hazards were identified. Incidence rates for towns in the four-county area (population 281,000) surrounding the study town were analyzed, based on data from the New York State Cancer Registry. These four counties had been severely affected by the flood following the 1972 Hurricane Agnes. Examination of annual leukemia and lymphoma incidence rates for these counties for 1966--77 revealed that the rates for towns in the river valley (population 102,000), but not for nonriver-valley towns, were 20 to 50 percent above the statewide rates for 1972--77. All other cancer rates remained level throughout both periods. An analysis of spontaneous abortion rates for the four counties for 1968--77 showed a significant peak in 1973, but not for the rest of upstate New York. The peak was concentrated in the towns in the river valley. The apparent time-space cluster of leukemias and lymphomas in conjunction with a marked increase in the spontaneous abortion rate suggests an unidentified flood-related environmental exposure

  18. [Abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment.

  19. RSA cryptography and multi prime RSA cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, Nur Atiqah Abdul; Kamarulhaili, Hailiza

    2017-08-01

    RSA cryptography is one of the most powerful and popular cryptosystem which is being applied until now. There is one variant of RSA cryptography named Multi Prime RSA (MPRSA) cryptography. MPRSA cryptography is the improved version of RSA cryptography. We only need to modify a few steps in key generation part and apply the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) in the decryption part to get the MPRSA algorithm. The focus of this research is to compare between the standard RSA cryptography and MPRSA cryptography in a few aspects. The research shows that MPRSA cryptography is more efficient than the RSA cryptography. Time complexity using Mathematica software is also conducted and it is proven that MPRSA cryptography has shorter time taken. It also implies the computational time is less than RSA cryptography. Mathematica software version 9.0 and a laptop HP ProBook 4331s are used to check the timing and to implement both algorithms.

  20. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B

    1979-09-15

    Having read Professor Peter Huntingford's letter (25 August, p 496), I am more convinced than ever that reduction to the simplest possible terms will always clarify an issue, and I am at one with him in deploring the terms "serious," "grave," and "substantial." His last paragraph approximates to such clarify when he says "the right of women to choose freely whether or not they bear a child"--but I fear that the phrase is slanted and ignores an essential ingredient in the abortive act. Whereas the secondary effect of abortion is certainly that the woman will not bear a child, the primary effect is the killing of that child, admittedly small and defenceless. Maybe there are many who will seek to justify the killing of their fellow members of the human race on the grounds that they are not wanted, or might be handicapped; if so, let them proclaim these views "in good set terms." But if the principle of getting rid of the unwanted by killing them is to expand its application further, who among us will be safe when someone else can decide our fate? Even the advocates of euthanasia usually insist that it be voluntary. Who yet has asked a fetus whether it wants to live or be killed?

  1. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shagufta; Panicker, M M; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of the origin of the extra chromosome in trisomy 8 in 4 cases of spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, P; von Beust, G; Bugge, M; Karadima, G; Vassilopoulos, D; Brøndum-Nielsen, K; Petersen, M B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the origin of the extra chromosome in trisomy 8 in spontaneous abortions. We analyzed 4 cases of nonmosaic trisomy 8 in 1st-trimester spontaneous abortions and their parents with DNA polymorphism analysis using microsatellite DNA markers. In 3 cases the extra chromosome was maternal in origin and in 1 case paternal in origin. In 2 of the cases the nondisjunction had occurred in maternal meiosis, while the other 2 cases were consistent with a postzygotic (mitotic) origin of the additional chromosome. Although a small number of cases studied, these results suggest differences from the common autosomal trisomies 21, 18, 16, and 13 where the vast majority of cases are due to errors in maternal meiosis.

  3. Spontaneous abortion in the British semiconductor industry: An HSE investigation. Health and Safety Executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R C; Jones, J R; McElvenny, D M; Pennington, M J; Northage, C; Clegg, T A; Clarke, S D; Hodgson, J T; Osman, J

    1999-11-01

    The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) conducted a study to examine the risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB) in British female semiconductor industry workers, following reports from the USA which suggested an association between risk of SAB and work in fabrication rooms and/or exposure to ethylene glycol ethers. A nested case-control study based on 2,207 women who had worked at eight manufacturing sites during a 5-year retrospective time frame was established; 36 cases were matched with 80 controls. The overall SAB rate in the industry was 10.0%. (65 SABs/651 pregnancies) The crude odds ratio (OR) for fabrication work was 0.65 (95% CI 0.30-1.40). This was essentially unchanged after adjustment for a range of potential confounding factors in the first 3 months of pregnancy and was reduced to 0.58 (95% CI 0.26-1.30) after adjustment for smoking in the previous 12 months. There were no statistically significantly elevated ORs for any work group or any specific chemical or physical exposure in the industry. There is no evidence of an increased risk of SAB in the British semiconductor industry. Am. J. Ind. Med. 36:557-572, 1999. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. METHODS: Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus <35 were eligible for the meta-analysis. No statistical difference was found in risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77. CONCLUSIONS: ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  5. First-trimester antihistamine exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion or preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Tiara D; Hartmann, Katherine E; Michels, Kara A; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether antihistamine exposure during early pregnancy is associated with spontaneous abortion (SAB) or preterm birth (PTB). Women were enrolled in Right from the Start (2004-2010), a prospective pregnancy cohort. Data about first-trimester antihistamine use were obtained from screening and first-trimester interviews. Self-reported outcomes included SAB and PTB and were verified by medical records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test for an association between antihistamine use and each outcome, both performed adjusting for confounders. Among the 2685 pregnancies analyzed, 14% (n = 377) reported use of antihistamines. Among antihistamine users, 12% (n = 44) experienced SABs, and 6% (n = 21) had PTBs. Antihistamine exposure was not associated with SAB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 1.21) or PTB, which was modified by maternal race (aHR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.61, 1.72 among White women and aHR = 0.43, 95%CI 0.14, 1.34 among Black women). Despite the biologic plausibility that antihistamine use may influence pregnancy outcomes, we did not detect evidence of an association with SAB or PTB. These data demonstrate the utility of large prospective cohorts for evaluating drug safety in pregnancy when concerns are raised from animal models. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Fatores Associados ao Aborto Espontâneo Recorrente Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion-associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Barini

    2000-05-01

    . Conclusão: para uma investigação completa dos fatores associados ao aborto espontâneo recorrente faz-se necessária a inclusão do fator aloimune, sem a qual a maior parte dos casos não terá etiologia esclarecida.Purpose: to identify recurrent spontaneous abortion- associated factors. Subjects: one hundred seventy-five outpatients were investigated from March 1993 to March 1997 at the "Ambulatório de Aborto Recorrente CAISM/UNICAMP". All of them had had three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and/or two abortions and were 35 years or more old. Methods: the investigation protocol included: couple's karyotype; hysterosalpingography, serial plasma progesterone levels and/or endometrial biopsy; toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, brucelosis, lues and cytomegalovirus serum tests; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis cultures of cervical discharge; TSH and thyroid hormone levels; fasting glucose; autoantibody panel, anti-HLA antibody search by microlymphocytotoxicity crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor detection. Husband's evaluation included: physical evaluation, lues, Chagas' disease, B and C hepatitis and AIDS serum tests, microlymphocytotoxicity crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor detection. Results: alloimmune etiology was the most frequently found factor (86.3% of studied patients, represented by negative crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor below 50%. The second most frequently found factor was cervical incompetence (22.8%, followed by hormonal factor (21.2%, mainly represented by luteal insufficiency. Some patients were found to have more than one etiologic factor. Conclusion: the investigation of recurrent spontaneous abortion-associated factors must include alloimmune etiology. Most cases will remain unexplained without this investigation.

  7. Acute effects of air pollution on spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and stillbirth in Ahvaz, Iran: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Idani, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Khanjani, Narges

    2018-02-01

    Living in areas with high air pollution may have adverse effects on human health. There are few studies about the association between breathing polluted air and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Middle East. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between air pollution and spontaneous abortion, premature birth, and stillbirth in Ahvaz. A time-series study was conducted. Data about spontaneous abortion, premature deliveries, and stillbirth was collected from Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital. Air pollution data including NO, CO, NO 2 , PM 10 , SO 2 , O 3 , and climate data were, respectively, collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Khuzestan Province Meteorology Office from March 2008 until March 2015. The relationship between air pollutants with the number of abortions, premature births, and stillbirths was found using a quasi-Poisson distributed lag model, adjusted by trend, seasonality, temperature, relative humidity, weekdays, and holidays. The average daily dust in Ahvaz on 7.2% days of the year was higher than 500 μg/m 3 (very dangerous). Findings from this study indicate a significant association between each 10-unit increase in SO 2 and spontaneous abortion in lag 0 and 9 days. There was a significant relation between each 10-unit increase in NO 2 and CO, and premature birth in lag 0. Also, we found a significant association between each 10-unit increase in CO and premature delivery in lag 1; PM 10 and premature delivery in lags 10, 11, and 12; and NO and premature delivery in lags 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, and 13 (p value polluted air during pregnancy may increase adverse pregnancy outcomes and stillbirth. Pregnant women should avoid polluted air.

  8. Recognized spontaneous abortion in mid-pregnancy and patterns of pregnancy alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Lisa M; Bailey, Beth A; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Hannigan, John H

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is one potential risk factor for spontaneous abortion (SAb). Prior research suggested that heavy drinking during pregnancy was associated with significantly increased rates of SAb, but results for lower levels of drinking have been inconsistent. We examined the association between different levels and patterns of prenatal alcohol consumption and SAb in a high-risk inner-city sample. We hypothesized that higher levels, binge patterns, and more frequent drinking would be associated with increased rates of SAb. The quantity and frequency of self-reported peri-conceptional and repeated in-pregnancy maternal drinking volumes per beverage type were assessed with semi-structured interviews in a prospective subsample of 302 African-American mothers. Relations between various measures of prenatal alcohol exposure and SAb were assessed using logistic regression. After controlling for various potential confounders, there was a significant positive relation between average absolute alcohol use per day across pregnancy and SAb. Greater frequency of drinking episodes also predicted SAb: an average of even one day of drinking per week across pregnancy was associated with an increase in the incidence of SAb. However, contrary to our hypothesis, neither the amount of alcohol drunk per drinking day nor a measure of binge drinking was significantly related to SAb after controlling for confounders. Differences in when women who drank at risk levels initiated antenatal care may have under-estimated the impact of alcohol on SAb in this low-SES urban African-American sample. Some drinking measures averaged across pregnancy may have under-estimated consumption and overestimated risk of SAb, but other risk drinking measures that avoid this limitation show similar relations to SAb. Identifying fetal risk drinking in pregnant women is critical to increasing the effectiveness of interventions that reduce risk level alcohol consumption and protect from

  9. Employment in the Ecuadorian cut-flower industry and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlow Sioban D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the potentially adverse effects of occupational pesticide exposure on risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB is limited, particularly among female agricultural workers residing in developing countries. Methods Reproductive histories were obtained from 217 Ecuadorian mothers participating in a study focusing on occupational pesticide exposure and children's neurobehavioral development. Only women with 2+ pregnancies were included in this study (n = 153. Gravidity, parity and frequency of SAB were compared between women with and without a history of working in the cut-flower industry in the previous 6 years. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the relation between SAB and employment in the flower industry adjusting for maternal age. Results In comparison to women not working in the flower industry, women working in the flower industry were significantly younger (27 versus 32 years and of lower gravidity (3.3 versus 4.5 and reported more pregnancy losses. A 2.6 (95% CI: 1.03-6.7 fold increase in the odds of pregnancy loss among exposed women was observed after adjusting for age. Odds of reporting an SAB increased with duration of flower employment, increasing to 3.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 8.8 among women working 4 to 6 years in the flower industry compared to women who did not work in the flower industry. Conclusion This exploratory analysis suggests a potential adverse association between employment in the cut-flower industry and SAB. Study limitations include the absence of a temporal relation between exposure and SAB, no quantification of specific pesticides, and residual confounding such as physical stressors (i.e., standing. Considering that approximately half of the Ecuadorian flower laborers are women, our results emphasize the need for an evaluating the reproductive health effects of employment in the flower industry on reproductive health in this population.

  10. Contraceptive use following spontaneous and induced abortion and its association with family planning services in primary health care: results from a Brazilian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; OlaOlorun, Funmilola; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Tsui, Amy Ong

    2015-10-15

    Although it is well known that post-abortion contraceptive use is high when family planning services are provided following spontaneous or induced abortions, this relationship remains unclear in Brazil and similar settings with restrictive abortion laws. Our study aims to assess whether contraceptive use is associated with access to family planning services in the six-month period post-abortion, in a setting where laws towards abortion are highly restrictive. This prospective cohort study recruited 147 women hospitalized for emergency treatment following spontaneous or induced abortion in Brazil. These women were then followed up for six months (761 observations). Women responded to monthly telephone interviews about contraceptive use and the utilization of family planning services (measured by the utilization of medical consultation and receipt of contraceptive counseling). Generalized Estimating Equations were used to analyze the effect of family planning services and other covariates on contraceptive use over the six-month period post-abortion. Women who reported utilization of both medical consultation and contraceptive counseling in the same month had higher odds of reporting contraceptive use during the six-month period post-abortion, when compared with those who did not use these family planning services [adjusted aOR = 1.93, 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.13-3.30]. Accessing either service alone did not contribute to contraceptive use. Age (25-34 vs. 15-24 years) was also statistically associated with contraceptive use. Pregnancy planning status, desire to have more children and education did not contribute to contraceptive use. In restrictive abortion settings, family planning services offered in the six-month post-abortion period contribute to contraceptive use, if not restricted to simple counseling. Medical consultation, in the absence of contraceptive counseling, makes no difference. Immediate initiation of a contraceptive that suits women's pregnancy

  11. CD107a Expression and IFN-γ Production as Markers for Evaluation of Cytotoxic CD3+ CD8+ T Cell Response to CMV Antigen in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokhian, Batoul; Sherkat, Roya; Nasr Esfahani, Mohamma Hossein; Adib, Minoo; Kiani Esfahani, Abbas; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-01-01

    Some evidence has shown a relationship between primary human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and pregnancy loss. The impact of CMV infection reactivation during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes is not completely understood. It is proposed that altered immune response, and therefore, recurrence or reactivation of latent CMV infection may relate to recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA); however, few data are available in this regard. To find out about any cell mediated defect and reactivation of latent CMV infection in women with RPL, cellular immunity to the virus has been evaluated by specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to CMV. In a case control study, CTL CD107a expression and in- tercellular IFN-γ production in response to CMV pp65 antigen and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) in women with RSA were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Forty-four cases with history of recurrent pregnancy and forty-four controls with history of successful pregnancies were included. The FACSCaliber flow cytometer were used for analysis. No significant difference was observed between CD107a expression and IFN-γ production in response to CMV PP65 antigen in RPL patients and control group. How- ever, the cytotoxic response to SEB antigen in patients with RPL was significantly lower than control group (p=0.042). The results of this study show that impaired CD107a expression and IFN-γ production as CTL response to CMV does not appear to be a major contrib- uting and immune incompetence factor in patients with RPL, but cytotoxic T cell response defect to other antigens requires to be assessed further in these patients.

  12. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk of spontaneous abortion Polimorfismos maternos MTHFR y riesgo de aborto espontáneo

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rosario Rodríguez-Guillén; Luisa Torres-Sánchez; Jia Chen; Marcia Galván-Portillo; Julia Blanco-Muñoz; Miriam Aracely Anaya; Irma Silva-Zolezzi; María A Hernández-Valero; Lizbeth López-Carrillo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To asses the association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitami...

  13. Serum chemerin level in women with PCOS and its relation with the risk of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuezhou; Quan, Xiaozhen; Lan, Yanli; Wei, Qipeng; Ye, Jinhai; Yin, Xiaofang; Ji, Zhisong; Xing, Hui; Yang, Ying

    2018-04-16

    Insulin resistance (IR) was recognized as a risk factor for the occurrence of abortion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Chemerin was an adipokine which could induce IR and associated with reproductive process closely. However, few studies have inquired the relativity between chemerin and the occurrence of abortion in patients with PCOS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum chemerin and the occurrence of abortion in women with PCOS. We recruited 198 women with PCOS to participate in our study. On the third day of menstrual cycle or a random day in women with amenorrhea, we obtained their venous blood and measured the fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, chemerin, and hormones including FSH, E2, P, PRL, LH, and T. Additionally, BMI, HOMA-IR and LH/FSH of each subject were calculated. Finally, 58 of them were included in the study, in which 30 of them had normal pregnancy and the other 28 had an early miscarriage. We compared the biochemical characteristics between the normal pregnancy group and abortion group by independent-samples t test. In our study, those with a normal pregnancy had a lower level of BMI, FINs, HOMA-IR, and chemerin compared to abortion patients (p PCOS patients (p PCOS. Thus, serum chemerin may serve as a biomarker to identify pregnant women with PCOS who are at particular risk for later abortion, and who may benefit from prevention strategies.

  14. Detection of cytomegalovirus, human parvovirus B19, and herpes simplex virus-1/2 in women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Bian, Guohui; Zhou, Qiongxiu; Gao, Zhan; Liao, Pu; Liu, Yu; He, Miao

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between viral infections and first-trimester spontaneous abortions is not well-understood. The study aim was to investigate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parvovirus B19 (B19V), and herpes simplex virus-1/2 (HSV-1/2) infection by molecular and serological techniques in women experiencing spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. Plasma samples were examined for CMV, B19V, and HSV-1/2 DNA using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time qPCR), and for specific IgG antibodies against B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 using serological assays. The abortion group consisted of women (n = 1,716) with a history of two or more first-trimester spontaneous abortions. Women younger than 30 years possess higher portion to experience spontaneous abortion. No specimens were positive for B19V or CMV DNA. Seven out of the 1,716 specimens were positive for HSV-1/2 DNA. By serology, 47.24% of patients were positive for B19V IgG, 39.66% for HSV IgG, 79.31% for CMV IgG, and 9.31% for B19V IgM. The high rate of positivity for CMV IgG suggests that the majority of women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions are not susceptible to primary CMV infection. The lack of virus DNA in the majority of cases indicates that B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 infection is not commonly associated with first-trimester spontaneous abortion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion: a cross-sectional survey of working women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokim; Jung, Hye-Sun

    2012-01-01

    The researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion among working women in South Korea. One thousand working women were selected from a database of those eligible for maternity benefits under the National Employment Insurance Plan. Study results showed that handling heavy items during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for general characteristics of the participants and their work environment. A collective effort is needed on the parts of employers, employees, occupational health nurses, and the government to protect working women from lifting heavy items while pregnant. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. RSA-salausmenetelmä

    OpenAIRE

    Sipola, T. (Tapani)

    2017-01-01

    Tiivistelmä Tutkielmassa esitellään lyhyesti salakirjoituksen perusperiaatteita. Tämän jälkeen perehdytään RSA-salauksen periaatteeseen, jonka toimivuus todistetaan. Lisäksi kerrotaan RSA-salauksen käytöstä digitaalisessa allekirjoituksessa. Lopuksi perustellaan RSA-salauksen turvallisuutta tutkimalla mahdollisia heikkouksia ja miten niitä voi välttää. RSA-salaus hyödyntää nopeaa potenssiinkorotusalgoritmia, jota sovelletaa...

  17. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Fanli; Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng; Peng, Danhong; Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  18. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fanli [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009 (China); Peng, Danhong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhong Da Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yin, Lihong, E-mail: lhyin@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  19. Association between Spontaneous abortion and Presence of anti thyroid antibodies in mother’s serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mirhosseini

    2012-12-01

    Results: Out of 51 subjects, 18 had positive Anti-TPO-Ab, of which -10 were among the cases and 8 belonged to the controls. Out of 18 women with positive AntiTG-Ab, 11 cases were in the control group and 7 were in the cases. The differences between the control group and the amounts of Anti-TPO-Abs (P=0.468 and Anti-TG-Abs (P=0.675 were not swignificant. Conclusion: The results revealed that there is no association between abortion and presence of antithyroid antibodies in mother’s serum. Other abortion causes such as various kinds of infections and smoking might be involved which requires more research.

  20. Spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring of nurses exposed to anaesthetic gases, cytostatic drugs, and other potential hazards in hospitals, based on registered information of outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminki, K; Kyyroenen, P L; Lindbohm, M L

    1985-06-01

    Nurses working in selected departments of general hospitals in Finland were collected from a central register on health personnel in Finland. Using the Hospital Discharge Register and the Register of Congenital Malformations, case nurses were selected who had had a spontaneous abortion (N = 217) or a malformed child (N = 46) between the years 1973 and 1979. Controls consisted of three nurses who had had a normal birth; the control nurses were matched for age and hospital of employment. Information on exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was sought through the head nurses of the hospitals. No significant increase in risk of spontaneous abortion or of malformation was observed after exposure to anaesthetic gases (odds ratio for spontaneous abortion 1.2), sterilizing gases and soaps, or x-rays. Handling of cytostatic drugs did not affect the frequency of spontaneous abortion but was associated with malformations in the offspring. The odds ratio, based on eight cases, was 4.7 (p = 0.02) when the logistic model was adopted. The results suggest that the exposures investigated, other than cytostatic drugs, do not cause a strong reproductive risk. Further studies are needed, particularly on cytostatic drugs.

  1. DNA methyltransferase 3A promoter polymorphism is associated with the risk of human spontaneous abortion after assisted reproduction techniques and natural conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yudong; Zheng, Haiyan; Guo, Pingping; Feng, Shuxian; Zhou, Xingyu; Ye, Desheng; Chen, Xin; Chen, Shiling

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of the DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT)-3A and DNMT3B promoter polymorphisms with the risk of human spontaneous abortion after assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) and natural conception. We collected tissues from women who underwent abortion procedures: (a) chorionic villus samples (CVS) and muscle samples (MS) from spontaneous abortions conceived by ART and natural cycle (study group), n = 152; and (b) CVS and MS from normal early pregnancy and second trimester (control group), n = 155. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -448A > G in the DNMT3A promoter region and -149C/T polymorphism of DNMT3B were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed by sequencing. The allele frequency of -448A among pregnancy loss group and control group was 34.2 % vs. 16.5 %, respectively. Compared with GG carriers, the DNMT3A -448AA homozygotes had an about 16-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion [odds ratio (OR) = 16.130, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 3.665-70.984], and AG heterozygotes had an OR of 2.027 (95 % CI, 1.247-3.293). However, the distribution of -448A > G in individuals derived from ART pregnancies was not statistically significantly compared with those derived from spontaneous pregnancies (P = 0.661). For DNMT3B, we observed genotype frequencies of 100 % (TT) in the study group and the control group. The DNMT3A -448A > G polymorphism may be a novel functional SNP and contribute to its genetic susceptibility to spontaneous abortion in Chinese women, and ART may not affect the distribution of -448A > G in pregnancy loss and normal pregnancy. The observed TT genotype of DMNT3B suggests that this is the predominant genotype of this population. The findings provide new insights into the etiology of human spontaneous abortion.

  2. Study of miR-155 expression in villus tissue of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion and its relationship with apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Ying Du; Man-Zhen Zuo; Qiao-Ling Wang; Xiao-Juan Xie

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study miR-155 expression in villus tissue of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion and its relationship with apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules.Methods:40 cases of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion were selected as URSA group, 30 cases of normal early pregnant women receiving artificial abortion were selected as control group, and villus tissue was collected to detect expression levels of miR-155, apoptosis molecules (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax, Bad, Fas and FasL) and angiogenesis molecules (HIF-1α, VEGF and sFlt-1).Results: MiR-155 expression level in villus tissue of URSA group was significantly lower than that of control group and the more the times of abortion, the lower the miR-155 expression level; pro-apoptosis molecules Bax, Bad, Fas and FasL expression levels in villus tissue of URSA group were higher than those of control group and negatively correlated with miR-155 expression level, and anti-apoptosis genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression levels were lower than those of control group and positively correlated with miR-155 expression level; HIF-1α and VEGF expression levels in villus tissue of URSA group were lower than those of control group and positively correlated with miR-155 expression level, and sFlt-1 expression level was higher than that of control group and negatively correlated with miR-155 expression level.Conclusions:MiR-155 is lowly expressed in villus tissue of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion, and miR-155 may be involved in the occurrence and development of the disease through regulating the expression of apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules.

  3. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. [Association of polymorphisms in signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 gene and the susceptibility to unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin-Guang; You, Ze-Shan; Wu, Zai-Gui; Li, Zhu-Yu; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Ming; Fang, Li-Yuan; Jiang, Li

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between the polymorphisms of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) gene and the susceptibility to unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion(URSA). PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect genotype 3 loca (rs7574865 G/T, rs10181656 C/G and rs16833431 C/T) polymorphism of STAT4 in 246 URSA cases (URSA group) and 183 normal controls (control group) . (1)The frequencies of rs7574865 were genotype G/G of 36.2% (89/246) in URSA group and 46.4% (85/183) in control group, genotype G/T of 47.2% (116/246) in URSA group and 45.4% (83/183) in control group, and genotype T/T of 16.7% (41/246) in URSA group and 8.2% (15/183) in control group, which reached statistical difference (P rs7574865 T allele and rs10181656 G allele increased the risk of URSA (OR = 1.51, 1.44, all P rs7574865 G/T and rs10181656 C/G showed haplotype G-T conferring the susceptibility to URSA (OR = 1.49, P < 0.01), but haplotype C-G could provide protection on URSA (OR = 0.68, P < 0.01). Polymorphisms of STAT4 gene might confer the susceptibility to URSA by altering STAT4 function and (or) its expression.

  5. Effect of ADA1 mother-fetus and wife-husband phenotypic differences on the ratio birth weight/placental weight in fertile women and on reproductive success in couples with RSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria-Bottini, Fulvia; Nicotra, Maria; Amante, Ada; Ambrosi, Sara; Cozzoli, Eliana; Saccucci, Patrizia; Bottini, Egidio; Magrini, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    To study the effect Adenosine Deaminase locus 1 (ADA(1)) mother-fetus and wife-husband phenotypic differences on the ratio Birth Weight/Placental Weight (BW/PW) in fertile women and on reproductive success in couples with repeated spontaneous abortion (RSA). 209 couples with primary RSA and a consecutive series of 379 healthy puerperae with their newborn infants from the White Caucasian population of central Italy were studied. In primary RSA women reproductive success was indicated by the presence of at least one live-born infant within 5 years of follow up. Two way contingency tables were analyzed by chi-square. The proportion of primary RSA couples with at least a live-born infant shows the highest value in couples mother ADA(1)1/father carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele (55.2%) and the lowest value in reciprocal couples mother carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele /father ADA(1)1 (18.7%) (O.R. = 5.33; P = 0.023). The highest ratio BW/PW is observed in the class mother ADA(1)1/newborn carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele while the lowest ratio is observed in the reciprocal class mother carrier of ADA(1)*2 allele/ newborn ADA(1)1. Differences between mother and fetus in ADA(1) phenotype may influence the ratio BW/PW in healthy women and reproductive success in RSA women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Modified Multi Prime RSA Cryptosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali Kamardan, M.; Aminudin, N.; Che-Him, Norziha; Sufahani, Suliadi; Khalid, Kamil; Roslan, Rozaini

    2018-04-01

    RSA [1] is one of the mostly used cryptosystem in securing data and information. Though, it has been recently discovered that RSA has some weaknesses and in advance technology, RSA is believed to be inefficient especially when it comes to decryption. Thus, a new algorithm called Multi prime RSA, an extended version of the standard RSA is studied. Then, a modification is made to the Multi prime RSA where another keys is shared secretly between the receiver and the sender to increase the securerity. As in RSA, the methodology used for modified Multi-prime RSA also consists of three phases; 1. Key Generation in which the secret and public keys are generated and published. In this phase, the secrecy is improved by adding more prime numbers and addition of secret keys. 2. Encryption of the message using the public and secret keys given. 3. Decryption of the secret message using the secret key generated. For the decryption phase, a method called Chinese Remainder Theorem is used which helps to fasten the computation. Since Multi prime RSA use more than two prime numbers, the algorithm is more efficient and secure when compared to the standard RSA. Furthermore, in modified Multi prime RSA another secret key is introduced to increase the obstacle to the attacker. Therefore, it is strongly believed that this new algorithm is better and can be an alternative to the RSA.

  7. Post-quantum rsa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Heninger, N.; Lou, P.; Valenta, L.; Lange, T.; Takagi, T.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes RSA parameters for which (1) key generation, encryption, decryption, signing, and verification are feasible on today’s computers while (2) all known attacks are infeasible, even assuming highly scalable quantum computers. As part of the performance analysis, this paper introduces

  8. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and possible significance of campylobacteria in pig abortions in Denmark, Surface-cauterised liver and kidney samples from 55 aborted pig fetuses submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory were taken and a sensitive isolation procedure used...

  9. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk of spontaneous abortion Polimorfismos maternos MTHFR y riesgo de aborto espontáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Rodríguez-Guillén

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To asses the association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitamins respectively, was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP and serum homocysteine levels by HPLC. RESULTS: Carriers of MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes respectively showed an increased risk of SA (OR 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 20.9 and OR 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.6. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the role of MTHFR polymorphisms as a risk factor for SA, regardless of dietary intake of B vitamins.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre aborto espontáneo (AE y el consumo dietético de vitaminas B en mujeres mexicanas portadoras de los polimorfismos de la metilentetrahidrofolato reductasa (MTHFR (677 C>T y 1298 A>C. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un diseño de casos y controles anidados en una cohorte, se comparó la ingesta dietética materna de vitaminas B y folato, los polimorfismos maternos de la MTHFR y la concentración sérica de homocisteina de 23 casos de AE ( 20 semanas. RESULTADOS: Las portadoras de los genotipos MTHFR 677TT y 1298AC presentaron un incremento significativo en el riesgo de AE (RM 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; IC 95%: 1.2, 20.9 RM 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; IC95%: 1.1, 26.6, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Nuestros resultados apoyan el papel de la mutación de la MTHFR como posible factor de riesgo para el AE, independientemente del consumo de vitaminas B.

  10. Paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion: a population-based retrospective cohort study among non-smoking women aged 20-49 years in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Yang, Ying; Liu, Fangchao; Yang, Aimin; Xu, Qin; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; He, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Ya; Dai, Qiaoyun; Ma, Xu

    2018-06-11

    To comprehensively evaluate the association of paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among 5 770 691 non-smoking rural Chinese women, along with their husbands, participating in the National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project, regarding outcome events that occurred in 2010-2016. The main outcome was spontaneous abortion (SA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95% CI, and restricted cubic spline was used to estimate the non-linear relationship. The multivariable-adjusted OR of exposure to paternal smoking for SA was 1.17 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.19), compared with women without exposure to paternal smoking; and corresponding OR of exposure to preconception paternal smoking for SA was 1.11 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.14), compared with women without exposure to preconception paternal smoking. The ORs of preconception paternal smoking also increased with increases in paternal smoking (p nonlinear 0.05). In addition, periconception paternal smoking cessation was associated with an 18% (15%-22%) lower risk of SA. Paternal smoking was associated with SA. The importance of tobacco control, specifically pertaining to paternal smoking, should be emphasised during preconception and pregnancy counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Plasma β-Endorphin Levels in Women with Early Threatened Abortion before and after the Treatment of Integrated Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙斐; 俞瑾

    1999-01-01

    To observe plasma β-endorphin(β-EP)and gonadotrophin releasing hormone(GnRM),human chorionic gonadotrophin(hCG),progesterone (P4) levels in women with early threatened abortion and with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortions(RSA).Twenty patients with threatened abortion at 7-8 weeks of gestation were re-cruited,all of them had a history of 3 or more recurrent unexplained abortions.They were treated with psychological consultation accompanied by traditional Chinese herbs.Blood samples were taken to measure β-EP,GnRM,hCG and P4 levels by radioim-munoassay(RIA).The treatments were continued till 10-12 weeks,blood was taken during this period to compare changes in these peptides/hormones.Twenty normal pregnant women at 7-8 and 10-12weeks and 20patients with incomplete abortion at 10- 12weeks were recruited for comparative studies.Results:(1)In normal pregnant women,plasma β-EP,GnRH,hCG and P4 levels at 10-12 weeks were significantly higher than that at 7-8 weeks(P0.05).(3)Plasma β-EP levels in patients with incomplete abortions at 10-12 weeks were dramatically higher and GnRH,hCG and P4levels were lower than in normal pregnant women(P<0.01).β-EP might play a role in the pathophysiology of spontaneous abortion.

  12. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  13. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  14. Simple Backdoors on RSA Modulus by Using RSA Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hung-Min; Wu, Mu-En; Yang, Cheng-Ta

    This investigation proposes two methods for embedding backdoors in the RSA modulus N=pq rather than in the public exponent e. This strategy not only permits manufacturers to embed backdoors in an RSA system, but also allows users to choose any desired public exponent, such as e=216+1, to ensure efficient encryption. This work utilizes lattice attack and exhaustive attack to embed backdoors in two proposed methods, called RSASBLT and RSASBES, respectively. Both approaches involve straightforward steps, making their running time roughly the same as that of normal RSA key-generation time, implying that no one can detect the backdoor by observing time imparity.

  15. Increasing the risk of spontaneous abortion and major malformations in newborns following use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikfar Shekoufeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently used antidepressants during pregnancy. There are conflicting results about their influence on pregnancy outcomes. The goal of this study was to update our previous meta-analysis about pregnancy outcomes following exposure to SSRIs. For this purpose, all relevant databases were searched from 1990 to March 2012 for studies investigating the pregnancy outcomes following exposure to any therapeutic dosage of any SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, fluvoxamine during pregnancy. Types of outcome investigated were spontaneous abortion, major malformations, cardiovascular malformations, and minor malformations. A total of 25 studies met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OD values are 1.87 (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.33, P

  16. H1 in RSA galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, OTTO-G.

    1993-01-01

    The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.

