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Sample records for spontaneous abortion rates

  1. Analysis of the Spontaneous Abortion in Chinese Married Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高尔生; 邓新清; 何更生; 方可娟; 唐威; 楼超华

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous abortion is a common type of pregnant outcomes. The spontaneous abortion rate can be used to indicate the women's fecundity and the level of the reproductive health. It is also a sensitive indicator for determing the social, economic, and health status and prenatal care. To explore the preventive method for spontaneous abortion and improve women's health level, it is important to evaluate the status of spontaneous abortion and to determine the factors affecting

  2. Early pregnancy angiogenic markers and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise B; Dechend, Ralf; Karumanchi, S Ananth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spontaneous abortion is the most commonly observed adverse pregnancy outcome. The angiogenic factors soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor are critical for normal pregnancy and may be associated to spontaneous abortion. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between...... maternal serum concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor, and subsequent spontaneous abortion. STUDY DESIGN: In the prospective observational Odense Child Cohort, 1676 pregnant women donated serum in early pregnancy, gestational week ..., interquartile range 71-103). Concentrations of soluble Fms-like kinase 1 and placental growth factor were determined with novel automated assays. Spontaneous abortion was defined as complete or incomplete spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or blighted ovum

  3. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Jensen, T.K.; Bonde, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    Existing studies of physical strain and spontaneous abortion are mainly retrospective or based only on pregnancies that have survived the first trimester. Furthermore, almost all studies have relied on averaged measures of physical strain, which tend to blur an effect if peak values during short...... pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  4. Socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsker, Filippa Nyboe; Espenhain, Laura; rogvi, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion.......To investigate the relationship between different indicators of socioeconomic position and the risk of spontaneous abortion....

  5. Association between Nutritional Status with Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahimeh Ahmadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common adverse pregnancy outcome. We aimed to investigate a possible link between nutrient deficiencies and the risk of spontaneous abortion. Materials and Methods: This case-control study included the case group (n=331 experiencing a spontaneous abortion before 14 weeks of pregnancy and the control group (n=331 who were healthy pregnant women over 14 weeks of pregnancy. The participants filled out Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ, in which they reported their frequency of consumption for a given serving of each food item during the past three months, on a daily, weekly or monthly basis. The reported frequency for each food item was converted to a daily intake. Then, consumption of nutrients was compared between the two groups. Results: There are significant differences between the two groups regarding consumed servings/day of vegetables, bread and cereal, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, fats, oils and dairy products (P=0.012, P<0.001, P=0.004, P<0.001, P=0.019, respectively. There are significant differences between the two groups in all micronutrient including folic acid, iron, vitamin C, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and zinc (P<0.001. Conclusion: Poor nutrientions may be correlated with increased risk of spontaneous abortion

  6. Spontaneous abortion and physical strain around implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2000-01-01

    pregnancy the women recorded physical strain prospectively in a structured diary. Physical strain around the time of implantation was associated with later spontaneous abortion. The adjusted risk ratio for women who reported physical strain higher than average at day 6 to 9 after the estimated date...

  7. Factors Analysis of Spontaneous Abortion after Thawed-vitrified Blastocysts Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong YANG; Zheng-yi SUN; Cheng-yan DENG; Qi YU; Fang-fang HE

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the factors resulting in spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen-thawing blastocysts. Methods A total of 108 cases transferring vitrified blastocysts were divided into two groups: abortion group (n =20) and ongoing group (n=88). Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was performed in 12 cases of the abortion.Results The overall spontaneous abortion rate was 18.50%(20/108) and the early spontaneous rate was 16.67%(18/108). ,4 significant difference in maternal age was observed (abortion group: 33.3±4.0 years, ongoing group: 31.0±3.6 years, P=0.02). No difference in other parameters was found. Cytogenetic analysis of apoblemas was obtained for 12 cases, and 2 specimens were contaminated. Seven of ten patients had abnormal karyotypes. Conclusion The underlying cause of spontaneous abortion after transferring frozen thawing blastocysts appears to be abnormal karyotypes.Advancing maternal age seems to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.

  8. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A.; Karasek, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION...

  9. ANTISPERM ANTIBODY IS A POSSIBLE CAUSE OF SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUChong; CHENFu; LIULi; ZHAOFei-Sha

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the possible correlation between antisperm antibodies (ASA) and spontaneous abortion, 68 women, aged 23-37, experienced 2-9 times of spontaneous abortion were tested for ASA by ELISA. 38 fertile women, aged 24-40, without history of abortion were employed as control.

  10. Spontaneous abortion: a prospective cohort study of younger women from the general population in Denmark. Validation, occurrence and risk determinants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buss, L; Tolstrup, J; Munk, C

    2006-01-01

    -based prospective cohort study comprising 11,088 women and data from a linkage of the cohort with the Hospital Discharge Register to compare spontaneous abortions as reported in the interview with those identified in the register. Based on interview data, we estimated the rate of spontaneous abortion during the two......-year follow-up. Finally, risk determinants for incident spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 654 spontaneous abortions before enrolment in the study were reported by the women compared to 531 abortions found in the register. More than 80% of the spontaneous...... abortions identified from both sources were recorded in the same year. During follow-up a total of 20.9% of pregnancies intended to be carried to term ended as a spontaneous abortion. In the risk factor analysis, we found that previous spontaneous abortion, being single, never having used oral...

  11. Cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption: risk factors for spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized;...... units alcohol per week and 375 mg or more caffeine per day during pregnancy may increase the risk of spontaneous abortion.......OBJECTIVE: To study the association between cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion. METHODS: The study population consisted of 330 women with spontaneous abortion and 1168 pregnant women receiving antenatal care. A case-control design was utilized......; cases were defined as women with a spontaneous abortion in gestational week 6-16 and controls as women with a live fetus in gestational week 6-16. The variables studied comprise age, parity, occupational situation, cigarette, alcohol, and caffeine consumption. The association between cigarette, alcohol...

  12. Maternal smoking predicts the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ann; Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Lindekilde, Bodil Eriksen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined smoking prior to pregnancy and the occurrence of spontaneous abortion, as most studies have addressed the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to smoking during pregnancy. However, results are not entirely consistent. The aim of the present study...... was to assess the risk of spontaneous abortion considering smoking prior to pregnancy. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population-based cohort comprising 11,088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n=343......) or who gave birth (n=1,578) during follow-up were selected. Associations between self-reported smoking at enrollment and subsequent spontaneous abortion were analyzed by means of multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to pre-pregnancy smoking showed a clear...

  13. Maternal underweight and the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgstrand, Stine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To evaluate the risk of spontaneous abortion in relation to maternal pre-pregnant underweight. METHODS: The study was designed as a cohort study within the framework of the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). The participants were a total of 23 821 women recruited consecutively...... spontaneous abortion. Relative risk of spontaneous abortion was calculated as Hazard Ratios using Cox regression with delayed entry. RESULTS: The outcome measure was spontaneous abortion. The hazard ratio for spontaneous abortion in women with a pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) below 18.5 was 1.24 (95......% confidence limits 0.95-1.63) compared to women with pre-pregnant BMI 18.5-24.9. Women with a BMI of 25 or more had a smaller increase in risk of spontaneous abortion. Adjustment for maternal age, parity, previous miscarriages, and lifestyle factors did not affect the estimates substantially, neither did...

  14. Spontaneous abortion and unexpected death: a critical discussion of Marquis on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Clayton

    2013-02-01

    In his classic paper, 'Why abortion is immoral', Don Marquis argues that what makes killing an adult seriously immoral is that it deprives the victim of the valuable future he/she would have otherwise had. Moreover, Marquis contends, because abortion deprives a fetus of the very same thing, aborting a fetus is just as seriously wrong as killing an adult. Marquis' argument has received a great deal of critical attention in the two decades since its publication. Nonetheless, there is a potential challenge to it that seems to have gone unnoticed. A significant percentage of fetuses are lost to spontaneous abortion. Once we bring this fact to our attention, it becomes less clear whether Marquis can use his account of the wrongness of killing to show that abortion is the moral equivalent of murder. In this paper, I explore the relevance of the rate of spontaneous abortion to Marquis' classic anti-abortion argument. I introduce a case I call Unexpected Death in which someone is about to commit murder, but, just as the would-be murderer is about to strike, his would-be victim dies unexpectedly. I then ask: what does Marquis' account of killing imply about the moral status of what the would-be murderer was about to do? I consider four responses Marquis could give to this question, and I examine what implications these responses have for Marquis' strategy of using his account of the wrongness of killing an adult to show that abortion is in the same moral category.

  15. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Q-fever is a zoonotic infection. Pregnant women constitute a specific risk group as the infection may cause spontaneous abortion, intrauterine death, growth retardation, oligohydramnios and premature birth. A 39 year-old veterinarian had a spontaneous abortion in pregnancy week seven. During the ...

  16. Shared risk aversion in spontaneous and induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Ralph; Bruckner, Tim A; Karasek, Deborah; Adler, Nancy E; Mortensen, Laust H

    2016-05-01

    Does the incidence of spontaneous abortion correlate positively over conception cohorts with the incidence of non-clinically indicated induced abortion as predicted by shared risk aversion? We find that the number of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions correlates in conception cohorts, suggesting that risk aversion affects both the conscious and non-conscious mechanisms that control parturition. Much literature speculates that natural selection conserved risk aversion because the trait enhanced Darwinian fitness. Risk aversion, moreover, supposedly influences all decisions including those that individuals can and cannot report making. We argue that these circumstances, if real, would manifest in conscious and non-conscious decisions to invest in prospective offspring, and therefore affect incidence of induced and spontaneous abortion over time. Using data from Denmark, we test the hypothesis that monthly conception cohorts yielding unexpectedly many non-clinically indicated induced abortions also yield unexpectedly many spontaneous abortions. The 180 month test period (January 1995 through December 2009), yielded 1 351 800 gestations including 156 780 spontaneous as well as 233 280 induced abortions 9100 of which were clinically indicated. We use Box-Jenkins transfer functions to adjust the incidence of spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions for autocorrelation (including seasonality), cohort size, and fetal as well as gestational anomalies over the 180-month test period. We use cross-correlation to test our hypothesized association. We find a positive association between spontaneous and non-clinically indicated induced abortions. This suggests, consistent with our theory, that mothers of conception cohorts that yielded more spontaneous abortions than expected opted more frequently than expected for non-clinically indicated induced abortion. Limitations of our work include that even the world's best registration system

  17. Cytogenetic analysis in 61 couples with spontaneous abortions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江静; 傅曼芬; 王德芬

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between spontaneous abortion and chromosomal abnormalities. Methods Couples who had one or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and had normal genitals were enrolled for cytogenetic karyotype analysis. Results In the 61 couples, the detected incidence was 11.5%, with five Robertsonian translocations, one reciprocal translocation, and one pericentric inversion of chromosome 7. Conclusion Chromosomal abnormalities may play an important role in fetal wastage.

  18. Expression of AIF-1 and RANTES in Unexplained Spontaneous Abortion and Possible Association with Alloimmune Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-hong LI; Hai-lin WANG; Ya-juan ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of allograft inflammatory factor-1(AIF-1)and (RANTES) in sera and deciduas on unexplained early spontaneous abortion.Methods AIF-1 and RANTES were examined in sera and deciduas/endometria of 43 unexplained early spontaneous abortion women (group A),40 healthy women with early pregnancy(group B)and 20 healthy women with no pregnancy (group C). Immunohistochemistry and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used in this study. Results AIF-1 protein was expressed both in deciduas of group A and in endometria of group C.In group A, H scores in the recurrent abortion deciduas specimens were significantly greater than those in the first abortion;in endometrium,expression of AIF-1 was greater in the secretory than in proliferative phase of group C.In group B,concentrations of RANTES in sera were higher in 7th-8th week of pregnancy than in 6th-7th and >8th week of pregnancy;expression of AIF-1 protein showed a negative correlation with RASNTES concentration;a significant increase of the RANTES levels in sera and tissue was observed in group B. Conclusion These results demonstrate, for the first time,that AIF-1 are expressed in deciduas of unexplained spontaneous abortion suggesting that AIF-1 involve in alloimmune abortion; RANTES might act as a novel blocking antibody;AIF-1 and RANTES might act as reliable markers for diagnosis of early alloimmune abortion.

  19. Sexual history and contraception among women with induced and spontaneous abortion in Dar es Salaam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, V; Mary, V; Urassa, E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create sexual history profiles of women with illegally induced abortion (IA) and women with spontaneous abortion (SA) and describe the women's knowledge of, attitude to, and practice of contraception. The study was carried out in two settings, Temeke District...... the rate of ever users of contraception was low in both groups, although significantly lower among IA women than among SA women. Outcome of first pregnancy had been an induced abortion in significantly higher proportion of IA than of SA women. In conclusion, sexual intercourse before marriage is common...

  20. Q-feber som årsag til spontan abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Yde; Mølbak, Kåre; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the first weeks of her pregnancy, she handled birth by-products from cows with Q-fever. The Q-fever titres revealed that she was most likely infected in very early pregnancy. According to the literature, infection in the first trimester constitutes a specific risk of spontaneous abortion....

  1. Spontaneous Abortion and a Diet Drug Containing Caffeine and Ephedrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howards, Penelope P; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Bech, Bodil H

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medications may be consumed periconceptionally before a woman knows she is pregnant. In this study, the authors evaluate the association of a prescription diet drug (Letigen) containing ephedrine (20 mg) and caffeine (200 mg) with spontaneous abortion (SAB) in the Danish National Birth...

  2. Effectiveness of leukocyte immunotherapy in primary recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Foroughinia, Leila; Tavazoo, Fahimeh; Samsami Dehaghani, Alamtaj

    2007-09-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more sequential abortions before the twentieth week of gestation. There are evidences to support an allo-immunologic mechanism for RSA. One of the methods for treatment of RSA is leukocyte therapy; however there is still controversy about effectiveness of this method. To evaluate the effectiveness of leukocyte therapy for treatment of RSA. Ninety two non-pregnant women with at least three sequential abortions (60 primary & 32 secondary aborters) recognized as RSA were referred to our Laboratory for immunotherapy. All the cases were immunized by isolated lymphocytes from their husbands. Fifty to 100 million washed and resuspended mononuclear cells were injected by I.V., S.C., and I.D. route. The result of each injection was checked by WBC cross matching between couples after four weeks of injections. Immunization was repeated in fifth week to a maximum of 3 times if needed. Eighty one age-matched non-pregnant RSA women (52 primary and 29 secondary aborters) with at least three sequential abortions were also included in this study as controls. The control group was not immunized. 67 out of 92 (72.8%) immunized cases and 44 out of 81 controls (54.3%) showed a successful outcome of pregnancy (pRSA patients. Despite the current controversy and limitation of leukocyte therapy in RSA, the results of our investigation provide evidence supporting the use of allo-immunization in improving the outcome of pregnancy in primary RSA patients.

  3. Induced abortion in villages of Ballabgarh HDSS: rates, trends, causes and determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Shashi; Srivastava, Rahul; Rai, Sanjay Kumar; Misra, Puneet; Charlette, Lena; Pandav, Chandrakant S

    2015-05-29

    Induced abortion has been legal in India on a broad range of medical and social grounds since 1980s. Often, induced abortion is resorted to as a means for contraception, and has a potential to be misused for sex selective feticide. We assessed the rates, trends, causes and determinants of induced abortions from 2008-12 in a rural community of northern India. Present study is a secondary data analysis of pregnancy outcomes at Ballabgarh Health and Demographic Surveillance System from 2008-12. The data was retrieved from the Health and Management Information System maintained at Ballabgarh. Cause of abortion was self-reported by the women who underwent abortion. Of the 11,102 pregnancies, 1,226 (11%) culminated as abortions of which 425 (3.8%) were induced abortions. Spontaneous abortion rate (7.2%) was twice that of induced abortion rate (3.8%). Both abortion rates had an increasing trend during the course of the study period. Self-reported reasons for opting for induced abortions were bleeding per vaginum (23%), unwanted pregnancy (16%), and unviable fetus diagnosed by ultrasonography (11%). Eight percent of the induced abortions were due to the female sex of the fetus. About 11% of the abortions were performed beyond 20 weeks of gestation which was the upper legal permissible gestational age for performing induced abortions in India. About 10% of the abortions were performed by unqualified practitioners. Caste, wealth index, birth order and size of the village population were the factors that were significantly associated with induced abortion. Though the abortion rate was low, the proportionate contribution of induced abortion was more than what could be expected. Unsafe and sex selective abortion, though illegal, was prevalent. Upper caste and higher socio-economic status families were more likely to opt for induced abortion.

  4. Male Factors and socioeconomic indicators correlate with the risk of spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørn; Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare

    1999-01-01

    and environmental factors by studying reproductive histories in population based cohorts. We based the study upon two cohorts. The 'abortion cohort' consisted of 55 259 women who had a hospitalised spontaneous abortion in Denmark between 1980 and 1992 and who had a subsequent non-terminated pregnancy. The 'birth...... the municipality of residence to a low risk area (based upon the geographical distribution of spontaneous abortions) reduced the risk of spontaneous abortion in both cohorts. A paternal effect on the recurrence risk of spontaneous abortion cannot be ruled out but environmental factors also play a role.......No less than 10% of clinically recognised pregnancies end as spontaneous abortions and the recurrence risk is high. Due to lack of data and appropriate study design only little is known about preventable causes of miscarriage. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of paternal...

  5. Metformin exposure in early pregnancy and spontaneous abortions in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn; Viftrup-Lund, Mette; Gade, Melina

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine whether metformin affects the rate of first trimester spontaneous abortions and congenital malformations in women with PCOS. Design. Consecutive series of metformin treated women with a questionnaire followup. Setting. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics at H...... is comparable with the risk in the general population. Our low incidence of malformations warrants further investigation on adverse and beneficial effects of metformin during pregnancy....

  6. Complications and the effect of varicocelectomy on semen analysis, fertility, early ejaculation and spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Ali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Varicocele is still an enigma. Its effects on semen analysis, fertility and, more re-cently, early ejaculation and spontaneous abortion in spouses are not yet fully understood. In this retrospective study, we evaluated these four parameters (semen analysis, fertility, early ejacu-lation and spontaneous abortion among spouses in relation to varicocele and varicocelectomy during a 13-year period. A total of 1,711 patients with varicocele underwent varicocelectomy by high inguinal method (251 cases, subinguinal method (1,375 cases, scrotal method (34 cases, and subinguinal method with local anesthesia (38 cases. Our complication rate was acceptable. Sperm count, motility and morphology increased three months post operation in 55, 51, and 46%, respectively (P value 0.000, 0.000, and 0.015, respectively. Paternity was 56% after one year of post varicocelectomy follow-up. Only 7 out of 82 azoospermic men had sperm in their semen after varicocelectomy and only one of them with mild spermatogenic hypoplasia became a father. The spontaneous abortion rate in the spouses of respondents was 59%. Early ejaculation improved in 75% of the respondents. In conclusion, varicocelectomy does not improve sperm parameters in all men, but it improves pregnancy rate, early ejaculation, and scrotal pain.

  7. Relation between some environmental pollutants and recurrent spontaneous abortion

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    Aziza A. Saad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive health is exquisitely sensitive to characteristics of an individual’s environment including physical, biological, behavioral, cultural and socioeconomic factors. This study was launched to elucidate the effect of the exposure to chemical pollutants as aromatic amines viz. (benzidine, mono-acetyl benzidine, diacetyl benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine as well as the biological pollutants e.g., human cytomegalovirus (HCMV as risk factors for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA through determination of MDA as a marker of oxidative stress and determination of some antioxidant markers. The results of the current study revealed that the aborter mothers were being exposed to environmental pollutants as aromatic amines which were manifested by the presence of benzidine, mono-acetyl-benzidine, di-acetyl-benzidine, α,β-naphthylamine in most of their urine samples, where the level of aromatic amines were more 13.6, 10, 15, and 4-folds than the control group, respectively. Also, the data suggest that in early pregnancy failure there is an increase in markers of oxidative stress and a probable decrease in maternal antioxidant defenses (22 nmol/ml and 17 mg/l, 550 U/l, respectively. Generation of ROS in large quantities, in the first trimester placenta which has limited antioxidant defenses may cause DNA damage, oxidation of protein and lipid resulting in extensive cell death. Also, it was demonstrated that high elevation of HCMV inhibits cytotrophoblasts proliferation, migration invasion and matrix metalloproteins (MMP expression. Obviously, placental toxicological responses are partly due to pharmaco/toxico dynamic responses to the chemicals. Conclusively, the aforementioned findings emphasis that, the exposures to environmental chemical and/or biological risk factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

  8. Balanced Chromosomal Translocation of Chromosomes 6 and 7: A Rare Male Factor of Spontaneous Abortions

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    Sefa Resim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carriers of structural chromosomal rearrangements such as Robertsonian or reciprocal translocations have an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and producing offspring with genetic abnormalities. Case Report: We report a man with balanced chromosomal translocations located at 6p22, and 7q22. His wife has a history of four spontaneous abortions. Conclusion: Couples with a history of abortions should be investigated cytogenetically, after other causes of miscarriages are excluded. The possibility of spontaneous abortions can be reduced with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD before embryo transfer.

  9. Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Bonde, J P; Jensen, T K

    2000-01-01

    Male-mediated spontaneous abortion has never been documented for humans. The welding of stainless steel is associated with the pulmonary absorption of hexavalent chromium, which has genotoxic effects on germ cells in rodents. Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among...

  10. Use of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy and risk of spontaneous abortion and stillbirth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bodil Hammer; Kjaersgaard, Maiken Ina Siegismund; Pedersen, Henrik Søndergaard

    2014-01-01

    Dette studie undersøger, om brugen af antiepileptika under graviditeten kan øge risikoen for spontan abort eller dødfødsel. Resultaterne viser, at 16 ud af 100 gravide kvinder, som brugte antiepileptika, mistede fostret ved en spontan abort, mens det kun var 13 ud af 100 gravide kvinder, som ikke...

  11. Arsenic exposure in pregnant mice disrupts placental vasculogenesis and causes spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wenjie; Greenwell, Robert J; Brooks, Diane M; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Beall, Howard D; Coffin, J Douglas

    2007-09-01

    Arsenic is an abundant toxicant in ground water and soil around areas with extractive industries. Human epidemiological studies have shown that arsenic exposure is linked to developmental defects and miscarriage. The placenta is known to utilize vasculogenesis to develop its circulation. The hypothesis tested here states the following: arsenic exposure causes placental dysmorphogenesis and defective placental vasculogenesis resulting in placental insufficiency and subsequent spontaneous abortion. To test this hypothesis, pregnant mice were exposed to sodium arsenite (AsIII) through drinking water from conception through weanling stages. Neonatal assessment of birth rates, pup weights, and litter sizes in arsenic exposed and control mothers revealed that AsIII-exposed mothers had only 40% the fecundity of controls. Preterm analysis at E12.5 revealed a loss of fecundity at E12.5 from either 20 ppm or greater exposures to AsIII. There was no loss of fecundity at E7.5 suggesting that spontaneous abortion occurs during placentation. Histomorphometry on E12.5 placentae from arsenic-exposed mice revealed placental dysplasia especially in the vasculature. These results suggest that arsenic toxicity is causative for mammalian spontaneous abortion by virtue of aberrant placental vasculogenesis and placental insufficiency.

  12. Alcohol consumption at the time of conception and spontaneous abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, T.B.; Hjollund, N.H.; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2004-01-01

    The authors studied the association between female and male alcohol intakes at the time of conception and the risk of spontaneous abortion, including early pregnancy loss detected by urinary human chorionic gonadotropin. After a nationwide mailing to about 50,000 members of four trade unions...... in Denmark in 1992-1994, 430 couples without previous pregnancy attempts were enrolled when birth control was discontinued, and they were followed until a clinically recognized pregnancy or for six menstrual cycles. Alcohol intake and potential confounding factors were reported in monthly questionnaires...... with no intake were statistically significant. Both male and female alcohol intakes during the week of conception increased the risk of early pregnancy loss....

  13. Population Group Abortion Rates and Lifetime Incidence of Abortion: United States, 2008-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rachel K; Jerman, Jenna

    2017-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of abortion among population groups and changes in rates between 2008 and 2014. We used secondary data from the Abortion Patient Survey, the American Community Survey, and the National Survey of Family Growth to estimate abortion rates. We used information from the Abortion Patient Survey to estimate the lifetime incidence of abortion. Between 2008 and 2014, the abortion rate declined 25%, from 19.4 to 14.6 per 1000 women aged 15 to 44 years. The abortion rate for adolescents aged 15 to 19 years declined 46%, the largest of any group. Abortion rates declined for all racial and ethnic groups but were larger for non-White women than for non-Hispanic White women. Although the abortion rate decreased 26% for women with incomes less than 100% of the federal poverty level, this population had the highest abortion rate of all the groups examined: 36.6. If the 2014 age-specific abortion rates prevail, 24% of women aged 15 to 44 years in that year will have an abortion by age 45 years. The decline in abortion was not uniform across all population groups.

  14. Increase of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 expression in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Chun-fang; YU Xue-wen; JIN Hui; LI Xu

    2004-01-01

    To investigate membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 protein expression level in decidua andconcentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in serum in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion,threatened abortion, and compare the levels with healthy pregnant women. Methods: Thirty-seven women with unexplainedearly spontaneous abortion, 27 women with threatened abortion, and 34 healthy pregnant women undergoing artificial abortionof pregnancy at 6 - 10 weeks of gestation were selected. Decidual samples were collected when women were undergoing arti-ficial abortion, and blood samples were collected at the same time. The level of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 indecidua was detected by flow cytometer, and the concentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 in sera was mea-sured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The ercentages of membrane tumor necrosis factor receptor 1positive decidual cells were 16.42 ± 7.10 Mean ± SD for women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion and 13.14 ±6.30 for healthy pregnant women ( P < 0.05). Serum oncentration of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 was signifi-cantly higher in women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion than in healthy pregnant women and in women withthreatened abortion, and no difference was found between healthy pregnant women and women with threatened abortion.Conclusion: Women with unexplained early spontaneous abortion present significantly higher expression of tumor necrosisfactor receptor 1 than healthy pregnant women, suggesting that over-expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 may cont-ribute to the development of early spontaneous abortion.

  15. [Decidual natural killer cells in recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosević, Dragana Radović; Lilić, Vekoslav; Basić, Hakija; Pavlović, Aleksandra Tubić; Stefanović, Milan; Milosević, Jelena

    2011-01-01

    A repeated or habitual miscarriage (PSP) is defined as three or more consecutive losses of pregnancy. In the first three months of pregnancy, habitual miscarriages occur in about 1% of pregnant women, out of which 50% are of an unknown etiology. It is believed that among them, the greatest number is the consequence of an inadequate alloimmune response of a women to the pregnancy. The endocrine and immune systems are in a close interaction during the implantation and maintaining of pregnancy. This communication is the most obvious on endometrium of pregnancy decidua. The aim of the study was to identify the number and the subpopulation distribution of the decidual NK cells in the decidua by using an immunohistochemical method. The research included a group of 30 women who had had two spontaneous miscarriages consecutively in the first three months of their pregnancy, while the curettage after the third spontaneous abortion was histopathologically and immunohistochemically analyzed. The control group consisted of 20 women without a problematic reproductive anamnesis, who had had their pregnancy terminated for social reasons. The criteria for the eliminating from the research were the diagnosed uterus anomalies, positive screening on thrombophilia, as well as women suffering from diabetes melitus and the ones with the thyroid gland function disorder. The number and the phenotype structure of the uterus NK cells were significantly different between the decidua of a normal pregnancy and that in PSP. In the decidua in PSP, there were much more NK cells with the phenotype of the peripheral circulation CD57 and CD56dim, while in the decidua of the control group the dominant cells were the typical uNK cell subpopulation CD56bright. The above mentioned results show that the disregulation of the immunocompetent cells of the decidua, by creating an inadequate cytokine milieu, is one of the mechanism of rejecting the semiallogeneic blastocyst.

  16. Measurement of total risk of spontaneous abortion: the virtue of conditional risk estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modvig, J; Schmidt, L; Damsgaard, M T

    1990-01-01

    The concepts, methods, and problems of measuring spontaneous abortion risk are reviewed. The problems touched on include the process of pregnancy verification, the changes in risk by gestational age and maternal age, and the presence of induced abortions. Methods used in studies of spontaneous...... abortion risk include biochemical assays as well as life table technique, although the latter appears in two different forms. The consequences of using either of these are discussed. It is concluded that no study design so far is appropriate for measuring the total risk of spontaneous abortion from early...... conception to the end of the 27th week. It is proposed that pregnancy may be considered to consist of two or three specific periods and that different study designs should concentrate on measuring the conditional risk within each period. A careful estimate using this principle leads to an estimate of total...

  17. Study on the homocysteine metabolism of patients with unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the metabolism abnormality of homocysteine(Hcy) in unexplained repeated spontaneous abortion(URSA).Methods:The level of Hcy in sera was measured with hyperpressure liquid chromatography(HPLC);Folic acid and vitamin B12 were detected by radioimmune assay;anticardiolipin antibody (ACA) was detected by ELISA.Results:(1)The level of serum Hcy in URSA group was significantly higher than that in control group,showing a statistical significant difference(P<0.01).The level of Hcy was correlated with ages,but not correlated with areas,numbers of miscarriage,gestation age,primary or secondary abortions.(2)The levels of folic acid and vitamin B12 in URSA group were significantly lower than those in control group.The levels of serum folic acid and vitamin B12 were not correlated with age,area,numbers of miscarriage and abortion periods.(3)ACA positive rate in URSA was significantly higher than that in control group.The level of Hcy in ACA(+) group was significantly higher than that in ACA(-) group among URSA patients.Conclusions:Hyperhomocysteinemia,low folic acid state,and ACA were all the independent risk factors for URSA.Lacking of folic acid and vitamin B12 is one of the important causes of hyperhomocysteinemia.ACA and hyperhomocysteinemia may have synergistic action in the occurrence of URSA.

  18. Increased leukemia, lymphoma, and spontaneous abortion in Western New York following a flood disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janerich, D.T.; Stark, A.D.; Greenwald, P.; Burnett, W.S.; Jacobson, H.I.; McCusker, J.

    1981-01-01

    The New York State Department of Health was asked in September 1978 of investigate a cluster of leukemias and lymphomas in a rural town in western New York State of less than 1,000 people. Four cases of these diseases had been diagnosed in the town's population in the previous 10 months. Residents were concerned about environmental hazards such as background radiation and contamination of their water supply. A total environmental study of the area was not feasible or warranted, but certain environmental studies of the area were conducted. No environmental health hazards were identified. Incidence rates for towns in the four-county area (population 281,000) surrounding the study town were analyzed, based on data from the New York State Cancer Registry. These four counties had been severely affected by the flood following the 1972 Hurricane Agnes. Examination of annual leukemia and lymphoma incidence rates for these counties for 1966--77 revealed that the rates for towns in the river valley (population 102,000), but not for nonriver-valley towns, were 20 to 50 percent above the statewide rates for 1972--77. All other cancer rates remained level throughout both periods. An analysis of spontaneous abortion rates for the four counties for 1968--77 showed a significant peak in 1973, but not for the rest of upstate New York. The peak was concentrated in the towns in the river valley. The apparent time-space cluster of leukemias and lymphomas in conjunction with a marked increase in the spontaneous abortion rate suggests an unidentified flood-related environmental exposure

  19. Immunoexpression of CD30 and CD30 ligand in deciduas from spontaneous abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Trovato

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of CD30 and CD30-L in 35 deciduas obtained from women following elective abortion during normal physiological gestation and in 60 deciduas obtained from women after spontaneous abortion with or without signs of inflammation. The main difference was noticed in the first trimester of gestation in which was found a decrease in CD30/CD30-L-positive decidual glandular and stromal cells in a greater number of cases of spontaneous abortions with respect to cases of physiological pregnancies (70% vs 50%, p<0.05. In addition, deciduas from spontaneous abortions with inflammation and without inflammation reacted similarly. The reduced expression of CD30 and CD30-L and their cellular pattern detected in the deciduas from spontaneous abortions suggest that the CD30/CD30-L system is crucial for preventing abortions in the first trimester. And furthermore, the distinctive expression of CD30/CD30- L in deciduas from physiological pregnancies may indicate that the CD30/CD30-L system exerts its main role in the first trimester.

  20. Insulin resistance in first-trimester pregnant women with pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y; Xie, Q X; Chen, C Y; Yang, C; Li, Y Z; Chen, D M; Xie, M Q

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) has been reported to play an important role in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) among patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, scanted materials exist regarding the independent effect of IR on RSA. The aim of this study is to investigate the status of IR in first trimester pregnant patients with normal pre-pregnant glucose tolerance and history of RSA. This two-center case-control study enrolled totally 626 first trimester pregnant women including 161 patients with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion, who were pre-pregnantly glucose-tolerant according to oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and 465 women with no history of abnormal pregnancies of any kind. Clinical, biochemical and hormonal parameters were simultaneously measured in all participants. Serum beta-HCG, estradiol, progesterone, fasting plasma glucose and fasting plasma insulin levels, as well, the calculated homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), fasting plasma glucose/insulin ratio(G/I) and pregnancy outcome were analyzed and compared. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were found to be significantly lower in RSA group compared to controls. Subjects in RSA group were found to have higher HOMA-IR and lower G/I ratio than those in control group. Serum beta-HCG and progesterone were negatively correlated with HOMA-IR, and positively with G/I ratio even after adjustment for BMI. The spontaneous abortion rate within first trimester pregnancy of RSA patients was significantly higher than that in controls. In conclusion, woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion and normal pre-pregnant glucose metabolism tends to be more insulin resistant during first trimester pregnancy than healthy controls, no matter whether she has PCOS or not. Insulin resistance might be one of the direct causes that lead to recurrent abortion.

  1. Prevalence of parvovirus B19 specific antibody in pregnant women with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahbar, Nahid; Vali Zadeh, Saeid; Ghorbani, Raheb; Kheradmand, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    Human parvovirus B19 is a very common viral infection especially in school-aged children. The infection during pregnancy can affect the fetus due to lack of mother's immunity. Although, there is still no evidence of fetal teratogenic effects with parvovirus B19, but non-immune fetal hydrops and abortion may be caused by vertical transmission of the virus during pregnancy. This study was aimed to assess the prevalence of parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) in pregnant women who had a spontaneous abortion. This cross-sectional study was carried out in all pregnant women who referred due to a spontaneous abortion. All demographic information such as age, occupation, and gestational age, last history of abortion, gravity, and presence of children below the age of six was recorded and a blood sample was provided for all the women. Then, the blood samples were tested to assay parvovirus B19-specific antibody (IgM) by EuroImmune ELISA kit. Among 94 pregnant women with the mean age of 28.4 years who had a spontaneous abortion, parvovirus B19 specific antibody (IgM) was detected in 17 participants (18.1%). Meanwhile, 14 women (14.9%) were suspected for presence of the antibody in their blood sample. There was no significant difference between the presence of antibody and age of pregnant women, occupation, gestational age, number of previous abortion, presence of children below the age of six and number of pregnancy. These findings revealed that a high percentage of pregnant women are probably non-immune against parvovirus B19, and also there might be a number of spontaneous abortions in which parvovirus infection caused fetal death.  However, more studies are needed to prove the absolute role of parvovirus B19 in these abortions.

  2. Validation of spontaneous abortion diagnoses in the Danish National Registry of Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Sarah Rytter; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Lohse, Nicolai

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to validate the diagnosis of spontaneous abortion (SA) recorded in the Danish National Registry of Patients (DNRP). METHODS: We randomly selected patients registered in the DNRP with a diagnosis of SA between 1980 and 2008 from hospitals in the county of North...... the three patients with available data who did not fulfill the criteria for SA, one had an induced abortion and two had threatened abortion but did not miscarry. CONCLUSION: Registration of SA in the DNRP accurately reflects the diagnoses recorded in medical charts. The DNRP is a suitable source of data...

  3. Assessment of Relationship between Spontaneous Abortion and Occupational Exposure to Organic Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mohammadi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Nowadays, some studies indicate the adverse effects of exposure to chemicals, especially organic solvents on the reproductive system of females. This study aimed to assess the relationship between spontaneous abortion with occupational exposure to organic solvents in pharmaceutical industry. Materials & Methods: This is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study which was carried out in 2010 in one of the pharmaceutical factories located in the suburbs of Tehran. During the study, married women who were working in the factory laboratory units and were exposed to mixed organic solvents were compared with married women who were working in the packing units of the factory without occupational exposure to organic solvents. Frequency of spontaneous abortion and duration of pregnancy were assessed in both two groups. Collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software using t-test, logistic regression, and chi-square test. Results: In the present study, the frequency of spontaneous abortion in employees with exposure to organic solvents mixture was 10.7%. This study showed that even after adjustment for confounding factors, there was a significant correlation between spontaneous abortion and occupational exposure to organic solvents mixture and this correlation increased with increasing levels of exposure to organic solvents. Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between occupational exposure to mixed organic solvents and waiting time to become pregnant (TTP. Furthermore, this study showed that even after adjustment for confounding variables, shift workers were significantly more affected by spontaneous abortion compared to daytime workers (P < 0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, since there is probability of spontaneous abortion resulting from occupational exposure to various chemicals including organic solvents, review of the status of occupational exposure of workers can be helpful

  4. Relationship between recurrent spontaneous abortion and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jingzhu; Hu Jing; Zhang Shiping; Zhang Shuang; Lin Li; Fan Jing

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) and anti-β 2 - glycoprotein I (anti-β 2 -GP I) antibody. Methods: The levels of anti-β 2 -GP I antibody in serum from 81 RSA patients and 39 normal women were detected by ELISA. Results: The positive rate of anti-β 2 -GP I in RSA patients (42.0%) was obviously higher than that in normal women (7.7 %) (P 2 -GP I IgG in statistics between RSA patients (40.8%) and normal women (7.7%) (P 2 -GP I IgM in statistics between RSA patients and normal women (P>0.05). There was no difference of the positive rate of anti-β 2 -GP I in statistics between early and late, as well as between 2 times and more than 2 times abortions of RSA (P>0.05). Conclusion: The anti-β 2 -GP I antibody is related to RSA, and it may be regarded as a immunological assistant diagnostic index for RSA. (authors)

  5. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E L

    1989-01-01

    If you are pregnant and near 40 years old there is 1/137 chance that your child may have Down's syndrome, or 1/65 chance he will have a physical or mental problem. There are tests that can indicate these problems but they increase the risk of spontaneous abortion. A woman should not be forced to carry an unwanted child, and the needs of childless couples should not be addressed in abortion discussions. The Roe v. Wade case made the distinction of not having to determine when life begins, but when it can be sustained outside the body. The Missouri statute states that human life begins at conception, an unborn child has protectable life interests and the parents of that child have protectable life interests of the unborn child in relation to life, health and its well being. States that are really concerned with the interests of unborn children should improve prenatal care, educate teens on contraception, AIDS, and be concerned about violent behavior and smoking. Voters in Michigan and Arkansas approved a law to stop the use of public funds for abortion, other than saving the mother's life. Pro- choice advocates are concerned that the conservative appointees to the supreme court will reverse the previous decision.

  6. Induced abortion rate in Iran: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motaghi, Zahra; Poorolajal, Jalal; Keramat, Afsaneh; Shariati, Mohammad; Yunesian, Masud; Masoumi, Seyyedeh Zahra

    2013-10-01

    About 44 million induced abortions take place worldwide annually, of which 50% are unsafe. The results of studies investigated the induced abortion rate in Iran are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to estimate the incidence rate of induced abortion in Iran. National and international electronic databases, as well as conference databases until July 2012 were searched. Reference lists of articles were screened and the studies' authors were contacted for additional unpublished studies. Cross-sectional studies addressing induced abortion in Iran were included in this meta-analysis. The primary outcome of interest was the induced abortion rate (the number of abortions per 1000 women aged 15-44 years in a year) or the ratio (the number of abortions per 100 live births in a year). The secondary outcome of interest was the prevalence of unintended pregnancies (the number of mistimed, unplanned, or unwanted pregnancies per total pregnancies). Data were analyzed using random effect models. Of 603 retrieved studies, using search strategy, 10 studies involving 102,394 participants were eventually included in the meta-analysis. The induced abortion rate and ratio were estimated as 8.9 per 1000 women aged 15-44 years (95% CI: 5.46, 12.33) and 5.34 per 100 live births (95% CI: 3.61, 7.07), respectively. The prevalence of unintended pregnancy was estimated as 27.94 per 100 pregnant women (95% CI: 23.46, 32.42). The results of this meta-analysis helped a better understanding of the incidence of induced abortion in Iran compared to the other developing countries in Asia. However, additional sources of data on abortion other than medical records and survey studies are needed to estimate the true rate of unsafe abortion in Iran.

  7. Bacterial vaginosis in association with spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Isik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Bacterial vaginosis (BV is related to the increased risk of miscarriage, preterm labor, and postpartum endometritis. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between BV and the history of spontaneous abortion and recurrent pregnancy losses. We also examined periods of gestation, including the first and second trimester miscarriages. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 200 fertile women. Sixty one (30.5% of 200 women had the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last six months (N = 30 and at least three recurrent pregnancy losses (N = 31. BV was diagnosed either by using Papanicolaou staining, Gram staining, or by culturing with BV-associated bacteria, Gardnerella vaginalis. Results: The presence of BV was statistically associated with the history of a spontaneous abortion in the last 6 months (P 0.05. These women were also evaluated in view of periods of gestation. Forty-seven (77% of 61 women had first trimester miscarriage (≤12 weeks and 14 (23% of 61 women had second trimester miscarriage (>12 weeks. There was a statistically significant relationship between BV and second trimester miscarriage (P 0.05. Conclusion: BV may contribute to spontaneous abortion and second trimester miscarriage.

  8. The relationship between spontaneous abortion and female workers in the semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heechan; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Rhie, Jeongbae; Lim, Sinye; Kang, Yun-Dan; Eom, Sang-Yong; Lim, Hyungryul; Myong, Jun-Pyo; Roh, Sangchul

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between job type and the risk for spontaneous abortion to assess the reproductive toxicity of female workers in the semiconductor industry. A questionnaire survey was administered to current female workers of two semiconductor manufacturing plants in Korea. We included female workers who became pregnant at least 6 months after the start of their employment with the company. The pregnancy outcomes of 2,242 female workers who experienced 4,037 pregnancies were investigated. Personnel records were used to assign the subjects to one of three groups: fabrication process workers, packaging process workers, and clerical workers. To adjust for within-person correlations between pregnancies, a generalized estimating equation was used. The logistic regression analysis was limited to the first pregnancy after joining the company to satisfy the assumption of independence among pregnancies. Moreover, we stratified the analysis by time period (pregnancy in the years prior to 2008 vs. after 2009) to reflect differences in occupational exposure based on semiconductor production periods. The risk for spontaneous abortion in female semiconductor workers was not significantly higher for fabrication and packaging process workers than for clerical workers. However, when we stratified by time period, the odds ratio for spontaneous abortion was significantly higher for packaging process workers who became pregnant prior to 2008 when compared with clerical workers (odds ratio: 2.21; 95% confidence interval: 1.01-4.81). When examining the pregnancies of female semiconductor workers that occurred prior to 2008, packaging process workers showed a significantly higher risk for spontaneous abortions than did clerical workers. The two semiconductor production periods in our study (prior to 2008 vs. after 2009) had different automated processes, chemical exposure levels, and working environments. Thus, the conditions prior to 2008 may have increased the

  9. Detection of cytomegalovirus, human parvovirus B19, and herpes simplex virus-1/2 in women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ya; Bian, Guohui; Zhou, Qiongxiu; Gao, Zhan; Liao, Pu; Liu, Yu; He, Miao

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between viral infections and first-trimester spontaneous abortions is not well-understood. The study aim was to investigate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parvovirus B19 (B19V), and herpes simplex virus-1/2 (HSV-1/2) infection by molecular and serological techniques in women experiencing spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. Plasma samples were examined for CMV, B19V, and HSV-1/2 DNA using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time qPCR), and for specific IgG antibodies against B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 using serological assays. The abortion group consisted of women (n = 1,716) with a history of two or more first-trimester spontaneous abortions. Women younger than 30 years possess higher portion to experience spontaneous abortion. No specimens were positive for B19V or CMV DNA. Seven out of the 1,716 specimens were positive for HSV-1/2 DNA. By serology, 47.24% of patients were positive for B19V IgG, 39.66% for HSV IgG, 79.31% for CMV IgG, and 9.31% for B19V IgM. The high rate of positivity for CMV IgG suggests that the majority of women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions are not susceptible to primary CMV infection. The lack of virus DNA in the majority of cases indicates that B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 infection is not commonly associated with first-trimester spontaneous abortion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The placental barrier in allogenic immune conflict in spontaneous early abortions: immunohistochemical and morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Pavel; Elhayany, Asher; Milovanov, Andrey P; Halperin, Reuvit; Kaganovsky, Ella; Zusman, Itzhak; Ben-Hur, Herzel

    2007-11-01

    Morphologic changes in the placental barrier in spontaneous early abortions under the maternal-embryonic immune conflict, and the role of maternal immunoglobulins (Igs) in these changes. We examined chorionic villi and other tissues obtained from 54 aborts between weeks 3.5 and 8 of pregnancy. Material was divided into two groups. Group 1 (control) contained 15 medically recommended and spontaneous early aborts with no signs of inflammations or pathologic immune processes. Group 2 contained 39 spontaneous early aborts with acute chorionic villitis. Immunohistochemical and morphometric methods were used to study the Igs, different types of immunocompetent cells, and apoptosis-related components of the placental barrier. Acute villitis was found to be characterized by the destruction of all components of the chorionic villi, thrombovasculitis with apoptosis of the endothelium of capillaries and erythroblasts, mucous swelling of the basal membrane, and coagulation of the blood proteins. Due to destruction of the capillaries, the number of avasculate villi increased, and the average number of capillaries per villus decreased. The extremely high number of phagolysosomes with IgG and IgA in the villous monocytes in the group 2 indicates an increase in the phagocytic activity of monocytes against maternal Igs and may reflect the presence of mother-embryo immune conflict. Apoptosis of monocytes and a high number of promonocytes were seen accompanied by a high concentration of p53 protein. A large disturbance in the trophoblast occurred with disappearance of bcl-2 and the appearance of Fas ligand. Massive destruction of maternal Igs in embryonic monocytes and acute villitis in the placental barrier are manifested during the mother-embryo immune conflict, and this may be one of the reasons of spontaneous early abortions.

  11. Change of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Hua Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and investigate the change state of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Methods: A total of 92 patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion in our hospital from June 2013 to July 2015 were selected as the observation group and 92 women with health delivery history at the same time were selected as the control group,then the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of two groups were detected and compared and the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were compared too. Results:The peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of observation group and control group all had obvious differences,and those blood indexes levels' differences of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were obvious too, all P<0.05 and the differences were significant. Conclusions: The T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion show abnormal state and the differences of detection results of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times are relatively obvious,so those indexes should be monitored and improved intentinonally.

  12. Spontaneous Abortion, Stillbirth and Hyperthyroidism: A Danish Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Pregnancy loss in women suffering from hyperthyroidism has been described in case reports, but the risk of pregnancy loss caused by maternal hyperthyroidism in a population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal hyperthyroidism and pregnancy loss in a population-based cohort study. Study Design All pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 leading to hospital visits (n = 1,062,862) were identified in nationwide registers together with information on maternal hyperthyroidism for up to 2 years after the pregnancy [hospital diagnosis/prescription of antithyroid drug (ATD)]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for spontaneous abortion (gestational age hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before/during the pregnancy (n = 5,229), spontaneous abortion occurred more often both in women treated before the pregnancy alone [aHR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18-1.40)] and in women treated with ATD in early pregnancy [1.18 (1.07-1.31)]. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and treated for the first time in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (n = 2,361), there was a high risk that the pregnancy under study had terminated with a stillbirth [2.12 (1.30-3.47)]. Conclusions Both early (spontaneous abortion) and late (stillbirth) pregnancy loss were more common in women suffering from hyperthyroidism. Inadequately treated hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may have been involved in spontaneous abortion, and undetected high maternal thyroid hormone levels present in late pregnancy may have attributed to an increased risk of stillbirth. PMID:25538898

  13. Massive immunoglobulin treatment in women with four or more recurrent spontaneous primary abortions of unexplained aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, H; Kishida, T; Kobayashi, N; Kato, E H; Hoshi, N; Fujimoto, S

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this trial was to investigate the efficacy of massive i.v. immunoglobulin (MIVIg) treatment for women with a history of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) due to unexplained aetiology. The study included nine women (11 pregnancies) with a history of four or more consecutive RSA with unexplained aetiology and no live births. The mean number of fetal losses was 4.5 (range 4-6 abortions). Over the course of 5 days, immunoglobulin (20 g/day) was infused i.v. at gestational weeks 4-7. No additional infusions were carried out. Two pregnancies out of the 11 conceptions resulted in missed abortions at gestational weeks 6 and 7 respectively. Mosaicism (46XX/ 48XX, +16, +20), and tetraploidy (92XXXX) were found by chromosome analyses of the two aborti. Eight out of the other nine pregnancies resulted in full term deliveries of healthy neonates. One pregnancy developed intrauterine growth retardation and fetal distress, resulting in a premature delivery (30 gestational weeks) by Caesarean section. Thus, excluding the two abortions with chromosome aberrations, the MIVIg treatment was effective in all nine pregnancies of RSA women with unexplained aetiology. This MIVIg treatment (100 g administered in early gestation) may be a beneficial alternative to previous IVIg infusion methods, and should be further evaluated in a multicentric, placebo-controlled study, employing a larger number of homogeneous patients who fall into a high risk category of first trimester abortions.

  14. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhaber, M K; Staub, S L; Tokuhata, G K

    1983-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss.

  15. Spontaneous abortions after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident: a life table analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.K.; Staub, S.L.; Tokuhata, G.K.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the incidence of spontaneous abortion was greater than expected near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant during the months following the March 28, 1979 accident. All persons living within five miles of TMI were registered shortly after the accident, and information on pregnancy at the time of the accident was collected. After one year, all pregnancy cases were followed up and outcomes ascertained. Using the life table method, it was found that, given pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation counting from the first day of the last menstrual period, the estimated incidence of spontaneous abortion (miscarriage before completion of 16 weeks of gestation) was 15.1 per cent for women pregnant at the time of the TMI accident. Combining spontaneous abortions and stillbirths (delivery of a dead fetus after 16 weeks of gestation), the estimated incidence was 16.1 per cent for pregnancies after four completed weeks of gestation. Both incidences are comparable to baseline studies of fetal loss

  16. Expression of the Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoform in Chorionic Villi in the Early Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the early spontaneous abortion. , in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the expression of iNOS in trophoblasts in the early pregnancy with and without spontaneous abortion (group Ⅰ and group Ⅱ ). By light microscopy and computer color magic image analysis system (CMIAS), light density (D) and the positive cell number per statistic square (N/S) in situ hybridization were used to analyze the positive cell index, while total positive cells (N) and the positive unit (Pu) were used in immunohistochemistry. By in situ hybridization, D and N/S in trophoblasts were 0. 35±0. 028, 0. 07±0. 011 respectively in group Ⅰ and 0. 18±0. 016,0. 015±0. 003 in group Ⅱ . In terms of immunohistochemical staining, N and Pu were 0. 058±±0. 007, 11. 94±2. 01 in group Ⅰ and 0. 013±0. 009, 1. 08±0. 35 in group Ⅱ in trophoblasts. Significant differences existed between two groups. It is concluded that the higher nitric oxide produced by the higher expression of iNOS in trophoblasts might play an important role in the early spontaneous abortion.

  17. Spontaneous abortion in the British semiconductor industry: An HSE investigation. Health and Safety Executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, R C; Jones, J R; McElvenny, D M; Pennington, M J; Northage, C; Clegg, T A; Clarke, S D; Hodgson, J T; Osman, J

    1999-11-01

    The UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) conducted a study to examine the risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB) in British female semiconductor industry workers, following reports from the USA which suggested an association between risk of SAB and work in fabrication rooms and/or exposure to ethylene glycol ethers. A nested case-control study based on 2,207 women who had worked at eight manufacturing sites during a 5-year retrospective time frame was established; 36 cases were matched with 80 controls. The overall SAB rate in the industry was 10.0%. (65 SABs/651 pregnancies) The crude odds ratio (OR) for fabrication work was 0.65 (95% CI 0.30-1.40). This was essentially unchanged after adjustment for a range of potential confounding factors in the first 3 months of pregnancy and was reduced to 0.58 (95% CI 0.26-1.30) after adjustment for smoking in the previous 12 months. There were no statistically significantly elevated ORs for any work group or any specific chemical or physical exposure in the industry. There is no evidence of an increased risk of SAB in the British semiconductor industry. Am. J. Ind. Med. 36:557-572, 1999. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    An abortion is a procedure to end a pregnancy. It uses medicine or surgery to remove the embryo or ... personal. If you are thinking of having an abortion, most health care providers advise counseling.

  19. Concomitant infection of Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 in spontaneous bovine abortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia S. Marin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine Herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5 has not been conclusively demonstrated to cause bovine abortion. Brain lesions produced by Neospora caninum and Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BoHV-1 exhibit common features. Therefore, careful microscopic evaluation and additional diagnostic procedures are required to achieve an accurate final etiological diagnosis. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of infections due to BoHV-1, BoHV-5 and N. caninum in 68 cases of spontaneous bovine abortions which showed microscopic lesions in the fetal central nervous system. This study allowed the identification of 4 (5.9% fetuses with dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum and 33 (48.5% cases in which N. caninum was the sole pathogen identified. All cases were negative to BoHV-1. The results of this study provide evidence that dual infection by BoHV-5 and N. caninum occur during pregnancy in cattle; however, the role of BoHV-5 as a primary cause of bovine abortion needs further research. Molecular diagnosis of BoHV-5 and N. caninum confirmed the importance of applying complementary assays to improve the sensitivity of diagnosing bovine abortion.

  20. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Alan Guttmacher Institute's State Reproductive Health Monitor "Legislative Proposals and Actions" provides US legislative information on abortion. The listing contains information on pending bills: the state, the identifying legislative number, the sponsor, the committee, the date the bill was introduced, a description of the bill, and when available the bill's status. The bills cover: 1) clinic licensing, e.g., requiring outpatient health care facilities in which abortions are performed, to have malpractice liability insurance; 2) comprehensive statues, which require parental notification before minor may obtain abortions, mandate abortion counseling to all women 24 hours before the abortion can be performed and prohibit disciplining or discharging a state employee for refusing to provide abortion counseling; 3) fetal personhood and rights, e.g. providing that life is vested in each person at fertilization; 4) fetal research and remains; 5) gender of fetus, which regulate abortions relative to sex selection in pregnancies; 6) harassment regulation; 7) informed consent and waiting periods detailing the risks and alternatives to abortion, and the 24-hour waiting period; 8) insurance coverage, e.g., eliminating language banning the coverage of abortions for state workers, and prohibiting disclosure by a health insurance carrier to the employer of a claimant that the claimant had a surgical abortion; 9) legality of abortion, urging Congress to reject he Freedom of Choice Act; 10) parental consent and notification; 11) postviability requirements; 12) public funding; 13) reporting requirements; 14) reproductive rights, and 15) spousal and paternal consent and notification.

  1. Evaluation of effect of letrozole prior to misoprostol in comparison with misoprostol alone in success rate of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi-Lak, T; Derakhshan-Aydenloo, S; Broomand, F

    2018-03-01

    Abortion, spontaneous or induced, is a common complication of pregnancy and exploration of available and safe regimens for medical abortion in developing countries seems crucial. The present study was aimed to assess the effect of letrozole in combination with misoprostol in women eligible for legal therapeutic abortion with gestational age ≤14weeks. This clinical randomized trial was conducted on 78 women who were candidate of medical abortion and eligible for legal abortion with gestational age ≤14 weeks that were randomly divided into two groups of case and controls. Case group received daily oral dose of 10mg letrozole for three days followed by vaginal misoprostol. In control group the patients received only vaginal misoprostol. The rate of complete abortion, induction-of-abortion time, and side-effects were assessed. Complete abortion was observed in 30 patients (76.9%) in case group and 9 (23.1%) cases were failed. In control group there was 16 (41.03%) complete abortions and 23 (58.97%) cases were failed to abort. Patients with gestational age of between 6 and 10 weeks did not show significant difference in both groups (P=0.134). Regarding pregnancy remnants there were significant differences between two groups (P=0.034). The time form admission to discharge in case groups were significantly shorter than those in control group (P=0.001). The indication for curettage in case group was significantly less than control group (P=0.001). A 3-day course of letrozole (10mg/daily) followed by misoprostol was associated with a higher complete abortion and lower curettage rates and reduction in time from admission to discharge in women with gestational age ≤14 weeks compared to misoprostol alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Recognized spontaneous abortion in mid-pregnancy and patterns of pregnancy alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodo, Lisa M; Bailey, Beth A; Sokol, Robert J; Janisse, James; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Hannigan, John H

    2012-05-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is one potential risk factor for spontaneous abortion (SAb). Prior research suggested that heavy drinking during pregnancy was associated with significantly increased rates of SAb, but results for lower levels of drinking have been inconsistent. We examined the association between different levels and patterns of prenatal alcohol consumption and SAb in a high-risk inner-city sample. We hypothesized that higher levels, binge patterns, and more frequent drinking would be associated with increased rates of SAb. The quantity and frequency of self-reported peri-conceptional and repeated in-pregnancy maternal drinking volumes per beverage type were assessed with semi-structured interviews in a prospective subsample of 302 African-American mothers. Relations between various measures of prenatal alcohol exposure and SAb were assessed using logistic regression. After controlling for various potential confounders, there was a significant positive relation between average absolute alcohol use per day across pregnancy and SAb. Greater frequency of drinking episodes also predicted SAb: an average of even one day of drinking per week across pregnancy was associated with an increase in the incidence of SAb. However, contrary to our hypothesis, neither the amount of alcohol drunk per drinking day nor a measure of binge drinking was significantly related to SAb after controlling for confounders. Differences in when women who drank at risk levels initiated antenatal care may have under-estimated the impact of alcohol on SAb in this low-SES urban African-American sample. Some drinking measures averaged across pregnancy may have under-estimated consumption and overestimated risk of SAb, but other risk drinking measures that avoid this limitation show similar relations to SAb. Identifying fetal risk drinking in pregnant women is critical to increasing the effectiveness of interventions that reduce risk level alcohol consumption and protect from

  3. High birth rates despite easy access to contraception and abortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hognert, Helena; Skjeldestad, Finn E; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to describe and compare contraceptive use, fertility, birth, and abortion rates in the Nordic countries. MATERIAL AND METHODS: National data on births, abortions, fertility rate (1975-2013), redeemed prescriptions of hormonal contraceptives and sales figures...... contraception followed by the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system were the most common methods. During 1975-2013 abortion rates decreased in Denmark (from 27/1000 women to 15/1000 women aged 15-44/1000 women) and Finland (from 20 to 10/1000 women), remained stable in Norway (≈16) and Sweden (≈20......) and increased in Iceland (from 6 to 15/1000 women). Birth rates remained stable around 60/1000 women aged 15-44 in all countries except for Iceland where the birth rate decreased from 95 to 65/1000 women. Abortion rates were highest in the age group 20-24 years. In the same age group, Sweden had a lower...