  17. Characterization of the subsets of human NKT-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Jian; Huang, Shi-Yun; Sun, Xin

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the subsets of natural killer T (NKT)-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the peripheral blood (PB) and/or decidual tissue of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The percentages of NKT-like cells in the PB and deciduas of URSA patients in early pregnancy and in the PB of nonpregnant women were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (Th1 cytokine) and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, in the PB and decidual tissue was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most percentages of subsets of NKT-like cells (CD3(+)CD56(+), CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+)) in the PB and deciduas were significantly greater in URSA patients than in normal pregnant and nonpregnant women. A cut-off value of 3.75% for the increased percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB appeared to be predictive of pregnancy failure. Moreover, we found that in the decidua, IFN-γ expression was significantly higher, while IL-4 and IL-10 expression was significantly lower in URSA patients compared with those with a normal pregnancy. The ratio of decidual Th1/Th2 cytokines in URSA patients was significantly increased compared with that in normal pregnant women. Decidual IL-4 expression correlated negatively with the percentages of blood CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells and the decidual CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells. NKT-like cells may play an important role in maintaining normal pregnancy. Measurement of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB may provide a potential tool for assessing patients' risk of spontaneous abortion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Increasing the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Major Malformations in Newborns Following Use of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors during Pregnancy: a Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently used antidepressants during pregnancy. There are conflicting results about their influence on pregnancy outcomes.The goal of this study was to update our previous meta-analysis about pregnancy outcomes following exposure to SSRIs. For this purpose, all relevant databases were searched from 1990 to March 2012 for studies investigating the pregnancy outcomes following exposure to any therapeutic dosage of any SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, fluvoxamine during pregnancy. Types of outcome investigated were spontaneousabortion, major malformations, cardiovascular malformations, and minor malformations. A total of 25 studies met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OD values are 1.87 (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.33, P< 0.0001 for spontaneous abortion, 1.272 (95%CI: 1.098 to 1.474, P = 0.0014 for major malformations, 1.192 (95% CI: 0.39 to 3.644, P=0.7578 for cardiovascular malformations, and 1.36 (95% CI: 0.61 to 3.04, P= 0.4498 for minor malformations. The results demonstrated that SSRIs increase the risk of spontaneousabortion and major malformations during pregnancy while they don’t increase the risk of cardiovascular malformations and minor malformations. Our previous meta-analysis only showed an increase in the risk of spontaneous abortion following the use of SSRIs duringpregnancy. This might be due to increase in the number of studies included or addition of two new SSRIs (citalopram and escitalopram. The message to researchers is to try considering SSRIs individually during pregnancy to reduce heterogeneity, although all are aware ofinevitable limitations to study on pregnant mothers.

  19. Incidence and biomarkers of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal loss during an environmental stressor: Implications for female reproductive suppression in the cooperatively breeding meerkat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimac-Stohl, Kristin A; Davies, Charli S; Grebe, Nicholas M; Stonehill, Alexandra C; Greene, Lydia K; Mitchell, Jessica; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Drea, Christine M

    2018-05-02

    Meerkats are group-living, insectivorous herpestids in which subordinate members provide extensive care for the dominant female's young. In contrast to some cooperative breeders, subordinate female meerkats are physiologically able to reproduce and occasionally do so successfully; their attempts are more frequently 'suppressed' via eviction or infanticide by the dominant female. Spontaneous abortion and neonatal loss occur with some regularity, further negatively impacting reproductive success. Here, we compared the reproductive outcomes and endocrine profiles, including of serum progesterone (P 4 ), serum estradiol (E 2 ), and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCm), of dominant and subordinate dams residing within their clans in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa. Our study spanned years of drought, which reduced insect abundance and represented a substantial environmental stressor. Meerkat pregnancies were identified at mid-term and culminated either in spontaneous abortions or full-term deliveries, after which pups were either lost prior to emergence from the natal den (usually within 2days of birth) or emerged at 2-3weeks. Neonatal loss exceeded fetal loss for all females, and contributed to narrowing the status-related disparity in female reproductive output seen during less arid periods. Although E 2 concentrations were significantly lower in subordinate than dominant females, they were sufficient to support gestation. Absolute E 2 concentrations may owe to androgenic precursors that also attain highest concentrations in dominant dams and may mediate aggression underlying female reproductive skew. Pregnancies terminating in fetal loss were marked by significantly lower P 4 concentrations in mid-gestation and modestly lower E 2 concentrations overall. Consistently high fGCm concentrations further increased across trimesters, particularly (but not consistently) in subordinates and in aborted pregnancies. Environmental stressors may modulate reproductive

  20. SEB teams up with RSA

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Globaalne kindlustusgrupp RSA ja SEB Pank teatasid 19. aprillil, et alustavad koostööd varakindlustustoodete pakkumisel SEB klientidele Eestis, mis tähendab seda, et RSAst saab ainus varakindlustuse pakkuja pangas

  1. RSA in Spine: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humadi, Ali; Dawood, Sulaf; Halldin, Klas; Freeman, Brian

    2017-12-01

    Systematic review of literature. This systematic review was conducted to investigate the accuracy of radiostereometric analysis (RSA), its assessment of spinal motion and disorders, and to investigate the limitations of this technique in spine assessment. Systematic review in all current literature to invesigate the role of RSA in spine. The results of this review concluded that RSA is a very powerful tool to detect small changes between 2 rigid bodies such as a vertebral segment. The technique is described for animal and human studies for cervical and lumbar spine and can be used to analyze range of motion, inducible displacement, and fusion of segments. However, there are a few disadvantages with the technique; RSA percutaneous procedure needs to be performed to implant the markers (and cannot be used preoperatively), one needs a specific knowledge to handle data and interpret the results, and is relatively time consuming and expensive. RSA should be looked at as a very powerful research instrument and there are many questions suitable for RSA studies.

  2. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase c.c.677 C>T and c.c.1298 A>C polymorphisms in reproductive failures: Experience from an RSA and RIF study on a Polish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Izabela; Bylińska, Aleksandra; Wilczyńska, Karolina; Wiśniewski, Andrzej; Malinowski, Andrzej; Wilczyński, Jacek R; Radwan, Paweł; Radwan, Michał; Barcz, Ewa; Płoski, Rafał; Motak-Pochrzęst, Hanna; Banasik, Małgorzata; Sobczyński, Maciej; Kuśnierczyk, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Almost 1600 individuals from the Polish population were recruited to this study. Among them 319 were fertile couples, 289 were recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) couples, and 131 were in the group of recurrent implantation failure (RIF) following in vitro fertilization. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MTHFR c.c.677 C>T and c.c.1298 A>C polymorphisms' association with RSA and RIF. We used PCR-RFLP with HinfI (677 C>T) and MboII (1298 A>C) digestion. We observed a protective effect of the female AC genotype (OR = 0.64, p = 0.01) and the C allele (AC+CC genotypes; OR = 0.65, p = 0.009) against RSA. Moreover, 1298 AA/677 CT women were more frequent in RSA (31.14%) and RIF (25.20%) groups in comparison to fertile women (22.88%), although this difference was significant only in the case of RSA (p = 0.022, OR = 1.52). Male combined genotype analysis revealed no association with reproductive failure of their partners. Nevertheless, the female/male combination AA/AC of the 1298 polymorphism was more frequent in RSA couples (p = 0.049, OR = 1.49). However, the significant results became insignificant after Bonferroni correction. In addition, analysis of haplotypes showed significantly higher frequency of the C/C haplotype (1298 C/677 C) in the female control group than in the female RSA group (p = 0.03, OR = 0.77). Moreover, the association between elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level in plasma of RSA and RIF women and MTHFR polymorphisms was investigated but did not reveal significant differences. In conclusion, for clinical practice, it is better to check the homocysteine level in plasma and, if the Hcy level is increased, to recommend patients to take folic acid supplements rather than undergo screening of MTHFR for 1298 A>C and 677 C>T polymorphisms.

  3. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  4. Análise citogenética em material de abortamento espontâneo Cytogenetic analysis of material from spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lorber Rolnik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as anormalidades cromossômicas em material de abortamento espontâneo. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se compilação retrospectiva da análise de cariótipo em lâmina corada com Banda G por microscopia óptica e em material de 428 produtos de abortamento encaminhados para estudo. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 145 resultados normais (33,9% e 237 resultados anormais (55,4%. Em 46 amostras não houve crescimento celular (10,7%. As anormalidades numéricas foram as mais frequentes, destacando-se a trissomia do 16 (41 casos, a triplodia (27 casos, a monossomia do X (26 casos, a tetraploidia (13 casos e a trissomia do 15 (13 casos. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações citogenéticas representam importante causa de perdas gestacionais e sua detecção auxilia o aconselhamento genético do casal. A trissomia do cromossomo 16 é a alteração mais frequentemente encontrada.OBJECTIVE: To describe chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion material. METHODS: A retrospective compilation of karyotype analysis of slides stained with Band G was carried out by optical microscopy with materials of 428 abortion products referred for study. RESULTS: There were 145 normal results (33.9% and 237 abnormal results (55.4%. In 46 samples there was no cell growth (10.7%. Numerical abnormalities were the most frequent, especially trisomy 16 (41 cases, triplodia (27 cases, monosomy X (26 cases, tetraploidy (13 cases and trisomy 15 (13 cases. CONCLUSION: Cytogenetic alterations are an important cause of pregnancy loss and their detection helps the genetic counseling to the couple. Trisomy 16 is the most often found change.

  5. Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.; Chaput, A.; Tutton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of allograft and unexplained spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. Previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (IL 2). A deficiency of these suppressor cells was associated with implants of xenogeneic Mus caroli embryos in the Mus musculus uterus which are infiltrated by maternal lymphoid cells and aborted. A deficiency of such suppressor cells in the lymph nodes draining the uterus of CBA/J females in the process of aborting their semi-allogeneic CBA x DBA/2 F 1 progeny has also been shown. CBA/J females possess significantly lower levels of decidua-associated non-T suppressor cells on day 8.5 to 10.5 of allopregnancy than do mothers that will produce large litters of live babies. The F 1 embryos are infiltrated by maternal lymphocytes prior to abortion, and the infiltration and abortion rate appears to be augmented by pre-immunization with paternal DBA/2 spleen cells. The CBA/J x DBA/2J mating combination provides a model of spontaneous abortion in which immunologic factors play an important role and demonstrates that the association between deficiency of decidua-associated suppressor cells and xenopregnancy failure also holds true for the failure of allopregnancies resulting from natural within-species mating

  6. RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Clift, April; Bolden, Sarah; Salomon, Kristen

    2007-05-01

    Cardiac vagal control, as measured by indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has been investigated as a marker of impaired self-regulation in mental disorders, including depression. Past work in depressed samples has focused on deficits in resting RSA levels, with mixed results. This study tested the hypothesis that depression involves abnormal RSA fluctuation. RSA was measured in depressed and healthy control participants during rest and during two reactivity tasks, each followed by a recovery period. Relative to controls, depressed persons exhibited lower resting RSA levels as well as less RSA fluctuation, primarily evidenced by a lack of task-related vagal suppression. Group differences in RSA fluctuation were not accounted for by differences in physical health or respiration, whereas group differences in resting RSA level did not survive covariate analyses. Depression may involve multiple deficits in cardiac vagal control.

  7. Factorization of a 768-Bit RSA Modulus

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjung, Thorsten; Aoki, Kazumaro; Franke, Jens; Lenstra, Arjen K.; Thome, Emmanuel; Bos, Joppe Willem; Gaudry, Pierrick; Kruppa, Alexander; Montgomery, Peter L.; Osvik, Dag Arne; Riele, Herman Te; Timofeev, Andrey; Zimmermann, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com; International audience; This paper reports on the factorization of the 768-bit number RSA-768 by the number field sieve factoring method and discusses some implications for RSA.

  8. Diminished Frequency of Menstrual and Peripheral Blood NKT-Like Cells in Patients With Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion and Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Samira; Shokri, Fazel; Pour, Soheila Ansari; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Systemic monitoring of immune system may not precisely outline the local immune status in the uterus. This survey is a continuation of our previous studies on potential usefulness of menstrual blood (MB) immunophenotyping as a tool for investigation of immunological disturbances in pregnancy-related disorders. Peripheral blood (PB) and MB from healthy fertile (n = 15), unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA; n = 15), and unexplained infertile women (n = 8) were collected simultaneously in the second day of their menstrual cycle and frequency of natural killer T (NKT)-like cell subpopulations were assessed by flow cytometry. Menstrual blood of all experimental groups contained higher percentage of TCRαβ + , CD45RO + , and CD16 - NKT-like cells compared to corresponding PB. Frequency of MB NKT-like cells in unexplained infertile participants was lower than fertile and URSA groups. Compared to normal participants, patients with URSA had lower frequency of PB TCRαβ + and higher CD16 + , while in infertile woman frequencies of PB CD45RO + , CD45RO - , CD16 - , IL17 + , and MB CD45RO + NKT-like cells were lower. Although, PB and MB seemingly have the same histological nature, our results showed that MB contained different composition of NKT-like subsets with different cytokine profiles and could be viewed as one potential biological sample for evaluation of patients with infertility and URSA.

  9. RSA and its Correctness through Modular Arithmetic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meelu, Punita; Malik, Sitender

    2010-11-01

    To ensure the security to the applications of business, the business sectors use Public Key Cryptographic Systems (PKCS). An RSA system generally belongs to the category of PKCS for both encryption and authentication. This paper describes an introduction to RSA through encryption and decryption schemes, mathematical background which includes theorems to combine modular equations and correctness of RSA. In short, this paper explains some of the maths concepts that RSA is based on, and then provides a complete proof that RSA works correctly. We can proof the correctness of RSA through combined process of encryption and decryption based on the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) and Euler theorem. However, there is no mathematical proof that RSA is secure, everyone takes that on trust!.

  10. Hybrid cryptosystem RSA - CRT optimization and VMPC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmadani, R.; Mawengkang, H.; Sutarman

    2018-03-01

    Hybrid cryptosystem combines symmetric algorithms and asymmetric algorithms. This combination utilizes speeds on encryption/decryption processes of symmetric algorithms and asymmetric algorithms to secure symmetric keys. In this paper we propose hybrid cryptosystem that combine symmetric algorithms VMPC and asymmetric algorithms RSA - CRT optimization. RSA - CRT optimization speeds up the decryption process by obtaining plaintext with dp and p key only, so there is no need to perform CRT processes. The VMPC algorithm is more efficient in software implementation and reduces known weaknesses in RC4 key generation. The results show hybrid cryptosystem RSA - CRT optimization and VMPC is faster than hybrid cryptosystem RSA - VMPC and hybrid cryptosystem RSA - CRT - VMPC. Keyword : Cryptography, RSA, RSA - CRT, VMPC, Hybrid Cryptosystem.

  11. Combinations of resting RSA and RSA reactivity impact maladaptive mood repair and depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Bylsma, Lauren M; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether the combined indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia at rest (resting RSA) and in response to a sad film (RSA reactivity) predict effective and ineffective responses to reduce sadness (adaptive vs. maladaptive mood repair) in women with histories of juvenile-onset depression (n=74) and no history of major mental disorders (n=75). Structural equation models were used to estimate latent resting RSA, depression, and adaptive and maladaptive mood repair and to test the study hypotheses. Results indicated that combinations of resting RSA+RSA reactivity (RSA patterns) predicted maladaptive mood repair, which in turn, mediated the effects of RSA pattern on depression. Further, RSA patterns moderated the depressogenic effects of maladaptive mood repair. RSA patterns were unrelated to adaptive mood repair. Our findings suggest that mood repair is one mechanism through which physiological vulnerabilities adversely affect mental health. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Methods Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008–2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Results Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Conclusions Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results. PMID:25938673

  13. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah Kim

    Full Text Available Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea.Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012, we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB and menstrual aberration (MA among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs were estimated.Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties.Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  14. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  15. Comparison of the Number of Peripheral Blood CD4+CD25+ T Cells in Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion Patients with Normal Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eslami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Undoubtedly, reproduction is a necessity for survival and successful pregnancy is an immunological paradox. In the present study, we investigated the proportional changes of CD4+CD25bright T cells, CD4+CD25dim T cells in peripheral blood in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (URSA and compared it with normal pregnant women by antibody monoclonal method. Methods: The study group comprised of women with miscarriages of unexplained etiology who had normal karyotypes, anticardiolipin antibodies, prolactin levels and normal spousal spermograms. They did not have polycystic ovaries and also did not receive any drugs at the time of the study. PBLs lymphocytes were isolated, then FITC-conjugated and anti-CD4 and PE-conjugated anti-CD25 antibody levels were measured. Then results of the study and control group were analyzed and compared. Results: The absolute number of CD25 bright cells in the CD4‏+T cells in peripheral blood was statistically significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group(P=0.000. The absolute number of CD4+CD25dimT cells in peripheral blood was statistically significantly higher in the study group as compared to the control group (P=0.000. Conclusion: As decrease in the number of CD4+CD25+Tcells or their functional deficiency may be linked with miscarriage, CD4+CD25+‏ Tells could serve as a novel biomarker for monitoring in URSA patients, but more studies are needed in this field.

  16. RSA-Based Secret Handshakes

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnaud , Damien

    2006-01-01

    A secret handshake mechanism allows two entities, members of a same group, to authenticate each other secretly. This primitive was introduced recently by Balfanz, Durfee, Shankar, Smetters, Staddon and Wong and, so far, all the schemes proposed are based on discrete log systems. This paper proposes three new secret handshake protocols secure against active impersonator and detector adversaries. Inspired by two RSA-based key agreement protocols introduced by Okamoto and Tanaka in 1989 and Gira...

  17. RSA-salaus ja sen lukuteoreettinen pohja

    OpenAIRE

    LARJA, PEKKA

    2011-01-01

    Tämä tutkielma käsittelee RSA-salausta ja sen lukuteoreettista perustaa. RSA-salaus on varmasti yksi yleisimmin käytetyistä (ellei yleisin) julkisen avaimen salakirjoitusjärjestelmistä. Nykyisen viestintätekniikan kehityksen mukana salakirjoitusjärjestelmistä on tullut keskeisiä välineitä modernissa yhteiskunnassa. RSA-salaus perustuu eräisiin lukuteorian keskeisiin tuloksiin ja on perusidealtaan hämmästyttävän yksinkertainen. Tutkielman luvussa 2 tarkastellaan RSA-salauksen käyttämiä luk...

  18. Cryptanalysis of RSA and its variants

    CERN Document Server

    Hinek, M Jason

    2009-01-01

    Thirty years after RSA was first publicized, it remains an active research area. Although several good surveys exist, they are either slightly outdated or only focus on one type of attack. Offering an updated look at this field, Cryptanalysis of RSA and Its Variants presents the best known mathematical attacks on RSA and its main variants, including CRT-RSA, multi-prime RSA, and multi-power RSA. Divided into three parts, the book first introduces RSA and reviews the mathematical background needed for the majority of attacks described in the remainder of the text. It then brings together all of the most popular mathematical attacks on RSA and its variants. For each attack presented, the author includes a mathematical proof if possible or a mathematical justification for attacks that rely on assumptions. For the attacks that cannot be proven, he gives experimental evidence to illustrate their practical effectiveness. Focusing on mathematical attacks that exploit the structure of RSA and specific parameter choic...

  19. Cryptanalysis of 'less short' RSA secret exponents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, E.R.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In some applications of RSA, it is desirable to have a short secret exponent d. Wiener [6], describes a technique to use continued fractions (CF) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a ‘short’ secret exponent. Let n=p¿·¿q be the modulus of the system. In the typical case that

  20. RSA Monitoring Redesign Initiative Informational Booklet #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This informational booklet contains background materials regarding the Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) initiative to redesign its monitoring system. The booklet is intended to expand the knowledge and understanding of those individuals selected to participate in the RSA-sponsored monitoring conference that was held August 24 and 25,…

  1. Factorization of a 512-bit RSA modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Cavallar; W.M. Lioen (Walter); H.J.J. te Riele (Herman); B. Dodson; A.K. Lenstra (Arjen); P.L. Montgomery; B. Murphy

    2000-01-01

    textabstractOn August 22, 1999, we completed the factorization of the 512--bit 155--digit number RSA--155 with the help of the Number Field Sieve factoring method (NFS). This is a new record for factoring general numbers. Moreover, 512--bit RSA keys are frequently used for the protection of

  2. [Abortion explained by a nurse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastit i Costa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Abortion is the termination of pregnancy prior to the 180th day, during which time the fetus is not yet viable outside the womb. Spontaneous abortion is the body's expulsion of a fetus during the 1st months of pregnancy. It is usually not very painful, does not involve much bleeding, and is rarely complicated by infection. Spontaneous abortion is much more frequent at the outset of pregnancy and may occur unnoticed. Its causes are unknown in over half of cases. The most important causes are developmental problems in the products of conception. Causes of spontaneous abortions of maternal etiology are most frequently uterine malposition or malformation. Serious illness in the mother is a less common cause of spontaneous abortion than once believed. Induced abortion is caused by the destruction of a normally implanted and healthy embryo. Its complications are related to the amount of bleeding or the introduction of germs from outside which can spread rapidly. Placental retention is a danger of all induced abortions. Induced abortion is common and in some countries it even creates demographic problems. Abortion is legal in many countries as an expression of the right to choose, but in others it is only legal on therapeutic grounds. Defenders and detractors of abortion have written extensively about it, with some works being sincere and some only tactical. The great majority of moralists are opposed to abortion, while biologists and scientists are divided on the question. The Spanish penal code punishes all persons who cause the death of a fetus or impede the process of gestation. The Catholic Church has considered abortion a homicide and against divine and natural laws. Legal or illegal, it is certain that the number of abortions increases each day. In the face of this reality, the need is for measures to avoid abortion whenever possible. Sex education in schools, full information on contraceptive methods and creation of family planning centers are some means of

  3. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  4. Outcome of pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, A; Mool, S; Tiwari, P

    2011-01-01

    Threatened abortion is the most common complication in the first half of pregnancy. Most of these pregnancies continue to term with or without treatment. Spontaneous abortion occurs in less than 30% of these women. Threatened abortion had been shown to be associated with increased incidence of antepartum haemorrhage, preterm labour and intra uterine growth retardation. This study was to asses the outcome of threatened abortion following treatment. This prospective study was carried out in Dhulikhel Hospital - Kathmandu University Hospital from January 2009 till May 2010. Total 70 cases of threatened abortion were selected, managed with complete bed rest till 48 hrs of cessation of bleeding, folic acid supplementation, uterine sedative, and hormonal treatment till 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonogram was performed for diagnosis and to detect the presence of subchorionic hematoma. Patients were followed up until spontaneous abortion or up to delivery of the fetus. The measures used for the analysis were maternal age, parity, gestational age at the time of presentation, previous abortions, presence of subchorionic hematoma, complete abortion, continuation of pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of fetus. Out of 70 cases subchorionic haematoma was found in 30 (42.9%) cases. There were 12 (17.1%) patients who spontaneously aborted after diagnosis of threatened abortion during hospital stay, 5 (7.1%) aborted on subsequent visits while 53 (75.8%) continued pregnancy till term. Among those who continued pregnancy intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 7 (13.2%), antepartum hemorrhage in 4 (7.5%), preterm premature rupture of membrane in 3 (5.66%) and IUD in 3 (5.66%). Spontaneous abortion was found more in cases with subchorionic hematoma of size more than 20 cm2. In cases of threatened abortion with or without the presence of subchorionic hematoma, prognostic outcome is better following treatment with bed rest

  5. Parallel data encryption with RSA algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Неретин, А. А.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a parallel RSA algorithm with preliminary shuffling of source text was presented.Dependence of an encryption speed on the number of encryption nodes has been analysed, The proposed algorithm was implemented on C# language.

  6. Provokeret abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens

    Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...

  7. Aborto espontâneo e provocado: sentimentos vivenciados pelos homens Aborto espontáneo y inducido: sentimientos vivenciados por hombres Spontaneous and induced abortion: feelings experienced by men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Melo Laet Rodrigues

    2006-02-01

    . The narrative analysis was the research method. The narratives of seventeen men were analysed. The spontaneous abortion related feelings were the loss related anguish and, the provoked abortion, the culpability related feelings and its consequences. Men who share the abortion experience with their partners require sensibility and professionals involvement. Their main care demands were related to the desire of favorable reception, to get emotional support as well as a whole and correct information about the process.

  8. The utility of combining RSA indices in depression prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroslavsky, Ilya; Rottenberg, Jonathan; Kovacs, Maria

    2013-05-01

    Depression is associated with protracted despondent mood, blunted emotional reactivity, and dysregulated parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) activity. PNS activity is commonly indexed via cardiac output, using indictors of its level (resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia [RSA]) or fluctuations (RSA reactivity). RSA reactivity can reflect increased or decreased PNS cardiac output (RSA augmentation and RSA withdrawal, respectively). Because a single index of a dynamic physiological system may be inadequate to characterize interindividual differences, we investigated whether the interaction of RSA reactivity and resting RSA is a better predictor of depression. Adult probands with childhood-onset depressive disorder histories (n = 113) and controls with no history of major mental disorders (n = 93) completed a psychophysiology protocol involving assessment of RSA at multiple rest periods and while watching a sad film. When examined independently, resting RSA and RSA reactivity were unrelated to depression, but their interaction predicted latent depression levels and proband status. In the context of high resting RSA, RSA withdrawal from the sad film predicted the lowest levels of depressive symptoms (irrespective of depression histories) and the greatest likelihood of having had no history of major mental disorder (irrespective of current distress). Our findings highlight the utility of combining indices of physiological responses in studying depression; combinations of RSA indices should be given future consideration as reflecting depression endophenotypes. © 2013 American Psychological Association

  9. Pregnancy outcome of threatened abortion with demonstrable fetal cardiac activity: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, T; Srisomboon, J; Wanapirak, C; Sirichotiyakul, S; Pongsatha, S; Polsrisuthikul, T

    1995-08-01

    Pregnancy with visible fetal heart beat complicated by first trimester threatened abortion had significant increased risk of subsequent spontaneous abortion compared with normal pregnancy. To compare pregnancy outcomes in cases complicated by first trimester threatened abortion with those that were not. Prospective cohort study of 255 cases of first trimester threatened abortions but with visible heart beat and 265 other normal pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion rates of 5.5% (with relative abortal risk of 2.91) was found for study group, compared to 1.88% for controls (p abortion rate than those without.

  10. Improved Mask Protected DES using RSA Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Latha S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The data encryption standard is a pioneering and farsighted standard which helped to set a new paradigm for encryption standards. But now DES is considered to be insecure for some application. Asymmetric mask protected DES is an advanced encryption method for effectively protecting the advanced DES. There are still probabilities to improve its security. This paper propose a method, which introduce a RSA key generation scheme in mask protected DES instead of plain key, which result in enhancement in the security of present asymmetric mask protected DES. We further propose a Vedic mathematical method of RSA implementation which reduce the complexity of computation in RSA block thereby resulting in reduced delay (four timesthat improves the performance of overall system. The software implementation was performed using Xilinx 13.2 and Model-Sim was used for the simulation environment.

  11. Hardware modules of the RSA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škobić Velibor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes basic principles of data protection using the RSA algorithm, as well as algorithms for its calculation. The RSA algorithm is implemented on FPGA integrated circuit EP4CE115F29C7, family Cyclone IV, Altera. Four modules of Montgomery algorithm are designed using VHDL. Synthesis and simulation are done using Quartus II software and ModelSim. The modules are analyzed for different key lengths (16 to 1024 in terms of the number of logic elements, the maximum frequency and speed.

  12. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    computation of public and private keys, and privacy, using Turbo C++ 4.5. Our work was able to address up to 32 bits. The objective of this paper is to develop an encryption scheme which is heterogeneous compared with the current RSA system that is ...

  13. RSA Monitoring Redesign Initiative Informational Booklet #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) is undertaking a major initiative to substantially redesign its program monitoring and improvement system. The overriding goal is to improve vocational rehabilitation (VR) services and employment outcomes for individuals with disabilities through the development of a…

  14. RSA Asymmetric Cryptosystem beyond Homogeneous Transformation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... In this paper, we looked at the security of data and message, using ... out this research, the methodology we have adopted is the Structured Systems Analysis Method ... Keywords: Cryptosystem, Internet Security, Encryption, Decryption, ... communication traffic. ... hand, large primes imply a large RSA-.

  15. RSA migration of total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijls, Bart G; Plevier, José W M; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2018-06-01

    Purpose - We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to evaluate the early and long-term migration patterns of tibial components of TKR of all known RSA studies. Methods - Migration pattern was defined as at least 2 postoperative RSA follow-up moments. Maximal total point motion (MTPM) at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years, 5 years, and 10 years were considered. Results - The literature search yielded 1,167 hits of which 53 studies were included, comprising 111 study groups and 2,470 knees. The majority of the early migration occurred in the first 6 months postoperatively followed by a period of stability, i.e., no or very little migration. Cemented and uncemented tibial components had different migration patterns. For cemented tibial components there was no difference in migration between all-poly and metal-backed components, between mobile bearing and fixed bearing, between cruciate retaining and posterior stabilized. Furthermore, no difference existed between TKR measured with model-based RSA or marker-based RSA methods. For uncemented TKR there was some variation in migration with the highest migration for uncoated TKR. Interpretation - The results from this meta-analysis on RSA migration of TKR are in line with both the survival analyses results from joint registries of these TKRs as well as revision rates results from meta-analyses, thus providing further proof for the association between early migration and late revision for loosening. The pooled migration patterns can be used both as benchmarks and for defining migration thresholds for future evaluation of new TKR.

  16. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  17. Dynamic measures of RSA predict distress and regulation in toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Rebecca J; Buss, Kristin A

    2010-05-01

    In this study, we examined a new method for quantifying individual variability using dynamic measures of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA). This method incorporated temporal variation into the measurement of RSA and provided information beyond that offered by more traditional quantifications such as difference scores. Dynamic and static measures of change in RSA were tested in relation to displays of emotion and affective behaviors during a fear-eliciting episode in a sample of 88 typically developing and high-fear toddlers during a laboratory visit at age 24 months. Dynamic measures of RSA contributed information that was unique from traditionally employed, static change scores in predicting high-fear toddlers' displays of shyness during a fear-eliciting episode. In contrast, RSA change scores offered information related to boldness in nonhigh-fear children. In addition, several associations included estimates of nonlinear change in RSA. Implications for the study of individual differences in RSA and relations with emotion and emotion regulation are discussed.

  18. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  19. POST ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS. ADESHIYUN

    Introduction. Septic sacroilitis is a rare complication of abortion. 1 . Pregnant women are often at risk of developing varying degree of sacroiliac joint dysfunction due to laxity of the ligaments; this laxity is hormonally induced. Pregnancy arthropathy, which is the commonest cause of hip and pelvic pain in pregnancy, must be ...

  20. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  1. Dynamic RSA: Examining parasympathetic regulatory dynamics via vector-autoregressive modeling of time-varying RSA and heart period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Aaron J; Reeves, Jonathan W; Chi, Cyrus

    2016-07-01

    Expanding on recently published methods, the current study presents an approach to estimating the dynamic, regulatory effect of the parasympathetic nervous system on heart period on a moment-to-moment basis. We estimated second-to-second variation in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in order to estimate the contemporaneous and time-lagged relationships among RSA, interbeat interval (IBI), and respiration rate via vector autoregression. Moreover, we modeled these relationships at lags of 1 s to 10 s, in order to evaluate the optimal latency for estimating dynamic RSA effects. The IBI (t) on RSA (t-n) regression parameter was extracted from individual models as an operationalization of the regulatory effect of RSA on IBI-referred to as dynamic RSA (dRSA). Dynamic RSA positively correlated with standard averages of heart rate and negatively correlated with standard averages of RSA. We propose that dRSA reflects the active downregulation of heart period by the parasympathetic nervous system and thus represents a novel metric that provides incremental validity in the measurement of autonomic cardiac control-specifically, a method by which parasympathetic regulatory effects can be measured in process. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  2. RSA algoritam i njegova praktična primena / RSA algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja R. Kuljanski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available RSA algoritam jeste algoritam sa javnim ključem koji uključuje tri koraka: generisanje ključa, enkripciju i dekripciju. RSA enkripciona šema je determinističaka što znači da se osnovni tekst uvek enkriptuje u isti šifrovani tekst za unapred zadati javni ključ. Da bi se izbegao ovaj problem, praktična implementacija RSA algoritma obično koristi neke strukture, kao što je dodavanje slučajnog teksta u samu poruku pre enkripcije. Ovo dodavanje obezbeđuje da osnovna poruka bude sigurna i da se može enkriptovati u veliki broj različitih šifrovanih poruka. Standardi, kao što je PKCS #1, pažljivo su dizajnirani tako da dodaju tekst u osnovnu poruku pre RSA same enkripcije. / RSA is an algorithm for public-key encryption. It is the first algorithm known to be suitable for encryption as well as digital signing. The RSA encryption scheme is deterministic in the sense that under a fixed public key, a particular plaintext is always encrypted to the same ciphertext. A deterministic encryption scheme (as opposed to a probabilistic encryption scheme is a cryptosystem which always produces the same ciphertext for a given plaintext and key, even over separate executions of the encryption algorithm. Probabilistic encryption uses randomness in an encryption algorithm, so that when encrypting the same message several times it will, in general, yield different ciphertexts.

  3. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  4. Factorisation of RSA-220 with CADO-NFS

    OpenAIRE

    Bai , Shi; Gaudry , Pierrick; Kruppa , Alexander; Thomé , Emmanuel; Zimmermann , Paul

    2016-01-01

    We give details of the factorization of RSA-220 with CADO-NFS. This is a new record computation with this open-source software. We report on the factorization of RSA-220 (220 decimal digits), which is the 3rd largest integer factorization with the General Number Field Sieve (GNFS), after the factorization of RSA-768 (232 digits) in December 2009 [3], and that of 3 697 + 1 (221 digits) in February 2015 by NFS@home.

  5. RSA Reactivity in Current and Remitted Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylsma, Lauren M.; Salomon, Kristen; Taylor-Clift, April; Morris, Bethany H.; Rottenberg, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective Low resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) levels and blunted RSA reactivity are thought to index impaired emotion regulation capacity. Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) has been associated with abberant RSA reactivity and recovery to a speech stressor task relative to healthy controls. Whether impaired RSA functioning reflects aspects of the depressed mood state or a stable vulnerability marker for depression is unknown. Methods We compared resting RSA and RSA reactivity between individuals with MDD (n=49), remitted depression (RMD, n=24), and healthy controls (n=45). ECG data were collected during a resting baseline, a paced-breathing baseline, and two reactivity tasks (speech stressor, cold exposure). Results A group by time quadratic effect emerged (F=4.36(2,109), p=.015) for RSA across phases of the speech stressor (baseline, instruction, preparation, speech, recovery). Follow-up analyses revealed that those with MDD uniquely exhibited blunted RSA reactivity, whereas RMD and controls both exhibited normal task-related vagal withdrawal and post-task recovery. The group by time interaction remained after covariation for age, sex, waist circumference, physical activity, and respiration, but not sleep quality. Conclusions These results provide new evidence that abberant RSA reactivity marks features that track the depressed state, such as poor sleep, rather than a stable trait evident among asymtomatic persons. PMID:24367127

  6. Comparison of objective methods to classify the pattern of respiratory sinus arrhythmia during mechanical ventilation and paced spontaneous breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, N C; Beda, A; Granja-Filho, P; Jandre, F C; Giannella-Neto, A; De Abreu, M G; Spieth, P M

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a fluctuation of heart period that occurs during a respiratory cycle. It has been suggested that inspiratory heart period acceleration and expiratory deceleration during spontaneous ventilation (henceforth named positive RSA) improve the efficiency of gas exchange compared to the absence or the inversion of such a pattern (negative RSA). During mechanical ventilation (MV), for which maximizing the efficiency of gas exchange is of critical importance, the pattern of RSA is still the object of debate. In order to gain a better insight into this matter, we compared five different methods of RSA classification using the data of five mechanically ventilated piglets. The comparison was repeated using the data of 15 volunteers undergoing a protocol of paced spontaneous breathing, which is expected to result in a positive RSA pattern. The results showed that the agreement between the employed methods is limited, suggesting that the lack of a consensus about the RSA pattern during MV is, at least in part, of methodological origin. However, independently of the method used, the pattern of RSA within the respiratory cycle was not consistent among the subjects and conditions of MV considered. Also, the outcomes showed that even during paced spontaneous breathing a negative RSA pattern might be present, when a low respiratory frequency is imposed

  7. Hoe je het cryptosysteem RSA soms kunt kraken

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weger, de B.M.M.; Wiegerinck, J.J.O.O.

    2010-01-01

    RSA is een veelgebruikt cryptografisch systeem, bijvoorbeeld voor het beveiligen van internetverkeer. Het is een asymmetrisch systeem, d.w.z. versleutelen gebeurt met een publieke sleutel, ontsleutelen met de bijbehorende privésleutel. RSA maakt gebruik van eenvoudige getaltheorie en kan dan ook

  8. Selective forgery of RSA signatures with fixed-pattern padding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Shparlinski, I.E.; Naccache, D.; Paillier, P.

    2002-01-01

    We present a practical selective forgery attack against RSA signatures with fixed-pattern padding shorter than two thirds of the modulus length. Our result extends the practical existential forgery of such RSA signatures that was presented at Crypto 2001. For an n-bit modulus the heuristic

  9. Factors associated with repeat induced abortion in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M; Sidze, Estelle M

    2015-10-12

    Over six million induced abortions were reported in Africa in 2008 with over two million induced abortions occurring in Eastern Africa. Although a significant proportion of women in the region procure more than one abortion during their reproductive period, there is a dearth of research on factors associated with repeat abortion. Data for this study come from the Magnitude and Incidence of Unsafe Abortion Study conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center in Kenya in 2012. The study used a nationally-representative sample of 350 facilities (level II to level VI) that offer post-abortion services for complications following induced and spontaneous abortions. A prospective morbidity survey tool was used by health providers in 328 facilities to collect information on socio-demographic charateristics, reproductive health history and contraceptive use at conception for all patients presenting for post-abortion services. Our analysis is based on data recorded on 769 women who were classified as having had an induced abortion. About 16 % of women seeking post abortion services for an induced abortion reported to have had a previous induced abortion. Being separated or divorced or widowed, having no education, having unwanted pregnancy, having 1-2 prior births and using traditional methods of contraception were associated with a higher likelihood of a repeat induced abortion. The findings point to the need to address the reasons why women with first time induced abortion do not have the necessary information to prevent unintended pregnancies and further induced abortions. Possible explanations linked to the quality of post-abortion family planning and coverage of long-acting methods should be explored.

  10. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  11. Risk of spontaneous abortion and other pregnancy outcomes in 15-25 year old women exposed to human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Laurence; Rosillon, Dominique; Willame, Corinne; Angelo, Maria Genalin; Zima, Julia; van den Bosch, Judith H; Van Staa, Tjeerd; Boggon, Rachael; Bunge, Eveline M; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Chambers, Christina D

    2015-11-27

    We assessed the risk of spontaneous abortion (SA) after inadvertent exposure to HPV-16/18-vaccine during pregnancy using an observational cohort design. The study population included women aged 15-25 years registered with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink General Practice OnLine Database in the United Kingdom (UK), who received at least one HPV-16/18-vaccine dose between 1st September 2008 and 30th June 2011. Exposed women had the first day of gestation between 30 days before and 45 days (90 days for the extended exposure period) after any HPV-16/18-vaccine dose. Non-exposed women had the first day of gestation 120 days-18 months after the last dose. SA defined as foetal loss between weeks 1 and 23 of gestation (UK definition). The frequency of SA was 11.6% (among 207 exposed) and 9.0% (632 non-exposed), women: hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for age at first day of gestation 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-2.12). Sensitivity analysis per number of doses administered (-30 to +45-day risk period) showed a HR for SA of 1.11 (0.64-1.91) for 18/178 women with one dose during the risk period versus 2.55 (1.09-5.93) in 6/29 women with two doses within a 4-5 weeks period. The proportion of pre-term/full-term/postterm deliveries, small/large for gestational age infants, and birth defects was not significantly different between exposed and non-exposed women. Results were consistent using a (United States) SA definition of foetal loss between weeks 1-19 and/or the extended risk period. There was no evidence of an increased risk of SA and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in young women inadvertently HPV-16/18-vaccinated around gestation. Nevertheless, women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant are advised to postpone vaccination until completion of pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Complete genome sequence and lifestyle of black-pigmented Corynebacterium aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (formerly C. nigricans CN-1 isolated from a vaginal swab of a woman with spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gartemann Karl-Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1 was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in

  13. Increased risk of abortion after genetic amniocentesis in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, C; Andersen, J W; Tabor, A

    1983-01-01

    Forty-seven twin pregnancies among 3676 patients who had a genetic amniocentesis between 1973 and 1979, are reported. The detection rate of twins at the time of amniocentesis was 62 per cent. Five (17 per cent) of the 29 women with detected twin pregnancy aborted spontaneously, these are compared...... in at least one sac aborted, while 3 of 20 twin pregnancies with one puncture in each sac aborted (15 per cent). One of 18 (6 per cent) twin pregnancies, where only one sac was punctured, because the twin pregnancies were undetected, aborted. Amniocentesis of both sacs in twin pregnancies seems associated...... with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The indications for amniocentesis in twin pregnancies should be critically evaluated....

  14. Rsa algoritam i njegova praktična primena

    OpenAIRE

    Kuljanski R. Sonja

    2010-01-01

    RSA algoritam jeste algoritam sa javnim ključem koji uključuje tri koraka: generisanje ključa, enkripciju i dekripciju. RSA enkripciona šema je determinističaka što znači da se osnovni tekst uvek enkriptuje u isti šifrovani tekst za unapred zadati javni ključ. Da bi se izbegao ovaj problem, praktična implementacija RSA algoritma obično koristi neke strukture, kao što je dodavanje slučajnog teksta u samu poruku pre enkripcije. Ovo dodavanje obezbeđuje da osnovna poruka bude s...

  15. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  16. Abortion Before & After Roe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  17. Compression-RSA: New approach of encryption and decryption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chang Ee; Mandangan, Arif

    2013-04-01

    Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) cryptosystem is a well known asymmetric cryptosystem and it has been applied in a very wide area. Many researches with different approaches have been carried out in order to improve the security and performance of RSA cryptosystem. The enhancement of the performance of RSA cryptosystem is our main interest. In this paper, we propose a new method to increase the efficiency of RSA by shortening the number of plaintext before it goes under encryption process without affecting the original content of the plaintext. Concept of simple Continued Fraction and the new special relationship between it and Euclidean Algorithm have been applied on this newly proposed method. By reducing the number of plaintext-ciphertext, the encryption-decryption processes of a secret message can be accelerated.

  18. RSA Opening Minds: A Curriculum for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, Sara

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the RSA Opening Minds competence framework, an innovative curriculum to meet the needs of young people as future employees, lifelong learners and as citizens of the twenty-first century.

  19. Abortion patients' perceptions of abortion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Kate; Weitz, Tracy A

    2010-01-01

    Most states regulate abortion differently than other health care services. Examples of these regulations include mandating waiting periods and the provision of state-authored information, and prohibiting private and public insurance coverage for abortion. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore abortion patients' perspectives on these regulations. We recruited 20 participants from three abortion providing facilities located in two states in the U.S. South and Midwest. Using a survey and semistructured interview, we collected information about women's knowledge of abortion regulation and policy preferences. During the interviews, women weighed the pros and cons of abortion regulations. We used grounded theory analytical techniques and matrix analysis to organize and interpret the data. We discovered five themes in these women's considerations of regulation: responsibility, empathy, safe and accessible health care, privacy, and equity. Women in the study generally supported policies that they felt protected women or informed decisions. However, most women also opposed laws mandating two-day abortion appointments for women who were traveling long distances. Women tended to favor financial coverage of abortion, arguing that it could help poor women afford abortion or reduce state expenditures. Overall the study participants' opinions on abortion policy reflect key values for advocates and policy makers to consider: responsibility, empathy, safe and accessible health care, privacy, and equity. Future work should examine abortion regulations in light of these shared values. Laws that promote misinformation or prohibit accommodations of unique circumstances are not consistent the positions articulated by the subjects in our study. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  20. Abortion - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) PDF Reproductive Health Access Project Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - English PDF Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - ...

  1. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  2. Induced abortion in villages of Ballabgarh HDSS: rates, trends, causes and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Charlette, Lena; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2015-05-29

    Induced abortion has been legal in India on a broad range of medical and social grounds since 1980s. Often, induced abortion is resorted to as a means for contraception, and has a potential to be misused for sex selective feticide. We assessed the rates, trends, causes and determinants of induced abortions from 2008-12 in a rural community of northern India. Present study is a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2008-12. The data was retrieved from the Health and Management Information System maintained at Ballabgarh. Cause of abortion was self-reported by the women who underwent abortion. Of the 11,102 pregnancies, 1,226 (11%) culminated as abortions of which 425 (3.8%) were induced abortions. Spontaneous abortion rate (7.2%) was twice that of induced abortion rate (3.8%). Both abortion rates had an increasing trend during the course of the study period. Self-reported reasons for opting for induced abortions were bleeding per vaginum (23%), unwanted pregnancy (16%), and unviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasonography (11%). Eight percent of the induced abortions were due to the female sex of the fetus. About 11% of the abortions were performed beyond 20 weeks of gestation which was the upper legal permissible gestational age for performing induced abortions in India. About 10% of the abortions were performed by unqualified practitioners. Caste, wealth index, birth order and size of the village population were the factors that were significantly associated with induced abortion. Though the abortion rate was low, the proportionate contribution of induced abortion was more than what could be expected. Unsafe and sex selective abortion, though illegal, was prevalent. Upper caste and higher socio-economic status families were more likely to opt for induced abortion.

  3. Update on abortion policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jennifer A; Brant, Ashley R; Shumaker, Heather D; Reeves, Matthew F

    2016-12-01

    To review the status of antiabortion restrictions enacted over the last 5 years in the United States and their impact on abortion services. In recent years, there has been an alarming rise in the number of antiabortion laws enacted across the United States. In total, various states in the union enacted 334 abortion restrictions from 2011 to July 2016, accounting for 30% of all abortion restrictions since the legalization of abortion in 1973. Data confirm, however, that more liberal abortion laws do not increase the number of abortions, but instead greatly decrease the number of abortion-related deaths. Several countries including Romania, South Africa and Nepal have seen dramatic decreases in maternal mortality after liberalization of abortion laws, without an increase in the total number of abortions. In the United States, abortions are incredibly safe with very low rates of complications and a mortality rate of 0.7 per 100 000 women. With increasing abortion restrictions, maternal mortality in the United States can be expected to rise over the coming years, as has been observed in Texas recently. Liberalization of abortion laws saves women's lives. The rising number of antiabortion restrictions will ultimately harm women and their families.

  4. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  5. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for

  6. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Melese

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications.A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed.A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD age of 27.12 (5.97 years. The majority of abortions (95.5% were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%. Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%, tender uterus (11.3%, septic shock (3.9% and pelvic peritonitis (2.4% were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2% of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%. There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively.Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care

  7. Trying to prevent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J

    1997-06-01

    It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially.

  8. [[Abortion: An Unforgivable Sin?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Chiara

    Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?

  9. Use of the RSA/RCOD Index to Identify Training Priority in Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Hjelde, Geir H; Cheng, Ching-Feng; Ngo, Jake K

    2015-10-01

    The use of RSA/RCOD index indicates the repeated change-of-direction (RCOD) performance relative to the repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and provides a standardized approach to prioritize training needs for RSA and RCOD. To compare the RSA/RCOD index among different age groups, RSA and RCOD were measured from 20 under-16 players (U16), 20 under-19 players (U19), and 17 first-team professional players (PRO) from a football (soccer) club that has regular participation in the UEFA Champions League. Each player performed the RSA and RCOD tests, during which the fastest time (FT), average time (AT), total time (TT), and percentage decrement score (%Dec) were recorded. No significant differences were found in RSA/RCOD index-FT, AT, TT, and %Dec among the 3 groups (p > 0.05) and between U19 and PRO in all RSA and RCOD measures (p > 0.05). Most values of RSA/RCOD index were 0.51 among the U16, U19, and PRO groups. Moreover, we concluded that the RSA/RCOD index might not be further changed after 16 years of age unless specific training programs for RSA and RCOD are prescribed. Therefore, this study provides an empirical case, and coaches can establish the RSA/RCOD index value relevant to their training system and monitor players' training needs of RSA and RCOD in a longer term.

  10. Induced abortion in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P D; Lin, R S

    1995-04-01

    Induced abortion is widely practised in Taiwan; however, it had been illegal until 1985. It was of interest to investigate induced abortion practices in Taiwan after its legalization in 1985 in order to calculate the prevalence rate and ratio of induced abortion to live births and to pregnancies in Taiwan. A study using questionnaires through personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended a family planning service in Taipei metropolitan areas between 1991 and 1992. The reproductive history and sexual behaviour of the subjects were especially focused on during the interviews. Preliminary findings showed that 46% of the women had a history of having had an induced abortion. Among them, 54.8% had had one abortion, 29.7% had had two, and 15.5% had had three or more. The abortion ratio was 379 induced abortions per 1,000 live births and 255 per 1,000 pregnancies. The abortion ratio was highest for women younger than 20 years of age, for aboriginal women and for nulliparous women. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that the number of previous live births is the strongest predictor relating to women seeking induced abortion. In addition, a significant positive association exists between increasing number of induced abortions and cervical dysplasia.

  11. RSA Key Development Using Fingerprint Image on Text Message

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Sayuti; Triana, Indah; Khairani, Sumi; Yasir, Amru; Sundari, Siti

    2017-12-01

    Along with the development of technology today, humans are very facilitated in accessing information and Communicate with various media, including through the Internet network . Messages are sent by media such as text are not necessarily guaranteed security. it is often found someone that wants to send a secret message to the recipient, but the messages can be known by irresponsible people. So the sender feels dissappointed because the secret message that should be known only to the recipient only becomes known by the irresponsible people . It is necessary to do security the message by using the RSA algorithm, Using fingerprint image to generate RSA key.This is a solution to enrich the security of a message,it is needed to process images firstly before generating RSA keys with feature extraction.

  12. Efficient, Robust and Constant-Round Distributed RSA Key Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe

    2010-01-01

    We present the first protocol for distributed RSA key generation which is constant round, secure against malicious adversaries and has a negligibly small bound on the error probability, even using only one iteration of the underlying primality test on each candidate number.......We present the first protocol for distributed RSA key generation which is constant round, secure against malicious adversaries and has a negligibly small bound on the error probability, even using only one iteration of the underlying primality test on each candidate number....

  13. Abortion in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jennifer A; Cahill, Erica

    2017-12-01

    To review updates in how abortion care is depicted and analysed though various media outlets: news, television, film, and social media. A surge in recent media-related abortion research has recognized several notable and emerging themes: abortion in the news media is often inappropriately sourced and politically motivated; abortion portrayal in US film and television is frequently misrepresented; and social media has a new and significant role in abortion advocacy. The portrayal of abortion onscreen, in the news, and online through social media has a significant impact on cultural, personal, and political beliefs in the United States. This is an emerging field of research with wide spread potential impact across several arenas: medicine, policy, public health.

  14. Abortion: a review of women's perception in relation to their partner's reactions in two Brazilians cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, Daniele; Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Azevedo, George Dantas de; Dutra, Elza Maria do Socorro; Rebouças, Melina Séfora Souza; Luci, Mara Cristina Souza de; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira

    2014-07-01

    to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p women who induced an abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (pindependence, women still regard male participation in the abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health.

  15. On the Efficiency of Fast RSA Variants in Modern Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus; Larsen, Troels; Olsen, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Modern mobile phones are increasingly being used for more services that require modern security mechanisms such as the public-key cryptosystem RSA. It is, however, well-known that public-key cryptography demands considerable computing resources and that RSA encryption is much faster than RSA...... decryption. It is consequently an interesting question if RSA as a whole can be executed efficiently on modern mobile phones....

  16. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  17. Misinformation on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Sam

    2011-08-01

    To find the latest and most accurate information on aspects of induced abortion. A literature survey was carried out in which five aspects of abortion were scrutinised: risk to life, risk of breast cancer, risk to mental health, risk to future fertility, and fetal pain. Abortion is clearly safer than childbirth. There is no evidence of an association between abortion and breast cancer. Women who have abortions are not at increased risk of mental health problems over and above women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. There is no negative effect of abortion on a woman's subsequent fertility. It is not possible for a fetus to perceive pain before 24 weeks' gestation. Misinformation on abortion is widespread. Literature and websites are cited to demonstrate how data have been manipulated and misquoted or just ignored. Citation of non-peer reviewed articles is also common. Mandates insisting on provision of inaccurate information in some US State laws are presented. Attention is drawn to how women can be misled by Crisis Pregnancy Centres. There is extensive promulgation of misinformation on abortion by those who oppose abortion. Much of this misinformation is based on distorted interpretation of the scientific literature.

  18. Oral contraception following abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  19. Penambahan Chinese Reminder Theorem Untuk Mempercepat Proses Enkripsi Dan Dekripsi Pada RSA

    OpenAIRE

    Hasibuan, Andi Hazri

    2015-01-01

    Many methods are used to protect digital data stored or transmitted via electronic media. One way is to use a cryptographic algorithm RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adleman). Standard RSA uses modular arithmetic to perform the encryption and decryption. In this thesis discussed the addition of Chinese Remainder Theorem to speed up the RSA. 100823021

  20. 50 CFR 648.207 - Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). 648.207... Measures for the Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.207 Herring Research Set-Aside (RSA). (a) NMFS shall... authorized to utilize RSA, based on the selection criteria described in the RFP. (d) NMFS shall consider each...

  1. The standard of spirometry in the RSA | Basson | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Standards for high-quality lung function testing have not yet been formally adopted in the RSA, despite the increase in the performance of spirometry. A study was undertaken to determine the standard of spirometry in clinical practice in this country. Forty-five spirometer users agreed to participate. Responses to a ...

  2. The mathematics of ciphers number theory and RSA cryptography

    CERN Document Server

    Coutinho, S C

    1999-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the algorithmic aspects of number theory and its applications to cryptography, with special emphasis on the RSA cryptosys-tem. It covers many of the familiar topics of elementary number theory, all with an algorithmic twist. The text also includes many interesting historical notes.

  3. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 2; Eastern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and propeller-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy propeller-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005, A total of 357,626 readings of 1-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 15 out of 19 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. RSA average wind speed data from these 15 showed a small positive bias of 0.38 kts. A slightly larger positive bias of 0.94 kts was found in the RSA peak wind speed.

  4. Flexible hardware design for RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batina, L.; Bruin - Muurling, G.; Örs, S.B.; Okamoto, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable hardware implementation of both commonly used public key cryptosystems, RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC) on the same platform. The introduced hardware accelerator features a design which can be varied from very small (less than 20 Kgates) targeting wireless

  5. Another way of doing RSA cryptography in hardware

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batina, L.; Bruin - Muurling, G.; Honary, B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe an efficient and secure hardware implementation of the RSA cryptosystem. Modular exponentiation is based on Montgomery’s method without any modular reduction achieving the optimal bound. The presented systolic array architecture is scalable in severalparameters which makes

  6. RSA/Legacy Wind Sensor Comparison. Part 1; Western Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David A.; Wheeler, Mark M.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a comparison of data from ultrasonic and cup-and-vane anemometers on 5 wind towers at Vandenberg AFB. The ultrasonic sensors are scheduled to replace the Legacy cup-and-vane sensors under the Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) program. Because previous studies have noted differences between peak wind speeds reported by mechanical and ultrasonic wind sensors, the latter having no moving parts, the 30th and 45th Weather Squadrons wanted to understand possible differences between the two sensor types. The period-of-record was 13-30 May 2005. A total of 153,961 readings of I-minute average and peak wind speed/direction from each sensor type were used. Statistics of differences in speed and direction were used to identify 18 out of 34 RSA sensors having the most consistent performance, with respect to the Legacy sensors. Data from these 18 were used to form a composite comparison. A small positive bias in the composite RSA average wind speed increased from +0.5 kts at 15 kts, to +1 kt at 25 kts. A slightly larger positive bias in the RSA peak wind speed increased from +1 kt at 15 kts, to +2 kts at 30 kts.

  7. On the Estimation of the k-RSA Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Sergeyevich Makeyev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss the attack on the RSA cryptosystem with  modules (≥2. We also provide estimation of the attacks’s complexity. Finally, we give the experimental results for different modules and open exponents.

  8. Factorization of RSA-140 using the number field sieve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.H. Cavallar; B. Dodson; A.K. Lenstra (Arjen); P.C. Leyland; W.M. Lioen (Walter); P.L. Montgomery; B. Murphy; H.J.J. te Riele (Herman); P. Zimmermann

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOn February 2, 1999, we completed the factorization of the 140--digit number RSA--140 with the help of the Number Field Sieve factoring method (NFS). This is a new general factoring record. The previous record was established on April 10, 1996 by the factorization of the 130--digit

  9. Factoring estimates for a 1024-bit RSA modulus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenstra, A.K.; Tromer, E.; Shamir, A.; Kortsmit, W.J.P.M.; Dodson, B.; Hughes, J.; Leyland, P.; Laih, Chi Sung

    2003-01-01

    We estimate the yield of the number field sieve factoring algorithm when applied to the 1024-bit composite integer RSA-1024 and the parameters as proposed in the draft version [17] of the TWIRL hardware factoring device [18]. We present the details behind the resulting improved parameter choices

  10. Metabolism and gene polymorphisms of the folate pathway in Brazilian women with history of recurrent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boas, Wendell Vilas; Gonçalves, Rozana Oliveira; Costa, Olívia Lúcia Nunes; Goncalves, Marilda Souza

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between polymorphisms in genes that encode enzymes involved in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). We investigated the C677T and A1298C polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofalate reductase gene (MTHFR), the A2756G polymorphism of the methionine synthase gene (MS) and the 844ins68 insertion of the cystathionine beta synthetase gene (CBS). The PCR technique followed by RFLP was used to assess the polymorphisms; the serum levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate were investigated by chemiluminescence. The EPI Info Software version 6.04 was used for statistical analysis. Parametric variables were compared by Student's t-test and nonparametric variables by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The frequencies of gene polymorphisms in 89 women with a history of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage and 150 controls were 19.1 and 19.6% for the C677T, insertion, 20.8 and 26% for the A1298C insertion, 14.2 and 21.9% for the A2756G insertion, and 16.4 and 18% for the 844ins68 insertion, respectively. There were no significant differences between case and control groups in any of the gene polymorphisms investigated. However, the frequency of the 844ins68 insertion in the CBS gene was higher among women with a history of loss during the third trimester of pregnancy (p=0.003). Serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels id not differ between the polymorphisms studied in the case and control groups. However, linear regression analysis showed a dependence of serum folate levels on the maintenance of tHcy levels. The investigated gene polymorphisms and serum homocysteine, vitamin B12 and folate levels were not associated with idiopathic recurrent miscarriage in the present study. Further investigations are needed in order to confirm the role of the CBS 844ins68 insertion in recurrent miscarriage.

  11. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian T Henderson

    Full Text Available Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion.We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003, early implementation (2004-2006, and later implementation (2007-2010.23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85. Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75.Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve

  12. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D

    2013-01-01

    Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003), early implementation (2004-2006), and later implementation (2007-2010). 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve access. Other

  13. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  14. Bilateral oblique facial clefts, rudimentary eyes and hydrocephalus in an aborted equine foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; McEvoy, Fintan

    2017-01-01

    and hydrocephalus is reported in an equine foetus spontaneously aborted at gestation day 224. The cause of abortion was considered to be intrauterine death caused by umbilical cord torsions and subsequent compromised blood flow, but the aetiology of the malformation could not be determined. A detailed history...

  15. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  16. [Demand for abortion. Pre-abortion discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiol, L

    1994-03-01

    The preabortion interview required by French law takes place between the medical consultation and the aspiration or administration of RU-486. The three marriage counselors at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have each undertaken a course of personal therapy to enable them to understand their own reactions and motivations as a way of improving their effectiveness with clients. The preabortion interview is an opportunity to listen to and support women who may be experiencing anguish, sadness, ambivalence, or aggressivity. Each client determines the content of the interview. Often the reason for the abortion is given, frequently in terms of economic problems, unemployment, or other justification. The women almost always state that they "cannot", not that they "do not want", to continue the pregnancy, as if external circumstances had made their decision. The decision is usually made with little discussion. Young adolescents are often astounded to find themselves pregnant. Among young girls, the pregnancy may represent an appeal to the parents for attention or understanding. Sometimes the abortion represents a repetition or a reminder of some difficult event in the past, such as a previous abortion or the death of a child. Often the abortion exacerbates problems in the couple's relationship. The mother often experiences rejection of the pregnancy by the father as rejection of herself. Repeat abortions raise questions about whether some aspect of counseling was neglected. The abortion request always occasions a great feeling of guilt, both for being pregnant and for refusing the pregnancy. The interview permits the client to express her feelings and may help her make sense of the experience.

  17. Abortion: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  18. The effect of personalized versus standard patient protocols for radiostereometric analysis (RSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muharemovic, O; Troelsen, A; Thomsen, M G

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Increasing pressure in the clinic requires a more standardized approach to radiostereometric analysis (RSA) imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether implementation of personalized RSA patient protocols could increase image quality and decrease examination time...... imaging. Radiographers in the control group used a standard RSA protocol. RESULTS: At three months, radiographers in the case group significantly reduced (p .... No significant improvements were found in the control group at any time point. CONCLUSION: There is strong evidence that personalized RSA patient protocols have a positive effect on image quality and radiation dose savings. Implementation of personal patient protocols as a RSA standard will contribute...

  19. Rewriting abortion: deploying medical records in jurisdictional negotiation over a forbidden practice in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal’s national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in nearly 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion

  20. Adolescent RSA responses during an anger discussion task: Relations to emotion regulation and adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixian; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Harrist, Amanda W; Larzelere, Robert E; Criss, Michael M; Houltberg, Benjamin J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined associations between adolescent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) during an angry event discussion task and adolescents' emotion regulation and adjustment. Data were collected from 206 adolescents (10-18 years of age, M age = 13.37). Electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration data were collected from adolescents, and RSA values and respiration rates were computed. Adolescents reported on their own emotion regulation, prosocial behavior, and aggressive behavior. Multilevel latent growth modeling was employed to capture RSA responses across time (i.e., linear and quadratic changes; time course approach), and adolescent emotion regulation and adjustment variables were included in the model to test their links to RSA responses. Results indicated that high RSA baseline was associated with more adolescent prosocial behavior. A pattern of initial RSA decreases (RSA suppression) in response to angry event recall and subsequent RSA increases (RSA rebound) were related to better anger and sadness regulation and more prosocial behavior. However, RSA was not significantly linked to adolescent aggressive behavior. We also compared the time course approach with the conventional linear approach and found that the time course approach provided more meaningful and rich information. The implications of adaptive RSA change patterns are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang Tsan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matrix holographic image contain seven groups of codes used for reconstructing the covert image. The seven groups of codes are identification codes, covert-image dimension codes, covert-image graylevel codes, pre-RSA bit number codes, RSA key codes, post-RSA bit number codes, and information codes. The reconstructed covert image derived from the dot-matrix holographic image and the original covert image are exactly the same.

  2. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: effects of task factors and RSA indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2014-05-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable results. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to a working memory task requiring varying levels of cognitive control and a perceptual attention task not requiring strong cognitive control. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean interbeat interval and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA indices. The two tasks were clearly differentiated by heart rate and facial EMG reference measures. Cognitive control induced inhibition of RSA whereas perceptual attention generally did not. However, the results show several differences between different RSA indices, emphasizing the importance of methodological variables. Age and sex did not influence the results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementasi Kriptografi Kunci Publik dengan Algoritma RSA-CRT pada Aplikasi Instant Messaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashari Arief

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Instant messaging merupakan salah satu bentuk kemajuan teknologi komunikasi yang mempermudah penyampaian informasi. Saat ini, dengan semakin banyaknya pengguna aplikasi instant messaging berakibat pada dampak negatif berupa penyadapan data khususnya saat terjadi komunikasi yang bersifat rahasia. Algoritma RSA merupakan salah satu satu algoritma dalam kriptografi kunci publik. Pada proses enkripsi dan dekripsi digunakan kunci yang berbeda. Proses dekripsi algoritma RSA sering terjadi kendala karena ukuran kunci dekripsi yang relatif besar dapat memperlambat proses. Untuk mempercepat proses dekripsi, algoritma RSA dapat dimodifikasi dengan algoritma CRT (Chinese Remainder Theorem, sering disebut dengan Algoritma RSA-CRT. Implementasi algoritma kriptografi RSA-CRT pada aplikasi instant messaging pada panjang bit n mulai dari 56 bit sampai 88 bit, proses dekripsi RSA-CRT dua kali lebih cepat dibandingkan proses dekripsi RSA

  4. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  5. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  6. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion

  7. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  8. Medical Abortion in Primary Care : Pitfalls and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A. A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    2009-01-01

    We describe jive pitfalls of medical abortion: ectopic pregnancy not terminated after misoprostol, but without negative side-effects; long-term vaginal blood loss with suspicious retained products which disappeared spontaneously; a patient with uterus myomatatosus with severe pain and retained

  9. APLIKASI KEAMANAN FILE AUDIO WAV (WAVEFORM DENGAN TERAPAN ALGORITMA RSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Nasrul Fuad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The WAV file format that is widely used rough on various kinds of multimedia and gaming platforms. Ease of access and technological development with a variety of media to facilitate the exchange of information to various places. The data are important and need to be kept confidential secret for a wide range of security threats so that data can be intercepted and acknowledged by third parties during the shipping process. Of these problems led to the idea to create an application data security functions can secure the data using the RSA algorithm. The programming language is C # with Visual Studio software, the processed data is a sample each byte in WAV file, the header will be the same as that originally WAV files can be played even if the information has been withheld. RSA algorithm can be implemented into a programming language that WAV files can be processed and secured the data.

  10. RSA cryptosystem with fuzzy set theory for encryption and decryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Kamilah; Bakar, Sumarni Abu; Kamis, Nor Hanimah; Aliamis, Hardi

    2017-11-01

    In the communication area, user is more focus on communication instead of security of the data communication. Many cryptosystems have been improvised to achieved the effectiveness in communication. RSA cryptosystem is one of well-known cryptosystem used to secure the information and protect the communication by providing a difficulty to the attackers specifically in encryption and decryption. As need arises for guarantee the security of the cryptosystem while the communication must be ensured, we propose a new RSA cryptosystem which is based on fuzzy set theory whereby the plaintext and the ciphertext are in terms of Triangular Fuzzy Number (TFN). Decryption result shows that the message obtained is the same as the original plaintext. This study reveals that the fuzzy set theory is suitable to be used as an alternative tool in securing other cryptosystem.

  11. Diagnosis of Cervical Abortion by TransvaginaI Color Doppler Sonography : A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Hee Sug; Ji, Hoon; Suh, Jung Ho

    1995-01-01

    Cervical abortion is a spontaneous abortion of an intrauterine pregnancy into the cervical canal where the abortus is retained by a closed external os, causing distension of the cervical canal. Cervical abortion should be distinguished from the cervical pregnancy. We present a case of cervical abortion diagnosed preoperatively by transvaginal sonography and color doppler imaging, and treated by dilatation and curettage. Charateristic transvaginal sonographic findings and identification of subtrophoblastic blood flow by color doppler imaging could allow differentiation of the cevical aborition from the cervical pregnancy

  12. Abortion Is the Same as a Murder of an Innocent Human Being

    OpenAIRE

    Togzhan Yezlankyzy; Shokan Niazbekov

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is one of the most controversial and talked problem of our time. It is discussed in classrooms, work places and even on the internet. The definition of abortion is the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus as the spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Kazakhstan’s health organization records 300 thousand abortions every year. Abortion problem is unlikely to care a...