  4. Spontaneous mutation rates and the rate-doubling dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Borstel, R.C.; Moustaccki, E.; Latarjet, R.

    1978-01-01

    The amount of radiation required to double the frequency of mutations or tumours over the rate of those that occur spontaneously is called the rate-doubling dose. An equivalent concept has been proposed for exposure to other environmental mutagens. The doubling dose concept is predicated on the assumption that all human populations have the same spontaneous mutation rate, and that this spontaneous mutation rate is known. It is now established for prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that numerous genes control the spontaneous mutation rate, and it is likely that the same is true for human cells as well. Given that the accepted mode of evolution of human populatons is from small, isolated groups of individuals, it seems likely that each population would have a different spontaneous mutation rate. Given that a minimum of twenty genes control or affect the spontaneous mutation rate, and that each of these in turn is susceptible to spontaneously arising or environmentally induced mutations, it seems likely that every individual within a population (except for siblings from identical multiple births) will have a unique spontaneous mutation rate. If each individual in a population does have a different spontaneous mutation rate, the doubling dose concept, in rigorous terms, is fallacious. Therefore, as with other concepts of risk evaluation, the doubling dose concept is subject to criticism. Nevertheless, until we know individual spontaneous mutation rates with precision, and can evaluate risks based on this information, the doubling dose concept has a heuristic value and is needed for practical assessment of risks for defined populations. (author)

  5. Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Insemination, pregnancy and abortion rates in a population of Glossina palpalis palpalis (robineau-desvoidy) at a relict forest in the Southern Guinea Savanna, Nigeria. ... The results indicate that nutritional and physical stress were the likely constraints to optimum productivity. Keywords: insemination, pregnancy ...

  6. Does caffeine and alcohol intake before pregnancy predict the occurrence of spontaneous abortion?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolstrup, J S; Kjær, S. K.; Munk, C

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Consumption of caffeine and alcohol is suspected to affect pregnancy outcome. Use of both stimulants is widespread and even minor effects on fetal viability are of public health interest. METHODS: We performed a nested case-control study using prospective data from a population.......72 (1.00-2.96) for a pre-pregnancy intake on 75-300, 301-500, 501-900 and >900 mg caffeine per day respectively (P = 0.05 for trend). A pre-pregnancy intake of alcohol was not a predictor for spontaneous abortion. CONCLUSIONS: A high intake of caffeine prior to pregnancy seems to be associated......-based cohort comprising 11088 women aged 20-29 years. From this cohort, women who experienced either a spontaneous abortion (n = 303) or who gave birth (n = 1381) during follow-up [mean time: 2.1 years (range: 1.6-3.4)] were selected. Associations between self-reported exposures to caffeine and/or alcohol...

  7. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and transcobalamin genetic polymorphisms in human spontaneous abortion: biological and clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zetterberg Henrik

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion involves a complex interaction of several genetic and environmental factors. The firm association between increased homocysteine concentration and neural tube defects (NTD has led to the hypothesis that high concentrations of homocysteine might be embryotoxic and lead to decreased fetal viability. There are several genetic polymorphisms that are associated with defects in folate- and vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine metabolism. The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR 677C>T and 1298A>C polymorphisms cause elevated homocysteine concentration and are associated with an increased risk of NTD. Additionally, low concentration of vitamin B12 (cobalamin or transcobalamin that delivers vitamin B12 to the cells of the body leads to hyperhomocysteinemia and is associated with NTD. This effect involves the transcobalamin (TC 776C>G polymorphism. Importantly, the biochemical consequences of these polymorphisms can be modified by folate and vitamin B12 supplementation. In this review, I focus on recent studies on the role of hyperhomocysteinemia-associated polymorphisms in the pathogenesis of human spontaneous abortion and discuss the possibility that periconceptional supplementation with folate and vitamin B12 might lower the incidence of miscarriage in women planning a pregnancy.

  8. Weathering the storm; a review of pre-pregnancy stress and risk of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Tyralynn; Hogue, Carol J Rowland; Bonney, Elizabeth A; Yount, Kathryn M; Pearce, Brad D

    2018-06-01

    The Weathering Effect is a theory that links stress exposure, over the life-course, with racial disparities in reproductive outcomes, through the effects of social adversity on a woman's body. The concept of maternal "weathering" captures cumulative somatic and psychological adversities that can exacerbate the effects of aging. Much of the evidence for weathering comes from observational studies linking self-report measures with reproductive outcomes. The purpose of this review is to explore biological mechanisms that underlie these observations. We focus on spontaneous abortion because this event is understudied despite evidence of racial disparities in this outcome. Spontaneous abortion is the most common pregnancy failure, and it happens early in pregnancy. Early pregnancy is a time most susceptible to the harmful effects of immune dysregulation that may, in part, result from adversities experienced before pregnancy begins. In exploring these mechanisms, we draw on well-defined signaling processes observed in the stressor-depression relationship. Pro-inflammatory dysregulation, for example, has particular relevance to immunological control occurring early in pregnancy. Early pregnancy immunologic changes affect the trajectories of pregnancy via control of trophoblastic invasion. Within the first few weeks of pregnancy, uterine derived cytokines operate within cytokine networks and play a critical role in this invasion. Programming for pro-inflammatory dysregulation can occur before conception. This dysregulation, brought into early pregnancy, has implications for viability and success of the index pregnancy. These patterns suggest early pregnancy health is susceptible to stress processing pathways that influence this immunologic control in the first six to eight weeks of pregnancy. In this review, we discuss the known mediating role of immune factors in the stressor-depression relationship. We also discuss how adversity experienced before the index pregnancy, or

  9. Aberrant Expression of TNF-α and TGF-β1 mRNA in Spontaneous Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-fen HU; Hong-chu BAO; Feng-chuan ZHU; Cai-ling YOU

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate the aberrant expressions of TNF-α and TGF-β1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and placental tissues in patients with early spontaneous abortionMethods Using the technique of semi-quantitative reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), TNF-α mRNA and TGF-β1 mRNA in PBMCs were measured in spontaneous abortion group (30 cases), normal pregnancy group (25 cases) and nonpregnant group (25 cases). The expressive intension of TNF-α protein and TGF-β1 protein in placental tissues was also identified by immunohistochemistry.Results Both levels of TNF-α mRNA and TGF-β1 mRNA expressed in PBMCs were significantly different between the three groups respectively (P<0. 05). Levels of TNF-α in syncytiotrophoblastic and cytotrophoblastic cells of the two aborted groups were substantially higher than those of the non-pregnant group (P<0. 01), but the levels of TGF-β1 in syncytiotrophoblastic cells of the two aborted groups were markedly lower than those of the non-pregnant group (P<0. 01).Conclusion There is potential relation between TGF-β1 at the fetomaternal interface and spontaneous abortion. TGF-β1 may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy,and low-level expression of TGF-β1 may be associated with pregnancy failure.

  10. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes of Patients with History of First-Trimester Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a history of first-trimester recurrent spontaneous abortion (FRSA is regarded as a risk factor in antenatal care, the characteristic of subsequent pregnancy outcome is not clearly elucidated. Here, a retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 492 singleton pregnant women. 164 of them with the history of FRSA were enrolled in study group, compared to 328 deliveries without the history of FRSA. For maternal outcomes, patients in the study group delivered earlier with mean gestational age and the incidences of cesarean section and postpartum hemorrhage were higher compared to the control group. For placental outcomes, the incidence of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications (PMPC in the study group increased in terms of late-onset preeclampsia, oligohydramnios, early-onset fetal growth restriction, and second-trimester abortion. Patients in the study group were more likely to suffer from placenta accreta, placenta increta, and placenta percreta. For perinatal outcomes, the proportion of birth defects of newborns in the study group was greater. At last, logistic regression analyses showed that the history of FRSA was an independent risk factor for cesarean section and pregnancy complications. In conclusion, women with the history of FRSA are often exposed to an elevated incidence of maternal-placental-perinatal adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  11. Relation between parvovirus B19 infection and fetal mortality and spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Zahra; Esghaei, Maryam; Keyvani, Hossein; Shabani, Fateme; Sarmadi, Fateme; Mollaie, Hamidreza; Monavari, Seyed Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Infection with parvovirus B19 may cause fetal losses including spontaneous abortion, intrauterine fetal death and non-immune hydrops fetalis. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of parvovirus B19 in formalin fixed placental tissues in lost fetuses using real-time PCR method. In this cross-sectional study, 100 formalin fixed placental tissues with unknown cause of fetal death were determined using real-time PCR method after DNA extraction. Six out of 100 cases (6%) were positive for parvovirus B19 using real-time PCR. Gestational age of all positive cases was less than 20 weeks with a mean of 12.3 weeks. Three cases have a history of abortion and all of positive cases were collected in spring. Mean age of positive cases were 28 years. Parvovirus B19 during pregnancy can infect red precursor cells and induces apoptosis or lyses these cells that resulting in anemia and congestive heart failure leading to fetal death. Management of parvovirus B19 infection in pregnant women is important because immediate diagnosis and transfusion in hydropsic fetuses can decrease the risk of fetal death.

  12. The Impact of State Abortion Policies on Teen Pregnancy Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medoff, Marshall

    2010-01-01

    The availability of abortion provides insurance against unwanted pregnancies since abortion is the only birth control method which allows women to avoid an unwanted birth once they are pregnant. Restrictive state abortion policies, which increase the cost of obtaining an abortion, may increase women's incentive to alter their pregnancy avoidance…

  13. [Abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, J P

    1998-01-01

    Abortion is the interruption of a dynamic process in a final and irreversible form. The legalization of abortion is applied to human ontogenesis, that is, the development of the human being. However, the embryo that is growing in the uterus is not a human being because a human being is a complex organism with differentiated systems, its own identity and intrinsic autonomy in its process of development. There are basically four levels of the analysis of the problem of abortion: 1) fundamental emotional arguments; 2) profound ignorance of technical and scientific facts; 3) rational positions obfuscated by the dramatic intensity of everyday situations; and 4) the conjunction of deliberated position where culpability is avoided with solidarity for all subjects of the process with a socially oriented view. The phenomenon of abortion from an epidemiological point of view summons the facts with which it is associated: poverty, illiteracy, shortage or lack of community health resources, absence of centers for adolescents, degradation of the environment, and precariousness of employment.

  14. Association of the IL4R single-nucleotide polymorphism I50V with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavasolian, Fataneh; Abdollahi, Elham; Samadi, Morteza

    2014-07-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive abortions before the 20th week of gestation. There is increasing evidence to support an immunological mechanism for the occurrence of RSA. The purpose of our study was to examine whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-4 receptor gene IL4R influence susceptibility to, recurrent spontaneous abortion. This is a case-control study. We recruited 200 patients with RSA (case group) using established diagnostic criteria and 200, normal individuals (control group) at the fertility and infertility center in Yazd city and Isfahan city during 2012 to 2013. We screened the I50V variant in IL-4R in patients and controls by PCR-RFLF method, and we performed an association analysis between I50V variant and RSA.the data was analyzed by spss 16 software using Chi-square test. No differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of the I50V SNPs were identified between patients with RSA and healthy controls. The frequency of SNP in IL-4 receptor (I50V) in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion did not differ significantly compared with the control group. Analysis of IL4R SNP haplotypes or complex alleles suggested no dominant protection in patients with RSA.

  15. Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B

    1979-09-15

    Having read Professor Peter Huntingford's letter (25 August, p 496), I am more convinced than ever that reduction to the simplest possible terms will always clarify an issue, and I am at one with him in deploring the terms "serious," "grave," and "substantial." His last paragraph approximates to such clarify when he says "the right of women to choose freely whether or not they bear a child"--but I fear that the phrase is slanted and ignores an essential ingredient in the abortive act. Whereas the secondary effect of abortion is certainly that the woman will not bear a child, the primary effect is the killing of that child, admittedly small and defenceless. Maybe there are many who will seek to justify the killing of their fellow members of the human race on the grounds that they are not wanted, or might be handicapped; if so, let them proclaim these views "in good set terms." But if the principle of getting rid of the unwanted by killing them is to expand its application further, who among us will be safe when someone else can decide our fate? Even the advocates of euthanasia usually insist that it be voluntary. Who yet has asked a fetus whether it wants to live or be killed?

  16. Generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from chorionic villi of a Turner syndrome spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, Shagufta; Panicker, M M; Gupta, Pawan Kumar

    2017-03-01

    A major cause of spontaneous abortions is chromosomal abnormality of foetal cells. We report the generation of an induced pluripotent stem cell line from the fibroblasts isolated from chorionic villi of an early spontaneously aborted foetus with Turner syndrome. The Turner syndrome villus induced pluripotent stem cell line is transgene free, retains the original XO karyotype, expresses pluripotency markers and undergoes trilineage differentiation. This pluripotent stem cell model of Turner syndrome should serve as a tool to study the developmental abnormalities of foetus and placenta that lead to early embryo lethality and profound symptoms like infertility in 45 XO survivors. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of the origin of the extra chromosome in trisomy 8 in 4 cases of spontaneous abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaidis, P; von Beust, G; Bugge, M; Karadima, G; Vassilopoulos, D; Brøndum-Nielsen, K; Petersen, M B

    1998-01-01

    To determine the origin of the extra chromosome in trisomy 8 in spontaneous abortions. We analyzed 4 cases of nonmosaic trisomy 8 in 1st-trimester spontaneous abortions and their parents with DNA polymorphism analysis using microsatellite DNA markers. In 3 cases the extra chromosome was maternal in origin and in 1 case paternal in origin. In 2 of the cases the nondisjunction had occurred in maternal meiosis, while the other 2 cases were consistent with a postzygotic (mitotic) origin of the additional chromosome. Although a small number of cases studied, these results suggest differences from the common autosomal trisomies 21, 18, 16, and 13 where the vast majority of cases are due to errors in maternal meiosis.

  18. Risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Zhen Qin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies on the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in early spontaneous abortion after assisted reproductive technology (ART are relatively controversial and insufficient. Thus, to obtain a more precise evaluation of the risk of embryonic chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART, we performed a meta-analysis of all available case-control studies relating to the cytogenetic analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in first-trimester miscarriage after ART. METHODS: Literature search in the electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL based on the established strategy. Meta-regression, subgroup analysis, and Galbraith plots were conducted to explore the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: A total of 15 studies with 1,896 cases and 1,186 controls relevant to the risk of chromosomal abnormalities in first- trimester miscarriage after ART, and 8 studies with 601 cases and 602 controls evaluating frequency of chromosome anomaly for maternal age≥35 versus <35 were eligible for the meta-analysis. No statistical difference was found in risk of chromosomally abnormal miscarriage compared to natural conception and the different types of ART utilized, whereas the risk of fetal aneuploidy significantly increased with maternal age≥35 (OR 2.88, 95% CI: 1.74-4.77. CONCLUSIONS: ART treatment does not present an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities occurring in a first trimester miscarriage, but incidence of fetal aneuploidy could increase significantly with advancing maternal age.

  19. First-trimester antihistamine exposure and risk of spontaneous abortion or preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Tiara D; Hartmann, Katherine E; Michels, Kara A; Velez Edwards, Digna R

    2014-10-01

    We tested whether antihistamine exposure during early pregnancy is associated with spontaneous abortion (SAB) or preterm birth (PTB). Women were enrolled in Right from the Start (2004-2010), a prospective pregnancy cohort. Data about first-trimester antihistamine use were obtained from screening and first-trimester interviews. Self-reported outcomes included SAB and PTB and were verified by medical records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test for an association between antihistamine use and each outcome, both performed adjusting for confounders. Among the 2685 pregnancies analyzed, 14% (n = 377) reported use of antihistamines. Among antihistamine users, 12% (n = 44) experienced SABs, and 6% (n = 21) had PTBs. Antihistamine exposure was not associated with SAB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 1.21) or PTB, which was modified by maternal race (aHR = 1.03, 95%CI 0.61, 1.72 among White women and aHR = 0.43, 95%CI 0.14, 1.34 among Black women). Despite the biologic plausibility that antihistamine use may influence pregnancy outcomes, we did not detect evidence of an association with SAB or PTB. These data demonstrate the utility of large prospective cohorts for evaluating drug safety in pregnancy when concerns are raised from animal models. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Association between HLA-E gene polymorphism and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotoohi, Maryam; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Mirghanizadeh, Seyed Ali; Vakili, Mahmood; Samadi, Morteza

    2016-07-01

    Human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E)is a non-classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens which expressed on extra villous cytotrophoblast, which interacts with NKG2A, is an inhibitory receptor on natural killer (NK) cells and leading to down regulation of immune response in the maternal-fetal interface and provides maternal immune tolerance of the fetus. This study was designated to investigate the gene frequencies of E0101 and E0103 in HLA-E gene in Iranian women with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). Amplification Refractory Mutation System (ARMS-PCR) technique was carried out to detect polymorphism in exon 3 of the HLA-E gene in women with RSA and controls (n=200). Differences between groups were analyzed by SPSS19 software using (2) test. There was no significant difference in the allele frequencies of the HLA-E polymorphism between RSA and fertile controls but HLA-E 0101/0103 heterozygous genotype was found to be significantly higher in RSA group (p=0.006, OR=1.73), so this genotype might confer susceptibility to RSA. Our results suggest that HLA-E 0101/0103 heterozygous genotype leads to increase of RSA risk. It seems that by genotyping of HLA-E polymorphism, we can predict the risk of RSA in infertile women.

  1. Fatores Associados ao Aborto Espontâneo Recorrente Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion-associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Barini

    2000-05-01

    . Conclusão: para uma investigação completa dos fatores associados ao aborto espontâneo recorrente faz-se necessária a inclusão do fator aloimune, sem a qual a maior parte dos casos não terá etiologia esclarecida.Purpose: to identify recurrent spontaneous abortion- associated factors. Subjects: one hundred seventy-five outpatients were investigated from March 1993 to March 1997 at the "Ambulatório de Aborto Recorrente CAISM/UNICAMP". All of them had had three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions and/or two abortions and were 35 years or more old. Methods: the investigation protocol included: couple's karyotype; hysterosalpingography, serial plasma progesterone levels and/or endometrial biopsy; toxoplasmosis, listeriosis, brucelosis, lues and cytomegalovirus serum tests; Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma hominis cultures of cervical discharge; TSH and thyroid hormone levels; fasting glucose; autoantibody panel, anti-HLA antibody search by microlymphocytotoxicity crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor detection. Husband's evaluation included: physical evaluation, lues, Chagas' disease, B and C hepatitis and AIDS serum tests, microlymphocytotoxicity crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor detection. Results: alloimmune etiology was the most frequently found factor (86.3% of studied patients, represented by negative crossmatch and one-way mixed lymphocyte culture with inhibitor factor below 50%. The second most frequently found factor was cervical incompetence (22.8%, followed by hormonal factor (21.2%, mainly represented by luteal insufficiency. Some patients were found to have more than one etiologic factor. Conclusion: the investigation of recurrent spontaneous abortion-associated factors must include alloimmune etiology. Most cases will remain unexplained without this investigation.

  2. PP064. Total vascular resistances in early pregnancy: A key to understand abnormal cardiovascular adaptation associated with spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Damiano; Scala, Roberta Licia; Tiralongo, Grazia Maria; Pisani, Ilaria; Gagliardi, Giulia; Novelli, Gian Paolo; Vasapollo, Barbara; Valensise, Herbert

    2013-04-01

    From early pregnancy, maternal hemodynamic profile begins to change. The absence of these changes leads to increased risk of complication during the gestation. Aim of this study is to understand in early pregnancy the behaviour of total vascular resistances (TVR) as a sign of maternal cardiovascular adaptation to pregnancy. A cross section study was conducted. We followed 160 healthy women with singleton pregnancy during the first trimester of gestation. We evaluated cardiac output (CO) and TVR at 7, 9 and 11 weeks of gestation. We obtained the following haemodynamic measurements with the USCOM system, a non invasive method: heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), CO and TVR. 160 healthy pregnant women were selected, 8 patients, were excluded for a bad signal. Absolute values of the haemodynamic measures are shown in Fig. 1. 41 patients underwent spontaneous embryonic demise. This last group of patients showed in 54% (group A) TVR values within the normal limits (TVR1200) and CO values below the normal adaptation to pregnancy. Table 1 shows hemodynamic measures for the group A and group B; we found differences in term of CO, TVR and PAS between the two groups. Elevated TVR might indicate an abnormal vascular adaptation already in first weeks of pregnancy. Moreover, in women who undergo to abortion, elevated TVR could be use to distinguish genetic or environmental causes of miscarriage. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Acute effects of air pollution on spontaneous abortion, premature delivery, and stillbirth in Ahvaz, Iran: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastoorpoor, Maryam; Idani, Esmaeil; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Khanjani, Narges

    2018-02-01

    Living in areas with high air pollution may have adverse effects on human health. There are few studies about the association between breathing polluted air and adverse pregnancy outcomes in the Middle East. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between air pollution and spontaneous abortion, premature birth, and stillbirth in Ahvaz. A time-series study was conducted. Data about spontaneous abortion, premature deliveries, and stillbirth was collected from Ahvaz Imam Khomeini Hospital. Air pollution data including NO, CO, NO 2 , PM 10 , SO 2 , O 3 , and climate data were, respectively, collected from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Khuzestan Province Meteorology Office from March 2008 until March 2015. The relationship between air pollutants with the number of abortions, premature births, and stillbirths was found using a quasi-Poisson distributed lag model, adjusted by trend, seasonality, temperature, relative humidity, weekdays, and holidays. The average daily dust in Ahvaz on 7.2% days of the year was higher than 500 μg/m 3 (very dangerous). Findings from this study indicate a significant association between each 10-unit increase in SO 2 and spontaneous abortion in lag 0 and 9 days. There was a significant relation between each 10-unit increase in NO 2 and CO, and premature birth in lag 0. Also, we found a significant association between each 10-unit increase in CO and premature delivery in lag 1; PM 10 and premature delivery in lags 10, 11, and 12; and NO and premature delivery in lags 3, 4, 10, 11, 12, and 13 (p value polluted air during pregnancy may increase adverse pregnancy outcomes and stillbirth. Pregnant women should avoid polluted air.

  4. Pregnancy outcome of threatened abortion with demonstrable fetal cardiac activity: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsong, T; Srisomboon, J; Wanapirak, C; Sirichotiyakul, S; Pongsatha, S; Polsrisuthikul, T

    1995-08-01

    Pregnancy with visible fetal heart beat complicated by first trimester threatened abortion had significant increased risk of subsequent spontaneous abortion compared with normal pregnancy. To compare pregnancy outcomes in cases complicated by first trimester threatened abortion with those that were not. Prospective cohort study of 255 cases of first trimester threatened abortions but with visible heart beat and 265 other normal pregnancies. Spontaneous abortion rates of 5.5% (with relative abortal risk of 2.91) was found for study group, compared to 1.88% for controls (p abortion rate than those without.

  5. Do State-Based Policies Have an Impact on Teen Birth Rates and Teen Abortion Rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrette, Marianne; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2015-10-01

    The United States has one of the highest teen birth rates among developed countries. Interstate birth rates and abortion rates vary widely, as do policies on abortion and sex education. The objective of our study is to assess whether US state-level policies regarding abortion and sexual education are associated with different teen birth and teen abortion rates. We carried out a state-level (N = 51 [50 states plus the District of Columbia]) retrospective observational cross-sectional study, using data imported from the National Vital Statistics System. State policies were obtained from the Guttmacher Institute. We used descriptive statistics and regression analysis to study the association of different state policies with teen birth and teen abortion rates. The state-level mean birth rates, when stratifying between policies protective and nonprotective of teen births, were not statistically different-for sex education policies, 39.8 of 1000 vs 45.1 of 1000 (P = .2187); for mandatory parents' consent to abortion 45 of 1000, vs 38 of 1000 when the minor could consent (P = .0721); and for deterrents to abortion, 45.4 of 1000 vs 37.4 of 1000 (P = .0448). Political affiliation (35.1 of 1000 vs 49.6 of 1000, P births. Lower teen abortion rates were, however, associated with restrictive abortion policies, specifically lower in states with financial barriers, deterrents to abortion, and requirement for parental consent. While teen birth rates do not appear to be influenced by state-level sex education policies, state-level policies that restrict abortion appear to be associated with lower state teen abortion rates. Copyright © 2015 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Employment in the Ecuadorian cut-flower industry and the risk of spontaneous abortion

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    Harlow Sioban D

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the potentially adverse effects of occupational pesticide exposure on risk of spontaneous abortion (SAB is limited, particularly among female agricultural workers residing in developing countries. Methods Reproductive histories were obtained from 217 Ecuadorian mothers participating in a study focusing on occupational pesticide exposure and children's neurobehavioral development. Only women with 2+ pregnancies were included in this study (n = 153. Gravidity, parity and frequency of SAB were compared between women with and without a history of working in the cut-flower industry in the previous 6 years. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the relation between SAB and employment in the flower industry adjusting for maternal age. Results In comparison to women not working in the flower industry, women working in the flower industry were significantly younger (27 versus 32 years and of lower gravidity (3.3 versus 4.5 and reported more pregnancy losses. A 2.6 (95% CI: 1.03-6.7 fold increase in the odds of pregnancy loss among exposed women was observed after adjusting for age. Odds of reporting an SAB increased with duration of flower employment, increasing to 3.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 8.8 among women working 4 to 6 years in the flower industry compared to women who did not work in the flower industry. Conclusion This exploratory analysis suggests a potential adverse association between employment in the cut-flower industry and SAB. Study limitations include the absence of a temporal relation between exposure and SAB, no quantification of specific pesticides, and residual confounding such as physical stressors (i.e., standing. Considering that approximately half of the Ecuadorian flower laborers are women, our results emphasize the need for an evaluating the reproductive health effects of employment in the flower industry on reproductive health in this population.

  7. Contraceptive use following spontaneous and induced abortion and its association with family planning services in primary health care: results from a Brazilian longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana Luiza Vilela; OlaOlorun, Funmilola; Fujimori, Elizabeth; Hoga, Luiza Akiko Komura; Tsui, Amy Ong

    2015-10-15

    Although it is well known that post-abortion contraceptive use is high when family planning services are provided following spontaneous or induced abortions, this relationship remains unclear in Brazil and similar settings with restrictive abortion laws. Our study aims to assess whether contraceptive use is associated with access to family planning services in the six-month period post-abortion, in a setting where laws towards abortion are highly restrictive. This prospective cohort study recruited 147 women hospitalized for emergency treatment following spontaneous or induced abortion in Brazil. These women were then followed up for six months (761 observations). Women responded to monthly telephone interviews about contraceptive use and the utilization of family planning services (measured by the utilization of medical consultation and receipt of contraceptive counseling). Generalized Estimating Equations were used to analyze the effect of family planning services and other covariates on contraceptive use over the six-month period post-abortion. Women who reported utilization of both medical consultation and contraceptive counseling in the same month had higher odds of reporting contraceptive use during the six-month period post-abortion, when compared with those who did not use these family planning services [adjusted aOR = 1.93, 95 % Confidence Interval: 1.13-3.30]. Accessing either service alone did not contribute to contraceptive use. Age (25-34 vs. 15-24 years) was also statistically associated with contraceptive use. Pregnancy planning status, desire to have more children and education did not contribute to contraceptive use. In restrictive abortion settings, family planning services offered in the six-month post-abortion period contribute to contraceptive use, if not restricted to simple counseling. Medical consultation, in the absence of contraceptive counseling, makes no difference. Immediate initiation of a contraceptive that suits women's pregnancy

  8. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk of spontaneous abortion Polimorfismos maternos MTHFR y riesgo de aborto espontáneo

    OpenAIRE

    María del Rosario Rodríguez-Guillén; Luisa Torres-Sánchez; Jia Chen; Marcia Galván-Portillo; Julia Blanco-Muñoz; Miriam Aracely Anaya; Irma Silva-Zolezzi; María A Hernández-Valero; Lizbeth López-Carrillo

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To asses the association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA) according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitami...

  9. HLA allele associations in idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion patients from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Shankarkumar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Rejection of semiallogenic foetus in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA has been postulated to be a consequence of genetic and immunological phenomena. Aim: To evaluate the role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA alleles in RSA in Indian couples. Settings and Design : A case-control study. Materials and Methods : Eighty-one randomly selected couples with unexplained three or more RSAs and a control group of 97 couples with live birth belonging to the same ethnic background, referred to the Gynaecology Department, KEM Hospital were included in the case-control study. Serological HLA A and B typing was done followed by molecular subtypes, defined using PCR-SSOP technique for HLA A, B, and C in 40 couples and DRB1FNx01 and DQB1FNx01 in 28 couples which were then compared with appropriate case 46 and 88 controls. Results : Serologically A3 (15.43% vs . 4.43%; odds ratio (OR = 4.34; P = 0.0002 and B17 (25.3% vs . 11.34%; OR = 3.49; P = 0.0001 were increased. Haplotype A1-B17 was significantly increased. Molecular subtyping revealed that AFNx01030102 (11.25% vs . 4.34%; OR = 3.00; P = 0.07, BFNx015701 (11.25% vs . 1.08%; OR = 13.10; P = 0.003, CwFNx01120201 (25% vs . 4.34%; OR = 10.50; P = 2.05E-05, HLA DRB1FNx01030101 (17.85% vs . 3.40%; OR = 7.6; P = 0.0001, DRB1FNx01150101 (32.14% vs . 13.63%; OR = 4.8; P = 0.0003, and DQB1FNx01060101 (35.71% vs . 29.34%; OR = 2.3; P = 0.004 were significantly increased in patients. A differential association was noticed when compared with reported world RSA patients. Conclusion: The HLA alleles AFNx01030101, BFNx015701, CwFNx01120201, DRB1FNx01030101, and DRB1FNx01150101 as well as their associated ancestral haplotype may play a significant role in development of RSA in India.

  10. Serum chemerin level in women with PCOS and its relation with the risk of spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuezhou; Quan, Xiaozhen; Lan, Yanli; Wei, Qipeng; Ye, Jinhai; Yin, Xiaofang; Ji, Zhisong; Xing, Hui; Yang, Ying

    2018-04-16

    Insulin resistance (IR) was recognized as a risk factor for the occurrence of abortion in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Chemerin was an adipokine which could induce IR and associated with reproductive process closely. However, few studies have inquired the relativity between chemerin and the occurrence of abortion in patients with PCOS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum chemerin and the occurrence of abortion in women with PCOS. We recruited 198 women with PCOS to participate in our study. On the third day of menstrual cycle or a random day in women with amenorrhea, we obtained their venous blood and measured the fasting insulin, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, chemerin, and hormones including FSH, E2, P, PRL, LH, and T. Additionally, BMI, HOMA-IR and LH/FSH of each subject were calculated. Finally, 58 of them were included in the study, in which 30 of them had normal pregnancy and the other 28 had an early miscarriage. We compared the biochemical characteristics between the normal pregnancy group and abortion group by independent-samples t test. In our study, those with a normal pregnancy had a lower level of BMI, FINs, HOMA-IR, and chemerin compared to abortion patients (p PCOS patients (p PCOS. Thus, serum chemerin may serve as a biomarker to identify pregnant women with PCOS who are at particular risk for later abortion, and who may benefit from prevention strategies.

  11. Decreased suicide rate after induced abortion, after the Current Care Guidelines in Finland 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissler, Mika; Karalis, Elina; Ulander, Veli-Matti

    2015-02-01

    Women with a recent induced abortion have a 3-fold risk for suicide, compared to non-pregnant women. The increased risk was recognised in unofficial guidelines (1996) and Current Care Guidelines (2001) on abortion treatment, highlighting the importance of a check-up 2 - 3 weeks after the termination, to monitor for mental health disorders. We studied the suicide trends after induced abortion in 1987 - 2012 in Finland. We linked the Register on Induced Abortions (N = 284,751) and Cause-of-Death Register (N = 3798 suicides) to identify women who had committed suicide within 1 year after an induced abortion (N = 79). The abortion rates per 100,000 person-years were calculated for 1987 - 1996 (period with no guidelines), 1997 - 2001 (with unofficial guidelines) and 2002 - 2012 (with Current Care Guidelines). The suicide rate after induced abortion declined by 24%, from 32.4/100,000 in 1987 - 1996 to 24.3/100,000 in 1997 - 2001 and then 24.8/100,000 in 2002 - 2012. The age-adjusted suicide rate among women aged 15 - 49 decreased by 13%; from 11.4/100,000 to 10.4/100,000 and 9.9/100,000, respectively. After induced abortions, the suicide rate increased by 30% among teenagers (to 25/100,000), stagnated for women aged 20 - 24 (at 32/100,000), but decreased by 43% (to 21/100,000) for women aged 25 - 49. The excess risk for suicide after induced abortion decreased, but the change was not statistically significant. Women with a recent induced abortion still have a 2-fold suicide risk. A mandatory check-up may decrease this risk. The causes for the increased suicide risk, including mental health prior to pregnancy and the social circumstances, should be investigated further. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  12. Relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion: a cross-sectional survey of working women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bokim; Jung, Hye-Sun

    2012-01-01

    The researchers conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the relationship between handling heavy items during pregnancy and spontaneous abortion among working women in South Korea. One thousand working women were selected from a database of those eligible for maternity benefits under the National Employment Insurance Plan. Study results showed that handling heavy items during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion after adjusting for general characteristics of the participants and their work environment. A collective effort is needed on the parts of employers, employees, occupational health nurses, and the government to protect working women from lifting heavy items while pregnant. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Active suppression of host-vs-graft reaction in pregnant mice. VII. Spontaneous abortion of allogeneic CBA/J x DBA/2 fetuses in the uterus of CBA/J mice correlates with deficient non-T suppressor cell activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.A.; Chaput, A.; Tutton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The mammalian fetus has been viewed as an unusually successful type of allograft and unexplained spontaneous abortion as a possible example of maternal rejection. Previous studies have shown the presence of small lymphocytic suppressor cells in the murine decidua which block the generation and reactivation of anti-paternal cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and lymphokine-activated killer cells (LAK) by elaborating a factor that inhibits the response to interleukin 2 (IL 2). A deficiency of these suppressor cells was associated with implants of xenogeneic Mus caroli embryos in the Mus musculus uterus which are infiltrated by maternal lymphoid cells and aborted. A deficiency of such suppressor cells in the lymph nodes draining the uterus of CBA/J females in the process of aborting their semi-allogeneic CBA x DBA/2 F 1 progeny has also been shown. CBA/J females possess significantly lower levels of decidua-associated non-T suppressor cells on day 8.5 to 10.5 of allopregnancy than do mothers that will produce large litters of live babies. The F 1 embryos are infiltrated by maternal lymphocytes prior to abortion, and the infiltration and abortion rate appears to be augmented by pre-immunization with paternal DBA/2 spleen cells. The CBA/J x DBA/2J mating combination provides a model of spontaneous abortion in which immunologic factors play an important role and demonstrates that the association between deficiency of decidua-associated suppressor cells and xenopregnancy failure also holds true for the failure of allopregnancies resulting from natural within-species mating

  14. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Fanli; Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng; Peng, Danhong; Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu; Yin, Lihong

    2016-01-01

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  15. A study on phthalate metabolites, bisphenol A and nonylphenol in the urine of Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Fanli [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ji, Wenliang; Zhu, Feng [Jiangsu Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing 210009 (China); Peng, Danhong [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Zhong Da Hospital, School of Medicine, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yang, Miao; Liu, Ran; Pu, Yuepu [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yin, Lihong, E-mail: lhyin@seu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Humans are widely exposed to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol owing to the ubiquitous use of these chemicals in consumer products. Increasing attention has been paid to exposure to phthalates, bisphenol A and nonylphenol because of their potential adverse effects on human fertility. A validated method was developed to investigate the three classes of environmental estrogen, mentioned above, in the urine of Chinese women of Nanjing area with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. Solid-phase extraction coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used. In this method, amounts of bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP) and four phthalate metabolites, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), mono-benzyl phthalate (MBzP) and mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), along with their isotope labeled internal standards, were measured using UPLC-MS/MS operated in negative electrospray ionization multiple reaction monitoring mode. The limits of detection were 0.3 ng/mL for the four phthalate metabolites, and 0.5 ng/mL for bisphenol A and nonylphenol. For women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion, the mean concentrations of MBP, MiBP, MBzP, MEHP, BPA and 4-n-NP were 6.52±6.04, 5.51±4.19, 0.53±0.42, 10.12±4.16, 7.13±7.42, 0.41±0.49 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. For the control group, the mean concentrations of the corresponding analytes were 4.15±3.57, 2.96±3.30, 0.46±0.49, 6.50±2.81, 4.43±2.23,0.48±0.43 ng/mL (mean±SD), respectively. Levels of MiBP and MEHP were significantly different between the two groups, using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. This method can be applied in epidemiological studies to explore the association between exposure to environmental estrogens and relevant adverse outcomes. - Highlights: • Studied on the exposure level of six analytes in Chinese women with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion. • Differences in MEHP and MiBP urine levels were

  16. Induced abortion on demand and birth rate in Sami-speaking municipalities and a control group in Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Norum

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to analyze the birth and induced abortion on demand (IAD rate among women in Sami-speaking communities and a control group in Finnmark County, Norway. Methods. The 6 northern municipalities included in the administration area of the Sami language law (study group were matched with a control group of 9 municipalities. Population data (numbers, sex and age were accessed from Statistics Norway. Data on birth rate and IAD during the time period 1999–2009 were derived from the Medical Birth Registry (MBR of Norway. Data on number of women in fertile age (15–44 years were obtained from Statistics Norway. Between 2001 and 2008, this age group was reduced by 12% (Sami and 23% (controls, respectively. Results. Finnmark County has a high IAD rate and 1 in 4 pregnancies (spontaneous abortions excluded ended in IAD in the study and control groups. The total fertility rate per woman was 1.94 and 1.87 births, respectively. There was no difference between groups with regard to the IAD/birth ratio (P=0.94 or general fertility rate GFR (P=0.82. Conclusions. Women in the Sami-majority area and a control group in Finnmark County experienced a similar frequency of IAD and fertility rate.

  17. Association between Spontaneous abortion and Presence of anti thyroid antibodies in mother’s serum

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    Mahmoud Mirhosseini

    2012-12-01

    Results: Out of 51 subjects, 18 had positive Anti-TPO-Ab, of which -10 were among the cases and 8 belonged to the controls. Out of 18 women with positive AntiTG-Ab, 11 cases were in the control group and 7 were in the cases. The differences between the control group and the amounts of Anti-TPO-Abs (P=0.468 and Anti-TG-Abs (P=0.675 were not swignificant. Conclusion: The results revealed that there is no association between abortion and presence of antithyroid antibodies in mother’s serum. Other abortion causes such as various kinds of infections and smoking might be involved which requires more research.

  18. Spontaneous abortions and malformations in the offspring of nurses exposed to anaesthetic gases, cytostatic drugs, and other potential hazards in hospitals, based on registered information of outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemminki, K; Kyyroenen, P L; Lindbohm, M L

    1985-06-01

    Nurses working in selected departments of general hospitals in Finland were collected from a central register on health personnel in Finland. Using the Hospital Discharge Register and the Register of Congenital Malformations, case nurses were selected who had had a spontaneous abortion (N = 217) or a malformed child (N = 46) between the years 1973 and 1979. Controls consisted of three nurses who had had a normal birth; the control nurses were matched for age and hospital of employment. Information on exposure in the first trimester of pregnancy was sought through the head nurses of the hospitals. No significant increase in risk of spontaneous abortion or of malformation was observed after exposure to anaesthetic gases (odds ratio for spontaneous abortion 1.2), sterilizing gases and soaps, or x-rays. Handling of cytostatic drugs did not affect the frequency of spontaneous abortion but was associated with malformations in the offspring. The odds ratio, based on eight cases, was 4.7 (p = 0.02) when the logistic model was adopted. The results suggest that the exposures investigated, other than cytostatic drugs, do not cause a strong reproductive risk. Further studies are needed, particularly on cytostatic drugs.

  19. Evaluation of the adenosine deaminase (ADA) G22A gene polymorphism with recurrent spontaneous abortion among Egyptian patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Gabal, Khadiga; Katta, Maha; Ibrahim, Raghda

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Adenosine and deoxyadenosine metabolism is influenced by adenosine deaminase (ADA) enzyme. ADA increases in different diseases and is considered as one of the markers for cell-mediated immunity. Pregnancy is associated with depressed cell-mediated immunity. The level of ADA expression, which seems to play a key role in maintaining pregnancy, is influenced by adenosine deaminase G22A gene polymorphism. We aimed in our study to evaluate the association of ADA G22A gene polymorphism with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in Egyptian women. Material and methods Adenosine deaminase G22A gene polymorphism was genotyped in 40 patients (age range 22-39 years) with a history of RSA, selected from those attending the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Clinic of Beni-Suef University Hospital, and 20 age-matched healthy women as a control group, using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. Results In our study, no statistically significant difference was found between RSA patients and control group as regards ADA G22A genotypes (p = 0.653) and alleles (p = 0.697). A comparison of the frequencies of ADA alleles in RSA patients as regards the below-35-years-old age group revealed that ADA 2(A) allele was associated with a low risk for RSA in patients aged 35 years old or younger (p = 0.008). Conclusions In conclusion, our study revealed an age-dependent protective value of ADA 2(A) allele in recurrent spontaneous abortions among the Egyptian population. PMID:29204093

  20. Association between long-acting reversible contraceptive use, teenage pregnancy, and abortion rates in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Connolly A

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne Connolly,1 Guilhem Pietri,2 Jingbo Yu,3 Samantha Humphreys4 1The Ridge Medical Practice, Cousen Road, Bradford, UK; 2HERON – A PAREXEL® Company, London, UK; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 4Merck Sharp & Dohme Limited, Hertfordshire, UK Background: Since the late 1990s, the British government has launched major strategies to address high teenage pregnancy and abortion rates in England. These have focused in part on improving access to contraception through national campaigns. This study assessed teenage pregnancy and abortion rate trends since 1998 and possible associations with usage of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs. Methods: Teenage conception rates and age-specific abortion rates were obtained from the Office for National Statistics and the Department of Health. LARC usage data was obtained for Depo-Provera, Implanon/Nexplanon, intrauterine devices, Mirena, and Noristerat from the IMS British Pharmaceutical Index, IMS Hospital Pharmacy Audit, IMS Disease Analyzer, and KT-31 reports. Through linear regression methods, changes in conception and abortion-related outcomes during 1998–2011 and the associations with LARC usage were assessed. Results: Conception rates for girls younger than 18 years of age decreased significantly between 1998–2011, from 46.6 to 30.7 per 1,000 girls. A statistically significant association was observed between this decrease and increased LARC usage (P=0.0024 in this population. Abortion rates among females aged <18 years or aged 18–19 years decreased between 1998–2011, and their associations with increased LARC usage were statistically significant (P=0.0029 and P=0.0479, respectively. The pattern in older women was complex; abortion rates in women aged 20–24 years or 25–34 years increased slightly from 1998 to 2011, with stabilization during 2007–2011. Conclusion: Increased LARC usage in England was significantly associated with decreased teenage pregnancy rates

  1. A study on relationship be tween genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection and spontaneous abortion%生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周萍

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染与自然流产的关系。方法选取我院自然流产患者(自然流产组)及人工流产患者(对照组),各60例。两组均采集宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织进行沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体培养,分析结果。结果自然流产组宫颈分泌物及蜕膜组织中沙眼衣原体、解脲支原体、沙眼衣原体+解脲支原体感染率均高于对照组( P<0.01)。结论生殖道沙眼衣原体和解脲支原体感染率与自然流产关系密切,可作为确定自然流产病因的指标。%Objective To explore the corelation of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection with spontaneous abortion,and provide clinical reference for the prevention and control of spontaneous abortion .Methods Patients with spontaneous abortion were selected as spontaneous abortion group ( n =60) and artificial abortion group ( n =60), and cervical se-cretions and decidual tissue of chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum were cultured and the results were analyzed .Results Infection rate of chlamydia trachomatis in cervical secretion of the natural abortion group ,ureaplasma urealyticum,chlamydia trachom-atis infection +UU rates of the natural abortion group were higher than that of the control group ( P <0.01).Conclusion Infection rate of genital chlamydia trachomatis and ureaplasma urealyticum infection rate and spontaneous abortion have a close relationship , which may be one of the causes of spontaneous abortion .

  2. DNA methyltransferase 3A promoter polymorphism is associated with the risk of human spontaneous abortion after assisted reproduction techniques and natural conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yudong; Zheng, Haiyan; Guo, Pingping; Feng, Shuxian; Zhou, Xingyu; Ye, Desheng; Chen, Xin; Chen, Shiling

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association of the DNA-methyltransferase (DNMT)-3A and DNMT3B promoter polymorphisms with the risk of human spontaneous abortion after assisted reproduction techniques (ARTs) and natural conception. We collected tissues from women who underwent abortion procedures: (a) chorionic villus samples (CVS) and muscle samples (MS) from spontaneous abortions conceived by ART and natural cycle (study group), n = 152; and (b) CVS and MS from normal early pregnancy and second trimester (control group), n = 155. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -448A > G in the DNMT3A promoter region and -149C/T polymorphism of DNMT3B were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and confirmed by sequencing. The allele frequency of -448A among pregnancy loss group and control group was 34.2 % vs. 16.5 %, respectively. Compared with GG carriers, the DNMT3A -448AA homozygotes had an about 16-fold increased risk of spontaneous abortion [odds ratio (OR) = 16.130, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 3.665-70.984], and AG heterozygotes had an OR of 2.027 (95 % CI, 1.247-3.293). However, the distribution of -448A > G in individuals derived from ART pregnancies was not statistically significantly compared with those derived from spontaneous pregnancies (P = 0.661). For DNMT3B, we observed genotype frequencies of 100 % (TT) in the study group and the control group. The DNMT3A -448A > G polymorphism may be a novel functional SNP and contribute to its genetic susceptibility to spontaneous abortion in Chinese women, and ART may not affect the distribution of -448A > G in pregnancy loss and normal pregnancy. The observed TT genotype of DMNT3B suggests that this is the predominant genotype of this population. The findings provide new insights into the etiology of human spontaneous abortion.

  3. Evaluation of transcobalamin II rs1801198 and transcobalamin II receptor rs2336573 gene polymorphisms in recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Yazdani-Shahrbabaki, Vajiheh; Danesh, Hiva; Bizhani, Fatemeh; Taheri, Mohsen

    2018-03-14

    It has been proposed that transcobalamin 2 (TCN2) and the transcobalamin 2 receptor (TCN2R) are associated with idiopathic recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphism on RSA in a sample of Iranian population. This case-control study was done on 92 RSA patients and 93 normal, fertile women. Genotyping of the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 variants was done by polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The findings showed no significant association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the risk/protection of RSA. Our results did not support an association between the TCN2 polymorphism and the risk of RSA in a sample of southeast Iranian population. Larger studies with different ethnicities are needed to evaluate the possible impact of TCN2 and TCN2R polymorphisms on the pathogenesis of RSA. Impact statement What is already known on this subject? Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), a multifactorial condition, is one of the most common complications of pregnancy. It has been proposed that genetic polymorphisms play a role in the pathogenesis of RSA. Few studies have examined the association between TNC2 and TCN2R polymorphisms and the RSA risk and the findings were inconsistent. The aim of the current study was to determine the possible association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the RSA in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. What do the results of the study add? The findings of the present case-control study did not support an association between the TCN2 rs1801198 and TCN2R rs2336573 polymorphisms and the risk of RSA in a sample of the Iranian population. What are the implications of these findings for clinical practice and future research? The findings of this study may provide a basis for future studies with larger sample sizes and different ethnicities

  4. Recurrence rate after thoracoscopic surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnegård, Hanna H; Rosén, Alice; Sartipy, Ulrik; Bergman, Per

    2017-08-01

    There is an on-going discussion regarding the recurrence rate after surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax by video assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) or by thoracotomy access. This study aimed to describe the recurrence rate, and to identify a possible learning curve, following surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax by VATS. All patients who underwent surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax by VATS at Karolinska University Hospital 2004-2013 were reviewed. Preoperative and operative characteristics were obtained from medical records. Patients were followed-up through telephone interviews or questionnaires and by review of medical records. The primary outcome of interest was time to recurrence of pneumothorax requiring intervention. Outcomes were compared between patients operated during 2004-June 2010 and July 2010-2013. 219 patients who underwent 234 consecutive procedures were included. The mean follow-up times were 6.3 and 2.9 years in the early and late period, respectively. The postoperative recurrence rate in the early period was 16% (11%-25%), 18% (12%-27%), and 18% (12%-27%), at 1, 3 and 5 years, compared to 1.7% (0.4%-6.8%), 7.6% (3.7%-15%), and 9.8% (4.8%-19%) at 1, 3 and 5 years, in the late period (p = 0.016). We found that the recurrence rate after thoracoscopic surgery for primary spontaneous pneumothorax decreased significantly during the study period. Our results strongly suggest that thoracoscopic surgery for pneumothorax involve a substantial learning curve.

  5. Study of miR-155 expression in villus tissue of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion and its relationship with apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Ying Du; Man-Zhen Zuo; Qiao-Ling Wang; Xiao-Juan Xie

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study miR-155 expression in villus tissue of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion and its relationship with apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules.Methods:40 cases of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion were selected as URSA group, 30 cases of normal early pregnant women receiving artificial abortion were selected as control group, and villus tissue was collected to detect expression levels of miR-155, apoptosis molecules (Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, Bax, Bad, Fas and FasL) and angiogenesis molecules (HIF-1α, VEGF and sFlt-1).Results: MiR-155 expression level in villus tissue of URSA group was significantly lower than that of control group and the more the times of abortion, the lower the miR-155 expression level; pro-apoptosis molecules Bax, Bad, Fas and FasL expression levels in villus tissue of URSA group were higher than those of control group and negatively correlated with miR-155 expression level, and anti-apoptosis genes Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl expression levels were lower than those of control group and positively correlated with miR-155 expression level; HIF-1α and VEGF expression levels in villus tissue of URSA group were lower than those of control group and positively correlated with miR-155 expression level, and sFlt-1 expression level was higher than that of control group and negatively correlated with miR-155 expression level.Conclusions:MiR-155 is lowly expressed in villus tissue of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion, and miR-155 may be involved in the occurrence and development of the disease through regulating the expression of apoptosis molecules and angiogenesis molecules.

  6. [Association of polymorphisms in signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 gene and the susceptibility to unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin-Guang; You, Ze-Shan; Wu, Zai-Gui; Li, Zhu-Yu; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiu-Ming; Fang, Li-Yuan; Jiang, Li

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the association between the polymorphisms of signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) gene and the susceptibility to unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion(URSA). PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to detect genotype 3 loca (rs7574865 G/T, rs10181656 C/G and rs16833431 C/T) polymorphism of STAT4 in 246 URSA cases (URSA group) and 183 normal controls (control group) . (1)The frequencies of rs7574865 were genotype G/G of 36.2% (89/246) in URSA group and 46.4% (85/183) in control group, genotype G/T of 47.2% (116/246) in URSA group and 45.4% (83/183) in control group, and genotype T/T of 16.7% (41/246) in URSA group and 8.2% (15/183) in control group, which reached statistical difference (P rs7574865 T allele and rs10181656 G allele increased the risk of URSA (OR = 1.51, 1.44, all P rs7574865 G/T and rs10181656 C/G showed haplotype G-T conferring the susceptibility to URSA (OR = 1.49, P < 0.01), but haplotype C-G could provide protection on URSA (OR = 0.68, P < 0.01). Polymorphisms of STAT4 gene might confer the susceptibility to URSA by altering STAT4 function and (or) its expression.

  7. Association between lower frequency of R381Q variant (rs11209026) in IL-23 receptor gene and increased risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdollahi, Elham; Tavasolian, Fataneh; Ghasemi, Nasrin; Mirghanizadeh, Seyed Ali; Azizi, Mohammdareza; Ghoryani, Mohsen; Samadi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is defined as three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions before the 20th week of gestation. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the interleukin (IL)-23 receptor gene (IL-23R; rs11209026, 1142 G wild type → A reduced function, Arg381Gln, R381Q) and RSA. For the study, 200 RSA patients (confirmed using established diagnostic criteria) and 200 normal individuals in fertility and infertility centers in the cities of Yazd and Isfahan were recruited during a period from 2012-2013. Using PCR-RFLP, the R381Q variant was screened for in the IL-23R gene of the patients and controls. The results indicated there were significant differences in the frequency of this genetic variant in the patients versus the healthy controls, i.e. 2% and 7.5%, respectively (p value = 0.01; odds ratio = 0.25; CI = 95%). No significant difference was found for the G allelic frequency in patients with RSA and in the control group (p = 0.60). The A allelic frequency was significantly different between the two groups (p = 0.01). Based on these findings, it is concluded that the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphism in the IL-23 receptor (R381Q) in patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is less than that found in normal control women.

  8. The close relation between birth, abortion and employment rates in Sweden from 1980 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmqvist, Mikael

    2006-09-01

    Birth and abortion rates in Sweden have fluctuated since 1980 while the proportion between the rates are the same at the beginning and end of the period. An increase in birth rates in the late 1980s resulted in a peak in 1991 and 1992, with 124,000 live births each year. Thereafter followed a steady decline in the rate until 2000, when the number of live births was about 90,000. At that point, the trend changed to an increase. The aim of this analysis was to investigate any relation between employment rates and the number of live births among women aged 20-34, and at the same time to explore the trend for abortion rates compared to the trend for live births. The relation between employment status and live birth rate is statistically more significant for women than men, and the rates have a higher correlation for the period after 1986. Young adults in this age group are vulnerable to economic cycles that can explain this covariation but the decline in birth rates in economically developed societies has multidimensional aspects and many other possible explanations. Much has been done in recent years in Sweden to decrease household inequality for families with children to avoid the risk of relative poverty, but the fact that there is no explicit health policy to reduce the abortion level that remain unchanged since the early 1980s may appear as a notable lack of strategy in a country with many other health-related goals.

  9. ABORt: Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing Protocol for High Data Rate Multichannel WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamadoun Tall

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ease of deployment and the auto-configuration capabilities of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs make them very attractive in different domains like environmental, home automation or heath care applications. The use of multichannel communications in WSNs helps to improve the overall performance of the network. However, in heavy traffic scenarios, routing protocols should be adapted to allow load balancing and to avoid losing data packets due to congestion and queue overflow. In this paper, we present an Acknowledgement-Based Opportunistic Routing (ABORt protocol designed for high data rate multichannel WSNs. It is a low overhead protocol that does not rely on synchronization for control traffic exchange during the operational phase of the network. ABORt is an opportunistic protocol that relies on link layer acknowledgements to disseminate routing metrics, which helps to reduce overhead. The performance of ABORt is evaluated using the Cooja simulator and the obtained results show that ABORt has a high packet delivery ratio with reduced packet end-to-end delay compared to two single channel routing protocols and two multichannel routing protocols that use number of hops and expected transmission count as routing metrics.

  10. Prevalence and diversity of Arcobacter spp. isolated from the internal organs of spontaneous porcine abortions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    On, Stephen L.W.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and possible significance of campylobacteria in pig abortions in Denmark, Surface-cauterised liver and kidney samples from 55 aborted pig fetuses submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory were taken and a sensitive isolation procedure used...

  11. Tapping Into Rate Flexibility: Musical Training Facilitates Synchronization Around Spontaneous Production Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Scheurich

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to flexibly adapt one’s behavior is critical for social tasks such as speech and music performance, in which individuals must coordinate the timing of their actions with others. Natural movement frequencies, also called spontaneous rates, constrain synchronization accuracy between partners during duet music performance, whereas musical training enhances synchronization accuracy. We investigated the combined influences of these factors on the flexibility with which individuals can synchronize their actions with sequences at different rates. First, we developed a novel musical task capable of measuring spontaneous rates in both musicians and non-musicians in which participants tapped the rhythm of a familiar melody while hearing the corresponding melody tones. The novel task was validated by similar measures of spontaneous rates generated by piano performance and by the tapping task from the same pianists. We then implemented the novel task with musicians and non-musicians as they synchronized tapping of a familiar melody with a metronome at their spontaneous rates, and at rates proportionally slower and faster than their spontaneous rates. Musicians synchronized more flexibly across rates than non-musicians, indicated by greater synchronization accuracy. Additionally, musicians showed greater engagement of error correction mechanisms than non-musicians. Finally, differences in flexibility were characterized by more recurrent (repetitive and patterned synchronization in non-musicians, indicative of greater temporal rigidity.

  12. Tapping Into Rate Flexibility: Musical Training Facilitates Synchronization Around Spontaneous Production Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheurich, Rebecca; Zamm, Anna; Palmer, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    The ability to flexibly adapt one’s behavior is critical for social tasks such as speech and music performance, in which individuals must coordinate the timing of their actions with others. Natural movement frequencies, also called spontaneous rates, constrain synchronization accuracy between partners during duet music performance, whereas musical training enhances synchronization accuracy. We investigated the combined influences of these factors on the flexibility with which individuals can synchronize their actions with sequences at different rates. First, we developed a novel musical task capable of measuring spontaneous rates in both musicians and non-musicians in which participants tapped the rhythm of a familiar melody while hearing the corresponding melody tones. The novel task was validated by similar measures of spontaneous rates generated by piano performance and by the tapping task from the same pianists. We then implemented the novel task with musicians and non-musicians as they synchronized tapping of a familiar melody with a metronome at their spontaneous rates, and at rates proportionally slower and faster than their spontaneous rates. Musicians synchronized more flexibly across rates than non-musicians, indicated by greater synchronization accuracy. Additionally, musicians showed greater engagement of error correction mechanisms than non-musicians. Finally, differences in flexibility were characterized by more recurrent (repetitive) and patterned synchronization in non-musicians, indicative of greater temporal rigidity. PMID:29681872

  13. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Methods Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008–2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Results Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Conclusions Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results. PMID:25938673

  14. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inah Kim

    Full Text Available Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea.Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012, we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB and menstrual aberration (MA among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs were estimated.Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties.Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  15. Reproductive Hazards Still Persist in the Microelectronics Industry: Increased Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Menstrual Aberration among Female Workers in the Microelectronics Industry in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Inah; Kim, Myoung-Hee; Lim, Sinye

    2015-01-01

    Despite the global expansion of supply chains and changes to the production process, few studies since the mid-1990 s and 2000s have examined reproductive risks of the microelectronics industry; we examined the reproductive risks among female microelectronics workers in South Korea. Based on claim data from the National Health Insurance (2008-2012), we estimated age-specific rates of spontaneous abortion (SAB) and menstrual aberration (MA) among women aged 20 to 39 years. We compared data between microelectronics workers and three different control groups: economically inactive women, the working population as a whole, and workers employed in the bank industry. For an effect measure, age-stratified relative risks (RRs) were estimated. Female workers in the microelectronics industry showed significantly higher risk for SAB and MA compared to control groups. The RRs for SAB with reference to economically inactive women, working population, and bank workers in their twenties were 1.57, 1.40, and 1.37, respectively, and the RRs for MA among females in their twenties were 1.54, 1.38, and 1.48, respectively. For women in their thirties, RRs for SAB were 1.58, 1.67, and 1.13, and those for MA were 1.25, 1.35, and 1.23 compared to the three control populations, respectively. All RRs were statistically significant at a level of 0.05, except for the SAB case comparison with bank workers in their thirties. Despite technical innovations and health and safety measures, female workers in microelectronics industry in South Korea have high rates of SAB and MA, suggesting continued exposure to reproductive hazards. Further etiologic studies based on primary data collection and careful surveillance are required to confirm these results.

  16. Estimating spontaneous mutation rates at enzyme loci in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukai, Terumi; Yamazaki, Tsuneyuki; Harada, Ko; Kusakabe, Shin-ichi

    1990-04-01

    Spontaneous mutations were accumulated for 1,620,826 allele-generations on chromosomes that originated from six stem second chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster. Only null-electromorph mutations were detected. Band-electromorph mutations were not found. The average rate of null-electromorph mutations was 2.71 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. The 95% confidence interval (μ n ) was 1.97 x 10 -5 n -5 per locus per generation. The upper 95% confidence limit of the band-electromorph mutation rate (μ B ) was 2.28 x 10 -6 per locus per generation. It appeared that null mutations were induced by movable genetic elements and that the mutation rates were different from chromosome to chromosome. (author)

  17. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms and risk of spontaneous abortion Polimorfismos maternos MTHFR y riesgo de aborto espontáneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Rosario Rodríguez-Guillén

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To asses the association between intake of folate and B vitamins and the incidence of spontaneous abortion (SA according to the maternal methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR polymorphisms (677 C>T and 1298 A>C. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study within a perinatal cohort of women recruited in the state of Morelos, Mexico. Twenty-three women with SA were compared to 74 women whose pregnancy survived beyond week 20th. Intake of folate and B vitamins respectively, was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Maternal MTHFR polymorphisms were determined by PCR-RFLP and serum homocysteine levels by HPLC. RESULTS: Carriers of MTHFR 677TT and 1298AC genotypes respectively showed an increased risk of SA (OR 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; 95% CI: 1.2, 20.9 and OR 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 26.6. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support the role of MTHFR polymorphisms as a risk factor for SA, regardless of dietary intake of B vitamins.OBJETIVO: Evaluar la asociación entre aborto espontáneo (AE y el consumo dietético de vitaminas B en mujeres mexicanas portadoras de los polimorfismos de la metilentetrahidrofolato reductasa (MTHFR (677 C>T y 1298 A>C. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Mediante un diseño de casos y controles anidados en una cohorte, se comparó la ingesta dietética materna de vitaminas B y folato, los polimorfismos maternos de la MTHFR y la concentración sérica de homocisteina de 23 casos de AE ( 20 semanas. RESULTADOS: Las portadoras de los genotipos MTHFR 677TT y 1298AC presentaron un incremento significativo en el riesgo de AE (RM 677TT vs. CC/CT=5.0; IC 95%: 1.2, 20.9 RM 1298 AC vs. AA=5.5; IC95%: 1.1, 26.6, respectivamente. CONCLUSIONES: Nuestros resultados apoyan el papel de la mutación de la MTHFR como posible factor de riesgo para el AE, independientemente del consumo de vitaminas B.

  18. Variations in T-helper 17 and Regulatory T Cells during The Menstrual Cycle in Peripheral Blood of Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Sereshki

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Disorders in immune system regulation may result in pregnancy abnormalities such as recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. This study aims to determine the ratio of regulatory T (Treg and T helper (Th 17 cells in unexplained RSA (URSA women during proliferative and secretory phases of their menstrual cycles compared to healthy non-pregnant women. Materials and Methods: In this case control study, 25 women with URSA and 35 healthy, non-pregnant women were enrolled. The percentage of Th17 and Treg cells in participants peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. Results: The percentage of Th17 cells and their related cytokines in serum (IL-17A were higher in the proliferative and secretory phases of the menstrual cycles of URSA women compared to the control women. However, a lower percentage of Treg cells and their related cytokines in serum, transforming growth factor (TGF β1 and interleukin (IL-10 were detected in the proliferative but not the secretory phase of the URSA group. The ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg was higher in the URSA group than the control group. We observed an increased ratio of Th17/CD4+ Treg during the proliferative and secretory phases in URSA women. Conclusion: The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells during the proliferative phase of menstrual cycles in the URSA group may be considered a cause for spontaneous abortion.

  19. Paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion: a population-based retrospective cohort study among non-smoking women aged 20-49 years in rural China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long; Yang, Ying; Liu, Fangchao; Yang, Aimin; Xu, Qin; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Yan, Donghai; Peng, Zuoqi; He, Yuan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xu, Jihong; Zhao, Jun; Zhang, Hongguang; Zhang, Ya; Dai, Qiaoyun; Ma, Xu

    2018-06-11

    To comprehensively evaluate the association of paternal smoking and spontaneous abortion. We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among 5 770 691 non-smoking rural Chinese women, along with their husbands, participating in the National Free Pre-Pregnancy Checkups Project, regarding outcome events that occurred in 2010-2016. The main outcome was spontaneous abortion (SA). Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate OR and 95% CI, and restricted cubic spline was used to estimate the non-linear relationship. The multivariable-adjusted OR of exposure to paternal smoking for SA was 1.17 (95% CI 1.16 to 1.19), compared with women without exposure to paternal smoking; and corresponding OR of exposure to preconception paternal smoking for SA was 1.11 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.14), compared with women without exposure to preconception paternal smoking. The ORs of preconception paternal smoking also increased with increases in paternal smoking (p nonlinear 0.05). In addition, periconception paternal smoking cessation was associated with an 18% (15%-22%) lower risk of SA. Paternal smoking was associated with SA. The importance of tobacco control, specifically pertaining to paternal smoking, should be emphasised during preconception and pregnancy counselling. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. The -2549 insertion/deletion polymorphism in the promoter region of VEGF is associated with the risk of recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad; Danesh, Hiva; Bizhani, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Mojgan; Bahari, Gholamreza; Tabasi, Farhad; Taheri, Mohsen

    2018-03-01

    Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) is a common health problem affecting women of reproductive age. Altered expression of vascular endothelial growth factor ( VEGF ) has been associated with spontaneous abortion. The present case-control study aimed to evaluate the impact of the 18-bp insertion/deletion (ins/del) polymorphism (rs35569394) in the promoter region of the VEGF gene on idiopathic RSA. Genomic DNA from 93 patients with RSA and 93 healthy fertile women of southeastern Iran was isolated using the salting-out method. Genotyping of the rs35569394 variant was performed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The findings indicated that the VEGF 18-bp ins/del variant significantly increased the risk of RSA under codominant (ins/ins vs. del/del; OR=2.85, 95% CI=1.31-6.22, P=0.019), dominant (del/ins+ins/ins vs. del/del; OR=2.19, 95% CI=1.20-4.01, P=0.015) and allelic (ins vs. del; OR=1.90, 95% CI=1.25-2.88, P=0.003) inheritance models. In summary, the findings propose a significant association between the VEGF 18-bp ins/del polymorphism and risk of RSA in a sample of the southeast Iranian population. Further studies on larger sample sizes and different ethnicities are required to validate the present findings.

  1. Abortion Before & After Roe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted; Tan, Ruoding; Zhang, Yuxiu

    2013-01-01

    We use unique data on abortions performed in New York State from 1971–1975 to demonstrate that women travelled hundreds of miles for a legal abortion before Roe. A100- mile increase in distance for women who live approximately 183 miles from New York was associated with a decline in abortion rates of 12.2 percent whereas the same change for women who lived 830 miles from New York lowered abortion rates by 3.3 percent. The abortion rates of nonwhites were more sensitive to distance than those of whites. We found a positive and robust association between distance to the nearest abortion provider and teen birth rates but less consistent estimates for other ages. Our results suggest that even if some states lost all abortion providers due to legislative policies, the impact on population measures of birth and abortion rates would be small as most women would travel to states with abortion services. PMID:23811233

  2. How much do we know about spontaneous human mutation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crow, J.F. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The much larger number of cell divisions between zygote and sperm than between zygote and egg, the increased age of fathers of children with new dominant mutations, and the greater evolution rate of pseudogenes on the Y chromosome than of those on autosomes all point to a much higher mutation rate in human males than in females, as first pointed out by Haldane in his classical study of X-linked hemophilia. The age of the father is the main factor determining the human spontaneous mutation rate, and probably the total mutation rate. The total mutation rate in Drosophila males of genes causing minor reduction in viability is at least 0.4 per sperm and may be considerably higher. The great mutation load implied by a rate of [approx] 1 per zygote can be greatly ameliorated by quasi-transition selection. Corresponding data are not available for the human population. The evolution rate of pseudogenes in primates suggests some 10[sup 2] new mutations per zygote. Presumably the overwhelming majority of these are neutral, but even the approximate fraction is not known. Statistical evidence in Drosophilia shows that mutations with minor effects cause about the same heterozygous impairment of fitness as those that are lethal when homozygous. The magnitude of heterozygous effect is such that almost all mutant genes are eliminated as heterozygotes before ever becoming homozygous. Although quantitative data in the human species are lacking, anecdotal information supports the conclusion that partial dominance is the rule here as well. This suggests that if the human mutation rate were increased or decreased, the effects would be spread over a period of 50-100 generations. 31 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The rate of spontaneous mutations in human myeloid cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araten, David J.; Krejci, Ondrej; DiTata, Kimberly; Wunderlich, Mark; Sanders, Katie J.; Zamechek, Leah; Mulloy, James C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We provide the first measurement of the mutation rate (μ) in human myeloid cells. • μ is measured to be 3.6–23 × 10 −7 per cell division. • The AML-ETO and MLL-AF9 fusions do not seem to increase μ. • Cooperating mutations in NRAS, FLT3 and p53 not seem to increase μ. • Hypermutability may be required to explain leukemogenesis. - Abstract: The mutation rate (μ) is likely to be a key parameter in leukemogenesis, but historically, it has been difficult to measure in humans. The PIG-A gene has some advantages for the detection of spontaneous mutations because it is X-linked, and therefore only one mutation is required to disrupt its function. Furthermore, the PIG-A-null phenotype is readily detected by flow cytometry. Using PIG-A, we have now provided the first in vitro measurement of μ in myeloid cells, using cultures of CD34+ cells that are transduced with either the AML-ETO or the MLL-AF9 fusion genes and expanded with cytokines. For the AML-ETO cultures, the median μ value was ∼9.4 × 10 −7 (range ∼3.6–23 × 10 −7 ) per cell division. In contrast, few spontaneous mutations were observed in the MLL-AF9 cultures. Knockdown of p53 or introduction of mutant NRAS or FLT3 alleles did not have much of an effect on μ. Based on these data, we provide a model to predict whether hypermutability must occur in the process of leukemogenesis

  4. Increased risk of abortion after genetic amniocentesis in twin pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palle, C; Andersen, J W; Tabor, A

    1983-01-01

    Forty-seven twin pregnancies among 3676 patients who had a genetic amniocentesis between 1973 and 1979, are reported. The detection rate of twins at the time of amniocentesis was 62 per cent. Five (17 per cent) of the 29 women with detected twin pregnancy aborted spontaneously, these are compared...... in at least one sac aborted, while 3 of 20 twin pregnancies with one puncture in each sac aborted (15 per cent). One of 18 (6 per cent) twin pregnancies, where only one sac was punctured, because the twin pregnancies were undetected, aborted. Amniocentesis of both sacs in twin pregnancies seems associated...... with an increased risk of spontaneous abortion. The indications for amniocentesis in twin pregnancies should be critically evaluated....

  5. Abortion - medical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  6. Induced Abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Induced Abortion Home For Patients Search FAQs Induced Abortion Page ... Induced Abortion FAQ043, May 2015 PDF Format Induced Abortion Special Procedures What is an induced abortion? What ...

  7. Increasing the risk of spontaneous abortion and major malformations in newborns following use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors during pregnancy: A systematic review and updated meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikfar Shekoufeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently used antidepressants during pregnancy. There are conflicting results about their influence on pregnancy outcomes. The goal of this study was to update our previous meta-analysis about pregnancy outcomes following exposure to SSRIs. For this purpose, all relevant databases were searched from 1990 to March 2012 for studies investigating the pregnancy outcomes following exposure to any therapeutic dosage of any SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, fluvoxamine during pregnancy. Types of outcome investigated were spontaneous abortion, major malformations, cardiovascular malformations, and minor malformations. A total of 25 studies met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OD values are 1.87 (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.33, P

  8. Characterization of the subsets of human NKT-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jing; Li, Jian; Huang, Shi-Yun; Sun, Xin

    2015-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the subsets of natural killer T (NKT)-like cells and the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines in the peripheral blood (PB) and/or decidual tissue of patients with unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The percentages of NKT-like cells in the PB and deciduas of URSA patients in early pregnancy and in the PB of nonpregnant women were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of interferon (IFN)-γ (Th1 cytokine) and Th2 cytokines, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, in the PB and decidual tissue was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Most percentages of subsets of NKT-like cells (CD3(+)CD56(+), CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+)) in the PB and deciduas were significantly greater in URSA patients than in normal pregnant and nonpregnant women. A cut-off value of 3.75% for the increased percentage of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB appeared to be predictive of pregnancy failure. Moreover, we found that in the decidua, IFN-γ expression was significantly higher, while IL-4 and IL-10 expression was significantly lower in URSA patients compared with those with a normal pregnancy. The ratio of decidual Th1/Th2 cytokines in URSA patients was significantly increased compared with that in normal pregnant women. Decidual IL-4 expression correlated negatively with the percentages of blood CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells and the decidual CD3(+)CD56(+) and CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells. NKT-like cells may play an important role in maintaining normal pregnancy. Measurement of CD3(+)CD56(+)CD16(+) NKT-like cells in the PB may provide a potential tool for assessing patients' risk of spontaneous abortion. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Increasing the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion and Major Malformations in Newborns Following Use of Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors during Pregnancy: a Systematic Review and Updated Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abdollahi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs are the most frequently used antidepressants during pregnancy. There are conflicting results about their influence on pregnancy outcomes.The goal of this study was to update our previous meta-analysis about pregnancy outcomes following exposure to SSRIs. For this purpose, all relevant databases were searched from 1990 to March 2012 for studies investigating the pregnancy outcomes following exposure to any therapeutic dosage of any SSRI (fluoxetine, paroxetine, citalopram, escitalopram, sertraline, fluvoxamine during pregnancy. Types of outcome investigated were spontaneousabortion, major malformations, cardiovascular malformations, and minor malformations. A total of 25 studies met our criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OD values are 1.87 (95% CI: 1.5 to 2.33, P< 0.0001 for spontaneous abortion, 1.272 (95%CI: 1.098 to 1.474, P = 0.0014 for major malformations, 1.192 (95% CI: 0.39 to 3.644, P=0.7578 for cardiovascular malformations, and 1.36 (95% CI: 0.61 to 3.04, P= 0.4498 for minor malformations. The results demonstrated that SSRIs increase the risk of spontaneousabortion and major malformations during pregnancy while they don’t increase the risk of cardiovascular malformations and minor malformations. Our previous meta-analysis only showed an increase in the risk of spontaneous abortion following the use of SSRIs duringpregnancy. This might be due to increase in the number of studies included or addition of two new SSRIs (citalopram and escitalopram. The message to researchers is to try considering SSRIs individually during pregnancy to reduce heterogeneity, although all are aware ofinevitable limitations to study on pregnant mothers.

  10. Effects of meditation practice on spontaneous eyeblink rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Ayla; Slagter, Heleen A; Bachhuber, David R W; Davidson, Richard J; Lutz, Antoine

    2016-05-01

    A rapidly growing body of research suggests that meditation can change brain and cognitive functioning. Yet little is known about the neurochemical mechanisms underlying meditation-related changes in cognition. Here, we investigated the effects of meditation on spontaneous eyeblink rates (sEBR), a noninvasive peripheral correlate of striatal dopamine activity. Previous studies have shown a relationship between sEBR and cognitive functions such as mind wandering, cognitive flexibility, and attention-functions that are also affected by meditation. We therefore expected that long-term meditation practice would alter eyeblink activity. To test this, we recorded baseline sEBR and intereyeblink intervals (IEBI) in long-term meditators (LTM) and meditation-naive participants (MNP). We found that LTM not only blinked less frequently, but also showed a different eyeblink pattern than MNP. This pattern had good to high degree of consistency over three time points. Moreover, we examined the effects of an 8-week course of mindfulness-based stress reduction on sEBR and IEBI, compared to an active control group and a waitlist control group. No effect of short-term meditation practice was found. Finally, we investigated whether different types of meditation differentially alter eyeblink activity by measuring sEBR and IEBI after a full day of two kinds of meditation practices in the LTM. No effect of meditation type was found. Taken together, these findings may suggest either that individual difference in dopaminergic neurotransmission is a self-selection factor for meditation practice, or that long-term, but not short-term meditation practice induces stable changes in baseline striatal dopaminergic functioning. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  11. Incidence and biomarkers of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, and neonatal loss during an environmental stressor: Implications for female reproductive suppression in the cooperatively breeding meerkat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimac-Stohl, Kristin A; Davies, Charli S; Grebe, Nicholas M; Stonehill, Alexandra C; Greene, Lydia K; Mitchell, Jessica; Clutton-Brock, Tim; Drea, Christine M

    2018-05-02

    Meerkats are group-living, insectivorous herpestids in which subordinate members provide extensive care for the dominant female's young. In contrast to some cooperative breeders, subordinate female meerkats are physiologically able to reproduce and occasionally do so successfully; their attempts are more frequently 'suppressed' via eviction or infanticide by the dominant female. Spontaneous abortion and neonatal loss occur with some regularity, further negatively impacting reproductive success. Here, we compared the reproductive outcomes and endocrine profiles, including of serum progesterone (P 4 ), serum estradiol (E 2 ), and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (fGCm), of dominant and subordinate dams residing within their clans in the Kalahari Desert of South Africa. Our study spanned years of drought, which reduced insect abundance and represented a substantial environmental stressor. Meerkat pregnancies were identified at mid-term and culminated either in spontaneous abortions or full-term deliveries, after which pups were either lost prior to emergence from the natal den (usually within 2days of birth) or emerged at 2-3weeks. Neonatal loss exceeded fetal loss for all females, and contributed to narrowing the status-related disparity in female reproductive output seen during less arid periods. Although E 2 concentrations were significantly lower in subordinate than dominant females, they were sufficient to support gestation. Absolute E 2 concentrations may owe to androgenic precursors that also attain highest concentrations in dominant dams and may mediate aggression underlying female reproductive skew. Pregnancies terminating in fetal loss were marked by significantly lower P 4 concentrations in mid-gestation and modestly lower E 2 concentrations overall. Consistently high fGCm concentrations further increased across trimesters, particularly (but not consistently) in subordinates and in aborted pregnancies. Environmental stressors may modulate reproductive

  12. Effect of Gutai Decoction (固胎汤) on the Abortion Rate of in vitro Fertilization and Embryo Transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ying; WU Jing-zhi

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of Chinese herbal medicine Gutai Decoction (固胎汤, GTD) on the abortion rate of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Methods: Observed were two hundred and forty-seven women having received IVF-ET and with β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG) > 25 IU/L on the 14th day after transferring. All were treated conventionally with progesterone 20-80 mg per day after transferring and if necessary the treatment was supplemented with Progynova 2 - 4 mg per day, with the medication withdrawn gradually from the 9th week of pregnancy till stopped completely. Among them 131 cases received GTD medication additionally, for 109 cases of whom the medication started from the 2nd day of transferring (taken as Group A) and for the other 22 cases from the 14th day after transferring (taken as Group B), the other 116 cases with no additional GTD treatment given were taken as the control group, with the medication lasting to the 12th week. The abortion rate in them was observed. Results: The abortion rate in Group A, Group B and the control group was 12.84%, 13.64% and 23.28%, respectively, the difference between the GTD treated groups and the control group was significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Chinese medicine GTD could reduce abortion rate in women receiving IVF-ET.

  13. Abortion - surgical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suction curettage; Surgical abortion; Elective abortion - surgical; Therapeutic abortion - surgical ... Surgical abortion involves dilating the opening to the uterus (cervix) and placing a small suction tube into the uterus. ...

  14. Análise citogenética em material de abortamento espontâneo Cytogenetic analysis of material from spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lorber Rolnik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever as anormalidades cromossômicas em material de abortamento espontâneo. MÉTODOS: Realizou-se compilação retrospectiva da análise de cariótipo em lâmina corada com Banda G por microscopia óptica e em material de 428 produtos de abortamento encaminhados para estudo. RESULTADOS: Foram observados 145 resultados normais (33,9% e 237 resultados anormais (55,4%. Em 46 amostras não houve crescimento celular (10,7%. As anormalidades numéricas foram as mais frequentes, destacando-se a trissomia do 16 (41 casos, a triplodia (27 casos, a monossomia do X (26 casos, a tetraploidia (13 casos e a trissomia do 15 (13 casos. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações citogenéticas representam importante causa de perdas gestacionais e sua detecção auxilia o aconselhamento genético do casal. A trissomia do cromossomo 16 é a alteração mais frequentemente encontrada.OBJECTIVE: To describe chromosomal abnormalities in spontaneous abortion material. METHODS: A retrospective compilation of karyotype analysis of slides stained with Band G was carried out by optical microscopy with materials of 428 abortion products referred for study. RESULTS: There were 145 normal results (33.9% and 237 abnormal results (55.4%. In 46 samples there was no cell growth (10.7%. Numerical abnormalities were the most frequent, especially trisomy 16 (41 cases, triplodia (27 cases, monosomy X (26 cases, tetraploidy (13 cases and trisomy 15 (13 cases. CONCLUSION: Cytogenetic alterations are an important cause of pregnancy loss and their detection helps the genetic counseling to the couple. Trisomy 16 is the most often found change.

  15. Update on abortion policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jennifer A; Brant, Ashley R; Shumaker, Heather D; Reeves, Matthew F

    2016-12-01

    To review the status of antiabortion restrictions enacted over the last 5 years in the United States and their impact on abortion services. In recent years, there has been an alarming rise in the number of antiabortion laws enacted across the United States. In total, various states in the union enacted 334 abortion restrictions from 2011 to July 2016, accounting for 30% of all abortion restrictions since the legalization of abortion in 1973. Data confirm, however, that more liberal abortion laws do not increase the number of abortions, but instead greatly decrease the number of abortion-related deaths. Several countries including Romania, South Africa and Nepal have seen dramatic decreases in maternal mortality after liberalization of abortion laws, without an increase in the total number of abortions. In the United States, abortions are incredibly safe with very low rates of complications and a mortality rate of 0.7 per 100 000 women. With increasing abortion restrictions, maternal mortality in the United States can be expected to rise over the coming years, as has been observed in Texas recently. Liberalization of abortion laws saves women's lives. The rising number of antiabortion restrictions will ultimately harm women and their families.

  16. Spontaneous Emission and Energy Transfer Rates Near a Coated Metallic Cylinder

    OpenAIRE

    BRADLEY, LOUISE

    2014-01-01

    PUBLISHED The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates of quantum systems in proximity to a dielectrically coated metallic cylinder are investigated using a Green's tensor formalism. The excitation of surface plasmon modes can significantly modify these rates. The spontaneous emission and energy transfer rates are investigated as a function of the material and dimensions of the core and coating, as well as the emission wavelength of the donor. For the material of the core we consider...

  17. Narratives of Ghanaian abortion providers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  18. Trying to prevent abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromham, D R; Oloto, E J

    1997-06-01

    It is known that, since antiquity, women confronted with an unwanted pregnancy have used abortion as a means of resolving their dilemma. Although undoubtedly widely used in all historical ages, abortion has come to be regarded as an event preferably avoided because of the impact on the women concerned as well as considerations for fetal life. Policies to reduce numbers and rates of abortion must acknowledge certain observations. Criminalization does not prevent abortion but increases maternal risks. A society's 'openness' in discussing sexual matters inversely correlates with abortion rates. Correlation between contraceptive use and abortion is also inverse but relates most closely to the efficacy of contraceptive methods used. 'Revolution' in the range of contraceptive methods used will have an equivalent impact on abortion rates. Secondary or emergency contraceptive methods have a considerable role to play in the reduction of abortion numbers. Good sex (and 'relationships') education programs may delay sexual debut, increase contraceptive usage and be associated with reduced abortion. Finally, interaction between socioeconomic factors and the choice between abortion and ongoing pregnancy are complex. Abortion is not necessarily chosen by those least able to support a child financially.

  19. The incidence of abortion worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K; Singh, S; Haas, T

    1999-01-01

    Accurate measurement of induced abortion levels has proven difficult in many parts of the world. Health care workers and policymakers need information on the incidence of both legal and illegal induced abortion to provide the needed services and to reduce the negative impact of unsafe abortion on women's health. Numbers and rates of induced abortions were estimated from four sources: official statistics or other national data on legal abortions in 57 countries; estimates based on population surveys for two countries without official statistics; special studies for 10 countries where abortion is highly restricted; and worldwide and regional estimates of unsafe abortion from the World Health Organization. Approximately 26 million legal and 20 million illegal abortions were performed worldwide in 1995, resulting in a worldwide abortion rate of 35 per 1,000 women aged 15-44. Among the subregions of the world, Eastern Europe had the highest abortion rate (90 per 1,000) and Western Europe to the lowest rate (11 per 1,000). Among countries where abortion is legal without restriction as to reason, the highest abortion rate, 83 per 1,000, was reported for Vietnam and the lowest, seven per 1,000, for Belgium and the Netherlands. Abortion rates are no lower overall in areas where abortion is generally restricted by law (and where many abortions are performed under unsafe conditions) than in areas where abortion is legally permitted. Both developed and developing countries can have low abortion rates. Most countries, however, have moderate to high abortion rates, reflecting lower prevalence and effectiveness of contraceptive use. Stringent legal restrictions do not guarantee a low abortion rate.

  20. Diminished Frequency of Menstrual and Peripheral Blood NKT-Like Cells in Patients With Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion and Infertile Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Samira; Shokri, Fazel; Pour, Soheila Ansari; Khoshnoodi, Jalal; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Zarnani, Amir-Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Systemic monitoring of immune system may not precisely outline the local immune status in the uterus. This survey is a continuation of our previous studies on potential usefulness of menstrual blood (MB) immunophenotyping as a tool for investigation of immunological disturbances in pregnancy-related disorders. Peripheral blood (PB) and MB from healthy fertile (n = 15), unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA; n = 15), and unexplained infertile women (n = 8) were collected simultaneously in the second day of their menstrual cycle and frequency of natural killer T (NKT)-like cell subpopulations were assessed by flow cytometry. Menstrual blood of all experimental groups contained higher percentage of TCRαβ + , CD45RO + , and CD16 - NKT-like cells compared to corresponding PB. Frequency of MB NKT-like cells in unexplained infertile participants was lower than fertile and URSA groups. Compared to normal participants, patients with URSA had lower frequency of PB TCRαβ + and higher CD16 + , while in infertile woman frequencies of PB CD45RO + , CD45RO - , CD16 - , IL17 + , and MB CD45RO + NKT-like cells were lower. Although, PB and MB seemingly have the same histological nature, our results showed that MB contained different composition of NKT-like subsets with different cytokine profiles and could be viewed as one potential biological sample for evaluation of patients with infertility and URSA.

  1. Role of Androgen Receptor CAG Repeat Polymorphism and X-Inactivation in the Manifestation of Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions in Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, Meka; Dasgupta, Shilpi; Sirisha, Pisapati V. S.; Andal Bhaskar, Sadaranga; Tarakeswari, Surapaneni; Singh, Lalji; Reddy, B. Mohan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of CAG repeat polymorphism and X-chromosome Inactivation (XCI) pattern in Recurrent Spontaneous Abortions among Indian women which has not been hitherto explored. 117 RSA cases and 224 Controls were included in the study. Cases were recruited from two different hospitals - Lakshmi Fertility Clinic, Nellore and Fernandez Maternity Hospital, Hyderabad. Controls were roughly matched for age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. The CAG repeats of the Androgen Receptor gene were genotyped using a PCR-based assay and were analysed using the GeneMapper software to determine the CAG repeat length. XCI analysis was also carried out to assess the inactivation percentages. RSA cases had a significantly greater frequency of allele sizes in the polymorphic range above 19 repeats (p = 0.006), which is the median value of the controls, and in the biallelic mean range above 21 repeats (p = 0.002). We found no evidence of abnormal incidence of skewed X-inactivation. We conclude that longer CAG repeat lengths are associated with increased odds for RSA with statistical power estimated to be ∼90%. PMID:21423805

  2. miR-520 promotes DNA-damage-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis by targeting PARP1 in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiujuan; Yang, Long; Wang, Hui

    2017-04-01

    The establishment and maintenance of successful pregnancy mainly depends on trophoblast cells. Their dysfunction has been implicated in recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA), a major complication of pregnancy. However, the underlying mechanisms of trophoblasts dysfunction remain unclear. DNA-damage-induced cell apoptosis has been reported to play a vital role in cell death. In this study, we identified a novel microRNA (miR-520) in RSA progression via regulating trophoblast cell apoptosis. Microarray analysis showed that miR-520 was highly expressed in villus of RSA patients. By using flow cytometry analysis, we observed miR-520 expression was correlated with human trophoblast cell apoptosis in vitro, along with decreased poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) expression. With the analysis of clinic samples, we observed that miR-520 level was negatively correlated with PARP1 level in RSA villus. In addition, overexpression of PARP1 restored the miR-520-induced trophoblast cell apoptosis in vitro. The status of chromosome in trophoblast implied that miR-520-promoted DNA-damage-induced cell apoptosis to regulate RSA progression. These results indicated that the level of miR-520 might associate with RSA by prompting trophoblast cell apoptosis via PARP1 dependent DNA-damage pathway.

  3. Up-regulated expression of Tim-3/Gal-9 at maternal-fetal interface in pregnant woman with recurrent spontaneous abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Fan-fan; Zuo, Wei; Zhou, Yuan; Hao, Hai-yan; Dang, Jing; Jiang, Min; He, Meng-zhou; Deng, Dong-rui

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain protein 3 (Tim-3)/Galectin (Gal)-9 pathway and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) was studied. Thirty-one pregnant women with RSA and 27 normal early gravidas were investigated to detect the levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas by Western blotting. Meanwhile, the concentration of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-12 in peripheral blood plasma was determined by ELISA in 25 healthy fertile non-pregnant controls, the normal early gravidas and pregnant women with RSA mentioned above, respectively. It was found that the relative expression levels of Tim-3 and Gal-9 in villi and deciduas were significantly increased in pregnant women with RSA as compared with those in the normal early gravidas. The concentration of IL-4 in peripheral blood plasma of pregnant women with RSA was lower than that of the normal early gravidas (Ppregnant controls (Ppregnant women with RSA was significantly higher than that of the normal early gravidas (Ppregnant controls (P<0.05). It was suggested that the overexpression of Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway may be related to the pathogenesis of RSA.

  4. The effect of adding hyoscine to vaginal misoprostol on abortion induction success rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tehranian A

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Intravaginal misoprostol has been shown to be an effective agent for cervical ripening and induction of labor. The aim of present study was to assess the effects of adding hyoscine to vaginal misoprostol on its success rate. "n"nMethods: In a clinical trial, 74 women who were referred to undergo legal induction of labor during first pregnancy trimester in Arash Hospital, in Tehran, Iran, between March 2006 and March 2007 were enrolled, and were randomly divided in to two groups of misoprostol (400 µg/4h, vaginal (n=37 or misoprostol (400 µg/4h, vaginal plus hyoscine (20 mg IV (n=37. Their complications including nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, need for analgesics, diarrhea, vaginal bleeding, decline in hemoglobin more than 3 g/dl, need for blood transfusion and failure of treatment according to the failure of induction of labor or cervical opening in 24 hours after starting treatment and the total duration of hospitalization were compared between groups. "n"nResults: There were no significant differences between groups regarding the rate of side effects like nausea, abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding. In misoprostol plus hyoscine group, the success rate in abortion was significantly higher (40

  5. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Tadele; Habte, Dereje; Tsima, Billy M.; Mogobe, Keitshokile Dintle; Chabaesele, Kesegofetse; Rankgoane, Goabaone; Keakabetse, Tshiamo R.; Masweu, Mabole; Mokotedi, Mosidi; Motana, Mpho; Moreri-Ntshabele, Badani

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications. Methods A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients’ records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed. Result A total of 619 patients’ records were reviewed with a mean (SD) age of 27.12 (5.97) years. The majority of abortions (95.5%) were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%). Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%), tender uterus (11.3%), septic shock (3.9%) and pelvic peritonitis (2.4%) were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2%) of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%). There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively). Conclusion Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for

  6. High Levels of Post-Abortion Complication in a Setting Where Abortion Service Is Not Legalized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadele Melese

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality due to abortion complications stands among the three leading causes of maternal death in Botswana where there is a restrictive abortion law. This study aimed at assessing the patterns and determinants of post-abortion complications.A retrospective institution based cross-sectional study was conducted at four hospitals from January to August 2014. Data were extracted from patients' records with regards to their socio-demographic variables, abortion complications and length of hospital stay. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were employed.A total of 619 patients' records were reviewed with a mean (SD age of 27.12 (5.97 years. The majority of abortions (95.5% were reported to be spontaneous and 3.9% of the abortions were induced by the patient. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as their first visit to the hospitals and one third were referrals from other health facilities. Two thirds of the patients were admitted as a result of incomplete abortion followed by inevitable abortion (16.8%. Offensive vaginal discharge (17.9%, tender uterus (11.3%, septic shock (3.9% and pelvic peritonitis (2.4% were among the physical findings recorded on admission. Clinically detectable anaemia evidenced by pallor was found to be the leading major complication in 193 (31.2% of the cases followed by hypovolemic and septic shock 65 (10.5%. There were a total of 9 abortion related deaths with a case fatality rate of 1.5%. Self-induced abortion and delayed uterine evacuation of more than six hours were found to have significant association with post-abortion complications (p-values of 0.018 and 0.035 respectively.Abortion related complications and deaths are high in our setting where abortion is illegal. Mechanisms need to be devised in the health facilities to evacuate the uterus in good time whenever it is indicated and to be equipped to handle the fatal complications. There is an indication for clinical audit on post-abortion care

  7. Association between induced abortion history and later in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao; Sun, Yun; Di, Wen; Kuang, Yan-Ping; Xu, Bing

    2018-06-01

    To establish an effective and safe clinical fertility strategy by investigating the relationship between abortion history and pregnancy outcomes of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. In the present retrospective cohort study, data from IVF treatment cycles performed at a reproductive center in China between October 1, 2014, and October 31, 2015, were assessed. Outcomes were compared between women with a history of induced abortion and those without. There were 1532 IVF treatment cycles included; 454 patients had a history of induced abortion and 1078 did not. The spontaneous abortion rate was significantly higher (30/170 [17.6%] vs 41/420 [9.8%]; P=0.002) and the endometrium was significantly thinner (8.8 ± 1.8 vs 9.7 ± 1.8 cm; P=0.001) among patients with a history of induced abortion compared with those without. In a subgroup analysis of patients with a history of induced abortion, women who had undergone surgical abortions had a lower live delivery rate compared with medical abortions (29/76 [38%] vs 101/378 [27%]; P=0.039). Further, women who had a history of more than two surgical abortions had lower live delivery and clinical pregnancy rates (both Pabortion was associated with worse IVF outcomes, especially a history of more than two surgical abortions. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  8. Polimorfismo do gene dos receptores de progesterona e o aborto espontâneo de repetição Progesterone receptor gene polymorphism and recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Évelyn Traina

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar se polimorfismos dos genes que codificam o receptor de progesterona (PROGINS estão relacionados à ocorrência de aborto espontâneo de repetição (AER. MÉTODOS: em estudo caso-controle, foram selecionados 85 pacientes com antecedente de pelo menos três abortos precoces sem etiologia definida (Grupo Caso e 157 mulheres com história de pelo menos duas gestações de termo sem intercorrências e sem passado de abortamento (Grupo Controle. Realizada coleta de 10 mL de sangue por punção venosa periférica e extração de DNA pela técnica DTAB/CTAB. As genotipagens foram feitas por reação em cadeia de polimerase (PCR, nas condições de ciclagem específica para o polimorfismo em estudo, seguida de amplificação em gel de agarose a 2%. A visualização das bandas foi feita sob luz ultravioleta e os géis foram fotografados. As diferenças genotípicas e alélicas entre os dois grupos para o polimorfismo PROGINS foram calculadas pelo teste de χ2, adotando-se como nível de significância valores de pPURPOSE: to assess a possible association between polymorphism of the progesterone receptor gene (PROGINS and recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA. METHODS: in this case-control study, 85 women with at least three previous spontaneous abortions without an identifiable cause (RSA Group and 157 women with at least two previous term pregnancies without pathologies and no previous miscarriage (Control Group were selected. An amount of 10 mL of peripheral blood was collected by venipuncture and genomic DNA was extracted by the DTAB/CTAB method, followed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR under specific conditions for this polymorphism and by amplification by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis. The bands were visualized with an ultraviolet light transilluminator and the gels were photographed. Differences in the PROGINS genotype and allele frequencies between groups were analyzed by the χ2 test, with the level of significance set

  9. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian T Henderson

    Full Text Available Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion.We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003, early implementation (2004-2006, and later implementation (2007-2010.23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85. Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75.Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve

  10. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D

    2013-01-01

    Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003), early implementation (2004-2006), and later implementation (2007-2010). 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance of concerted efforts to improve access. Other

  11. Effects of Abortion Legalization in Nepal, 2001–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Jillian T.; Puri, Mahesh; Blum, Maya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rana, Ashma; Gurung, Geeta; Pradhan, Neelam; Regmi, Kiran; Malla, Kasturi; Sharma, Sudha; Grossman, Daniel; Bajracharya, Lata; Satyal, Indira; Acharya, Shridhar; Lamichhane, Prabhat; Darney, Philip D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. Methods We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001–2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001–2003), early implementation (2004–2006), and later implementation (2007–2010). Results 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85). Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75). Conclusion Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women’s health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the importance

  12. Comparison of the Number of Peripheral Blood CD4+CD25+ T Cells in Unexplained Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion Patients with Normal Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Eslami

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Undoubtedly, reproduction is a necessity for survival and successful pregnancy is an immunological paradox. In the present study, we investigated the proportional changes of CD4+CD25bright T cells, CD4+CD25dim T cells in peripheral blood in unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortions (URSA and compared it with normal pregnant women by antibody monoclonal method. Methods: The study group comprised of women with miscarriages of unexplained etiology who had normal karyotypes, anticardiolipin antibodies, prolactin levels and normal spousal spermograms. They did not have polycystic ovaries and also did not receive any drugs at the time of the study. PBLs lymphocytes were isolated, then FITC-conjugated and anti-CD4 and PE-conjugated anti-CD25 antibody levels were measured. Then results of the study and control group were analyzed and compared. Results: The absolute number of CD25 bright cells in the CD4‏+T cells in peripheral blood was statistically significantly lower in the study group as compared to the control group(P=0.000. The absolute number of CD4+CD25dimT cells in peripheral blood was statistically significantly higher in the study group as compared to the control group (P=0.000. Conclusion: As decrease in the number of CD4+CD25+Tcells or their functional deficiency may be linked with miscarriage, CD4+CD25+‏ Tells could serve as a novel biomarker for monitoring in URSA patients, but more studies are needed in this field.

  13. Spontaneous mutation rate in Chinese hamster cell clones differing in UV-sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manuilova, E.S.; Bagrova, A.M.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1983-01-01

    The spontaneous rate of appearance of mutations to 6-mercaptopurine (6 MP) resistence in the cells of CHR2 and CHs2 clones dofferent in sensitivity to lethal and matagenous effect of UV-rays, is investigated. Increased UV-sensitivity of CHs2 clone is caused by the violation of postreplicative DNA reparation. It is established that the purity of spontaneously occuring mutations in both clones turns out to be similar, i.e. (1.5-1.8)x10 -5 for the cell pergeneration. It is shown that the effect of postreplicative DNA reparation in the cells of chinese hamster is not connected with the increase of spontaneous mutation ability. The problem on the possible role of reparation in the mechanism of appearance of spontaneous and induced mutations in the cells of Chinese hamster with increased UV-sensitivity is discussed

  14. Induced abortion in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P D; Lin, R S

    1995-04-01

    Induced abortion is widely practised in Taiwan; however, it had been illegal until 1985. It was of interest to investigate induced abortion practices in Taiwan after its legalization in 1985 in order to calculate the prevalence rate and ratio of induced abortion to live births and to pregnancies in Taiwan. A study using questionnaires through personal interviews was conducted on more than seventeen thousand women who attended a family planning service in Taipei metropolitan areas between 1991 and 1992. The reproductive history and sexual behaviour of the subjects were especially focused on during the interviews. Preliminary findings showed that 46% of the women had a history of having had an induced abortion. Among them, 54.8% had had one abortion, 29.7% had had two, and 15.5% had had three or more. The abortion ratio was 379 induced abortions per 1,000 live births and 255 per 1,000 pregnancies. The abortion ratio was highest for women younger than 20 years of age, for aboriginal women and for nulliparous women. When logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables, we found that the number of previous live births is the strongest predictor relating to women seeking induced abortion. In addition, a significant positive association exists between increasing number of induced abortions and cervical dysplasia.

  15. Assessment of baroreflex sensitivity from spontaneous oscillations of blood pressure and heart rate: proven clinical value?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinna, Gian Domenico; Maestri, Roberto; La Rovere, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    The baroreceptor-heart rate reflex (baroreflex sensitivity, BRS) is a key mechanism contributing to the neural regulation of the cardiovascular system. Several methods have been proposed so far to assess BRS by analyzing the spontaneous beat-to-beat fluctuations of arterial blood pressure and heart rate. These methods are inherently simple, non-invasive and low-cost. This study is an attempt to address the question of whether spontaneous baroreflex methods have proven to be of value in the clinical setting. In the first part of this article, we critically review most representative clinical studies using spontaneous BRS techniques either for risk stratification or treatment evaluation, these being major issues in the clinical management of the patients. In the second part, we address two important aspects of spontaneous BRS measurements: measurability and reliability. Estimation of BRS in the studies selected for the review was performed according to the sequence, transfer function, alpha-index and phase-rectified signal averaging method. Arterial blood pressure was recorded non-invasively during supine, short-term (<30 min) laboratory recordings. The conclusion from this review is that spontaneous BRS techniques have been shown to be of great value in clinical practice but further work is needed to confirm the validity of previous findings and to widen the field of clinical applications. Measurability and reliability can be a major issue in the measurement of spontaneous BRS, particularly in some patient populations like post-myocardial infarction and heart failure patents. Main causes of poor measurability are: non-sinus rhythm, a high rate of ectopic beats and the need for recorded time series of RR interval and arterial blood pressure to satisfy the constraints of the different BRS estimation algorithms. As for reliability, within-subject variability is rather high in the measurements of spontaneous BRS and, therefore, should be carefully taken into account

  16. Hospital admission following induced abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea--a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D L; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion.

  17. Hospital Admission following Induced Abortion in Eastern Highlands Province, Papua New Guinea – A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallely, Lisa M.; Homiehombo, Primrose; Kelly-Hanku, Angela; Kumbia, Antonia; Mola, Glen D. L.; Whittaker, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Background In Papua New Guinea abortion is restricted under the Criminal Code Act. While safe abortions should available in certain situations, frequently they are not available to the majority of women. Sepsis from unsafe abortion is a leading cause of maternal mortality. Our findings form part of a wider, mixed methods study designed to identify complications requiring hospital treatment for post abortion care and to explore the circumstances surrounding unsafe abortion. Methods Through a six month prospective study we identified all women presenting to the Eastern Highlands Provincial Hospital following spontaneous and induced abortions. We undertook semi-structured interviews with women and reviewed individual case notes, extracting demographic and clinical information. Findings Case notes were reviewed for 56% (67/119) of women presenting for post abortion care. At least 24% (28/119) of these admissions were due to induced abortion. Women presenting following induced abortions were significantly more likely to be younger, single, in education at the time of the abortion and report that the baby was unplanned and unwanted, compared to those reporting spontaneous abortion. Obtained illegally, misoprostol was the method most frequently used to end the pregnancy. Physical and mechanical means and traditional herbs were also widely reported. Conclusion In a country with a low contraceptive prevalence rate and high unmet need for family planning, all reproductive age women need access to contraceptive information and services to avoid, postpone or space pregnancies. In the absence of this, women are resorting to unsafe means to end an unwanted pregnancy, putting their lives at risk and putting an increased strain on an already struggling health system. Women in this setting need access to safe, effective means of abortion. PMID:25329982

  18. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on Crime

    OpenAIRE

    John Donohue; Steven Levitt

    2000-01-01

    We offer evidence that legalized abortion has contributed significantly to recent crime reductions. Crime began to fall roughly 18 years after abortion legalization. The 5 states that allowed abortion in 1970 experienced declines earlier than the rest of the nation, which legalized in 1973 with Roe v. Wade. States with high abortion rates in the 1970s and 1980s experienced greater crime reductions in the 1990s. In high abortion states, only arrests of those born after abortion legaliz...

  19. Cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rates for rhodamine 6-G in levitated microdroplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.D.; Whitten, W.B.; Ramsey, J.M.; Arnold, S.

    1992-01-01

    Fluorescence decay kinetics of Rhodamine 6-G molecules in levitated glycerol microdroplets (4--20 microns in diameter) have been investigated to determine the effects of spherical cavity resonances on spontaneous emission rates. For droplet diameters greater than 10 microns, the fluorescence lifetime is essentially the same as in bulk glycerol. As the droplet diameter is decreased below 10 microns, bi-exponential decay behavior is observed with a slow component whose rate is similar to bulk glycerol, and a fast component whose rate is as much as a factor of 10 larger than the bulk decay rate. This fast component is attributed to cavity enhancement of the spontaneous emission rate and, within the weak coupling approximation, a value for the homogeneous linewidth at room temperature can be estimated from the fluorescence lifetime data

  20. Estimates of the rate and distribution of fitness effects of spontaneous mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeyl, C.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    The per-genome, per-generation rate of spontaneous mutation affecting fitness (U) and the mean fitness cost per mutation (s) are important parameters in evolutionary genetics, but have been estimated for few species. We estimated U and sh (the heterozygous effect of mutations) for two diploid yeast

  1. Did Legalized Abortion Lower Crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Ted

    2004-01-01

    Changes in homicide and arrest rates were compared among cohorts born before and after legalization of abortion and those who were unexposed to legalized abortion. It was found that legalized abortion improved the lives of many women as they could avoid unwanted births.

  2. Transfer of spontaneously hatching or hatched blastocyst yields better pregnancy rates than expanded blastocyst transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natachandra M Chimote

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Blastocyst stage embryo transfer (ET has become routine practice in recent years. However, probably due to limitations of assisted hatching techniques, expanded blastocyst transfer (EBT is still the preferred mode. Inexplicably, not much consideration has been given to spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst transfer (SHBT. Aim: This study aimed to investigate developmental potential of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocyst against EBT in in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles. Settings and Design: Prospective study of 146 women undergoing their first IVF- ET cycle. SUBJECTS AND Methods: On the basis of blastocyst status, women were classified into SHBT and EBT groups. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were excluded to remove male factor bias. Implantation rate (IR, clinical pregnancy rate, and live birth rate were the main outcome measures. Statistical Analysis: Graph-pad Prism 5 statistical package. Results: SHBT group showed significantly higher blastocyst formation rate (53.3 ± 17.5 vs. 43.1 ± 14.5%, P = 0.0098, top-quality blastocysts (71.8 vs. 53.7%, P = 0.0436, IR (43.6 vs. 27.9%, P = 0.0408, pregnancy rate (59.4 vs. 45.1%, P = 0.0173, and live birth rate (36.8 vs. 22.8%, P = 0.003 compared to EBT group. Multiple pregnancy rates remained comparable between the two groups. Implantation correlated strongly with top-quality blastocysts (Pearson, r = 0.4441 in SHBT group, while the correlation was nonsignificant in EBT group. Conclusion: Extending culture of expanded blastocysts by a few hours to allow transfer of spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts gives higher implantation and pregnancy rates with no added risk of multiple gestations. Spontaneously hatching/hatched blastocysts have a better potential to implant and develop into a positive pregnancy.

  3. Abortion Incidence and Unintended Pregnancy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Mahesh; Singh, Susheela; Sundaram, Aparna; Hussain, Rubina; Tamang, Anand; Crowell, Marjorie

    2016-12-01

    Although abortion has been legal under broad criteria in Nepal since 2002, a significant proportion of women continue to obtain illegal, unsafe abortions, and no national estimates exist of the incidence of safe and unsafe abortions. Data were collected in 2014 from a nationally representative sample of 386 facilities that provide legal abortions or postabortion care and a survey of 134 health professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Facility caseloads and indirect estimation techniques were used to calculate the national and regional incidence of legal and illegal abortion. National and regional levels of abortion complications and unintended pregnancy were also estimated. In 2014, women in Nepal had 323,100 abortions, of which 137,000 were legal, and 63,200 women were treated for abortion complications. The abortion rate was 42 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and the abortion ratio was 56 per 100 live births. The abortion rate in the Central region (59 per 1,000) was substantially higher than the national average. Overall, 50% of pregnancies were unintended, and the unintended pregnancy rate was 68 per 1,000 women of reproductive age. Despite legalization of abortion and expansion of services in Nepal, unsafe abortion is still common and exacts a heavy toll on women. Programs and policies to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, increase access to high-quality contraceptive care and expand safe abortion services are warranted.

  4. [Abortion explained by a nurse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastit i Costa, M A

    1983-01-01

    Abortion is the termination of pregnancy prior to the 180th day, during which time the fetus is not yet viable outside the womb. Spontaneous abortion is the body's expulsion of a fetus during the 1st months of pregnancy. It is usually not very painful, does not involve much bleeding, and is rarely complicated by infection. Spontaneous abortion is much more frequent at the outset of pregnancy and may occur unnoticed. Its causes are unknown in over half of cases. The most important causes are developmental problems in the products of conception. Causes of spontaneous abortions of maternal etiology are most frequently uterine malposition or malformation. Serious illness in the mother is a less common cause of spontaneous abortion than once believed. Induced abortion is caused by the destruction of a normally implanted and healthy embryo. Its complications are related to the amount of bleeding or the introduction of germs from outside which can spread rapidly. Placental retention is a danger of all induced abortions. Induced abortion is common and in some countries it even creates demographic problems. Abortion is legal in many countries as an expression of the right to choose, but in others it is only legal on therapeutic grounds. Defenders and detractors of abortion have written extensively about it, with some works being sincere and some only tactical. The great majority of moralists are opposed to abortion, while biologists and scientists are divided on the question. The Spanish penal code punishes all persons who cause the death of a fetus or impede the process of gestation. The Catholic Church has considered abortion a homicide and against divine and natural laws. Legal or illegal, it is certain that the number of abortions increases each day. In the face of this reality, the need is for measures to avoid abortion whenever possible. Sex education in schools, full information on contraceptive methods and creation of family planning centers are some means of

  5. Legalized abortion in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, T M

    1967-10-01

    The enactment of the Eugenic Protection Act in Japan was followed by many changes. The population explosion was stemmed, the birth rate was halved, and while the marriage rate remained steady the divorce rate declined. The annual total of abortions increased until 1955 and then slowly declined. The highest incidence of abortions in families is in the 30 to 34 age group when there are four children in the family. As elsewhere abortion in advanced stages of pregnancy is associated with high morbidity and mortality. There is little consensus as to the number of criminal abortions. Reasons for criminal abortions can be found in the legal restrictions concerning abortion: Licensing of the abortionist, certification of hospitals, taxation of operations and the requirement that abortion be reported. Other factors are price competition and the patient's desire for secrecy. Contraception is relatively ineffective as a birth control method in Japan. Oral contraceptives are not yet government approved. In 1958 alone 1.1 per cent of married women were sterilized and the incidence of sterilization was increasing.

  6. Outcome of pregnancy complicated by threatened abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongol, A; Mool, S; Tiwari, P

    2011-01-01

    Threatened abortion is the most common complication in the first half of pregnancy. Most of these pregnancies continue to term with or without treatment. Spontaneous abortion occurs in less than 30% of these women. Threatened abortion had been shown to be associated with increased incidence of antepartum haemorrhage, preterm labour and intra uterine growth retardation. This study was to asses the outcome of threatened abortion following treatment. This prospective study was carried out in Dhulikhel Hospital - Kathmandu University Hospital from January 2009 till May 2010. Total 70 cases of threatened abortion were selected, managed with complete bed rest till 48 hrs of cessation of bleeding, folic acid supplementation, uterine sedative, and hormonal treatment till 28 weeks of gestation. Ultrasonogram was performed for diagnosis and to detect the presence of subchorionic hematoma. Patients were followed up until spontaneous abortion or up to delivery of the fetus. The measures used for the analysis were maternal age, parity, gestational age at the time of presentation, previous abortions, presence of subchorionic hematoma, complete abortion, continuation of pregnancy, antepartum hemorrhage, intrauterine growth retardation and intrauterine death of fetus. Out of 70 cases subchorionic haematoma was found in 30 (42.9%) cases. There were 12 (17.1%) patients who spontaneously aborted after diagnosis of threatened abortion during hospital stay, 5 (7.1%) aborted on subsequent visits while 53 (75.8%) continued pregnancy till term. Among those who continued pregnancy intrauterine growth retardation was seen in 7 (13.2%), antepartum hemorrhage in 4 (7.5%), preterm premature rupture of membrane in 3 (5.66%) and IUD in 3 (5.66%). Spontaneous abortion was found more in cases with subchorionic hematoma of size more than 20 cm2. In cases of threatened abortion with or without the presence of subchorionic hematoma, prognostic outcome is better following treatment with bed rest

  7. Association between perceived social support and induced abortion: A study in maternal health centers in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Siancas, Luis E; Rodríguez-Medina, Angélica; Piscoya, Alejandro; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between perceived social support and induced abortion among young women in Lima, Peru. In addition, prevalence and incidence of induced abortion was estimated. A cross-sectional study enrolling women aged 18-25 years from maternal health centers in Southern Lima, Peru, was conducted. Induced abortion was defined as the difference between the total number of pregnancies ended in abortion and the number of spontaneous abortions; whereas perceived social support was assessed using the DUKE-UNC scale. Prevalence and incidence of induced abortion (per 100 person-years risk) was estimated, and the association of interest was evaluated using Poisson regression models with robust variance. A total of 298 women were enrolled, mean age 21.7 (± 2.2) years. Low levels of social support were found in 43.6% (95%CI 38.0%-49.3%), and 17.4% (95%CI: 13.1%- 21.8%) women reported at least one induced abortion. The incidence of induced abortion was 2.37 (95%CI: 1.81-3.11) per 100 person-years risk. The multivariable model showed evidence of the association between low perceived social support and induced abortion (RR = 1.94; 95%CI: 1.14-3.30) after controlling for confounders. There was evidence of an association between low perceived social support and induced abortion among women aged 18 to 25 years. Incidence of induced abortion was similar or even greater than rates of countries where abortion is legal. Strategies to increase social support and reduce induced abortion rates are needed.

  8. Misperceptions about the risks of abortion in women presenting for abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Littman, Lisa; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Moshier, Erin L

    2014-03-01

    Misinformation about the risks and sequelae of abortion is widespread. The purpose of this study was to examine whether women having an abortion who believe that there should be restrictions to abortion (i.e., that some other women should not be allowed to have an abortion) also believe this misinformation about the health risks associated with abortion. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of women presenting consecutively for an abortion at an urban abortion clinic in Vancouver, British Columbia, between February and September 2012. Of 1008 women presenting for abortion, 978 completed questionnaires (97% response rate), and 333 of these (34%) favoured abortion restrictions. More women who favoured restrictions believed that the health risk of an abortion was the same as or greater than the health risk of childbirth (84.2% vs. 65.6%, P abortion caused mental health problems (39.1% vs. 28.3%, P abortion caused infertility (41.7% vs. 21.9%, P abortion should not be restricted was found to be a significantly correlated with correct answers about health risks, mental health problems, and infertility. Misinformed beliefs about the risks of abortion are common among women having an abortion. Women presenting for abortion who favoured restrictions to abortion have more misperceptions about abortion risks than women who favour no restrictions.

  9. Accuracy of rate coding: When shorter time window and higher spontaneous activity help

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Leváková, Marie; Tamborrino, M.; Košťál, Lubomír; Lánský, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 95, č. 2 (2017), č. článku 022310. ISSN 2470-0045 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08066S; GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB17AT048 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : rate coding * observation window * spontaneous activity * Fisher information * perfect integrate- and -fire model * Wiener process Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.366, year: 2016

  10. Provokeret abort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie; Schmidt, Garbi; Christoffersen, Mogens

    Gennem en række interview om kvinders oplevelse og erfaringer med provokert abort, samt ved at bruge data fra en stor forløbsundersøgelse af kvinder født i 1966, giver forfatterne bag denne rapport et præcist signalement af de kvinder, der vælger at få foretaget en provokeret abort og de eventuelle...... for sundhedspersonale og andre socialarbejdere. Den statistiske undersøgelse viser, at hver fjerde danske kvinde vil komme i den situation at skulle have en abort. Især kvinder med vanskelige opvækstvilkår er i risikogruppen. Tilgengæld er der næsten ingen langvarige fysiske og psykiske virkninger abort af abort, med...