  13. THE OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN PATIENTS WITH THREATENED ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the Outcome of pregnancy in patients with threatened abortion. METHODS: A Prospective observational study was done on 106 pregnant women with threatened abortion. Out comes in the form of antenatal complications, mode of delivery and postnatal co mplications were noted. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 13. RESULTS: In the study of 106 patients 18% had spontaneous abortion. Pre - labour rupture of membranes were seen in 20% of patients and 21% had preterm labour. Threatened abortion di d not affect mode of delivery. PPROM, preterm births were more in women presenting with first trimester bleeding; PIH, PROM, and postpartum complications were more in women presenting beyond 20 weeks gestation though statistically not significant. 13.2% of women had heavy bleeding at admission out of which 50% aborted subsequently – significantly higher than the light bleeding group. CONCLUSION: The overall maternal and perinatal outcome in women with threatened abortion is suboptimal. Women with heavy blee ding are more likely to abort than women with light bleeding. Among the prognostic factors, only the amount of bleeding had significant prognostic accuracy

  14. Estudio citogenético y morfológico en productos de aborto espontáneo procedentes de diferentes servicios de ginecoobstetricia de la ciudad de Medellín Cytogenetic and morphologic study of spontaneous abortions products in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzálo Vásquez Palacio

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available En el período comprendido entre septiembre 1° de 1996 y octubre 1° de 1997, se recolectó para estudios morfológico y citogenético un total de 84 productos de aborto espontáneo del 1° y 2° trimestres de la gestación, en diferentes servicios de ginecoobstetricia de la ciudad de Medellín. Dieciséis de los 84 se descartaron por contaminación o ausencia de tejidos apropiados para el estudio. De los 68 productos restantes en 60 (88,2% se establecieron cultivos para estudio citogenético, los cuales fueron exitosos en 34 casos (56, 7%. Diecisiete de los anteriores (50% mostraron un cariotipo anormal con las siguientes alteraciones cromosómicas: monosomía X, 10 (58,8%, mosaicismos 5 (29,4%, trisomías 1 (5,9% y tetraploidía 1 (5,9%. En 21 de los 68 productos (30,9% (3 embriones y 18 fetos fue posible el estudio morfológico. Doce de éstos, (2 embriones y 10 fetos; 57, 1 % mostraron alteraciones morfológicas externas o internas. El presente estudio citogenético y morfológico en productos de aborto espontáneo con edad gestacional menor de 20 semanas es el primero que se informa en nuestro medio y sus resultados son similares a los obtenidos en otros reportes que aparecen en la literatura. Eighty tour spontaneous abortion products, with gestational age under 20 weeks, were collected in ditterent obstetric and gynecologic services trom Medellin-Colombia between September 1996 and October 1997; they were studied both morphologically and cytogenetically. Sixteen of those products were discarded because of contamination or absence of suitable tissues for the study In 60 of the remaining 68 products (88°/~ cultures for cytogenetic studies were establishedJ and they were succesful in 34 cases (56J7%. Seventeen of. these (50% showed an abnormal karyotype with the following chromosomal anomalies: X monosomies 10 (58J8%, mosaicisms 5 (29,4%J trisomies 1 (5,9%, and tetráploidy 1 (5J9%. From the 68 products, a morphologic study was performed in

  15. Simplified Threshold RSA with Adaptive and Proactive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almansa Guerra, Jesus Fernando; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2006-01-01

    We present the currently simplest, most efficient, optimally resilient, adaptively secure, and proactive threshold RSA scheme. A main technical contribution is a new rewinding strategy for analysing threshold signature schemes. This new rewinding strategy allows to prove adaptive security...... of a proactive threshold signature scheme which was previously assumed to be only statically secure. As a separate contribution we prove that our protocol is secure in the UC framework....

  16. Post abortion syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    There is general agreement that uncertainty persists regarding the psychological sequelae of abortion. Inconsistencies of interpretation stem from a lack of consensus about the symptoms, severity, and duration of mental disorder. In addition, opinions differ based on individual case studies and there is no national reporting system or adequate follow up system. Frequently, reviews combine studies conducted prior to and after the 1973 Supreme Court decision, mix elective abortion with those induced for medical reasons, or fail to distinguish between abortions performed early or late in gestation. The literature reveals methodological problems, a lack of controls, and sampling inadequacies. A review of the available literature and the files of "Abortion Research Notes" suggests that women at particular risk for postabortion stress reactions are those who terminate an originally wanted pregnancy, are strongly ambivalent, come very late in their pregnancy, or lack the support of significant others.

  17. Dual-Layer Video Encryption using RSA Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Aman; Mallik, Sushmit; Chadha, Ankit; Johar, Ravdeep; Mani Roja, M.

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a video encryption algorithm using RSA and Pseudo Noise (PN) sequence, aimed at applications requiring sensitive video information transfers. The system is primarily designed to work with files encoded using the Audio Video Interleaved (AVI) codec, although it can be easily ported for use with Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) encoded files. The audio and video components of the source separately undergo two layers of encryption to ensure a reasonable level of security. Encryption of the video component involves applying the RSA algorithm followed by the PN-based encryption. Similarly, the audio component is first encrypted using PN and further subjected to encryption using the Discrete Cosine Transform. Combining these techniques, an efficient system, invulnerable to security breaches and attacks with favorable values of parameters such as encryption/decryption speed, encryption/decryption ratio and visual degradation; has been put forth. For applications requiring encryption of sensitive data wherein stringent security requirements are of prime concern, the system is found to yield negligible similarities in visual perception between the original and the encrypted video sequence. For applications wherein visual similarity is not of major concern, we limit the encryption task to a single level of encryption which is accomplished by using RSA, thereby quickening the encryption process. Although some similarity between the original and encrypted video is observed in this case, it is not enough to comprehend the happenings in the video.

  18. Implementasi Algoritma Kriptografi RSA untuk Enkripsi dan Dekripsi Email

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Ginting

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the world of Internet nothing is really safe. There's always a gap in any application made. Likewise in email delivery. To minimize attacks on the data transmission is usually applied cryptography. One fairly popular cryptographic algorithms are RSA algorithm. In this study will discuss the implementation of a cryptographic algorithm RSA encryption and decryption process email. To test created a java-based email client program with message encryption and decryption features messages. This application uses the Java programming language and Netbeans 7.4 as editor. Mail servers used is Google Mail. The initial step of this study was to download email from the Google server and encrypt the message. The second step is decrypt the message to verify whether the message is still the same as the original message before it is encrypted . Results from this study is the application that can encrypt and decrypt messages using RSA cryptographic algorithm. With this application is expected to mail delivery is much safer. Because encrypted email will generate a random decimal number of unknown value .

  19. The incidence of abortion worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.

  20. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics

  1. The Stratified Legitimacy of Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori

    2016-12-01

    Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood. This stratified legitimacy can perpetuate socially-inflected inequality of access and normative gendered sexuality. Additionally, we argue that the practice by physicians of distinguishing among abortions can legitimate legislative practices that regulate and restrict some kinds of abortion, further constraining abortion access. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  2. Unsafe abortion: the silent scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A

    2003-01-01

    An estimated 19 million unsafe abortions occur worldwide each year, resulting in the deaths of about 70,000 women. Legalization of abortion is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health. Without skilled providers, adequate facilities and easy access, the promise of safe, legal abortion will remain unfulfilled, as in India and Zambia. Both suction curettage and pharmacological abortion are safe methods in early pregnancy; sharp curettage is inferior and should be abandoned. For later abortions, either dilation and evacuation or labour induction are appropriate. Hysterotomy should not be used. Timely and appropriate management of complications can reduce morbidity and prevent mortality. Treatment delays are dangerous, regardless of their origin. Misoprostol may reduce the risks of unsafe abortion by providing a safer alternative to traditional clandestine abortion methods. While the debate over abortion will continue, the public health record is settled: safe, legal, accessible abortion improves health.

  3. On the Wrongfulness of abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arosemena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is seen as an immoral and unjust act by many. Nonetheless these views are under pressure to conform to the learned opinion on abortion. A variety of prestigious in the field of applied ethics support abortion in one way or another. And it is a dogma of modern liberalism that even if one is personally opposed to abortion, one must accept the neutral solution of its public permissibility. The present article defends the thesis that abortion is immoral and unjust against these contentions. With regards to the moral status of abortion, it argues that the prohibition of abortion is off a piece with the prohibition of killing generally, which is characterized by protecting all human beings equally. With regards to the compatibility of abortion permissibility with liberalism, the article argues that such a compromise is not neutral, but heavily rigged in favor of the interests and world-views of abortion proponents.

  4. The effect of personalized versus standard patient protocols for radiostereometric analysis (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharemovic, O; Troelsen, A; Thomsen, M G; Kallemose, T; Gosvig, K K

    2018-05-01

    Increasing pressure in the clinic requires a more standardized approach to radiostereometric analysis (RSA) imaging. The aim of this study was to investigate whether implementation of personalized RSA patient protocols could increase image quality and decrease examination time and the number of exposure repetitions. Forty patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty were equally randomized to either a case or a control group. Radiographers in the case group were assisted by personalized patient protocols containing information about each patient's post-operative RSA imaging. Radiographers in the control group used a standard RSA protocol. At three months, radiographers in the case group significantly reduced (p RSA patient protocols have a positive effect on image quality and radiation dose savings. Implementation of personal patient protocols as a RSA standard will contribute to the reduction of examination time, thus ensuring a cost benefit for department and patient safety. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Directly assessing interpersonal RSA influences in the frequency domain: An illustration with generalized partial directed coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Gates, Kathleen M; Blandon, Alysia Y

    2018-06-01

    Despite recent research indicating that interpersonal linkage in physiology is a common phenomenon during social interactions, and the well-established role of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in socially facilitative physiological regulation, little research has directly examined interpersonal influences in RSA, perhaps due to methodological challenges in analyzing multivariate RSA data. In this article, we aim to bridge this methodological gap by introducing a new method for quantifying interpersonal RSA influences. Specifically, we show that a frequency-domain statistic, generalized partial directed coherence (gPDC), can be used to capture lagged relations in RSA between social partners without first estimating RSA for each person. We illustrate its utility by examining the relation between gPDC and marital conflict in a sample of married couples. Finally, we discuss how gPDC complements existing methods in the time domain and provide guidelines for choosing among these different statistical techniques. © 2018 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  6. Domestic Violence and Abortion Among Rural Women in Four Indian States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of domestic violence and abortion in India is high, yet little is known about the relationship between these experiences. Data from two linked data sets, India's 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) and a follow-up survey in 2002-2003, were analyzed. The analysis examines how the experience of physical violence affects the subsequent uptake of abortion, and how the experience of abortion affects subsequent experience of physical, sexual, and verbal violence. Women who experienced physical violence have significantly higher odds of reporting a subsequent induced abortion, whereas women who had an induced abortion have significantly higher odds of reporting subsequent sexual and verbal violence. There was no significant relationship between domestic violence and spontaneous abortion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Late induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W

    1990-09-01

    In the UK in 1988, 13.3% of abortions were performed at 13 weeks' gestation or later. Reasons for this delay, in addition to the diagnosis through amniocentesis of a fetal abnormality, include late recognition of pregnancy, a change of mind about completing the pregnancy, a failure of primary care physicians to entertain the diagnosis of pregnancy, travel or financial problems, and referral difficulties and scheduling delays. Women with little education and very young women are most likely to present for late abortions. From 13-16 weeks, dilatation and evacuation is the safest method of pregnancy termination. The procedure can be made easier through preparation of the cervix with a prostaglandin pessary or Foley catheter. After 16 weeks, an instillation method is recommended; prostaglandin administration can be intro- or extra-amniotic. Complication rates at 13-19 weeks are 14.5/1000 for vaginal methods of abortion and 7.2/1000 for prostaglandin methods. The risk of complications is 3 times higher for women who have 2nd-trimester abortions through the National Health Service. Although it is not realistic to expect that late abortions ever can be eliminated, improved sex education and contraceptive reliability as well as reforms in the National Health Service could reduce the number substantially. To reduce delay, it is suggested that the National Health Service set up satellite day care units and 1-2 central units in each region to deal quickly with midtrimester abortions. Delays would be further reduced by legislation to allow abortion on request in at least the 1st trimester of pregnancy.

  8. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  9. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  10. Hiding a Covert Digital Image by Assembling the RSA Encryption Method and the Binary Encoding Method

    OpenAIRE

    Kuang Tsan Lin; Sheng Lih Yeh

    2014-01-01

    The Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) encryption method and the binary encoding method are assembled to form a hybrid hiding method to hide a covert digital image into a dot-matrix holographic image. First, the RSA encryption method is used to transform the covert image to form a RSA encryption data string. Then, all the elements of the RSA encryption data string are transferred into binary data. Finally, the binary data are encoded into the dot-matrix holographic image. The pixels of the dot-matri...

  11. Estimating time-varying RSA to examine psychophysiological linkage of marital dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Kathleen M; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Sandsten, Maria; Blandon, Alysia Y

    2015-08-01

    One of the primary tenets of polyvagal theory dictates that parasympathetic influence on heart rate, often estimated by respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), shifts rapidly in response to changing environmental demands. The current standard analytic approach of aggregating RSA estimates across time to arrive at one value fails to capture this dynamic property within individuals. By utilizing recent methodological developments that enable precise RSA estimates at smaller time intervals, we demonstrate the utility of computing time-varying RSA for assessing psychophysiological linkage (or synchrony) in husband-wife dyads using time-locked data collected in a naturalistic setting. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Center index method-an alternative for wear measurements with radiostereometry (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Jon; Figved, Wender; Snorrason, Finnur; Nordsletten, Lars; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2013-03-01

    Radiostereometry (RSA) is considered to be the most precise and accurate method for wear-measurements in total hip replacement. Post-operative stereoradiographs has so far been necessary for wear measurement. Hence, the use of RSA has been limited to studies planned for RSA measurements. We compared a new RSA method for wear measurements that does not require previous radiographs with conventional RSA. Instead of comparing present stereoradiographs with post-operative ones, we developed a method for calculating the post-operative position of the center of the femoral head on the present examination and using this as the index measurement. We compared this alternative method to conventional RSA in 27 hips in an ongoing RSA study. We found a high degree of agreement between the methods for both mean proximal (1.19 mm vs. 1.14 mm) and mean 3D wear (1.52 mm vs. 1.44 mm) after 10 years. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.958 and 0.955, respectively (pRSA offers comparable results to conventional RSA measurements. It allows precise wear measurements without previous radiological examinations. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  13. Radioimmunological methods of determining hormones in the blood in physiological pregnancy and in abortions and premature delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulienko, S.D.; Fogel, P.I.

    1981-01-01

    Significant changes are shown to occur in the level of sex hormones in blood at the risk of spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or the mole. Determining the levels of estradiol, progesterone, chorial gonadotropin and testosterone in the blood serum using RIA yields immediate information on the hormonal function of the fetoplacental unit. This has diagnostic significance and can be used as a criterion for the application of complementary hormonal therapy when there is a risk of abortion or premature delivery. (author)

  14. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  15. Jewish views on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, I

    1968-01-01

    In Jewish law right and wrong, good and evil, are absolute values which transcend time, place, and environment. They defy definition by human intuition or expediency. Jewish law derives from the Divine revelation at Mount Sinai as expounded by sages faithful to, and authorized by, its writ. The Talmud rules that if a woman is in hard travail, and her life must be saved, the child must be aborted and extracted. The mother's life comes first. The fetus is not a human life until it is born. But 19th century Rabbinical works state that it is immoral to destroy a monster child. Modern rabbis are unanimous in condemning abortion, feticide, or infanticide as an unconscionable attack on human life. However, Jewish law allows abortion if the pregnancy will cause severe psychological damage to the mother. No civilized society could survive without laws which occasionally cause some suffering or personal anguish. One human life is worth a million lives, because each life is infinite in value. In cases of rape or incest Jewish law still does not sanction abortion. Man's procreative responsibilities are serious and carry rights and obligations which would be upset by liberalized abortion laws. If a person kills a person who is mortally wounded, the killer is guilty of a moral offense.

  16. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  17. Study of karyotypes in Case of Recurrent Abortions in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Parikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - The biological definition of miscarriage is the expulsion of the conceptus before viability has been achieved. The definition of recurrent miscarriage is three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. The risk factors for recurrent miscarriage are epidemiological, genetic, anatomical disorders, endocrinal, reproductive tract infections, thrombophilic disorders, disorders of materno-fetal alloimmune relationships, environmental effects and psychological causes. About 50% to 60% of all first trimester abortions are associated with derangement of one or more chromosomal complements. Aim: - The aim of this study was to assess frequency and increasing the awareness of physician about the nature of chromosomal aberration that contribute to the occurrence of repeated abortions. Material & Methods: - Patient of recurrent abortion was investigated by history taking, examination and investigations. For present study 20 women having two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions, who attended outdoor & indoor patient department, were selected and karyotyping was done. In 10 of the above cases karyotype study of both partners was done. So in total 30 individuals (20 females & 10 males were selected for Cytogenetic study. In all cases relevant history and clinical findings and other investigations were noted. Blood samples were obtained and karyotype study was performed at Genetic Laboratory, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results and Conclusions: - Cytogenetic evaluation by karyotypes revealed robertsonian translocation in one (5% female; this patient had a history of 2 spontaneous abortions and two times IVF failure, she had history of chocolate cyst of ovary and family history of infertility. No numerical anomaly; mosaicism or inversions were found in this study; 23 cases had normal karyotype and remaining 6 cases came out inconclusive.

  18. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  19. Association between induced abortion history and later in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Sun, Yun; Di, Wen; Kuang, Yan-Ping; Xu, Bing

    2018-06-01

    To establish an effective and safe clinical fertility strategy by investigating the relationship between abortion history and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. In the present retrospective cohort study, data from IVF treatment cycles performed at a reproductive center in China between October 1, 2014, and October 31, 2015, were assessed. Outcomes were compared between women with a history of induced abortion and those without. There were 1532 IVF treatment cycles included; 454 patients had a history of induced abortion and 1078 did not. The spontaneous abortion rate was significantly higher (30/170 [17.6%] vs 41/420 [9.8%]; P=0.002) and the endometrium was significantly thinner (8.8 ± 1.8 vs 9.7 ± 1.8 cm; P=0.001) among patients with a history of induced abortion compared with those without. In a subgroup analysis of patients with a history of induced abortion, women who had undergone surgical abortions had a lower live delivery rate compared with medical abortions (29/76 [38%] vs 101/378 [27%]; P=0.039). Further, women who had a history of more than two surgical abortions had lower live delivery and clinical pregnancy rates (both Pabortion was associated with worse IVF outcomes, especially a history of more than two surgical abortions. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  20. Development of Autoimmune Overt Hypothyroidism Is Highly Associated With Live Births and Induced Abortions but Only in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Buelow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    : In conditional multivariate logistic regression models, we analyzed the associations between the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism and age at menarche/menopause, years of menstruations, pregnancies, spontaneous and induced abortions, live births, and years on oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone...

  1. Th·erapeutic Abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-14

    Aug 14, 1971 ... abortion on the demand of any pregnant woman. Although .... Of these abortions 55% were in single, widowed, divorced or separated women and the ... gists found reluctance in nursing staff for the performance of therapeutic ...

  2. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  3. Abortion — facts and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  4. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  5. ANALISIS KEAMANAN DATA PADA BLOCK CIPHER ALGORITMA KRIPTOGRAFI RSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhillah Azmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Komunikasi adalah proses dasar dari pertukaran informasi. Efektifitas komunikasikomputer secara umum adalah melalui internet atau beberapa saluran komunikasi lainnya.Tujuan utama tulisan ini adalah berdasarkan pada analisis hasil yang diberikan Weinermengatakan bahwa jika private key d digunakan dalam algoritma kriptografi RSA kurang darin292, maka sistem tersebut kurang aman. Di sini penulis menganalisa pada hasil yang diberikanoleh Weiner dan mencoba untuk meningkatkan range dari private key d sampai n0.5. Karena nadalah perkalian p dan q, yang mana bilangan relative prima. Sehingga mempengaruhi kinerjaenkripsi algoritma yang lebih aman.

  6. Reverse saturable absorption (RSA) in fluorinated iridium derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Michael J.; O'Donnell, Ryan M.; Bambha, Neal; Ensley, Trenton R.; Shensky, William M.; Shi, Jianmin

    2017-08-01

    The photophysical properties of cyclometallated iridium compounds are beneficial for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications, such as the design of reverse saturable absorption (RSA) materials. We report on the NLO characterization of a family of compounds of the form [Ir(pbt)2(LX)], where pbt is 2-phenylbenzothiazole and LX is a beta-diketonate ligand. In particular, we investigate the effects of trifluoromethylation on compound solubility and photophysics compared to the parent acetylacetonate (acac) version. The NLO properties, such as the singlet and triplet excited-state cross sections, of these compounds were measured using the Z-scan technique. The excited-state lifetimes were determined from visible transient absorption spectroscopy.

  7. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  8. ABORTION- A CASE REPORT.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presentation, she noticed coital bleeding; it was mildI self with no associated dizziness or dyspareunis. She had been treated with drugs on many occasions at hospitals as well as over the counter medicaiions with no improvement. Eight years prior to presentation, she had an induced abortion at about 14 weeks of gestaiion ...

  9. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  10. Abortion: The Insoluble Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 Aug 1971 ... The literature on the pros and cons of therapeutic abortion must by now virtually fill an average- sized library. Every expert in every field has had his say, sometimes by invitation and sometimes unasked, yet we seem to be no nearer the answer than when we started. The legal boffins have put their case, the ...

  11. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-01-01

    This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  12. INDUCED ABORTION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... 95% of women would have had an induced abortion. (10), which ... who were fluent in both English and the local language were chosen ... the woman and society. The Muslims ... that “traditional methods are only effective at the early stages of ... modern and traditional family planning services. However ...

  13. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  14. Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal

    2012-01-01

    The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite wi...

  15. A Review of RSA and Public-Key Cryptosystems | Rabah | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... study and analyze the RSA cryptosystems – a public-key cryptographic algorithm - a system that uses two sets of keys; one for encryption and the other for decryption. Key Words: Public-key cryptography, DH, RSA, Internet Security and attacks, Digital Signature, Message digest, Authentication, Secure Socket Layer (SSL)

  16. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks : effects of task factors and RSA indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, T.; Boxtel, van Anton; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable

  17. 47 CFR 22.969 - Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cellular RSA licenses subject to competitive bidding. 22.969 Section 22.969 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Cellular Radiotelephone Service § 22.969 Cellular RSA licenses...

  18. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to cognitive tasks: Effects of task factors and RSA indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, T.J.M.; van Boxtel, A.; Westerink, J.H.D.M.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies show that respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) decreases while performing cognitive tasks. However, there is uncertainty about the role of contaminating factors such as physical activity and stress-inducing task variables. Different methods to quantify RSA may also contribute to variable

  19. Combined model of 9x9 playfair and RSA for securing confidential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Combined model of 9x9 playfair and RSA for securing confidential information. Y.B. Zakariyau, L.J. Muhammad, A.M. Usman, A Garba. Abstract. No Abstract. Keywords: Cryptography, RSA, Playfair Cipher, Public and Secret Key. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  20. Efficient RSA Key Generation and Threshold Paillier in the Two-Party Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazay, Carmit; Mikkelsen, Gert Læssøe; Rabin, Tal

    2011-01-01

    with security against malicious behavior. Our second contribution is complete Paillier [Pai99] threshold encryption scheme in the two-party setting with security against malicious behavior. Furthermore, we describe how to extend our protocols to the multiparty setting with dishonest majority. Our RSA key...... generation is comprised of the following: (i) a distributed protocol for generation of an RSA composite, and (ii) a biprimality test for verifying the validity of the generated composite. Our Paillier threshold encryption scheme uses the RSA composite as public key and is comprised of: (i) a distributed......The problem of generating an RSA composite in a distributed manner without leaking its factorization is particularly challenging and useful in many cryptographic protocols. Our first contribution is the first non-generic fully simulatable protocol for distributively generating an RSA composite...

  1. Children’s dynamic RSA change during anger and its relations with parenting, temperament, and control of aggression☆

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Jonas G.; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N.; Utendale, William T.; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4–6-year-old children’s dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N = 180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was rel...

  2. Children's Externalizing and Internalizing Symptoms over Time: The Role of Individual Differences in Patterns of RSA Responding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnant, James Benjamin; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2009-01-01

    We examined associations between basal respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) in conjunction with RSA regulation with the hypothesis that their interaction would explain unique variability in children's prospective adjustment 2 years later. Participants were 176 children (98 girls; 78 boys) in middle childhood. RSA regulation was assessed through…

  3. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  4. The politicization of abortion and the evolution of abortion counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation--head and heart counseling--departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade.

  5. Comparison of two different Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) systems with markerless elementary geometrical shape modeling for the measurement of stem migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Röhrl, Stephan M; Bøe, B; Nordsletten, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) is the gold standard of measurement for in vivo 3D implants migration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo precision of 2 RSA marker-based systems compared with that of marker-free, elementary geometrical shape modeling RSA. Stem migration was measured in 50 patients recruited from an on-going Randomized Controlled Trial. We performed marker-based analysis with the Um RSA and RSAcore systems and compared these results with those of the elementary geometrical shape RSA. The precision for subsidence was 0.118 mm for Um RSA, 0.141 mm for RSAcore, and 0.136 mm for elementary geometrical shape RSA. The precision for retroversion was 1.3° for elementary geometrical shape RSA, approximately 2-fold greater than that for the other methods. The intraclass correlation coefficient between the marker-based systems and elementary geometrical shape RSA was approximately 0.5 for retroversion. All 3 methods yielded ICCs for subsidence and varus-valgus rotation above 0.9. We found an excellent correlation between marker-based RSA and elementary geometrical shape RSA for subsidence and varus-valgus rotation, independent of the system used. The precisions for out-of-plane migration were inferior for elementary geometrical shape RSA. Therefore, as a mechanism of failure, retroversion may be more difficult to detect early. This is to our knowledge the first study to compare different RSA systems with or without markers on the implant. Marker-based RSA has high precision in all planes, independent of the system used. Elementary geometrical shape RSA is inferior in out-of-plane migration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design Optimization of A PCHE Using RSA Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Moon; Kim, Kwang Yong

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear power generation based on gas turbine cycle is recently considered as a nuclear power generation concept for the future due to the advantages in terms of simplicity and efficiency in comparison with steam turbine cycle. However, durability of each component of this cycle should be guaranteed due to high temperature and high pressure environment. In addition, since gas is used as working fluid, inefficiency due to the large volume is inevitable in the case that a heat exchanger is used as a recuperator and pre-cooler. In this respect, as the alternative type of heat exchanger, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) developed by HEATRIC, which has excellent heat transfer performance, is the heat exchanger suitable for the high temperature gas cooled reactors. In this work, PCHE channels have been optimized to enhance heat transfer and friction performances using three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis and response surface approximation (RSA)

  7. The RSA survey of dwarf galaxies, 1: Optical photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vader, J. Patricia; Chaboyer, Brian

    1994-01-01

    We present detailed surface photometry, based on broad B-band charge coupled device (CCD) images, of about 80 dwarf galaxies. Our sample represents approximately 10% of all dwarf galaxies identified in the vicinity of Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxies on high resolution blue photographic plates, referred to as the RSA survey of dwarf galaxies. We derive global properties and radial surface brightness profiles, and examine the morphologies. The radial surface brightness profiles of dwarf galaxies, whether early or late type, display the same varieties in shape and complexity as those of classical giant galaxies. Only a few are well described by a pure r(exp 1/4) law. Exponential profiles prevail. Features typical of giant disk galaxies, such as exponential profiles with a central depression, lenses, and even, in one case (IC 2041), a relatively prominent bulge are also found in dwarf galaxies. Our data suggest that the central region evolves from being bulge-like, with an r(exp 1/4) law profile, in bright galaxies to a lens-like structure in dwarf galaxies. We prove detailed surface photometry to be a helpful if not always sufficient tool in investigating the structure of dwarf galaxies. In many cases kinematic information is needed to complete the picture. We find the shapes of the surface brightness profiles to be loosely associated with morphological type. Our sample contains several new galaxies with properties intermediate between those of giant and dwarf ellipticals (but no M32-like objects). This shows that such intermediate galaxies exist so that at least a fraction of early-type dwarf ellipticals is structurally related to early-type giants instead of belonging to a totally unrelated, disjunct family. This supports an origin of early-type dwarf galaxies as originally more massive systems that acquired their current morphology as a result of substantial, presumable supernova-driven, mass loss. On the other hand, several early-type dwarfs in our sample are

  8. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  9. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  10. Children's dynamic RSA change during anger and its relations with parenting, temperament, and control of aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N; Utendale, William T; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4-6-year-old children's dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N=180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was related to children's better regulation of aggression. For anger-themed materials, low levels of authoritarian parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for more anger-prone children, whereas more authoritative parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for less anger-prone children. These findings suggest that children's adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change can be characterized by latent growth curve modeling, and that these patterns may be differentially shaped by parent socialization experiences as a function of child temperament. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity and effortful control in preschool-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, Michael J; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; Silva, Kassondra M

    2015-07-01

    We tested whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity in response to each of three self-regulation tasks (bird and dragon; knock-tap; and gift wrap) would predict self-regulation performance in a sample of 101 preschool-age children (M age = 4.49, SD = .64). While controlling for baseline RSA, decreases in RSA from bird and dragon to knock-tap (but not from baseline to bird and dragon) predicted a latent variable measuring self-regulation. Furthermore, increases in RSA from the knock-tap to gift wrap-the only task involving delay of gratification-were related to concurrent task performance while controlling for the relation between RSA reactivity and the latent self-regulation variable. Results suggest that the relations between RSA reactivity and self-regulatory ability are influenced by task-specific demands and possibly by task order. Furthermore, RSA reactivity appears to relate differently to performance on motivationally salient self-regulation tasks such as delay of gratification relative to cool executive function tasks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Image-based RSA: Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis based on 2D-3D image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, P W; Kaptein, B L; Stoel, B C; Reiber, J H C; Rozing, P M; Valstar, E R

    2008-01-01

    Image-based Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (IBRSA) integrates 2D-3D image registration and conventional RSA. Instead of radiopaque RSA bone markers, IBRSA uses 3D CT data, from which digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are generated. Using 2D-3D image registration, the 3D pose of the CT is iteratively adjusted such that the generated DRRs resemble the 2D RSA images as closely as possible, according to an image matching metric. Effectively, by registering all 2D follow-up moments to the same 3D CT, the CT volume functions as common ground. In two experiments, using RSA and using a micromanipulator as gold standard, IBRSA has been validated on cadaveric and sawbone scapula radiographs, and good matching results have been achieved. The accuracy was: |mu |RSA but higher than in vivo standard RSA. Because IBRSA does not require radiopaque markers, it adds functionality to the RSA method by opening new directions and possibilities for research, such as dynamic analyses using fluoroscopy on subjects without markers and computer navigation applications.

  13. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  14. Abortion in a just society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  15. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  16. Nurses as advocates between western and traditional wealth practices in RSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie Ehlers

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The RSA, like most African countries, have two health care systems. The most visible one is the Westernised hospital and/or clinic based treatment of diseases. This system was introduced by the colonisers and perpetuated by the current formal education programmes of most health care professionals in the RSA. Traditional African medicine has existed since time immemorial and continues to treat vast numbers of people. Both these health care systems will be briefly discussed. Then the role of nurses in the RSA's health care system(s will be examined. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  17. Access to abortion: what women want from abortion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Sandhu, Supna

    2008-04-01

    Whether Canadian physicians can refuse to refer women for abortion and whether private clinics can charge for abortions are matters of controversy. We sought to identify barriers to access for women seeking therapeutic abortion and to have them identify what they considered to be most important about access to abortion services. Women presenting for abortion over a two-month period at two free-standing abortion clinics, one publicly funded and the other private, were invited to participate in the study. Phase I of the study involved administration of a questionnaire seeking information about demographics, perceived barriers to access to abortion, and what the women wanted from abortion services. Phase II involved semi-structured interviews of a convenience sample of women to record their responses to questions about access. Responses from Phase I questionnaires were compared between the two clinics, and qualitative analysis was performed on the interview responses. Of 423 eligible women, 402 completed questionnaires, and of 45 women approached, 39 completed interviews satisfactorily. Women received information about abortion services from their physicians (60.0%), the Internet (14.8%), a telephone directory (7.8%), friends or family (5.3%), or other sources (12.3%). Many had negative experiences in gaining access. The most important issue regarding access was the long wait time; the second most important issue was difficulty in making appointments. In the private clinic, 85% of the women said they were willing to pay for shorter wait times, compared with 43.5% in the public clinic. Physicians who failed to refer patients for abortion or provide information about obtaining an abortion caused distress and impeded access for a significant minority of women requesting an abortion. Management of abortion services should be prioritized to reflect what women want: particularly decreased wait times for abortion and greater ease and convenience in booking appointments

  18. Second trimester abortions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvie, Suchitra S

    2008-05-01

    This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection.

  19. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  20. Beam abort detection of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chenxia; Zhou Weimin; Leng Yongbin

    2010-01-01

    Beam abort signal is a timing signal of the SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) storage ring. It is used to synchronize BPM processor Libera logging beam position data to identify beam abort source and improve the stability of accelerator. The concept design and engineering design of beam abort trigger module are introduced in this paper, and lab test results of this module using RF signal source also presented. Online beam test results show that this module has achieved design goal, could be used to log beam position data before beam abort. (authors)

  1. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  2. [Medical induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D

    2016-12-01

    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  3. Mental health consequences of abortion and refused abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, W W

    1980-02-01

    There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.

  4. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  5. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  6. Tackling unsafe abortion in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyong'o, D; Oodit, G

    1996-01-01

    Despite a contraceptive prevalence rate of 75% Mauritius has a high incidence of unsafe abortions because of unprotected intercourse experienced by many young women in a rapidly industrializing environment. The Mauritius Family Planning Association (MFPA) tackled the issue of unsafe abortion in 1993. Abortion is illegal in the country, and the Catholic Church also strongly opposes modern family planning methods, thus the use of withdrawal and/or calendar methods have been increasing. The MFPA organized an advocacy symposium in 1993 on unsafe abortion with the result of revealing the pressure the Church was exerting relative to abortion and contraceptives. The advocacy campaign of the MFPA consists of having abortion legalized on health grounds and improving family planning services, especially for young unmarried women and men. The full support of the media was secured on the abortion issue: articles appeared, meetings were attended by the press, and public relations support was also received from them. The MFPA worked closely with parliamentarians. A motion was tabled in 1994 in the National Assembly which called for legalization of abortion on health grounds, but the Church squelched its debate. In March 1994 MFPA hosted the IPPF African Regional Conference on Unsafe Abortion in Mauritius with the participation of over 100 representatives from 20 countries, and subsequently a second motion was tabled without parliamentary debate. The deliberations were covered by the media and the Ministry of Women's Rights recognized abortion as an urgent issue as outlined in a white paper prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The campaign changed the policy climate favorably making the public more conscious of unsafe abortion. The Ministry of Health decided to collect more data and the newly elected government seems to be more open about this issue.

  7. VLSI implementation of RSA encryption system using ancient Indian Vedic mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapliyal, Himanshu; Srinivas, M. B.

    2005-06-01

    This paper proposes the hardware implementation of RSA encryption/decryption algorithm using the algorithms of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics that have been modified to improve performance. The recently proposed hierarchical overlay multiplier architecture is used in the RSA circuitry for multiplication operation. The most significant aspect of the paper is the development of a division architecture based on Straight Division algorithm of Ancient Indian Vedic Mathematics and embedding it in RSA encryption/decryption circuitry for improved efficiency. The coding is done in Verilog HDL and the FPGA synthesis is done using Xilinx Spartan library. The results show that RSA circuitry implemented using Vedic division and multiplication is efficient in terms of area/speed compared to its implementation using conventional multiplication and division architectures.