  11. Aborto espontâneo e provocado: sentimentos vivenciados pelos homens Aborto espontáneo y inducido: sentimientos vivenciados por hombres Spontaneous and induced abortion: feelings experienced by men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Melo Laet Rodrigues

    2006-02-01

    . The narrative analysis was the research method. The narratives of seventeen men were analysed. The spontaneous abortion related feelings were the loss related anguish and, the provoked abortion, the culpability related feelings and its consequences. Men who share the abortion experience with their partners require sensibility and professionals involvement. Their main care demands were related to the desire of favorable reception, to get emotional support as well as a whole and correct information about the process.

  12. A Constant Rate of Spontaneous Mutation in DNA-Based Microbes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, John W.

    1991-08-01

    In terms of evolution and fitness, the most significant spontaneous mutation rate is likely to be that for the entire genome (or its nonfrivolous fraction). Information is now available to calculate this rate for several DNA-based haploid microbes, including bacteriophages with single- or double-stranded DNA, a bacterium, a yeast, and a filamentous fungus. Their genome sizes vary by ≈6500-fold. Their average mutation rates per base pair vary by ≈16,000-fold, whereas their mutation rates per genome vary by only ≈2.5-fold, apparently randomly, around a mean value of 0.0033 per DNA replication. The average mutation rate per base pair is inversely proportional to genome size. Therefore, a nearly invariant microbial mutation rate appears to have evolved. Because this rate is uniform in such diverse organisms, it is likely to be determined by deep general forces, perhaps by a balance between the usually deleterious effects of mutation and the physiological costs of further reducing mutation rates.

  13. Incidence of Induced Abortion and Post-Abortion Care in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Sarah C; Kimaro, Godfather; Muganyizi, Projestine; Philbin, Jesse; Kahwa, Amos; Ngadaya, Esther; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2015-01-01

    Tanzania has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios in the world, and unsafe abortion is one of its leading causes. Yet little is known about its incidence. To provide the first ever estimates of the incidence of unsafe abortion in Tanzania, at the national level and for each of the 8 geopolitical zones (7 in Mainland plus Zanzibar). A nationally representative survey of health facilities was conducted to determine the number of induced abortion complications treated in facilities. A survey of experts on abortion was conducted to estimate the likelihood of women experiencing complications and obtaining treatment. These surveys were complemented with population and fertility data to obtain abortion numbers, rates and ratios, using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology. In Tanzania, women obtained just over 405,000 induced abortions in 2013, for a national rate of 36 abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49 and a ratio of 21 abortions per 100 live births. For each woman treated in a facility for induced abortion complications, 6 times as many women had an abortion but did not receive care. Abortion rates vary widely by zone, from 10.7 in Zanzibar to 50.7 in the Lake zone. The abortion rate is similar to that of other countries in the region. Variations by zone are explained mainly by differences in fertility and contraceptive prevalence. Measures to reduce the incidence of unsafe abortion and associated maternal mortality include expanding access to post-abortion care and contraceptive services to prevent unintended pregnancies.

  14. On-chip plasmonic cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission rate at the zero-phonon line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siampour, Hamidreza; Kumar, Shailesh; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    Highly confined surface plasmon polariton (SPP) modes can be utilized to enhance light-matter interaction at the single emitter level of quantum optical systems [1-4]. Dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides (DLSPPWs) confine SPPs laterally with relatively low propagation loss, enabling to benefit both ...... and an up to 42-fold spontaneous emission rate enhancement at the zero-phonon line (a ∼7-fold resonance enhancement in addition to a ∼6-fold broadband enhancement) is achieved, revealing the potential of our approach for on-chip realization of quantum-optical networks....... from a large Purcell factor and from a large radiative efficiency (low quenching rates) [1, 2]. In this work, we present a DLSPPW-based Bragg cavity resonator to direct emission from a single diamond nitrogen vacancy (NV) center into the zero-phonon line (Fig. 1). A quality factor of ∼70 for the cavity...

  15. Hybridization alters spontaneous mutation rates in a parent-of-origin-dependent fashion in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Tufail; Sailer, Christian; Gerber, Florian; Loganathan, Nitin; Bhoopalan, Hemadev; Eichenberger, Christof; Grossniklaus, Ueli; Baskar, Ramamurthy

    2014-05-01

    Over 70 years ago, increased spontaneous mutation rates were observed in Drosophila spp. hybrids, but the genetic basis of this phenomenon is not well understood. The model plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) offers unique opportunities to study the types of mutations induced upon hybridization and the frequency of their occurrence. Understanding the mutational effects of hybridization is important, as many crop plants are grown as hybrids. Besides, hybridization is important for speciation and its effects on genome integrity could be critical, as chromosomal rearrangements can lead to reproductive isolation. We examined the rates of hybridization-induced point and frameshift mutations as well as homologous recombination events in intraspecific Arabidopsis hybrids using a set of transgenic mutation detector lines that carry mutated or truncated versions of a reporter gene. We found that hybridization alters the frequency of different kinds of mutations. In general, Columbia (Col)×Cape Verde Islands and Col×C24 hybrid progeny had decreased T→G and T→A transversion rates but an increased C→T transition rate. Significant changes in frameshift mutation rates were also observed in some hybrids. In Col×C24 hybrids, there is a trend for increased homologous recombination rates, except for the hybrids from one line, while in Col×Cape Verde Islands hybrids, this rate is decreased. The overall genetic distance of the parents had no influence on mutation rates in the progeny, as closely related accessions on occasion displayed higher mutation rates than accessions that are separated farther apart. However, reciprocal hybrids had significantly different mutation rates, suggesting parent-of-origin-dependent effects on the mutation frequency.

  16. Endo- and exocytic rate constants for spontaneous and protein kinase C-activated T cell receptor cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menné, Charlotte; Møller Sørensen, Tine; Siersma, Volkert

    2002-01-01

    To determine the rate constants of spontaneous and activated TCR cycling, we examined TCR endo- and exocytosis in the human T cell line Jurkat by three different methods. Using a simple kinetic model for TCR cycling and non-linear regression analyses, we found that the spontaneous endocytic rate...... constant of the TCR was low (approximately 0.012 min(-1)) whereas the spontaneous exocytic rate constant was similar to that of other cycling receptors (approximately 0.055 min(-1)). Following protein kinase C activation (PKC) the endocytic rate constant was increased tenfold (to approximately 0.128 min(-1......)) whereas the exocytic rate constant was unaffected. Thus, the TCR becomes a rapidly cycling receptor with kinetics similar to classical cycling receptors subsequent to PKC activation. This results in a reduction of the half-life of cell surface expressed TCR from approximately 58 to 6 min and allows rapid...

  17. The rate and effects of spontaneous mutation on fitness traits in the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David W; Fox, Sara; Kuzdzal-Fick, Jennie J; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2013-07-08

    We performed a mutation accumulation (MA) experiment in the social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum to estimate the rate and distribution of effects of spontaneous mutations affecting eight putative fitness traits. We found that the per-generation mutation rate for most fitness components is 0.0019 mutations per haploid genome per generation or larger. This rate is an order of magnitude higher than estimates for fitness components in the unicellular eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae, even though the base-pair substitution rate is two orders of magnitude lower. The high rate of fitness-altering mutations observed in this species may be partially explained by a large mutational target relative to S. cerevisiae. Fitness-altering mutations also may occur primarily at simple sequence repeats, which are common throughout the genome, including in coding regions, and may represent a target that is particularly likely to give fitness effects upon mutation. The majority of mutations had deleterious effects on fitness, but there was evidence for a substantial fraction, up to 40%, being beneficial for some of the putative fitness traits. Competitive ability within the multicellular slug appears to be under weak directional selection, perhaps reflecting the fact that slugs are sometimes, but not often, comprised of multiple clones in nature. Evidence for pleiotropy among fitness components across MA lines was absent, suggesting that mutations tend to act on single fitness components.

  18. Decreased spontaneous eye blink rates in chronic cannabis users: evidence for striatal cannabinoid-dopamine interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael A Kowal

    Full Text Available Chronic cannabis use has been shown to block long-term depression of GABA-glutamate synapses in the striatum, which is likely to reduce the extent to which endogenous cannabinoids modulate GABA- and glutamate-related neuronal activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of this process on striatal dopamine levels by studying the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR, a clinical marker of dopamine level in the striatum. 25 adult regular cannabis users and 25 non-user controls matched for age, gender, race, and IQ were compared. Results show a significant reduction in EBR in chronic users as compared to non-users, suggesting an indirect detrimental effect of chronic cannabis use on striatal dopaminergic functioning. Additionally, EBR correlated negatively with years of cannabis exposure, monthly peak cannabis consumption, and lifetime cannabis consumption, pointing to a relationship between the degree of impairment of striatal dopaminergic transmission and cannabis consumption history.

  19. Abortion trends from 1996 to 2011 in Estonia: special emphasis on repeat abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to describe the overall and age-specific trends of induced abortions from 1996 to 2011 with an emphasis on socio-demographic characteristics and contraceptive use of women having had repeat abortions in Estonia. Methods Data were retrieved from the Estonian Medical Birth and Abortion Registry and Statistics Estonia. Total induced abortion numbers, rates, ratios and age-specific rates are presented for 1996–2011. The percentage change in the number of repeat abortions within selected socio-demographic subgroups, contraception use and distribution of induced abortions among Estonians and non-Estonians for the first, second, third, fourth and subsequent abortions were calculated for the periods 1996–2003 and 2004–2011. Results Observed trends over the 16-year study period indicated a considerable decline in induced abortions with a reduction in abortion rate of 57.1%, which was mainly attributed to younger cohorts. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions fell steadily from 63.8% during 1996–2003 to 58.0% during 2004–2011. The percentage of women undergoing repeat abortions significantly decreased over the 16 years within all selected socio-demographic subgroups except among women with low educational attainment and students. Within each time period, a greater percentage of non-Estonians than Estonians underwent repeat abortions and obtained third and subsequent abortions. Most women did not use any contraceptive method prior to their first or subsequent abortion. Conclusion A high percentage of women obtaining repeat abortions reflects a high historical abortion rate. If current trends continue, a rapid decline in repeat abortions may be predicted. To decrease the burden of sexual ill health, routine contraceptive counselling, as standard care in the abortion process, should be seriously addressed with an emphasis on those groups - non-Estonians, women with lower educational attainment, students and women with children

  20. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H

    2015-10-01

    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. [Abortion and crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citoni, Guido

    2011-01-01

    In this article we address the issue, with a tentative empirical application to the Italian data, of the relationship, very debated mainly in north America, between abortion legalization and reduction of crime rates of youth. The rationale of this relationship is that there is a causal factor at work: the more unwanted pregnancies aborted, the less unwanted children breeding their criminal attitude in an hostile/deprived family environment. Many methodological and empirical criticisms have been raised against the proof of the existence of such a relationship: our attempt to test if this link is valid for Italy cannot endorse its existence. The data we used made necessary some assumptions and the reliability of official estimates of crime rates was debatable (probably downward biased). We conclude that, at least for Italy, the suggested relationship is unproven: other reasons for the need of legal abortion have been and should be put forward.

  2. Neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness interact to determine fruit set and abortion rates in a continuous tropical tree population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, F A; Comita, L S

    2008-12-07

    Tropical trees may show positive density dependence in fruit set and maturation due to pollen limitation in low-density populations. However, pollen from closely related individuals in the local neighbourhood might reduce fruit set or increase fruit abortion in self-incompatible tree species. We investigated the role of neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness on individual fruit set and abortion in the neotropical tree Jacaranda copaia in a large forest plot in central Panama. Using nested neighbourhood models, we found a strong positive effect of increased conspecific density on fruit set and maturation. However, high neighbourhood genetic relatedness interacted with density to reduce total fruit set and increase the proportion of aborted fruit. Our results imply a fitness advantage for individuals growing in high densities as measured by fruit set, but realized fruit set is lowered by increased neighbourhood relatedness. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is increased visitation by density-dependent invertebrate pollinators in high-density populations, which increases pollen quantity and carry-over and increases fruit set and maturation, coupled with self-incompatibility at early and late stages due to biparental inbreeding that lowers fruit set and increases fruit abortion. Implications for the reproductive ecology and conservation of tropical tree communities in continuous and fragmented habitats are discussed.

  3. Late induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, W

    1990-09-01

    In the UK in 1988, 13.3% of abortions were performed at 13 weeks' gestation or later. Reasons for this delay, in addition to the diagnosis through amniocentesis of a fetal abnormality, include late recognition of pregnancy, a change of mind about completing the pregnancy, a failure of primary care physicians to entertain the diagnosis of pregnancy, travel or financial problems, and referral difficulties and scheduling delays. Women with little education and very young women are most likely to present for late abortions. From 13-16 weeks, dilatation and evacuation is the safest method of pregnancy termination. The procedure can be made easier through preparation of the cervix with a prostaglandin pessary or Foley catheter. After 16 weeks, an instillation method is recommended; prostaglandin administration can be intro- or extra-amniotic. Complication rates at 13-19 weeks are 14.5/1000 for vaginal methods of abortion and 7.2/1000 for prostaglandin methods. The risk of complications is 3 times higher for women who have 2nd-trimester abortions through the National Health Service. Although it is not realistic to expect that late abortions ever can be eliminated, improved sex education and contraceptive reliability as well as reforms in the National Health Service could reduce the number substantially. To reduce delay, it is suggested that the National Health Service set up satellite day care units and 1-2 central units in each region to deal quickly with midtrimester abortions. Delays would be further reduced by legislation to allow abortion on request in at least the 1st trimester of pregnancy.

  4. [Induced abortion: a world perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshaw, S K

    1987-01-01

    This article presents current estimates of the number, rate, and proportion of abortions for all countries which make such data available. 76% of the world's population lives in countries where induced abortion is legal at least for health reasons. Abortion is legal in almost all developed countries. Most developing countries have some laws against abortion, but it is permitted at least for health reasons in the countries of 67% of the developing world's population. The other 33%--over 1 billion persons--reside mainly in subSaharan Africa, Latin America, and the most orthodox Muslim countries. By the beginning of the 20th century, abortion had been made illegal in most of the world, with rules in Africa, Asia, and Latin America similar to those in Europe and North America. Abortion legislation began to change first in a few industrialized countries prior to World War II and in Japan in 1948. Socialist European countries made abortion legal in the first trimester in the 1950s, and most of the industrialized world followed suit in the 1960s and 1970s. The worldwide trend toward relaxed abortion restrictions continues today, with governments giving varying reasons for the changes. Nearly 33 million legal abortions are estimated to be performed annually in the world, with 14 million of them in China and 11 million in the USSR. The estimated total rises to 40-60 million when illegal abortions added. On a worldwide basis some 37-55 abortions are estimated to occur for each 1000 women aged 15-44 years. There are probably 24-32 abortions per 100 pregnancies. The USSR has the highest abortion rate among developed countries, 181/1000 women aged 15-44, followed by Rumania with 91/1000, many of them illegal. The large number of abortions in some countries is due to scarcity of modern contraception. Among developing countries, China apparently has the highest rate, 62/1000 women aged 15-44. Cuba's rate is 59/1000. It is very difficult to calculate abortion rates in countries

  5. Abortion ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromer, M J

    1982-04-01

    Nurses have opinions about abortion, but because they are health professionals and their opinions are sought as such, they are obligated to understand why they hold certain views. Nurses need to be clear about why they believe as they do, and they must arrive at a point of view in a rational and logical manner. To assist nurses in this task, the ethical issues surrounding abortion are enumerated and clarified. To do this, some of the philosophic and historic approaches to abortion and how a position can be logically argued are examined. At the outset some emotion-laden terms are defined. Abortion is defined as the expulsion of a fetus from the uterus before 28 weeks' gestation, the arbitrarily established time of viability. This discussion is concerned only with induced abortion. Since the beginning of recorded history women have chosen to have abortions. Early Jews and Christians forbade abortion on practical and religious grounds. A human life was viewed as valuable, and there was also the practical consideration of the addition of another person to the population, i.e., more brute strength to do the necessary physical work, defend against enemies, and ensure the continuation of the people. These kinds of pragmatic reasons favoring or opposing abortion have little to do with the Western concept of abortion in genaeral and what is going on in the U.S. today in particular. Discussion of the ethics of abortion must rest on 1 or more of several foundations: whether or not the fetus is a human being; the rights of the pregnant woman as opposed to those of the fetus, and circumstances of horror and hardship that might surround a pregnancy. Viability is relative. Because viability is not a specific descriptive entity, value judgments become part of the determination, both of viability and the actions that might be taken based on that determination. The fetus does not become a full human being at viability. That occurs only at conception or birth, depending on one's view

  6. Sex ratios at birth after induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquia, Marcelo L; Moineddin, Rahim; Jha, Prabhat; O'Campo, Patricia J; McKenzie, Kwame; Glazier, Richard H; Henry, David A; Ray, Joel G

    2016-06-14

    Skewed male:female ratios at birth have been observed among certain immigrant groups. Data on abortion practices that might help to explain these findings are lacking. We examined 1 220 933 births to women with up to 3 consecutive singleton live births between 1993 and 2012 in Ontario. Records of live births, and induced and spontaneous abortions were linked to Canadian immigration records. We determined associations of male:female infant ratios with maternal birthplace, sex of the previous living sibling(s) and prior spontaneous or induced abortions. Male:female infant ratios did not appreciably depart from the normal range among Canadian-born women and most women born outside of Canada, irrespective of the sex of previous children or the characteristics of prior abortions. However, among infants of women who immigrated from India and had previously given birth to 2 girls, the overall male:female ratio was 1.96 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75-2.21) for the third live birth. The male:female infant ratio after 2 girls was 1.77 (95% CI 1.26-2.47) times higher if the current birth was preceded by 1 induced abortion, 2.38 (95% CI 1.44-3.94) times higher if preceded by 2 or more induced abortions and 3.88 (95% CI 2.02-7.50) times higher if the induced abortion was performed at 15 weeks or more gestation relative to no preceding abortion. Spontaneous abortions were not associated with male-biased sex ratios in subsequent births. High male:female ratios observed among infants born to women who immigrated from India are associated with induced abortions, especially in the second trimester of pregnancy. © 2016 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors.

  7. Tackling unsafe abortion in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyong'o, D; Oodit, G

    1996-01-01

    Despite a contraceptive prevalence rate of 75% Mauritius has a high incidence of unsafe abortions because of unprotected intercourse experienced by many young women in a rapidly industrializing environment. The Mauritius Family Planning Association (MFPA) tackled the issue of unsafe abortion in 1993. Abortion is illegal in the country, and the Catholic Church also strongly opposes modern family planning methods, thus the use of withdrawal and/or calendar methods have been increasing. The MFPA organized an advocacy symposium in 1993 on unsafe abortion with the result of revealing the pressure the Church was exerting relative to abortion and contraceptives. The advocacy campaign of the MFPA consists of having abortion legalized on health grounds and improving family planning services, especially for young unmarried women and men. The full support of the media was secured on the abortion issue: articles appeared, meetings were attended by the press, and public relations support was also received from them. The MFPA worked closely with parliamentarians. A motion was tabled in 1994 in the National Assembly which called for legalization of abortion on health grounds, but the Church squelched its debate. In March 1994 MFPA hosted the IPPF African Regional Conference on Unsafe Abortion in Mauritius with the participation of over 100 representatives from 20 countries, and subsequently a second motion was tabled without parliamentary debate. The deliberations were covered by the media and the Ministry of Women's Rights recognized abortion as an urgent issue as outlined in a white paper prepared for the Fourth World Conference on Women held in Beijing in 1995. The campaign changed the policy climate favorably making the public more conscious of unsafe abortion. The Ministry of Health decided to collect more data and the newly elected government seems to be more open about this issue.

  8. POST ABORTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS. ADESHIYUN

    Introduction. Septic sacroilitis is a rare complication of abortion. 1 . Pregnant women are often at risk of developing varying degree of sacroiliac joint dysfunction due to laxity of the ligaments; this laxity is hormonally induced. Pregnancy arthropathy, which is the commonest cause of hip and pelvic pain in pregnancy, must be ...

  9. Spontaneous eye blink rate as predictor of dopamine-related cognitive function-A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongkees, Bryant J; Colzato, Lorenza S

    2016-12-01

    An extensive body of research suggests the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR) is a non-invasive indirect marker of central dopamine (DA) function, with higher EBR predicting higher DA function. In the present review we provide a comprehensive overview of this literature. We broadly divide the available research in studies that aim to disentangle the dopaminergic underpinnings of EBR, investigate its utility in diagnosis of DA-related disorders and responsivity to drug treatment, and, lastly, investigate EBR as predictor of individual differences in DA-related cognitive performance. We conclude (i) EBR can reflect both DA receptor subtype D1 and D2 activity, although baseline EBR might be most strongly related to the latter, (ii) EBR can predict hypo- and hyperdopaminergic activity as well as normalization of this activity following treatment, and (iii) EBR can reliably predict individual differences in performance on many cognitive tasks, in particular those related to reward-driven behavior and cognitive flexibility. In sum, this review establishes EBR as a useful predictor of DA in a wide variety of contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Why Women are dying from unsafe Abortion: Narratives of Ghanaian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, despite the availability of safe, legally permissible abortion services, high rates of morbidity and mortality from unsafe abortion persist. Through interviews with Ghanaian physicians on the front lines of abortion provision, we begin to describe major barriers to widespread safe abortion. Their stories illustrate the ...

  11. The (B)link Between Creativity and Dopamine: Spontaneous Eye Blink Rates Predict and Dissociate Divergent and Convergent Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermahini, Soghra Akbari; Hommel, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Human creativity has been claimed to rely on the neurotransmitter dopamine, but evidence is still sparse. We studied whether individual performance (N=117) in divergent thinking (alternative uses task) and convergent thinking (remote association task) can be predicted by the individual spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR), a clinical marker of…

  12. Medical abortion and the risk of subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Zhang, Jun; Olsen, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The long-term safety of surgical abortion in the first trimester is well established. Despite the increasing use of medical abortion (abortion by means of medication), limited information is available regarding the effects of this procedure on subsequent pregnancies. METHODS: We...... identified all women living in Denmark who had undergone an abortion for nonmedical reasons between 1999 and 2004 and obtained information regarding subsequent pregnancies from national registries. Risks of ectopic pregnancy, spontaneous abortion, preterm birth (at ... weight (abortion were compared with risks in women who had had a first-trimester surgical abortion. RESULTS: Among 11,814 pregnancies in women who had had a previous first-trimester medical abortion (2710 women...

  13. Legalized abortion: a public health success story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, M

    1999-06-01

    60% of more than 2000 women surveyed by the Picker Institute who underwent induced abortion procedures rated the quality of their care as excellent. Another third reported their care as being either very good or good. The survey also found that the quality of abortion care is comparable to other outpatient surgery. However, the high quality of care women receive from abortion providers is lost in the hostile anti-abortion climate created by threatening protesters outside of clinics and the murder of 7 clinic workers and physicians who performed abortions. Abortion opponents fail to acknowledge that legal abortion is a medical procedure which protects women's health and saves their lives. Before abortion was legalized in the US, countless women were either rendered unable to reproduce or died from abortion-related complications. Efforts to outlaw abortion persist despite it being widely recognized by medical experts as one of the most safe medical procedures currently performed in the US. When state legislatures target abortion providers with unduly strict regulations, abortion becomes prohibitively expensive and difficult to obtain.

  14. Unintended Pregnancy, Induced Abortion, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Sarah; Schreiber, Courtney A

    2017-09-14

    The early medical literature on mental health outcomes following abortion is fraught with methodological flaws that can improperly influence clinical practice. Our goal is to review the current medical literature on depression and other mental health outcomes for women obtaining abortions. The Turnaway Study prospectively enrolled 956 women seeking abortion in the USA and followed their mental health outcomes for 5 years. The control group was comprised of women denied abortions based on gestational age limits, thereby circumventing the major methodological flaw that had plagued earlier studies on the topic. Rates of depression are not significantly different between women obtaining abortion and those denied abortion. Rates of anxiety are initially higher in women denied abortion care. Counseling on decision-making for women with unintended pregnancies should reflect these findings.

  15. Telling stories about abortion: abortion-related plots in American film and television, 1916-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Gretchen; Kimport, Katrina

    2014-05-01

    Popular discourse on abortion in film and television assumes that abortions are under- and misrepresented. Research indicates that such representations influence public perception of abortion care and may play a role in the production of social myths around abortion, with consequences for women's experience of abortion. To date, abortion plotlines in American film and television have not been systematically tracked and analyzed. A comprehensive online search was conducted to identify all representations of pregnancy decision making and abortion in American film and television through January 2013. Search results were coded for year, pregnancy decision and mortality outcome. A total of 310 plotlines were identified, with an overall upward trend over time in the number of representations of abortion decision making. Of these plotlines, 173 (55.8%) resulted in abortion, 80 (25.8%) in parenting, 13 (4.2%) in adoption and 21 (6.7%) in pregnancy loss, and 16 (5.1%) were unresolved. A total of 13.5% (n=42) of stories ended with the death of the woman who considered an abortion, whether or not she obtained one. Abortion-related plotlines occur more frequently than popular discourse assumes. Year-to-year variation in frequency suggests an interactive relationship between media representations, cultural attitudes and policies around abortion regulation, consistent with cultural theory of the relationship between media products and social beliefs. Patterns of outcomes and rates of mortality are not representative of real experience and may contribute to social myths around abortion. The narrative linking of pregnancy termination with mortality is of particular note, supporting the social myth associating abortion with death. This analysis empirically describes the number of abortion-related plotlines in American film and television. It contributes to the systematic evaluation of the portrayal of abortion in popular culture and provides abortion care professionals and

  16. The influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning on divorce rates as found in the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehring, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of contraception, abortion, and natural family planning (NFP) on divorce rates of US women of reproductive age. The variables of importance of religion and frequency of church attendance were also included in the analysis. The study involved 5,530 reproductive age women in the (2006-2010) National Survey of Family Growth who indicate that they were ever married. Among the women who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who were currently divorced among the women who never used NFP (x (2) = 5.34, P sterilization, and/or methods of contraception increased the likelihood of divorce - up to two times. Frequency of church attendance decreased the risk of divorce. Although there is less divorce among NFP users the reason might be due to their religiosity. Lay summary: Providers of natural family planning (NFP) frequently mention that couples who practice NFP have fewer divorces compared to couples who use contraception. Evidence for this comment is weak. This study utilized a large data set of 5,530 reproductive age women to determine the influence that contraception, sterilization, abortion, and NFP has on divorce rates. Among the women participants who ever used NFP only 9.6 percent were currently divorced compared with the 14.4 percent who used methods of contraception, sterilization or abortion as a family planning method. Frequency of church attendance also reduced the likelihood of divorce.

  17. Abortion legalized: challenges ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M; Jha, R

    2007-01-01

    To see whether advocacy for abortion law and comprehensive abortion care (CAC) sites after legalization of abortion in Nepal is adequate among educated people (above school leaving certificate). 150 participants were assigned randomly who agreed to be in the survey and were given structured questionnaires to find out their perception of abortion and CAC sites. Majority know abortion is legalized and majority have positive attitude about legalization of abortion, however majority are not aware of abortion service in CAC sites and none knew the cost of abortion service. Proper and adequate advocacy of the new abortion law and CAC service is essential.

  18. Investigations concerning the prevalence of Coxiella burnetii and Chlamydia abortus in sheep in correlation with management systems and abortion rate in Lower Saxony in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runge, Martin; Binder, Alfred; Schotte, Ulrich; Ganter, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The intracellular bacteria Coxiella (C) burnetii and Chlamydia (Chl) abortus induce abortion in sheep and also affect humans. While Chl. abortus only infrequently infects humans, C burnetii is the aetiological agent of numerous Q fever outbreaks during the last decades. There is only limited knowledge about the prevalence of both pathogens in sheep, although sheep are involved in almost all Q fever outbreaks in Germany. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of both pathogens in flocks located in Lower Saxony, Germany, in correlation to the management form and abortion rate. Serum samples of 1714 sheep from 95 flocks located in Lower Saxony were investigated by ELISA. 2.7% of these samples were positive, 1.3% showed inconclusive results in the C. burnetii-ELISA. Elevated intra-flock seroprevalences were only detected in three migrating flocks. Chlamydia-specific antibodies could be detected in 15.1% serum samples of mainly shepherded and migrating flocks. In one of these flocks with a high intra-flock seroprevalence for C burnetii (27%) and Chlamydia (44.9%), C burnetii was detected in 21.6% of the placenta samples of normal births and in 12.5% of the colostrum samples by PCR. Aborted fetuses and the corresponding placentas were negative in C burnetii-PCR, but in most of them and also in many other placenta samples Chl. abortus could be detected by PCR and DNA microarray. This survey shows a low overall prevalence of C. burnetii in sheep in Lower Saxony in the year 2004. However, three migrating flocks with a high intra-flock prevalence are localized in the southern parts of Lower Saxony. Spreading of C burnetii could occur, because of the large radius of grazing of all three flocks.

  19. Mental health and abortion: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G; Wickett, A R

    1989-11-01

    This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions.

  20. CD107a Expression and IFN-γ Production as Markers for Evaluation of Cytotoxic CD3+ CD8+ T Cell Response to CMV Antigen in Women with Recurrent Spontaneous Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarokhian, Batoul; Sherkat, Roya; Nasr Esfahani, Mohamma Hossein; Adib, Minoo; Kiani Esfahani, Abbas; Ataei, Behrooz

    2014-01-01

    Some evidence has shown a relationship between primary human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and pregnancy loss. The impact of CMV infection reactivation during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes is not completely understood. It is proposed that altered immune response, and therefore, recurrence or reactivation of latent CMV infection may relate to recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA); however, few data are available in this regard. To find out about any cell mediated defect and reactivation of latent CMV infection in women with RPL, cellular immunity to the virus has been evaluated by specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response to CMV. In a case control study, CTL CD107a expression and in- tercellular IFN-γ production in response to CMV pp65 antigen and staphylococcus enterotoxin B (SEB) in women with RSA were assessed by flow cytometric analysis. Forty-four cases with history of recurrent pregnancy and forty-four controls with history of successful pregnancies were included. The FACSCaliber flow cytometer were used for analysis. No significant difference was observed between CD107a expression and IFN-γ production in response to CMV PP65 antigen in RPL patients and control group. How- ever, the cytotoxic response to SEB antigen in patients with RPL was significantly lower than control group (p=0.042). The results of this study show that impaired CD107a expression and IFN-γ production as CTL response to CMV does not appear to be a major contrib- uting and immune incompetence factor in patients with RPL, but cytotoxic T cell response defect to other antigens requires to be assessed further in these patients.

  1. Spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman among parous women with 1 or more pregnancies of 24 weeks or more.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohain, Judy Slome; Buxbaum, Rina E; Mankuta, David

    2017-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to quantify spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman among parous women. A vast amount of data has accumulated regarding miscarriage rates per recognized pregnancy as well as about recurrent miscarriage. This is the second study of miscarriage rates per woman in a parous population and the first study of recurrent and non-recurrent, spontaneous first trimester miscarriage rates per woman in a large parous population. Extraction of the following variables from all delivery room admissions from both Hadassah Medical Centers in Jerusalem Israel, 2004-2014: # of first trimester spontaneous miscarriages, # live births; # living children; age on admission, pre-pregnancy height and weight, any smoking this pregnancy, any alcohol or drug abuse this pregnancy, blood type, history of ectopic pregnancy, history of cesarean surgery (CS) and use of any fertility treatment(s). Among 53,479 different women admitted to labor and delivery ward, 43% of women reported having had 1 or more first trimester spontaneous miscarriages; 27% reported having had one, 10% two, 4% three, 1.3% four, 0.6% five and 0.05% reported having 6-16 spontaneous first trimester miscarriages. 18.5% had one or more first trimester miscarriages before their first live birth. Eighty-one percent of women with 11 or more living children experienced one or more first trimester miscarriages. First trimester miscarriage rates rose with increasing age, increasing parity, after previous ectopic pregnancy, after previous cesarean surgery, with any smoking during pregnancy and pre-pregnancy BMI ≥30. Miscarriages are common among parous women; 43% of parous women report having experienced one or more first trimester spontaneous miscarriages, rising to 81% among women with 11 or more living children. One in every 17 parous women have three or more miscarriages. Depending on her health, nutrition and lifestyle choices, even a 39 year old parous woman with a history of 3 or

  2. Understanding differences in conception and abortion rates among under-20 year olds in Britain and France: Examining the contribution of social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel H; Bajos, Nathalie; Slaymaker, Emma; Wellings, Kaye; Mercer, Catherine H

    2017-01-01

    Socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with sexual activity, contraceptive-use, pregnancy and abortion among young people. Less is known about whether the strength of the association differs for each outcome, between men and women, or cross-nationally. We investigate this using contemporaneous national probability survey data from Britain and France. Data were analysed for 17-29 year-olds in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, n = 5959) undertaken 2010-2012, and the 2010 French Fertility, Contraception and Sexual Dysfunction survey (FECOND, n = 3027). For each country, we estimated the gender-specific prevalence of sex before-16, contraceptive-use, conception before-20, and abortion in the event of conception, and used logistic regression to examine associations between two measures of socioeconomic status-educational-level and parental socioeconomic-group-and each outcome. We tested for interactions between socioeconomic characteristics and country, and socioeconomic characteristics and gender, for each outcome. For each outcome, Britain and France differed with regard to prevalence but associations with socioeconomic characteristics were similar. Respondents of higher educational level, and, less consistently, with parents from higher socioeconomic-groups, were less likely to report sex before-16 (Britain, men: adjusted OR (aOR) 0.5, women: aOR 0.5; France, men: aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5), no contraception at first sex (Britain, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.6; France, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.4), pregnancy before-20 (Britain: aOR 0.3; France: aOR 0.1), and in Britain, a birth rather than an abortion in the event of conception (Britain: aOR 3.1). We found no strong evidence of variation in the magnitude of the associations with socioeconomic characteristics by country or gender. Population level differences in conception and abortion rates between the two countries may partly be driven by the larger proportion

  3. Understanding differences in conception and abortion rates among under-20 year olds in Britain and France: Examining the contribution of social disadvantage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H Scott

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status has been shown to be associated with sexual activity, contraceptive-use, pregnancy and abortion among young people. Less is known about whether the strength of the association differs for each outcome, between men and women, or cross-nationally. We investigate this using contemporaneous national probability survey data from Britain and France.Data were analysed for 17-29 year-olds in Britain's third National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles (Natsal-3, n = 5959 undertaken 2010-2012, and the 2010 French Fertility, Contraception and Sexual Dysfunction survey (FECOND, n = 3027. For each country, we estimated the gender-specific prevalence of sex before-16, contraceptive-use, conception before-20, and abortion in the event of conception, and used logistic regression to examine associations between two measures of socioeconomic status-educational-level and parental socioeconomic-group-and each outcome. We tested for interactions between socioeconomic characteristics and country, and socioeconomic characteristics and gender, for each outcome.For each outcome, Britain and France differed with regard to prevalence but associations with socioeconomic characteristics were similar. Respondents of higher educational level, and, less consistently, with parents from higher socioeconomic-groups, were less likely to report sex before-16 (Britain, men: adjusted OR (aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5; France, men: aOR 0.5, women: aOR 0.5, no contraception at first sex (Britain, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.6; France, men: aOR 0.4, women: aOR 0.4, pregnancy before-20 (Britain: aOR 0.3; France: aOR 0.1, and in Britain, a birth rather than an abortion in the event of conception (Britain: aOR 3.1. We found no strong evidence of variation in the magnitude of the associations with socioeconomic characteristics by country or gender.Population level differences in conception and abortion rates between the two countries may partly be driven by the larger

  4. Induced abortion and contraception in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, A; Grandolfo, M E

    1991-09-01

    This article discusses the legal and epidemiologic status of abortion in Italy, and its relationship to fertility and contraception. Enacted in May 1978, Italy's abortion law allows the operation to be performed during the 1st 90 days of gestation for a broad range of health, social, and psychological reasons. Women under 18 must receive written permission from a parent, guardian, or judge in order to undergo an abortion. The operation is free of charge. Health workers who object to abortion because of religious or moral reasons are exempt from participating. Regional differences exist concerning the availability of abortion, easy to procure in some places and difficult to obtain in others. After an initial increase following legalization, the abortion rate was 13.5/1000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 309/1000 live births -- an intermediate rate and ratio compared to other countries. By the time the Abortion Act of 1978 was adopted, Italy already had one of the lowest fertility levels in Europe. Thus, the legalization of abortion has had no impact on fertility trends. Contrary to initial fears that the legalization of abortion would make abortion a method of family planning, 80% of the women who sought an abortion in 1983-88 were using birth control at the time (withdrawal being the most common method used by this group). In fact, most women who undergo abortions are married, between the ages of 25-34, and with at least one child. Evidence indicates widespread ignorance concerning reproduction. In a 1989 survey, only 65% of women could identify the fertile period of the menstrual cycle. Italy has no sex education in schools or national family planning programs. Compared to most of Europe, Italy still has low levels of reliable contraceptive usage. This points to the need to guarantee the availability of abortion.

  5. Abortion surveillance--United States, 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koonin, L M; Smith, J C; Ramick, M

    1995-05-05

    From 1980 through 1991, the number of legal induced abortions reported to CDC remained stable, varying each year by 1969, CDC has compiled abortion data received from 52 reporting areas: 50 states, the District of Columbia, and New York City. In 1991, 1,388,937 abortions were reported--a 2.8% decrease from 1990. The abortion ratio was 339 legal induced abortions per 1,000 live births, and the abortion rate was 24 per 1,000 women 15-44 years of age. Women who were undergoing an abortion were more likely to be young, white, and unmarried; most had had no previous live births and had been obtaining an abortion for the first time. More than half (52%) of all abortions were performed at or before the 8th week of gestation, and 88% were before the 13th week. Younger women (i.e., women may partially account for this decline. An accurate assessment of the number and characteristics of women who obtain abortions in the United States is necessary both to monitor efforts to prevent unintended pregnancy and to identify and reduce preventable causes of morbidity and mortality associated with abortions.

  6. Effect of longwall face advance rate on spontaneous heating process in the gob area - CFD modelling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taraba, B.; Michalec, Zdeněk

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 8 (2011), s. 2790-2797 ISSN 0016-2361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/06/0630 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA105/08/1414 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : coal oxidation * spontaneous heating * CFD modelling * Fluent Subject RIV: DH - Mining, incl. Coal Mining Impact factor: 3.248, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236111001724

  7. An economic approach to abortion demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, D S

    1992-01-01

    "This paper uses econometric multiple regression techniques in order to analyze the socioeconomic factors affecting the demand for abortion for the year 1985. A cross-section of the 50 [U.S.] states and Washington D.C. is examined and a household choice theoretical framework is utilized. The results suggest that average price of abortion, disposable personal per capita income, percentage of single women, whether abortions are state funded, unemployment rate, divorce rate, and if the state is located in the far West, are statistically significant factors in the determination of the demand for abortion." excerpt

  8. Unsafe abortion and postabortion care-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    countries where women do not have legal access to abortion. Postabortion care focuses on treatment of incomplete abortion and provision of postabortion contraceptive services. To enhance women's access to postabortion care, focus is increasingly being placed on upgrading midlevel providers to provide......Forty percent of the world's women are living in countries with restrictive abortion laws, which prohibit abortion or only allow abortion to protect a woman's life or her physical or mental health. In countries where abortion is restricted, women have to resort to clandestine interventions to have...... an unwanted pregnancy terminated. As a consequence, high rates of unsafe abortion are seen, such as in sub-Saharan Africa where unsafe abortion occurs at rates of 18-39/1 000 women. The circumstances under which women obtain unsafe abortion vary and depend on traditional methods known and type of providers...

  9. Factors associated with repeat induced abortion in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Beatrice W; Mutua, Michael M; Sidze, Estelle M

    2015-10-12

    Over six million induced abortions were reported in Africa in 2008 with over two million induced abortions occurring in Eastern Africa. Although a significant proportion of women in the region procure more than one abortion during their reproductive period, there is a dearth of research on factors associated with repeat abortion. Data for this study come from the Magnitude and Incidence of Unsafe Abortion Study conducted by the African Population and Health Research Center in Kenya in 2012. The study used a nationally-representative sample of 350 facilities (level II to level VI) that offer post-abortion services for complications following induced and spontaneous abortions. A prospective morbidity survey tool was used by health providers in 328 facilities to collect information on socio-demographic charateristics, reproductive health history and contraceptive use at conception for all patients presenting for post-abortion services. Our analysis is based on data recorded on 769 women who were classified as having had an induced abortion. About 16 % of women seeking post abortion services for an induced abortion reported to have had a previous induced abortion. Being separated or divorced or widowed, having no education, having unwanted pregnancy, having 1-2 prior births and using traditional methods of contraception were associated with a higher likelihood of a repeat induced abortion. The findings point to the need to address the reasons why women with first time induced abortion do not have the necessary information to prevent unintended pregnancies and further induced abortions. Possible explanations linked to the quality of post-abortion family planning and coverage of long-acting methods should be explored.

  10. Conceptualising abortion stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Anuradha; Hessini, Leila; Mitchell, Ellen M. H.

    2009-01-01

    Abortion stigma is widely acknowledged in many countries, but poorly theorised. Although media accounts often evoke abortion stigma as a universal social fact, we suggest that the social production of abortion stigma is profoundly local. Abortion stigma is neither natural nor 'essential' and relies

  11. Is Induced Abortion Really Declining in Armenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilozian, Ann; Agadjanian, Victor

    2016-06-01

    As in other post-Soviet settings, induced abortion has been widely used in Armenia. However, recent national survey data point to a substantial drop in abortion rates with no commensurate increase in modern contraceptive prevalence and no change in fertility levels. We use data from in-depth interviews with women of reproductive age and health providers in rural Armenia to explore possible underreporting of both contraceptive use and abortion. While we find no evidence that women understate their use of modern contraception, the analysis suggests that induced abortion might indeed be underreported. The potential for underreporting is particularly high for sex-selective abortions, for which there is growing public backlash, and medical abortion, a practice that is typically self-administered outside any professional supervision. Possible underreporting of induced abortion calls for refinement of both abortion registration and relevant survey instruments. Better measurement of abortion dynamics is necessary for successful promotion of effective modern contraceptive methods and reduction of unsafe abortion practices. © 2016 The Population Council, Inc.

  12. Risk of spontaneous abortion and other pregnancy outcomes in 15-25 year old women exposed to human papillomavirus-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Laurence; Rosillon, Dominique; Willame, Corinne; Angelo, Maria Genalin; Zima, Julia; van den Bosch, Judith H; Van Staa, Tjeerd; Boggon, Rachael; Bunge, Eveline M; Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Chambers, Christina D

    2015-11-27

    We assessed the risk of spontaneous abortion (SA) after inadvertent exposure to HPV-16/18-vaccine during pregnancy using an observational cohort design. The study population included women aged 15-25 years registered with the Clinical Practice Research Datalink General Practice OnLine Database in the United Kingdom (UK), who received at least one HPV-16/18-vaccine dose between 1st September 2008 and 30th June 2011. Exposed women had the first day of gestation between 30 days before and 45 days (90 days for the extended exposure period) after any HPV-16/18-vaccine dose. Non-exposed women had the first day of gestation 120 days-18 months after the last dose. SA defined as foetal loss between weeks 1 and 23 of gestation (UK definition). The frequency of SA was 11.6% (among 207 exposed) and 9.0% (632 non-exposed), women: hazard ratio (HR) adjusted for age at first day of gestation 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 0.79-2.12). Sensitivity analysis per number of doses administered (-30 to +45-day risk period) showed a HR for SA of 1.11 (0.64-1.91) for 18/178 women with one dose during the risk period versus 2.55 (1.09-5.93) in 6/29 women with two doses within a 4-5 weeks period. The proportion of pre-term/full-term/postterm deliveries, small/large for gestational age infants, and birth defects was not significantly different between exposed and non-exposed women. Results were consistent using a (United States) SA definition of foetal loss between weeks 1-19 and/or the extended risk period. There was no evidence of an increased risk of SA and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in young women inadvertently HPV-16/18-vaccinated around gestation. Nevertheless, women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant are advised to postpone vaccination until completion of pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Complete genome sequence and lifestyle of black-pigmented Corynebacterium aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (formerly C. nigricans CN-1 isolated from a vaginal swab of a woman with spontaneous abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gartemann Karl-Heinz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium aurimucosum is a slightly yellowish, non-lipophilic, facultative anaerobic member of the genus Corynebacterium and predominantly isolated from human clinical specimens. Unusual black-pigmented variants of C. aurimucosum (originally named as C. nigricans continue to be recovered from the female urogenital tract and they are associated with complications during pregnancy. C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 (C. nigricans CN-1 was originally isolated from a vaginal swab of a 34-year-old woman who experienced a spontaneous abortion during month six of pregnancy. For a better understanding of the physiology and lifestyle of this potential urogenital pathogen, the complete genome sequence of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 was determined. Results Sequencing and assembly of the C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975 genome yielded a circular chromosome of 2,790,189 bp in size and the 29,037-bp plasmid pET44827. Specific gene sets associated with the central metabolism of C. aurimucosum apparently provide enhanced metabolic flexibility and adaptability in aerobic, anaerobic and low-pH environments, including gene clusters for the uptake and degradation of aromatic amines, L-histidine and L-tartrate as well as a gene region for the formation of selenocysteine and its incorporation into formate dehydrogenase. Plasmid pET44827 codes for a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase that plays the pivotal role in the synthesis of the characteristic black pigment of C. aurimucosum ATCC 700975. Conclusions The data obtained by the genome project suggest that C. aurimucosum could be both a resident of the human gut and possibly a pathogen in the female genital tract causing complications during pregnancy. Since hitherto all black-pigmented C. aurimucosum strains have been recovered from female genital source, biosynthesis of the pigment is apparently required for colonization by protecting the bacterial cells against the high hydrogen peroxide concentration in

  14. Estimates of the Incidence of Induced Abortion And Consequences of Unsafe Abortion in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. METHODS Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. RESULTS In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15–44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. CONCLUSIONS Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion. PMID:25856233

  15. Estimates of the incidence of induced abortion and consequences of unsafe abortion in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Sylla, Amadou Hassane; Philbin, Jesse; Keogh, Sarah; Ndiaye, Salif

    2015-03-01

    Abortion is highly restricted by law in Senegal. Although women seek care for abortion complications, no national estimate of abortion incidence exists. Data on postabortion care and abortion in Senegal were collected in 2013 using surveys of a nationally representative sample of 168 health facilities that provide postabortion care and of 110 professionals knowledgeable about abortion service provision. Indirect estimation techniques were applied to the data to estimate the incidence of induced abortion in the country. Abortion rates and ratios were calculated for the nation and separately for the Dakar region and the rest of the country. The distribution of pregnancies by planning status and by outcome was estimated. In 2012, an estimated 51,500 induced abortions were performed in Senegal, and 16,700 (32%) resulted in complications that were treated at health facilities. The estimated abortion rate was 17 per 1,000 women aged 15-44 and the abortion ratio was 10 per 100 live births. The rate was higher in Dakar (21 per 1,000) than in the rest of the country (16 per 1,000). Poor women were far more likely to experience abortion complications, and less likely to receive treatment for complications, than nonpoor women. About 31% of pregnancies were unintended, and 24% of unintended pregnancies (8% of all pregnancies) ended in abortion. Unsafe abortion exacts a heavy toll on women in Senegal. Reducing the barriers to effective contraceptive use and ensuring access to postabortion care without the risk of legal consequences may reduce the incidence of and complications from unsafe abortion.

  16. Mitochondrial Mutation Rate, Spectrum and Heteroplasmy in Caenorhabditis elegans Spontaneous Mutation Accumulation Lines of Differing Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Anke; Thompson, Owen; Waterston, Robert H; Moerman, Donald G; Keightley, Peter D; Bergthorsson, Ulfar; Katju, Vaishali

    2017-06-01

    Mitochondrial genomes of metazoans, given their elevated rates of evolution, have served as pivotal markers for phylogeographic studies and recent phylogenetic events. In order to determine the dynamics of spontaneous mitochondrial mutations in small populations in the absence and presence of selection, we evolved mutation accumulation (MA) lines of Caenorhabditis elegans in parallel over 409 consecutive generations at three varying population sizes of N = 1, 10, and 100 hermaphrodites. The N =1 populations should have a minimal influence of natural selection to provide the spontaneous mutation rate and the expected rate of neutral evolution, whereas larger population sizes should experience increasing intensity of selection. New mutations were identified by Illumina paired-end sequencing of 86 mtDNA genomes across 35 experimental lines and compared with published genomes of natural isolates. The spontaneous mitochondrial mutation rate was estimated at 1.05 × 10-7/site/generation. A strong G/C→A/T mutational bias was observed in both the MA lines and the natural isolates. This suggests that the low G + C content at synonymous sites is the product of mutation bias rather than selection as previously proposed. The mitochondrial effective population size per worm generation was estimated to be 62. Although it was previously concluded that heteroplasmy was rare in C. elegans, the vast majority of mutations in this study were heteroplasmic despite an experimental regime exceeding 400 generations. The frequencies of frameshift and nonsynonymous mutations were negatively correlated with population size, which suggests their deleterious effects on fitness and a potent role for selection in their eradication. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Abortion law reform in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upreti, Melissa

    2014-08-01

    Across four decades of political and social action, Nepal changed from a country strongly enforcing oppressive abortion restrictions, causing many poor women's long imprisonment and high rates of abortion-related maternal mortality, into a modern democracy with a liberal abortion law. The medical and public health communities supported women's rights activists in invoking legal principles of equality and non-discrimination as a basis for change. Legislative reform of the criminal ban in 2002 and the adoption of an Interim Constitution recognizing women's reproductive rights as fundamental rights in 2007 inspired the Supreme Court in 2009 to rule that denial of women's access to abortion services because of poverty violated their constitutional rights. The government must now provide services under criteria for access without charge, and services must be decentralized to promote equitable access. A strong legal foundation now exists for progress in social justice to broaden abortion access and reduce abortion stigma. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of Abortion and Contraceptive Practice among Women Seeking Repeat Induced Abortion in Western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamina, Mustafa Adelaja

    2015-01-01

    Induced abortion contributes significantly to maternal mortality in developing countries yet women still seek repeat induced abortion in spite of availability of contraceptive services. The aim of this study is to determine the rate of abortion and contraceptive use among women seeking repeat induced abortion in Western Nigeria. A prospective cross-sectional study utilizing self-administered questionnaires was administered to women seeking abortion in private hospitals/clinics in four geopolitical areas of Ogun State, Western Nigeria, from January 1 to December 31 2012. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. The age range for those seeking repeat induced abortion was 15 to 51 years while the median age was 25 years. Of 2934 women seeking an abortion, 23% reported having had one or more previous abortions. Of those who had had more than one abortion, the level of awareness of contraceptives was 91.7% while only 21.5% used a contraceptive at their first intercourse after the procedure; 78.5% of the pregnancies were associated with non-contraceptive use while 17.5% were associated with contraceptive failure. The major reason for non-contraceptive use was fear of side effects. The rate of women seeking repeat abortions is high in Nigeria. The rate of contraceptive use is low while contraceptive failure rate is high.

  19. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  20. Induced abortion in Italy: levels, trends and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettarini, S S; D'Andrea, S S

    1996-01-01

    Subsequent to the legalization of abortion in Italy in 1978, abortion; rates among Italian women first rose and then declined steadily, from a peak of 16.9 abortions per 1,000 women of reproductive age in 1983 to 9.8 per 1,000 in 1993. Abortion rates vary considerably by geographic region, with rates typically highest in the more secular and modernized regions and lowest in regions where traditional values predominate. Data from 1981 and 1991 indicate that age-specific abortion rates decreased during the 1980s for all age-groups, with the largest declines occurring in regions with the highest levels of abortion. Moreover, a shift in the age distribution of abortion rates occurred during the 1980s, with women aged 30-34 registering the highest abortion rate in 1991, whereas in 1981 the highest level of abortion occurred among those aged 25-29. The abortion rate among adolescent women was low at both times (7.6 per 1,000 in 1981 and 4.6 per 1,000 in 1991). These data are based only on reported legal abortions; the number of clandestine abortions remains unknown.

  1. Effect of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term heart rate variability (HRV) and reliability of HRV analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Metin; Doma, Serian

    2017-09-26

    The effects of effortful swallowing and solid meal ingestions on heart rate variability (HRV) have been examined previously. The effects of spontaneous saliva swallowing on short-term HRV and reliability of HRV analysis have not been studied before. The effect of saliva swallowing on HRV analyses parameters [meanRRI, SDNN (standard deviation of normal-to-normal), LF (low frequency), HF (high frequency) powers, LH/HF] and the reliability of LF and HF powers were investigated by frequency, time-frequency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses. Electrocardiogram and swallowing signal that obtained from an electronic stethoscope placed on the necks of subjects were recorded simultaneously from 30 healthy and young volunteers in sitting position during 15 min. Spontaneous swallowing has been shown to significantly alter some HRV parameters (SDNN, LF power and LF/HF ratio). Time-frequency analysis results showed that the contribution of saliva swallowing to LF (1-58%) and HF (2-42%) powers could change significantly depending on the number of swallowing. The ICC of the LF and HF powers for the successive 5-min signal segments were found 0·89, 0·92, respectively. These values decreased to 0·73 and 0·90 in the subjects with more swallowing rate. When the analyses were made for 2-min signal periods, these values decreased to 0·63 and 0·67. We concluded that spontaneous saliva swallowing can change HRV parameters. We have also seen that changes in swallowing rate and use of short signal segments may reduce the reliability of HRV analyses. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Indberetning af provokerede aborter i 1994. En sammenligning mellem data i Registeret over Legalt Provokerede Aborter og Landspatientregistere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krebs, L; Johansen, A M; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1997-01-01

    Up to 31st December 1994 all cases of legally induced abortions were notified by the physician responsible for the operation to the National Board of Health and recorded in the Register of Induced Abortions. Following this data, abortion statistics will rely on data concerning induced abortions...... in the Danish National Patient Register, which includes information based upon the unique personal number of all patients admitted to hospitals. The completeness of the Register of Induced Abortions and the National Patient Register as to induced abortions in 1994 was assessed to evaluate the impact...... of the change in method of monitoring on trends in the national and regional abortion rate. The complete number of induced abortions was estimated to be the sum of the number recorded in both registers, cases recorded only in the Register of Induced Abortions, cases recorded only in the National Patient...

  3. Reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2009-11-01

    There has been continued interest in the extent to which women have positive and negative reactions to abortion. To document emotional reactions to abortion, and to examine the links between reactions to abortion and subsequent mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. Abortion was associated with high rates of both positive and negative emotional reactions; however, nearly 90% of respondents believed that the abortion was the right decision. Analyses showed that the number of negative responses to the abortion was associated with increased levels of subsequent mental health disorders (Pabortion and reporting negative reactions had rates of mental health disorders that were approximately 1.4-1.8 times higher than those not having an abortion. Abortion was associated with both positive and negative emotional reactions. The extent of negative emotional reactions appeared to modify the links between abortion and subsequent mental health problems.

  4. High rate of hepatitis C virus (HCV) recurrence in HIV-infected individuals with spontaneous HCV RNA clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, L; Mocroft, A; Soriano, V

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Following resolution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, recurrence has been shown to occur in some persons with repeated exposure to HCV. We aimed to investigate the rate and factors associated with HCV RNA recurrence among HIV-1-infected patients with prior spontaneous HCV RNA cle......-up. Our findings underline the importance of maintaining focus on preventive measures to reduce IDU and sharing of contaminated needles. Clinicians should maintain a high degree of vigilance to identify patients with new HCV infection early....

  5. Trends of abortion complications in a transition of abortion law revisions in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2009-03-01

    Evidence from developed countries has shown that abortion-related mortality and morbidity has decreased with the liberalization of the abortion law. This study aimed to assess the trend of hospital-based abortion complications during the transition of legalization in Ethiopia in May 2005. Medical records of women with abortion complications from 2003 to 2007 were reviewed (n = 773). Abortion and its complications with regard to legalization were described by rates and ratios, and predictors of fatal outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. The overall and abortion-related maternal mortality ratios (AMMRs) showed a non-statistically significant downward trend over the 5-year period. However, the case fatality rate of abortion increased from 1.1% in 2003 to 3.6% in 2007. Late gestational age, history of interference and presenting after new abortion legislation passed have been found to be significant predictors of mortality. Decreased trends of abortion ratio and the AMMR were identified, but the severity of abortion complications and the case fatality rate increased during the transition of legal revision.

  6. Comment on anomalous dispersion and scattering rates for multiphonon spontaneous decay in He II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haavasoja, T.; Narayanamurti, V.; Chin, M. A.

    1984-10-01

    We report on new measurements of the spontaneous decay threshold energy E c for high-frequency phonon propagation in He II at saturated vapor pressure at T=0.1 K. Superconducting tin tunnel generators and aluminum tunnel detectors were used in this study. The measurements show that the mean free path becomes much larger than the propagation length of 1.1 mm for a value of E c =9.8±0.15 K. This agrees with the value originally reported ( E c =9.5±0.4 K) by Dynes and Narayanamurti using aluminum tunnel generators, but is shown to correspond to the point where the phase velocity equals the sound velocity, when the phonons become stable, as first proposed by Pitayevski and Levinson. Evidence for n-phonon decay at energies lower than E c is presented for n≳2 with a short mean free path (neutron data due to Donnelly, Donnelly, and Hills.

  7. A Simple Test of Abortion and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Joyce

    2009-01-01

    I first replicate Donohue and Levitt's results for violent and property crime arrest rates. I apply their data and specification to an analysis of age-specific homicide rates and murder arrest rates. The coefficients on the abortion rate have the wrong sign for two of the four measures of crime and none is statistically significant at conventional levels. I then use the legalization of abortion in 1973 to exploit two sources of variation: between-state changes in abortion rates before and aft...

  8. Clandestine induced abortion: prevalence, incidence and risk factors among women in a Latin American country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; White, Peter J; Carcamo, Cesar P; Hughes, James P; Gonzales, Marco A; Garcia, Patricia J; Garnett, Geoff P; Holmes, King K

    2009-02-03

    Clandestine induced abortions are a public health problem in many developing countries where access to abortion services is legally restricted. We estimated the prevalence and incidence of, and risk factors for, clandestine induced abortions in a Latin American country. We conducted a large population-based survey of women aged 18-29 years in 20 cities in Peru. We asked questions about their history of spontaneous and induced abortions, using techniques to encourage disclosure. Of 8242 eligible women, 7992 (97.0%) agreed to participate. The prevalence of reported induced abortions was 11.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 10.9%-12.4%) among the 7962 women who participated in the survey. It was 13.6% (95% CI 12.8%-14.5%) among the 6559 women who reported having been sexually active. The annual incidence of induced abortion was 3.1% (95% CI 2.9%-3.3%) among the women who had ever been sexually active. In the multivariable analysis, risk factors for induced abortion were higher age at the time of the survey (odds ratio [OR] 1.11, 95% CI 1.07-1.15), lower age at first sexual intercourse (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.84-0.91), geographic region (highlands: OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.97; jungle: OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.41-2.31 [v. coastal region]), having children (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.68-0.98), having more than 1 sexual partner in lifetime (2 partners: OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.23-2.09; > or = 3 partners: OR 2.79, 95% CI 2.12-3.67), and having 1 or more sexual partners in the year before the survey (1 partner: OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01-1.72; > or = 2 partners: OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.14-2.02). Overall, 49.0% (95% CI 47.6%-50.3%) of the women who reported being currently sexually active were not using contraception. The incidence of clandestine, potentially unsafe induced abortion in Peru is as high as or higher than the rates in many countries where induced abortion is legal and safe. The provision of contraception and safer-sex education to those who require it needs to be greatly improved and could potentially

  9. The effects of MSH2 deficiency on spontaneous and radiation-induced mutation rates in the mouse germline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, Karen L-A.; Duyn-Goedhart, Annemarie van; Hickenbotham, Peter; Monger, Karen; Buul, Paul P.W. van; Dubrova, Yuri E.

    2007-01-01

    Mutation rates at two expanded simple tandem repeat (ESTR) loci were studied in the germline of mismatch repair deficient Msh2 knock-out mice. Spontaneous mutation rates in homozygous Msh2 -/- males were significantly higher than those in isogenic wild-type (Msh2 +/+ ) and heterozygous (Msh2 +/- ) mice. In contrast, the irradiated Msh2 -/- mice did not show any detectable increases in their mutation rate, whereas significant ESTR mutation induction was observed in the irradiated Msh2 +/+ and Msh2 +/- animals. Considering these data and the results of other publications, we propose that the Msh2-deficient mice possess a mutator phenotype in their germline and somatic tissues while the loss of a single Msh2 allele does not affect the stability of heterozygotes

  10. [Abortion and rights. Legal thinking about abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Duarte, A E

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of abortion in Mexico from a juridical perspective requires recognition that Mexico as a national community participates in a double system of values. Politically it is defined as a liberal, democratic, and secular state, but culturally the Judeo-Christian ideology is dominant in all social strata. This duality complicates all juridical-penal decisions regarding abortion. Public opinion on abortion is influenced on the 1 hand by extremely conservative groups who condemn abortion as homicide, and on the other hand by groups who demand legislative reform in congruence with characteristics that define the state: an attitude of tolerance toward the different ideological-moral positions that coexist in the country. The discussion concerns the rights of women to voluntary maternity, protection of health, and to making their own decisions regarding their bodies vs. the rights of the fetus to life. The type of analysis is not objective, and conclusions depend on the ideology of the analyst. Other elements must be examined for an objective consideration of the social problem of abortion. For example, aspects related to maternal morbidity and mortality and the demographic, economic, and physical and mental health of the population would all seem to support the democratic juridical doctrine that sees the clandestine nature of abortion as the principal problem. It is also observed that the illegality of abortion does not guarantee its elimination. Desperate women will seek abortion under any circumstances. The illegality of abortion also impedes health and educational policies that would lower abortion mortality. There are various problems from a strictly juridical perspective. A correct definition of the term abortion is needed that would coincide with the medical definition. The discussion must be clearly centered on the protected juridical right and the definition of reproductive and health rights and rights to their own bodies of women. The experiences of other

  11. Husbands' involvement in abortion in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Nga, N T; Huy, T Q; Dat, D D; Holmgren, K

    1998-12-01

    This study analyzes the involvement of men in abortion in Vietnam, where induced abortion is legal and abortion rates are among the highest in the world. Twenty men were interviewed in 1996 about the role they played in their wives' abortions and about their feelings and ethical views concerning the procedure. The results showed that both husbands and wives considered the husband to be the main decisionmaker regarding family size, which included the decision to have an abortion, but that, in fact, some women had undergone an abortion without consulting their husbands in advance. Parents and in-laws were usually not consulted; the couples thought they might object to the decision on moral grounds. Respondents' ethical perspectives on abortion are discussed. When faced with an unwanted pregnancy, the husbands adopted an ethics of care and responsibility toward family and children, although some felt that abortion was immoral. The study highlights the importance of understanding husbands' perspectives on their responsibilities and rights in reproductive decisionmaking and their ethical and other concerns related to abortion.

  12. Abortion in Iranian legal system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Mahmoud; Shamsi Gooshki, Ehsan; Allahbedashti, Neda

    2014-02-01

    Abortion traditionally means, "to miscarry" and is still known as a problem which societies has been trying to reduce its rate by using legal means. Despite the pregnant women and fetuses have being historically supported; abortion was firstly criminalized in 1926 in Iran, 20 years after establishment of modern legal system. During next 53 years this situation changed dramatically, so in 1979, the time of Islamic Revolution, aborting fetuses before 12 weeks and therapeutic abortion (TA) during all the pregnancy length was legitimate, based on regulations that used medical justification. After 1979 the situation changed into a totally conservative and restrictive approach and new Islamic concepts as "Blood Money" and "Ensoulment" entered the legal debates around abortion. During the next 33 years, again a trend of decriminalization for the act of abortion has been continuing. Reduction of punishments and omitting retaliation for criminal abortions, recognizing fetal and maternal medical indications including some immunologic problems as legitimate reasons for aborting fetuses before 4 months and omitting the fathers' consent as a necessary condition for TA are among these changes. The start point for this decriminalization process was public and professional need, which was responded by religious government, firstly by issuing juristic rulings (Fatwas) as a non-official way, followed by ratification of "Therapeutic Abortion Act" (TAA) and other regulations as an official pathway. Here, we have reviewed this trend of decriminalization, the role of public and professional request in initiating such process and the rule-based language of TAA.

  13. The incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy in India, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela; Shekhar, Chander; Acharya, Rajib; Moore, Ann M; Stillman, Melissa; Pradhan, Manas R; Frost, Jennifer J; Sahoo, Harihar; Alagarajan, Manoj; Hussain, Rubina; Sundaram, Aparna; Vlassoff, Michael; Kalyanwala, Shveta; Browne, Alyssa

    2018-01-01

    Summary Background Reliable information on the incidence of induced abortion in India is lacking. Official statistics and national surveys provide incomplete coverage. Since the early 2000s, medication abortion has become increasingly available, improving the way women obtain abortions. The aim of this study was to estimate the national incidence of abortion and unintended pregnancy for 2015. Methods National abortion incidence was estimated through three separate components: abortions (medication and surgical) in facilities (including private sector, public sector, and non-governmental organisations [NGOs]); medication abortions outside facilities; and abortions outside of facilities and with methods other than medication abortion. Facility-based abortions were estimated from the 2015 Health Facilities Survey of 4001 public and private health facilities in six Indian states (Assam, Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh) and from NGO clinic data. National medication abortion drug sales and distribution data were obtained from IMS Health and six principal NGOs (DKT International, Marie Stopes International, Population Services International, World Health Partners, Parivar Seva Santha, and Janani). We estimated the total number of abortions that are not medication abortions and are not obtained in a health facility setting through an indirect technique based on findings from community-based study findings in two states in 2009, with adjustments to account for the rapid increase in use of medication abortion since 2009. The total number of women of reproductive age and livebirth data were obtained from UN population data, and the proportion of births from unplanned pregnancies and data on contraceptive use and need were obtained from the 2015–16 National Family Health Survey-4. Findings We estimate that 15·6 million abortions (14·1 million–17·3 million) occurred in India in 2015. The abortion rate was 47·0 abortions (42·2–52·1) per

  14. Abortion patients' perceptions of abortion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrill, Kate; Weitz, Tracy A

    2010-01-01

    Most states regulate abortion differently than other health care services. Examples of these regulations include mandating waiting periods and the provision of state-authored information, and prohibiting private and public insurance coverage for abortion. The primary purpose of this paper is to explore abortion patients' perspectives on these regulations. We recruited 20 participants from three abortion providing facilities located in two states in the U.S. South and Midwest. Using a survey and semistructured interview, we collected information about women's knowledge of abortion regulation and policy preferences. During the interviews, women weighed the pros and cons of abortion regulations. We used grounded theory analytical techniques and matrix analysis to organize and interpret the data. We discovered five themes in these women's considerations of regulation: responsibility, empathy, safe and accessible health care, privacy, and equity. Women in the study generally supported policies that they felt protected women or informed decisions. However, most women also opposed laws mandating two-day abortion appointments for women who were traveling long distances. Women tended to favor financial coverage of abortion, arguing that it could help poor women afford abortion or reduce state expenditures. Overall the study participants' opinions on abortion policy reflect key values for advocates and policy makers to consider: responsibility, empathy, safe and accessible health care, privacy, and equity. Future work should examine abortion regulations in light of these shared values. Laws that promote misinformation or prohibit accommodations of unique circumstances are not consistent the positions articulated by the subjects in our study. Copyright 2010 Jacobs Institute of Women

  15. Abortion - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) PDF Reproductive Health Access Project Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - English PDF Emergency Contraceptive Pill and the Abortion Pill: What's the Difference? - ...

  16. Abortion - surgical - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000658.htm Abortion - surgical - aftercare To use the sharing features on ... please enable JavaScript. You have had a surgical abortion. This is a procedure that ends pregnancy by ...

  17. Induced Abortion: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastgiri, Saeed; Yoosefian, Maryam; Garjani, Mehraveh; Kalankesh, Leila R

    2017-03-01

    Induced abortion accounts for 1 in 8 of approximately 600000 maternal deaths that occur annually worldwide. Induced abortion rate can be considered as one of the indicators for assessing availability of the appropriate reproductive health plans for women and identifying needs for appropriate related health policies and programs. Researchers searched Pubmed, Google Scholar, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane, Iranian Scientific Information Database (SID), Iranian biomedical journals (Iranmedex), and Iranian Research Institute of Information and Documentation (Irandoc) between January 2000 and June 2013, which reported induced abortion. Search terms from two categories including abortion and termination of pregnancy were compiled. The search terms were "induced abortion", "illegal abortion", "illegal abortion", "unsafe abortion", and "criminal abortion". The search was also conducted with "induced termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "illegal termination of pregnancy", "unsafe termination of pregnancy" and "criminal termination of pregnancy". Meta-analysis was carried out by using OpenMeta software. Induced abortion rates were calculated based on the random effect model. Overall induced abortion rate was obtained 58.1 per 1000 women (95%CI: 55.16-61.04). In continental level, rate of induced abortion was 14 per 1000 women (95%CI: 11-16). Nation-wide and local rates were obtained 67.27 per 1000 women (95% CI: 60.02-74.23) and 148.92 (95% CI: 140.06-157.79) respectively. Induced abortion is a major public health problem that occurs worldwide whether under the legal restriction or freedom, and it remains as reproductive health concern globally. To eliminate the need for induced abortion is at the core of any effort for preventing this issue. Option with the highest priority is to prevent unwanted pregnancies through promoting reproductive health plans for women of reproductive age. In case the prevention strategies fail, universal provision of

  18. Abortion among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Nancy E.; Ozer, Emily J.; Tschann, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the current status of abortion laws pertaining to adolescents worldwide, examining questions raised by parental consent laws in the United States and by the relevant psychological research (risk of harm from abortion, informed consent, consequences of parental involvement in the abortion decision, and current debate). Discusses issues…

  19. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2011-01-01

    Background Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort......-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event....... Results The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first...

  20. Fundamental limitations in spontaneous emission rate of single-photon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.; Khurgin, Jacob B.

    2016-01-01

    The rate of single-photon generation by quantum emitters (QEs) can be enhanced by placing a QE inside a resonant structure. This structure can represent an all-dielectric micro-resonator or waveguide and thus be characterized by ultra-low loss and dimensions on the order of wavelength. Or it can ...

  1. Interplay between spontaneous decay rates and Lamb shifts in open photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassalle, Emmanuel; Bonod, Nicolas; Durt, Thomas; Stout, Brian

    2018-05-01

    In this letter, we describe the modified decay rate and photonic Lamb (frequency) shift of quantum emitters in terms of the resonant states of a neighboring photonic resonator. This description illustrates a fundamental distinction in the behaviors of closed (conservative) and open (dissipative) systems: the Lamb shift is bounded by the emission linewidth in closed systems while it overcomes this limit in open systems.

  2. Increase of the spontaneous mutation rate in a long-term experiment with Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Victoria; Chavarrías, David; Sánchez, Enrique; Manrique, Antonio; López-Fanjul, Carlos; García-Dorado, Aurora

    2006-05-01

    In a previous experiment, the effect of 255 generations of mutation accumulation (MA) on the second chromosome viability of Drosophila melanogaster was studied using 200 full-sib MA1 lines and a large C1 control, both derived from a genetically homogeneous base population. At generation 265, one of those MA1 lines was expanded to start 150 new full-sib MA2 lines and a new C2 large control. After 46 generations, the rate of decline in mean viability in MA2 was approximately 2.5 times that estimated in MA1, while the average degree of dominance of mutations was small and nonsignificant by generation 40 and moderate by generation 80. In parallel, the inbreeding depression rate for viability and the amount of additive variance for two bristle traits in C2 were 2-3 times larger than those in C1. The results are consistent with a mutation rate in the line from which MA2 and C2 were derived about 2.5 times larger than that in MA1. The mean viability of C2 remained roughly similar to that of C1, but the rate of MA2 line extinction increased progressively, leading to mutational collapse, which can be ascribed to accelerated mutation and/or synergy after important deleterious accumulation.

  3. Cross Time-Frequency Analysis for Combining Information of Several Sources: Application to Estimation of Spontaneous Respiratory Rate from Photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez-Coca, M. D.; Orini, M.; Lázaro, J.; Bailón, R.; Gil, E.

    2013-01-01

    A methodology that combines information from several nonstationary biological signals is presented. This methodology is based on time-frequency coherence, that quantifies the similarity of two signals in the time-frequency domain. A cross time-frequency analysis method, based on quadratic time-frequency distribution, has been used for combining information of several nonstationary biomedical signals. In order to evaluate this methodology, the respiratory rate from the photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal is estimated. The respiration provokes simultaneous changes in the pulse interval, amplitude, and width of the PPG signal. This suggests that the combination of information from these sources will improve the accuracy of the estimation of the respiratory rate. Another target of this paper is to implement an algorithm which provides a robust estimation. Therefore, respiratory rate was estimated only in those intervals where the features extracted from the PPG signals are linearly coupled. In 38 spontaneous breathing subjects, among which 7 were characterized by a respiratory rate lower than 0.15 Hz, this methodology provided accurate estimates, with the median error {0.00; 0.98} mHz ({0.00; 0.31}%) and the interquartile range error {4.88; 6.59} mHz ({1.60; 1.92}%). The estimation error of the presented methodology was largely lower than the estimation error obtained without combining different PPG features related to respiration. PMID:24363777

  4. Cross Time-Frequency Analysis for Combining Information of Several Sources: Application to Estimation of Spontaneous Respiratory Rate from Photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Peláez-Coca

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A methodology that combines information from several nonstationary biological signals is presented. This methodology is based on time-frequency coherence, that quantifies the similarity of two signals in the time-frequency domain. A cross time-frequency analysis method, based on quadratic time-frequency distribution, has been used for combining information of several nonstationary biomedical signals. In order to evaluate this methodology, the respiratory rate from the photoplethysmographic (PPG signal is estimated. The respiration provokes simultaneous changes in the pulse interval, amplitude, and width of the PPG signal. This suggests that the combination of information from these sources will improve the accuracy of the estimation of the respiratory rate. Another target of this paper is to implement an algorithm which provides a robust estimation. Therefore, respiratory rate was estimated only in those intervals where the features extracted from the PPG signals are linearly coupled. In 38 spontaneous breathing subjects, among which 7 were characterized by a respiratory rate lower than 0.15 Hz, this methodology provided accurate estimates, with the median error {0.00; 0.98} mHz ({0.00; 0.31}% and the interquartile range error {4.88; 6.59} mHz ({1.60; 1.92}%. The estimation error of the presented methodology was largely lower than the estimation error obtained without combining different PPG features related to respiration.

  5. Ultrasonographic findings of early abortion: suggested predictors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Ahn, Myoung Ock; Cha, Kwang Yul; Lee, Young Doo

    1992-01-01

    To investigate predictable ultrasonographic findings of early abortion. To investigate objective rules for the screening of abortion. Ultrasonographic examination of 111 early pregnancies between the sixth and ninth week in women who had regular 28 day menstrual cycles was performed. Ultrasonographic measurements of the gestational sac, crown rump length and fetal heart rate were performed using a linear array real time transducer with doppler ultrasonogram. All measurements of 17 early abortions were compared to those of 94 normal pregnancies. Most of early aborted pregnancies were classified correctly by discriminant analysis with G-SAC and CRL (G-SAC=0.5 CRL + 15, sensitivity 76.5%, specificity 96.8%). With the addition of FHR, 94.1% of early abortions could be predicted. In conclusion, ultrasonographic findings of early intrauterine growth retardation, small gestational sac and bradycardia can be predictable signs suggestive of poor prognosis of early pregnancies

  6. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  7. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J. C.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to

  8. [[Abortion: An Unforgivable Sin?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Chiara

    Abortion has become something to hide, something you can't tell other people, something you have to expiate forever. Besides, abortion is more and more difficult to achieve because of the raising average of consciencious objection (from 70 to 90% of health care providers are conscientious objectors, 2014 data, Ministero della Salute) and illegal abortion is "coming back"from the 70s, when abortion was a crime (Italian law n. 194/1978). Abortion is often blamed as a murder, an unforgivenable sin, even as genocide. Silence against shouting "killers!" to women who are going to have an abortion: this is a common actual scenario. Why is it so difficult to discuss and even to mention abortion?

  9. Abortion related stigma: a case study of abortion stigma in regions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abortion accounts for 35% of maternal mortality in Kenya. Kenya has reported an increase in the rate of unsafe abortions from 32 to 48 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 and 2012 respectively. During the same period, women presented in public health facilities with severe complications indicating ...

  10. Experimental characterization of true spontaneous emission rate of optically-pumped InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well laser structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.-N. Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental approach to acquiring true spontaneous emission rate of optically-pumped InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well laser structure is described. This method is based on a single edge-emitting laser chip with simple sample processing. The photoluminescence spectra are measured at both facets of the edge-emitting device and transformed to the spontaneous emission rate following the theory described here. The unusual double peaks appearing in the spontaneous emission rate spectra are observed for the InGaAs/GaAs quantum-well structure. The result is analyzed in terms of Indium-rich island and Model-Solid theories. The proposed method is suitable for electrically-pumped quantum-well laser structures, as well.

  11. The abortion issue in the 1980 elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granberg, D; Burlison, J

    1983-01-01

    The political opponents of legal abortion achieved considerable gains in the 1980 American elections. A president who was committed to a strong antiabortion position was elected, and antiabortion candidates prevailed in six out of seven Senate races that pitted supporters against opponents of legal abortion and in seven out of nine similar confrontations in the House races. However, it is not clear that abortion was an overriding or decisive factor in determining those outcomes. Democrats and Republicans, Carter voters and Reagan voters did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward abortion. The presidential voter groups were divided on several other issues, and along income and racial lines, to a far greater extent than they were on abortion. Voters were not likely to name abortion as one of the more important problems facing the nation. Carter supporters rated abortion as more important than did Reagan supporters. Although the party platforms and the presidential candidates were clearly differentiated in their abortion stands, these differences were not well communicated to the citizenry. When voters attempted to describe the position of each candidate on abortion, they displayed a great deal of uncertainty, error and confusion. In the key Senate races, those who voted for the prochoice candidates held more liberal abortion attitudes than those who voted for the right-to-life candidates. This difference, although statistically significant, was not great, and was smaller than the differences related to several other issues--such as attitudes toward the role of government, women's rights and economic policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Teenage pregnancies and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthau, J E

    1984-01-01

    The issue of abortion, except when it is rendered moot because the fetus endangers the life of the mother, is not really a medical issue. The physician's role is to help patients achieve and maintain their maximum potential for physical, mental, and social well-being. To accomplish this, the physician must acquire a constantly evolving database of scientific knowledge, must evaluate this information in a critical and ethical manner, and must be prepared to apply what is learned. In the realm of applied ethics, no particular religion, profession, culture, class, or sex should be thought of as having all the answers in the realm of applied ethics. This physician's actions are predicated on the belief that, to a large extent, ethical precepts reflect the broader social and economic issues of the period in which they are articulated. If this is the case, then in today's world the population explosion, the postindustrial society, the women's rights movement, inequality of access, and the ability to perform prenatal diagnosis are all factors which have molded the approach to the issue of abortion. Only the last 3 of these can in any way be considered as medical. When considering the role of a physician in dealing with the issue of abortion in the adolescent, this individual relies on the concept articulated by the World Health Association (WHA): promoting the physical, emotional, and social well-being of one's patients. Each year in the US over 1 million 15-19 year olds become pregnant, resulting in over 600,000 births. Most of these pregnancies are unintentional, yet approximately 90% of the infants are kept in the home by mothers who are ill prepared to be parents. What is most disturbing is that the pregnancy rate for the younger mother, 16 years or under, is accounting for an ever increasing percentage of the total. Studies at the Adolescent Health Center of the Mount Sinai Hospital in New York City as well as national studies suggest that the younger teens are more

  13. Abortion in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Jennifer A; Cahill, Erica

    2017-12-01

    To review updates in how abortion care is depicted and analysed though various media outlets: news, television, film, and social media. A surge in recent media-related abortion research has recognized several notable and emerging themes: abortion in the news media is often inappropriately sourced and politically motivated; abortion portrayal in US film and television is frequently misrepresented; and social media has a new and significant role in abortion advocacy. The portrayal of abortion onscreen, in the news, and online through social media has a significant impact on cultural, personal, and political beliefs in the United States. This is an emerging field of research with wide spread potential impact across several arenas: medicine, policy, public health.

  14. Spontaneous mutation by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, P.J.; Quah, S.-K.; Borstel, R.C. von

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that strains of yeast carrying mutations in many of the steps in pathways repairing radiation-induced damage to DNA have enhanced spontaneous mutation rates. Most strains isolated because they have enhanced spontaneous mutation carry mutations in DNA repair systems. This suggests that much spontaneous mutation arises by mutagenic repair of spontaneous lesions. (author)

  15. "The rate of Chlamydia Trachomatis, Mycoplasma Hominis and Ureaplasma Urealyticum in females with habitual abortion and its comparison with control group "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salari MH

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Females abortion is one of the most important sequela of genital infection with chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum.In this study frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum was studied in 125 females with habitual abortion by direct and indirect immunofluorescence tests and culture method and compared with 250 normal population. The results obtained were as follow: Mycoplasma hominis was isolated from 18 (14.4% females with habitual abortion and 18 (7.2% normal population (P=0.0139. Ureaplasma urealyticum was isolated from 39(31.2% females with habitual aboration and 48 (19.2% normal population (P=0.0045. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected by direct immunofluorescence test in 9 (7.2% of cases and 2 (0.8% of control groups (P=0.0002. the antibody titer against D-K serotypes of Chlamydia trachomatis was also measured. The valuable titer of antibody (>1/16 was detected in 15 (12% of cases and 8 (3.2% of control groups (P=0.0004.The results show that chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum may be responsible for some cases of abortion.

  16. Abortion: a review of women's perception in relation to their partner's reactions in two Brazilians cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, Daniele; Benute, Gláucia Rosana Guerra; Nomura, Roseli Mieko Yamamoto; Azevedo, George Dantas de; Dutra, Elza Maria do Socorro; Rebouças, Melina Séfora Souza; Luci, Mara Cristina Souza de; Francisco, Rossana Pulcineli Vieira

    2014-07-01

    to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p women who induced an abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (pindependence, women still regard male participation in the abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health.

  17. [Bioethics and abortion. Debate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, D; Gonzalez Velez, A C

    1998-06-01

    Although abortion has been the most debated of all issues analyzed in bioethics, no moral consensus has been achieved. The problem of abortion exemplifies the difficulty of establishing social dialogue in the face of distinct moral positions, and of creating an independent academic discussion based on writings that are passionately argumentative. The greatest difficulty posed by the abortion literature is to identify consistent philosophical and scientific arguments amid the rhetorical manipulation. A few illustrative texts were selected to characterize the contemporary debate. The terms used to describe abortion are full of moral meaning and must be analyzed for their underlying assumptions. Of the four main types of abortion, only 'eugenic abortion', as exemplified by the Nazis, does not consider the wishes of the woman or couple--a fundamental difference for most bioethicists. The terms 'selective abortion' and 'therapeutic abortion' are often confused, and selective abortion is often called eugenic abortion by opponents. The terms used to describe abortion practitioners, abortion opponents, and the 'product' are also of interest in determining the style of the article. The video entitled "The Silent Scream" was a classic example of violent and seductive rhetoric. Its type of discourse, freely mixing scientific arguments and moral beliefs, hinders analysis. Within writings about abortion three extreme positions may be identified: heteronomy (the belief that life is a gift that does not belong to one) versus reproductive autonomy; sanctity of life versus tangibility of life; and abortion as a crime versus abortion as morally neutral. Most individuals show an inconsistent array of beliefs, and few groups or individuals identify with the extreme positions. The principal argument of proponents of legalization is respect for the reproductive autonomy of the woman or couple based on the principle of individual liberty, while heteronomy is the main principle of

  18. Misinformation on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Sam

    2011-08-01

    To find the latest and most accurate information on aspects of induced abortion. A literature survey was carried out in which five aspects of abortion were scrutinised: risk to life, risk of breast cancer, risk to mental health, risk to future fertility, and fetal pain. Abortion is clearly safer than childbirth. There is no evidence of an association between abortion and breast cancer. Women who have abortions are not at increased risk of mental health problems over and above women who deliver an unwanted pregnancy. There is no negative effect of abortion on a woman's subsequent fertility. It is not possible for a fetus to perceive pain before 24 weeks' gestation. Misinformation on abortion is widespread. Literature and websites are cited to demonstrate how data have been manipulated and misquoted or just ignored. Citation of non-peer reviewed articles is also common. Mandates insisting on provision of inaccurate information in some US State laws are presented. Attention is drawn to how women can be misled by Crisis Pregnancy Centres. There is extensive promulgation of misinformation on abortion by those who oppose abortion. Much of this misinformation is based on distorted interpretation of the scientific literature.

  19. Oral contraception following abortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Yan; Liu, Xiaoting; Zhang, Bin; Cheng, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Oral contraceptives (OCs) following induced abortion offer a reliable method to avoid repeated abortion. However, limited data exist supporting the effective use of OCs postabortion. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis in the present study reported immediate administration of OCs or combined OCs postabortion may reduce vaginal bleeding time and amount, shorten the menstruation recovery period, increase endometrial thickness 2 to 3 weeks after abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. A total of 8 major authorized Chinese and English databases were screened from January 1960 to November 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which patients had undergone medical or surgical abortions were included. Chinese studies that met the inclusion criteria were divided into 3 groups: administration of OC postmedical abortion (group I; n = 1712), administration of OC postsurgical abortion (group II; n = 8788), and administration of OC in combination with traditional Chinese medicine postsurgical abortion (group III; n = 19,707). In total, 119 of 6160 publications were included in this analysis. Significant difference was observed in group I for vaginal bleeding time (P = 0.0001), the amount of vaginal bleeding (P = 0.03), and menstruation recovery period (P abortion (P abortion, and reduce the risk of complications and unintended pregnancies. PMID:27399060

  20. Access to Medication Abortion Among California's Public University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ushma D; Cartwright, Alice F; Johns, Nicole E

    2018-06-09

    A proposed California law will require student health centers at public universities to provide medication abortion. To understand its potential impact, we sought to describe current travel time, costs, and wait times to access care at the nearest abortion facilities. We projected total medication abortion use based on campus enrollment figures and age- and state-adjusted abortion rates. We calculated distance and public transit time from campuses to the nearest abortion facility. We contacted existing abortion-providing facilities to determine costs, insurance acceptance, and wait times. We estimate 322 to 519 California public university students seek medication abortions each month. As many as 62% of students at these universities were more than 30 minutes from the closest abortion facility via public transportation. Average cost of medication abortion was $604, and average wait time to the first available appointment was one week. College students face cost, scheduling, and travel barriers to abortion care. Offering medication abortion on campus could reduce these barriers. Copyright © 2018 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors and the choice of long-acting reversible contraception following medical abortion: effect on subsequent induced abortion and unwanted pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korjamo, Riina; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Mentula, Maarit

    2018-04-01

    To analyse the post-abortion effect of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) plans and initiation on the risk of subsequent unwanted pregnancy and abortion. retrospective cohort study of 666 women who underwent medical abortion between January-May 2013 at Helsinki University Hospital, Finland. Altogether 159 (23.8%) women planning post-abortion use of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) participated in a randomized study and had an opportunity to receive the LNG-IUS free-of-charge from the hospital. The other 507 (76.2%) women planned and obtained their contraception according to clinical routine. Demographics, planned contraception, and LARC initiation at the time of the index abortion were collected. Data on subsequent abortions were retrieved from the Finnish Abortion Register and electronic patient files until the end of 2014. During the 21 months ([median], IQR 20-22) follow-up, 54(8.1%) women requested subsequent abortions. When adjusted for age, previous pregnancies, deliveries, induced abortions and gestational-age, planning LARC for post-abortion contraception failed to prevent subsequent abortion (33 abortions/360 women, 9.2%) compared to other contraceptive plans (21/306, 6.9%) (HR 1.22, 95% CI 0.68-2.17). However, verified LARC initiation decreased the abortion rate (4 abortions/177 women, 2.3%) compared to women with uncertain LARC initiation status (50/489, 10.2%) (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.06-0.48). When adjusted for LARC initiation status, age abortion (27 abortions/283 women, 9.5%) compared to women ≥25 years (27/383, 7.0%, HR1.95, 95% CI 1.04-3.67). Initiation of LARC as part of abortion service at the time of medical abortion is an important means to prevent subsequent abortion, especially among young women.

  2. Bilateral oblique facial clefts, rudimentary eyes and hydrocephalus in an aborted equine foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Jørgen Steen; Pedersen, Hanne Gervi; McEvoy, Fintan

    2017-01-01

    and hydrocephalus is reported in an equine foetus spontaneously aborted at gestation day 224. The cause of abortion was considered to be intrauterine death caused by umbilical cord torsions and subsequent compromised blood flow, but the aetiology of the malformation could not be determined. A detailed history...

  3. Abortion in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Nancy B.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explored differences between 35 women who had abortions as teenagers and 36 women who had abortions as adults. Respondents reported on their premorbid psychiatric histories, the decision-making process itself, and postabortion distress symptoms. Antisocial and paranoid personality disorders, drug abuse, and psychotic delusions were significantly…

  4. [History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manniche, E

    1982-10-01

    History of induced abortion in Denmark from 1200 to 1979 is reviewed. The 1st Danish law of 1200 did not touch upon the question of induced abortion. From the beginning of the 13th century to Religious Reformation in 1536, Roman Catholic law influenced every aspect of Danish life including induced abortion. In 1683 in King Christian V's constitution called Dansk Lov induced abortion was discussed. Immoral women who aborted fetuses or killed newborn babies were decapitated. In Copenhagen in the years 1624-1632 and 1638-1663 17 women were executed because of induced abortion or murder of newborn babies. Although Dansk Lov was effective till 1866, Danish kings came to treat female criminals less severely since about 1780-1800. For example, between 1855 and 1866 42 women convicted of murder of newborn babies or abortion were given pardon (12 years of imprisonment instead of life sentence). In 1866, abortion and murder of babies were treated separately in the Danish criminal law. Induced abortion meant up to 8 years of imprisonment and labor. In 1930 life sentence was abolished; induced abortion called for only up to 2 years of imprisonment, while those who assisted for money were punished more severely (up to 8 years in prison). In 1937 the Danes legalized induced abortion for medical, ethical, (e.g. rape case) and eugenic reasons. By 1973 legalized abortion was available, free of charge, to every Danish female resident within 12 weeks of pregnancy. In 1980 abortion rate was about 41% of total births. It is estimated 2/3 of Danish women experience abortion. Lastly, illegitimate births and miscarriages are on the rise due to changes in women's social status and role.

  5. [Demand for abortion. Pre-abortion discussion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiol, L

    1994-03-01

    The preabortion interview required by French law takes place between the medical consultation and the aspiration or administration of RU-486. The three marriage counselors at the Center for Social Gynecology in Marseilles have each undertaken a course of personal therapy to enable them to understand their own reactions and motivations as a way of improving their effectiveness with clients. The preabortion interview is an opportunity to listen to and support women who may be experiencing anguish, sadness, ambivalence, or aggressivity. Each client determines the content of the interview. Often the reason for the abortion is given, frequently in terms of economic problems, unemployment, or other justification. The women almost always state that they "cannot", not that they "do not want", to continue the pregnancy, as if external circumstances had made their decision. The decision is usually made with little discussion. Young adolescents are often astounded to find themselves pregnant. Among young girls, the pregnancy may represent an appeal to the parents for attention or understanding. Sometimes the abortion represents a repetition or a reminder of some difficult event in the past, such as a previous abortion or the death of a child. Often the abortion exacerbates problems in the couple's relationship. The mother often experiences rejection of the pregnancy by the father as rejection of herself. Repeat abortions raise questions about whether some aspect of counseling was neglected. The abortion request always occasions a great feeling of guilt, both for being pregnant and for refusing the pregnancy. The interview permits the client to express her feelings and may help her make sense of the experience.

  6. Abortion: a history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovey, G

    1985-01-01

    This review of abortion history considers sacred and secular practice and traces abortion in the US, the legacy of the 19th century, and the change that occurred in the 20th century. Abortion has been practiced since ancient times, but its legality and availability have been threatened continuously by forces that would denigrate women's fundamental rights. Currently, while efforts to decrease the need for abortion through contraception and education continue, access to abortion remains crucial for the well-being of millions of women. That access will never be secure until profound changes occur in the whole society. Laws that prohibit absolutely the practice of abortion are a relatively recent development. In the early Roman Catholic church, abortion was permitted for male fetuses in the first 40 days of pregnancy and for female fetuses in the first 80-90 days. Not until 1588 did Pope Sixtus V declare all abortion murder, with excommunication as the punishment. Only 3 years later a new pope found the absolute sanction unworkable and again allowed early abortions. 300 years would pass before the Catholic church under Pius IX again declared all abortion murder. This standard, declared in 1869, remains the official position of the church, reaffirmed by the current pope. In 1920 the Soviet Union became the 1st modern state formally to legalize abortion. In the early period after the 1917 revolution, abortion was readily available in state operated facilities. These facilities were closed and abortion made illegal when it became clear that the Soviet Union would have to defend itself against Nazi Germany. After World War II women were encouraged to enter the labor force, and abortion once again became legal. The cases of the Catholic church and the Soviet Union illustrate the same point. Abortion legislation has never been in the hands of women. In the 20th century, state policy has been determined by the rhythms of economic and military expansion, the desire for cheap

  7. LHC Abort Gap Filling by Proton Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Fartoukh, Stéphane David; Shaposhnikova, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Safe operation of the LHC beam dump relies on the possibility of firing the abort kicker at any moment during beam operation. One of the necessary conditions for this is that the number of particles in the abort gap should be below some critical level defined by quench limits. Various scenarios can lead to particles filling the abort gap. Time scales associated with these scenarios are estimated for injection energy and also coast where synchrotron radiation losses are not negligible for uncaptured particle motion. Two cases are considered, with RF on and RF off. The equilibrium distribution of lost particles in the abort gap defines the requirements for maximum tolerable relative loss rate and as a consequence the minimum acceptable longitudinal lifetime of the proton beam in collision.

  8. Effect of calorie restriction on spontaneous physical activity and body mass in mice divergently selected for basal metabolic rate (BMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzęk, Paweł; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Książek, Aneta; Konarzewski, Marek

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous physical activity (SPA) represents an important component of daily energy expenditures in animals and humans. Intra-specific variation in SPA may be related to the susceptibility to metabolic disease or obesity. In particular, reduced SPA under conditions of limited food availability may conserve energy and prevent loss of body and fat mass ('thrifty genotype hypothesis'). However, both SPA and its changes during food restriction show wide inter-individual variations. We studied the effect of 30% caloric restriction (CR) on SPA in laboratory mice divergently selected for high (H-BMR) and low (L-BMR) basal metabolic rate. Selection increased SPA in the H-BMR line but did not change it in the L-BMR mice. This effect reflected changes in SPA intensity but not SPA duration. CR increased SPA intensity more strongly in the L-BMR line than in the H-BMR line and significantly modified the temporal variation of SPA. However, the initial between-line differences in SPA were not affected by CR. Loss of body mass during CR did not differ between both lines. Our results show that the H-BMR mice can maintain their genetically determined high SPA under conditions of reduced food intake without sacrificing their body mass. We hypothesize that this pattern may reflect the higher flexibility in the energy budget in the H-BMR line, as we showed previously that mice from this line reduced their BMR during CR. These energy savings may allow for the maintenance of elevated SPA in spite of reduced food intake. We conclude that the effect of CR on SPA is in large part determined by the initial level of BMR, whose variation may account for the lack of universal pattern of behavioural responses to CR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical oversight and the avoidance of repeat induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacovetty, Erica L; Clare, Camille A; Squire, Mary-Beatrice; Kubal, Keshar P; Liou, Sherry; Inchiosa, Mario A

    2018-06-03

    To evaluate the impact of patient counseling, demographics, and contraceptive methods on repeat induced abortion in women attending family planning clinics. A retrospective chart review of repeat induced abortions was performed. The analysis included patients with an initial induced abortion obtained between January 1, 2001, and March 31, 2014, at New York City Health + Hospitals/Metropolitan. The duration of involvement in the family planning program, the use of contraceptive interventions, and 18 patient factors were analyzed for their correlation with the incidence of repeat induced abortions per year of follow-up. A decreased rate of repeat induced abortions was associated with a longer duration of clinical oversight (r 2 =0.449, Pabortions. By determining the patient characteristics that most influence repeat induced abortion rates, providers can best choose the most efficacious method of contraception available. © 2018 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  10. Rewriting abortion: deploying medical records in jurisdictional negotiation over a forbidden practice in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2014-01-01

    Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal’s national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in nearly 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion

  11. The interaction between legalization of abortion and contraception in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthiessen, P C

    1979-01-01

    Trends in fertility, abortion, and contraceptive practice in Denmark were analyzed, using previously compiled official statistics; the conclusion was drawn that easy access to abortion may contribute toward a decline in contraceptive practice depending on the level of contraceptive practice in the population and on the degree of confidence the population has in available contraceptive methods. In October 1973 Denmark passed a law permitting women to obtain free abortion on demand. The number of legal abortions increased from 16,500 in 1973 to 28,000 in 1975. This marked increase was not attributable to a decline in illegal abortion since that annual number had declined from 5,000 to 1,000 prior to the passage of the 1973 abortion on demand law. The increase in abortion observed from 1973-1975 was accompanied by a marked decrease in the number of oral contraceptive cycles sold. Annual sales decreased from 3.9 million cycles to 2.6 million. It was difficult to access the factors responsible for this decline. Although IUD insertions increased during this period, the increase could not adequately compensate for the reduction in oral contraceptive sales. The decline in oral contraceptive sales occurred at about the time the negative side effects associated with the pill received widespread news coverage. Some of the decline in pill usage was probably due to fear of side effects, but abortion availability also encouraged women to be more lax about taking the pill and encouraged them to rely on less effective methods of contraception. Tables provide data for Denmark in reference to: 1) number of legal abortions and the abortion rates for 1940-1977; 2) distribution of abortions by season, 1972-1977; 3) abortion rates by maternal age, 1971-1977; 4) oral contraceptive and IUD sales for 1977-1978; and 5) number of births and estimated number of abortions and conceptions, 1960-1975.

  12. Knowledge and attitudes of Swedish politicians concerning induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Josefsson, Ann; Bladh, Marie; Muhrbeck, Måns; Sydsjö, Gunilla

    2012-12-01

    Induced abortion is more frequent in Sweden than in many other Western countries. We wanted to investigate attitudes and knowledge about induced abortion among politicians responsible for healthcare in three Swedish counties. A study-specific questionnaire was sent to all 375 elected politicians in three counties; 192 (51%) responded. The politicians stated that they were knowledgeable about the Swedish abortion law. More than half did not consider themselves, in their capacity as politicians, sufficiently informed about abortion-related matters. Most politicians (72%) considered induced abortion to be primarily a 'women's rights issue' rather than an ethical one, and 54% considered 12 weeks' gestational age an adequate upper limit for induced abortion. Only about a third of the respondents were correctly informed about the number of induced abortions annually carried out in Sweden. Information and knowledge on induced abortion among Swedish county politicians seem not to be optimal. Changes aimed at reducing the current high abortion rates will probably not be easy to achieve as politicians seem to be reluctant to commit themselves on ethical issues and consider induced abortion mainly a women's rights issue.

  13. Brazilian abortion law: the opinion of judges and prosecutors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Graciana Alves; Osis, Maria José Duarte; Faúndes, Anibal; Sousa, Maria Helena de

    2010-06-01

    To analyze the opinion of judges and prosecutors concerning Brazilian abortion law and situations in which the abortion should be allowed. A cross-sectional study was performed with 1,493 judges and 2,614 prosecutors in Brazil between 2005 and 2006. Participants completed a structured questionnaire approaching sociodemographic characteristics, opinions about abortion law, and circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of data were carried out through Poisson regression. The majority of participants (78%) found that the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful should be broadened, or even that abortion should not be criminalized. The highest rates of pro-abortion opinions resulted from: risk to the life of the mother (84%), anencephaly (83%), severe congenital malformation of fetus (82%), and pregnancy resulting from rape (82%). Variables related to religion were strongly associated to the opinion of participants. There is a trend in considering the need of changing the current abortion law, in the sense of widening the circumstances in which abortion is considered lawful, or even toward decriminalizing abortion, regardless of the circumstances in which it takes place.

  14. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awoyemi, Bosede O; Novignon, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers' education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this in the absence of proper post-abortion

  15. Demand for abortion and post abortion care in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background While induced abortion is considered to be illegal and socially unacceptable in Nigeria, it is still practiced by many women in the country. Poor family planning and unsafe abortion practices have daunting effects on maternal health. For instance, Nigeria is on the verge of not meeting the Millennium development goals on maternal health due to high maternal mortality ratio, estimated to be about 630 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Recent evidences have shown that a major factor in this trend is the high incidence of abortion in the country. The objective of this paper is, therefore, to investigate the factors determining the demand for abortion and post-abortion care in Ibadan city of Nigeria. Methods The study employed data from a hospital-based/exploratory survey carried out between March to September 2010. Closed ended questionnaires were administered to a sample of 384 women of reproductive age from three hospitals within the Ibadan metropolis in South West Nigeria. However, only 308 valid responses were received and analysed. A probit model was fitted to determine the socioeconomic factors that influence demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Results The results showed that 62% of respondents demanded for abortion while 52.3% of those that demanded for abortion received post-abortion care. The findings again showed that income was a significant determinant of abortion and post-abortion care demand. Women with higher income were more likely to demand abortion and post-abortion care. Married women were found to be less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Older women were significantly less likely to demand for abortion and post-abortion care. Mothers’ education was only statistically significant in determining abortion demand but not post-abortion care demand. Conclusion The findings suggest that while abortion is illegal in Nigeria, some women in the Ibadan city do abort unwanted pregnancies. The consequence of this

  16. Playing it Safe: Legal and Clandestine Abortions Among Adolescents in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sully, Elizabeth; Dibaba, Yohannes; Fetters, Tamara; Blades, Nakeisha; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2018-06-01

    The 2005 expansion of the Ethiopian abortion law provided minors access to legal abortions, yet little is known about abortion among adolescents. This paper estimates the incidence of legal and clandestine abortions and the severity of abortion-related complications among adolescent and nonadolescent women in Ethiopia in 2014. This paper uses data from three surveys: a Health Facility Survey (n = 822) to collect data on legal abortions and postabortion complications, a Health Professionals Survey (n = 82) to estimate the share of clandestine abortions that resulted in treated complications, and a Prospective Data Survey (n = 5,604) to collect data on abortion care clients. An age-specific variant of the Abortion Incidence Complications Method was used to estimate abortions by age-group. Adolescents have the lowest abortion rate among all women below age 35 (19.6 per 1,000 women). After adjusting for lower levels of sexual activity among adolescents however, we find that adolescents have the highest abortion rate among all age-groups. Adolescents also have the highest proportion (64%) of legal abortions compared with other age-groups. We find no differences in the severity of abortion-related complications between adolescent and nonadolescent women. We find no evidence that adolescents are more likely than older women to have clandestine abortions. However, the higher abortion and pregnancy rates among sexually active adolescents suggest that they face barriers in access to and use of contraceptive services. Further work is needed to address the persistence of clandestine abortions among adolescents in a context where safe and legal abortion is available. Copyright © 2018 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. From abortion to contraception: Tbilisi, 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, H P

    1991-01-01

    Hoping to provide women other choice besides abortion as a way to regulate fertility, 220 experts from 27 mostly European countries met in Tbilisi, Georgia, USSR to discuss ways of increasing access to modern contraceptives. Held last October, the conference was sponsored by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization European Regional Office (WHO/EURO), the International Planned Parenthood Federation/Europe, and the Zhordania Institute of Human Reproduction, Tbilisi. The meeting produced the Tbilisi Declaration, which -- among other things -- recognizes that unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions pose a serious health and social problem. Criminalization, the experts agreed, does little to reduce the number of abortions, and only increases the number of unsafe operations. The Tbilisi Declaration also affirms women's right to decide freely on the number and spacing of children, their right to reproductive health, their right to self-determination in their sexual and reproductive lives, and the right of every child to be a wanted child. The participants addressed the high incidents of abortion in some European countries -- particularly the Soviet Union. With the highest rate of abortion in Europe, the Soviet Union recorded 6 million legal abortions in 1988, and estimates that another 6 million were performed illegally. Nonetheless, perestroika has begun to facilitate access to contraceptives. Participants also discussed new methods of early pregnancy termination, RU486 and menstrual regulation procedures (MR), neither of which is readily available. Increasing access to these methods would help reduce suffering and unnecessary deaths.

  18. Ugandan opinion-leaders' knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ann M; Kibombo, Richard; Cats-Baril, Deva

    2014-10-01

    While laws in Uganda surrounding abortion remain contradictory, a frequent interpretation of the law is that abortion is only allowed to save the woman's life. Nevertheless abortion occurs frequently under unsafe conditions at a rate of 54 abortions per 1000 women of reproductive age annually, taking a large toll on women's health. There are an estimated 148,500 women in Uganda who experience abortion complications annually. Understanding opinion leaders' knowledge and perceptions about unsafe abortion is critical to identifying ways to address this public health issue. We conducted in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 41 policy-makers, cultural leaders, local politicians and leaders within the health care sector in 2009-10 at the national as well as district (Bushenyi, Kamuli and Lira) level to explore their knowledge and perceptions of unsafe abortion and the potential for policy to address this issue. Only half of the sample knew the current law regulating abortion in Uganda. Respondents understood that the result of the current abortion restrictions included long-term health complications, unwanted children and maternal death. Perceived consequences of increasing access to safe abortion included improved health as well as overuse of abortion, marital conflict and less reliance on preventive behaviour. Opinion leaders expressed the most support for legalization of abortion in cases of rape when the perpetrator was unknown. Understanding opinion leaders' perspectives on this politically sensitive topic provides insight into the policy context of abortion laws, drivers behind maintaining the status quo, and ways to improve provision under the law: increase education among providers and opinion leaders. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  19. Medical Abortion in Primary Care : Pitfalls and Benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A. A.; Meyboom-de Jong, B.

    2009-01-01

    We describe jive pitfalls of medical abortion: ectopic pregnancy not terminated after misoprostol, but without negative side-effects; long-term vaginal blood loss with suspicious retained products which disappeared spontaneously; a patient with uterus myomatatosus with severe pain and retained

  20. Medical abortion. defining success and categorizing failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørbye, Christina; Nørgaard, Mogens; Vestermark, Vibeke

    2003-01-01

    . The difference in short- and long-term success rates increased with increasing gestational age. The majority of failures (76%) were diagnosed more than 2 weeks after initiation of the abortion. At a 2-week follow-up visit, the women who turned out to be failures had a larger endometrial width, higher beta......-hCG values and smaller reductions of beta-hCG than those treated successfully. To optimize comparison of success rates after different medical abortion regimens, we suggest that the criteria for success are stated clearly, that the success rates are stratified according to gestational age...

  1. Diagnosis of Cervical Abortion by TransvaginaI Color Doppler Sonography : A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ju; Ryu, Hee Sug; Ji, Hoon; Suh, Jung Ho

    1995-01-01

    Cervical abortion is a spontaneous abortion of an intrauterine pregnancy into the cervical canal where the abortus is retained by a closed external os, causing distension of the cervical canal. Cervical abortion should be distinguished from the cervical pregnancy. We present a case of cervical abortion diagnosed preoperatively by transvaginal sonography and color doppler imaging, and treated by dilatation and curettage. Charateristic transvaginal sonographic findings and identification of subtrophoblastic blood flow by color doppler imaging could allow differentiation of the cevical aborition from the cervical pregnancy

  2. Abortion Is the Same as a Murder of an Innocent Human Being

    OpenAIRE

    Togzhan Yezlankyzy; Shokan Niazbekov

    2015-01-01

    Abortion is one of the most controversial and talked problem of our time. It is discussed in classrooms, work places and even on the internet. The definition of abortion is the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus as the spontaneous expulsion of a human fetus during the first 12 weeks of gestation. Kazakhstan’s health organization records 300 thousand abortions every year. Abortion problem is unlikely to care a...

  3. Effect of low-intensity low-dose rate irradiation on the incidence and the development of spontaneous leukosis in AKR mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.; Erokhin, V.N.

    2001-01-01

    Development of spontaneous leukosis in AKR mice is accelerated by irradiation with low doses of 1.2-2.4 cGy and low dose rate 0.06 cGy/day. The leukoses incidence rate increases. Deaths of the animals from leukosis occurs earlier, shortening the average and maximum life-spans of the animals. The dynamics of changes in the mass of organs of the immune systems (thymus and spleen) shows extrema. The moment of reaching the extremum correlates with the maximum rate of animals' deaths [ru

  4. The demographic argument in Soviet debates over the legalization of abortion in the 1920s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S G

    1993-01-01

    Russia legalized abortion in 1920. State policy was pronatalist. Regional abortion commissions were established in order to monitor costs and maintain records. The physicians before the legal change were mainly against legalization. In 1923 the abortion rate was 2.91 abortions per live birth. A 1923 study by M. Karlin, M.D., found among 1362 women that the health risk to women of zero parity with an induced abortion was higher than giving birth. Public discussion of abortion was limited between 1921 and 1924. Russian physicians between 1925 and 1927 both publicly and privately discussed the problems; greater attention to demographic concerns occurred during the 1930s. The connection between abortion and the declining birth rate was established in a limited way in a May 1927 obstetricians' society meeting in Kiev, Ukraine. The albeit unreliable statistics appeared to confirm the decline in the birth rate due to increased numbers of abortions. The literature in the 1920s was devoted to the well-being of women as workers; abortion policy favored the interests of working women and was set up for prevention of unsafe illegal abortions. Russian demographers were more concerned with population movements. Surveys found that the profiled abortion client was indeed not destitute, but better off and married. Roesle, a German demographer, considered legal abortion beneficial in reducing maternal mortality, but he was criticized for obscuring abortions' impact on the birth rate. The debate in Russia was tangled in ideology. A comparison of abortion rates in Vienna and Moscow by a Viennese demographer Peller found similar rates regardless of legality. Peller further suggested that contraception had more to do with birth rates. Even though rural populations were hard hit by famine in 1931 and forced collectivization in 1929, increased rural abortions were blamed for the declining rural birth rates. The demographic argument against abortion became prominent again in 1931/32 after

  5. THE OUTCOME OF PREGNANCY IN PATIENTS WITH THREATENED ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathap

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the Outcome of pregnancy in patients with threatened abortion. METHODS: A Prospective observational study was done on 106 pregnant women with threatened abortion. Out comes in the form of antenatal complications, mode of delivery and postnatal co mplications were noted. Analysis of the data was done using SPSS version 13. RESULTS: In the study of 106 patients 18% had spontaneous abortion. Pre - labour rupture of membranes were seen in 20% of patients and 21% had preterm labour. Threatened abortion di d not affect mode of delivery. PPROM, preterm births were more in women presenting with first trimester bleeding; PIH, PROM, and postpartum complications were more in women presenting beyond 20 weeks gestation though statistically not significant. 13.2% of women had heavy bleeding at admission out of which 50% aborted subsequently – significantly higher than the light bleeding group. CONCLUSION: The overall maternal and perinatal outcome in women with threatened abortion is suboptimal. Women with heavy blee ding are more likely to abort than women with light bleeding. Among the prognostic factors, only the amount of bleeding had significant prognostic accuracy

  6. Estudio citogenético y morfológico en productos de aborto espontáneo procedentes de diferentes servicios de ginecoobstetricia de la ciudad de Medellín Cytogenetic and morphologic study of spontaneous abortions products in Medellín, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzálo Vásquez Palacio

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available En el período comprendido entre septiembre 1° de 1996 y octubre 1° de 1997, se recolectó para estudios morfológico y citogenético un total de 84 productos de aborto espontáneo del 1° y 2° trimestres de la gestación, en diferentes servicios de ginecoobstetricia de la ciudad de Medellín. Dieciséis de los 84 se descartaron por contaminación o ausencia de tejidos apropiados para el estudio. De los 68 productos restantes en 60 (88,2% se establecieron cultivos para estudio citogenético, los cuales fueron exitosos en 34 casos (56, 7%. Diecisiete de los anteriores (50% mostraron un cariotipo anormal con las siguientes alteraciones cromosómicas: monosomía X, 10 (58,8%, mosaicismos 5 (29,4%, trisomías 1 (5,9% y tetraploidía 1 (5,9%. En 21 de los 68 productos (30,9% (3 embriones y 18 fetos fue posible el estudio morfológico. Doce de éstos, (2 embriones y 10 fetos; 57, 1 % mostraron alteraciones morfológicas externas o internas. El presente estudio citogenético y morfológico en productos de aborto espontáneo con edad gestacional menor de 20 semanas es el primero que se informa en nuestro medio y sus resultados son similares a los obtenidos en otros reportes que aparecen en la literatura. Eighty tour spontaneous abortion products, with gestational age under 20 weeks, were collected in ditterent obstetric and gynecologic services trom Medellin-Colombia between September 1996 and October 1997; they were studied both morphologically and cytogenetically. Sixteen of those products were discarded because of contamination or absence of suitable tissues for the study In 60 of the remaining 68 products (88°/~ cultures for cytogenetic studies were establishedJ and they were succesful in 34 cases (56J7%. Seventeen of. these (50% showed an abnormal karyotype with the following chromosomal anomalies: X monosomies 10 (58J8%, mosaicisms 5 (29,4%J trisomies 1 (5,9%, and tetráploidy 1 (5J9%. From the 68 products, a morphologic study was performed in

  7. Post abortion syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    There is general agreement that uncertainty persists regarding the psychological sequelae of abortion. Inconsistencies of interpretation stem from a lack of consensus about the symptoms, severity, and duration of mental disorder. In addition, opinions differ based on individual case studies and there is no national reporting system or adequate follow up system. Frequently, reviews combine studies conducted prior to and after the 1973 Supreme Court decision, mix elective abortion with those induced for medical reasons, or fail to distinguish between abortions performed early or late in gestation. The literature reveals methodological problems, a lack of controls, and sampling inadequacies. A review of the available literature and the files of "Abortion Research Notes" suggests that women at particular risk for postabortion stress reactions are those who terminate an originally wanted pregnancy, are strongly ambivalent, come very late in their pregnancy, or lack the support of significant others.

  8. Quasi-static method and finite element method for obtaining the modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and energy level shift near a plasmonic nanostructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-Jin; Tian, Meng; Wang, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Hong; Zhao, Heping; Huang, Yong-Gang

    2018-01-22

    We provide numerical demonstrations of the applicability and accuracy of the quasi-static method and the finite-element method in the investigation of the modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and the energy level shift of an emitter placed near a silver-air interface or a silver nano-sphere. The analytical results are presented as a reference. Our calculations show that the finite element method is an accurate and general method. For frequency away from the radiative mode, the quasi-static method can be applied more effectively for calculating the energy level shift than the spontaneous emission rate. But for frequency around, there is a blue shift for both and this shift increases with the increasing of emitter-silver distance. Applying the theory to the nanosphere dimmer, we see similar phenomenon and find extremely large modifications of the spontaneous emission rate and energy level shift. These findings are instructive in the fields of quantum light-matter interactions.

  9. No. 360-Induced Abortion: Surgical Abortion and Second Trimester Medical Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costescu, Dustin; Guilbert, Édith

    2018-06-01

    This guideline reviews evidence relating to the provision of surgical induced abortion (IA) and second trimester medical abortion, including pre- and post-procedural care. Gynaecologists, family physicians, nurses, midwives, residents, and other health care providers who currently or intend to provide and/or teach IAs. Women with an unintended or abnormal first or second trimester pregnancy. PubMed, Medline, and the Cochrane Database were searched using the key words: first-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester surgical abortion, second-trimester medical abortion, dilation and evacuation, induction abortion, feticide, cervical preparation, cervical dilation, abortion complications. Results were restricted to English or French systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, and observational studies published from 1979 to July 2017. National and international clinical practice guidelines were consulted for review. Grey literature was not searched. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology framework. The summary of findings is available upon request. IA is safe and effective. The benefits of IA outweigh the potential harms or costs. No new direct harms or costs identified with these guidelines. Copyright © 2018 Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. All rights reserved.

  10. Induced abortion: a means of postponing childbirth? Changes in maternal age at induced abortion and child birth in Norway during 1971-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Vlietman, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The maternal age at child birth is increasing. If induced abortion is an important means of postponing childbirth in a population, it is to be expected that in young women the rate of conceived pregnancies is stable over time, but the induced abortion rate increases. We studied birth rates, induced abortion rates and the sum of these rates by maternal age during four decades. Design: Register-based study. Setting and population: All women 15-49 years living in Norway. M...