  8. Sleep duration and RSA suppression as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sunghye; Philbrook, Lauren E; Davis, Elizabeth L; Buss, Kristin A

    2017-01-01

    Although the conceptual interplay among the biological and clinical features of sleep, arousal, and emotion regulation has been noted, little is understood about how indices of sleep duration and parasympathetic reactivity operate jointly to predict adjustment in early childhood. Using a sample of 123 toddlers, the present study examined sleep duration and RSA reactivity as predictors of internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Parents reported on children's sleep duration and adjustment. RSA reactivity was assessed via children's responses to fear-eliciting stimuli and an inhibitory control challenge. Findings demonstrated that greater RSA suppression to both types of tasks in combination with longer sleep duration was concurrently associated with less internalizing. In contrast, greater RSA augmentation to an inhibitory control task in the context of shorter sleep duration predicted more externalizing 1 year later. The significance of duration of toddlers' sleep as well as the context in which physiological regulatory difficulties occurs is discussed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. 药物流产和人工流产的效果观察及护理%The Effect of Drug Abortion and Abortion Observation and Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春柏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨药物流产和人工流产的临床效果,并分析不同患者相应的护理方法。方法选取我院于2012年9月~2014年9月收治的68例需要实施流产的患者,按照患者意愿的不同将其分为药物流产组和人工流产组,观察两组患者流产后的临床特征及表现,并对其护理情况进行分析。结果通过对两组患者施以不同流产方法,人工流产组34例患者均为完全流产,药物流产组完全流产为30例,数据对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论通过研究发现,药物流产和人工流产两种方案各有优缺点,应根据孕妇的具体情况制定合适的流产方案,并给予患者相应的护理措施,缓解患者的情绪,促进患者的康复。%Objective To explore the clinical effect of drug abortion and artificial abortion, and analyze the nursing methods of patients with different corresponding. Methods Select our hospital from September 2012 to September 2014 patients treated 68 cases need to implement an abortion, according to the wishes of patients with different it can be divided into medical abortion and artiifcial abortion group, two groups of patients with spontaneous abortion after the clinical features and performance, and analyze the nursing status.ResultsBy means of two groups of patients with different methods of abortion, abortion group of 34 patients were completely abortion, complete abortion of 30 cases of medical abortion group, data contrast significant difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Through the study found that medical abortion and abortion two plans each have advantages and disadvantages, should be based on appropriate abortion of pregnant women, patients and give corresponding nursing measures, alleviate the mood of patients, promote the recovery of patients.

  10. ISOLATION OF VIRUS IN PRODUCTS OF CONCEPTION IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMYAB S.D. AZARI S.D. NATEGH R

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred pa t ient s o f t he l ow socioe conomic g roup wi th an aborti on o f the f i r s t t r i mest e r were stud 1ed . The s ter i l e produc ts o f concept ion were c ul t ured on Gr e e n Monke y Kidney ti s sue cul t ure f or v i r a l de t e c - tion. Four po s i t i ve Herpe s virus, two positive Rubella"nv~ru s and t hree pos i tive unidentifie d Entero v irus l ike Vlrus were obtained The sera of 192 of these patients were titrated for Rubella antibody. The sera of a control group of 150 normal pregnant women were titrated for Rubella antibody and 8.8 per cent of these patients had a negative titre and 21.3 per cent , 1 had a tltre over 40

  11. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korejo, Razia; Noorani, Khurshid Jehan; Bhutta, Shereen

    2003-05-01

    To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identify the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Prospective observational study. The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi from January 1999 to June 2001. The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced contraception. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 women (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encountered in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion.

  12. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korejo, R.; Noorani, K.J.; Bhutta, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  13. [Organising an instrumental elective abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Unconstitutionality of abortion laws affirmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    A federal appeals court has affirmed lower court rulings that substantial portions of the Illinois' 1975 Abortion Act and 1977 Abortion Parental Consent Act are unconstitutional. The 7th Court adopted an April 12, 1978 district court opinion that invalidated several sections of the Illinois 1975 abortion statute, including parental and spousal consent requirements and provisions requiring that a woman be informed of the "physical competency" of the fetus at the time the abortion was to be performed. The appeals court specifically addressed the statute's provision making a liveborn fetus resulting from an abortion a ward of the state, unless the abortion was performed to save the woman's life. Regarding the 1977 Parental Consent Act, the 7th Circuit reaffirmed its August 1978 ruling that it is unconstitutional to require an unmarried minor to have the consent of both parents or, if they refused consent, a circuit court judge before undergoing an abortion. The appeals court also agreed with the lower court's November 2nd ruling that the Act's requirement of a 48-hour delay between the time the minor gives her consent and the performance of an abortion violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment.

  15. RSA and registries: the quest for phased introduction of new implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelissen, Rob G H H; Pijls, Bart G; Kärrholm, Johan; Malchau, Henrik; Nieuwenhuijse, Marc J; Valstar, Edward R

    2011-12-21

    Although the overall survival of knee and hip prostheses at ten years averages 90%, recent problems with several hip and knee prostheses have illustrated that the orthopaedic community, industry, and regulators can still further improve patient safety. Given the early predictive properties of roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) and the meticulous follow-up of national joint registries, these two methods are ideal tools for such a phased clinical introduction. In this paper, we elaborate on the predictive power of RSA within a two-year follow-up after arthroplasty and its relationship to national joint registries. The association between RSA prosthesis-migration data and registry data is evaluated. The five-year rate of revision of RSA-tested total knee replacements was compared with that of non-RSA-tested total knee replacements. Data were extracted from the published results of the national joint registries of Sweden, Australia, and New Zealand. There was a 22% to 35% reduction in the number of revisions of RSA-tested total knee replacements as compared with non-RSA-tested total knee replacements in the national joint registries. Assuming that the total cost of total knee arthroplasty is $37,000 in the United States, a 22% to 35% reduction in the number of revisions (currently close to 55,000 annually) could lead to an estimated annual savings of over $400 million to the health-care system. The phased clinical introduction of new prostheses with two-year RSA results as a qualitative tool could lead to better patient care and could reduce the costs associated with revision total knee arthroplasty. Follow-up in registries is necessary to substantiate these results and to improve post-market surveillance.

  16. [Health care economic guidance in Germany from the example Morbi-RSA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litmathe, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Increasing costs in health care represent still a major challenge in most industrial contries. A lot of attempts especially in Germany have been made to manage such problems and for a fair allocation oft he underlying resources. One of this ist the Morbi-RSA. The current review reflects all historical, medical and economical aspects of the Morbi-RSA and gives a perspective to possible future developments.

  17. The effect of decreasing computed tomography dosage on radiostereometric analysis (RSA) accuracy at the glenohumeral joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Anne-Marie V; Kedgley, Angela E; Lalone, Emily A; Johnson, James A; Athwal, George S; Jenkyn, Thomas R

    2011-11-10

    Standard, beaded radiostereometric analysis (RSA) and markerless RSA often use computed tomography (CT) scans to create three-dimensional (3D) bone models. However, ethical concerns exist due to risks associated with CT radiation exposure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing CT dosage on RSA accuracy. Four cadaveric shoulder specimens were scanned using a normal-dose CT protocol and two low-dose protocols, where the dosage was decreased by 89% and 98%. 3D computer models of the humerus and scapula were created using each CT protocol. Bi-planar fluoroscopy was used to image five different static glenohumeral positions and two dynamic glenohumeral movements, of which a total of five static and four dynamic poses were selected for analysis. For standard RSA, negligible differences were found in bead (0.21±0.31mm) and bony landmark (2.31±1.90mm) locations when the CT dosage was decreased by 98% (p-values>0.167). For markerless RSA kinematic results, excellent agreement was found between the normal-dose and lowest-dose protocol, with all Spearman rank correlation coefficients greater than 0.95. Average root mean squared errors of 1.04±0.68mm and 2.42±0.81° were also found at this reduced dosage for static positions. In summary, CT dosage can be markedly reduced when performing shoulder RSA to minimize the risks of radiation exposure. Standard RSA accuracy was negligibly affected by the 98% CT dose reduction and for markerless RSA, the benefits of decreasing CT dosage to the subject outweigh the introduced errors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Algoritma The Sieve Of Eratosthenes dan Linear Congruential Generator ( LCG ) Dalam Perancangan Aplikasi Kriptografi RSA

    OpenAIRE

    Fakhriza, M

    2013-01-01

    Kriptografi adalah ilmu untuk menyamarkan pesan agar hanya dikenal baik oleh penyedia dan penerima pesan. Algoritma kunci publik RSA adalah salah satu metode dalam ilmu kriptografi. Dalam algoritma kunci publik RSA, ada kunci privat dan publik, di mana masing-masing kunci menggunakan bilangan acak yang merupakan bilangan prima untuk melakukan enkripsi dan dekripsi.Bilangan acak yang dihasilkan sebenarnya adalah bilangan pseudo-random ('hampir' acak). Linear Congruential Generator (LCG) algor...

  19. Attitudes toward abortion in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin

    2012-09-01

    Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  1. Dangertalk: Voices of abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Debbink, Michelle; Harris, Lisa H

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have described the difficulties of doing abortion work, including the psychosocial costs to individual providers. Some have discussed the self-censorship in which providers engage in to protect themselves and the pro-choice movement. However, few have examined the costs of this self-censorship to public discourse and social movements in the US. Using qualitative data collected during abortion providers' discussions of their work, we explore the tensions between their narratives and pro-choice discourse, and examine the types of stories that are routinely silenced - narratives we name "dangertalk". Using these data, we theorize about the ways in which giving voice to these tensions might transform current abortion discourse by disrupting false dichotomies and better reflecting the complex realities of abortion. We present a conceptual model for dangertalk in abortion discourse, connecting it to functions of dangertalk in social movements more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  3. The Combination of RSA And Block Chiper Algorithms To Maintain Message Authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti Tarigan, Sepri; Sartika Ginting, Dewi; Lumban Gaol, Melva; Lorensi Sitompul, Kristin

    2017-12-01

    RSA algorithm is public key algorithm using prime number and even still used today. The strength of this algorithm lies in the exponential process, and the factorial number into 2 prime numbers which until now difficult to do factoring. The RSA scheme itself adopts the block cipher scheme, where prior to encryption, the existing plaintext is divide in several block of the same length, where the plaintext and ciphertext are integers between 1 to n, where n is typically 1024 bit, and the block length itself is smaller or equal to log(n)+1 with base 2. With the combination of RSA algorithm and block chiper it is expected that the authentication of plaintext is secure. The secured message will be encrypted with RSA algorithm first and will be encrypted again using block chiper. And conversely, the chipertext will be decrypted with the block chiper first and decrypted again with the RSA algorithm. This paper suggests a combination of RSA algorithms and block chiper to secure data.

  4. Teknik Penyembunyian dan Enkripsi Pesan pada Citra Digital dengan Kombinasi Metode LSB dan RSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonius Erick Handoyo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a combination of steganography and cryptography techniques using LSB and RSA methods. RSA is a popular cryptographic technique that can be applied to digital imagery. Digital image pixel values range from 0 to 255, making the keys used in RSA limited enough and less secure. So in this study, it is proposed to convert pixel image value to 16 bits so that the key used can be more varied. Experimental results proved that there was a steady increase in security and imperceptibility. This was shown by the results of PSNR 57.2258dB and MSE 0.1232dB. This method was also resistant to salt and pepper attacks. Penelitian ini mengusulkan kombinasi teknik steganografi dan kriptografi menggunakan metode LSB – RSA. RSA merupakan teknik kriptografi yang populer dapat diterapkan pada citra digital. Nilai piksel citra digital hanya berkisar 0 sampai 255. Hal ini membuat kunci yang digunakan dalam RSA cukup terbatas sehingga kurang aman. Dalam penelitian ini diusulkan untuk mengkonversi nilai piksel citra menjadi 16 bit sehingga kunci yang digunakan dapat lebih bervariasi. Hasil eksperimen membuktikan adanya peningkatan keamanan serta nilai imperceptibility yang tetap terjaga. Hal ini dibuktikan dengan hasil PSNR 57.2258dB, MSE 0.1232dB. Metode ini juga tahan terhadap serangan salt and pepper.

  5. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive.

  6. Abortion Stigma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette

    2016-12-01

    Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma * ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  7. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  8. Surface roughness when diamond turning RSA 905 optical aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otieno, T.; Abou-El-Hossein, K.; Hsu, W. Y.; Cheng, Y. C.; Mkoko, Z.

    2015-08-01

    Ultra-high precision machining is used intensively in the photonics industry for the production of various optical components. Aluminium alloys have proven to be advantageous and are most commonly used over other materials to make various optical components. Recently, the increasing demand from optical systems for optical aluminium with consistent material properties has led to the development of newly modified grades of aluminium alloys produced by rapid solidification in the foundry process. These new aluminium grades are characterised by their finer microstructures and refined mechanical and physical properties. However the machining database of these new optical aluminium grades is limited and more research is still required to investigate their machinability performance when they are diamond turned in ultrahigh precision manufacturing environment. This work investigates the machinability of rapidly solidified aluminium RSA 905 by varying a number of diamond-turning cutting parameters and measuring the surface roughness over a cutting distance of 4 km. The machining parameters varied in this study were the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The results showed a common trend of decrease in surface roughness with increasing cutting distance. The lowest surface roughness Ra result obtained after 4 km in this study was 3.2 nm. This roughness values was achieved using a cutting speed of 1750 rpm, feed rate of 5 mm/min and depth of cut equal to 25 μm.

  9. Testing System Encryption-Decryption Method to RSA Security Documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supriyono

    2008-01-01

    A model of document protection which was tested as one of the instruments, especially text document. The principle of the document protection was how the system was able to protect the document storage and transfer processes. Firstly, the text-formed document was encrypted; therefore, the document cannot be read for the text was transformed into random letters. The letter-randomized text was then unfolded by the description in order that the document owner was able to read it. In the recent research, the method adopted was RSA method, in which it used complicated mathematics calculation and equipped with initial protection key (with either private key or public key), thus, it was more difficult to be attacked by hackers. The system was developed by using the software of Borland Delphi 7. The results indicated that the system was capable to save and transfer the document, both via internet and intranet in the form of encrypted letter and put it back to the initial form of document by way of description. The research also tested for encrypted and decrypted process for various memory size documents. (author)

  10. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to

  11. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick Gc; Somda, Serge Ma; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42-19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08-11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03-0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted.

  12. Association between perceived social support and induced abortion: A study in maternal health centers in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Siancas, Luis E; Rodríguez-Medina, Angélica; Piscoya, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support and induced abortion among young women in Lima, Peru. In addition, prevalence and incidence of induced abortion was estimated. A cross-sectional study enrolling women aged 18-25 years from maternal health centers in Southern Lima, Peru, was conducted. Induced abortion was defined as the difference between the total number of pregnancies ended in abortion and the number of spontaneous abortions; whereas perceived social support was assessed using the DUKE-UNC scale. Prevalence and incidence of induced abortion (per 100 person-years risk) was estimated, and the association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. A total of 298 women were enrolled, mean age 21.7 (± 2.2) years. Low levels of social support were found in 43.6% (95%CI 38.0%-49.3%), and 17.4% (95%CI: 13.1%- 21.8%) women reported at least one induced abortion. The incidence of induced abortion was 2.37 (95%CI: 1.81-3.11) per 100 person-years risk. The multivariable model showed evidence of the association between low perceived social support and induced abortion (RR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.14-3.30) after controlling for confounders. There was evidence of an association between low perceived social support and induced abortion among women aged 18 to 25 years. Incidence of induced abortion was similar or even greater than rates of countries where abortion is legal. Strategies to increase social support and reduce induced abortion rates are needed.

  13. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    by 1 month a rise in the number of spontaneous abortions (β = 33.19 losses/month, 95% confidence interval: 8.71, 57.67). An attendant analysis that used consumption of durable household goods as an indicator of financial insecurity supported the inference from our main test. Changes over time...

  14. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for

  15. Why do women have abortions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Forrest, J D

    1988-01-01

    Most respondents to a survey of abortion patients in 1987 said that more than one factor had contributed to their decision to have an abortion; the mean number of reasons was nearly four. Three-quarters said that having a baby would interfere with work, school or other responsibilities, about two-thirds said they could not afford to have a child and half said they did not want to be a single parent or had relationship problems. A multivariate analysis showed young teenagers to be 32 percent more likely than women 18 or over to say they were not mature enough to raise a child and 19 percent more likely to say their parents wanted them to have an abortion. Unmarried women were 17 percent more likely than currently married women to choose abortion to prevent others from knowing they had had sex or became pregnant. Of women who had an abortion at 16 or more weeks' gestation, 71 percent attributed their delay to not having realized they were pregnant or not having known soon enough the actual gestation of their pregnancy. Almost half were delayed because of trouble in arranging the abortion, usually because they needed time to raise money. One-third did not have an abortion earlier because they were afraid to tell their partner or parents that they were pregnant. A multivariate analysis revealed that respondents under age 18 were 39 percent more likely than older women to have delayed because they were afraid to tell their parents or partner.

  16. Abortion Incidence and Unintended Pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Singh, Susheela; Sundaram, Aparna; Hussain, Rubina; Tamang, Anand; Crowell, Marjorie

    2016-12-01

    Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions. Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated. In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted.

  17. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...

  18. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia responses to induced emotional states: effects of RSA indices, emotion induction method, age, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Thérèse J M; van Boxtel, Anton; Westerink, Joyce H D M

    2012-09-01

    The literature shows large inconsistencies in respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) responses to induced emotional states. This may be caused by differences in emotion induction methods, RSA quantification, and non-emotional demands of the situation. In 83 healthy subjects, we studied RSA responses to pictures and film fragments eliciting six different discrete emotions relative to neutral baseline stimuli. RSA responses were quantified in the time and frequency domain and were additionally corrected for differences in mean heart rate and respiration rate, resulting in eight different RSA response measures. Subjective ratings of emotional stimuli and facial electromyographic responses indicated that pictures and film fragments elicited the intended emotions. Although RSA measures showed various emotional effects, responses were quite heterogeneous and frequently nonsignificant. They were substantially influenced by methodological factors, in particular time vs. frequency domain response measures, correction for changes in respiration rate, use of pictures vs. film fragments, and sex of participants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New German abortion law agreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.

  20. Abortion: Defending Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Aldana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill – PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.

  1. Are CT Scans a Satisfactory Substitute for the Follow-Up of RSA Migration Studies of Uncemented Cups? A Comparison of RSA Double Examinations and CT Datasets of 46 Total Hip Arthroplasties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Volker; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Nilsson, Kjell G; Olivecrona, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    As part of the 14-year follow-up of a prospectively randomized radiostereometry (RSA) study on uncemented cup fixation, two pairs of stereo radiographs and a CT scan of 46 hips were compared. Tantalum beads, inserted during the primary operation, were detected in the CT volume and the stereo radiographs and used to produce datasets of 3D coordinates. The limit of agreement between the combined CT and RSA datasets was calculated in the same way as the precision of the double RSA examination. The precision of RSA corresponding to the 99% confidence interval was 1.36°, 1.36°, and 0.60° for X -, Y -, and Z -rotation and 0.40, 0.17, and 0.37 mm for X -, Y -, and Z -translation. The limit of agreement between CT and RSA was 1.51°, 2.17°, and 1.05° for rotation and 0.59, 0.56, and 0.74 mm for translation. The differences between CT and RSA are close to the described normal 99% confidence interval for precision in RSA: 0.3° to 2° for rotation and 0.15 to 0.6 mm for translation. We conclude that measurements using CT and RSA are comparable and that CT can be used for migration studies for longitudinal evaluations of patients with RSA markers.

  2. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  3. Outcome of delivery following first-pregnancy abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangtrakul, S; Thongjerm, M; Suthutvoravuth, S; Phromboon, S; Chaturachinda, K

    1988-03-01

    To determine whether or not a previous abortion has a deleterious effect on the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy, 6443 delivery records at Ramathibodi hospital between January and December 1982 were reviewed. The 2 study groups consisted of 143 women who had previously had an induced abortion and 315 women who had previously had a spontaneous abortion. Control groups were women having a 2nd child after a normal 1st pregnancy. The 1st study group had fewer women under 19 and over 35 and a lower educational level. Group 2 had more women with a pregnancy interval of less than 2 years. There was no difference between the study groups and the controls in premature rupture of fetal membranes, placenta previa, cesarean sections, manual removal of placenta, retained secundine, postpartum hemorrhage, low birth weight, Apgar score less than 6, congenital abnormalities, or perinatal mortality. The only difference between both study groups and the controls was that there was a higher percentage of assisted deliveries in both study groups. This finding is probably the result of the fact that these were 1st births and is totally unrelated to previous abortion.

  4. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandová, A; Cifra, M; Pokorný, J; Nedbalová, M; Dohnalová, A; Kobilková, J; Cocek, A

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  5. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  6. Medical abortion reversal: science and politics meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Khadijah Z; Nguyen, Antoinette T; Stuart, Gretchen S

    2018-03-01

    Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early nonsurgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. In this commentary, we will review the history, current evidence-based regimen, and regulation of medical abortion. We will then examine current proposed and existing abortion reversal legislation. The objective of this commentary is to ensure physicians are armed with rigorous evidence to inform patients, communities, and policy makers about the safety of medical abortion. Furthermore, given the current paucity of evidence for medical abortion reversal, physicians and policy makers can dispel bad science and misinformation and advocate against medical abortion reversal legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Study on the relationship between ER Rsa I gene polymorphism and children's dental fluorosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Yue; Li, Hai-Xia; Yin, Gong-Ju; Wu, Wei-Hua; Yu, Bo; Cheng, Xue-Min; Cui, Liu-Xin

    2009-09-01

    To explore the distribution of ER Rsa I genotype in children who lived in the areas with or without high fluoride, and evaluate the relationship between ER Rsa I gene polymorphism and children's dental fluorosis. Children aged 8 to 12 years, born and raised in high fluoride areas and control areas in two counties of Henan Province were recruited. The Rsa I marker of ER gene was genotyped in 237 children composed of both dental fluorosis cases and controls by PCR-RFLP procedure. Urine fluoride was detected with fluoride ion selective electrode method. The frequency distribution of ER Rsa I genotype was rr 60.81% (45/74), Rr 27.02% (20/74), RR 12.16% (9/74) in children with fluorosis; rr 73.91% (51/69), Rr 20.29% (14/69), RR 5.80% (4/69) in children without fluorosis from high fluoride areas, and rr 63.83% (60/94), Rr 34.04% (32/94), RR 2.13% (2/94) in the children without fluorosis from control areas respectively. There were no significant differences in the three groups (P>0.05), but children carrying allele R of ER Rsa I had a significantly increased risk of dental fluorosis (OR=1.821, 95% CI: 1.013-3.274) compared to children carrying the allele r in endemic fluorosis areas. Although no significant difference was found in ER Rsa I genotype between cases and non-dental fluorosis in endemic fluorosis areas, children carrying R allele of ER Rsa I had a higher risk compared to children carrying r allele, and the further study is needed.

  8. Living conditions, contraceptive use and the choice of induced abortion among pregnant women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Wielandt, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study describes women with induced abortion and thereby elucidates how living conditions and contraceptive failure are associated with the choice of induced abortion in a population of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: The study population consisted of pregnant women attending Odense...... University Hospital. They were categorized in two groups: women with induced abortion (n = 373) and a reference group consisting of women with spontaneous abortion and antenatal care attendees (n = 2,176). The two groups were compared by use of a case-referent design. The variables studied comprise age......, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economical situation, and contraceptive use. RESULTS: Being single, aged 15-24 or 35 and above, having either no children or two or more children, and the experience of contraceptive failure were parameters which were associated...

  9. Longitudinal associations between temperament and socioemotional outcomes in young children: the moderating role of RSA and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Santiago; Beekman, Charles; Blandon, Alysia Y; Stifter, Cynthia A; Buss, Kristin A

    2015-01-01

    Temperament is an important predictor of socioemotional adjustment, such as externalizing and internalizing symptoms. However, there is not a one-to-one correspondence between temperamental predispositions and these outcomes, implying that other factors also contribute to the development of internalizing and externalizing problems. Self-regulation is believed to interact with temperament, and has been studied as a predictor for later socioemotional outcomes. Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is a psychophysiological measure of self-regulation that has been studied as a moderator of risk. The primary aim of the present study was to test if RSA baseline and RSA reactivity would moderate the link between temperament and socioemotional outcomes. Mothers reported the temperament of their infants (20 months; N = 154), RSA was collected at 24- and 42-months, and mothers reported externalizing and internalizing behaviors at kindergarten entry. RSA baseline and RSA reactivity moderated the relation between exuberant temperament and externalizing behaviors. However, these results were only significant for girls, such that high RSA baseline and greater RSA suppression predicted more externalizing behaviors when exuberance was high. Fearful temperament predicted later internalizing behaviors, but no moderation was present. These results are discussed in light of recent evidence regarding gender differences in the role of RSA as a protective factor for risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  11. Abortion: a review of women's perception in relation to their partner's reactions in two Brazilians cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nonnenmacher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. Methods: semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: in both capitals, the women who induced an abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (p<0.01 in Natal; p = 0.02 in São Paulo-SP and, simultaneously, as the one who could have avoided it (p < 0.01 in Natal; p = 0.03 in São Paulo. In Natal-RN, induced abortion was associated with the partner's absence at the time pregnancy was confirmed (p = 0.02 and, in Sao Paulo-SP, with their negative reaction to news of the pregnancy (p = 0.04 and lack of participation in the abortion process (p < 0.01. Conclusion: despite having achieved independence, women still regard male participation in the abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health.

  12. Compression-RSA technique: A more efficient encryption-decryption procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandangan, Arif; Mei, Loh Chai; Hung, Chang Ee; Che Hussin, Che Haziqah

    2014-06-01

    The efficiency of encryption-decryption procedures has become a major problem in asymmetric cryptography. Compression-RSA technique is developed to overcome the efficiency problem by compressing the numbers of kplaintext, where k∈Z+ and k > 2, becoming only 2 plaintext. That means, no matter how large the numbers of plaintext, they will be compressed to only 2 plaintext. The encryption-decryption procedures are expected to be more efficient since these procedures only receive 2 inputs to be processed instead of kinputs. However, it is observed that as the numbers of original plaintext are increasing, the size of the new plaintext becomes bigger. As a consequence, it will probably affect the efficiency of encryption-decryption procedures, especially for RSA cryptosystem since both of its encryption-decryption procedures involve exponential operations. In this paper, we evaluated the relationship between the numbers of original plaintext and the size of the new plaintext. In addition, we conducted several experiments to show that the RSA cryptosystem with embedded Compression-RSA technique is more efficient than the ordinary RSA cryptosystem.

  13. Early Adversity, RSA, and Inhibitory Control: Evidence of Children’s Neurobiological Sensitivity to Social Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M.; Teti, Douglas M.; Ammerman, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children’s inhibitory control. Children’s respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent–child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children’s independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. PMID:24142832

  14. Early adversity, RSA, and inhibitory control: evidence of children's neurobiological sensitivity to social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowron, Elizabeth A; Cipriano-Essel, Elizabeth; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M; Teti, Douglas M; Ammerman, Robert T

    2014-07-01

    This study examined parasympathetic physiology as a moderator of the effects of early adversity (i.e., child abuse and neglect) on children's inhibitory control. Children's respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed during a resting baseline, two joint challenge tasks with mother, and an individual frustration task. RSA assessed during each of the joint parent-child challenge tasks moderated the effects of child maltreatment (CM) status on children's independently-assessed inhibitory control. No moderation effect was found for RSA assessed at baseline or in the child-alone challenge task. Among CM-exposed children, lower RSA levels during the joint task predicted the lowest inhibitory control, whereas higher joint task RSA was linked to higher inhibitory control scores that were indistinguishable from those of non-CM children. Results are discussed with regard to the importance of considering context specificity (i.e., individual and caregiver contexts) in how biomarkers inform our understanding of individual differences in vulnerability among at-risk children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Implementation and validation of an implant-based coordinate system for RSA migration calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laende, Elise K; Deluzio, Kevin J; Hennigar, Allan W; Dunbar, Michael J

    2009-10-16

    An in vitro radiostereometric analysis (RSA) phantom study of a total knee replacement was carried out to evaluate the effect of implementing two new modifications to the conventional RSA procedure: (i) adding a landmark of the tibial component as an implant marker and (ii) defining an implant-based coordinate system constructed from implant landmarks for the calculation of migration results. The motivation for these two modifications were (i) to improve the representation of the implant by the markers by including the stem tip marker which increases the marker distribution (ii) to recover clinical RSA study cases with insufficient numbers of markers visible in the implant polyethylene and (iii) to eliminate errors in migration calculations due to misalignment of the anatomical axes with the RSA global coordinate system. The translational and rotational phantom studies showed no loss of accuracy with the two new measurement methods. The RSA system employing these methods has a precision of better than 0.05 mm for translations and 0.03 degrees for rotations, and an accuracy of 0.05 mm for translations and 0.15 degrees for rotations. These results indicate that the new methods to improve the interpretability, relevance, and standardization of the results do not compromise precision and accuracy, and are suitable for application to clinical data.

  16. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  17. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Misperceptions about the risks of abortion in women presenting for abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Littman, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Moshier, Erin L

    2014-03-01

    Misinformation about the risks and sequelae of abortion is widespread. The purpose of this study was to examine whether women having an abortion who believe that there should be restrictions to abortion (i.e., that some other women should not be allowed to have an abortion) also believe this misinformation about the health risks associated with abortion. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of women presenting consecutively for an abortion at an urban abortion clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, between February and September 2012. Of 1008 women presenting for abortion, 978 completed questionnaires (97% response rate), and 333 of these (34%) favoured abortion restrictions. More women who favoured restrictions believed that the health risk of an abortion was the same as or greater than the health risk of childbirth (84.2% vs. 65.6%, P abortion caused mental health problems (39.1% vs. 28.3%, P abortion caused infertility (41.7% vs. 21.9%, P abortion should not be restricted was found to be a significantly correlated with correct answers about health risks, mental health problems, and infertility. Misinformed beliefs about the risks of abortion are common among women having an abortion. Women presenting for abortion who favoured restrictions to abortion have more misperceptions about abortion risks than women who favour no restrictions.

  19. Virtue theory and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Rosalind

    1991-01-01

    The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.

  20. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Jali

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.

  1. Design and evaluation of learning strategies for a group of radiographers in radiostereometric analysis (RSA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muharemovic, O; Troelsen, A; Thomsen, M G

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a radiostereometric analysis (RSA) program aimed at radiographers in order to increase their cognitive and practical skills, thereby increasing image quality and minimizing exposure repetition. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty...... radiographers were randomized into two identically sized study groups. Training consisted of a theoretical and practical workshop using a phantom. Tests were performed to compare the effect of training to nontraining, and the effect of time duration on the maintenance of RSA skills. The effect of training...... after training group B had experienced overall significant improvement on a par with group A. CONCLUSION: It is realistic to implement an RSA X-ray training program where radiographers significantly improve their theoretical and practical skills in centering the CP closer to the CCF, NB and RP...

  2. On the improvement of Wiener attack on RSA with small private exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mu-En; Chen, Chien-Ming; Lin, Yue-Hsun; Sun, Hung-Min

    2014-01-01

    RSA system is based on the hardness of the integer factorization problem (IFP). Given an RSA modulus N = pq, it is difficult to determine the prime factors p and q efficiently. One of the most famous short exponent attacks on RSA is the Wiener attack. In 1997, Verheul and van Tilborg use an exhaustive search to extend the boundary of the Wiener attack. Their result shows that the cost of exhaustive search is 2r + 8 bits when extending the Weiner's boundary r bits. In this paper, we first reduce the cost of exhaustive search from 2r + 8 bits to 2r + 2 bits. Then, we propose a method named EPF. With EPF, the cost of exhaustive search is further reduced to 2r - 6 bits when we extend Weiner's boundary r bits. It means that our result is 2(14) times faster than Verheul and van Tilborg's result. Besides, the security boundary is extended 7 bits.

  3. Design and evaluation of learning strategies for a group of radiographers in radiostereometric analysis (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muharemovic, O; Troelsen, A; Thomsen, M G; Kallemose, T; Gosvig, K K

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a radiostereometric analysis (RSA) program aimed at radiographers in order to increase their cognitive and practical skills, thereby increasing image quality and minimizing exposure repetition. Twenty radiographers were randomized into two identically sized study groups. Training consisted of a theoretical and practical workshop using a phantom. Tests were performed to compare the effect of training to nontraining, and the effect of time duration on the maintenance of RSA skills. The effect of training was measured by a written test and three defined parameters influencing image quality. Group A reduced significantly (p RSA X-ray training program where radiographers significantly improve their theoretical and practical skills in centering the CP closer to the CCF, NB and RP. A duration of up to two months after training does not influence the quality of participants' performance. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A UV-sensitive human clonal cell line, RSa, which has low repair activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, N.; Fuse, A.

    1981-01-01

    The repair activity of a human transformed cell line, RSa, which was found to be highly sensitive to the lethal effects of 254 mm far-ultraviolet radiation, was compared with that of HeLa cells by evaluating the range of UV-induced incorporation of [methyl- 3 H]thymidine ([ 3 H]dThd) or 5-[6- 3 H]bromodeoxyuridine ([ 3 H]BrdUrd) into deoxyribonucleic acid. Direct scintillation counting was used for measuring the extent of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in UV-irradiated cells, which were treated with hydroxyurea or with arginine deprivation. More quantitative measurements were made by using the density labeling and equilibrium centrifugation method for assaying repair replication. All the amounts of UDS and repair replication in RSa cells were markedly below those in HeLa cells. The possible relationships of the low repair activity to abnormally high UV sensitivity in RSa cells are discussed. (orig.)

  5. On the Improvement of Wiener Attack on RSA with Small Private Exponent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-En Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available RSA system is based on the hardness of the integer factorization problem (IFP. Given an RSA modulus N=pq, it is difficult to determine the prime factors p and q efficiently. One of the most famous short exponent attacks on RSA is the Wiener attack. In 1997, Verheul and van Tilborg use an exhaustive search to extend the boundary of the Wiener attack. Their result shows that the cost of exhaustive search is 2r+8 bits when extending the Weiner's boundary r bits. In this paper, we first reduce the cost of exhaustive search from 2r+8 bits to 2r+2 bits. Then, we propose a method named EPF. With EPF, the cost of exhaustive search is further reduced to 2r-6 bits when we extend Weiner's boundary r bits. It means that our result is 214 times faster than Verheul and van Tilborg's result. Besides, the security boundary is extended 7 bits.

  6. Security analysis of RSA cryptosystem algorithm and it’s properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chenglian; Guo, Yongning; Lin, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The information technology rapidly development and dramatically changed the life style people, in addition to shortening the distance of communication, but also promote the smooth exchange of information flows. However, derivatives to facilitate the relative safety of these issues, since into the digital information age, the majority of the practitioners of engineering and technical personnel and technical workers in terms of technology, information security is increasingly becoming an important issue. The RSA algorithm was published in 1978. It is a kind of very popular and widely application modem cryptosystem in the world. Even though there are lots of articles to discuss about how to break the RSA, but it is still secure today. In this paper, the authors would like to introduce a variant attack to RSA

  7. Security analysis of RSA cryptosystem algorithm and it’s properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Chenglian [School of Mathematics and Computer Science, Long Yan university, Lonyan 364012 (China); Guo, Yongning, E-mail: guoyn@163.com, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com; Lin, Juan, E-mail: guoyn@163.com, E-mail: linjuanliucaihong@qq.com [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuqing Branch of Fujian Normal University, Fuqing 350300 (China)

    2014-10-06

    The information technology rapidly development and dramatically changed the life style people, in addition to shortening the distance of communication, but also promote the smooth exchange of information flows. However, derivatives to facilitate the relative safety of these issues, since into the digital information age, the majority of the practitioners of engineering and technical personnel and technical workers in terms of technology, information security is increasingly becoming an important issue. The RSA algorithm was published in 1978. It is a kind of very popular and widely application modem cryptosystem in the world. Even though there are lots of articles to discuss about how to break the RSA, but it is still secure today. In this paper, the authors would like to introduce a variant attack to RSA.

  8. Determinants of abortions in Katete District of Zambia: A hospital based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibangu Katamba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at Saint Francis at Saint Francis Hospital over a period of four months (from September 22nd 2014 to January 23rd 2015. 168 women aged 12 to 46 years admitted and treated for incomplete abortion in Gynecology ward were interviewed. 63 participants (37.5% had induced abortions and 105 participants (62.5% had spontaneous abortions. All induced abortions were the results of unplanned pregnancies. The majority of all abortions (57.1% resulted from unplanned pregnancies as compared to only 42.9% resulting from planned pregnancies (p<0.05. Both married and single participants had increased unmet needs for family planning. 57.3% of women had used contraceptives in the past and also had unintended pregnancies resulting in abortions. A significant number of induced abortions (22.2% were incidentally caused by inappropriate use of contraceptives by providers. Sexual activities start as early as 9 years in Katete. Most youths with induced abortions were involved in unstable relationships, desired to continue with education, feared to ruin their future, and had limited knowledge and inconsistent use of contraceptive methods. The major determinants for induced abortions amongst participants were unplanned/unintended pregnancies. Other determinants such as illiteracy, lack of information, young age, poverty, and unsafe sex need to be addressed. There is need to promote consistent and correct use of contraceptives, to strengthen the health care delivery system and maintain the cold chain of contraceptive supply for sustainable availability and accessibility. Conjugated efforts by health care providers, community leaders, policy makers and politicians are needed to extirpate negative believes (on modern contraceptives and cultural norms that promote unhealthy sexual and reproductive life.

  9. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  10. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives ... findings, the level of repeat abortions in Europe, .... and contraceptive history, and post-abortion ..... working women.

  11. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  12. Induced abortion and psychological sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    The decision to seek an abortion is never easy. Women have different reasons for choosing an abortion and their social, economic and religious background may influence how they cope. Furthermore, once pregnant, the alternatives of childbirth and adoption or keeping the baby may not be psychologically neutral. Research studies in this area have been hampered by methodological problems, but most of the better-quality studies have shown no increased risk of mental health problems in women having an abortion. A consistent finding has been that of pre-existing mental illness and subsequent mental health problems after either abortion or childbirth. Furthermore, studies have shown that only a minority of women experience any lasting sadness or regret. Risk factors for this include ambivalence about the decision, level of social support and whether or not the pregnancy was originally intended. More robust, definitive research studies are required on mental health after abortion and alternative outcomes such as childbirth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inversion of the uterus following abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A S; Datta, N; Ghosh, D

    1982-10-16

    A case of inversion of the uterus following abortion is reported. The 35-year old patient, admitted October 10, 1978 to the Medical College and Hospitals in Calcutta, India was referred by a private practitioner with a history of amenorrhea for 16 weeks, bleeding for 3 days, expulsion of the fetus 3 days earlier, and something coming down per vaginum for 2 days. The patient was para 4+0 (all full term normal deliveries) and home delivery for the last child 1 1/2 years earlier. She had a history of regular menstrual periods. Her general condition was poor. The examination revealed a gangrenous mass coming out of the vulva with a very offensive smell. There was a raw surface on which placenta like tissue was attached. No active bleeding was seen. Fundus and cervix of the uterus could not be felt. On rectal examination the uterus could not be felt, a cup-like depression was felt at the site of the uterus. The provision diagnosis was inversion of uterus following abortion. Treatment was started with sedatives and antibiotics, and arrangements were made for a blood transfusion. The vaginal mass was covered with glycerine and acriflavine gauze, and a hysterectomy was decided upon after improvement of her general condition and control of the infection. On October 14th, the patient was placed in knee chest position and posterior vaginal wall was retracted with Sims' speculum when the inverted lump was spontaneously reduced within the vagina. The inverted uterus was felt in the region of the vaginal vault. Glycerine acriflavine pack was given which was taken out and repack was given daily until the operation. The hysterectomy was performed on October 23rd. The abdomen was opened up by a transverse incision and the pelvis was explored. In the region of the uterus a cup-shaped depression was noted. Tubes and ovaries of both sides were seen hanging laterally from the cupped area. The left tube was found congested and thickened. Reduction of uterus was done by making a vertical

  14. Marker-based or model-based RSA for evaluation of hip resurfacing arthroplasty? A clinical validation and 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Nina Dyrberg; Stilling, Maiken; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Gustafson, Klas; Søballe, Kjeld; Baad-Hansen, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The stability of implants is vital to ensure a long-term survival. RSA determines micro-motions of implants as a predictor of early implant failure. RSA can be performed as a marker- or model-based analysis. So far, CAD and RE model-based RSA have not been validated for use in hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). A phantom study determined the precision of marker-based and CAD and RE model-based RSA on a HRA implant. In a clinical study, 19 patients were followed with stereoradiographs until 5 years after surgery. Analysis of double-examination migration results determined the clinical precision of marker-based and CAD model-based RSA, and at the 5-year follow-up, results of the total translation (TT) and the total rotation (TR) for marker- and CAD model-based RSA were compared. The phantom study showed that comparison of the precision (SDdiff) in marker-based RSA analysis was more precise than model-based RSA analysis in TT (p CAD RSA analysis (p = 0.002), but showed no difference between the marker- and CAD model-based RSA analysis regarding the TR (p = 0.91). Comparing the mean signed values regarding the TT and the TR at the 5-year follow-up in 13 patients, the TT was lower (p = 0.03) and the TR higher (p = 0.04) in the marker-based RSA compared to CAD model-based RSA. The precision of marker-based RSA was significantly better than model-based RSA. However, problems with occluded markers lead to exclusion of many patients which was not a problem with model-based RSA. HRA were stable at the 5-year follow-up. The detection limit was 0.2 mm TT and 1° TR for marker-based and 0.5 mm TT and 1° TR for CAD model-based RSA for HRA.

  15. Evaluation of effect of letrozole prior to misoprostol in comparison with misoprostol alone in success rate of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi-Lak, T; Derakhshan-Aydenloo, S; Broomand, F

    2018-03-01

    Abortion, spontaneous or induced, is a common complication of pregnancy and exploration of available and safe regimens for medical abortion in developing countries seems crucial. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of letrozole in combination with misoprostol in women eligible for legal therapeutic abortion with gestational age ≤14weeks. This clinical randomized trial was conducted on 78 women who were candidate of medical abortion and eligible for legal abortion with gestational age ≤14 weeks that were randomly divided into two groups of case and controls. Case group received daily oral dose of 10mg letrozole for three days followed by vaginal misoprostol. In control group the patients received only vaginal misoprostol. The rate of complete abortion, induction-of-abortion time, and side-effects were assessed. Complete abortion was observed in 30 patients (76.9%) in case group and 9 (23.1%) cases were failed. In control group there was 16 (41.03%) complete abortions and 23 (58.97%) cases were failed to abort. Patients with gestational age of between 6 and 10 weeks did not show significant difference in both groups (P=0.134). Regarding pregnancy remnants there were significant differences between two groups (P=0.034). The time form admission to discharge in case groups were significantly shorter than those in control group (P=0.001). The indication for curettage in case group was significantly less than control group (P=0.001). A 3-day course of letrozole (10mg/daily) followed by misoprostol was associated with a higher complete abortion and lower curettage rates and reduction in time from admission to discharge in women with gestational age ≤14 weeks compared to misoprostol alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Souzas, Raquel; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  17. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  18. Legalized abortion: a public health success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M

    1999-06-01

    60% of more than 2000 women surveyed by the Picker Institute who underwent induced abortion procedures rated the quality of their care as excellent. Another third reported their care as being either very good or good. The survey also found that the quality of abortion care is comparable to other outpatient surgery. However, the high quality of care women receive from abortion providers is lost in the hostile anti-abortion climate created by threatening protesters outside of clinics and the murder of 7 clinic workers and physicians who performed abortions. Abortion opponents fail to acknowledge that legal abortion is a medical procedure which protects women's health and saves their lives. Before abortion was legalized in the US, countless women were either rendered unable to reproduce or died from abortion-related complications. Efforts to outlaw abortion persist despite it being widely recognized by medical experts as one of the most safe medical procedures currently performed in the US. When state legislatures target abortion providers with unduly strict regulations, abortion becomes prohibitively expensive and difficult to obtain.

  19. Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Voigt, L F; White, E; Weiss, N S

    1994-11-02

    cancer was associated with a spontaneous abortion (RR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.7-1.2). Our data support the hypothesis that an induced abortion can adversely influence a woman's subsequent risk of breast cancer. However, the results across all epidemiologic studies of this premise are inconsistent--both overall and within specific subgroups. The risk of breast cancer should be reexamined in future studies of women who have had legal abortion available to them throughout the majority of their reproductive years, with particular attention to the potential influence of induced abortion early in life.

  20. Implementation of Rivest Shamir Adleman Algorithm (RSA) and Vigenere Cipher In Web Based Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryanti, Aryanti; Mekongga, Ikhthison

    2018-02-01

    Data security and confidentiality is one of the most important aspects of information systems at the moment. One attempt to secure data such as by using cryptography. In this study developed a data security system by implementing the cryptography algorithm Rivest, Shamir Adleman (RSA) and Vigenere Cipher. The research was done by combining Rivest, Shamir Adleman (RSA) and Vigenere Cipher cryptographic algorithms to document file either word, excel, and pdf. This application includes the process of encryption and decryption of data, which is created by using PHP software and my SQL. Data encryption is done on the transmit side through RSA cryptographic calculations using the public key, then proceed with Vigenere Cipher algorithm which also uses public key. As for the stage of the decryption side received by using the Vigenere Cipher algorithm still use public key and then the RSA cryptographic algorithm using a private key. Test results show that the system can encrypt files, decrypt files and transmit files. Tests performed on the process of encryption and decryption of files with different file sizes, file size affects the process of encryption and decryption. The larger the file size the longer the process of encryption and decryption.

  1. Implementation of Rivest Shamir Adleman Algorithm (RSA and Vigenere Cipher In Web Based Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aryanti Aryanti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Data security and confidentiality is one of the most important aspects of information systems at the moment. One attempt to secure data such as by using cryptography. In this study developed a data security system by implementing the cryptography algorithm Rivest, Shamir Adleman (RSA and Vigenere Cipher. The research was done by combining Rivest, Shamir Adleman (RSA and Vigenere Cipher cryptographic algorithms to document file either word, excel, and pdf. This application includes the process of encryption and decryption of data, which is created by using PHP software and my SQL. Data encryption is done on the transmit side through RSA cryptographic calculations using the public key, then proceed with Vigenere Cipher algorithm which also uses public key. As for the stage of the decryption side received by using the Vigenere Cipher algorithm still use public key and then the RSA cryptographic algorithm using a private key. Test results show that the system can encrypt files, decrypt files and transmit files. Tests performed on the process of encryption and decryption of files with different file sizes, file size affects the process of encryption and decryption. The larger the file size the longer the process of encryption and decryption.

  2. Emotion suppression moderates the quadratic association between RSA and executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangler, Derek P; Bell, Martha Ann; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-09-01

    There is uncertainty about whether respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a cardiac marker of adaptive emotion regulation, is involved in relatively low or high executive function performance. In the present study, we investigated (a) whether RSA during rest and tasks predict both relatively low and high executive function within a larger quadratic association among the two variables, and (b) the extent to which this quadratic trend was moderated by individual differences in emotion regulation. To achieve these aims, a sample of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse women self-reported reappraisal and emotion suppression. They next experienced a 2-min resting period during which electrocardiogram (ECG) was continually assessed. In the next phase, the women completed an array of executive function and nonexecutive cognitive tasks while ECG was measured throughout. As anticipated, resting RSA showed a quadratic association with executive function that was strongest for high suppression. These results suggest that relatively high resting RSA may predict poor executive function ability when emotion regulation consumes executive control resources needed for ongoing cognitive performance. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  3. RSA prediction of high failure rate for the uncoated Interax TKA confirmed by meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijls, Bart G; Nieuwenhuijse, Marc J; Schoones, Jan W; Middeldorp, Saskia; Valstar, Edward R; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2012-04-01

    In a previous radiostereometric (RSA) trial the uncoated, uncemented, Interax tibial components showed excessive migration within 2 years compared to HA-coated and cemented tibial components. It was predicted that this type of fixation would have a high failure rate. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate whether this RSA prediction was correct. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the revision rate for aseptic loosening of the uncoated and cemented Interax tibial components. 3 studies were included, involving 349 Interax total knee arthroplasties (TKAs) for the comparison of uncoated and cemented fixation. There were 30 revisions: 27 uncoated and 3 cemented components. There was a 3-times higher revision rate for the uncoated Interax components than that for cemented Interax components (OR = 3; 95% CI: 1.4-7.2). This meta-analysis confirms the prediction of a previous RSA trial. The uncoated Interax components showed the highest migration and turned out to have the highest revision rate for aseptic loosening. RSA appears to enable efficient detection of an inferior design as early as 2 years postoperatively in a small group of patients.

  4. Least loaded and route fragmentation aware RSA strategies for elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batham, Deepak; Yadav, Dharmendra Singh; Prakash, Shashi

    2017-12-01

    Elastic optical networks (EONs) provide flexibility to assign wide range of spectral resources to the connection requests. In this manuscript, we address two issues related to spectrum assignment in EONs: the non uniform spectrum assignment along different links of the route and the spectrum fragmentation in the network. To address these issues, two routing and spectrum assignment (RSA) strategies have been proposed: Least Loaded RSA (LLRSA) and Route Fragmentation Aware RSA (RFARSA). The LLRSA allocates spectrum homogeneously along different links in the network, where as RFARSA accords priority to the routes which are less fragmented. To highlight the salient features of the two strategies, two new metrics, route fragmentation index (RFI) and standard deviation (SD) are introduced. RFI is defined as the ratio of non-contiguous FSs to the total available free FSs on the route, and SD relates to the measure of non-uniformity in the allocation of resources on the links in the network. A simulation program has been developed to evaluate the performance of the proposed (LLRSA and RFARSA) strategies, and the existing strategies of shortest path RSA (SPRSA) and spectrum compactness based defragmentation (SCD) strategies, on the metric of RFI, bandwidth blocking probability (BBP), network capacity utilized, and SD. The variation in the metrics on the basis of number of requests and the bandwidth (number of FSs) requested has been studied. It has been conclusively established that the proposed strategies (LLRSA and RFARSA) outperform the existing strategies in terms of all the metrics.

  5. Resting RSA Is Associated with Natural and Self-Regulated Responses to Negative Emotional Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaree, Heath A.; Robinson, Jennifer L.; Everhart, D. Erik; Schmeichel, Brandon J.

    2004-01-01

    Resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was assessed among 111 adult participants. These individuals were then asked to watch a positive or negative affective film in either a natural manner or while exaggerating their facial response. Facial reactions to the film were video-recorded and subsequently rated in terms of facial affect.…

  6. Cross-cultural validation of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowkar, Bahram; Friborg, Oddgeir; Hjemdal, Odin

    2010-10-01

    Resilience, as an ability to withstand and rebound from crisis and adversity, is becoming an increasingly popular concept in research on intervention and prevention of mental health. The present study examined psychometric properties of a Persian version of the Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA), a scale intended to measure protective factors presumed to enhance resilience. The participants were 373 university undergraduate students, as well as 30 pairs of run-away girls and a matched control group. A confirmatory factor analysis verified the Norwegian five-factor structure. All subscale scores, personal competence, social competence, family cohesion, social resources and structured style, had good reliability. The convergent validity of the RSA was supported by showing positive associations with another resilience scale, i.e., a Persian version of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC). Predictive validity of the RSA was supported, as well, by significantly differentiating between girls who had run away from home and a matched control group. The results indicate that the RSA may be a valid and reliable scale for the assessment of resilience protective resources in an Iranian population. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2010 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  7. HYBRID CHRIPTOGRAPHY STREAM CIPHER AND RSA ALGORITHM WITH DIGITAL SIGNATURE AS A KEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Lamudur Arta Sihombing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Confidentiality of data is very important in communication. Many cyber crimes that exploit security holes for entry and manipulation. To ensure the security and confidentiality of the data, required a certain technique to encrypt data or information called cryptography. It is one of the components that can not be ignored in building security. And this research aimed to analyze the hybrid cryptography with symmetric key by using a stream cipher algorithm and asymmetric key by using RSA (Rivest Shamir Adleman algorithm. The advantages of hybrid cryptography is the speed in processing data using a symmetric algorithm and easy transfer of key using asymmetric algorithm. This can increase the speed of transaction processing data. Stream Cipher Algorithm using the image digital signature as a keys, that will be secured by the RSA algorithm. So, the key for encryption and decryption are different. Blum Blum Shub methods used to generate keys for the value p, q on the RSA algorithm. It will be very difficult for a cryptanalyst to break the key. Analysis of hybrid cryptography stream cipher and RSA algorithms with digital signatures as a key, indicates that the size of the encrypted file is equal to the size of the plaintext, not to be larger or smaller so that the time required for encryption and decryption process is relatively fast.

  8. A heterogeneous computing environment to solve the 768-bit RSA challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinjung, Thorsten; Bos, Joppe Willem; Lenstra, Arjen K.; Osvik, Dag Arne; Aoki, Kazumaro; Contini, Scott; Franke, Jens; Thomé, Emmanuel; Jermini, Pascal; Thiémard, Michela; Leyland, Paul; Montgomery, Peter L.; Timofeev, Andrey; Stockinger, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 the 768-bit, 232-digit number RSA-768 was factored using the number field sieve. Overall, the computational challenge would take more than 1700 years on a single, standard core. In the article we present the heterogeneous computing approach, involving different compute clusters and Grid computing environments, used to solve this problem.

  9. High-precision measurements of cementless acetabular components using model-based RSA: an experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baad-Hansen, Thomas; Kold, Søren; Kaptein, Bart L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In RSA, tantalum markers attached to metal-backed acetabular cups are often difficult to detect on stereo radiographs due to the high density of the metal shell. This results in occlusion of the prosthesis markers and may lead to inconclusive migration results. Within the last few years...

  10. Factoring RSA keys from certified smart cards : Coppersmith in the wild

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Chang, Y.A.; Cheng, C.M.; Chou, L.P.; Heninger, N.; Lange, T.; Someren, van N.

    2013-01-01

    An attacker can efficiently factor at least 184 distinct 1024-bit RSA keys from Taiwan's national "Citizen Digital Certificate" database. The big story here is that these keys were generated by government-issued smart cards that were certified secure. The certificates had all the usual buzzwords:

  11. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  12. Adherence of hip and knee arthroplasty studies to RSA standardization guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Tatu J; Aro, Hannu T; Bragdon, Charles; Malchau, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Guidelines for standardization of radiostereometry (RSA) of implants were published in 2005 to facilitate comparison of outcomes between various research groups. In this systematic review, we determined how well studies have adhered to these guidelines. Methods We carried out a literature search to identify all articles published between January 2000 and December 2011 that used RSA in the evaluation of hip or knee prosthesis migration. 2 investigators independently evaluated each of the studies for adherence to the 13 individual guideline items. Since some of the 13 points included more than 1 criterion, studies were assessed on whether each point was fully met, partially met, or not met. Results 153 studies that met our inclusion criteria were identified. 61 of these were published before the guidelines were introduced (2000–2005) and 92 after the guidelines were introduced (2006–2011). The methodological quality of RSA studies clearly improved from 2000 to 2011. None of the studies fully met all 13 guidelines. Nearly half (43) of the studies published after the guidelines demonstrated a high methodological quality and adhered at least partially to 10 of the 13 guidelines, whereas less than one-fifth (11) of the studies published before the guidelines had the same methodological quality. Commonly unaddressed guideline items were related to imaging methodology, determination of precision from double examinations, and also mean error of rigid-body fitting and condition number cutoff levels. Interpretation The guidelines have improved methodological reporting in RSA studies, but adherence to these guidelines is still relatively low. There is a need to update and clarify the guidelines for clinical hip and knee arthroplasty RSA studies. PMID:24954489

  13. Adherence of hip and knee arthroplasty studies to RSA standardization guidelines. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madanat, Rami; Mäkinen, Tatu J; Aro, Hannu T; Bragdon, Charles; Malchau, Henrik

    2014-09-01

    Guidelines for standardization of radiostereometry (RSA) of implants were published in 2005 to facilitate comparison of outcomes between various research groups. In this systematic review, we determined how well studies have adhered to these guidelines. We carried out a literature search to identify all articles published between January 2000 and December 2011 that used RSA in the evaluation of hip or knee prosthesis migration. 2 investigators independently evaluated each of the studies for adherence to the 13 individual guideline items. Since some of the 13 points included more than 1 criterion, studies were assessed on whether each point was fully met, partially met, or not met. 153 studies that met our inclusion criteria were identified. 61 of these were published before the guidelines were introduced (2000-2005) and 92 after the guidelines were introduced (2006-2011). The methodological quality of RSA studies clearly improved from 2000 to 2011. None of the studies fully met all 13 guidelines. Nearly half (43) of the studies published after the guidelines demonstrated a high methodological quality and adhered at least partially to 10 of the 13 guidelines, whereas less than one-fifth (11) of the studies published before the guidelines had the same methodological quality. Commonly unaddressed guideline items were related to imaging methodology, determination of precision from double examinations, and also mean error of rigid-body fitting and condition number cutoff levels. The guidelines have improved methodological reporting in RSA studies, but adherence to these guidelines is still relatively low. There is a need to update and clarify the guidelines for clinical hip and knee arthroplasty RSA studies.

  14. Resilience in a reborn nation: Validation of the Lithuanian Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Jan; Viliūnienė, Rima; Friborg, Oddgeir; Pakalniškienė, Vilmantė; Danilevičiūtė, Vita

    2015-07-01

    Resilience, as an ability to withstand or rebound from crisis or adversity, is becoming an increasingly significant concept in health promotion and well-being. Individuals exhibiting resilience use skills or resources flexibly to solve situational demands. The Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) may be used to assess protective resources, and the aim of the present study was to validate the Lithuanian translation. The translated RSA was administered to a clinical (n=125) and a non clinical sample (n=499) to examine the discriminant validity of the RSA items with a confirmatory factor analysis, the internal consistency as well as construct validity by correlating it with the Quick Psycho-Affective Symptoms Scan (QPASS). The internal consistency, the test-retest stability and the factor structure were replicated as adequate, thus indicating good psychometric properties and support of discriminant validity. Females reported more resilience resources for the domains of social competence, family cohesion and social resources compared to men. The RSA subscales correlated negatively with the QPASS scores, and patients reported significantly less resilience resources than non-patients, thus indicating construct validity. Valid psychometric tools for research purposes and routine every-day use are urgently needed in Lithuania, a young nation still under numerous challenges due to social, economic and political transitions. The RSA represents a reliable and valid tool for assessing protective factors. Assessing resilience factors may extend the understanding of factors relevant for mental health problems as well as treatment prognosis beyond the capabilities of mere symptom oriented approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of gait analysis with dynamic radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in patients operated with total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zügner, Roland; Tranberg, Roy; Lisovskaja, Vera; Shareghi, Bita; Kärrholm, Johan

    2017-07-01

    We simultaneously examined 14 patients with OTS and dynamic radiostereometric analysis (RSA) to evaluate the accuracy of both skin- and a cluster-marker models. The mean differences between the OTS and RSA system in hip flexion, abduction, and rotation varied up to 9.5° for the skin-marker and up to 11.3° for the cluster-marker models, respectively. Both models tended to underestimate the amount of flexion and abduction, but a significant systematic difference between the marker and RSA evaluations could only be established for recordings of hip abduction using cluster markers (p = 0.04). The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.7 or higher during flexion for both models and during abduction using skin markers, but decreased to 0.5-0.6 when abduction motion was studied with cluster markers. During active hip rotation, the two marker models tended to deviate from the RSA recordings in different ways with poor correlations at the end of the motion (ICC ≤0.4). During active hip motions soft tissue displacements occasionally induced considerable differences when compared to skeletal motions. The best correlation between RSA recordings and the skin- and cluster-marker model was found for studies of hip flexion and abduction with the skin-marker model. Studies of hip abduction with use of cluster markers were associated with a constant underestimation of the motion. Recordings of skeletal motions with use of skin or cluster markers during hip rotation were associated with high mean errors amounting up to about 10° at certain positions. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1515-1522, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Children’s dynamic RSA change during anger and its relations with parenting, temperament, and control of aggression☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jonas G.; Chocol, Caroline; Nuselovici, Jacob N.; Utendale, William T.; Simard, Melissa; Hastings, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effects of child temperament on the association between maternal socialization and 4–6-year-old children’s dynamic respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) change in response to anger-themed emotional materials (N = 180). We used latent growth curve modeling to explore adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change in response to anger. Greater change in RSA during anger-induction, characterized by more initial RSA suppression and a subsequent return to baseline, was related to children’s better regulation of aggression. For anger-themed materials, low levels of authoritarian parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for more anger-prone children, whereas more authoritative parenting predicted more RSA suppression and recovery for less anger-prone children. These findings suggest that children’s adaptive patterns of dynamic RSA change can be characterized by latent growth curve modeling, and that these patterns may be differentially shaped by parent socialization experiences as a function of child temperament. PMID:23274169

  17. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  18. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, J; Ellertson, C

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach. Our review reveals that research on the efficacy of medical abortion has closely followed the conceptual model used for analysis of surgical abortion. The problem, however, is that, whereas surgical abortion is a discrete event occurring in the space of a few minutes or less, medical abortion is a process typically lasting from several days to several weeks. In this process, two events may occur that are not possible with surgical abortion. First, the woman can opt out of the process before a fair determination of efficacy can be made. Second, the process of medical abortion allows time for surgical interventions that may be convenient for the clinician but not strictly necessary from a medical perspective. Another difference from surgical abortions is that, for medical abortions, different medical abortion protocols specify different waiting periods, giving the drugs less time to work in some studies than in others before a determination of efficacy is made. We argue that, when analyzing efficacy of medical abortion, researchers should abandon their close reliance on the analogy to surgical abortion. In fact, medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by life table procedures developed for the study of another fertility regulation technology; contraception. As with medical abortion, a woman initiating use of a contraceptive method can

  19. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  20. Precision assessment of model-based RSA for a total knee prosthesis in a biplanar set-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trozzi, C; Kaptein, B L; Garling, E H; Shelyakova, T; Russo, A; Bragonzoni, L; Martelli, S

    2008-10-01

    Model-based Roentgen Stereophotogrammetric Analysis (RSA) was recently developed for the measurement of prosthesis micromotion. Its main advantage is that markers do not need to be attached to the implants as traditional marker-based RSA requires. Model-based RSA has only been tested in uniplanar radiographic set-ups. A biplanar set-up would theoretically facilitate the pose estimation algorithm, since radiographic projections would show more different shape features of the implants than in uniplanar images. We tested the precision of model-based RSA and compared it with that of the traditional marker-based method in a biplanar set-up. Micromotions of both tibial and femoral components were measured with both the techniques from double examinations of patients participating in a clinical study. The results showed that in the biplanar set-up model-based RSA presents a homogeneous distribution of precision for all the translation directions, but an inhomogeneous error for rotations, especially internal-external rotation presented higher errors than rotations about the transverse and sagittal axes. Model-based RSA was less precise than the marker-based method, although the differences were not significant for the translations and rotations of the tibial component, with the exception of the internal-external rotations. For both prosthesis components the precisions of model-based RSA were below 0.2 mm for all the translations, and below 0.3 degrees for rotations about transverse and sagittal axes. These values are still acceptable for clinical studies aimed at evaluating total knee prosthesis micromotion. In a biplanar set-up model-based RSA is a valid alternative to traditional marker-based RSA where marking of the prosthesis is an enormous disadvantage.

  1. Patterns of online abortion among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.

    2018-01-01

    An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.

  2. Enablers of and barriers to abortion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs.

  3. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, L M; Smith, J C; Ramick, M

    1995-05-05

    From 1980 through 1991, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC remained stable, varying each year by 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1991, 1,388,937 abortions were reported--a 2.8% decrease from 1990. The abortion ratio was 339 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and had been obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half (52%) of all abortions were performed at or before the 8th week of gestation, and 88% were before the 13th week. Younger women (i.e., women may partially account for this decline. An accurate assessment of the number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States is necessary both to monitor efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy and to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions.

  4. Mental health and abortion: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G; Wickett, A R

    1989-11-01

    This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions.

  5. [Legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, H

    1970-01-01

    Aspects of legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland are discussed. About 110,000 births, 25,000 therapeutic abortions (75% for psychiatric indications) and an estimated 50,000 illegal abortions occur annually in Switzerland. Although the mortality and morbidity of therapeutic aborti on are similar to those of normal births (1.4 per 1000 and 11%, respectively) the mortality and morbidity of criminal abortions are far greater (3 per 1000 and 73%, respectively). In the author's view, too strict an interpretatiok of Swiss abortion law (which permits abortion to avoid serious harm to the mother's health) does not take into account the severe and lasting emotional and psychological damage which may be caused by unwanted pregnancy, birth, and childraising. In the present social situation, the social and psychological support required by these women is not available; until it is, abortion is to be preferred.

  6. Unintended Pregnancy, Induced Abortion, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2017-09-14

    The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.

  7. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  8. Telling stories about abortion: abortion-related plots in American film and television, 1916-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Popular discourse on abortion in film and television assumes that abortions are under- and misrepresented. Research indicates that such representations influence public perception of abortion care and may play a role in the production of social myths around abortion, with consequences for women's experience of abortion. To date, abortion plotlines in American film and television have not been systematically tracked and analyzed. A comprehensive online search was conducted to identify all representations of pregnancy decision making and abortion in American film and television through January 2013. Search results were coded for year, pregnancy decision and mortality outcome. A total of 310 plotlines were identified, with an overall upward trend over time in the number of representations of abortion decision making. Of these plotlines, 173 (55.8%) resulted in abortion, 80 (25.8%) in parenting, 13 (4.2%) in adoption and 21 (6.7%) in pregnancy loss, and 16 (5.1%) were unresolved. A total of 13.5% (n=42) of stories ended with the death of the woman who considered an abortion, whether or not she obtained one. Abortion-related plotlines occur more frequently than popular discourse assumes. Year-to-year variation in frequency suggests an interactive relationship between media representations, cultural attitudes and policies around abortion regulation, consistent with cultural theory of the relationship between media products and social beliefs. Patterns of outcomes and rates of mortality are not representative of real experience and may contribute to social myths around abortion. The narrative linking of pregnancy termination with mortality is of particular note, supporting the social myth associating abortion with death. This analysis empirically describes the number of abortion-related plotlines in American film and television. It contributes to the systematic evaluation of the portrayal of abortion in popular culture and provides abortion care professionals and

  9. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic as well as more than 70 wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. T...

  10. Association between human leukocyte antigen-G genotype and success of in vitro fertilization and pregnancy outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V F; Hylenius, S; Lindhard, A

    2004-01-01

    spontaneous abortions (RSA), 29 white women undergoing IVF treatments, 61 RSA women and 93 fertile controls were HLA-G genotype. The HLA-G genotype, homozygous for the presence of the 14 bp sequence in exon 8, was significantly associated with reduced fertility with respect to unsuccessful IVF treatments...

  11. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilboudo PGC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick GC Ilboudo,1–3 Serge MA Somda,4 Johanne Sundby3 1Département de Santé Publique, Unité de Recherche sur les Politiques et Systèmes de Santé, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 2Agence de Formation, de Recherche et d'Expertise en Santé pour l'Afrique (AFRICSanté, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Département des Maladies Non Transmissibles, Unité de Formation et d'Appui Méthodologique, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Introduction: Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results: The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41; whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24; and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95

  12. Anti-abortion policy leads to more abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1988-01-01

    In 1984, the Reagan administration announced in Mexico City a reversal in the US international family planning policy. The new policy strictly forbids any international family planning group that receives US funds from providing abortion services or counseling. An immediate impact on family planning programs in developing countries was that it prevented the opening of much needed clinics in the poorest, most rapidly growing countries in the world, such as Bangladesh. The University of Michigan School of Public Health estimates an additional 380,000 unwanted pregnancies, resulting in 311,000 births, 69,000 abortions, and 1200 maternal deaths in the next 3 years. Not only did the US change its policy, but congress decreased funding for international family planning programs 20% between 1985 and 1987. The majority of the funding goes to the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and in 1988 the Reagan administration allowed USAID to funnel about $75 million of this money to other projects, e.g. general African development fund. Fewer contraceptives are available due to the reduced funding, and therefore more women seek an abortion as a last resort against unwanted pregnancy. An additional effect of this 1984 policy reversal is that fewer nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are eligible for grants, so USAID gives its family planning funds to government agencies who are not the most effective users of funds and are not always trusted by the people served.