  11. Politics and abortion in Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirakova, K

    1992-01-01

    Political change in Bulgaria has meant the beginning of the recognition of the reproduction rights of women. Abortion, for example, was legalized in 1990. Women in Bulgaria, however, still lack the information they need on basic hygiene and sex. It is impossible to promulgate a progressive strategy in Bulgaria if one ignores the isolation of the Turkish and Gypsy ethnic communities. In addition, an economic crisis exists, and no real measures have been undertaken to mitigate the situation. The new democratic institutions have settled comfortably into the structures of the former communist rule, even to the point of adopting the same extensive demagogic terminology which perpetrates the old gap between words and deeds. For example, although a new birth control strategy and plan for sex education was announced 2 years ago, nothing definite has been done. One development, however, has been the legalization of abortion, which was accompanied by an immediate drop in the abortion rate (still 1.5 abortions/birth). Because of a lack of sex education, 900 children are born to girls under age 15 each year. Bulgaria is just starting to embrace modern values and must update its attitudes towards women. Bulgaria's formal institutions seem to be unable to face this issue, and many societies and foundations have emerged to work for women's rights, to protect out-of-wedlock children, and to fight disease (including AIDS) and drug addiction. However, these organizations are not producing real results and are simply providing shelter to representatives of the old nomenclature. Real efforts to overcome these problems will continue despite the current discouraging state of affairs.

  12. Catholic attitudes toward abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W

    1984-01-01

    In the US attitudes toward abortion in the 1980s seem to have reached a more liberal plateau, much more favored than in the 1960s or earlier, but not longer moving in a liberal direction. Catholic attitudes basically have followed the same trend. Traditionally Catholic support has been slightly lower than Protestant, and both are less inclined to support abortion than Jews or the nonreligious. During the 1970s support among non-black Catholics averaged about 10 percentage points below non-black Protestants. Blacks tend to be anti-abortion and thereby lower support among Protestants as a whole. A comparison of Protestants and Catholics of both races shows fewer religious differences -- about 7 percentage points. There are some indications that this gap may be closing. In 1982, for the 1st time, support for abortions for social reasons, such as poverty, not wanting to marry, or not wanting more children, was as high among Catholics as among Protestants. 1 of the factors contributing to this narrowing gap has been the higher level of support for abortion among younger Catholics. Protestants show little variation on abortion attitudes, with those over age 65 being slightly less supportive. Among Catholics, support drops rapidly with age. This moderate and possibly vanishing difference between Catholics and Protestants contrasts sharply with the official positions of their respective churches. The Catholic Church takes an absolute moral position against abortion, while most Protestant churches take no doctrinaire position on abortion. Several, such as the Unitarians and Episcopalians, lean toward a pro-choice position as a matter of social policy, though fundamentalist sects take strong anti-abortion stances. Few Catholics agree with their church's absolutist anti-abortion position. The big split on abortion comes between what are sometimes termed the "hard" abortion reasons -- mother's health endangered, serious defect in fetus, rape, or incest. Support among Catholics

  13. The Stratified Legitimacy of Abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Katrina; Weitz, Tracy A; Freedman, Lori

    2016-12-01

    Roe v. Wade was heralded as an end to unequal access to abortion care in the United States. However, today, despite being common and safe, abortion is performed only selectively in hospitals and private practices. Drawing on 61 interviews with obstetrician-gynecologists in these settings, we examine how they determine which abortions to perform. We find that they distinguish between more and less legitimate abortions, producing a narrative of stratified legitimacy that privileges abortions for intended pregnancies, when the fetus is unhealthy, and when women perform normative gendered sexuality, including distress about the abortion, guilt about failure to contracept, and desire for motherhood. This stratified legitimacy can perpetuate socially-inflected inequality of access and normative gendered sexuality. Additionally, we argue that the practice by physicians of distinguishing among abortions can legitimate legislative practices that regulate and restrict some kinds of abortion, further constraining abortion access. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  14. Unsafe abortion: the silent scourge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, David A

    2003-01-01

    An estimated 19 million unsafe abortions occur worldwide each year, resulting in the deaths of about 70,000 women. Legalization of abortion is a necessary but insufficient step toward improving women's health. Without skilled providers, adequate facilities and easy access, the promise of safe, legal abortion will remain unfulfilled, as in India and Zambia. Both suction curettage and pharmacological abortion are safe methods in early pregnancy; sharp curettage is inferior and should be abandoned. For later abortions, either dilation and evacuation or labour induction are appropriate. Hysterotomy should not be used. Timely and appropriate management of complications can reduce morbidity and prevent mortality. Treatment delays are dangerous, regardless of their origin. Misoprostol may reduce the risks of unsafe abortion by providing a safer alternative to traditional clandestine abortion methods. While the debate over abortion will continue, the public health record is settled: safe, legal, accessible abortion improves health.

  15. On the Wrongfulness of abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Arosemena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abortion is seen as an immoral and unjust act by many. Nonetheless these views are under pressure to conform to the learned opinion on abortion. A variety of prestigious in the field of applied ethics support abortion in one way or another. And it is a dogma of modern liberalism that even if one is personally opposed to abortion, one must accept the neutral solution of its public permissibility. The present article defends the thesis that abortion is immoral and unjust against these contentions. With regards to the moral status of abortion, it argues that the prohibition of abortion is off a piece with the prohibition of killing generally, which is characterized by protecting all human beings equally. With regards to the compatibility of abortion permissibility with liberalism, the article argues that such a compromise is not neutral, but heavily rigged in favor of the interests and world-views of abortion proponents.

  16. Effects of a hot-water extract of porcini (Boletus aestivalis) mushrooms on the blood pressure and heart rate of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midoh, Naoki; Miyazawa, Noriko; Eguchi, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    The repeated once-daily oral administration of a hot-water extract of porcini, Boletus aestivalis, mushrooms (WEP) to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) for 18 weeks decreased the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate. The WEP administration also decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cre), and triglyceride (TG), and increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) in the blood, suggesting that WEP improved the status of hypertension, as well as the high heart rate and metabolic abnormalities involved in hypertension.

  17. Domestic Violence and Abortion Among Rural Women in Four Indian States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Jadhav, Apoorva; Winter, Amy; Hindin, Michelle

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of domestic violence and abortion in India is high, yet little is known about the relationship between these experiences. Data from two linked data sets, India's 1998-1999 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2) and a follow-up survey in 2002-2003, were analyzed. The analysis examines how the experience of physical violence affects the subsequent uptake of abortion, and how the experience of abortion affects subsequent experience of physical, sexual, and verbal violence. Women who experienced physical violence have significantly higher odds of reporting a subsequent induced abortion, whereas women who had an induced abortion have significantly higher odds of reporting subsequent sexual and verbal violence. There was no significant relationship between domestic violence and spontaneous abortion. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Induced first-trimester abortion and risk of mental disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munk-Olsen, Trine; Laursen, Thomas Munk; Pedersen, Carsten B; Lidegaard, Øjvind; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    2011-01-27

    Concern has been expressed about potential harm to women's mental health in association with having an induced abortion, but it remains unclear whether induced abortion is associated with an increased risk of subsequent psychiatric problems. We conducted a population-based cohort study that involved linking information from the Danish Civil Registration system to the Danish Psychiatric Central Register and the Danish National Register of Patients. The information consisted of data for girls and women with no record of mental disorders during the 1995-2007 period who had a first-trimester induced abortion or a first childbirth during that period. We estimated the rates of first-time psychiatric contact (an inpatient admission or outpatient visit) for any type of mental disorder within the 12 months after the abortion or childbirth as compared with the 9-month period preceding the event. The incidence rates of first psychiatric contact per 1000 person-years among girls and women who had a first abortion were 14.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.7 to 15.6) before abortion and 15.2 (95% CI, 14.4 to 16.1) after abortion. The corresponding rates among girls and women who had a first childbirth were 3.9 (95% CI, 3.7 to 4.2) before delivery and 6.7 (95% CI, 6.4 to 7.0) post partum. The relative risk of a psychiatric contact did not differ significantly after abortion as compared with before abortion (P = 0.19) but did increase after childbirth as compared with before childbirth (P abortion does not support the hypothesis that there is an increased risk of mental disorders after a first-trimester induced abortion.

  19. Effects of price and availability on abortion demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohmann, S F; Ohsfeldt, R L

    1993-10-01

    This study explained the variation in US state abortion demand due to the price of services, the net of insurance cost of birth services, the ability to pay, contraceptive use, individual attitudes regarding abortion, and government policy affecting cost of benefits of terminating an unintended pregnancy or of carrying to birth. The empirical model uses pooled data from 48 states for 1982, 1984, 1985, and 1987. Prices are deflated to 1977 dollars. Another two-staged least squares model is based on cross-sectional state level data for 1985. The dependent variable is the log of abortion per 1000 pregnancies. Other variables pertain to income, education, labor force, family planning, tax, aid to families with dependent children, religion, and abortion-related measures. The results of the cross-sectional analysis are consistent with Medoff's and Garbacz's findings. The estimated coefficient of per capita income is positive with a point elasticity ranging from 0.62 to 1.0. The model with the most complete specifications has an abortion price elasticity range from -0.75 to -1.3 and is statistically significant when religion measures are excluded. The Hausman test shows the pro-choice variable significantly correlated with the error term. The net price of birth services is not statistically significant. Catholic religion and no religion are only significant when the abortion provider variable is excluded. The suggestion is that the effect of Catholicism is ambiguous. In the pooled analysis, the fixed effects model is used to control for abortion attitudes and other unobserved factors. Abortion demand includes abortion per 1000 pregnancies, the ratio of abortions to pregnancies, and the logarithm of abortions per 1000 pregnancies. Higher income is associated with a higher abortion rate and elasticities of 0.76 and 0.35 and is associated with a higher pregnancy rate. The abortion ratio is found to be elastic with respect to price, and price elasticities are sensitive to

  20. Abortion in the North of Burkina Faso | Dehane | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Almost half of the sampled women of all ethnic groups admitted to the existence of abortion carried out by their peers. Response rates and knowledge of abortions were lower among younger women and among those belonging to the Islamic Hamallist and Wahabiya sects. Abortions were commonly induced by drinking a ...

  1. Psychology Consequences of Abortion Among The Post Abortion Care Seeking Women in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Pourreza

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective: abortion either medical or criminal has distinctive physical, social, and psychological side effects. Detecting types and frequent psychological side effects of abortion among post abortion care seeking women in Tehran was the main objective of the present study. "n Method: 278 women of reproductive age (15-49 interviewed as study population. Response rate was 93/8. Data collected through a questionnaire with 2 parts meeting broad socio-economic characteristics of the respondents and health- related abortion consequences. Tehran hospitals were the site of study. "nResults: The results revealed that at least one-third of the respondents have experienced psychological side effects. Depression, worrying about not being able to conceive again and abnormal eating behaviors were reported as dominant psychological consequences of abortion among the respondents. Decreased self-esteem, nightmare, guilt, and regret with 43.7%, 39.5%, 37.5%, and 33.3% prevalence rates have been placed in the lower status, respectively. "nConclusion: Psychological consequences of abortion have considerably been neglected. Several barriers made findings limited. Different types of psychological side effects, however, experienced by the study population require more intensive attention because of chronic characteristic of psychological disorders, and women's health impact on family and population health.

  2. Radioimmunological methods of determining hormones in the blood in physiological pregnancy and in abortions and premature delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulienko, S.D.; Fogel, P.I.

    1981-01-01

    Significant changes are shown to occur in the level of sex hormones in blood at the risk of spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or the mole. Determining the levels of estradiol, progesterone, chorial gonadotropin and testosterone in the blood serum using RIA yields immediate information on the hormonal function of the fetoplacental unit. This has diagnostic significance and can be used as a criterion for the application of complementary hormonal therapy when there is a risk of abortion or premature delivery. (author)

  3. [Abortion: towards worldwide legalization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    A table showing the current status of abortion in the world based on two recent and detailed studies is presented. Countries are categorized according to whether they totally prohibit abortion, permit it to save the mother's life, permit it to preserve her physical health or mental health, permit it for maternal socioeconomic reasons, or provide it at the mother's request. The countries are grouped into 5 geographic areas: America and the Caribbean; Central Asia, Middle East, and North Africa; East and South Asia and the Pacific; Europe; sub-Saharan Africa. The trend toward liberalization of laws is clear. The development of abortion laws is moving in the direction of complete legalization, that is, the creation of health norms that facilitate abortion for all women, with guarantees of medical safety. There are still countries that move to restrict access to abortion, and in a few cases, such as Colombia and Poland, legalization and prohibition have alternated depending on the social and political circumstances of the moment. In the past 12 years, 28 countries liberalized their laws in some way, while 4 countries with close ties to the Vatican restricted or prohibited access.

  4. Jewish views on abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobovits, I

    1968-01-01

    In Jewish law right and wrong, good and evil, are absolute values which transcend time, place, and environment. They defy definition by human intuition or expediency. Jewish law derives from the Divine revelation at Mount Sinai as expounded by sages faithful to, and authorized by, its writ. The Talmud rules that if a woman is in hard travail, and her life must be saved, the child must be aborted and extracted. The mother's life comes first. The fetus is not a human life until it is born. But 19th century Rabbinical works state that it is immoral to destroy a monster child. Modern rabbis are unanimous in condemning abortion, feticide, or infanticide as an unconscionable attack on human life. However, Jewish law allows abortion if the pregnancy will cause severe psychological damage to the mother. No civilized society could survive without laws which occasionally cause some suffering or personal anguish. One human life is worth a million lives, because each life is infinite in value. In cases of rape or incest Jewish law still does not sanction abortion. Man's procreative responsibilities are serious and carry rights and obligations which would be upset by liberalized abortion laws. If a person kills a person who is mortally wounded, the killer is guilty of a moral offense.

  5. Defining minors' abortion rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, A M

    1988-01-01

    The right to abortion is confirmed in the Roe versus Wade case, by the US Supreme Court. It is a fundamental right of privacy but not an absolute right, and must consider state interests. During the first trimester of pregnancy abortion is a decision of the woman and her doctor. During the second trimester of pregnancy the state may control the abortion practice to protect the mothers health, and in the last trimester, it may prohibit abortion, except in cases where the mother's life or health are in danger. The states enacted laws, including one that required parents to give written consent for a unmarried minor's abortion. This law was struck down by the US Court, but laws on notification were upheld as long as there was alternative procedures where the minor's interests are upheld. Many of these law have been challenged successfully, where the minor was judged mature and where it served her best interests. The state must enact laws on parental notification that take into consideration basic rights of the minor woman. Health professionals and workers should be aware of these laws and should encourage the minor to let parents in on the decision making process where possible.

  6. Study of karyotypes in Case of Recurrent Abortions in Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Parikh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: - The biological definition of miscarriage is the expulsion of the conceptus before viability has been achieved. The definition of recurrent miscarriage is three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions. The risk factors for recurrent miscarriage are epidemiological, genetic, anatomical disorders, endocrinal, reproductive tract infections, thrombophilic disorders, disorders of materno-fetal alloimmune relationships, environmental effects and psychological causes. About 50% to 60% of all first trimester abortions are associated with derangement of one or more chromosomal complements. Aim: - The aim of this study was to assess frequency and increasing the awareness of physician about the nature of chromosomal aberration that contribute to the occurrence of repeated abortions. Material & Methods: - Patient of recurrent abortion was investigated by history taking, examination and investigations. For present study 20 women having two or more consecutive spontaneous abortions, who attended outdoor & indoor patient department, were selected and karyotyping was done. In 10 of the above cases karyotype study of both partners was done. So in total 30 individuals (20 females & 10 males were selected for Cytogenetic study. In all cases relevant history and clinical findings and other investigations were noted. Blood samples were obtained and karyotype study was performed at Genetic Laboratory, B. J. Medical College, Ahmedabad. Results and Conclusions: - Cytogenetic evaluation by karyotypes revealed robertsonian translocation in one (5% female; this patient had a history of 2 spontaneous abortions and two times IVF failure, she had history of chocolate cyst of ovary and family history of infertility. No numerical anomaly; mosaicism or inversions were found in this study; 23 cases had normal karyotype and remaining 6 cases came out inconclusive.

  7. Disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ghana, abortion mortality constitutes 11% of maternal mortality. Empirical studies on possible disparities in abortion experience and access to safe abortion services are however lacking. Based on a retrospective survey of 1,370 women aged 15-49 years in two districts in Ghana, this paper examines disparities in ...

  8. Development of Autoimmune Overt Hypothyroidism Is Highly Associated With Live Births and Induced Abortions but Only in Premenopausal Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carle, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Buelow; Knudsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    : In conditional multivariate logistic regression models, we analyzed the associations between the development of autoimmune hypothyroidism and age at menarche/menopause, years of menstruations, pregnancies, spontaneous and induced abortions, live births, and years on oral contraceptives and postmenopausal hormone...

  9. Th·erapeutic Abortion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-08-14

    Aug 14, 1971 ... abortion on the demand of any pregnant woman. Although .... Of these abortions 55% were in single, widowed, divorced or separated women and the ... gists found reluctance in nursing staff for the performance of therapeutic ...

  10. Early medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, L; Burnhill, M S; Tyson, J; Leonhardt, K K; Hausknecht, R U; Haskell, S

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the introduction of an early medical abortion program with methotrexate and misoprostol, using a standardized protocol. A total of 1973 women at 34 Planned Parenthood sites participated in a case series of early medical abortion. Ultrasound was used to confirm gestational age of less than 49 days from the first day of the last menstrual period. Women were given intramuscular methotrexate 50 mg/m(2) of body surface area on day 1, and then they inserted misoprostol 800 microg vaginally at home on day 5, 6, or 7. Women were advised to have a suction curettage if the pregnancy appeared viable 2 weeks after methotrexate or if any gestational sac persisted 4 weeks after methotrexate. Outcomes were complete medical abortion and suction curettage. Sixteen hundred fifty-nine women (84.1%) had a complete medical abortion, and 257 (13.0%) had suction curettage. The most common reason for curettage was patient option (8.9%). At 2 weeks after methotrexate use, 1.4% of women had curettage because of a viable pregnancy; at 4 weeks, 1.6% of women had curettage because of a persistent but nonviable pregnancy. One percent of women had curettage because of physician recommendation, most commonly for bleeding. Suction curettage rates decreased with site experience (P <.006) and were lower at early gestational ages (P <.004) and in nulliparous women (P <.004). Medical abortion with methotrexate and misoprostol is safe and effective and can be offered in a community setting.

  11. Abortion — facts and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  12. Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion

    OpenAIRE

    Hartmanová, Leona

    2016-01-01

    Criminal Aspects of Artificial Abortion This diploma thesis deals with the issue of artificial abortion, especially its criminal aspects. Legal aspects are not the most important aspects of artificial abortion. Social, ethical or ideological aspects are of the same importance but this diploma thesis cannot analyse all of them. The main issue with artificial abortion is whether it is possible to force a pregnant woman to carry a child and give birth to a child when she cannot or does not want ...

  13. Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With great interest, we have read the article by Abad et al. entitled “Association between electromagnetic field exposure and abortion in pregnant women living in Tehran” that is published in International Journal of Reproductive BioMedicine Vol. 14. No. 5. pp: 347-354, May 2016. In this article, the authors evaluated the possible associations between electromagnetic waves exposure level and the rate of miscarriage in pregnant women. The electromagnetic radiation, in this study, had a significant association with the increased abortion in women who were exposed to these radiations. These findings were based on the measurements of electromagnetic waves within the residential locations of the 413 samples, very close to the entrance door of their home, according to the standard instructions of ICNIRP. Over the past several years, our laboratories at the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center (INIRPRC have expanded their focus on studying the health effects of exposure to some common and/or occupational sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs such as cellular phones (1-9, mobile base stations (10, mobile phone jammers (11, 12, laptop computers (13, radars (2, dentistry cavitrons (14 and MRI (15, 16. Although the paper authored by Abad et al. is a well-structured article and addresses a very challenging issue, it has some major shortcomings. The first shortcoming of this paper comes from this cardinal point that the authors have simply ignored the role of exposure to extremely low frequency EMFs (e.g. exposure of the pregnant women living in houses close to power lines. It is worth noting that the NARDA SRM-3000 used in their study operates in the frequency range of 27MHz-3GHz and cannot measure extremely low frequency EMFs. It is also worth mentioning that previous studies conducted in Iran indicated that the exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields is probably related to early spontaneous abortions (17

  14. Does adding metformin to clomifene citrate lead to higher pregnancy rates in a subset of women with polycystic ovary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, E.; Korevaar, J.C.; Bossuyt, P.M.M.; van der Veen, F.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND An RCT among newly diagnosed, therapy naive women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) showed no significant differences in ovulation rate, ongoing pregnancy rate or spontaneous abortion rate in favour of clomifene citrate plus metformin compared with clomifene citrate. We wanted to assess whether there are specific subgroups of women with PCOS in whom clomifene citrate plus metformin leads to higher pregnancy rates. METHODS Subgroup analysis based on clinical and biochemical para...

  15. Characteristics of Induced Abortion in China in the 1990s

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-chun QIAO

    2007-01-01

    Objective To understand the characteristics of induced abortion in China in the 1990s,and to find out the influential factors.Methods The overall number of induced abortions, calculate cohort induced abortion frequency, explore the impact of a child's sex and the number of previous children on induced abortions were estimated by using the data from the "National Population and Reproductive Health Survey" conducted by the National Family Planning Commission in November 1997.Results Induced abortions in China had their own characteristics, which were far different from other countries. The main difference was led by the fact that the country was driven by an implemented family planning program and nationwide population policies. The key cause of induced abortions was due to an inconsistency with the requirements of the family planning policy. However, as a result of effective and prevalent contraception, the rates of induced abortions were not quite high in the 1990s,when compared with other countries. Even though, in the early 1990s, the government had reinforced the family planning program through administration and legislation,unlike during the early 1980s when the one-child policy was implemented, the induced abortion rate and the number of induce abortions did not increase as the fertility rate substantially decreased.Concltsion This finding implies that the fertility declines in the 1990s were not caused by the number of induced abortions. The transition of the fertility ideology of the people has played an important role in the fertility decline, as institutional reform and socioeconomic development are implemented.

  16. Spontaneous Unfolding-Refolding of Fibronectin Type III Domains Assayed by Thiol Exchange: THERMODYNAMIC STABILITY CORRELATES WITH RATES OF UNFOLDING RATHER THAN FOLDING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Riddhi; Ohashi, Tomoo; Erickson, Harold P; Oas, Terrence G

    2017-01-20

    Globular proteins are not permanently folded but spontaneously unfold and refold on time scales that can span orders of magnitude for different proteins. A longstanding debate in the protein-folding field is whether unfolding rates or folding rates correlate to the stability of a protein. In the present study, we have determined the unfolding and folding kinetics of 10 FNIII domains. FNIII domains are one of the most common protein folds and are present in 2% of animal proteins. FNIII domains are ideal for this study because they have an identical seven-strand β-sandwich structure, but they vary widely in sequence and thermodynamic stability. We assayed thermodynamic stability of each domain by equilibrium denaturation in urea. We then assayed the kinetics of domain opening and closing by a technique known as thiol exchange. For this we introduced a buried Cys at the identical location in each FNIII domain and measured the kinetics of labeling with DTNB over a range of urea concentrations. A global fit of the kinetics data gave the kinetics of spontaneous unfolding and refolding in zero urea. We found that the folding rates were relatively similar, ∼0.1-1 s -1 , for the different domains. The unfolding rates varied widely and correlated with thermodynamic stability. Our study is the first to address this question using a set of domains that are structurally homologous but evolved with widely varying sequence identity and thermodynamic stability. These data add new evidence that thermodynamic stability correlates primarily with unfolding rate rather than folding rate. The study also has implications for the question of whether opening of FNIII domains contributes to the stretching of fibronectin matrix fibrils. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. ABORTION- A CASE REPORT.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    presentation, she noticed coital bleeding; it was mildI self with no associated dizziness or dyspareunis. She had been treated with drugs on many occasions at hospitals as well as over the counter medicaiions with no improvement. Eight years prior to presentation, she had an induced abortion at about 14 weeks of gestaiion ...

  18. Abortion: Strong's counterexamples fail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2009-01-01

    This paper shows that the counterexamples proposed by Strong in 2008 in the Journal of Medical Ethics to Marquis's argument against abortion fail. Strong's basic idea is that there are cases--for example, terminally ill patients--where killing an adult human being is prima facie seriously morally...

  19. Abortion: The Insoluble Problem

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    14 Aug 1971 ... The literature on the pros and cons of therapeutic abortion must by now virtually fill an average- sized library. Every expert in every field has had his say, sometimes by invitation and sometimes unasked, yet we seem to be no nearer the answer than when we started. The legal boffins have put their case, the ...

  20. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-01-01

    This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  1. INDUCED ABORTION IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-01

    Jun 1, 2014 ... 95% of women would have had an induced abortion. (10), which ... who were fluent in both English and the local language were chosen ... the woman and society. The Muslims ... that “traditional methods are only effective at the early stages of ... modern and traditional family planning services. However ...

  2. Demographic and clinical profile of patients with complicated unsafe abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, S.; Hafeez, M.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted as a result of complicated unsafe abortion. The study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore from August 2001 to July 2002. Patients admitted with complicated unsafe abortion were evaluated regarding age, parity, marital and educational status, indication for abortion, method used, qualification of abortion providers, contraceptive usage, complications and death rate in abortion seekers. Descriptive statistics was used for describing variables. Fiftynine patients were admitted with complicated unsafe abortion. The mean age was 29 years, 95% were married and multiparous, 40% had secondary and higher education, 85% approached unqualified abortion providers who used instrumentation in more than 40% of cases for termination of pregnancy resulting in visceral trauma. More than 50% were using contraception and 5% died due to postabortion complications. Unsafe abortion is a major health problem. The associated morbidity is much higher than mortality. This study focus on the need of postabortion care and easy accessibility to contraception to improve quality of health. (author)

  3. Spontaneous unilateral Twin Ectopic Pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    هادی اریا منش

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim & Objective: Twin pregnancy in the tube is a few and due to more frequent use of ovulatory medicine and increased maternal mortality rate. In this article, we report a case of  untitled twin ectopic pregnancy. Case study: The pregnant women was a 28 year-old  to had  a  history infertility, PCOD, Abortion and cortege,   too have one 5 years girl by CS and  Mild cramp pain in both abdominal lower quadrants and metroreghia . That have not treatment by projection. The ultra-sonography showed a twin pregnancy uterus with a moderate amount of fluid in pelvic cavity was seen. And do salpanjectimy surgery. Conclusion:  We report one Untitled Spontaneous Twin Ectopic Pregnancy,  is necessary any pregnant woman with  positive BhCG and metrorhoghia must be considered for Ectopic pregnancy. To decrease maternal mortality rate. Key words:

  4. Factors Associated with Induced Abortion among Women in Hohoe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    Bivariate logistic regression showed that compared with .... However, the modern contraceptive prevalence rate. (MCPR) has also ... municipal hospital reported managing a total of 326 abortions in 2007 ... not, using chi-square test for trends.

  5. Religion and attitudes toward abortion and abortion policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogland, Curtis P; Verona, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the association between religion and attitudes toward the practice of abortion and abortion policy in Brazil. Drawing upon data from the 2002 Brazilian Social Research Survey (BSRS), we test a number of hypotheses with regard to the role of religion on opposition to the practice of abortion and its legalization. Findings indicate that frequently attending Pentecostals demonstrate the strongest opposition to the practice of abortion and both frequently attending Pentecostals and Catholics demonstrate the strongest opposition to its legalization. Additional religious factors, such as a commitment to biblical literalism, were also found to be significantly associated with opposition to both abortion issues. Ultimately, the findings have implications for the future of public policy on abortion and other contentious social issues in Brazil.

  6. The politicization of abortion and the evolution of abortion counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The field of abortion counseling originated in the abortion rights movement of the 1970s. During its evolution to the present day, it has faced significant challenges, primarily arising from the increasing politicization and stigmatization of abortion since legalization. Abortion counseling has been affected not only by the imposition of antiabortion statutes, but also by the changing needs of patients who have come of age in a very different era than when this occupation was first developed. One major innovation--head and heart counseling--departs in significant ways from previous conventions of the field and illustrates the complex and changing political meanings of abortion and therefore the challenges to abortion providers in the years following Roe v Wade.

  7. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Elard; Aracena, Paula; Gatica, Sebastián; Bravo, Miguel; Huerta-Zepeda, Alejandra; Calhoun, Byron C

    2012-01-01

    In countries where induced abortion is legally restricted, as in most of Latin America, evaluation of statistics related to induced abortions and abortion-related mortality is challenging. The present article reexamines recent reports estimating the number of induced abortions and abortion-related mortality in Mexico, with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD). We found significant overestimations of abortion figures in the Federal District of Mexico (up to 10-fold), where elective abortion has been legal since 2007. Significant overestimation of maternal and abortion-related mortality during the last 20 years in the entire Mexican country (up to 35%) was also found. Such overestimations are most likely due to the use of incomplete in-hospital records as well as subjective opinion surveys regarding induced abortion figures, and due to the consideration of causes of death that are unrelated to induced abortion, including flawed denominators of live births. Contrary to previous publications, we found important progress in maternal health, reflected by the decrease in overall maternal mortality (30.6%) from 1990 to 2010. The use of specific ICD codes revealed that the mortality ratio associated with induced abortion decreased 22.9% between 2002 and 2008 (from 1.48 to 1.14 deaths per 100,000 live births). Currently, approximately 98% of maternal deaths in Mexico are related to causes other than induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required. PMID:23271925

  8. An evaluation of fresh gas flow rates for spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs on the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Elizabeth; Ticehurst, Kim E; Zaki, Sanaa

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the fresh gas flow (FGF) rate requirements for the Humphrey ADE semi-closed breathing system in the Mapleson A mode; to determine the FGF at which rebreathing occurs, and compare the efficiency of this system to the Bain (Mapleson D) system in spontaneously breathing cats and small dogs. Prospective clinical study. Twenty-five healthy (ASA score I or II) client-owned cats and dogs (mean ± SD age 4.7 ± 5.0 years, and body weight 5.64 ± 3.26 kg) undergoing elective surgery or minor procedures. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane delivered via the Humphrey ADE system in the A mode using an oxygen FGF of 100 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The FGF was then reduced incrementally by 5-10 mL kg(-1) minute(-1) at approximately five-minute intervals, until rebreathing (inspired CO(2) >5 mmHg (0.7 kPa)) was observed, after which flow rates were increased. In six animals, once the minimum FGF at which rebreathing occurred was found, the breathing system was changed to the Bain, and the effects of this FGF delivery examined, before FGF was increased. Rebreathing did not occur at the FGF recommended by the manufacturer for the ADE. The mean ± SD FGF that resulted in rebreathing was 60 ± 20 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). The mean minimum FGF at which rebreathing did not occur with the ADE was 87 ± 39 mL kg(-1) minute(-1). This FGF resulted in significant rebreathing (inspired CO(2) 8.8 ± 2.6 mmHg (1.2 ± 0.3 kPa)) on the Bain system. The FGF rates recommended for the Humphrey ADE are adequate to prevent rebreathing in spontaneously breathing cats and dogs cats and small dogs. © 2014 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  9. Abortion, Law and Ideology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Escobar García

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work explains that the discourses opposing the criminalization ofabortion and that reject the constitutional rules that protect human life,are an artificially constructed ideology made only to justify abortion,and hide the asymmetrical relations of power between women and theunborn. In order for this purpose, these arguments are identified andsubjected to critical analysis, demonstrating that it is purely emotionaland lacking fundaments.

  10. Public funding of abortions and abortion counseling for poor women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, R B

    1997-01-01

    This essay seeks to reveal the weakness in arguments against public funding of abortions and abortion counseling in the US based on economic, ethico-religious, anti-racist, and logical-consistency objections and to show that public funding of abortion is strongly supported by appeals to basic human rights, to freedom of speech, to informed consent, to protection from great harm, to justice, and to equal protection under the law. The first part of the article presents the case against public funding with detailed considerations of the economic argument, the ethico/religious argument, the argument that such funding supports racist genocide or eugenic quality control, and arguments that a logical inconsistency exists between the principles used to justify the legalization of abortions and arguments for public funding. The second part of the article presents the case for public funding by discussing the spending of public funds on morally offensive programs, arguments for public funding of abortion counseling for the poor, and arguments for public funding of abortions for the poor. It is concluded that it is morally unacceptable and rationally unjustifiable to refuse to expend public funds for abortions for low income women, because after all most money for legal abortions for the poor comes from welfare payments made to women. If conservative forces want to insure that no public funds pay for abortions, they must stop all welfare payments to pregnant women.

  11. Understanding abortion-related stigma and incidence of unsafe abortion: experiences from community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia counties Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegon, Erick Kiprotich; Kabanya, Peter Mwaniki; Echoka, Elizabeth; Osur, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The rate of unsafe abortions in Kenya has increased from 32 per 1000 women of reproductive age in 2002 to 48 per 1000 women in 2012. This is one of the highest in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, Kenya changed its Constitution to include a more enabling provision regarding the provision of abortion services. Abortion-related stigma has been identified as a key driver in silencing women's ability to reproductive choice leading to seeking to unsafe abortion. We sought to explore abortion-related stigma at the community level as a barrier to women realizing their rights to a safe, legal abortion and compare manifestations of abortion stigma at two communities from regions with high and low incidence of unsafe abortion. A qualitative study using 26 focus group discussions with general community members in Machakos and Trans Nzoia Counties. We used thematic and content analysis to analyze and compare community member's responses regarding abortion-related stigma. Although abortion is recognized as being very common within communities, community members expressed various ways that stigmatize women seeking an abortion. This included being labeled as killers and are perceived to be a bad influence for women especially young women. Women reported that they were poorly treated by health providers in health facilities for seeking abortion especially young unmarried women. Institutionalization of stigma especially when Ministry of Health withdrew of standards and guidelines only heightened how stigma presents at the facilities and drives women seeking an abortion to traditional birth attendants who offer unsafe abortions leading to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of abortion-related complications. Community members located in counties in regions with high incidence of unsafe abortion also reported higher levels of how they would stigmatize a woman seeking an abortion compared to community members from counties in low incidence region. Young unmarried women bore the

  12. Incidence of Induced Abortion in Uganda, 2013: New Estimates Since 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada, Elena; Atuyambe, Lynn M; Blades, Nakeisha M; Bukenya, Justine N; Orach, Christopher Garimoi; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2016-01-01

    In Uganda, abortion is permitted only when the life of a woman is in danger. This restriction compels the perpetuation of the practice in secrecy and often under unsafe conditions. In 2003, 294,000 induced abortions were estimated to occur each year in Uganda. Since then, no other research on abortion incidence has been conducted in the country. Data from 418 health facilities were used to estimate the number and rate of induced abortion in 2013. An indirect estimation methodology was used to calculate the annual incidence of induced abortions ─ nationally and by major regions. The use of a comparable methodology in an earlier study permits assessment of trends between 2003 and 2013. In 2013, an estimated 128,682 women were treated for abortion complications and an estimated 314,304 induced abortions occurred, both slightly up from 110,000 and 294,000 in 2003, respectively. The national abortion rate was 39 abortions per 1,000 women aged 15-49, down from 51 in 2003. Regional variation in abortion rates is very large, from as high as an estimated 77 per 1,000 women 15-49 in Kampala region, to as low as 18 per 1,000 women in Western region. The overall pregnancy rate also declined from 326 to 288; however the proportion of pregnancies that were unintended increased slightly, from 49% to 52%. Unsafe abortion remains a major problem confronting Ugandan women. Although the overall pregnancy rate and the abortion rate declined in the past decade, the majority of pregnancies to Ugandan women are still unintended. These findings reflect the increase in the use of modern contraception but also suggest that a large proportion of women are still having difficulty practicing contraception effectively. Improved access to contraceptive services and abortion-related care are still needed.

  13. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  14. Research on lidocaine in the application of induced abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Tao Tong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of lidocaine in the application of induced abortion.Methods:A total of 120 pregnant women with 6-10 week gestational age and ASA I-II level who were volunteered to receive induced abortions from January, 2010 to January, 2013 were included in the study, among which 60 cases were given lidocaine during the operation and served as the observation group, while 60 cases were not given lidocaine during the operation and served as the control group. The heart rate, blood pressure, the change of oxygen saturation, pain, and the occurrence of abortion syndrome before and after operation between the two groups were compared.Results:The fineness rates of analgesia and anesthesia evaluation in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P0.05). The postoperative heart rate and blood pressure in the control group were significantly lower than those before operation and in the observation group with a slow recovery (P0.05). The occurrence rate of abortion syndrome in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusions:Application of lidocaine in the induced abortion can relieve the pain and reduce the occurrence rate of abortion syndrome with a simple and safe operation; therefore, it deserves to be widely recommended.

  15. The estimated incidence of induced abortion in Kenya: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Shukri F; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Moore, Ann M; Mutua, Michael; Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Ziraba, Abdhalah K; Bankole, Akinrinola; Singh, Susheela D; Egesa, Caroline

    2015-08-21

    The recently promulgated 2010 constitution of Kenya permits abortion when the life or health of the woman is in danger. Yet broad uncertainty remains about the interpretation of the law. Unsafe abortion remains a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Kenya. The current study aimed to determine the incidence of induced abortion in Kenya in 2012. The incidence of induced abortion in Kenya in 2012 was estimated using the Abortion Incidence Complications Methodology (AICM) along with the Prospective Morbidity Survey (PMS). Data were collected through three surveys, (i) Health Facilities Survey (HFS), (ii) Prospective Morbidity Survey (PMS), and (iii) Health Professionals Survey (HPS). A total of 328 facilities participated in the HFS, 326 participated in the PMS, and 124 key informants participated in the HPS. Abortion numbers, rates, ratios and unintended pregnancy rates were calculated for Kenya as a whole and for five geographical regions. In 2012, an estimated 464,000 induced abortions occurred in Kenya. This translates into an abortion rate of 48 per 1,000 women aged 15-49, and an abortion ratio of 30 per 100 live births. About 120,000 women received care for complications of induced abortion in health facilities. About half (49%) of all pregnancies in Kenya were unintended and 41% of unintended pregnancies ended in an abortion. This study provides the first nationally-representative estimates of the incidence of induced abortion in Kenya. An urgent need exists for improving facilities' capacity to provide safe abortion care to the fullest extent of the law. All efforts should be made to address underlying factors to reduce risk of unsafe abortion.

  16. The Rate and Spectrum of Spontaneous Mutations in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a Bacterium Naturally Devoid of the Postreplicative Mismatch Repair Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukyildirim, Sibel; Long, Hongan; Sung, Way; Miller, Samuel F; Doak, Thomas G; Lynch, Michael

    2016-07-07

    Mycobacterium smegmatis is a bacterium that is naturally devoid of known postreplicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR) homologs, mutS and mutL, providing an opportunity to investigate how the mutation rate and spectrum has evolved in the absence of a highly conserved primary repair pathway. Mutation accumulation experiments of M. smegmatis yielded a base-substitution mutation rate of 5.27 × 10(-10) per site per generation, or 0.0036 per genome per generation, which is surprisingly similar to the mutation rate in MMR-functional unicellular organisms. Transitions were found more frequently than transversions, with the A:T→G:C transition rate significantly higher than the G:C→A:T transition rate, opposite to what is observed in most studied bacteria. We also found that the transition-mutation rate of M. smegmatis is significantly lower than that of other naturally MMR-devoid or MMR-knockout organisms. Two possible candidates that could be responsible for maintaining high DNA fidelity in this MMR-deficient organism are the ancestral-like DNA polymerase DnaE1, which contains a highly efficient DNA proofreading histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain, and/or the existence of a uracil-DNA glycosylase B (UdgB) homolog that might protect the GC-rich M. smegmatis genome against DNA damage arising from oxidation or deamination. Our results suggest that M. smegmatis has a noncanonical Dam (DNA adenine methylase) methylation system, with target motifs differing from those previously reported. The mutation features of M. smegmatis provide further evidence that genomes harbor alternative routes for improving replication fidelity, even in the absence of major repair pathways. Copyright © 2016 Kucukyildirim et al.

  17. The Rate and Spectrum of Spontaneous Mutations in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a Bacterium Naturally Devoid of the Postreplicative Mismatch Repair Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Kucukyildirim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium smegmatis is a bacterium that is naturally devoid of known postreplicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR homologs, mutS and mutL, providing an opportunity to investigate how the mutation rate and spectrum has evolved in the absence of a highly conserved primary repair pathway. Mutation accumulation experiments of M. smegmatis yielded a base-substitution mutation rate of 5.27 × 10−10 per site per generation, or 0.0036 per genome per generation, which is surprisingly similar to the mutation rate in MMR-functional unicellular organisms. Transitions were found more frequently than transversions, with the A:T→G:C transition rate significantly higher than the G:C→A:T transition rate, opposite to what is observed in most studied bacteria. We also found that the transition-mutation rate of M. smegmatis is significantly lower than that of other naturally MMR-devoid or MMR-knockout organisms. Two possible candidates that could be responsible for maintaining high DNA fidelity in this MMR-deficient organism are the ancestral-like DNA polymerase DnaE1, which contains a highly efficient DNA proofreading histidinol phosphatase (PHP domain, and/or the existence of a uracil-DNA glycosylase B (UdgB homolog that might protect the GC-rich M. smegmatis genome against DNA damage arising from oxidation or deamination. Our results suggest that M. smegmatis has a noncanonical Dam (DNA adenine methylase methylation system, with target motifs differing from those previously reported. The mutation features of M. smegmatis provide further evidence that genomes harbor alternative routes for improving replication fidelity, even in the absence of major repair pathways.

  18. Abortion in a just society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  19. Abortion and compelled physician speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orentlicher, David

    2015-01-01

    Informed consent mandates for abortion providers may infringe the First Amendment's freedom of speech. On the other hand, they may reinforce the physician's duty to obtain informed consent. Courts can promote both doctrines by ensuring that compelled physician speech pertains to medical facts about abortion rather than abortion ideology and that compelled speech is truthful and not misleading. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J

    2017-01-01

    to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect......Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads...... in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e...

  1. Induced abortion: a means of postponing childbirth? Changes in maternal age at induced abortion and child birth in Norway during 1979-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlietman, Marianne; Sarfraz, Aashi Ambareen; Eskild, Anne

    2010-12-01

    the maternal age at child birth is increasing. If induced abortion is an important means of postponing childbirth in a population, it is to be expected that in young women the rate of conceived pregnancies is stable over time, but the induced abortion rate is increasing. We studied birth rates, induced abortion rates and the sum of these rates by maternal age during four decades. register-based study. all women 15-49 years living in Norway. we present temporal changes in birth rates and induced abortion rates within age groups during the period 1979-2007. We also estimated the sum rate of births and induced abortions. Data were obtained from national statistics. live births and induced abortions per 1000 women per year. the induced abortion rates have been relatively stable within age groups, except for a decrease in women 15-19 years (from 24.2 in 1979 to 17.0 in 2007) and an increase in women 20-24 years (from 23.2 to 29.5). The birth rates however, have decreased dramatically in women 20-24 years old (from 113.6 to 60.5). Hence, the sum rate of births and induced abortions in women 20-24 years old has decreased from 136.8 to 90.0. In women 30 years old or older, the birth rates have increased. the induced abortion rate has been relatively stable in all age groups over time, suggesting a limited influence of induced abortions on the postponement of childbearing.

  2. Evidence of circadian rhythm, oxygen regulation capacity, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between forced and spontaneous maximal metabolic rates in lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C Svendsen

    Full Text Available Animal metabolic rate is variable and may be affected by endogenous and exogenous factors, but such relationships remain poorly understood in many primitive fishes, including members of the family Acipenseridae (sturgeons. Using juvenile lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, the objective of this study was to test four hypotheses: 1 A. fulvescens exhibits a circadian rhythm influencing metabolic rate and behaviour; 2 A. fulvescens has the capacity to regulate metabolic rate when exposed to environmental hypoxia; 3 measurements of forced maximum metabolic rate (MMR(F are repeatable in individual fish; and 4 MMR(F correlates positively with spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMR(S. Metabolic rates were measured using intermittent flow respirometry, and a standard chase protocol was employed to elicit MMR(F. Trials lasting 24 h were used to measure standard metabolic rate (SMR and MMR(S. Repeatability and correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S were analyzed using residual body mass corrected values. Results revealed that A. fulvescens exhibit a circadian rhythm in metabolic rate, with metabolism peaking at dawn. SMR was unaffected by hypoxia (30% air saturation (O(2sat, demonstrating oxygen regulation. In contrast, MMR(F was affected by hypoxia and decreased across the range from 100% O(2sat to 70% O(2sat. MMR(F was repeatable in individual fish, and MMR(F correlated positively with MMR(S, but the relationships between MMR(F and MMR(S were only revealed in fish exposed to hypoxia or 24 h constant light (i.e. environmental stressor. Our study provides evidence that the physiology of A. fulvescens is influenced by a circadian rhythm and suggests that A. fulvescens is an oxygen regulator, like most teleost fish. Finally, metabolic repeatability and positive correlations between MMR(F and MMR(S support the conjecture that MMR(F represents a measure of organism performance that could be a target of natural selection.

  3. Access to abortion: what women want from abortion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, Ellen R; Sandhu, Supna

    2008-04-01

    Whether Canadian physicians can refuse to refer women for abortion and whether private clinics can charge for abortions are matters of controversy. We sought to identify barriers to access for women seeking therapeutic abortion and to have them identify what they considered to be most important about access to abortion services. Women presenting for abortion over a two-month period at two free-standing abortion clinics, one publicly funded and the other private, were invited to participate in the study. Phase I of the study involved administration of a questionnaire seeking information about demographics, perceived barriers to access to abortion, and what the women wanted from abortion services. Phase II involved semi-structured interviews of a convenience sample of women to record their responses to questions about access. Responses from Phase I questionnaires were compared between the two clinics, and qualitative analysis was performed on the interview responses. Of 423 eligible women, 402 completed questionnaires, and of 45 women approached, 39 completed interviews satisfactorily. Women received information about abortion services from their physicians (60.0%), the Internet (14.8%), a telephone directory (7.8%), friends or family (5.3%), or other sources (12.3%). Many had negative experiences in gaining access. The most important issue regarding access was the long wait time; the second most important issue was difficulty in making appointments. In the private clinic, 85% of the women said they were willing to pay for shorter wait times, compared with 43.5% in the public clinic. Physicians who failed to refer patients for abortion or provide information about obtaining an abortion caused distress and impeded access for a significant minority of women requesting an abortion. Management of abortion services should be prioritized to reflect what women want: particularly decreased wait times for abortion and greater ease and convenience in booking appointments

  4. Second trimester abortions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvie, Suchitra S

    2008-05-01

    This article gives an overview of what is known about second trimester abortions in India, including the reasons why women seek abortions in the second trimester, the influence of abortion law and policy, surgical and medical methods used, both safe and unsafe, availability of services, requirements for second trimester service delivery, and barriers women experience in accessing second trimester services. Based on personal experiences and personal communications from other doctors since 1993, when I began working as an abortion provider, the practical realities of second trimester abortion and case histories of women seeking second trimester abortion are also described. Recommendations include expanding the cadre of service providers to non-allopathic clinicians and trained nurses, introducing second trimester medical abortion into the public health system, replacing ethacridine lactate with mifepristone-misoprostol, values clarification among providers to challenge stigma and poor treatment of women seeking second trimester abortion, and raising awareness that abortion is legal in the second trimester and is mostly not requested for reasons of sex selection.

  5. Psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, M

    1984-03-01

    An attempt is made to identify and document the problems of comparative evaluation of the more recent studies of psychiatric morbidity after abortion and to determine the current consensus so that when the results of the joint RCGP/RCOG study of the sequelae of induced abortion become available they can be viewed in a more informed context. The legalization of abortion has provided more opportunities for studies of subsequent morbidity. New laws have contributed to the changing attitudes of society, and the increasing acceptability of the operation has probably influenced the occurrence of psychiatric sequelae. The complexity of measuring psychiatric sequelae is evident from the many terms used to describe symptomatology and behavioral patterns and from the number of assessment techniques involved. Numerous techniques have been used to quantify psychiatric sequelae. Several authors conclude that few psychiatric problems follow an induced abortion, but many studies were deficient in methodology, material, or length of follow-up. A British study in 1975 reported a favorable outcome for a "representative sample" of 50 National Health Service patients: 68% of these patients had an absence of or only mild feelings of guilt, loss, or self reproach and considered abortion as the best solution to their problem. The 32% who had an adverse outcome reported moderate to severe feelings of guilt, regret, loss, and self reproach, and there was evidence of mental illness. In most of these cases the adverse outcome was related to the patient's environment since the abortion. A follow-up study of 126 women, which compared the overall reaction to therapeutic abortion between women with a history of previous mild psychiatric illness and those without reported that a significantly different emotional reaction could not be demonstrated between the 2 groups. In a survey among women seeking an abortion 271 who were referred for a psychiatric opinion regarding terminations of pregnancy

  6. Beam abort detection of SSRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Chenxia; Zhou Weimin; Leng Yongbin

    2010-01-01

    Beam abort signal is a timing signal of the SSRF (Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility) storage ring. It is used to synchronize BPM processor Libera logging beam position data to identify beam abort source and improve the stability of accelerator. The concept design and engineering design of beam abort trigger module are introduced in this paper, and lab test results of this module using RF signal source also presented. Online beam test results show that this module has achieved design goal, could be used to log beam position data before beam abort. (authors)

  7. Psychosocial aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, N L

    1997-09-01

    US anti-abortion groups have used misinformation on the long-term psychological impact of induced abortion to advance their position. This article reviews the available research evidence on the definition, history, cultural context, and emotional and psychiatric sequelae of induced abortion. Notable has been a confusion of normative, transient reactions to unintended pregnancy and abortion (e.g., guilt, depression, anxiety) with serious mental disorders. Studies of the psychiatric aspects of abortion have been limited by methodological problems such as the impossibility of randomly assigning women to study and control groups, resistance to follow-up, and confounding variables. Among the factors that may impact on an unintended pregnancy and the decision to abort are ongoing or past psychiatric illness, poverty, social chaos, youth and immaturity, abandonment issues, ongoing domestic responsibilities, rape and incest, domestic violence, religion, and contraceptive failure. Among the risk factors for postabortion psychosocial difficulties are previous or concurrent psychiatric illness, coercion to abort, genetic or medical indications, lack of social supports, ambivalence, and increasing length of gestation. Overall, the literature indicates that serious psychiatric illness is at least 8 times more common among postpartum than among postabortion women. Abortion center staff should acknowledge that the termination of a pregnancy may be experienced as a loss even when it is a voluntary choice. Referrals should be offered to women who show great emotional distress, have had several previous abortions, or request psychiatric consultation.

  8. Reimbursement of hormonal contraceptives and the frequency of induced abortion among teenagers in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydsjö, Adam; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Bladh, Marie; Josefsson, Ann

    2014-05-29

    Reduction in costs of hormonal contraceptives is often proposed to reduce rates of induced abortion among young women. This study investigates the relationship between rates of induced abortion and reimbursement of dispensed hormonal contraceptives among young women in Sweden. Comparisons are made with the Nordic countries Finland, Norway and Denmark. Official statistics on induced abortion and numbers of prescribed and dispensed hormonal contraceptives presented as "Defined Daily Dose/thousand women" (DDD/T) aged 15-19 years were compiled and related to levels of reimbursement in all Swedish counties by using public official data. The Swedish numbers of induced abortion were compared to those of Finland, Norway and Denmark. The main outcome measure was rates of induced abortion and DDD/T. No correlation was observed between rates of abortion and reimbursement among Swedish counties. Nor was any correlation found between sales of hormonal contraceptives and the rates of abortion. In a Nordic perspective, Finland and Denmark, which have no reimbursement at all, and Norway all have lower rates of induced abortion than Sweden. Reimbursement does not seem to be enough in order to reduce rates of induced abortion. Evidently, other factors such as attitudes, education, religion, tradition or cultural differences in each of Swedish counties as well as in the Nordic countries may be of importance. A more innovative approach is needed in order to facilitate safe sex and to protect young women from unwanted pregnancies.

  9. [Medical induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettahar, K; Pinton, A; Boisramé, T; Cavillon, V; Wylomanski, S; Nisand, I; Hassoun, D

    2016-12-01

    Updated clinical recommendations for medical induced abortion procedure. A systematic review of French and English literature, reviewing the evidence relating to the provision of medical induced abortion was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library and international scientific societies recommendations. The effectiveness of medical abortion is higher than 95% when the protocols are adjusted to gestational age (EL1). Misoprostol alone is less effective than a combination of mifepristone and misoprostol (EL1). Gemeprost is less effective than misoprostol (EL2). The dose of 200mg of mifepristone should be preferred to 600mg (NP1, Rank A). Mifepristone can be taken at home (professional agreement). The optimum interval between mifepristone and misoprostol intake should be 24 to 48 hours (EL1, grade A). Before 7 weeks LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol should be given orally (EL1, grade A) eventually repeated after 3hours if no bleeding occurs. For optimal effectiveness between 7 and 14 LMP, the interval between mifepristone and misoprostol should not be shortened to less than 8hours (grade 1). An interval of 24 to 48hours will not affect the effectiveness of the method provided misoprostol dosage is 800μg (EL1). Vaginal, sublingual or buccal routes of administration are more effective and better tolerated than the oral route, which should be abandoned (EL1). An amount of 800μg sublingual or buccal misoprostol route has the same effectiveness than the vaginal route but more gastrointestinal side effects (EL1, grade A). Between 7 and 9 LMP, it does not seem necessary to repeat misoprostol dose whereas it should be repeated beyond 9 SA (grade B). Between 9 and 14 LMP, the dose of 400μg misoprostol given either vaginally, buccally or sublingually should be repeated every 3hours if needed (with a maximum of 5 doses) (EL2, grade B). There is no strong evidence supporting routine antibiotic prophylaxis for medical abortion (professional agreement). Rare contraindications

  10. Mental health consequences of abortion and refused abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watter, W W

    1980-02-01

    There is no scientific evidence to support the hypothesis put forth by Dr. Philip Ney in a recent article published in the Canadian Journal of Psychiatry that induced abortion is associated with an increase in child abuse. There are, however, numerous studies which support the contention that mandatory motherhood adversely affects the mental health of both the mother and the offspring. Studies conducted in Sweden, Scotland, and Czechoslovakia revealed that women who were refused abortions frequently experienced serious psychosocial difficulties for long periods of time following abortion refusal. Case controlled follow-up studies, conducted in Sweden and Czechoslovakia, of offspring born to women who were refused abortions demonstrated that a higher proportion of the unwanted children required psychiatric services, engaged in criminal behavior, and did less well in school than the controlled children. These studies have implications for the current Canadian law which permits a woman to obtain an abortion if pregnancy continuation will endanger her health. In view of the above statistical evidence, and the fact that mortality and morbidity are known to be lower for abortion than for childbirth, any person who denies a woman the right to have an abortion is increasing the risk that the health of the woman will be endangered. By law, therefore, all abortion requests should be honored.

  11. Spontaneous deregulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, Benjamin; Geradin, Damien

    Platform businesses such as Airbnb and Uber have risen to success partly by sidestepping laws and regulations that encumber their traditional competitors. Such rule flouting is what the authors call “spontaneous private deregulation,” and it’s happening in a growing number of industries. The authors

  12. Abortion denied--outcome of mothers and babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Campo, C

    1984-02-15

    A consistent argument favoring therapeutic abortions has been that mothers who are denied abortions will seek "illegal" help elsewhere, often in less than optimal conditions. Yet, a review of published reports on women who had been denied abortion and were followed up shows that 70.67% of the 6298 women completed their pregnancies and only 13.2% had an abortion elsewhere. Several studies have shown that the incidence of Complications of pregnancy is no greater in mothers denied abortion than in paired controls. The results of a prospective study by Laukaran and Van Den Berg showed a higher incidence of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase of maternal accidental injury, a borderline increase in the prevalence of congenital anomalies, and a higher incidence of infection and hemorrhage during the puerperium in women who had been denied abortion. They concluded that maternal attitude and psychosocial stress had little effect on the progress of the pregnancy and labor. Published reports on the psychological effects on the children of women who had been denied abortion are few, mainly because longterm follow-up is required. In 1966 Forssman and Thuwe described the results of their study of 120 children whose mothers had been denied abortion. The children had been followed up until their 21st birthdays. The controls had been carefully paired. The proportion of children who had been placed in foster and children's homes was significantly higher among the "unwanted" children than among the controls (50% versus 18%). There was no statistically significant difference in the rates of drunken misconduct, crime, or "educational mental subnormality" between the 2 groups, but the incidence rates of delinquency and psychiatric consultation were 10% and 13% higher respectively among the unwanted children than among the controls. There have been virtually no objective studies on the psychologic and social well-being of women who have been denied abortion. The literature

  13. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Parirokh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  14. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. Results At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. Conclusions There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment. PMID:25984478

  15. The success rate of bupivacaine and lidocaine as anesthetic agents in inferior alveolar nerve block in teeth with irreversible pulpitis without spontaneous pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parirokh, Masoud; Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Abbott, Paul V; Manochehrifar, Hamed

    2015-05-01

    Achieving adequate anesthesia with inferior alveolar nerve blocks (IANB) is of great importance during dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to assess the success rate of two anesthetic agents (bupivacaine and lidocaine) for IANB when treating teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Sixty volunteer male and female patients who required root canal treatment of a mandibular molar due to caries participated in the present study. The inclusion criteria included prolonged pain to thermal stimulus but no spontaneous pain. The patients were randomly allocated to receive either 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine or 0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine as an IANB injection. The sensitivity of the teeth to a cold test as well as the amount of pain during access cavity preparation and root canal instrumentation were recorded. Results were statistically analyzed with the Chi-Square and Fischer's exact tests. At the final step, fifty-nine patients were included in the study. The success rate for bupivacaine and lidocaine groups were 20.0% and 24.1%, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups at any stage of the treatment procedure. There was no difference in success rates of anesthesia when bupivacaine and lidocaine were used for IANB injections to treat mandibular molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis. Neither agent was able to completely anesthetize the teeth effectively. Therefore, practitioners should be prepared to administer supplemental anesthesia to overcome pain during root canal treatment.

  16. Success and spontaneous pregnancy rates following systemic methotrexate versus laparoscopic surgery for tubal pregnancies: A randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag Moeller, Lars Bo; Moeller, Charlotte; Thomsen, Sten Grove

    2009-01-01

    . A total of 106 women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy (EP). Methods. Between March 1997 and September 2000, 1,265 women were diagnosed with EP, 395 (31%) were eligible, 109 (9%) were randomized of whom 106 had an EP. The study was originally powered to a sample size of 422 patients. The women were......Objective. To determine which treatment should be offered to women with a non-ruptured tubal pregnancy: a single dose of methotrexate (MTX) or laparoscopic surgery. Design. Prospective, randomized, open multicenter study. Setting. Seven Danish departments of obstetrics and gynecology. Sample...... (n.s.). Conclusions. In women with an EP, who are hemodynamically stable and wishing to preserve their fertility, medical treatment with single dose MTX tends to be equal to treatment with laparoscopic surgery regarding success rate, complications, and subsequent fertility. Although the two treatment...