  13. Abortion: Still Unfinished Agenda in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Regmi, Shibesh Chandra; Dangal, Ganesh

    2018-03-13

    Unsafe abortion is affecting a lot, in health, socio-economic and health care cost of many countries. Despite invention of simple technology and scientifically approved safe abortion methods, women and girls are still using unsafe abortion practices. Since 2002, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in developing policies, guidelines, task shifting, training human resources and increasing access to services. However, more than half of abortion in Nepal are performed clandestinely by untrained or unapproved providers or induced by pregnant woman herself. Knowledge on legalization and availability of safe abortion service among women is still very poor. Stigma on abortion still persists among community people, service providers, managers, and policy makers. Access to safe abortion, especially in remote and rural areas, is still far behind as compared to their peers from urban areas. The existing law is not revised in the spirit of current Constitution of Nepal and rights-based approach. The existence of abortion stigma and the shifting of the government structure from unitary system to federalism in absence of a complete clarity on how the safe abortion service gets integrated into the local government structure might create challenge to sustain existing developments. There is, therefore, a need for all stakeholders to make a lot of efforts and allocate adequate resources to sustain current achievements and ensure improvements in creating a supportive social environment for women and girls so that they will be able to make informed decisions and access to safe abortion service in any circumstances.

  14. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  15. Accounting for abortion: Accomplishing transnational reproductive governance through post-abortion care in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2018-06-01

    Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.

  16. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  17. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  18. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  19. Rejoinder to Wisniewski on Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter E. Block

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available I have published more than just a few papers on the abortion issue. Instead of taking either the pro choice or the pro life position, I offer a third alternative: evictionism. I claim that this perspective, which, as it happens is a principled compromise between the other two positions, is the only one compatible with libertarianism. Wisniewski (2010 offers several not unreasonable challenges to my thesis. The present paper is my attempt to refute each and every one of them.

  20. Politics and abortion in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirakova, K

    1992-01-01

    Political change in Bulgaria has meant the beginning of the recognition of the reproduction rights of women. Abortion, for example, was legalized in 1990. Women in Bulgaria, however, still lack the information they need on basic hygiene and sex. It is impossible to promulgate a progressive strategy in Bulgaria if one ignores the isolation of the Turkish and Gypsy ethnic communities. In addition, an economic crisis exists, and no real measures have been undertaken to mitigate the situation. The new democratic institutions have settled comfortably into the structures of the former communist rule, even to the point of adopting the same extensive demagogic terminology which perpetrates the old gap between words and deeds. For example, although a new birth control strategy and plan for sex education was announced 2 years ago, nothing definite has been done. One development, however, has been the legalization of abortion, which was accompanied by an immediate drop in the abortion rate (still 1.5 abortions/birth). Because of a lack of sex education, 900 children are born to girls under age 15 each year. Bulgaria is just starting to embrace modern values and must update its attitudes towards women. Bulgaria's formal institutions seem to be unable to face this issue, and many societies and foundations have emerged to work for women's rights, to protect out-of-wedlock children, and to fight disease (including AIDS) and drug addiction. However, these organizations are not producing real results and are simply providing shelter to representatives of the old nomenclature. Real efforts to overcome these problems will continue despite the current discouraging state of affairs.

  1. Abortion and the Nigerian woman: a select bibliography ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abortion is a common and widespread form of fertility regulation the world over. Legal and illegal abortion is very common throughout the developing countries. Since abortions are often not legal in the developing countries, unsafe abortions are an important cause of female mortality. The widespread incidence of abortions ...

  2. Algoritmo de criptografia RSA: análise entre a segurança e velocidade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Santos Andrade

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é abordar a relação existente entre a busca pela segurança de dados e a velocidade de codificação e decodificação do algoritmo de criptografia RSA, que utiliza um par de números inteiros como ‘chave’. Considerando o tamanho da chave como requisito de segurança, devido à dificuldade computacional de fatorar números inteiros extensos, simulamos estes processos, com o algoritmo implementado na linguagem de programação C, utilizando chaves aleatórias de 1024, 2048 e 4096 bits. Desta forma, observamos o tempo de processamento em função do tamanho das chaves, confrontando segurança e desempenho.Palavras-chave: criptografia; algoritmo RSA; segurança; desempenho.

  3. Distributed Factorization Computation on Multiple Volunteered Mobile Resource to Break RSA Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, I.; Hardi, S. M.; Tarigan, J. T.; Zamzami, E. M.; Sihombing, P.

    2017-01-01

    Similar to common asymmeric encryption, RSA can be cracked by usmg a series mathematical calculation. The private key used to decrypt the massage can be computed using the public key. However, finding the private key may require a massive amount of calculation. In this paper, we propose a method to perform a distributed computing to calculate RSA’s private key. The proposed method uses multiple volunteered mobile devices to contribute during the calculation process. Our objective is to demonstrate how the use of volunteered computing on mobile devices may be a feasible option to reduce the time required to break a weak RSA encryption and observe the behavior and running time of the application on mobile devices.

  4. RSA calibration accuracy of a fluoroscopy-based system using nonorthogonal images for measuring functional kinematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedgley, Angela E.; Jenkyn, Thomas R.

    2009-01-01

    When performing radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in a clinical setting it may be desirable to orient the two imaging devices nonorthogonally to obtain the best views of an anatomical structure. In this study, a calibration frame was constructed that allowed the relative angles of fiducial and control planes to be adjusted. Precision and accuracy were quantified across multiple trials and orientations. The 90 deg. frame was always of equivalent or greater accuracy than a calibration frame with the fiducial and control planes aligned parallel to the image intensifiers. This study also showed that RSA may be performed with imaging devices at relative angles other than 90 deg. without compromising accuracy. This allows researchers greater freedom in positioning equipment.

  5. Cardio-respiratory interactions and relocation of heartbeats within the respiratory cycle during spontaneous and paced breathing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, T C; Beda, A; Granja-Filho, P C N; Jandre, F C; Giannella-Neto, A

    2011-01-01

    The capability of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) to generate privileged locations for the occurrence of R-peaks within the respiratory cycle has been questioned in recent works, challenging the hypothesis that RSA might play a role in improving pulmonary gas exchange. We assessed such a capability submitting healthy humans to spontaneous and paced breathing (SB and PB) protocols, estimating the fraction of beats occurring during inspiration, at low, medium, and high respiratory volumes, and during the first and second half of inspiration and expiration. Then, the same fractions were computed assuming a random uniform distribution of heartbeats, and the differences were compared. The results found are as follows: (1) during PB at 6 rpm, heartbeats redistribute toward inspiration; (2) during SB and PB at 12 rpm, heartbeats tend to cluster when respiratory volume is high; (3) since such redistributions are limited in magnitude, it is possible that its physiological relevance is marginal, for instance, in terms of within-cycle variations in lung perfusion; (4) two groups of subjects with considerably different levels of RSA showed similar redistribution of heartbeats, suggesting that this phenomenon might be an underlying effect of the overall cardio-respiratory interactions, and not directly of RSA

  6. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  7. Hemolysis, hemorrhage, headache, and hidden abortion: imaging findings in antiphospholipid syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Brandenburg, V.M.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany); Frank, R.D. [Dept. of Nephrology and Immunology, Univ. of Technology, Aachen (Germany)

    2003-12-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with arterial and venous thromboses, recurrent pregnancy loss, and organ infarction. Any vascular region can be affected. We present a 20-year-old woman suffering from secondary antiphospholipid syndrome with a unique combination of multifocal venous thromboses, pulmonary embolism, spontaneous abortion, and splenic infarction. Diversity of clinical symptoms and diagnostic imaging modalities are discussed with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging. The syndrome should be suspected in patients with thromboses and organ infarctions of otherwise undetermined etiology. (orig.)

  8. Hemolysis, hemorrhage, headache, and hidden abortion: imaging findings in antiphospholipid syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahnken, A.H.; Brandenburg, V.M.; Haage, P.; Guenther, R.W.; Frank, R.D.

    2003-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with arterial and venous thromboses, recurrent pregnancy loss, and organ infarction. Any vascular region can be affected. We present a 20-year-old woman suffering from secondary antiphospholipid syndrome with a unique combination of multifocal venous thromboses, pulmonary embolism, spontaneous abortion, and splenic infarction. Diversity of clinical symptoms and diagnostic imaging modalities are discussed with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging. The syndrome should be suspected in patients with thromboses and organ infarctions of otherwise undetermined etiology. (orig.)

  9. A Review Of Encryption Algorithms-RSA And Diffie-Hellman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh A. Lal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Network security is protecting data and message from cybercrime. Cryptography system is designed freely to communicate over a computer network. It is a process where sender sends encrypted message to the recipient. Symmetric encryption is known as the single key encryption. RSA algorithm is a symmetric key encryption.it uses public key and private key. Diffie Hellman cryptography is where both parties exchange secrets keys to encrypt message.

  10. Hybrid information privacy system: integration of chaotic neural network and RSA coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ming-Kai; Willey, Jeff; Lee, Ting N.; Szu, Harold H.

    2005-03-01

    Electronic mails are adopted worldwide; most are easily hacked by hackers. In this paper, we purposed a free, fast and convenient hybrid privacy system to protect email communication. The privacy system is implemented by combining private security RSA algorithm with specific chaos neural network encryption process. The receiver can decrypt received email as long as it can reproduce the specified chaos neural network series, so called spatial-temporal keys. The chaotic typing and initial seed value of chaos neural network series, encrypted by the RSA algorithm, can reproduce spatial-temporal keys. The encrypted chaotic typing and initial seed value are hidden in watermark mixed nonlinearly with message media, wrapped with convolution error correction codes for wireless 3rd generation cellular phones. The message media can be an arbitrary image. The pattern noise has to be considered during transmission and it could affect/change the spatial-temporal keys. Since any change/modification on chaotic typing or initial seed value of chaos neural network series is not acceptable, the RSA codec system must be robust and fault-tolerant via wireless channel. The robust and fault-tolerant properties of chaos neural networks (CNN) were proved by a field theory of Associative Memory by Szu in 1997. The 1-D chaos generating nodes from the logistic map having arbitrarily negative slope a = p/q generating the N-shaped sigmoid was given first by Szu in 1992. In this paper, we simulated the robust and fault-tolerance properties of CNN under additive noise and pattern noise. We also implement a private version of RSA coding and chaos encryption process on messages.

  11. Die rol van die kurrikulum in private skole in die RSA

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ed. (Curriculum Studies) This research focuses on the role the curriculum plays in the existence of certain types of private schools in the RSA. Private schools in South Africa currently number in excess of 500 and the number is increasing every year. The various private schools claim that they offer curricula suited to the specific needs of certain pupils. A structured interview was compiled and used to interview three different schools namely a volkskool (a people's school), a church s...

  12. RsaM: a transcriptional regulator of Burkholderia spp. with novel fold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalska, Karolina [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Chhor, Gekleng [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Clancy, Shonda [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Jedrzejczak, Robert [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Babnigg, Gyorgy [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Winans, Stephen C. [Department of Microbiology, Cornell University, Ithaca NY USA; Joachimiak, Andrzej [Midwest Center for Structural Genomics, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Structural Biology Center, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, IL USA; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Chicago, IL USA

    2014-07-04

    Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) is a set of closely related bacterial species that are notorious pathogens of cystic fibrosis patients, responsible for life-threatening lung infections. Expression of several virulence factors of Bcc is controlled by a mechanism known as quorum sensing (QS). QS is a means of bacterial communication used to coordinate gene expression in a cell-density-dependent manner. The system involves the production of diffusible signaling molecules (N-acyl-L-homoserine lactones, AHLs), that bind to cognate transcriptional regulators and influence their ability to regulate gene expression. One such system that is highly conserved in Bcc consists of CepI and CepR. CepI is AHL synthase, while CepR is an AHL-dependent transcription factor. In most members of the Bcc group, the cepI and cepR genes are divergently transcribed and separated by additional genes. One of them, bcam1869, encodes the BcRsaM protein, which was recently postulated to modulate the abundance or activity of CepI or CepR. Here we show the crystal structure of BcRsaM from B. cenocepacia J2315. It is a single-domain protein with unique topology and presents a novel fold. The protein is a dimer in the crystal and in solution. This regulator has no known DNA binding motifs and direct binding of BcRsaM to the cepI promoter could not be detected in in vitro assays. Therefore, we propose that the modulatory action of RsaM might result from interactions with other components of the QS machinery rather than from direct association with the DNA promoter.

  13. How often and under which circumstances do Mexican pharmacy vendors recommend misoprostol to induce an abortion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Diana; García, Sandra G; Wilson, Kate S; Paz, Francisco

    2011-06-01

    Misoprostol was used by women across Mexico to induce abortion even before 2007, when first-trimester abortion was legalized in Mexico City. Pharmacy vendors' misoprostol recommendation practices across subregions of Mexico after abortion legalization warrant examination. Overall, 192 pharmacies in four regions of Mexico were randomly selected and visited by simulated clients presenting three scenarios (a young woman, an adult woman and a male partner). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to explore associations between pharmacy, vendor and client characteristics and drug access. In 558 encounters with simulated clients, 78% of vendors provided information about misoprostol-18% recommended it spontaneously and 60% recommended it only after the client asked specifically for the drug. Fifteen percent of vendors recommended a potentially effective misoprostol dosing regimen. Mexico City-based pharmacies and those in the Central region were significantly less likely than those in the North region to require a prescription to sell misoprostol (odds ratios, 0.2 and 0.3, respectively). Independent pharmacies and those from low-?income areas were significantly more likely to sell misoprostol by the pill than chain pharmacies and those in medium-income areas (3.2 and 2.7, respectively). Access to misoprostol is influenced by neighborhood socioeconomic level, pharmacy location and pharmacy type. The frequently inaccurate and incomplete information provided to clients about using misoprostol for abortion suggests the need to improve pharmacy vendor training in medication abortion options and to develop ways to directly inform women about misoprostol use.

  14. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Does respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) predict anxiety reduction during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, Karen J; Schmidt, Louis A; Miskovic, Vladimir; Santesso, Diane L; Duku, Eric; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M; Moscovitch, David A

    2013-05-01

    Modifying dysfunctional emotion regulation is an important goal in psychological treatments for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Antecedent-focused strategies learned in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), such as cognitive reappraisal, have proven more effective in reducing social anxiety than response-focused strategies, such as expressive suppression. Still, not all patients with SAD respond well to CBT. Medications and physiological factors may also influence the clinical response. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role that these factors play in determining treatment response following CBT for SAD. Using multilevel modeling, we examined associations across four separate laboratory visits between change in self-reported anxiety and indices of reappraisal, suppression, medication status, and resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a proxy measure of self-regulatory capacity, in 23 socially anxious adults during a 12-week program of CBT. Most participants were ultimately classified as responders to CBT (n=15), but in some, anxiety levels remained unchanged (n=8). Medication use explained substantial variance related to individual differences in anxiety among participants. When modeled separately, reappraisal, suppression, and RSA each accounted for significant variance related to anxiety. However, the best-fitting model included reappraisal and RSA. Moreover, RSA reactivity (change in RSA levels over time) was more important for predicting anxiety reduction than were baseline levels of RSA. These findings suggest that reappraisal and parasympathetic responsiveness may be important in reducing anxiety in adults with SAD who respond well to CBT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Kombinasi RSA-CRT dengan Random LSB untuk Keamanan Data di Kanwil Kementerian Agama Prov. Sumatera Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niti Ravika Nasution

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study the authors use Cryptographic Algorithms Rivest Shamir Adleman Chinese Remainder Theorem (RSA-CRT and steganography technique Random Least Significant Bits (LSB. RSA-CRT is basically the same as usual, but utilizing RSA CRT theorem to shorten the bit size decryption exponent d by hiding d on congruent systems that accelerate time decryption, the difference in the key generation process and the decryption process. Cryptographic algorithm RSA-CRT produce ciphertext stored into a picture (image using Steganography technique Random Least Significant Bits (LSB. The workings of Random LSB is storing the message (ciphertext in the first bit or the second bit random key for use random number generator Pseudo Random Number Generator (PRNG with Linear Congruential Generator (LCG method. Ciphertext stored in a picture  (image has extracted key re-use random number generator at the time of inserting the message. Then the ciphertext is decrypted back by the algorithm RSA-CRT to produce the original text (plaintext. Merging Cryptographic Algorithm RSA-CRT with Steganography Technique Simple  LSB than with Random LSB generate higher PSNR and MSE is lower, which means better level of data security and more resistant to attack. Has more difficult to find a secret message by cryptanalysis and steganalyst.

  17. Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...

  18. Introducing random safety audits (RSA) in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Szymanska, M

    2012-01-31

    Random safety audits (RSA) have been shown to be effective in improving standards of clinical practice. 19 data collection audits were performed relating to hygiene, safe prescribing, oxygen pulse oximetry monitoring and documentation in keeping with the requirements of the new Medical Practitioners Act (MPA) 2007. Hygiene audits (range from 20\\/25 to 21\\/21 80%-100%) and safe prescribing audits (range from 23\\/25 to 25\\/25 86%-100%) achieved n=25 100% compliance with unit guidelines over a 3 month period. Compliance with oxygen pulse oximetry monitoring guideline limits improved from 4\\/27 (15%) to 9\\/16 (56%). Compliance with requirement and use of Physician IMC registration number in documentation was only 10\\/18 (56%). RSA\\'s led to improvements in hygiene and prescribing. Compliance with oxygen monitoring guideline limits highlighted the need for greater education. Awareness of legal requirements relating to documentation improved but this has not translated into a change in practice. RSA\\'s can facilitate real time quality improvement in daily clinical practice.

  19. VLSI design of an RSA encryption/decryption chip using systolic array based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Chia; Lin, Bor-Shing; Jan, Gene Eu; Lin, Jheng-Yi

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the VLSI design of a configurable RSA public key cryptosystem supporting the 512-bit, 1024-bit and 2048-bit based on Montgomery algorithm achieving comparable clock cycles of current relevant works but with smaller die size. We use binary method for the modular exponentiation and adopt Montgomery algorithm for the modular multiplication to simplify computational complexity, which, together with the systolic array concept for electric circuit designs effectively, lower the die size. The main architecture of the chip consists of four functional blocks, namely input/output modules, registers module, arithmetic module and control module. We applied the concept of systolic array to design the RSA encryption/decryption chip by using VHDL hardware language and verified using the TSMC/CIC 0.35 m 1P4 M technology. The die area of the 2048-bit RSA chip without the DFT is 3.9 × 3.9 mm2 (4.58 × 4.58 mm2 with DFT). Its average baud rate can reach 10.84 kbps under a 100 MHz clock.

  20. Utilizing the Double-Precision Floating-Point Computing Power of GPUs for RSA Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiankuo Dong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetric cryptographic algorithm (e.g., RSA and Elliptic Curve Cryptography implementations on Graphics Processing Units (GPUs have been researched for over a decade. The basic idea of most previous contributions is exploiting the highly parallel GPU architecture and porting the integer-based algorithms from general-purpose CPUs to GPUs, to offer high performance. However, the great potential cryptographic computing power of GPUs, especially by the more powerful floating-point instructions, has not been comprehensively investigated in fact. In this paper, we fully exploit the floating-point computing power of GPUs, by various designs, including the floating-point-based Montgomery multiplication/exponentiation algorithm and Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT implementation in GPU. And for practical usage of the proposed algorithm, a new method is performed to convert the input/output between octet strings and floating-point numbers, fully utilizing GPUs and further promoting the overall performance by about 5%. The performance of RSA-2048/3072/4096 decryption on NVIDIA GeForce GTX TITAN reaches 42,211/12,151/5,790 operations per second, respectively, which achieves 13 times the performance of the previous fastest floating-point-based implementation (published in Eurocrypt 2009. The RSA-4096 decryption precedes the existing fastest integer-based result by 23%.

  1. [Criteria on the legalization of abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Romero, H; González-González, A; Galicia, J; Garcia-Barrios, C

    2000-01-01

    We revised ethical concepts related to abortion from the points of view of the mothers; life, health, and considerations are made concerning the embryo or fetus as a biological, ontological, moral, and potential person. Certain religious matters on abortion are described and commented on. Effects of abortion penalization in Mexico and the legislation in the Mexican states are examined, as well as the motives of depenalization in certain countries.

  2. Prolonged grieving after abortion: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D; Elkins, T E; Larson, D B

    1993-01-01

    Although flawed by methodological problems, the research literature tends to provide support for the assumption that induced abortion in the 1st trimester is not accompanied by enduring negative psychological sequelae. In cases where such sequelae are reported, the morbidity is attributed to a pre-existing psychiatric condition or circumstances precipitating the choice of abortion. However, detailed descriptive letters from 45 women prepared in response to a request by a pastor of an upper-middle-class Protestant congregation in Florida indicate that prolonged grieving after abortion may be more widespread phenomenon than previously believed. Letter writers ranged in age from 25-60 years; 75% were unmarried at the time of the procedure and 29% aborted before the legalization of abortion in the US. The most frequently cited long-term sequela, especially among those who felt coerced to abort, was a continued feeling of guilt. Fantasies about the aborted fetus was the next most frequently mentioned experience. Half of the letter writers referred to their abortions, as "murder" and 44% voiced regret about their decision to abort. Other long-term effects included depression (44%), feelings of loss (31%), shame (27%), and phobic responses to infants (13%). For 42% of these women, the adverse psychological effects of abortion endured over 10 years. Since letter-writers came from a self-selected population group with a known bias against abortion and only negative experiences were solicited, these experiences must be regarded as subjectives and anecdotal. However, they draw attention to the need for methodologically sound studies of a possible prolonged grief syndrome among a small percentage of women who have abortions, especially when coercion is involved.

  3. Abortion checks at German-Dutch border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Baross, J

    1991-05-01

    The commentary on West German abortion law, particularly in illegal abortion in the Netherlands, finds the law restrictive and in violation of the dignity and rights of women. The Max-Planck Institute in 1990 published a study that found that a main point of prosecution between 1976 and 1986, as reported by Der Spiegal, was in border crossings from the Netherlands. It is estimated that 10,000 annually have abortions abroad, and 6,000 to 7,000 in the Netherlands. The procedure was for an official to stop a young person and query about drugs; later the woman would admit to an abortion, and be forced into a medical examination. The German Penal Code Section 218 stipulates abortion only for certain reasons testified to by a doctor other than the one performing the abortion. Counseling on available social assistance must be completed 3 days prior to the abortion. Many counseling offices are church related and opposed to abortions. Many doctors refuse legally to certify, and access to abortion is limited. The required hospital stay is 3-4 nights with no day care facilities. Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 allows prosecution for uncounseled illegal abortion. Abortion law reform is anticipated by the end of 1992 in the Bundestag due to the Treaty or the Unification of Germany. The Treaty states that the rights of the unborn child must be protected and that pregnant women relieve their distress in a way compatible with the Constitution, but improved over legal regulations from either West or East Germany, which permits abortion on request within 12 weeks of conception without counseling. It is hoped that the law will be liberalized and Penal Code Section 5 No. 9 will be abolished.

  4. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Hughes, James P; Gonzales, Marco A; Garcia, Patricia J; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2009-02-03

    Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18-29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%-12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%-14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%-3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41-2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23-2.09; > or = 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12-3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01-1.72; > or = 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%-50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially

  5. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2009-11-01

    There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.

  6. Therapeutic abortion follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, A J; Davison, L A; Hanson, K H; Loos, S A; Mikkelsen, C M

    1971-05-15

    To determine the long-range psychological effects of therapeutic abortion, 50 women (aged from 13-44 years), who were granted abortions between 1967 and 1968 Because of possible impairment of mental and/or physical health, were analyzed by use of demographic questionnaires, psychological tests, and interviews. Testing revealed that 44 women had psychiatric problems at time of abortion. 43 patients were followed for 3-6 months. The follow-up interviews revealed that 29 patients reacted positively after abortion, 10 reported no significant change and 4 reacted negatively. 37 would definitely repeat the abortion. Women under 21 years of age felt substantially more ambivalent and guilty than older patients. A study of 36 paired pre- and post-abortion profiles showed that 15 initially abnormal tests had become normal. There was a significant increase in contraceptive use among the patients after the abortion, but 4 again became pregnant and 8 were apparently without consistent contraception. It is concluded that the abortions were therapeutic, but physicians are encouraged to be aware of psychological problems in abortion cases. Strong psychological and contraceptive counselling should be exercised.

  7. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  8. Two steps back: Poland's new abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowicka, W

    1993-06-01

    After the fall of Communism in Poland, the Catholic church exerted pressure to increase its influence in public life. One way in which this pressure has manifested itself has been in the passing of a restrictive abortion bill which was signed into law on February 15, 1993. Abortion had been legalized in Poland in 1956 and was used as a means of birth control because of a lack of availability and use of contraceptives. The number of abortions performed was variously reported as 60,000 - 300,000/year. In 1990, the Ministry of Health imposed restrictions on abortions at publicly funded hospitals, and 3 deaths were reported from self-induced abortions. In 1 year (1989-90), the number of induced abortions at 1 hospital dropped from 71 to 19, while the number of self-induced abortions increased from 48 to 85. Further restrictions were introduced in May 1992 as part of the "Ethical Code for Physicians," which allows abortions only in cases where the mother's life or health is in danger or in cases or rape. This code brought abortions to a halt at publicly funded hospitals and doubled or even tripled the cost of private abortions. Women have been refused abortions in tragic and life=threatening situations since the code was adopted. When an outright anti family planning bill was drafted in November 1992, the Polish citizenry collected 1,300,000 signatures to force a referendum. The referendum was not held, but the bill was defeated. The amended bill which passed allows abortions in publicly funded hospitals only when the mother's life or health is in danger and in cases of rape, incest, or incurable deformity of the fetus. The implications of this law remain unclear, since its language is strange and vague. The reproductive rights of Polish women face a further threat because the Catholic church is working to limit the availability of contraceptive methods which they deem to be "early abortives." On the other side of the issue, the Federation for Women and Planned

  9. An economic approach to abortion demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, D S

    1992-01-01

    "This paper uses econometric multiple regression techniques in order to analyze the socioeconomic factors affecting the demand for abortion for the year 1985. A cross-section of the 50 [U.S.] states and Washington D.C. is examined and a household choice theoretical framework is utilized. The results suggest that average price of abortion, disposable personal per capita income, percentage of single women, whether abortions are state funded, unemployment rate, divorce rate, and if the state is located in the far West, are statistically significant factors in the determination of the demand for abortion." excerpt

  10. Attitudes of medical students to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buga, G A B

    2002-05-01

    Unsafe abortion causes 13% of maternal deaths worldwide. Safe abortion can only be offered under conditions where legislation has been passed for legal termination of unwanted pregnancy. Where such legislation exists, accessibility of safe abortion depends on the attitudes of doctors and other healthcare workers to induced abortion. Medical students as future doctors may have attitudes to abortion that will affect the provision of safe abortion. Little is known about the attitudes of South African medical students to abortion. To assess sexual practices and attitudes of medical students to induced abortion and to determine some of the factors that may influence these attitudes. A cross-sectional analytic study involving the self-administration of an anonymous questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered to medical students at a small, but growing, medical school situated in rural South Africa. Demographic data, sexual practices and attitudes to induced abortion. Two hundred and forty seven out of 300 (82.3%) medical students responded. Their mean age was 21.81 +/- 3.36 (SD) years, and 78.8% were Christians, 17.1% Hindus and 2.6% Muslims. Although 95% of the respondents were single, 68.6% were already sexually experienced, and their mean age at coitarche was 17.24+/-3.14 (SD) years. Although overall 61.2% of the respondents felt abortion is murder either at conception or later, the majority (87.2%) would perform or refer a woman for abortion under certain circumstances. These circumstances, in descending order of frequency, include: threat to mother's life (74.1%), in case of rape (62.3%), the baby is severely malformed (59.5%), threat to mother's mental health (53.8%) and parental incompetence (21.0%). Only 12.5% of respondents would perform or refer for abortion on demand, 12.8% would neither perform nor refer for abortion under any circumstances. Religious affiliation and service attendance significantly influenced some of these attitudes and beliefs

  11. Trump's Abortion-Promoting Aid Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  12. Backstreet abortion: Women’s experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Makorah

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available This was a descriptive study aimed at exploring the personal experiences of women who induce abortion and the circumstances surrounding induced abortion. The study was conducted in six public hospitals in four different provinces: Baragwanath (Gauteng, Groote Schuur and Tygerberg (Western Cape, King Edward and R.K. Khan (Kwa-Zulu/Natal and Livingstone (Eastern Cape. In-depth interviews were conducted with 25 African, Indian and Coloured women admitted to the hospitals following backstreet abortions. The study gave women the opportunity to "speak for themselves" about "why" and "how" and the context in which the unscfe induced abortions occurred

  13. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  14. LHC Abort Gap Monitoring and Cleaning

    CERN Document Server

    Meddahi, M; Boccardi, A; Butterworth, A; Fisher, A S; Gianfelice-Wendt, E; Goddard, B; Hemelsoet, G H; Höfle, W; Jacquet, D; Jaussi, M; Kain, V; Lefevre, T; Shaposhnikova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D

    2010-01-01

    Unbunched beam is a potentially serious issue in the LHC as it may quench the superconducting magnets during a beam abort. Unbunched particles, either not captured by the RF system at injection or leaking out of the RF bucket, will be removed by using the existing damper kickers to excite resonantly the particles in the abort gap. Following beam simulations, a strategy for cleaning the abort gap at different energies was proposed. The plans for the commissioning of the beam abort gap cleaning are described and first results from the beam commissioning are presented.

  15. Women's existential experiences within Swedish abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålhandske, Maria L; Ekstrand, Maria; Tydén, Tanja

    2011-03-01

    To explore Swedish women's experiences of clinical abortion care in relation to their need for existential support. Individual in-depth interviews with 24 women with previous experience of unwanted pregnancy and abortion. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2009. Interviews were analysed by latent content analysis. Although the women had similar experiences of the abortion care offered, the needs they expressed differed. Swedish abortion care was described as rational and neutral, with physical issues dominating over existential ones. For some women, the medical procedures triggered existential experiences of life, meaning, and morality. While some women abstained from any form of existential support, others expressed a need to reflect upon the existential aspects and/or to reconcile their decision emotionally. As women's needs for existential support in relation to abortion vary, women can be disappointed with the personnel's ability to respond to their thoughts and feelings related to the abortion. To ensure abortion care personnel meet the physical, psychological and existential needs of each patient, better resources and new lines of education are needed to ensure abortion personnel are equipped to deal with the existential aspects of abortion care.

  16. Abortion Decision and Ambivalence: Insights via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allanson, Susie

    2007-01-01

    Decision ambivalence is a key concept in abortion literature, but has been poorly operationalised. This study explored the concept of decision ambivalence via an Abortion Decision Balance Sheet (ADBS) articulating reasons both for and against terminating an unintended pregnancy. Ninety-six women undergoing an early abortion for psychosocial…

  17. Medical abortion practices : a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation

  18. Medical abortion practices: a survey of National Abortion Federation members in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Melanie M. J.; Jones, Heidi E.; O'Connell, Katharine; Lichtenberg, E. Steve; Paul, Maureen; Westhoff, Carolyn L.