  17. The Erosion of Rights to Abortion Care in the United States: A Call for a Renewed Anthropological Engagement with the Politics of Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaya, Elise; Mishtal, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Women's rights to legal abortion in the United States are now facing their greatest social and legislative challenges since its 1973 legalization. Legislation restricting rights and access to abortion care has been passed at state and federal levels at an unprecedented rate. Given the renewed vigor of anti-abortion movements, we call on anthropologists to engage with this shifting landscape of reproductive politics. This article examines recent legislation that has severely limited abortion access and maps possible directions for future anthropological analysis. We argue that anthropology can provide unique contributions to broader abortion research. The study of abortion politics in the United States today is not only a rich opportunity for applied and policy-oriented ethnographic research. It also provides a sharply focused lens onto broader theoretical concerns in anthropology and new social formations across moral, medical, political, and scientific fields in 21st-century America. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.

  18. 药物流产和人工流产的效果观察及护理%The Effect of Drug Abortion and Abortion Observation and Nursing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春柏

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨药物流产和人工流产的临床效果,并分析不同患者相应的护理方法。方法选取我院于2012年9月~2014年9月收治的68例需要实施流产的患者,按照患者意愿的不同将其分为药物流产组和人工流产组,观察两组患者流产后的临床特征及表现,并对其护理情况进行分析。结果通过对两组患者施以不同流产方法,人工流产组34例患者均为完全流产,药物流产组完全流产为30例,数据对比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论通过研究发现,药物流产和人工流产两种方案各有优缺点,应根据孕妇的具体情况制定合适的流产方案,并给予患者相应的护理措施,缓解患者的情绪,促进患者的康复。%Objective To explore the clinical effect of drug abortion and artificial abortion, and analyze the nursing methods of patients with different corresponding. Methods Select our hospital from September 2012 to September 2014 patients treated 68 cases need to implement an abortion, according to the wishes of patients with different it can be divided into medical abortion and artiifcial abortion group, two groups of patients with spontaneous abortion after the clinical features and performance, and analyze the nursing status.ResultsBy means of two groups of patients with different methods of abortion, abortion group of 34 patients were completely abortion, complete abortion of 30 cases of medical abortion group, data contrast significant difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion Through the study found that medical abortion and abortion two plans each have advantages and disadvantages, should be based on appropriate abortion of pregnant women, patients and give corresponding nursing measures, alleviate the mood of patients, promote the recovery of patients.

  19. ISOLATION OF VIRUS IN PRODUCTS OF CONCEPTION IN SPONTANEOUS ABORTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMYAB S.D. AZARI S.D. NATEGH R

    1980-08-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred pa t ient s o f t he l ow socioe conomic g roup wi th an aborti on o f the f i r s t t r i mest e r were stud 1ed . The s ter i l e produc ts o f concept ion were c ul t ured on Gr e e n Monke y Kidney ti s sue cul t ure f or v i r a l de t e c - tion. Four po s i t i ve Herpe s virus, two positive Rubella"nv~ru s and t hree pos i tive unidentifie d Entero v irus l ike Vlrus were obtained The sera of 192 of these patients were titrated for Rubella antibody. The sera of a control group of 150 normal pregnant women were titrated for Rubella antibody and 8.8 per cent of these patients had a negative titre and 21.3 per cent , 1 had a tltre over 40

  20. HLA-G polymorphisms in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Hylenius, S; Hoegh, A M

    2002-01-01

    % of the RSA women carried the HLA-G*0106 allele compared to 2% of the control women. The 14 bp deletion polymorphism in exon 8 was investigated separately. There were a greater number of heterozygotes for the 14 bp polymorphism in the group of fertile control women than expected, according to Hardy-Weinberg...

  1. HLA-G polymorphisms in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, T V; Hylenius, S; Hoegh, A M

    2002-01-01

    % of the RSA women carried the HLA-G*0106 allele compared to 2% of the control women. The 14 bp deletion polymorphism in exon 8 was investigated separately. There were a greater number of heterozygotes for the 14 bp polymorphism in the group of fertile control women than expected, according to Hardy-Weinberg...... equilibrium. Furthermore, the HLA-G alleles without the 14 bp sequence were prominent in the RSA males in contrast to the RSA women in whom alleles including the 14 bp sequence were frequently observed, especially as homozygotes. These results are discussed in relation to two hypotheses concerning HLA...

  2. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korejo, Razia; Noorani, Khurshid Jehan; Bhutta, Shereen

    2003-05-01

    To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identify the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Prospective observational study. The study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi from January 1999 to June 2001. The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced contraception. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 women (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encountered in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion.

  3. Sociocultural determinants of induced abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korejo, R.; Noorani, K.J.; Bhutta, S.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of induced abortion and identity the role of sociocultural factors contributing to termination of pregnancy and associated morbidity and mortality in hospital setting. Subjects and Methods: The patients who were admitted for induced abortion were interviewed in privacy. On condition of anonymity they were asked about the age, parity, family setup and relationships, with particular emphasis on sociocultural reasons and factors contributing to induction of abortion. Details of status of abortionist and methods used for termination of pregnancy, the resulting complications and their severity were recorded. Results: Out of total admissions, 57(2.35%) gave history of induced abortion. All women belonged to low socioeconomic class and 59.6% of them were illiterate. Forty-three (75.5%) of these women had never practiced concentration. Twenty-four (42%) were grandmultiparae and did not want more children. In 29 women (50.9%) the decision for abortion had been supported by the husband. In 25 (43.8%) abortion was carried out by Daiyan (traditional midwives). Serious complications like uterine perforation with or without bowel injury were encouraged in 25 (43.8%) of these women. During the study period illegally induced abortion accounted for 6 (10.5%) maternal deaths. Conclusion: Prevalence of poverty, illiteracy, grand multiparity and non-practice of contraception are strong determinants of induced abortion. (author)

  4. [Organising an instrumental elective abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brûlé, Annie

    2015-12-01

    Family planning centres are structures designed to receive and care for women requesting elective abortions. Here the specially trained, dedicated teams offer personalised care. The instrumental elective abortion is prepared in the same way as a surgical procedure and is subject to the same monitoring. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Unconstitutionality of abortion laws affirmed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    A federal appeals court has affirmed lower court rulings that substantial portions of the Illinois' 1975 Abortion Act and 1977 Abortion Parental Consent Act are unconstitutional. The 7th Court adopted an April 12, 1978 district court opinion that invalidated several sections of the Illinois 1975 abortion statute, including parental and spousal consent requirements and provisions requiring that a woman be informed of the "physical competency" of the fetus at the time the abortion was to be performed. The appeals court specifically addressed the statute's provision making a liveborn fetus resulting from an abortion a ward of the state, unless the abortion was performed to save the woman's life. Regarding the 1977 Parental Consent Act, the 7th Circuit reaffirmed its August 1978 ruling that it is unconstitutional to require an unmarried minor to have the consent of both parents or, if they refused consent, a circuit court judge before undergoing an abortion. The appeals court also agreed with the lower court's November 2nd ruling that the Act's requirement of a 48-hour delay between the time the minor gives her consent and the performance of an abortion violated the equal protection clause of the 14th amendment.

  6. Magnitude and risk factors of abortion among regular female students in Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Induced abortion is one of the greatest human rights dilemmas of our time. Yet, abortion is a very common experience in every culture and society. According to the World Health Organization, Ethiopia had the fifth largest number of maternal deaths in 2005 and unsafe abortion was estimated to account for 32% of all maternal deaths in Ethiopia. Youth are disproportionately affected by the consequences of unsafe abortion. The objective of this study was, therefore, to determine the magnitude and identify factors associated with abortion among female Wolaita Sodo University students. Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in Wolaita Sodo University between May and June 2011. Data were collected from 493 randomly selected female students using structured and pre-tested questionnaires. Results The rate of abortion among students was found to be 65 per 1000 women, making it three fold the national rate of abortion for Ethiopia (23/1000 women aged 15–44). Virtually all of the abortions (96.9%) were induced and only half (16) were reported to be safe. Students with history of alcohol use, who are first-year and those enrolled in faculties with no post-Grade 10 Natural Science background had higher risk of abortion than their counterparts. About 23.7% reported sexual experience. Less than half of the respondents (44%) ever heard of emergency contraception and only 35.9% of those who are sexually experienced ever used condom. Conclusions High rate of abortion was detected among female Wolaita Sodo University students and half of the abortions took place/initiated under unsafe circumstances. Knowledge of students on legal and safe abortion services was found to be considerably poor. It is imperative that improved sexual health education, with focus on safe and legal abortion services is rendered and wider availability of Youth Friendly family planning services are realized in Universities and other places where young men and women congregate

  7. Attitudes and preferences toward the provision of medication abortion in an urban academic internal medicine practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Cameron; Stumbar, Sarah; Gold, Marji

    2012-06-01

    Mifepristone offers internal medicine doctors the opportunity to greatly expand access to abortion for their patients. Almost 70% of pregnancy terminations, however, still occur in specialized clinics. No studies have examined the preferences of Internal Medicine patients specifically. Determine whether patient preference is a reason for the limited uptake of medication abortion among internal medicine physicians. Women aged 18-45 recruited from the waiting room in an urban academic internal medicine clinic. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to determine risk of unintended pregnancy and attitudes toward abortion. Support for provision of medication abortion in the internal medicine clinic was assessed with a yes/no question, followed by the open-ended question, "Why do you think this clinic should or should not offer medication abortion?" Subjects were asked whether it was very important, somewhat important, or not important for the internal medicine clinic to provide medication abortion. Of 102 women who met inclusion criteria, 90 completed the survey, yielding a response rate of 88%. Twenty-two percent were at risk of unintended pregnancy. 46.7% had had at least one lifetime abortion. Among those who would consider having an abortion, 67.7% responded yes to the question, "Do you think this clinic should offer medication abortions?" and 83.9% stated that it was "very important" or "somewhat important" to offer this service. Of women open to having an abortion, 87.1% stated that they would be interested in receiving a medication abortion from their primary care doctor. A clinically significant proportion of women in this urban internal medicine clinic were at risk of unintended pregnancy. Among those open to having an abortion, a wide majority would consider receiving it from their internal medicine doctor. The provision of medication abortion by internal medicine physicians has the potential to greatly expand abortion access for women.

  8. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring.

  9. Attitudes toward abortion in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Cynthia Waszak; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Awah, Paschal; Pearson, Erin

    2012-09-01

    Despite Zambia's relatively progressive abortion law, women continue to seek unsafe, illegal abortions. Four domains of abortion attitudes - support for legalization, immorality, rights, and access to services - were measured in 4 communities. A total of 668 people were interviewed. Associations among the 4 domains were inconsistent with expectations. The belief that abortion is immoral was widespread, but was not associated with lack of support for legalization. Instead, it was associated with belief that women need access to safe services. These findings suggest that increasing awareness about abortion law in Zambia may be important for encouraging more favorable attitudes. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dangertalk: Voices of abortion providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Lisa A; Hassinger, Jane A; Debbink, Michelle; Harris, Lisa H

    2017-07-01

    Researchers have described the difficulties of doing abortion work, including the psychosocial costs to individual providers. Some have discussed the self-censorship in which providers engage in to protect themselves and the pro-choice movement. However, few have examined the costs of this self-censorship to public discourse and social movements in the US. Using qualitative data collected during abortion providers' discussions of their work, we explore the tensions between their narratives and pro-choice discourse, and examine the types of stories that are routinely silenced - narratives we name "dangertalk". Using these data, we theorize about the ways in which giving voice to these tensions might transform current abortion discourse by disrupting false dichotomies and better reflecting the complex realities of abortion. We present a conceptual model for dangertalk in abortion discourse, connecting it to functions of dangertalk in social movements more broadly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  12. Abortion in Croatia and Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    In Slovenia abortion will continue to be available during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy as it has been since 1978. The Slovenian Constitutional Court passed this decision in December, 1991 calling the right to abortion a basic human right. T he ruling was a setback both for the government's conservative parties and the Catholic church. In Croatia, where the Catholic church is campaigning against abortion, the situation is quite different. Zagreb is full of stickers and posters with anti-abortion messages branding abortion murder and spreading inaccurate information in announcements. In 1990, there were 56,000 abortions. For every child that was born, one was aborted. The largest Croatian newspaper publicizes the Catholic view. They want pro-choice women of the volunteer group Tresnjevka to stop their struggle. The church and conservative women's groups press for inclusion of abortion in the Constitution. They are very powerful, and the fear is that might soon succeed in restricting or outlawing abortion. Tresnjevka is making efforts to organize a coordination and information center for women in Zagreb where there are 350,000 women and children refugees. Informative brochures are printed on natural healing methods in gynecology, as drugs are very scarce, and addresses for gynecological emergency care are also provided. Abortion has been legally available on demand during the 1st 10 weeks of pregnancy since 1978. Fore year Tresnjevka has worked for women, trying to raise funds from personal donations and from the government for their activities. Funds from foreign countries have never been received. At present many of the group's activities are on hold because of lack of funds, nevertheless the determination to continue fighting is alive.

  13. Abortion Stigma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanschmidt, Franz; Linde, Katja; Hilbert, Anja; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Kersting, Anette

    2016-12-01

    Although stigma has been identified as a potential risk factor for the well-being of women who have had abortions, little attention has been paid to the study of abortion-related stigma. A systematic search of the databases Medline, PsycArticles, PsycInfo, PubMed and Web of Science was conducted; the search terms were "(abortion OR pregnancy termination) AND stigma * ." Articles were eligible for inclusion if the main research question addressed experiences of individuals subjected to abortion stigma, public attitudes that stigmatize women who have had abortions or interventions aimed at managing abortion stigma. To provide a comprehensive overview of this issue, any study published by February 2015 was considered. The search was restricted to English- and German-language studies. Seven quantitative and seven qualitative studies were eligible for inclusion. All but two dated from 2009 or later; the earliest was from 1984. Studies were based mainly on U.S. samples; some included participants from Ghana, Great Britain, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and Zambia. The majority of studies showed that women who have had abortions experience fear of social judgment, self-judgment and a need for secrecy. Secrecy was associated with increased psychological distress and social isolation. Some studies found stigmatizing attitudes in the public. Stigma appeared to be salient in abortion providers' lives. Evidence of interventions to reduce abortion stigma was scarce. Most studies had limitations regarding generalizability and validity. More research, using validated measures, is needed to enhance understanding of abortion stigma and thereby reduce its impact on affected individuals. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  14. Trends in induced abortion during the 12 years since legalization in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjeldestad, F E; Borgan, J K

    1994-01-01

    Data on 174,595 Norwegian women aged 15-44 who had an induced abortion between 1979 (when all abortions through 12 weeks of gestation were legalized) and 1990 reveals that the general abortion rate decreased by 12% among married women, while it remained unchanged among unmarried women. Unmarried women had higher abortion rates than did married women among all age-groups except teenagers, increasing from a difference of 11 abortions per 1,000 women in 1979-1981 to a difference of 13 per 1,000 in 1988-1990. Pregnancy terminations occurred at an earlier gestational age during the last three years of the study period, compared with the first three. Abortions beyond 12 gestational weeks, which require the approval of a hospital committee, decreased among unmarried women, while increasing somewhat among married women. A larger proportion of married women than unmarried women terminated pregnancies beyond 18 gestational weeks.

  15. [Scientific evidence on the legalization of abortion in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayón-Vera, Eduardo

    2010-03-01

    On April 24 2007, abortion before 12 weeks became legal in Mexico City. The arguments for this decision were: diminish the maternal morbidity and mortality, avoid a "severe health problem" and accomplish the women's physical, mental and social well being. To analyze the scientific evidences that support or reject this arguments. Retrospective study realized by bibliographic search of electronic data basis and Internet portals of interested groups. Mexico is considered by the World Health Organization, one of the countries in the world with low maternal mortality rates (abortion". In the hospitals of the Mexican Institute of Social Security, maternal deaths as consequence of induced abortions were, approximately, three every year. The evidences used as arguments in favor of abortion come from studies performed in Sub-Saharan African countries, which do not apply to Mexico. The scientific evidences show that induced abortion has important psychological sequels in women, a higher frequency of illegal drug abuse, alcoholism, child abuse, low birth weight in the following pregnancy, greater risk of subsequent miscarriage and greater mortality rate. There are no scientific evidences to support the arguments used for the legal approval of abortion in Mexico City.

  16. Youth often risk unsafe abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, B

    1993-10-01

    The topic of this article is the use of unsafe abortion for unwanted pregnancies among adolescents. The significance of unsafe abortion is identified as a high risk of serious health problems, such as infection, hemorrhage, infertility, and mortality, and as a strain on emergency room services. The World Health Organization estimates that at least 33% of all women seeking hospital care for abortion complications are aged under 20 years. 50 million abortions are estimated to be induced annually, of which 33% are illegal and almost 50% are performed outside the health care system. Complications are identified as occurring due to the procedure itself (perforation of the uterus, cervical lacerations, or hemorrhage) and due to incomplete abortion or introduction of bacteria into the uterus. Long-term complications include an increased risk of ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic infection, and infertility. Mortality from unsafe abortion is estimated at 1000/100,000 procedures. Safe abortion mortality is estimated at 0.6/100,000. When infertility results, some cultures ascribe an outcast status or marriages are prevented or prostitution is assured. The risk of complications is considered higher for adolescents. Adolescents tend to delay seeking an abortion, lack knowledge on where to go for a safe procedure, and delay seeking help for complications. Peer advice may be limited or inadequate knowledge. Five studies are cited that illustrate the impact of unsafe abortion on individuals and health care systems. Abortions may be desired due to fear of parental disapproval of the pregnancy, abandonment by the father, financial and emotional responsibilities of child rearing, expulsion from school, or inability to marry if the child is out of wedlock. Medical, legal, and social barriers may prevent women and girls from obtaining safe abortion. Parental permission is sometimes a requirement for safe abortion. Fears of judgmental or callous health personnel may be barriers to

  17. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilboudo, Patrick Gc; Somda, Serge Ma; Sundby, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59-30.41); whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42-19.24); and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95% CI 1.08-11.10). On the contrary, being married was protective against induced abortion, with women who reported being married having an 83% (OR 0.17, CI 0.03-0.89) lower chance of having an induced abortion, even when the pregnancy was unwanted. This study has identified three major determinants of induced abortion in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Improved targeted programs on family planning counseling, methods of contraception, and availability of contraceptives should be widely promoted.

  18. Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss in Denmark Following Economic Downturns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruckner, Tim A.; Mortensen, Laust H.; Catalano, Ralph A.

    2016-01-01

    by 1 month a rise in the number of spontaneous abortions (β = 33.19 losses/month, 95% confidence interval: 8.71, 57.67). An attendant analysis that used consumption of durable household goods as an indicator of financial insecurity supported the inference from our main test. Changes over time...

  19. Abortion and Crime: Unwanted Children and Out-of-Wedlock Births

    OpenAIRE

    John R. Lott, Jr.; John Whitley

    2001-01-01

    Abortion may prevent the birth of ''unwanted'' children, who would have relatively small investments in human capital and a higher probability of crime. On the other hand, some research suggests that legalizing abortion increases out-of-wedlock births and single parent families, which implies the opposite impact on investments in human capital and thus crime. The question is: what is the net impact? We find evidence that legalizing abortion increased murder rates by around about 0.5 to 7 perc...

  20. CONTINUOUS ABORT GAP CLEANING AT RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; FLILLER, R.III.; FU, W.; MICHNOFF, R.

    2004-01-01

    Since the RHIC Au-Au run in the year 2001 the 200 MHz cavity system was used at storage and a 28 MHz system during injection and acceleration. The rebucketing procedure potentially causes a higher debunching rate of heavy ion beams in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam can easily account for more than 50% of the total beam intensity. This effect is even stronger with the achieved high intensities of the RHIC Au-Au run in 2004. A beam abort at the presence of a lot of debunched beam bears the risk of magnet quenching and experimental detector damage due to uncontrolled beam losses. Thus it is desirable to avoid any accumulation of debunched beam from the beginning of each store, in particular to anticipate cases of unscheduled beam aborts due to a system failure. A combination of a fast transverse kickers and the new 2-stage copper collimator system are used to clean the abort gap continuously throughout the store with a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This report gives. an overview of the new gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  1. Spontaneous Pneumothorax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Costumbrado

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 16-year-old male with asthma was brought to the emergency department by his parents for increasing right-sided chest pain associated with cough and mild dyspnea over the past week. Albuterol inhaler did not provide relief. He denied recent trauma, fever, sweats, and chills. The patient’s vitals and oxygen saturations were stable. Physical exam revealed a tall, slender body habitus with no signs of chest wall injuries. Bilateral breath sounds were present, but slightly diminished on the right. A chest radiograph was ordered to determine the etiology of the patient’s symptoms. Significant findings: Initial chest radiograph showed a 50% right-sided pneumothorax with no mediastinal shift, which can be identified by the sharp line representing the pleural lung edge (see arrows and lack of peripheral lung markings extending to the chest wall. While difficult to accurately estimate volume from a two-dimensional image, a 2 cm pneumothorax seen on chest radiograph correlates to approximately 50% volume.1 The patient underwent insertion of a pigtail pleural drain on the right and repeat chest radiograph showed resolution of previously seen pneumothorax. Ultimately the pigtail drain was removed and chest radiograph showed clear lung fields without evidence of residual pneumothorax or pleural effusion. Discussion: Pneumothorax is characterized by air between the lungs and the chest wall.2 Spontaneous pneumothorax (SP occurs when the pneumothorax is not due to trauma or any discernable etiology. 3 SP is multifactorial and may be associated with subpleural blebs, bullae, and other connective tissue changes that predispose the lungs to leak air into the pleural space.4 SP can be further subdivided into primary (no history of underlying lung disease or secondary (history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis, cystic fibrosis, lung malignancy, etc..2 It is estimated that the incidence of SP among US pediatric

  2. [Psychological aspects of induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouniq, C; Moron, P

    1982-06-01

    Results are presented of a literature review to identify social and psychological aspects of abortion. The literature does not provide a true profile of women requesting abortions, but some characteristics emerge. Reasons for requesting abortion include economic problems, difficult previous pregnancies, general medical contraindications to pregnancy, marital conflicts, feelings of loneliness, professional aspirations, problems with existing children, and feelings of insecurity about the future. However, the same feelings are found among women carrying their pregnancies to term. Unplanned pregnancies are more common during periods of depression. Most authors have found about 1/2 of women seeking abortions to be single and about 1/2 to be under 25 years old. Religion does not appear to be a determining factor. 1 study of psychological factors in abortion seekers found that a large number of single women seeking abortion had suffered traumatic experiences in childhood and were seeking security in inappropriate amorous relationships. Helene Deutsch stressed the destructive impulses latent in all pregnancies. Others have cited the ambivalence of the desire for pregnancy and feelings of loss after abortion. Studies published after legalization of abortion in the US and France however have stressed the nearly total absence of moderate or severe psychiatric symptoms after abortion. Responses immediately after the abortion may include feelings of relief, guilt, indifference, or ambivalence. Secondary affects appear minor to most authors. Psychological effects do not appear to be influenced by age, marital status, parity, intelligence, occupation, existence of a later pregnancy, or concommitant sterilization. "Premorbidity" and coercion by spouse or family were most closely associated with psychological symptoms. Numerous authors have found about twice as many negative reactions among women undergoing abortion for medical reasons. Most patients undergoing abortions for

  3. Why do women have abortions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, A; Forrest, J D

    1988-01-01

    Most respondents to a survey of abortion patients in 1987 said that more than one factor had contributed to their decision to have an abortion; the mean number of reasons was nearly four. Three-quarters said that having a baby would interfere with work, school or other responsibilities, about two-thirds said they could not afford to have a child and half said they did not want to be a single parent or had relationship problems. A multivariate analysis showed young teenagers to be 32 percent more likely than women 18 or over to say they were not mature enough to raise a child and 19 percent more likely to say their parents wanted them to have an abortion. Unmarried women were 17 percent more likely than currently married women to choose abortion to prevent others from knowing they had had sex or became pregnant. Of women who had an abortion at 16 or more weeks' gestation, 71 percent attributed their delay to not having realized they were pregnant or not having known soon enough the actual gestation of their pregnancy. Almost half were delayed because of trouble in arranging the abortion, usually because they needed time to raise money. One-third did not have an abortion earlier because they were afraid to tell their partner or parents that they were pregnant. A multivariate analysis revealed that respondents under age 18 were 39 percent more likely than older women to have delayed because they were afraid to tell their parents or partner.

  4. 28 CFR 551.23 - Abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Abortion. 551.23 Section 551.23 Judicial..., Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.23 Abortion. (a) The inmate has the responsibility to decide either to have an abortion or to bear the child. (b) The Warden shall offer to provide each pregnant...

  5. D & E midtrimester abortion: a medical innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewit, S

    1982-01-01

    With the advent of legalized abortion in the US in 1973, the innovation, adoption and dissemination of new and improved medical procedures for the voluntary termination of pregnancy became an important objective. 3 principal techniques were introduced: suction curettage, instillation procedures using saline solution or prostaglandin, and dilatation and evacuation (D and E). Suction curettage in the 1st trimester was readily adopted because the procedure was less traumatic than the traditional dilatation and curettage. Instillation procedures for abortions in the 2nd trimester were also readily adopted. Physicians preferred them to surgical procedures, were familiar with the delivery simulation, and were comfortable with the hospital setting in which the procedure was performed. D and E, an extension of the suction procedure to abortions in the 2nd trimester has lower complication rates than instillation procedures and can be performed early in the midtrimester. A 1981 membership survey conducted by the National Abortion Federation found that about 1/3 of the members performed D and E midtrimester abortions, a wider acceptance than was expected. In 1978, of the 2nd trimester abortions, 85% of the early midtrimester and 25% of the 16 weeks gestation or later abortions were done by D and E. Acceptance in some other countries is also increasing. A study of the relationship of a history of 2nd trimester abortions and subsequent adverse pregnancy outcomes was unable to identify any statistically significant relationship with the possible exception of low birth weight infants. According to a 1976 survey of teaching hospitals, less than 1/4 require their residents to perform midtrimester abortions. Very few medical schools include D and E procedures in their residency training programs. Residents should use the D and E technique only under supervision and after becoming experienced in 1st trimester suction curettage. A survey reported that D and E techniques can be learned

  6. New German abortion law agreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, H L

    1995-07-15

    The German Bundestag has passed a compromise abortion law that makes an abortion performed within the first three months of pregnancy an unlawful but unpunishable act if the woman has sought independent counseling first. Article 218 of the German penal code, which was established in 1871 under Otto von Bismarck, had allowed abortions for certain medical or ethical reasons. After the end of the first world war, the Social Democrats tried to legalize all abortions performed in the first three months of pregnancy, but failed. In 1974, abortion on demand during the first 12 weeks was declared legal and unpunishable under the social liberal coalition government of chancellor Willy Brandt; however, the same year, the German Federal Constitution Court in Karlsruhe ruled the bill was incompatible with article 2 of the constitution, which guarantees the right to life and freedom from bodily harm to everyone, including the unborn. The highest German court also ruled that a pregnant woman had to seek a second opinion from an independent doctor before undergoing an abortion. A new, extended article 218, which included a clause giving social indications, was passed by the Bundestag. When Germany was unified, East Germans agreed to be governed by all West German laws, except article 218. The Bundestag was given 2 years to revise the article; however, in 1993, the Federal Constitution Court rejected a version legalizing abortion in the first 3 months of the pregnancy if the woman sought counsel from an independent physician, and suggested the recent compromise passed by the Bundestag, the lower house of the German parliament. The upper house, the Bundesrat, where the Social Democrats are in the majority, still has to pass it. Under the bill passed by the Bundestag, national health insurance will pay for an abortion if the monthly income of the woman seeking the abortion falls under a certain limit.

  7. Abortion: Defending Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Aldana

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay will analyze some of the debates around abortion in the National Congress due to the Constitutional Amendment Bill – PEC25/95, by Deputy Severino Cavalcanti (PPB/PE, where the main issue was precisely life defense. The discursive blocks that present the debate in relation to pregnancy interruption, the religious principles or biological determinism on which those debates are based, and the ways in which such discourses are maintained will be identified. Distinct understandings of life, as a result of the points used in such discourses, which are aligned with the position of the Catholic Church and the Feminist Movement - the social actors of this debate- are also discussed here.

  8. Induced abortion among women veterans: data from the ECUUN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Sileanu, Florentina E; Zhao, Xinhua; Mor, Maria K; Callegari, Lisa S; Borrero, Sonya

    2018-01-01

    We compared rates of induced abortion among women veterans receiving Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare to rates in the general US population, as current policy prohibits VA provision of abortion counseling or services even when pregnancy endangers a veteran's life. We analyzed data from 2298 women veterans younger than 45 years who completed a telephone-based, cross-sectional survey of randomly sampled English-speaking women from across the United States who had received VA healthcare. We compared lifetime, last-5-year and last-year rates of unintended pregnancy and abortion among participants to age-matched data from the National Survey of Family Growth. As few abortions were reported in the last year, we used multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between abortion in the last 5 years and age, race/ethnicity, income, education, religion, marital status, parity, geography, deployment history, housing instability, and past medical and mental health among VA patients. Women veterans were more likely than matched US women to report ever having an abortion [17.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 16.1%-19.3% vs. 15.2% of US women]. In the last 5 years, unintended pregnancy and abortion were reported by veterans at rates similar to US women. In multivariable models, VA patients were more likely to report abortion in the last 5 years if their annual income was less than $40,000 (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.95, 95% CI 1.30-6.70), they had experienced homelessness or housing instability (adjusted OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.01-3.62), they were single (adj. OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.23-4.91) and/or they had given birth (adjusted OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.19-4.40). Women veterans face unintended pregnancy and seek abortion as often as the larger US population. The Veterans Health Care Act, which prohibits provision of abortion services, increases vulnerable veterans' out-of-pocket healthcare costs and limits veterans' reproductive freedom. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Psychological sequelae of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romans-Clarkson, S E

    1989-12-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature on the psychological sequelae of induced abortion. The methodology and results of studies carried out over the last twenty-two years are examined critically. The unanimous consensus is that abortion does not cause deleterious psychological effects. Women most likely to show subsequent problems are those who were pressured into the operation against their own wishes, either by relatives or because their pregnancy had medical or foetal contraindications. Legislation which restricts abortion causes problems for women with unwanted pregnancies and their doctors. It is also unjust, as it adversely most affects lower socio-economic class women.

  10. Energetic Interrelationship between Spontaneous Low-Frequency Fluctuations in Regional Cerebral Blood Volume, Arterial Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, and Respiratory Rhythm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katura, Takusige; Yagyu, Akihiko; Obata, Akiko; Yamazaki, Kyoko; Maki, Atsushi; Abe, Masanori; Tanaka, Naoki

    2007-07-01

    Strong spontaneous fluctuations around 0.1 and 0.3 Hz have been observed in blood-related brain-function measurements such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and optical topography (or functional near-infrared spectroscopy). These fluctuations seem to reflect the interaction between the cerebral circulation system and the systemic circulation system. We took an energetic viewpoint in our analysis of the interrelationships between fluctuations in cerebral blood volume (CBV), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and respiratory rhythm based on multivariate autoregressive modeling. This approach involves evaluating the contribution of each fluctuation or rhythm to specific ones by performing multivariate spectral analysis. The results we obtained show MAP and HR can account slightly for the fluctuation around 0.1 Hz in CBV, while the fluctuation around 0.3 Hz is derived mainly from the respiratory rhythm. During our presentation, we will report on the effects of posture on the interrelationship between the fluctuations and the respiratory rhythm.

  11. Outcome of delivery following first-pregnancy abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangtrakul, S; Thongjerm, M; Suthutvoravuth, S; Phromboon, S; Chaturachinda, K

    1988-03-01

    To determine whether or not a previous abortion has a deleterious effect on the outcome of a subsequent pregnancy, 6443 delivery records at Ramathibodi hospital between January and December 1982 were reviewed. The 2 study groups consisted of 143 women who had previously had an induced abortion and 315 women who had previously had a spontaneous abortion. Control groups were women having a 2nd child after a normal 1st pregnancy. The 1st study group had fewer women under 19 and over 35 and a lower educational level. Group 2 had more women with a pregnancy interval of less than 2 years. There was no difference between the study groups and the controls in premature rupture of fetal membranes, placenta previa, cesarean sections, manual removal of placenta, retained secundine, postpartum hemorrhage, low birth weight, Apgar score less than 6, congenital abnormalities, or perinatal mortality. The only difference between both study groups and the controls was that there was a higher percentage of assisted deliveries in both study groups. This finding is probably the result of the fact that these were 1st births and is totally unrelated to previous abortion.

  12. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jandová, A; Cifra, M; Pokorný, J; Nedbalová, M; Dohnalová, A; Kobilková, J; Cocek, A

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich; he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  13. Disturbances of electrodynamic activity affect abortion in human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Kobilková, J.; Čoček, A.; Dohnalová, A.; Cifra, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Biochemical research of biological systems is highly developed, and it has disclosed a spectrum of chemical reactions, genetic processes, and the pathological development of various diseases. The fundamental hypothesis of physical processes in biological systems, in particular of coherent electrically polar vibrations and electromagnetic activity, was formulated by H. Fröhlich he assumed connection of cancer process with degradation of coherent electromagnetic activity. But the questions of cellular structures capable of the coherent electrical polar oscillation, mechanisms of energy supply, and the specific role of the endogenous electromagnetic fields in transport, organisation, interactions, and information transfer remained open. The nature of physical disturbances caused by some diseases (including the recurrent abortion in humans and the cancer) was unknown. We have studied the reasons of recurrent abortions in humans by means of the cell mediated immunity (using immunologic active RNA prepared from blood of inbred laboratory mice strain C3H/H2K, infected with the lactate dehydrogenase elevating virus-LD V) and the cytogenetic examination from karyotype pictures. The recurrent abortion group contained women with dg. spontaneous abortion (n = 24) and the control group was composed of 30 healthy pregnant women. Our hypothesis was related to quality of endometrium in relation to nidation of the blastocyst. The energetic insufficiency (ATP) inhibits normal development of fetus and placenta. We hope that these ideas might have impact on further research, which could provide background for effective interdisciplinary cooperation of malignant and non-malignant diseases.

  14. Medical abortion reversal: science and politics meet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Khadijah Z; Nguyen, Antoinette T; Stuart, Gretchen S

    2018-03-01

    Medical abortion is a safe, effective, and acceptable option for patients seeking an early nonsurgical abortion. In 2014, medical abortion accounted for nearly one third (31%) of all abortions performed in the United States. State-level attempts to restrict reproductive and sexual health have recently included bills that require physicians to inform women that a medical abortion is reversible. In this commentary, we will review the history, current evidence-based regimen, and regulation of medical abortion. We will then examine current proposed and existing abortion reversal legislation. The objective of this commentary is to ensure physicians are armed with rigorous evidence to inform patients, communities, and policy makers about the safety of medical abortion. Furthermore, given the current paucity of evidence for medical abortion reversal, physicians and policy makers can dispel bad science and misinformation and advocate against medical abortion reversal legislation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Concealing emotions: nurses' experiences with induced abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Fang; Che, Hui-Lian; Hsieh, Hsin-Wan; Wu, Shu-Mei

    2016-05-01

    To explore the experiences of nurses involved with induced abortion care in the delivery room in Taiwan. Induced abortion has emotional, ethical and legal facets. In Taiwan, several studies have addressed the ethical issues, abortion methods and women's experiences with abortion care. Although abortion rates have increased, there has been insufficient attention on the views and experiences of nurses working in the delivery room who are involved with induced abortion care. Qualitative, semistructured interviews. This study used a purposive sampling method. In total, 22 nurses involved with induced abortion care were selected. Semistructured interviews with guidelines were conducted, and the content analysis method was used to analyse the data. Our study identified one main theme and five associated subthemes: concealing emotions, which included the inability to refuse, contradictory emotions, mental unease, respect for life and self-protection. This is the first specific qualitative study performed in Taiwan to explore nurses' experiences, and this study also sought to address the concealing of emotions by nurses when they perform induced abortion care, which causes moral distress and creates ethical dilemmas. The findings of this study showed that social-cultural beliefs profoundly influence nurses' values and that the rights of nurses are neglected. The profession should promote small-group and case-study discussions, the clarification of values and reflective thinking among nurses. Continued professional education that provides stress relief will allow nurses to develop self-healing and self-care behaviours, which will enable them to overcome the fear of death while strengthening pregnancy termination counselling, leading to better quality professional care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Abortion in young women and subsequent mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Ridder, Elizabeth M

    2006-01-01

    The extent to which abortion has harmful consequences for mental health remains controversial. We aimed to examine the linkages between having an abortion and mental health outcomes over the interval from age 15-25 years. Data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of New Zealand children. Information was obtained on: a) the history of pregnancy/abortion for female participants over the interval from 15-25 years; b) measures of DSM-IV mental disorders and suicidal behaviour over the intervals 15-18, 18-21 and 21-25 years; and c) childhood, family and related confounding factors. Forty-one percent of women had become pregnant on at least one occasion prior to age 25, with 14.6% having an abortion. Those having an abortion had elevated rates of subsequent mental health problems including depression, anxiety, suicidal behaviours and substance use disorders. This association persisted after adjustment for confounding factors. The findings suggest that abortion in young women may be associated with increased risks of mental health problems.

  17. Morbidity and mortality following induced abortion in Nnewi, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikechebelu, J I; Okoli, C C

    2003-07-01

    We present a study of the maternal morbidity and mortality among 76 patients treated at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi for complications of induced abortion from January 1996 to December 2000. The total number of maternal admissions over this period was 5750, and illegal induced abortion was responsible for 1.3% of the admissions, with a mortality rate of 5.3% (n = 4) for induced abortion. This accounted for 21.1% of the total maternal deaths (n = 19) for the period. The mean age of the women was 20.6 years (range 15-34 years), 94.7% (n = 72) were unmarried, 93.5% (n = 71) were nulliparous and 76.5% (n = 58) were unemployed, 67.1% (n = 51) had had a mid-trimester termination at > 13 weeks gestational age. It is significant that 55.3% of the patients were teenagers and 45.1% of the mid-trimester abortions occurred in this group. Genital sepsis, haemorrhage, pelvic infection with peritonitis and abscess formation, uterine perforation, and gut injury were the major complications encountered. This study demonstrates that induced abortion is still a major cause of maternal mortality in Nigeria. Integrated family health education, planned parenthood and contraceptive education, a mass literacy campaign and improvement of the existing national health services are recommended in order to ameliorate the problems of illegally induced abortion in Nigeria.

  18. Induced Abortion Practices in an Urban Indian Slum: Exploring Reasons, Pathways and Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, Deepanjali; Bharat, Shalini; Chandrakant Gawde, Nilesh

    2015-09-01

    To explore the context, experiences and pathways of seeking abortion care among married women in a minority dominated urban slum community in Mumbai city of India. A mixed-method study was conducted using a systematic random sampling method to select 282 respondents from the slum community. One fifth of these womenreported undergoing at least one induced abortion over past five years. A quantitative survey was conducted among these women (n = 57) using structured face-to-face interviews. Additionally, in-depths interviews involving 11 respondents, 2 community health workers and 2 key informants from the community were conducted for further exploration of qualitative data. The rate of induced abortion was 115.6 per 1000 pregnancies in the study area with an abortion ratio of 162.79 per 1000 live births. Frequent pregnancies with low birth spacing and abortions were reported among the women due to restricted contraception use based on religious beliefs. Limited supportfrom husband and family compelled the women to seek abortion services, mostly secretly, from private, unskilled providers and unregistered health facilities. Friends and neighbors were main sources of advice and link to abortion services. Lack of safe abortion facilities within accessible distance furtherintensifies the risk of unsafe abortions. Low contraception usage based on rigid cultural beliefs and scarcely accessible abortion services were the root causes of extensive unsafe abortions.Contraception awareness and counseling with involvement of influential community leaders as well as safe abortion services need to be strengthened to protect these deprived women from risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.

  19. Induced Abortion Practices in an Urban Indian Slum: Exploring Reasons, Pathways and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepanjali Behera

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the context, experiences and pathways of seeking abortion care among married women in a minority dominated urban slum community in Mumbai city of India.Materials and methods:A mixed-method study was conducted using a systematic random sampling method to select 282 respondents from the slum community. One fifth of these womenreported undergoing at least one induced abortion over past five years. A quantitative survey was conducted among these women (n=57 using structured face-to-face interviews. Additionally, in-depths interviews involving 11 respondents, 2 community health workers and 2 key informants from the community were conducted for further exploration of qualitative data.Results:The rate of induced abortion was 115.6 per 1000 pregnancies in the study area with an abortion ratio of 162.79 per 1000 live births. Frequent pregnancies with low birth spacing and abortions were reported among the women due to restricted contraception use based on religious beliefs. Limited supportfrom husband and family compelled the women to seek abortion services, mostly secretly, from private, unskilled providers and unregistered health facilities. Friends and neighbors were main sources of advice and link to abortion services. Lack of safe abortion facilities within accessible distance furtherintensifies the risk of unsafe abortions.Conclusion:Low contraception usage based on rigid cultural beliefs and scarcely accessible abortion services were the root causes of extensive unsafe abortions.Contraception awareness and counseling with involvement of influential community leaders as well as safe abortion services need to be strengthened to protect these deprived women from risks of unwanted pregnancies and unsafe abortions.

  20. Living conditions, contraceptive use and the choice of induced abortion among pregnant women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasch, Vibeke; Wielandt, Hanne; Knudsen, Lisbeth B

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study describes women with induced abortion and thereby elucidates how living conditions and contraceptive failure are associated with the choice of induced abortion in a population of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: The study population consisted of pregnant women attending Odense...... University Hospital. They were categorized in two groups: women with induced abortion (n = 373) and a reference group consisting of women with spontaneous abortion and antenatal care attendees (n = 2,176). The two groups were compared by use of a case-referent design. The variables studied comprise age......, number of children, partner relationship, education, occupation, economical situation, and contraceptive use. RESULTS: Being single, aged 15-24 or 35 and above, having either no children or two or more children, and the experience of contraceptive failure were parameters which were associated...

  1. Rate of spontaneous voiding recovery after acute urinary retention due to bed rest in the hospital setting in a non-urological population clinical study of the relationship between lower limbs and bladder function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To understand the clinical relationship between lower limbs functions and the recovery of spontaneous voiding after an acute urinary retention (AUR in older patients admitted to hospitals for non-urological causes using clinical parameters. Materials and Methods 56 adult patients (32 men; mean age: 77.9 ± 8.3 and 24 women; mean age 82.1 ± 4.6 with AUR were prospectively followed with validated Physical Performance Mobility Exam (PPME instrument to evaluate the relationship between the recovery of mobility capacity and spontaneous voiding. After a short period of permanent bladder drainage patients started CIC along evaluation by PPME during hospitalization and at 7, 15, 30 60, 90, and 180 days of discharge. Mann-Whitney U, chi-square test and ANOVA tests were used. Results All patients were hospitalized for at least 15 days (Median 26.3 ± 4.1 days. Progressive improvement on mobility scale measured by PPME was observed after leaving ICU and along the initial 7 days of hospitalization but with a deterioration if hospitalization extends beyond 15 days (p<0.03. Prolonged hospital stay impairs mobility in all domains (p<0.05 except step-up and transfer skills (p<0.02 although a recovery rate on spontaneous voiding persistented. Restoration of spontaneous voiding was accompanied by improvement on mobility scale (p<0.02. Recovery of spontaneous voiding was markedly observed after discharging the hospital. All patients recovered spontaneous voiding until 6 months of follow-up. Conclusions Recovery to spontaneous voiding after acute urinary retention in the hospital setting may be anticipated by evaluation of lower limbs function measured by validated instruments.

  2. The Dublin Declaration on Maternal Health Care and Anti-Abortion Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Dublin Declaration on Maternal Healthcare—issued by self-declared pro-life activists in Ireland in 2012—states unequivocally that abortion is never medically necessary, even to save the life of a pregnant woman. This article examines the influence of the Dublin Declaration on abortion politics in Latin America, especially El Salvador and Chile, where it has recently been used in pro-life organizing to cast doubt on the notion that legalizing abortion will reduce maternal mortality. Its framers argue that legalizing abortion will not improve maternal mortality rates, but reproductive rights advocates respond that the Dublin Declaration is junk science designed to preserve the world’s most restrictive abortion laws. Analyzing the strategy and impact of the Dublin Declaration brings to light one of the tactics used in anti-abortion organizing. PMID:28630540

  3. The effect of abortion legalization on sexual behavior: evidence from sexually transmitted diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klick, Jonathan; Stratmann, Thomas

    2003-06-01

    Unwanted pregnancy represents a major cost of sexual activity. When abortion was legalized in a number of states in 1969 and 1970 (and nationally in 1973), this cost was reduced. We predict that abortion legalization generated incentives leading to an increase in sexual activity, accompanied by an increase in sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using Centers for Disease Control data on the incidence of gonorrhea and syphilis by state, we test the hypothesis that abortion legalization led to an increase in sexually transmitted diseases. We find that gonorrhea and syphilis incidences are significantly and positively correlated with abortion legalization. Further, we find a divergence in STD rates among early legalizing states and late legalizing states starting in 1970 and a subsequent convergence after the Roe v. Wade decision, indicating that the relation between STDs and abortion is casual. Abortion legalization accounts for about one-fourth of the average disease incidence.

  4. [On research concerning abortion in Latin America and studies on women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso, C

    1989-01-01

    "Research on abortion is important for the Latin American women's movements. Rates of illegal abortion seem quite high. Cuba is the only country where abortion is legal. Policies on abortion are closely related to attitudes towards sexuality and women. Contraception has, in addition to health and economic costs, social and psychological costs, therefore unwanted pregnancies are the normal results of behavior that follows a certain rationality. Consequences of abortion depend on a woman's integration in her social network. The Latin American scene has two main differences from industrialized countries: mass poverty and the influence of the Catholic Church. Conditions of poverty affect less the motivation for abortion and more the conditions of its use." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  5. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  6. Induced abortion and breast cancer: results from a population-based case control study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Qing; Li, Yu-Yan; Ren, Jing-Chao; Zhao, Rui; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Er-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether induced abortion (IA) increases breast cancer (BC) risk. A population-based case-control study was performed from Dec, 2000 to November, 2004 in Shanghai, China, where IA could be verified through the family planning network and client medical records. Structured questionnaires were completed by 1,517 cases with primary invasive epithelial breast cancer and 1,573 controls frequency- matched to cases for age group. The information was supplemented and verified by the family planning records. Statistical analysis was conducted with SAS 9.0. After adjusting for potential confounders, induced abortions were not found to be associated with breast cancer with OR=0.94 (95%CI= 0.79-1.11). Compared to parous women without induced abortion, parous women with 3 or more times induced abortion (OR=0.66, 95%CI=0.46 to 0.95) and women with 3 or more times induced abortion after the first live birth (OR=0.66, 95%CI =0.45 to 0.97) showed a lower risk of breast cancer, after adjustment for age, level of education, annual income per capita, age at menarche, menopause, parity times, spontaneous abortion, age at first live birth, breast-feeding, oral contraceptives, hormones drug, breast disease, BMI, drinking alcohol, drinking tea, taking vitamin/calcium tablet, physical activity, vocation, history of breast cancer, eating the bean. The results suggest that a history of induced abortions may not increase the risk of breast cancer.

  7. Induced abortion in the Republic of Srpska: Characteristics and impact on mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niškanović Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Induced abortion is an important aspect of sexual and reproductive health, with potentially negative impact on physical and emotional health of women. The aim of this paper is to investigate the presence of abortion in our society, characteristics of women who had induced abortion and its impact on mental health. The results presented in this paper are part of the bigger study "Health Status, Health Needs and Utilization of Health Services", which was carried out in Republic of Srpska during 2010. Survey covered 1042 women age from 18 to 49. A standardized set of instruments in the field of sexual-reproductive and mental health (NHS, EUROHIS, ECHIM was applied. Results indicate that 28.8 % of women had induced abortion, while nearly half of them (48.2% had more than one abortion in their life. Induced abortion is more common among women over 38 years who already have children (97.1% and live in rural parts of country (61.7%. Abortion is mostly preferred method of birth control among married woman (88.6%, woman with secondary school (64.5%, but is equally present among employed or unemployed woman and housewife's (around 1/3. There was a statistically significant but low correlation between current life satisfaction, mental health and induced abortion (F=8.0, p=0.000; Wilks' lambda =0.97; partial Eta-squared=0.03. More precisely, women who have had abortions have expressed higher levels of stress, lower levels of vitality, and were less satisfied with present life compared to those who did not have an abortion. High rates of induced abortion are present in Balkans countries for a long time (Rašević, 1994: 86; Rašević, 2011: 3. Higher rates of abortion, compared to the European Union and western neighbors, raises the question of presence of "abortion culture" (Rasevic and Sedlecki, 2011: 4. Abortion culture is the conse-quence of frequent use of traditional method of contraception (coitus interruptus in combination with low availability of

  8. Attitudes toward elective abortion: preliminary evidence of validity for the Personal Beliefs Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embree, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the Personal Beliefs Scale of Embree and Embree item ratings obtained from 100 Midwestern undergraduates were used to classify participants into neutral, other, or second-order psychosomaticism mind-body belief types. Responses to a hypothetical abnormal pregnancy were used to measure attitude toward abortion (prochoice vs antichoice), meaning of abortion (not murder vs murder), and empathy for the unborn(low, moderate, or high). Values of chi 2 were statistically significant for students classified by mind-body belief type versus attitude toward abortion, and the meaning of abortion, but not for empathy for the unborn.

  9. Abortion: a review of women's perception in relation to their partner's reactions in two Brazilians cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Nonnenmacher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze women's perception in relation to their partner's reaction and behavior during the abortion process in two Brazilian capitals, associating the variables from women who suffered a spontaneous abortion with those from women who induced it. Methods: semi-structured, questionnaire-based interviews were conducted with 285 women who underwent spontaneous abortion and 31 who reported having induced it. The data were analyzed using the thematic analysis technique, and, subsequently, by the IBM SPSS Statistics Standard Edition software program. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. Results: in both capitals, the women who induced an abortion referred to the partner as the person who could not find out about the abortion (p<0.01 in Natal; p = 0.02 in São Paulo-SP and, simultaneously, as the one who could have avoided it (p < 0.01 in Natal; p = 0.03 in São Paulo. In Natal-RN, induced abortion was associated with the partner's absence at the time pregnancy was confirmed (p = 0.02 and, in Sao Paulo-SP, with their negative reaction to news of the pregnancy (p = 0.04 and lack of participation in the abortion process (p < 0.01. Conclusion: despite having achieved independence, women still regard male participation in the abortion process as an important factor. The specifics of each capital denote the influence of the geographic and cultural dimension, indicating the need to take into account the particulars of each region in Brazil while considering a holistic approach to women's health.

  10. Abortion-care education in Japanese nurse practitioner and midwifery programs: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Maki

    2014-01-01

    While various reports have been published concerning ethical dilemmas in nursing and midwifery, and while many nurses and midwives struggle with the conflict between personal feelings raised by abortion and the duties of their position, few studies investigate the extent and conditions of abortion-care education for registered nurses (RNs) and certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) in Japan. To describe Japanese abortion-care education programs and to investigate program directors' or other relevant persons' perceptions of abortion-care education. Descriptive study was used to determine the extent of abortion-care education programs and the respondents' perceptions of abortion-care education. All 228 Japanese nursing and/or midwifery schools were invited to participate in the study. The response rate was 33.8% (n=77). Response rate varied by program type: 18.4% (n=45) for nursing programs and 29.0% (n=32) for midwifery programs. A confidential survey requesting information about curricular coverage of ten reproductive health topics related to abortion was mailed to program directors. The results show that the majority of CNM and RN programs surveyed offer didactic exposure to instruction in family planning and contraception, emergency contraception, legal considerations, and possible medical complications. However, few programs offer clinical exposure to all 10 topics. Of the respondents, 36% reported that lack of time and the low priority given to abortion-care education were issues of curriculum priority. As for educational materials, few textbooks or guidebooks exist on abortion care in Japan, and most educators use general nursing textbooks to cover this topic. Regardless of interest in or intention to provide abortion services as part of their practice, all providers of abortion-care education need to be knowledgeable about the full range of reproductive health options, including family planning and abortion, and to be able to convey this information to clients

  11. Psychiatric aspects of induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotland, Nada L

    2011-08-01

    Approximately one third of the women in the United States have an abortion during their lives. In the year 2008, 1.21 million abortions were performed in the United States (Jones and Koolstra, Perspect Sex Reprod Health 43:41-50, 2011). The psychiatric outcomes of abortion are scientifically well established (Adler et al., Science 248:41-43, 1990). Despite assertions to the contrary, there is no evidence that abortion causes psychiatric problems (Dagg, Am J Psychiatry 148:578-585, 1991). Those studies that report psychiatric sequelae suffer from severe methodological defects (Lagakos, N Engl J Med 354:1667-1669, 2006). Methodologically sound studies have demonstrated that there is a very low incidence of frank psychiatric illness after an abortion; women experience a wide variety of feelings over time, including, for some, transient sadness and grieving. However, the circumstances that lead a woman to terminate a pregnancy, including previous and/or ongoing psychiatric illness, are independently stressful and increase the likelihood of psychiatric illness over the already high baseline incidence and prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders among women of childbearing age. For optimal psychological outcomes, women, including adolescents, need to make autonomous and supported decisions about problem pregnancies. Clinicians can help patients facing these decisions and those who are working through feelings about having had abortions in the past.

  12. Intergenerational abortion tendency between mothers and teenage daughters: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Farrugia, M Michèle; Vigod, Simone N; Urquia, Marcelo L; Ray, Joel G

    2018-01-29

    A teenage woman's sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother's experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters' data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother's history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter's birth to 12 years after (i.e., when her daughter turned 12 years of age). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate a daughter's risk of having an induced abortion in relation to the mother's history of the same procedure. We adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal age and world region of origin, mental or physical health problems in the daughter, mother- daughter cohabitation, neighbourhood-level rate of teen induced abortion, rural or urban residence, and income quintile. A total of 431 623 daughters were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability of teen induced abortion was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8%-10.4%) among daughters whose mother had an induced abortion, and 4.2% (95% CI 4.1%-4.3%) among daughters whose mother had no induced abortion, for an adjusted HR of 1.94 (95% CI 1.86-2.01). The adjusted HR of a teenaged daughter having an induced abortion in relation to number of maternal induced abortions was 1.77 (95% CI 1.69-1.85) with 1 maternal abortion, 2.04 (95% CI 1.91-2.18) with 2 maternal abortions, 2.39 (95% CI 2.19-2.62) with 3 maternal abortions and 2.54 (95% CI 2.33-2.77) with 4 or more maternal abortions, relative to none. We found that the risk of teen induced abortion was higher among daughters whose mother had had an induced abortion. Future research should explore the mechanisms for intergenerational induced abortion. © 2018 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  13. Intergenerational abortion tendency between mothers and teenage daughters: a population-based cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Farrugia, M. Michèle; Vigod, Simone N.; Urquia, Marcelo L.; Ray, Joel G.

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A teenage woman’s sexual health practices may be influenced by her mother’s experience. We evaluated whether there is an intergenerational tendency for induced abortion between mothers and their teenage daughters. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study involving daughters born in Ontario between 1992 and 1999. We evaluated the daughters’ data for induced abortions between age 12 years and their 20th birthday. We assessed each mother’s history of induced abortion for the period from 4 years before her daughter’s birth to 12 years after (i.e., when her daughter turned 12 years of age). We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate a daughter’s risk of having an induced abortion in relation to the mother’s history of the same procedure. We adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for maternal age and world region of origin, mental or physical health problems in the daughter, mother– daughter cohabitation, neighbourhood-level rate of teen induced abortion, rural or urban residence, and income quintile. RESULTS: A total of 431 623 daughters were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability of teen induced abortion was 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.8%–10.4%) among daughters whose mother had an induced abortion, and 4.2% (95% CI 4.1%–4.3%) among daughters whose mother had no induced abortion, for an adjusted HR of 1.94 (95% CI 1.86–2.01). The adjusted HR of a teenaged daughter having an induced abortion in relation to number of maternal induced abortions was 1.77 (95% CI 1.69–1.85) with 1 maternal abortion, 2.04 (95% CI 1.91–2.18) with 2 maternal abortions, 2.39 (95% CI 2.19–2.62) with 3 maternal abortions and 2.54 (95% CI 2.33–2.77) with 4 or more maternal abortions, relative to none. INTERPRETATION: We found that the risk of teen induced abortion was higher among daughters whose mother had had an induced abortion. Future research should explore the mechanisms for intergenerational induced

  14. Virtue theory and abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursthouse, Rosalind

    1991-01-01

    The sort of ethical theory derived from Aristotle, variously described as virtue ethics, virtue-based ethics, or neo-Aristotelianism, is becoming better known, and is now quite widely recognized as at least a possible rival to deontological and utilitarian theories. With recognition has come criticism, of varying quality. In this article I shall discuss nine separate criticisms that I have frequently encountered, most of which seem to me to betray an inadequate grasp either of the structure of virtue theory or of what would be involved in thinking about a real moral issue in its terms. In the first half I aim particularly to secure an understanding that will reveal that many of these criticisms are simply misplaced, and to articulate what I take to be the major criticism of virtue theory. I reject this criticism, but do not claim that it is necessarily misplaced. In the second half I aim to deepen that understanding and highlight the issues raised by the criticisms by illustrating what the theory looks like when it is applied to a particular issue, in this case, abortion.

  15. Abortion - a philosophical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MN Jali

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The central issue in the abortion debate is the moral status of the conceptus. There are two positions that argue this issue. At one extreme are the views of the pro-life group which argues that human life begins at the moment of conception whilst at the other are views of the pro-choice group that argues in favour of a woman’s right to self-determination. Two basic principles come into conflict in this debate, namely the Value of Life and that of Self-determination. In this paper the arguments forwarded by each group in justification of its position are presented. Also discussed is the moderate developmental viewpoint which accepts that the genetic basis of an individual is established at conception. Some development, however, has to occur before the conceptus can be called a person. The fact that an entity is a potential person is a prima facie reason for not destroying it. On the other hand, we need not conclude that a person has a right to life by virtue of that potentiality. Simultaneously we should recognise that the right a potential entity has, may be nullified by the woman’s right to self-determination.