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about clinical implementation of medical abortion in the United States following approval of mifepristone as an abortifacient by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2000. We collected information regarding medical abortion practices of National Abortion Federation (NAF) members

  19. Abortion Stigma Among Low-Income Women Obtaining Abortions in Western Pennsylvania: A Qualitative Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelman, Amanda; Rosenfeld, Elian A; Nikolajski, Cara; Freedman, Lori R; Steinberg, Julia R; Borrero, Sonya

    2017-03-01

    Abortion stigma may cause psychological distress in women who are considering having an abortion or have had one. This phenomenon has been relatively underexplored in low-income women, who may already be at an increased risk for poor abortion-related outcomes because of difficulties accessing timely and safe abortion services. A qualitative study conducted between 2010 and 2013 used semistructured interviews to explore pregnancy intentions among low-income women recruited from six reproductive health clinics in Western Pennsylvania. Transcripts from interviews with 19 participants who were planning to terminate a pregnancy or had had an abortion in the last two weeks were examined through content analysis to identify the range of attitudes they encountered that could contribute to or reflect abortion stigma, the sources of these attitudes and women's responses to them. Women commonly reported that partners, family members and they themselves held antiabortion attitudes. Such attitudes communicated that abortion is morally reprehensible, a rejection of motherhood, rare and thus potentially deviant, detrimental to future fertility and an irresponsible choice. Women reacted to external and internal negative attitudes by distinguishing themselves from other women who obtain abortions, experiencing negative emotions, and concealing or delaying their abortions. Women's reactions to antiabortion attitudes may perpetuate abortion stigma. Further research is needed to inform interventions to address abortion stigma and improve women's abortion experiences. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  20. Dual mobility hip arthroplasty wear measurement: Experimental accuracy assessment using radiostereometric analysis (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineau, V; Lebel, B; Gouzy, S; Dutheil, J-J; Vielpeau, C

    2010-10-01

    The use of dual mobility cups is an effective method to prevent dislocations. However, the specific design of these implants can raise the suspicion of increased wear and subsequent periprosthetic osteolysis. Using radiostereometric analysis (RSA), migration of the femoral head inside the cup of a dual mobility implant can be defined to apprehend polyethylene wear rate. The study aimed to establish the precision of RSA measurement of femoral head migration in the cup of a dual mobility implant, and its intra- and interobserver variability. A total hip prosthesis phantom was implanted and placed under weight loading conditions in a simulator. Model-based RSA measurement of implant penetration involved specially machined polyethylene liners with increasing concentric wear (no wear, then 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75mm). Three examiners, blinded to the level of wear, analyzed (10 times) the radiostereometric films of the four liners. There was one experienced, one trained, and one inexperienced examiner. Statistical analysis measured the accuracy, precision, and intra- and interobserver variability by calculating Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC), Intra Class correlation Coefficient (ICC), and Bland-Altman plots. Our protocol, that used a simple geometric model rather than the manufacturer's CAD files, showed precision of 0.072mm and accuracy of 0.034mm, comparable with machining tolerances with low variability. Correlation between wear measurement and true value was excellent with a CCC of 0.9772. Intraobserver reproducibility was very good with an ICC of 0.9856, 0.9883 and 0.9842, respectively for examiners 1, 2 and 3. Interobserver reproducibility was excellent with a CCC of 0.9818 between examiners 2 and 1, and 0.9713 between examiners 3 and 1. Quantification of wear is indispensable for the surveillance of dual mobility implants. This in vitro study validates our measurement method. Our results, and comparison with other studies using

  1. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Post legalisation challenge: minimizing complications of abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, N; Sharma, S; Paudel, J

    2004-01-01

    Abortion has been legalized in Nepal since September 2002 by 11th amendment to the Muluki Ain. The present study was conducted in Paropakar Shree Panch Indra Rajya Laxmi Devi Maternity Hospital to assess the magnitude of induced abortion, its causes and the types of complications, in the post legalization phase. Prospective descriptive analyses of the patients who were admitted with history of induced abortion from 16th Dec 2003 to 13th March 2004 was carried out. A total of 305 cases of abortion complications were admitted during the three-month study period, which is 39.7% of the total gynaecological admissions (768). Of these 31 (10.25%) patients had history of induced abortion. Half of the induced abortion cases (52%) were of age group 21-29 yrs and 42% had three or more children. 39% of the cases had history of induced abortion at more than 12 weeks and almost half of the cases (48%) had history of family planning. The most common reason for seeking abortion was too many children (59%) followed by illegitimate pregnancy (16%). Twenty-one patients gave history of abortion being performed by doctors and the most common method used was D and C (75%). 77% of cases presented as incomplete abortion and one case presented with uterine perforation, bowel injury and peritonitis. Twenty patients had evacuation under sedation while five had manual vacuum aspiration (MVA); one patient required laparatomy. In two third of the patients intravenous fluid and antibiotics were used. Four patients required blood transfusion. Abortion complications constitute almost 40% of the total gynaecological admissions. Ten percent of the abortion cases had history of induced abortion. Medical persons, mainly doctors, performed most of the cases of induced abortion and D and C was the most commonly used method. However the patients had faced various types of complications. Untrained provider, resulting in serious life threatening injuries, performed more than a third of the cases of

  3. The Roman Catholic position on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, R

    1997-01-01

    This article presents the history and grounds of the official position of the Roman Catholic Church that abortion under any circumstances, including abortion to save the life of the mother, should be prohibited. After an introduction that deplores the lack of mercy shown to killers of abortionists while Catholic priests threatened by pro-abortion forces are not offered protection, the article traces the historic development of the Catholic abortion policy and rebuts arguments that abortion was permitted in the early Christian Church. The next section explains Catholic views on the personhood of a conceptus and refutes the contentions of Joseph Donceel that early abortion should be permitted because of uncertainty about the nature of the conceptus and the possibility of delayed animation. The fourth section of the paper debates the points raised by Susan Teft Nicholson who maintains that the Catholic position regarding abortion rests on the Church's animosity towards sexual pleasure. The paper goes on to criticize Nicholson's claims that the Roman Catholic position on abortion is inconsistent with the Church's own understanding of the Principle of Double Effect because the Church fails to allow abortion in many cases where it would be permissible under the Principle. Section 6 describes the underlying motive of the Roman Catholic Church's abortion position as an attempt to protect the innocent fetus from deliberate death and to justify the Church's application of protection from deliberate killing to those who are innocent of aggressive action. This discussion is followed by a justification of the Church's prohibition of abortion in cases of aggression, such as the aggression ascribed to a fetus when a pregnancy imperials the life of a mother. It is concluded that the US will likely legalize suicide and mercy killing as it has the killing of innocent fetuses who are probably ensouled with personhood and are not formal aggressors.

  4. Irish women who seek abortions in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francome, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1991, 4158 women from Ireland and 1766 from Northern Ireland traveled to England for abortions. This situation has been ignored by Irish authorities. The 1992 case of the 14-year old seeking an abortion in England finally caught legal attention. This study attempts to help define who these abortion seekers are. Questionnaires from 200 Irish abortion seeking women attending private Marie Stopes clinics in London and the British Pregnancy Advisory Services clinic in Liverpool between September 1988 and December 1990 were analyzed. Findings pertain to demographic characteristics, characteristics of first intercourse, family discussion of sexual activity, and contraceptive use. From this limited sample, it appears that Irish women are sexually reserved and without access to modern methods of birth control and abortion. Sex is associated with shame and guilt. 23% had intercourse before the age of 18 years and 42% after the age of 20. 76% were single and 16% were currently married. 95% were Catholic; 33% had been to church the preceding Sunday and 68% within the past month. Basic information about menstruation is also limited and procedures such as dilatation and curettage may be performed selectively. 28% of married women were uninformed about menstruation prior to its onset. Only 24% had been using birth control around the time of pregnancy. The reason for nonuse was frequently the unexpectedness of intercourse. 62% of adults and 66% of women believe in legalizing abortion in Ireland. British groups have tried to break through the abortion information ban by sending telephone numbers of abortion clinics to Irish firms for distribution to employees. On November 25, 1992, in the general election, there was approval of constitutional amendments guaranteeing the right to travel for abortions and to receive information on abortion access. The amendment to allow abortion to save the life of the mother was not accepted.

  5. Clandestine abortions are not necessarily illegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, R J

    1991-01-01

    It is common to find the term illegal abortion misused. Often times this misuse is perpetrated by antiabortion advocates who wish to reinforce negative stereotypes and thus apply pressure on doctors to refrain from performing abortions. Until a practitioner is prosecuted and convicted of performing an abortion contrary to the law, the procedure should not be referred to as illegal. Instead the legally neutral term, abortion, should be used instead. This would better serve the interests of women's reproductive health. There is no legal system that makes abortion illegal in all circumstances. For example, abortion is often legal if the life of the mother in danger. This includes a perception on behalf of the practitioner that the women may be suicidal or attempt to terminate the pregnancy by herself. A practitioner performing an abortion in such circumstances is not doing so illegally. The use of the term illegal abortion ignores the fact that in criminal law one is presumed innocent until proven guilty. A prosecutor must prove 1st that an intervention was performed and 2nd that a criminal intent accompanied the intervention. It is this 2nd criterion that is often the hardest to prove, since the practitioner must only testify that the intervention was indicated by legally allowed circumstances to be innocent. The prosecutor must show bad faith in order to gain a justified conviction. Even abortion by unqualified practitioners may not be illegal if doctors refuse to perform the intervention because it is still indicated. Accurate description of abortions would clarify situations in which abortion can be legally provided.

  6. Induced abortion in China and the advances of post abortion family planning service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Cheng Yi-ming; Huang Na; Guo Xin; Wang Xian-mi

    2004-01-01

    This is a review of current situation of induced abortion and post abortion family planning service in China. Induced abortion is an important issue in reproductive health. This article reviewed the distribution of induced abortion in various time, areas, and population in China, and explored the character, reason, and harm to reproductive health of induced abortion.Furthermore, this article introduces the concept of Quality of Care Program in Family Planning,and discusses how important and necessary it is to introduce Quality of Care Program in Family Planning to China.

  7. The Gender Politics of Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucila Scavone

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The debates and feminist actions in favor of the legalization of abortion in Brazil were characterized by progresses and regressions, and above all by countless political negotiations. From the omission of the word “abortion”, in the mid-seventies, to the political choice of decriminalization and application of the cases foreseen by law, Brazilian feminism has been marked by the choice of negotiation. The article concludes that these negotiations have succeeded politically but failed to reach society and heighten public awareness at a large scale.

  8. [Effects of birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery on childhood acute leukemia risk: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Guobin; Sha, Xia

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the associations between birth order, maternal abortion and mode of delivery and childhood acute leukemia risk. Multiple electronic databases were searched to identify relevant studies up to March 2013 using the search terms "childhood leukemia", "acute lymphoblastic leukemia", "acute myeloid leukemia","birth order", "abortion", "miscarriage", "cesarean", "birth characteristics" and "prenatal risk factor". Data from cohort and case-control studies were analyzed using the Stata software. Twenty-three studies were included in this meta-analysis according to the selection criteria. No significant associations were identified for birth order and mode of delivery (birth order = 2: OR = 0.97, 95%CI: 0.89-1.05; birth order = 3: OR = 1.00, 95%CI: 0.91-1.11; birth order ≥ 4: OR = 1.02, 95%CI: 0.87-1.20; mode of delivery: OR = 1.05, 95%CI: 0.96-1.15). However, there was a significant association between maternal abortion and childhood acute leukemia risk (spontaneous abortion: OR = 1.21, 95%CI: 1.05-1.41; induced abortion: OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.07-1.43). Furthermore, the stratified analysis by disease subtypes showed that spontaneous and induced abortions were significantly associated with the risks of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (OR = 1.71, 95%CI: 1.09-2.70) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (OR = 1.23, 95%CI: 1.05-1.42), respectively. This meta-analysis revealed that maternal abortion might contribute to the childhood acute leukemia risk.

  9. Accuracy and Precision of Three-Dimensional Low Dose CT Compared to Standard RSA in Acetabular Cups: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodén, Cyrus; Olivecrona, Henrik; Maguire, Gerald Q; Noz, Marilyn E; Zeleznik, Michael P; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose. The gold standard for detection of implant wear and migration is currently radiostereometry (RSA). The purpose of this study is to compare a three-dimensional computed tomography technique (3D CT) to standard RSA as an alternative technique for measuring migration of acetabular cups in total hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods. With tantalum beads, we marked one cemented and one uncemented cup and mounted these on a similarly marked pelvic model. A comparison was made between 3D CT and standard RSA for measuring migration. Twelve repeated stereoradiographs and CT scans with double examinations in each position and gradual migration of the implants were made. Precision and accuracy of the 3D CT were calculated. Results. The accuracy of the 3D CT ranged between 0.07 and 0.32 mm for translations and 0.21 and 0.82° for rotation. The precision ranged between 0.01 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.06 and 0.29° for rotations, respectively. For standard RSA, the precision ranged between 0.04 and 0.09 mm for translations and 0.08 and 0.32° for rotations, respectively. There was no significant difference in precision between 3D CT and standard RSA. The effective radiation dose of the 3D CT method, comparable to RSA, was estimated to be 0.33 mSv. Interpretation. Low dose 3D CT is a comparable method to standard RSA in an experimental setting.

  10. Framing a 'social problem': Emotion in anti-abortion activists' depiction of the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntontis, Evangelos; Hopkins, Nick

    2018-02-27

    Social psychological research on activism typically focuses on individuals' social identifications. We complement such research through exploring how activists frame an issue as a social problem. Specifically, we explore anti-abortion activists' representation of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists so as to recruit support for the anti-abortion cause. Using interview data obtained with UK-based anti-abortion activists (N = 15), we consider how activists characterized women having abortions, pro-abortion campaigners, and anti-abortion campaigners. In particular, we consider the varied ways in which emotion featured in the representation of these social actors. Emotion featured in different ways. Sometimes, it was depicted as constituting embodied testament to the nature of reality. Sometimes, it was depicted as blocking the rational appraisal of reality. Our analysis considers how such varied meanings of emotion shaped the characterization of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists such that anti-abortion activists were construed as speaking for women and their interests. We discuss how our analysis of the framing of issues as social problems complements and extends social psychological analyses of activism. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Abortion and mental health: Evaluating the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-12-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects and updates the report of the American Psychological Association Task Force on Mental Health and Abortion (2008). Major methodological problems pervaded most of the research reviewed. The most rigorous studies indicated that within the United States, the relative risk of mental health problems among adult women who have a single, legal, first-trimester abortion of an unwanted pregnancy is no greater than the risk among women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. Evidence did not support the claim that observed associations between abortion and mental health problems are caused by abortion per se as opposed to other preexisting and co-occurring risk factors. Most adult women who terminate a pregnancy do not experience mental health problems. Some women do, however. It is important that women's varied experiences of abortion be recognized, validated, and understood. 2009 APA.

  12. Comment: unethical ethics investment boycotts and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furedi, A

    1998-01-01

    Ethical investment funds have traditionally boycotted the arms industry, companies known to pollute the environment, and those involved in animal research. However, recent newspaper reports suggest that some investment funds plan to also boycott hospitals and pharmaceutical companies involved in abortion-related activities. Ethical Financial, anti-abortion independent financial advisors, are encouraging a boycott of investment in private hospitals and manufacturers of equipment involved in abortions, and pharmaceutical firms which produce postcoital contraception or conduct embryo research. Ethical Financial claims that Family Assurance has agreed to invest along anti-abortion lines, Aberdeen Investment is already boycotting companies linked to abortion, and Hendersons ethical fund plans to follow suit. There is speculation that Standard Life, the largest mutual insurer in Europe, will also refuse to invest in abortion-related concerns when it launches its ethical fund in the spring. Managers of ethical funds should, however, understand that, contrary to the claims of the anti-choice lobby, there is extensive public support for legal abortion, emergency contraception, and embryo research. Individuals and institutions which contribute to the development of reproductive health care services are working to alleviate the distress of unwanted pregnancy and infertility, laudable humanitarian goals which should be encouraged. Those who try to restrict the development of abortion methods and services simply show contempt for women, treating them as people devoid of conscience who are incapable of making moral choices.

  13. Opposition to legal abortion: challenges and questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of the Roman Catholic Church's arguments against abortion rights suggests that its opposition is grounded more in outmoded views regarding women's roles than in concern for protecting fetal life. The 1st argument raised by Catholics and other anti-abortion forces is that abortion represents the unjustifiable destruction of a human life. A 2nd argument focuses on the status of the fetus as a person from the moment of conception, making abortion murder. A 3rd equates the fetus's potential for personhood with the pregnant woman's actual personhood. Despite the vehement sentiments expressed by Catholic leaders against abortion, the majority of Catholics support legal abortion. The assignment of personhood status to the fetus is contraindicated by actual practice in the Church, where aborted or miscarried products of early pregnancy are not baptized. Also, the Church does not forbid the taking of human life in war or to preserve political freedom. Finally, in countries such as Poland where abortion has been made illegal through religious pressure, there have been drastic cuts in health care and child care programs.

  14. Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suction v. conventional curettage in incomplete abortion. A randomised controlled trial. D. A. A. VERKUYL, C. A. CROWTHER .Abstract This randomised controlled trial of 357 patients who had had an incomplete abortion compared suction curettage with conventional curettage for evacuation ofthe uterus. The 179 patients ...

  15. Sundhedspersonales holdninger til sene provokerede aborter varierer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Petersson, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    tilknytning og fagligt tilhørsforhold påvirker holdningerne. Antallet af sene provokerede aborter stiger i takt med, at fosterdiagnostikken udvikles, og der er derfor behov for forskning, der kan kaste lys over, hvordan det danske sundhedspersonale forholder sig til sene provokerede aborter....

  16. Results from a study using misoprostol for management of incomplete abortion in Vietnamese hospitals: implications for task shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Shochet, Tara; Blum, Jennifer; Hai, Pham Thanh; Dung, Duong Lan; Nhan, Tran Thanh; Winikoff, Beverly

    2013-05-22

    Complications following spontaneous or induced abortion are a major cause of maternal morbidity. To manage these complications, post-abortion care (PAC) services should be readily available and easy to access. Standard PAC treatment includes surgical interventions that are highly effective but require surgical providers and medical centers that have the necessary space and equipment. Misoprostol has been shown to be an effective alternative to surgical evacuation and can be offered by lower level clinicians. This study sought to assess whether 400 mcg sublingual misoprostol could effectively evacuate the uterus after incomplete abortion and to confirm its applicability for use at lower level settings. All women presenting with incomplete abortion at one of three hospitals in Vietnam were enrolled. Providers were not asked to record if the abortion was spontaneous or induced. It is likely that all were spontaneous given the legal status and easy access to abortion services in Vietnam. Participants were given 400 mcg sublingual misoprostol and instructed to hold the pills under their tongue for 30 minutes and then swallow any remaining fragments. They were then asked to return one week later to confirm their clinical status. Study clinicians were instructed to confirm a complete expulsion clinically. All women were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding satisfaction with the treatment. Three hundred and two women were enrolled between September 2009 and May 2010. Almost all participants (96.3%) had successful completions using a single dose of 400 mcg misoprostol. The majority of women (87.2%) found the side effects to be tolerable or easily tolerable. Most women (84.3%) were satisfied or very satisfied with the treatment they received; only one was dissatisfied (0.3%). Nine out of ten women would select this method again and recommend it to a friend (91.0% and 90.0%, respectively). This study confirms that 400 mcg sublingual misoprostol effectively evacuates

  17. Estimates of the Incidence of Induced Abortion And Consequences of Unsafe Abortion in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. METHODS Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. RESULTS In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion. PMID:25856233

  18. Estimates of the incidence of induced abortion and consequences of unsafe abortion in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-03-01

    Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion.

  19. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  20. Self-Reports of Induced Abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Muhammad, H; Urassa, E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study estimated the proportion of incomplete abortions that are induced in hospital-based settings in Tanzania. METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted in 2 phases at 3 hospitals in Tanzania. Phase 1 included 302 patients with a diagnosis of incomplete abortion......, and phase 2 included 823 such patients. RESULTS: In phase 1, in which cases were classified by clinical criteria and information from the patient, 3.9% to 16.1% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. In phase 2, in which the structured interview was changed to an empathetic dialogue...... and previously used clinical criteria were omitted, 30.9% to 60.0% of the cases were classified as induced abortion. CONCLUSIONS: An empathetic dialogue improves the quality of data collected among women with induced abortion....

  1. Reproductive rights: Current issues of late abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mujović-Zornić Hajrija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the legal issues surrounding induced late abortion in cases when severe medical, therapeutic or ethical reasons have not been in dispute. Generally discussing the essential question about abortion today, it means not anymore legality of abortion but, in the first place, safety of abortion. From the aspect of woman health the most important aim is to detect and avoid possible risks of medical intervention, such as late abortion present. This is the matter of medical law context and also the matter of the woman's reproductive rights, here observed through legislation and court practice. The gynecologist has an obligation to obtain the informed consent of each patient. Information's should be presented in reasonably understandable terms and include alternative modes of treatment, objectives, risks, benefits, possible complications, and anticipated results of such treatment. Pregnant woman should receive supportive counseling before and particularly after the procedure. The method chosen for all terminations should ensure that the fetus is born dead. This should be undertaken by an appropriately trained practitioner. Reform in abortion law, making it legally accessible to woman, is not necessarily the product of a belief in woman's rights, but can be a means of bringing the practice of abortion back under better control. Counseling and good medical practice in performing late abortion are the instruments to drive this point even further home. It does not undermine the woman who wants to make a positive decision about her life and its purpose is not to produce feelings of insecurity and guilt. It concludes that existing law should not be changed but that clear rules should be devised and board created to review late term abortion. In Serbia, this leads to creation and set up guidelines for reconciling medical justification for late abortion with existing law, especially with solutions which brings comparative law. .

  2. The abortion issue in the 1980 elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, D; Burlison, J

    1983-01-01

    The political opponents of legal abortion achieved considerable gains in the 1980 American elections. A president who was committed to a strong antiabortion position was elected, and antiabortion candidates prevailed in six out of seven Senate races that pitted supporters against opponents of legal abortion and in seven out of nine similar confrontations in the House races. However, it is not clear that abortion was an overriding or decisive factor in determining those outcomes. Democrats and Republicans, Carter voters and Reagan voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion. The presidential voter groups were divided on several other issues, and along income and racial lines, to a far greater extent than they were on abortion. Voters were not likely to name abortion as one of the more important problems facing the nation. Carter supporters rated abortion as more important than did Reagan supporters. Although the party platforms and the presidential candidates were clearly differentiated in their abortion stands, these differences were not well communicated to the citizenry. When voters attempted to describe the position of each candidate on abortion, they displayed a great deal of uncertainty, error and confusion. In the key Senate races, those who voted for the prochoice candidates held more liberal abortion attitudes than those who voted for the right-to-life candidates. This difference, although statistically significant, was not great, and was smaller than the differences related to several other issues--such as attitudes toward the role of government, women's rights and economic policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  4. Establishing a recovery orientation in mental health services: Evaluating the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA) in a Swedish context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, David; Svedberg, Petra; Schön, Ulla-Karin

    2015-12-01

    Although there has been an emphasis on developing knowledge regarding recovery in Sweden, it is unclear to what extent this has been translated into a recovery orientation in the provision of mental health services. Instruments, which present the components of recovery as measurable dimensions of change, may provide a framework for program development. Involving users is an essential factor in the utilization of such tools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Recovery Self-Assessment (RSA) measure and its potential for being utilized in a Swedish context. The sample consisted of 78 participants from 6 community mental health services targeting people with serious mental illnesses in a municipality in Sweden. They completed the RSA at the study baseline and two weeks later. User panels participated in the translation and administration of the RSA and the reporting of results. The Swedish version of the RSA had good face and content validity, satisfactory internal consistency, and a moderate to good level of stability in test-retest reliability. The user panels contributed to establishing validity and as collaborators in the study. Establishing the RSA as a valid and reliable instrument with which to focus on the recovery orientation of services is a first step in beginning to study the types of interventions that may effect and contribute to recovery oriented practice in Sweden. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Improved prediction of residue flexibility by embedding optimized amino acid grouping into RSA-based linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Kurgan, Lukasz

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of protein flexibility is vital for deciphering the corresponding functional mechanisms. This knowledge would help, for instance, in improving computational drug design and refinement in homology-based modeling. We propose a new predictor of the residue flexibility, which is expressed by B-factors, from protein chains that use local (in the chain) predicted (or native) relative solvent accessibility (RSA) and custom-derived amino acid (AA) alphabets. Our predictor is implemented as a two-stage linear regression model that uses RSA-based space in a local sequence window in the first stage and a reduced AA pair-based space in the second stage as the inputs. This method is easy to comprehend explicit linear form in both stages. Particle swarm optimization was used to find an optimal reduced AA alphabet to simplify the input space and improve the prediction performance. The average correlation coefficients between the native and predicted B-factors measured on a large benchmark dataset are improved from 0.65 to 0.67 when using the native RSA values and from 0.55 to 0.57 when using the predicted RSA values. Blind tests that were performed on two independent datasets show consistent improvements in the average correlation coefficients by a modest value of 0.02 for both native and predicted RSA-based predictions.

  6. Spontaneous external gallbladder perforation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noeldge, G.; Wimmer, B.; Kirchner, R.

    1981-01-01

    Spontaneous perforation of the gallbladder is one complication of cholelithiasis. There is a greater occurence of free perforation in the peritoneal cavity with bilary pertonitis, followed by the perforation into the stomach, small intestine and colon. A single case of the nowadays rare spontaneous perforation in and through the abdominal wall will be reported. Spontaneous gallbladder perforation appears nearly asymptomatic in its clinical course because of absent biliary peritonitis. (orig.) [de

  7. Wear of a 5 megarad cross-linked polyethylene liner: a 6-year RSA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callary, Stuart A; Campbell, David G; Mercer, Graham; Nilsson, Kjell G; Field, John R

    2013-07-01

    One cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) liner is manufactured using a lower dose of radiation, 5 Mrad, which may result in less cross-linking. The reported in vivo wear rate of this XLPE liner in patients undergoing THA has varied, and has included some patients in each reported cohort who had greater than 0.1 mm/year of wear, which is an historical threshold for osteolysis. Previous studies have measured wear on plain radiographs, an approach that has limited sensitivity. We therefore measured the amount and direction of wear at 6 years using Radiostereometric analysis (RSA) in patients who had THAs that included a cross-linked polyethylene liner manufactured using 5 Mrad radiation. We prospectively reviewed wear in 30 patients who underwent primary THAs with the same design of cross-linked acetabular liner and a 28-mm articulation. Tantalum markers were inserted during surgery and all patients had RSA radiographic examinations at 1 week, 6 months, 1, 2, and 6 years postoperatively. The mean proximal, two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) wear rates calculated between 1 year and 6 years were 0.014, 0.014, and 0.018 mm/per year, respectively. The direction of the head penetration recorded between 1 week and 6 years was in a proximal direction for all patients, proximolateral for 16 of 24 patients, and proximomedial for eight of 24 patients. The proximal, 2-D and 3-D wear of a XLPE liner produced using 5 Mrad of radiation was low but measurable by RSA after 6 years. No patients had proximal 2-D or 3-D wear rates exceeding 0.1 mm/year. Further followup is needed to evaluate the effect of XLPE wear particles on the development of long-term osteolysis.

  8. Trochanteric fracture-implant motion during healing - A radiostereometry (RSA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojan, Alicja J; Jönsson, Anders; Granhed, Hans; Ekholm, Carl; Kärrholm, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Cut-out complication remains a major unsolved problem in the treatment of trochanteric hip fractures. A better understanding of the three-dimensional fracture-implant motions is needed to enable further development of clinical strategies and countermeasures. The aim of this clinical study was to characterise and quantify three-dimensional motions between the implant and the bone and between the lag screw and nail of the Gamma nail. Radiostereometry Analysis (RSA) analysis was applied in 20 patients with trochanteric hip fractures treated with an intramedullary nail. The following three-dimensional motions were measured postoperatively, at 1 week, 3, 6 and 12 months: translations of the tip of the lag screw in the femoral head, motions of the lag screw in the nail, femoral head motions relative to the nail and nail movements in the femoral shaft. Cranial migration of the tip of the lag screw dominated over the other two translation components in the femoral head. In all fractures the lag screw slid laterally in the nail and the femoral head moved both laterally and inferiorly towards the nail. All femoral heads translated posteriorly relative to the nail, and rotations occurred in both directions with median values close to zero. The nail tended to retrovert in the femoral shaft. Adverse fracture-implant motions were detected in stable trochanteric hip fractures treated with intramedullary nails with high resolution. Therefore, RSA method can be used to evaluate new implant designs and clinical strategies, which aim to reduce cut-out complications. Future RSA studies should aim at more unstable fractures as these are more likely to fail with cut-out. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Prevalence and Correlates of Having a Regular Physician among Women Presenting for Induced Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Julie; Hebert, Luciana E; Hasselbacher, Lee A; Whitaker, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and correlates of having a regular physician among women presenting for induced abortion. We conducted a retrospective review of women presenting to an urban, university-based family planning clinic for abortion between January 2008 and September 2011. We conducted bivariate analyses, comparing women with and without a regular physician, and multivariable regression modeling, to identify factors associated with not having a regular physician. Of 834 women, 521 (62.5%) had a regular physician and 313 (37.5%) did not. Women with a prior pregnancy, live birth, or spontaneous abortion were more likely than women without these experiences to have a regular physician. Women with a prior induced abortion were not more likely than women who had never had a prior induced abortion to have a regular physician. Compared with women younger than 18 years, women aged 18 to 26 years were less likely to have a physician (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.25; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.10-0.62). Women with a prior live birth had increased odds of having a regular physician compared with women without a prior pregnancy (aOR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.13-3.16). Women without medical/fetal indications and who had not been victims of sexual assault (self-indicated) were less likely to report having a regular physician compared with women with medical/fetal indications (aOR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.17-0.82). The abortion visit is a point of contact with a large number of women without a regular physician and therefore provides an opportunity to integrate women into health care. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peritonitis - spontaneous bacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP); Ascites - peritonitis; Cirrhosis - peritonitis ... who are on peritoneal dialysis for kidney failure. Peritonitis may have other causes . These include infection from ...

  11. Trends of abortion complications in a transition of abortion law revisions in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2009-03-01

    Evidence from developed countries has shown that abortion-related mortality and morbidity has decreased with the liberalization of the abortion law. This study aimed to assess the trend of hospital-based abortion complications during the transition of legalization in Ethiopia in May 2005. Medical records of women with abortion complications from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed (n = 773). Abortion and its complications with regard to legalization were described by rates and ratios, and predictors of fatal outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. The overall and abortion-related maternal mortality ratios (AMMRs) showed a non-statistically significant downward trend over the 5-year period. However, the case fatality rate of abortion increased from 1.1% in 2003 to 3.6% in 2007. Late gestational age, history of interference and presenting after new abortion legislation passed have been found to be significant predictors of mortality. Decreased trends of abortion ratio and the AMMR were identified, but the severity of abortion complications and the case fatality rate increased during the transition of legal revision.

  12. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  13. Post-abortion and induced abortion services in two public hospitals in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darney, Blair G; Simancas-Mendoza, Willis; Edelman, Alison B; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Tolosa, Jorge E; Rodriguez, Maria I

    2014-07-01

    Until 2006, legal induced abortion was completely banned in Colombia. Few facilities are equipped or willing to offer abortion services; often adolescents experience even greater barriers of access in this context. We examined post abortion care (PAC) and legal induced abortion in two large public hospitals. We tested the association of hospital site, procedure type (manual vacuum aspiration vs. sharp curettage), and age (adolescents vs. women 20 years and over) with service type (PAC or legal induced abortion). Retrospective cohort study using 2010 billing data routinely collected for reimbursement (N=1353 procedures). We utilized descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and predicted probabilities. Adolescents made up 22% of the overall sample (300/1353). Manual vacuum aspiration was used in one-third of cases (vs. sharp curettage). Adolescents had lower odds of documented PAC (vs. induced abortion) compared with women over age 20 (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.21-0.86). The absolute difference of service type by age, however, is very small, controlling for hospital site and procedure type (.97 probability of PAC for adolescents compared with .99 for women 20 and over). Regardless of age, PAC via sharp curettage is the current standard in these two public hospitals. Both adolescents and women over 20 are in need of access to legal abortion services utilizing modern technologies in the public sector in Colombia. Documentation of abortion care is an essential first step to determining barriers to access and opportunities for quality improvement and better health outcomes for women. Following partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, in public hospitals nearly all abortion services are post-abortion care, not induced abortion. Sharp curettage is the dominant treatment for both adolescents and women over 20. Women seek care in the public sector for abortion, and must have access to safe, quality services. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. A measured response: Koop on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, C E

    1989-01-01

    The available scientific literature on the health effects of abortion on women in the US neither supports nor refutes the premise that abortion contributes to psychological problems. The 250 studies that have considered the psychological aspects of abortion are all flawed methodologically. Needed to resolve this issue is a prospective study of a cohort of US women of childbearing age focused on the psychological effects of failure to conceive, as well as the physical and mental sequelae of pregnancy whether carried to delivery, miscarried, or terminated by abortion. The most desirable such study could be conducted for about US$100 million over a 5-year period; a less expensive yet satisfactory study could be conducted for $10 million over the same time frame. Before such a study can be undertaken, a survey instrument must be designed to eliminate the discrepancy between the number of abortions on record and the number of women who admit to having an abortion on survey. Another issue is that the health effects of abortion cannot easily be separated from the controversial social issues surrounding pregnancy termination.

  15. 21 CFR 884.5050 - Metreurynter-balloon abortion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. 884.5050... Devices § 884.5050 Metreurynter-balloon abortion system. (a) Identification. A metreurynter-balloon abortion system is a device used to induce abortion. The device is inserted into the uterine cavity...

  16. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  17. Why Women are dying from unsafe Abortion: Narratives of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  18. Prototype and Chimera-Type Galectins in Placentas with Spontaneous and Recurrent Miscarriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unverdorben, Laura; Haufe, Thomas; Santoso, Laura; Hofmann, Simone; Jeschke, Udo; Hutter, Stefan

    2016-04-28

    Galectins are galactose binding proteins and, in addition, factors for a wide range of pathologies in pregnancy. We have analyzed the expression of prototype (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) and chimera-type (gal-3) galectins in the placenta in cases of spontaneous abortions (SPA) and recurrent abortions (RA) in the first trimester. Fifteen placental samples from healthy pregnancies were used as a control group. Nine placentas were examined for spontaneous abortions, and 12 placentas for recurrent abortions. For differentiation and evaluation of different cell types of galectin-expression in the decidua, immunofluorescence was used. For all investigated prototype galectins (gal-1, -2, -7, -10) in SPA and RA placenta trophoblast cells the expression is significantly decreased. In the decidua/extravillous trophoblast only gal-2 expression was significantly lowered, which could be connected to its role in angiogenesis. In trophoblasts in first-trimester placentas and in cases of SPA and RA, prototype galectins are altered in the same way. We suspect prototype galectins have a similar function in placental tissue because of their common biochemical structure. Expression of galectin 3 as a chimera type galectin was not found to be significantly altered in abortive placentas.

  19. Adolescent males, fatherhood, and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, A A

    1978-06-01

    The event of elective abortion to terminate unplanned pregnancies brought to the fore and allowed exploration of issues of fatherliness normally latent and, therefore, not observable in adolescence. This is consistent with the psychoanalytic view that fatherly development is an ongoing process begun long before actual parenthood, encompassing an array of conflicts and themes which are conscious to varying degrees in different developmental stages. Issues expressed by the group of adolescent boys studied were compared with those described in the psychoanalytic literature. Most prominent were regressive wishes for nurturance, competition with one's own father, and efforts to meet paternal ego ideals of maturity and responsibility. Parturition envy and strivings for immortality through offspring were not expressed in this group. Themes of fatherliness were not exclusive; they became intertwined with normal tasks of adolescence and individual dynamics as is illustrated with a clinical case.

  20. Predicting the outcome of pregnancy in threatened abortion using ultrasound in detecting the viability of foetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, R

    1992-06-01

    Between December 1990 and May 1991 in Malaysia, clinicians at the Sultanah Aminah Hospital in Johor Bahru screened 200 women with a diagnosis of threatened miscarriage with ultrasound to determine whether ultrasound could evaluate the viability of the fetus and thus the outcome of pregnancy in cases of threatened abortion. A fetal heartbeat was absent in 65% of cases with the remaining 35% of cases having a fetal heartbeat. Nonviability of the fetus or an abnormal or very early pregnancy may have accounted for an absent fetal heartbeat. The pregnancy of 46% of cases continued while 41% experienced spontaneous abortion. Just 6.2% of cases with a fetal heartbeat suffered from spontaneous abortion compared with 69.7% of those without a fetal heartbeat. 93.8% of cases with a fetal heartbeat continued their pregnancies compared with 30.3% of those without a fetal heartbeat. Inability of ultrasound to detect fetal heartbeats during early pregnancy probably accounted for the somewhat high percentage of those without a fetal heartbeat who continued their pregnancies. Among patients with a fetal heartbeat, the number of pregnancies that continued. Ultrasound detected 13% abnormal pregnancies (i.e., molar pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy). Surgery on these cases confirmed the ultrasound findings. These results showed that ultrasound should be used in every case of threatened miscarriage and that a fetal heartbeat does indicate the viability of the fetus.