  16. [Clinical study of induced abortion of early-early pregnancy: an analysis of 10, 404 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jian; Wang, Xue-fen; Zhang, Li; Liu, Jian-hua

    2012-01-03

    To evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of early-early pregnancy induced abortion (EPIA). A total of 10 404 cases of EPIA performed at our hospital from January 1993 to December 2003 were retrospectively analyzed and compared with 9434 cases of common induced abortion (CIA). The amount of hemorrhage and operative duration, degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, rate of incomplete abortion, menstrual changes and post-operative onset of Asherman's syndrome were observed and compared between 2 groups. The average age, ratio of parous cases, ratio of the cases of first-pregnancy induced abortion were not different between 2 groups (P > 0.05). The amount of hemorrhage bleeding ((4.9 ± 3.2) ml), operative duration ((90.3 ± 12.4) s), degree of pain, rate of induced-abortion syndrome, menstrual changes and the rate of Asherman's syndrome in the EPIA group were all significantly less than those in the CIA group (P abortion (0.44%) in the EPIA group was significantly higher than that (0.21%) in the CIA group (P abortion stays high.

  17. The effect of induced abortion on the incidence of Down's syndrome in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R G; Gardner, R W; Steinhoff, P; Chung, C S; Palmore, J A

    1980-01-01

    There was a decrease in the recorded number of cases and in the incidence rate of Down's syndrome in Hawaii between 1963-1969 and 1971-1977. Independent of all other factors, induced abortion accounted for 43 percent of the decline in the number of cases, based on the assumption that a substantial number of clandestine abortions were being performed in Hawaii before the 1970 legalization of abortion. However, if we assume that very few illegal abortions were performed prior to 1970, there would have been an actual 3.5 percent increase in the number of cases of Down's syndrome in the absence of legal abortion. Declining pregnancy rates and decreasing age-specific incidence rates of Down's syndrome also contributed to the drop in the number of cases between 1963-1969 and 1971-1977.

  18. Recourse to induced abortion among native and foreign women in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lisbeth B.; Rasch, Vibeke; Gammeltoft, Tine

    A register-based study in Denmark covering 1994-1998 revealed higher rates of legally induced abortion among groups of immigrant/descendant women than among Danish women. To elucidate the development of induced abortion among Danes and non-Danes, the National Board of Health initiated studies...... on abortion. We conducted a study using a triangle of methods: register-based quantitative analyses, hospital-based questionnaires and in-depth qualitative interviews with a number of women (40). This paper presents primarily results from the register-based part of the study, analysing the rates of induced...... abortion 1980-2001 for women born since 1960 in relation to age, country of origein and fertility pattern. The main findings showed a stronger decrease in the rate of induced abortion among some immigrant groups of women than among Danes. However, in both Danish and other etnic groups social vulnerability...

  19. Did Legalized Abortion Cut Crime in the Czech Republic?

    OpenAIRE

    Dubovský, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, I test with Czech data the hypothesis of Donohue & Levitt (2001) which proposes that the growth of abortion rate lowers the future crime rate. The fixed effects model I use is derived from Donohue & Levitt (2001) and adjusted on the basis of criticism by Foote & Goetz (2005; 2008) and Joyce (2004; 2009a; 2009b). As regards period 1994-2009 the results imply that the rise of abortions by 10 per 100 born children lowers theft by eight percent in an age group after it reaches the...

  20. Fundamental discrepancies in abortion estimates and abortion-related mortality: A reevaluation of recent studies in Mexico with special reference to the International Classification of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koch E

    2012-12-01

    induced abortion, such as hemorrhage, hypertension and eclampsia, indirect causes, and other pathological conditions. Therefore, only marginal or null effects would be expected from changes in the legal status of abortion on overall maternal mortality rates. Rather, maternal health in Mexico would greatly benefit from increasing access to emergency and specialized obstetric care. Finally, more reliable methodologies to assess abortion-related deaths are clearly required.Keywords: maternal health, maternal mortality, abortion, estimation methods, developing countries, International Classification of Diseases

  1. Maternal mortality and morbidity of unsafe abortion in a university teaching hospital of Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, N.; Hossain, N.; Khan, N.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the mortality and morbidity of unsafe abortion in a University Teaching Hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Unit III, Dow Medical College and Civil Hospital Karachi from January 2005 to December 2009. Data regarding the socio demographic characteristics, reasons and methods of abortion, nature of provider, complications and treatment were collected for 43 women, who were admitted with complications of unsafe abortion, and an analysis was done. Results: The frequency of unsafe abortion was 1.35% and the case fatality rate was 34.9%. Most of the women belonged to a very poor socioeconomic group (22/43; 51.2%) and were illiterate (27/43; 62.8%). Unsafe abortion followed an induced abortion in 29 women and other miscarriages in 14 women. The majority of women who had an induced abortion were married (19/29, 65.5%). A completed family was the main reason for induced abortion (14/29; 48.2%) followed by being unmarried (8/29, 27.5%) and domestic violence in 5/29 cases (17.2%). Instruments were the commonest method used for unsafe abortion (26/43;68.4%).The most frequent complication was septicaemia (34; 79%) followed by uterine perforation with or without bowel perforation (13, 30.2%) and haemorrhage (9; 20.9%). Majority of induced abortions were performed by untrained providers (22/26; 84.6%) compared to only 3/14 cases (21.4%) of other miscarriages (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The high maternal mortality and morbidity of unsafe abortion in our study highlights the need for improving contraceptive and safe abortion services in Pakistan. (author)

  2. Exploring abortion attitudes of US adolescents and young adults using social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna L; Gerns Storey, Helen L; Prager, Sarah W

    2015-03-01

    To explore the use of social media for recruitment of adolescents and young adults in the United States and to describe how they learn and feel about abortion. Americans 13-29years of age were recruited through web-based social media to complete an online survey about sex and pregnancy-related decision making, including abortion. Descriptive statistics were used to compare the study population's demographics and prevalence of sexual experience to national databases [US Census and National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG)] and to describe abortion attitudes and related topics. Survey completion rate was 78% and 996 participants' responses were analyzed. The study population appeared diverse with respect to gender, ethnicity, race and geographic distribution with some similarities to the US Census and was sexually active at an earlier age compared to the NSFG. While the majority of participants supported abortion (74%), acceptance of abortion for themselves or their partners varied based on circumstances. The media were the most popular sources of information for learning about sex and abortion (73% and 68%, respectively). Parents had the most influence on individuals' abortion stances compared to other sources. Social media recruitment, compared to traditional methods, has the potential to reach a geographically, ethnically and racially diverse group of young people to study sensitive topics in an economical and expedient fashion. Similar to the general population, the study population's abortion views fell on a spectrum with overall supportive attitudes toward abortion. The media served as common sources of information for learning about both sex and abortion. Web-based social media offer a novel recruiting strategy to study sensitive topics such as abortion attitudes among difficult-to-reach populations such as adolescents and young adults. The presented findings begin characterizing young people's abortion attitudes, offering a foundation for more in-depth research

  3. Determinants of abortions in Katete District of Zambia: A hospital based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibangu Katamba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at Saint Francis at Saint Francis Hospital over a period of four months (from September 22nd 2014 to January 23rd 2015. 168 women aged 12 to 46 years admitted and treated for incomplete abortion in Gynecology ward were interviewed. 63 participants (37.5% had induced abortions and 105 participants (62.5% had spontaneous abortions. All induced abortions were the results of unplanned pregnancies. The majority of all abortions (57.1% resulted from unplanned pregnancies as compared to only 42.9% resulting from planned pregnancies (p<0.05. Both married and single participants had increased unmet needs for family planning. 57.3% of women had used contraceptives in the past and also had unintended pregnancies resulting in abortions. A significant number of induced abortions (22.2% were incidentally caused by inappropriate use of contraceptives by providers. Sexual activities start as early as 9 years in Katete. Most youths with induced abortions were involved in unstable relationships, desired to continue with education, feared to ruin their future, and had limited knowledge and inconsistent use of contraceptive methods. The major determinants for induced abortions amongst participants were unplanned/unintended pregnancies. Other determinants such as illiteracy, lack of information, young age, poverty, and unsafe sex need to be addressed. There is need to promote consistent and correct use of contraceptives, to strengthen the health care delivery system and maintain the cold chain of contraceptive supply for sustainable availability and accessibility. Conjugated efforts by health care providers, community leaders, policy makers and politicians are needed to extirpate negative believes (on modern contraceptives and cultural norms that promote unhealthy sexual and reproductive life.

  4. Late Abortion: A Comprehensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chiang

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Late termination of pregnancy (LTOP is defined as an abortion carried out beyond 24 gestational weeks, when the fetus has arguably attained viability. In Taiwan, the current abortion law, bearing a eugenic title, allows LTOP on certain medical grounds. However, the fetal and maternal conditions that constitute medical grounds are not clarified and remain legally untested. Professional debate on the abortion issue is also lacking in academia in Taiwan, despite societal concerns. With the advent of technology to detect fetal abnormalities, obstetricians are now confronted more frequently with acute dilemmas regarding LTOP. Quite often, they sail in an uncharted sea with no clinical guidelines from their professional societies or affiliated hospitals. Recently, LTOP at 35 gestational weeks for a fetus with Down syndrome, complicated with polyhydramnios and tetralogy of Fallot, triggered media scrutiny and aroused much public attention. Although the clinical decision making for pregnancies with fetal abnormalities entails increasingly balanced information and consideration in terms of the medical, ethical, legal, psychologic, and societal aspects, society at large is unaware of the complexity and intertwined nature of various abortion issues, especially LTOP. Obstetricians are now in a vulnerable position in Taiwanese society, where litigations relevant to the practice of early abortions are not rare. Therefore, a global and in-depth look into abortion issues from legal and ethical dimensions is indispensable for modern obstetric practice. This review considers the core issues in LTOP, including what conditions constitute a “serious” fetal abnormality to justify LTOP, the incidence of LTOP, legislation regarding LTOP in Western countries, and recent research on ambivalent fetal pain. It will also present procedures, some under the auspices of the ethical committee of a Presbyterian hospital in Taiwan, for clinical decision making, particularly

  5. The Effects of Total Motile Sperm Count on Spontaneous Pregnancy Rate and Pregnancy After IUI Treatment in Couples with Male Factor and Unexplained Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajder, Mithad; Hajder, Elmira; Husic, Amela

    2016-02-01

    Male infertility factor is defined if the total number of motile spermatozoa (TMSC) 3,10(6) / ejaculate and a spontaneous pregnancy, group (B) with TMSCl 3 x 10(6) / ejaculate and couples who have not achieved pregnancy. From a total of 98 pairs of men's and unexplained infertility, 42 of them (42.8%) achieved spontaneous pregnancy, while 56 (57.2%) pairs did not achieve spontaneous pregnancy. TMSC was significantly higher (42.4 ± 28.4 vs. 26.2 ± 24, p 20 x 10(6) / ejaculate (RR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.56-1.82, 5 x 10(6) / ejaculate are indicated for treatment with IUI. TMSC can be used as the method of choice for diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  6. Bolstering the Evidence Base for Integrating Abortion and HIV Care: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Manski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-positive women have abortions at similar rates to their HIV-negative counterparts, yet little is known about clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women or the best practices for abortion provision. To fill that gap, we conducted a literature review of clinical outcomes of surgical and medication abortion among HIV-positive women. We identified three studies on clinical outcomes of surgical abortion among HIV-positive women; none showed significant differences in infectious complications by HIV status. A review of seven articles on similar gynecological procedures found no differences in complications by HIV status. No studies evaluated medication abortion among HIV-positive women. However, we did find that previously expressed concerns regarding blood loss and vomiting related to medication abortion for HIV-positive women are unwarranted based on our review of data showing that significant blood loss and vomiting are rare and short lived among women. We conclude that although there is limited research that addresses clinical outcomes of abortion for HIV-positive women, existing data suggest that medication and surgical abortion are safe and appropriate. Sexual and reproductive health and HIV integration efforts must include both options to prevent maternal mortality and morbidity and to ensure that HIV-positive women and women at risk of HIV can make informed reproductive decisions.

  7. Content validation of the 'Mosaic of Opinions About Abortion' (Mosai).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacique, Denis Barbosa; Passini Junior, Renato; Osis, Maria José Martins Duarte

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate the contents of the Mosaico de Opiniões Sobre o Aborto Induzido (Mosai), a structured questionnaire intended to be used as a tool to collect information about the views of health professionals about the morality of abortion. The contents of the first version of the questionnaire was developed based on the technique of thematic content analysis of books, articles, films, websites and newspapers reporting cases of abortion and arguing about their practice. The Mosai was composed of 6 moral dilemmas (vignettes) related to induced abortion, whose outcomes should be chosen by the respondents and could be justified by the classification of 15 patterns of arguments about the morality of abortion. In order to validate its contents, the questionnaire was submitted to the scrutiny of a panel of 12 experts, an intentional sample consisted of doctors, lawyers, ethicists, sociologists, nurses and statisticians, who evaluated the criteria of clarity of writing, relevance, appropriateness to sample and suitability to the fields. These scores were analyzed by the method of concordance rate, while the free comments were analyzed using the analysis technique content. All the moral dilemmas and arguments were considered valid according to the rate of agreement, however, some comments led to the exclusion of a dilemma about emergency contraception, among other changes. The content of Mosai was considered valid to serve as a tool to collect the opinions of healthcare professionals regarding the morality of abortion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Llorente-Marrón

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. METHODS We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. RESULTS The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. CONCLUSIONS Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence.

  9. Contextual determinants of induced abortion: a panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Marrón, Mar; Díaz-Fernández, Montserrat; Méndez-Rodríguez, Paz

    2016-01-01

    Analyze the contextual and individual characteristics that explain the differences in the induced abortion rate, temporally and territorially. We conducted an econometric analysis with panel data of the influence of public investment in health and per capita income on induced abortion as well as a measurement of the effect of social and economic factors related to the labor market and reproduction: female employment, immigration, adolescent fertility and marriage rate. The empirical exercise was conducted with a sample of 22 countries in Europe for the 2001-2009 period. The great territorial variability of induced abortion was the result of contextual and individual socioeconomic factors. Higher levels of national income and investments in public health reduce its incidence. The following sociodemographic characteristics were also significant regressors of induced abortion: female employment, civil status, migration, and adolescent fertility. Induced abortion responds to sociodemographic patterns, in which the characteristics of each country are essential. The individual and contextual socioeconomic inequalities impact significantly on its incidence. Further research on the relationship between economic growth, labor market, institutions and social norms is required to better understand its transnational variability and to reduce its incidence.

  10. Contraceptive Use among Women Seeking Repeat Abortion in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Compared with women seeking their first abortion, significantly more repeat abortion clients had ever used contraceptives ... findings, the level of repeat abortions in Europe, .... and contraceptive history, and post-abortion ..... working women.

  11. [Spontaneous hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellorhaoui, M; Schultze, W

    1977-01-15

    On the basis of a survey is attempted to describe mode of development, symptomatology, individual forms and the different possibilities of therapy of the spontaneous hypoglycaemias. A particularly broad range was devoted to the cerebral sequelae, since in these cases--according to our experience--on account of simulation of neurologico-psychiatric symptoms at the soonest wrong diagnoses are to be expected. Furthermore, it is attempted to classify the hypoglycemias according to their development, in which cases their incompleteness was evident from the very beginning. The individual forms of appearance are treated according their to significance. Out of the inducible hypoglycaemias a particular attention is devoted to the forms caused by insulin and oral antidiabetics, since these most frequently participate in the development. Finally the author inquires into diagnostic measures for recognition of special forms of hypoglycaemia. In this place the diagnostics of hyperinsulinism conditioned by adenomatosis or tumours of other kinds is of particular importance. Finally conservative and operative possibilities of the therapy of these tumours are discussed,whereby the only recently tested treatment with streptotocin is mentioned.

  12. Induced abortion and psychological sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    The decision to seek an abortion is never easy. Women have different reasons for choosing an abortion and their social, economic and religious background may influence how they cope. Furthermore, once pregnant, the alternatives of childbirth and adoption or keeping the baby may not be psychologically neutral. Research studies in this area have been hampered by methodological problems, but most of the better-quality studies have shown no increased risk of mental health problems in women having an abortion. A consistent finding has been that of pre-existing mental illness and subsequent mental health problems after either abortion or childbirth. Furthermore, studies have shown that only a minority of women experience any lasting sadness or regret. Risk factors for this include ambivalence about the decision, level of social support and whether or not the pregnancy was originally intended. More robust, definitive research studies are required on mental health after abortion and alternative outcomes such as childbirth. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Inversion of the uterus following abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A S; Datta, N; Ghosh, D

    1982-10-16

    A case of inversion of the uterus following abortion is reported. The 35-year old patient, admitted October 10, 1978 to the Medical College and Hospitals in Calcutta, India was referred by a private practitioner with a history of amenorrhea for 16 weeks, bleeding for 3 days, expulsion of the fetus 3 days earlier, and something coming down per vaginum for 2 days. The patient was para 4+0 (all full term normal deliveries) and home delivery for the last child 1 1/2 years earlier. She had a history of regular menstrual periods. Her general condition was poor. The examination revealed a gangrenous mass coming out of the vulva with a very offensive smell. There was a raw surface on which placenta like tissue was attached. No active bleeding was seen. Fundus and cervix of the uterus could not be felt. On rectal examination the uterus could not be felt, a cup-like depression was felt at the site of the uterus. The provision diagnosis was inversion of uterus following abortion. Treatment was started with sedatives and antibiotics, and arrangements were made for a blood transfusion. The vaginal mass was covered with glycerine and acriflavine gauze, and a hysterectomy was decided upon after improvement of her general condition and control of the infection. On October 14th, the patient was placed in knee chest position and posterior vaginal wall was retracted with Sims' speculum when the inverted lump was spontaneously reduced within the vagina. The inverted uterus was felt in the region of the vaginal vault. Glycerine acriflavine pack was given which was taken out and repack was given daily until the operation. The hysterectomy was performed on October 23rd. The abdomen was opened up by a transverse incision and the pelvis was explored. In the region of the uterus a cup-shaped depression was noted. Tubes and ovaries of both sides were seen hanging laterally from the cupped area. The left tube was found congested and thickened. Reduction of uterus was done by making a vertical

  14. Mortality of induced abortion, other outpatient surgical procedures and common activities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Elizabeth G; Grossman, Daniel; Weaver, Mark A; Toti, Stephanie; Winikoff, Beverly

    2014-11-01

    The recent surge of new legislation regulating induced abortion in the United States is ostensibly motivated by the desire to protect women's health. To provide context for interpreting the risk of abortion, we compared abortion-related mortality to mortality associated with other outpatient surgical procedures and selected nonmedical activities. We calculated the abortion-related mortality rate during 2000-2009 using national data. We searched PubMed and other sources for contemporaneous data on mortality associated with other outpatient procedures commonly performed on healthy young women, marathon running, bicycling and driving. The abortion-related mortality rate in 2000-2009 in the United States was 0.7 per 100,000 abortions. Studies in approximately the same years found mortality rates of 0.8-1.7 deaths per 100,000 plastic surgery procedures, 0-1.7deaths per 100,000 dental procedures, 0.6-1.2 deaths per 100,000 marathons run and at least 4 deaths among 100,000 cyclists in a large annual bicycling event. The traffic fatality rate per 758 vehicle miles traveled by passenger cars in the United States in 2007-2011 was about equal to the abortion-related mortality rate. The safety of induced abortion as practiced in the United States for the past decade met or exceeded expectations for outpatient surgical procedures and compared favorably to that of two common nonmedical voluntary activities. The new legislation restricting abortion is unnecessary; indeed, by reducing the geographic distribution of abortion providers and requiring women to travel farther for the procedure, these laws are potentially detrimental to women's health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Abortion and mental health disorders: evidence from a 30-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M

    2008-12-01

    Research on the links between abortion and mental health has been limited by design problems and relatively weak evidence. To examine the links between pregnancy outcomes and mental health outcomes. Data were gathered on the pregnancy and mental health history of a birth cohort of over 500 women studied to the age of 30. After adjustment for confounding, abortion was associated with a small increase in the risk of mental disorders; women who had had abortions had rates of mental disorder that were about 30% higher. There were no consistent associations between other pregnancy outcomes and mental health. Estimates of attributable risk indicated that exposure to abortion accounted for 1.5% to 5.5% of the overall rate of mental disorders. The evidence is consistent with the view that abortion may be associated with a small increase in risk of mental disorders. Other pregnancy outcomes were not related to increased risk of mental health problems.

  16. Cytologic anaplasia is a prognostic factor in osteosarcoma biopsies, but mitotic rate or extent of spontaneous tumor necrosis are not: a critique of the College of American Pathologists Bone Biopsy template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Justin Mm; Dupont, William D

    2017-01-01

    The current College of American Pathologists cancer template for reporting biopsies of bone tumors recommends including information that is of unproven prognostic significance for osteosarcoma, such as the presence of spontaneous tumor necrosis and mitotic rate. Conversely, the degree of cytologic anaplasia (degree of differentiation) is not reported in this template. This retrospective cohort study of 125 patients with high-grade osteosarcoma was performed to evaluate the prognostic impact of these factors in diagnostic biopsy specimens in predicting the clinical outcome and response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Multivariate Cox regression was performed to adjust survival analyses for well-established prognostic factors. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine odds ratios for good chemotherapy response (≥90% tumor necrosis). Osteosarcomas with severe anaplasia were independently associated with increased overall and disease-free survival, but mitotic rate and spontaneous necrosis had no prognostic impact after controlling for other confounding factors. Mitotic rate showed a trend towards increased odds of a good histologic response, but this effect was diminished after controlling for other predictive factors. Neither spontaneous necrosis nor the degree of cytologic anaplasia observed in biopsy specimens was predictive of a good response to chemotherapy. Mitotic rate and spontaneous tumor necrosis observed in pretreatment biopsy specimens of high-grade osteosarcoma are not strong independent prognostic factors for clinical outcome or predictors of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore, reporting these parameters for osteosarcoma, as recommended in the College of American Pathologists Bone Biopsy template, does not appear to have clinical utility. In contrast, histologic grading schemes for osteosarcoma based on the degree of cytologic anaplasia may have independent prognostic value and should continue to be evaluated.

  17. Is It Safe to Provide Abortion Pills over the Counter? A Study on Outcome Following Self-Medication with Abortion Pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivedita, K; Shanthini, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    Medical abortion is a safe method of termination of pregnancy when performed as per guidelines with a success rate of 92-97 %. But self-administration of abortion pills is rampant throughout the country due to over the counter availability of these drugs and complications are not uncommon due to this practice. The society perceives unsupervised medical abortion as a very safe method of termination and women use this as a method of spacing. The aim of this study was to study the implications of self-administration of abortion pills by pregnant women. Retrospective observational study done in Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College & Hospital between the period of July 2013 to June2014. Case sheets were analysed to obtain data regarding self-administration of abortion pills and complications secondary to its administration. The following data were collected. Age, marital status, parity, duration of pregnancy as perceived by the women, confirmation of pregnancy, duration between pill intake and visit to hospital, whether any intervention done elsewhere, any known medical or surgical complications, Hb level on admission, whether patient was in shock, USG findings, evidence of sepsis, blood transfusion, treatment given and duration of hospital stay. Descriptive analysis of the collected data was done. Among the 128 cases of abortion in the study period, 40 (31.25%) patients had self-administered abortion pills. Among these 40 patients 27.5% had consumed abortion pills after the approved time period of 63 days of which 17.5% had consumed pills after 12 weeks of gestation. The most common presentation was excessive bleeding (77.5%) Severe anaemia was found in 12.5% of the patients and 5% of patients presented with shock. The outcome was as follows : 62.5% of the patients were found to have incomplete abortion, 22.5% had failed abortion and 7.5% of patients had incomplete abortion with sepsis. Surgical evacuation was performed in 67.5% of the patients whereas 12.5% of the

  18. ABORTION IN BRAZIL: IMPACTS OF ILLEGALITY IN PUBLIC HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abortion in Brazil provides public health impacts, mainly due to the high rate of maternal morbidity and mortality, because it most often occurs in an illegal practice and / or unsafe, because of the illegality of abortion in certain situations in the country. Therefore, it is an issue that refers to the various reflections, such as legal, moral, cultural, socio-economic and bioethical. Given the above, the study aims to address about abortion in Brazil and the impacts of illegality in public health. Study of literature review, descriptive and discursive, held in the database SciELO sites and governmental and non-governmental organizations. It was evident that the illegality of abortion in Brazil is harmful to the health of women who resort to unsafe practices and / or illegal, a violation of human rights, the women’s autonomy, as well as providing public health impacts, and sometimes this actually happens because the deficit in quality of care, specifically to sexual and reproductive health, as the actions of Family Planning. It is considered that the way of abortion in Brazil requires modifications, especially with regard to legislative and bioethics conflicts.

  19. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress among women requesting induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin Lundell, Inger; Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Frans, Orjan; Helström, Lotti; Högberg, Ulf; Moby, Lena; Nyberg, Sigrid; Sydsjö, Gunilla; Georgsson Öhman, Susanne; Östlund, Ingrid; Skoog Svanberg, Agneta

    2013-12-01

    To describe the prevalence and pattern of traumatic experiences, to assess the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), to identify risk factors for PTSD and PTSS, and to analyse the association of PTSD and PTSS with concomitant anxiety and depressive symptoms in women requesting induced abortion. A Swedish multi-centre study of women requesting an induced abortion. The Screen Questionnaire - Posttraumatic Stress Disorder was used for research diagnoses of PTSD and PTSS. Anxiety and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Of the 1514 respondents, almost half reported traumatic experiences. Lifetime- and point prevalence of PTSD were 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-8.5) and 4% (95% CI: 3.1-5.2), respectively. The prevalence of PTSS was 23% (95% CI: 21.1-25.4). Women who reported symptoms of anxiety or depression when requesting abortion were more likely to have ongoing PTSD or PTSS. Also single-living women and smokers displayed higher rates of ongoing PTSD. Although PTSD is rare among women who request an induced abortion, a relatively high proportion suffers from PTSS. Abortion seeking women with trauma experiences and existing or preexisting mental disorders need more consideration and alertness when counselled for termination.

  20. Abortion in Brazil: A Search For Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Anjos, Karla Ferraz dos; Santos, Vanessa Cruz; Souzas, Raquel; Eugênio, Benedito Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Discussing the abortion theme in Brazil is highly problematic since it involves ethical, moral and legal precepts. The criminalization of abortion in Brazil favors a clandestine and unsafe practice and can lead to serious consequences to women´s health. In this perspective, this research deals with the legal context in which the abortion problem is inscribed in Brazil, coupled to the specific aims in pinpointing complications caused by the criminalization of clandestine abortion besides deali...

  1. The Zika epidemic and abortion in Latin America: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabali, Mabel; Austin, Nichole; King, Nicholas B; Kaufman, Jay S

    2018-01-01

    Latin America presently has the world's highest burden of Zika virus, but there are unexplained differences in national rates of congenital malformations collectively referred to as Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS) in the region. While Zika virulence and case detection likely contribute to these differences, policy-related factors, including access to abortion, may play important roles. Our goal was to assess perspectives on, and access to, abortion in Latin America in the context of the Zika epidemic. We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published between January 2015 and December 2016, written in English, Spanish, Portuguese, or French. We searched PubMed, Scielo, and Google Scholar for literature on Zika and/or CZS and abortion, and used automated and manual review methods to synthesize the existing information. 36 publications met our inclusion criteria, the majority of which were qualitative. Publications were generally in favor of increased access to safe abortion as a policy-level response for mitigating the impact of CZS, but issues with implementation were cited as the main challenge. Aside from the reform of abortion regulation in Colombia, we did not find evidence that the Zika epidemic had triggered shifts in abortion policy in other countries. Abortion policy in the region remained largely unchanged following the Zika epidemic. Further empirical research on abortion access and differential rates of CZS across Latin American countries is required.

  2. The association and a potential pathway between gender-based violence and induced abortion in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Nguyen, Son Van; Nguyen, Manh Quang; Nguyen, Nam Truong; Keithly, Sarah Colleen; Mai, Lan Tran; Luong, Loan Thi Thu; Pham, Hoa Quynh

    2012-11-29

    Gender-based violence (GBV) has profound adverse consequences on women's physical, mental, and reproductive health. Although Vietnam has high rates of induced abortion and GBV, literature examining this relationship is lacking. This study examines the association of GBV with induced abortion among married or partnered women of reproductive age in Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam. In addition, we explore contraceptive use and unintended pregnancy as mediators in the pathway between GBV and induced abortion. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey of 1,281 women aged 18-49 years in four districts of Thai Nguyen province. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied to examine the associations between lifetime history of GBV, contraceptive use, unintended pregnancy, induced abortion, and repeat abortion, controlling for other covariates. One-third of respondents had undergone induced abortion in their lifetime (33.4%), and 11.5% reported having repeat abortions. The prevalence of any type of GBV was 29.1% (17.0% physical violence, 10.4% sexual violence, and 20.1% emotional violence). History of GBV was associated with induced abortion (OR=1.61, 95% CI: 1.20-2.16) and repeat abortion (OR=2.22, 95% CI: 1.48-3.32). Physical violence was significantly associated with induced abortion, and all three types of violence were associated with repeat abortion. Abused women were more likely than non-abused women to report using contraceptives and having an unintended pregnancy, and these factors were in turn associated with increased risk of induced abortion. GBV is pervasive in Thai Nguyen province and is linked to increased risks of induced abortion and repeat abortion. The findings suggest that a pathway underlying this relationship is increased risk of unintended pregnancy due in part to ineffective use of contraceptives. These findings emphasize the importance of screening and identification of GBV and incorporating women's empowerment in

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT AND CLINICAL RESEARCH OF THREATENED ABORTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing-xia; XIE Gan-gong

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, the authors review recent development of acupuncture treatment of threatened abortion from 1) clinical application of "Linggui Bafa"(灵龟八法Eight Methods of Intelligent Turtle), 2) body acupoints, and 3) acupuncture combined with Chinese materia medica, and clinical study from 1) effect of acupuncture on the blood flow of uterus, and 2) effect of acupuncture on plasma progesterone level. In addition, acupuncture therapy is also used to help women in gestation and can effectively raise the pregnant rate. "Linggui Bafa" is rather effective in preventing threatened abortion and should be studied further.

  4. Abortion and Mental Health: Evaluating the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda; Appelbaum, Mark; Beckman, Linda; Dutton, Mary Ann; Russo, Nancy Felipe; West, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated empirical research addressing the relationship between induced abortion and women's mental health. Two issues were addressed: (a) the relative risks associated with abortion compared with the risks associated with its alternatives and (b) sources of variability in women's responses following abortion. This article reflects…

  5. Risk of breast cancer among young women: relationship to induced abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daling, J R; Malone, K E; Voigt, L F; White, E; Weiss, N S

    1994-11-02

    cancer was associated with a spontaneous abortion (RR = 0.9; 95% CI = 0.7-1.2). Our data support the hypothesis that an induced abortion can adversely influence a woman's subsequent risk of breast cancer. However, the results across all epidemiologic studies of this premise are inconsistent--both overall and within specific subgroups. The risk of breast cancer should be reexamined in future studies of women who have had legal abortion available to them throughout the majority of their reproductive years, with particular attention to the potential influence of induced abortion early in life.

  6. Women's experiences with unplanned pregnancy and abortion in Kenya: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruvani T Jayaweera

    Full Text Available Safe and legal abortions are rarely practiced in the public health sector in Kenya, and rates of maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion is high. Little is known about women's experiences seeking and accessing abortion in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya.Seven focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 71 women and girls recruited from an informal settlement in Nairobi. The interview guide explored participants' perceptions of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and access to sexual and reproductive health information in their community. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted using MAX QDA Release 12.Participants described a variety of factors that influence women's experiences with abortion in their communities. According to participants, limited knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information and lack of access to contraception led to unplanned pregnancy among women in their community. Participants cited stigma and loss of opportunities that women with unplanned pregnancies face as the primary reasons why women seek abortions. Participants articulated stigma as the predominant barrier women in their communities face to safe abortion. Other barriers, which were often interrelated to stigma, included lack of education about safe methods of abortion, perceived illegality of abortion, as well as limited access to services, fear of mistreatment, and mistrust of health providers and facilities.Women in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya face substantial barriers to regulating their fertility and lack access to safe abortion. Policy makers and reproductive health advocates should support programs that employ harm reduction strategies and increase women's knowledge of and access to medication abortion outside the formal healthcare system.

  7. Women's experiences with unplanned pregnancy and abortion in Kenya: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaweera, Ruvani T; Ngui, Felistah Mbithe; Hall, Kelli Stidham; Gerdts, Caitlin

    2018-01-01

    Safe and legal abortions are rarely practiced in the public health sector in Kenya, and rates of maternal mortality and morbidity from unsafe abortion is high. Little is known about women's experiences seeking and accessing abortion in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya. Seven focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 71 women and girls recruited from an informal settlement in Nairobi. The interview guide explored participants' perceptions of unplanned pregnancy, abortion, and access to sexual and reproductive health information in their community. Thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts was conducted using MAX QDA Release 12. Participants described a variety of factors that influence women's experiences with abortion in their communities. According to participants, limited knowledge of sexual and reproductive health information and lack of access to contraception led to unplanned pregnancy among women in their community. Participants cited stigma and loss of opportunities that women with unplanned pregnancies face as the primary reasons why women seek abortions. Participants articulated stigma as the predominant barrier women in their communities face to safe abortion. Other barriers, which were often interrelated to stigma, included lack of education about safe methods of abortion, perceived illegality of abortion, as well as limited access to services, fear of mistreatment, and mistrust of health providers and facilities. Women in informal settlements in Nairobi, Kenya face substantial barriers to regulating their fertility and lack access to safe abortion. Policy makers and reproductive health advocates should support programs that employ harm reduction strategies and increase women's knowledge of and access to medication abortion outside the formal healthcare system.

  8. 'Repeat abortion', a phrase to be avoided? Qualitative insights into labelling and stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoggart, Lesley; Newton, Victoria Louise; Bury, Louise

    2017-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing international interest in identifying risk factors associated with 'repeat abortion', and developing public health initiatives that might reduce the rate. This article draws on a research study looking at young women's abortion experience in England and Wales. The study was commissioned with a specific focus on women who had undergone more than one abortion. We examine what may influence women's post-abortion reproductive behaviour, in addition to exploring abortion-related stigma, in the light of participants' own narratives. Mixed-methods research study: a quantitative survey of 430 women aged 16-24 years, and in-depth qualitative interviews with 36 women who had undergone one or more abortions. This article focuses on the qualitative data from two subsets of young women: those we interviewed twice (n=17) and those who had experienced more than one unintended/unwanted pregnancy (n=15). The qualitative research findings demonstrate the complexity of women's contraceptive histories and reproductive lives, and thus the inherent difficulty of establishing causal patterns for more than one abortion, beyond the obvious observation that contraception was not used, or not used effectively. Women who had experienced more than one abortion did, however, express intensified abortion shame. This article argues that categorising women who have an abortion in different ways depending on previous episodes is not helpful. It may also be damaging, and generate increased stigma, for women who have more than one abortion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Genetically induced oxidative stress in mice causes thrombocytosis, splenomegaly and placental angiodysplasia that leads to recurrent abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takamasa Ishii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Historical data in the 1950s suggests that 7%, 11%, 33%, and 87% of couples were infertile by ages 30, 35, 40 and 45, respectively. Up to 22.3% of infertile couples have unexplained infertility. Oxidative stress is associated with male and female infertility. However, there is insufficient evidence relating to the influence of oxidative stress on the maintenance of a viable pregnancy, including pregnancy complications and fetal development. Recently, we have established Tet-mev-1 conditional transgenic mice, which can express the doxycycline-induced mutant SDHCV69E transgene and experience mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction leading to intracellular oxidative stress. In this report, we demonstrate that this kind of abnormal mitochondrial respiratory chain-induced chronic oxidative stress affects fertility, pregnancy and delivery rates as well as causes recurrent abortions, occasionally resulting in maternal death. Despite this, spermatogenesis and early embryogenesis are completely normal, indicating the mutation's effects to be rather subtle. Female Tet-mev-1 mice exhibit thrombocytosis and splenomegaly in both non-pregnant and pregnant mice as well as placental angiodysplasia with reduced Flt-1 protein leading to hypoxic conditions, which could contribute to placental inflammation and fetal abnormal angiogenesis. Collectively these data strongly suggest that chronic oxidative stress caused by mitochondrial mutations provokes spontaneous abortions and recurrent miscarriage resulting in age-related female infertility.

  10. Estimating the efficacy of medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trussell, J; Ellertson, C

    1999-09-01

    Comparisons of the efficacy of different regimens of medical abortion are difficult because of the widely varying protocols (even for testing identical regimens), divergent definitions of success and failure, and lack of a standard method of analysis. In this article we review the current efficacy literature on medical abortion, highlighting some of the most important differences in the way that efficacy has been analyzed. We then propose a standard conceptual approach and the accompanying statistical methods for analyzing clinical trials of medical abortion and to explain how clinical investigators can implement this approach. Our review reveals that research on the efficacy of medical abortion has closely followed the conceptual model used for analysis of surgical abortion. The problem, however, is that, whereas surgical abortion is a discrete event occurring in the space of a few minutes or less, medical abortion is a process typically lasting from several days to several weeks. In this process, two events may occur that are not possible with surgical abortion. First, the woman can opt out of the process before a fair determination of efficacy can be made. Second, the process of medical abortion allows time for surgical interventions that may be convenient for the clinician but not strictly necessary from a medical perspective. Another difference from surgical abortions is that, for medical abortions, different medical abortion protocols specify different waiting periods, giving the drugs less time to work in some studies than in others before a determination of efficacy is made. We argue that, when analyzing efficacy of medical abortion, researchers should abandon their close reliance on the analogy to surgical abortion. In fact, medical abortion is more appropriately analyzed by life table procedures developed for the study of another fertility regulation technology; contraception. As with medical abortion, a woman initiating use of a contraceptive method can

  11. α and β deuterium isotope effects in the hydrolysis of naphthalene tetrahydro epoxides: rate-limiting hydrogen migration in the spontaneous hydrolysis of 6-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillilan, R.E.; Pohl, T.M.; Whalen, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Data are reported that indicate that 6-methoxy-1,2,3-tetrahydronaphthalene oxide undergoes a spontaneous reaction to yield mostly 6-methyoxy-2-tetralone. Hydrogen-migration is reported to be the rate determining step in the reaction. Reaction mechanisms involving a one-step reaction with a concurrent C-O bond cleavage and hydrogen migration or reversible C-O bond cleavage followed by the rate-limiting hydrogen migration are proposed, but no clear distinction between the schemes is made

  12. Towards a poststructural understanding of abortion and social class in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Gillian

    2018-06-01

    Despite previous research suggesting that social class influences experiences of and attitudes to abortion, there is a dearth of research which studies the intersection of abortion and social class in England. Across the UK, abortion rates and experiences differ by region and socio-economic status, reflecting broader health inequalities. Contemporary austerity in the UK creates an imperative for new research which contextualises the experience of abortion within this socio-historical moment, and the worsening inequalities which have accompanied it. Whilst work on abortion and social inequality exists, it has often approached class as an a priori category. I argue that contemporary post-structural work on class provides a framework to go beyond this approach by examining how these social classifications occur; who has the power to classify; and how these classifications might be resisted. This framework is demonstrated with emerging findings from a life history study of abortion experiences in England. The applications of this to the work on abortion are potentially rich, because the act of ending a pregnancy invites classification from many quarters, from the legal (legal/illegal) to the medical (early/late) to the moral (deserved/undeserved). This work, therefore, speaks to public health concerns about access to and stigma around abortion and social inequalities.

  13. Patterns of online abortion among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.

    2018-01-01

    An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.

  14. Enablers of and barriers to abortion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiahi, Maryam; Lim, Sahnah; Westover, Corey; Gold, Marji; Westhoff, Carolyn L

    2013-06-01

    Since the legalization of abortion services in the United States, provision of abortions has remained a controversial issue of high political interest. Routine abortion training is not offered at all obstetrics and gynecology (Ob-Gyn) training programs, despite a specific training requirement by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Previous studies that described Ob-Gyn programs with routine abortion training either examined associations by using national surveys of program directors or described the experience of a single program. We set out to identify enablers of and barriers to Ob-Gyn abortion training in the context of a New York City political initiative, in order to better understand how to improve abortion training at other sites. We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 22 stakeholders from 7 New York City public hospitals and focus group interviews with 62 current residents at 6 sites. Enablers of abortion training included program location, high-capacity services, faculty commitment to abortion training, external programmatic support, and resident interest. Barriers to abortion training included lack of leadership continuity, leadership conflict, lack of second-trimester abortion services, difficulty obtaining mifepristone, optional rather than routine training, and antiabortion values of hospital personnel. Supportive leadership, faculty commitment, and external programmatic support appear to be key elements for establishing routine abortion training at Ob-Gyn residency training programs.

  15. [Legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, H

    1970-01-01

    Aspects of legal and illegal abortion in Switzerland are discussed. About 110,000 births, 25,000 therapeutic abortions (75% for psychiatric indications) and an estimated 50,000 illegal abortions occur annually in Switzerland. Although the mortality and morbidity of therapeutic aborti on are similar to those of normal births (1.4 per 1000 and 11%, respectively) the mortality and morbidity of criminal abortions are far greater (3 per 1000 and 73%, respectively). In the author's view, too strict an interpretatiok of Swiss abortion law (which permits abortion to avoid serious harm to the mother's health) does not take into account the severe and lasting emotional and psychological damage which may be caused by unwanted pregnancy, birth, and childraising. In the present social situation, the social and psychological support required by these women is not available; until it is, abortion is to be preferred.

  16. Induced abortion patterns and determinants among married women in China: 1979 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cuntong

    2014-05-01

    China has launched the one-child policy to control its rapidly expanding population since 1979. Local governments, tasked with limiting regional birth rates, commonly imposed induced abortions. After 1994, China's family planning policy was relatively loosened and mandatory induced abortion gradually gave way to client-centered and informed-choice contraceptive policy and the "Compensation" Fee policy. This study assesses trends in and determinants of induced abortion among married women aged 20-49 in China from 1979 to 2010, using data from national statistics and nationally representative sample surveys. The incidence of induced abortions among married women aged 20-49 began to decrease in the mid-1990s. The induced abortion rate reached its highest level in the early 1980s (56.07%) and its lowest level in the 2000s (18.04%), with an average annual rate of 28.95% among married women 20-49 years old. The likelihood of a pregnant woman undergoing an induced abortion during this period depended not only on individual characteristics (including ethnicity, age, education level, household registration, number of children, and sex of children), but also on the stringency of the family planning policy in place. The less stringent the family planning policy, the less likely married women were to undergo an induced abortion. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease virus-associated abortion and vertical transmission following acute infection in cattle under natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically important viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, including domestic as well as more than 70 wild host species. During recent FMD outbreaks in India, spontaneous abortions were reported amongst FMD-affected and asymptomatic cows. T...

  18. 无痛人工流产和传统人工流产术式选择对重复流产的影响%Influence of Painless Induced Abortion and Traditional Induced Abortion on Repeat Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    习辉

    2013-01-01

    目的:研究无痛人工流产和传统人工流产术式选择对重复流产的影响。方法:选择2011年6-12月在本院妇产科要求行人工流产术妇女共180例(无痛人工流产100例、传统人工流产80例)进行跟踪调查一年。调查内容涉及是否有重复流产,前后两次流产心理状态等。结果:前次行无痛人工流产者重复流产率明显高于传统人工流产组(P<0.05),两组半年内重复流产及前后两次流产的心理状态差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:无痛人工流产术虽然解决了术中妇女疼痛问题,但术后存在重复流产率较高的问题,在强调优质流产后计划生育服务时应着重于对无痛人工流产者的术后主动宣教,进行面对面咨询并提供辅助资料、免费药具,以及要求男伴参与,必要时转诊等。%Objective:To study the influence of painless artificial abortion and the traditional artificial abortion on repeat abortion. Method:From June to December 2011,a total of 180 cases of induced abortion women(100 cases of painless artificial abortion and 80 cases of traditional abortion)in the hospital maternity line were selected and followed up one year. The investigation related to whether there was a repeat abortion,both before and after the abortion mental state. Result:Repeat abortion rate of previous painless artificial abortion group was significantly higher than that of the traditional artificial abortion group(P<0.05),significant difference existed before and after six months of repeated abortion and two abortion mental state. Conclusion:Although induced abortion surgery pain problems for women,but duplicate after the higher abortion rate,the emphasis on quality abortion family planning services should focus on postoperative induced abortion initiative education,face-to-face consultation,and provide supporting information,free contraceptives,and the requirements of the male partner to

  19. Udviklingen i provokerede aborter i Danmark frem til 1995. Belyst i relation til aendrede datakilder, de senere års forstaerkede forebyggelsesindsats og svangerskabslaengden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, H B; Krebs, L; Helweg-Larsen, K

    1998-01-01

    This study presents a review of the trend in the Danish abortion rate, with a view to prevention campaigns and introduction of electronic registration of abortions through the National Patient Registry. The number of induced abortions has been decreasing steadily since 1975; abortion on demand up...... of abortions was highest among women aged 20-29 years, and in the capital area. Since 1993 the health authorities have strengthened campaigns to reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies, primarily focusing on younger women and with special programs in the capital area. The reduction for these groups could...

  20. Launch Vehicle Failure Dynamics and Abort Triggering Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashely D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an on-board crew. There are many types of failures that can kill the crew if the crew is still on-board when the failure becomes catastrophic. For some failure scenarios, there is plenty of time for the crew to be warned and to depart, whereas in some there is insufficient time for the crew to escape. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based primarily on data already available from the GN&C system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. Derivation of attitude and attitude rate abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false positives are avoided, forms a major portion of the paper. Some of the potential failure modes requiring use of these triggers are described, along with analysis used to determine the success rate of getting the crew off prior to vehicle demise.

  1. Key determinants of induced abortion in women seeking postabortion care in hospital facilities in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilboudo PGC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Patrick GC Ilboudo,1–3 Serge MA Somda,4 Johanne Sundby3 1Département de Santé Publique, Unité de Recherche sur les Politiques et Systèmes de Santé, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 2Agence de Formation, de Recherche et d'Expertise en Santé pour l'Afrique (AFRICSanté, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso; 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 4Département des Maladies Non Transmissibles, Unité de Formation et d'Appui Méthodologique, Centre Muraz, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Introduction: Despite the universal recognition of unsafe abortion as a major public health problem, very little research has been conducted to document its precipitating factors in Burkina Faso. Our aim was to investigate the key determinants of induced abortion in a sample of women who sought postabortion care. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional household survey was carried out from February to September 2012 in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Data of 37 women who had had an induced abortion and 267 women who had had a spontaneous abortion were prospectively collected on sociodemographic characteristics, pregnancy and birth history, abortion experience, including previous abortion experience, and selected clinical information, including the type of abortion. A two-step regression analysis consisting of a univariate and a multivariate logistic regression was run on Stata version 11.2 in order to identify the key determinants of induced abortion. Results: The findings indicated that 12% of all abortions were certainly induced. Three key factors were significantly and positively associated with the probability of having an induced abortion: whether the woman reported that her pregnancy was unwanted (odds ratio [OR] 10.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.59–30.41; whether the woman reported was living in a household headed by her parents (OR 6.83, 95% CI 2.42–19.24; and if the woman reported was divorced or widowed (OR 3.47, 95

  2. Anti-abortion policy leads to more abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, J L

    1988-01-01

    In 1984, the Reagan administration announced in Mexico City a reversal in the US international family planning policy. The new policy strictly forbids any international family planning group that receives US funds from providing abortion services or counseling. An immediate impact on family planning programs in developing countries was that it prevented the opening of much needed clinics in the poorest, most rapidly growing countries in the world, such as Bangladesh. The University of Michigan School of Public Health estimates an additional 380,000 unwanted pregnancies, resulting in 311,000 births, 69,000 abortions, and 1200 maternal deaths in the next 3 years. Not only did the US change its policy, but congress decreased funding for international family planning programs 20% between 1985 and 1987. The majority of the funding goes to the US Agency for International Development (USAID), and in 1988 the Reagan administration allowed USAID to funnel about $75 million of this money to other projects, e.g. general African development fund. Fewer contraceptives are available due to the reduced funding, and therefore more women seek an abortion as a last resort against unwanted pregnancy. An additional effect of this 1984 policy reversal is that fewer nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are eligible for grants, so USAID gives its family planning funds to government agencies who are not the most effective users of funds and are not always trusted by the people served.

  3. Attitude toward contraception and abortion among Curaçao women. Ineffective contraception due to limited sexual education?

    OpenAIRE

    van den Brink, Maaike J; Boersma, Adriana A; Meyboom-de Jong, Betty; de Bruijn, Jeanne GM

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In Curaçao is a high incidence of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions. Most of the induced abortions in Curaçao are on request of the woman and performed by general practitioners. In Curaçao, induced abortion is strictly prohibited, but since 1999 there has been a policy of connivance. We present data on the relevance of economic and socio-cultural factors for the high abortion-rates and the ineffective use of contraception. Methods Structured interviews to invest...

  4. Factors associated with induced abortion at selected hospitals in the Volta Region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutsey, Ellen Eyi; Ankomah, Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Induced abortion rates remained persistently high in the Volta Region of Ghana in the 5 years from 2006 to 2011. Some hospitals, both rural and urban, report induced abortion-related complications as one of the top ten conditions in hospital admissions. This study explored demographic and other factors associated with induced abortion, and also assessed awareness of abortion-related complications among women of reproductive age in the Volta Region. A quantitative, hospital-based, unmatched case-control study was performed. The Volta Region was stratified into two health administration zones, ie, north and south. For each zone, hospitals were stratified into government and private hospitals. Employing simple random sampling, one private and three government hospitals were selected from each zone. This study is therefore based on eight hospitals, ie, six government hospitals and two private hospitals. Marital status, employment status, number of total pregnancies, and knowledge about contraception were found to be associated with induced abortion. Multiple logistic regression showed a 4% reduction in the odds of induced abortion in married women compared with women who were single (odds ratio [OR] 0.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.22). Unemployed women of reproductive age were found to be 0.35 times less likely to seek induced abortion compared with their employed counterparts (OR 0.35, CI 0.19-0.65). It was also observed that women with their second pregnancies were 3.8 times more likely to seek induced abortion and women with more than two pregnancies were 6.6 times more likely to do so (OR 3.81, CI 1.94-7.49 and OR 6.58, CI 2.58-16.79, respectively). Women with no knowledge of contraceptive methods were 4.6 times likely to seek induced abortion (OR 4.64, CI 1.39-15.4). Compared with women who had not had induced abortion, women with a high number of pregnancies and no contraceptive knowledge were more likely to have induced abortion. It was found that lack

  5. Abortion: Still Unfinished Agenda in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Dirgha Raj; Regmi, Shibesh Chandra; Dangal, Ganesh

    2018-03-13

    Unsafe abortion is affecting a lot, in health, socio-economic and health care cost of many countries. Despite invention of simple technology and scientifically approved safe abortion methods, women and girls are still using unsafe abortion practices. Since 2002, Nepal has achieved remarkable progress in developing policies, guidelines, task shifting, training human resources and increasing access to services. However, more than half of abortion in Nepal are performed clandestinely by untrained or unapproved providers or induced by pregnant woman herself. Knowledge on legalization and availability of safe abortion service among women is still very poor. Stigma on abortion still persists among community people, service providers, managers, and policy makers. Access to safe abortion, especially in remote and rural areas, is still far behind as compared to their peers from urban areas. The existing law is not revised in the spirit of current Constitution of Nepal and rights-based approach. The existence of abortion stigma and the shifting of the government structure from unitary system to federalism in absence of a complete clarity on how the safe abortion service gets integrated into the local government structure might create challenge to sustain existing developments. There is, therefore, a need for all stakeholders to make a lot of efforts and allocate adequate resources to sustain current achievements and ensure improvements in creating a supportive social environment for women and girls so that they will be able to make informed decisions and access to safe abortion service in any circumstances.

  6. Provision of intrauterine contraception in association with first trimester induced abortion reduces the need of repeat abortion: first-year results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjoranta, Elina; Mentula, Maarit; Gissler, Mika; Suhonen, Satu; Heikinheimo, Oskari

    2015-11-01

    -up visit and further contraceptive services according to national guidelines. The women were followed-up to 28 February 2014 by using the Finnish National Abortion Registry, Helsinki University Hospital electronic database and clinical follow-up visit at 1 year. The median age of the whole study group was 27 years and 44% had a history of induced abortion(s). During the follow-up year the number of women requesting subsequent abortion was significantly lower in the intervention than in the control group (9/375 [2.4%] versus 20/373 [5.4%], difference -3.0 [95% CI -6.0 to -0.2] percentage points, P = 0.038, according to intention-to-treat analysis and 5/346 [1.4%] versus 20/357 [5.6%], difference -4.2(-7.2 to -1.4) percentage points, P = 0.003, according to per-protocol analysis, respectively). Provision of intrauterine contraception was safe with rate of infection and expulsion similar to those reported previously. The power calculation was calculated for a 5-year follow-up. However, significant differences between the two groups were already seen after 1 year. The present study was performed in a single clinic, where, ∼15% of all abortions in Finland are performed. In order to decrease the need of subsequent abortions, IUDs should be provided at the time of abortion. The study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01223521). 18 October 2010. 18 October 2010. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A Clinical Study on Management of Incomplete Abortion by Manual Vacuum Aspiration (MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arifa Akter Jahan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abortion is an important social and public health issue. In Bangladesh complication from unsafe abortion is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality. It is a serious health problem. World Health Organisation estimates that 14% of maternal deaths which occur every year in the countries of South Asia including Bangladesh are due to abortion. Study shows manual vacuum aspiration procedure is safe and effective in incomplete abortion. Very few clinical trials were carried out in Bangladesh to assess the safety and effectivity of manual vacuum aspiration in managing incomplete abortion. Objective: To find out the outcome of manual vacuum aspiration in the management of patients of incomplete abortion. Materials and Methods: This observational descriptive study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital from June to December, 2004. One hundred cases of diagnosed incomplete abortion up to 12 weeks of gestation were managed by manual vacuum aspiration during this period. A data recording sheet was designed for this purpose. Haemodynamically stable patients with no history of induced abortion and fever were enrolled. Results: Procedure time of manual vacuum aspiration was short, average duration was 7 minutes. Bleeding was minimum (20-30 mL in 67% cases and weighted mean was 29.80 mL. Eighty three percent patients were stable during the procedure and only 3% needed blood transfusion. Nonnarcotic analgesics were used in 59% cases and 33% needed only proper counselling. Average duration of hospital stay was 2 hours. Effectiveness of the procedure was about 98% with very low post procedure complication rate (2%. Conclusion: MVA procedure is a safe and effective technique of uterine evacuation in incomplete abortion. It is quick, less expensive, effective and less painful. Hospital stay and chance of perforation of uterus is less. So this procedure should be considered by health care

  8. Accounting for abortion: Accomplishing transnational reproductive governance through post-abortion care in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Siri

    2018-06-01

    Reproductive governance operates through calculating demographic statistics that offer selective truths about reproductive practices, bodies, and subjectivities. Post-abortion care, a global reproductive health intervention, represents a transnational reproductive regime that establishes motherhood as women's primary legitimate reproductive status. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Senegal between 2010 and 2011, I illustrate how post-abortion care accomplishes reproductive governance in a context where abortion is prohibited altogether and the US is the primary bilateral donor of population aid. Reproductive governance unfolds in hospital gynecological wards and the national health information system through the mobilization and interpretation of post-abortion care data. Although health workers search women's bodies and behavior for signs of illegal abortion, they minimize police intervention in the hospital by classifying most post-abortion care cases as miscarriage. Health authorities deploy this account of post-abortion care to align the intervention with national and global maternal health policies that valorize motherhood. Although post-abortion care offers life-saving care to women with complications of illegal abortion, it institutionalizes abortion stigma by scrutinizing women's bodies and masking induced abortion within and beyond the hospital. Post-abortion care reinforces reproductive inequities by withholding safe, affordable obstetric care from women until after they have resorted to unsafe abortion.

  9. Is "abortion culture" fading in the former Soviet Union? Views about abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadjanian, Victor

    2002-09-01

    The Soviet legacy of widespread reliance on induced abortion is of critical importance to reproductive trends and policies in post-Soviet nations, especially as they strive to substitute contraception for abortion. Using data from two Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 1995 and 1999, this study analyzes and compares trends in abortion and contraception, women's attitudes toward abortion, and their perceptions of problems associated with abortion and contraception in Kazakhstan. Despite an overall decline in abortion and an increase in contraceptive use since Kazakhstan's independence in 1991, abortion has remained a prominent part of the country's reproductive culture and practices. This study shows how abortion-related views reflect the long-standing ethnocultural differences between the indigenous Kazakhs and Kazakhstan's residents of European roots, as the latter continue to have significantly higher levels of abortion. The study, however, also reveals the internal diversity among Kazakhs with respect to abortion experiences and views, stemming from decades of the Soviet sociocultural influence in Kazakhstan. In addition, the analysis points to some generational differences in views concerning abortion and contraception. Finally, the study demonstrates parallels in attitudes toward abortion and toward contraception, thereby questioning straightforward assumptions about the replacement of abortion with contraception.

  10. ABORT GAP CLEANING IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DREES, A.; AHRENS, L.; III FLILLER, R.; GASSNER, D.; MCINTYRE, G.T.; MICHNOFF, R.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2002-01-01

    During the RHIC Au-run in 2001 the 200 MHz storage cavity system was used for the first time. The rebucketing procedure caused significant beam debunching in addition to amplifying debunching due to other mechanisms. At the end of a four hour store, debunched beam could account for approximately 30%-40% of the total beam intensity. Some of it will be in the abort gap. In order to minimize the risk of magnet quenching due to uncontrolled beam losses at the time of a beam dump, a combination of a fast transverse kicker and copper collimators were used to clean the abort gap. This report gives an overview of the gap cleaning procedure and the achieved performance

  11. Abortion incidence between 1990 and 2014: global, regional, and subregional levels and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgh, Gilda; Bearak, Jonathan; Singh, Susheela; Bankole, Akinrinola; Popinchalk, Anna; Ganatra, Bela; Rossier, Clémentine; Gerdts, Caitlin; Tunçalp, Özge; Johnson, Brooke Ronald; Johnston, Heidi Bart; Alkema, Leontine

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Information about the incidence of induced abortion is needed to motivate and inform efforts to help women avoid unintended pregnancies and to monitor progress toward that end. We estimate subregional, regional, and global levels and trends in abortion incidence for 1990 to 2014, and abortion rates in subgroups of women. We use the results to estimate the proportion of pregnancies that end in abortion and examine whether abortion rates vary in countries grouped by the legal status of abortion. Methods We requested abortion data from government agencies and compiled data from international sources and nationally representative studies. With data for 1069 country-years, we estimated incidence using a Bayesian hierarchical time series model whereby